Science.gov

Sample records for dystonic disorders

  1. Familial dystonic choreoathetosis with myokymia; a sleep responsive disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, E; White, O; Cook, M

    1991-01-01

    A family is presented with paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis transmitted as a dominant trait over five generations. The family is unusual in the marked responsiveness of the episodes to short periods of sleep in several members, in the very variable age of onset, and in the association with prominent myokymia in some cases. These overlap features suggest a link between paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis and familial paroxysmal ataxia with myokymia. PMID:1783923

  2. Food for thought: ego-dystonicity and fear of self in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Purcell Lalonde, Magali; O'Connor, Kieron; Aardema, Frederick; Coelho, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    Degree of ego-dystonicity in obsessions is clinically relevant to the conceptualization and treatment of eating disorders (EDs). Obsessive-compulsive disorder research has suggested that the transformation of intrusive thoughts into obsessions is linked to the degree to which intrusive thoughts threaten core perceptions of the self. This study aims to explore the relationship between the ego-dystonic nature of obsessions in ED patients and a fear of self, the link between ED symptom severity and ego-dystonicity in obsessions, and differences between non-clinical and individuals with EDs in the presence of ego-dystonic thoughts and a fear of self. Ego-dystonicity (Ego-dystonicity Questionnaire (EDQ)) and feared self (Fear of Self Questionnaire (FSQ)) degrees were measured in a clinical sample (n = 57 with EDs) and a non-clinical sample (n = 45). EDQ and FSQ scores were highly correlated in both samples. EDQ scores were not significantly correlated to ED symptom severity with the exception of the EDQ Irrationality subscale, which was strongly related to compulsion severity. Participants with an ED had significantly higher EDQ and FSQ scores compared with controls.

  3. Ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity of eating-related intrusive thoughts in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Perpiñá, Conxa; Treasure, Janet

    2013-06-30

    The main objective of the present study was to analyse the role of the ego-dystonicity and ego-syntonicity of eating disorder intrusive thoughts (EDITs) in the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). Participants were 98 female patients with EDs, 56 Spanish and 42 English (27.19±9.59 years; body mass index (BMI): 18.72±2.87). All of them completed the eating attitudes test, the Eating Attitudes Test, the Eating Intrusive Thoughts Inventory, the Ego-Dystonicity Questionnaire-Reduced version, and the Ego-Syntonicity Questionnaire. Patients indicated that their EDITs were rational and also undesirable and immoral, suggesting that EDITs are not fully ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated no differences in ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity across ED subtypes. Path analyses were performed to investigate the mediating role of the EDITs' ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity in their interference, dysfunctional appraisals and control strategies. They showed, first, that the more interference an EDIT caused, the more ego-syntonic and the less ego-dystonic it was and, second, that when the EDITs were assessed as ego-syntonic, patients tried to do what they indicated, whereas when they were assessed as ego-dystonic, patients made efforts to neutralise them. Clinical implications for the conceptualisation and treatment of ED are discussed.

  4. The Clinical Course of a Drug-induced Acute Dystonic Reaction in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Massimo; di Biase, Lazzaro; Salomone, Gaetano; Di Santo, Alessandro; Montiroli, Annalisa; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute dystonic reactions following the administration of safe, reliable drugs can occur and must be promptly recognized and treated in the emergency room. Phenomenology Shown The entire clinical course of an acute dystonic reaction due to metoclopramide, from early motor signs to full-blown clinical symptoms and resolution. Educational Value Providing elements for early recognition of a drug-induced movement disorder phenomenology. PMID:28105387

  5. Intrathecal baclofen treatment in dystonic cerebral palsy: a randomized clinical trial: the IDYS trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dystonic cerebral palsy is primarily caused by damage to the basal ganglia and central cortex. The daily care of these patients can be difficult due to dystonic movements. Intrathecal baclofen treatment is a potential treatment option for dystonia and has become common practice. Despite this widespread adoption, high quality evidence on the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on daily activities is lacking and prospective data are needed to judge the usefulness and indications for dystonic cerebral palsy. The primary aim of this study is to provide level one clinical evidence for the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on the level of activities and participation in dystonic cerebral palsy patients. Furthermore, we hope to identify clinical characteristics that will predict a beneficial effect of intrathecal baclofen in an individual patient. Methods/Design A double blind placebo-controlled multi-center randomized clinical trial will be performed in 30 children with dystonic cerebral palsy. Patients aged between 4 and 25 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of dystonic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Functioning Classification System level IV or V, with lesions in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia or central cortex and who are eligible for intrathecal baclofen treatment will be included. Group A will receive three months of continuous intrathecal baclofen treatment and group B will receive three months of placebo treatment, both via an implanted pump. After this three month period, all patients will receive intrathecal baclofen treatment, with a follow-up after nine months. The primary outcome measurement will be the effect on activities of and participation in daily life measured by Goal Attainment Scaling. Secondary outcome measurements on the level of body functions include dystonia, spasticity, pain, comfort and sleep-related breathing disorders. Side effects will be monitored and we will study whether patient characteristics

  6. The basal ganglia and cerebellum interact in the expression of dystonic movement.

    PubMed

    Neychev, Vladimir K; Fan, Xueliang; Mitev, V I; Hess, Ellen J; Jinnah, H A

    2008-09-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements or abnormal posturing. Traditional views place responsibility for dystonia with dysfunction of basal ganglia circuits, yet recent evidence has pointed towards cerebellar circuits as well. In the current studies we used two strategies to explore the hypothesis that the expression of dystonic movements depends on influences from a motor network that includes both the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The first strategy was to evaluate the consequences of subthreshold lesions of the striatum in two different animal models where dystonic movements are thought to originate from abnormal cerebellar function. The second strategy employed microdialysis to search for changes in striatal dopamine release in these two animal models where the cerebellum has been already implicated. One of the animal models involved tottering mice, which exhibit paroxysmal dystonia due to an inherited defect affecting calcium channels. In keeping with prior results implicating the cerebellum in this model, surgical removal of the cerebellum eliminated their dystonic attacks. In contrast, subclinical lesions of the striatum with either 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) or quinolinic acid (QA) exaggerated their dystonic attacks. Microdialysis of the striatum revealed dystonic attacks in tottering mice to be associated with a significant reduction in extracellular striatal dopamine. The other animal model involved the induction of dystonia via pharmacological excitation of the cerebellar cortex by local application of kainic acid in normal mice. In this model the site of stimulation determines the origin of dystonia in the cerebellum. However, subclinical striatal lesions with either 6OHDA or QA again exaggerated their generalized dystonia. When dystonic movements were triggered by pharmacological stimulation of the cerebellum, microdialysis revealed significant reductions in striatal

  7. Dystonic opisthotonus: a "red flag" for neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation syndromes?

    PubMed

    Stamelou, Maria; Lai, Scarlett C; Aggarwal, Annu; Schneider, Susanne A; Houlden, Henry; Yeh, Tu-Hsueh; Batla, Amit; Lu, Chin-Song; Bhatt, Mohit; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2013-09-01

    Back arching was reported in one of the very first patients with neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation syndrome (NBIAs) published in 1936. However, recent reports have mainly focused on the genetic and imaging aspects of these disorders, and the phenotypic characterization of the dystonia has been lost. In evaluating patients with NBIAs in our centers, we have observed that action-induced dystonic opisthotonus is a common and characteristic feature of NBIAs. Here, we present a case series of patients with NBIAs presenting this feature demonstrated by videos. We suggest that dystonic opisthotonus could be a useful "red flag" for clinicians to suspect NBIAs, and we discuss the differential diagnosis of this feature. This would be particularly useful in identifying patients with NBIAs and no iron accumulation as yet on brain imaging (for example, as in phospholipase A2, group IV (cytosolic, calcium-independent) [PLA2G6]-related disorders), and it has management implications.

  8. Neural correlates of dystonic tremor: a multimodal study of voice tremor in spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Kirke, Diana N; Battistella, Giovanni; Kumar, Veena; Rubien-Thomas, Estee; Choy, Melissa; Rumbach, Anna; Simonyan, Kristina

    2016-02-03

    Tremor, affecting a dystonic body part, is a frequent feature of adult-onset dystonia. However, our understanding of dystonic tremor pathophysiology remains ambiguous as its interplay with the main co-occurring disorder, dystonia, is largely unknown. We used a combination of functional MRI, voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-weighted imaging to investigate similar and distinct patterns of brain functional and structural alterations in patients with dystonic tremor of voice (DTv) and isolated spasmodic dysphonia (SD). We found that, compared to controls, SD patients with and without DTv showed similarly increased activation in the sensorimotor cortex, inferior frontal (IFG) and superior temporal gyri, putamen and ventral thalamus, as well as deficient activation in the inferior parietal cortex and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Common structural alterations were observed in the IFG and putamen, which were further coupled with functional abnormalities in both patient groups. Abnormal activation in left putamen was correlated with SD onset; SD/DTv onset was associated with right putaminal volumetric changes. DTv severity established a significant relationship with abnormal volume of the left IFG. Direct patient group comparisons showed that SD/DTv patients had additional abnormalities in MFG and cerebellar function and white matter integrity in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Our findings suggest that dystonia and dystonic tremor, at least in the case of SD and SD/DTv, are heterogeneous disorders at different ends of the same pathophysiological spectrum, with each disorder carrying a characteristic neural signature, which may potentially help development of differential markers for these two conditions.

  9. Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis: tight linkage to chromosome 2q.

    PubMed Central

    Fink, J. K.; Rainer, S.; Wilkowski, J.; Jones, S. M.; Kume, A.; Hedera, P.; Albin, R.; Mathay, J.; Girbach, L.; Varvil, T.; Otterud, B.; Leppert, M.

    1996-01-01

    Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC) is characterized by attacks of involuntary movements that last up to several hours and occur at rest both spontaneously and following caffeine or alcohol consumption. We analyzed a Polish-American kindred with autosomal dominant PDC and identified tight linkage between the disorder and microsatellite markers on chromosome 2q (maximum two-point LOD score 4.77; recombination fraction 0). Our results clearly establish the existence of a locus for autosomal dominant PDC on distal chromosome 2q. The fact that three other paroxysmal neurological disorders (periodic ataxia with myokymia and hypo- and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis) are due to mutation in ion-channel genes raises the possibility that PDC is also due to an ion-channel gene mutation. It is noteworthy that a cluster of sodium-channel genes is located on distal chromosome 2q, near the PDC locus. Identifying the PDC locus on chromosome 2q will facilitate discovery of the PDC gene and enable investigators to determine whether PDC is genetically homogeneous and whether other paroxysmal movement disorders are also genetically linked to the PDC locus. PMID:8659518

  10. Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis: Tight linkage to chromosome 2q

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Rainier, S.; Wilkowski, J.; Jones, S.M.

    1996-07-01

    Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC) is characterized by attacks of involuntary movements that last up to several hours and occur at rest both spontaneously and following caffeine or alcohol consumption. We analyzed a Polish-American kindred with autosomal dominant PDC and identified tight linkage between the disorder and microsatellite markers on chromosome 2q (maximum two-point LOD score 4.77; recombination fraction 0). Our results clearly establish the existence of a locus for autosomal dominant PDC on distal chromosome 2q. The fact that three other paroxysmal neurological disorders (periodic ataxia with myokymia and hypo- and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis) are due to mutation in ion-channel genes raises the possibility that PDC is also due to an ion-channel gene mutation. It is noteworthy that a cluster of sodium-channel genes is located on distal chromosome 2q, near the PDC locus. Identifying the PDC locus on chromosome 2q will facilitate discovery whether PDC is genetically homogeneous and whether other paroxysmal movement disorders are also genetically linked to the PDC locus. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. “Club-Cutting” Dystonic Tremor: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kinley; Mahon, Barry; O’Rourke, Killian; Lynch, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Background Focal task-specific dystonic postures are well recognized. Often a tremor may be the main feature with little or no dystonia. These have been well reported in writers, musicians, and sportspeople. Case Report Herein we report a novel task-specific dystonic tremor in a 44-year-old Irish hairdresser due to club-cutting, a standard haircutting technique. Discussion Hairdresser’s dystonia is a novel task-specific dystonia. PMID:24156085

  12. [Possibilities of treatment of dystonic syndromes with akineton].

    PubMed

    Karabanov, A V; Illarioshkin, S N

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of dystonia is a complex problem of current neurology due to the etiological and neurochemical heterogeneity of this clinical syndrome. Central cholinolytics is a most effective group of drugs for patients with dystonia and dystonic tremor. The authors present the results of the successful treatment with biperiden (akineton), a centrally active anticholinergic drug with additional peripheral choline- and ganglion-blocking effect in cervical dystonia. The time of response to treatment and duration of clinical effect, its possible predictors are analyzed. Perspectives of using cholinolytics in treatment of different forms of dystonic hyperkineses are discussed.

  13. Use of chemodenervation in dystonic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Maurice

    2012-07-01

    Dystonia, an uncommon movement disorder that causes sustained muscle contractions and painful body positions, is a difficult diagnostic challenge; misdiagnosis is common. Classification may include etiology, area of physical involvement, or age of onset. Bodily distribution is varied, and dystonias can present as primary (genetic) or secondary (caused by other disease processes or use of neuroleptic drugs). Although there is no cure, the use of botulinum toxins for chemodenervation provides symptomatic relief and is considered the treatment of choice in focal dystonia. The dose of botulinum toxin may be titrated to provide significant relief for 12 weeks or more.

  14. "Ego-dystonic" delusions as a predictor of dangerous behavior.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Zislin; Victor, Kuperman; Rimona, Durst

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims to report a possible warning sign for dangerous behavior in delusional psychotic patients. We demonstrate an association between aggressive or auto-aggressive ideation and "ego-dystonic" grandiose delusions, where the patient believes to possess unique qualities but finds them unbearable. The study is based on the sample of seven interviews with five psychotic in-patients at the Kfar Shaul Mental Health Center, Jerusalem, Israel. All patients experienced an acute psychotic episode, and committed acts of aggression or suicidality. The research method is narrative analysis of semi-structured interviews. Patients report ideas of grandiose self-identification with deities, Biblical figures or celebrities, yet report their reluctance to be in these high positions due to feelings of unworthiness, withdrawal, and social isolation. Resulting frustration arguably leads to aggressive and suicidal ideation or actions. Contrary to the established view, grandiose delusions are not free of association with (auto-)aggression. The patient's ego-dystonic attitude towards his/her delusional identity may serve as the warning sign for dangerous behavior and, as such, should be searched for and recognized by the mental health professionals.

  15. The treatment of dystonic tremor: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Lang, Anthony E

    2014-07-01

    Tremor is one of the clinical manifestations of dystonia; however, there are no specific therapeutic trials evaluating the efficacy of treatments for dystonic tremor (DT), tremor associated with dystonia or primary writing tremor (PWT). We systematically reviewed the literature available up to July 2013 on the treatment of these tremors and retrieved the data of 487 patients published in 43 papers detailing the effects of given interventions on tremor severity. Treatment outcome was highly variable, depending on the specific type of intervention and tremor distribution. No specifically designed studies were available for the treatment of tremor associated with dystonia. As for the other tremors, drug efficacy was generally disappointing and a moderate effect was only found with anticholinergics, tetrabenazine, clonazepam, β-blockers and primidone; levodopa was only efficacious on tremor due to dopa-responsive dystonia. The largest amount of data was available for botulinum toxin injections, which provided a marked improvement, particularly for the management of axial tremors (head or vocal cords). In refractory DTs, deep brain stimulation of several targets was attempted. Deep brain stimulation of globus pallidus internus, thalamus or subthalamic area led to a marked improvement of dystonic axial or appendicular tremors in most cases refractory to other treatments. Few other non-invasive treatments, for example, orthotic device in PWT, have been used with anecdotal success. In conclusion, considering the lack of good-quality studies, future randomised controlled trials are needed. In absence of evidence-based guidelines, we propose an algorithm for the treatment of DT based on currently available data.

  16. [Characteristic asymmetric abnormal eye movement and dystonic posture as the first symptoms of alternating hemiplegia of childhood].

    PubMed

    Motoki, Takahiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Ishii, Atsushi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    A 3-month-old girl exhibited asymmetric abnormal eye movement and unilateral dystonic posture intermittently after the first few days of life. Unilateral ocular deviation or nystagmus were the main signs of abnormal eye movements. She was suspected to have alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) despite the absence of apparent alternating hemiplegic episodes. Gene analysis revealed a de-novo missense mutation (Asp801Asn) of ATP1A3. AHC is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by recurrent transient attacks of hemiplegia affecting the unilateral or bilateral side of the body; in most cases, these attacks begin in the first 6 months of life. Initial symptoms of AHC are not alternating hemiplegic episodes, but rather asymmetric abnormal eye movement, dystonic posture, or seizures. It is difficult to diagnose AHC early because no specific findings are observed in the diagnostic laboratory or neuroradiological examinations. Early diagnosis is important because flunarizine may have a protective effect on the severe motor deterioration associated with AHC. Asymmetric abnormal eye movement could be an important clinical symptom for the diagnosis of AHC in early infancy.

  17. Diagnosis of dystonic syndromes--a new eight-question approach.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Kelly L; Williams, David R

    2012-03-20

    Dystonia is a syndrome of abnormal involuntary movements that are repetitive, twisting or patterned, and can result in abnormal postures. Dystonia may be generalized or focal, and can occur as a primary syndrome or secondary to another disease--over 50 clinical conditions are reported to cause dystonia. Classification of dystonia is based on genetic background, anatomical distribution, age at onset, and neurodegenerative processes. In many cases, manifestations of dystonia are identical regardless of the aetiology, which makes accurate diagnosis challenging, if not impossible, without additional investigations. Exhaustive lists of the causes of dystonia are not practical to aid clinicians when attempting to determine if a hyperkinetic movement can be diagnosed as dystonic. The existing diagnostic algorithms for dystonic syndromes rely on the clinician's experience, without a streamlined diagnostic pathway. Non-specialist clinicians and neurologists may, therefore, find diagnosis of dystonic syndromes difficult. In this Review, an eight-question approach is proposed, with a summary of the evidence for investigations that enable successful diagnosis of dystonic syndromes. The aim of this approach is to inform both specialists and general neurologists on the appropriate diagnostic test for each patient who presents with a possible dystonic syndrome.

  18. Cocaine-induced dystonic reaction: an unlikely presentation of child neglect.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jamie M; Babu, Kavita; Jenny, Carole

    2013-09-01

    Child neglect can be difficult to recognize. Parental substance abuse may place a child at increased risk of neglect. This report reviews 2 cases of dystonic reaction in children after accidental exposure to cocaine in their home environments. The reports are followed by a review of proposed physiologic mechanisms for cocaine-induced dystonia and a discussion on neurological symptoms that may develop after cocaine exposure. Pediatric emergency physicians should consider cocaine exposure when a child of any age presents with abnormal movements. Dystonic reaction is an uncommon, but reported, complication of cocaine exposure in the absence of other risk factors and may be the first presentation of child neglect.

  19. Is Changing Sexual Orientation a Viable Option for Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Dana Ray

    This paper addresses the issue of homosexuals who want to change their sexual orientation. It is noted that many ego-dystonic homosexuals who want to become heterosexual, despite encouragement from psychotherapists to accept their homosexuality, are turning to self-help groups in an effort to change their sexual orientation. Studies that have…

  20. Deep brain stimulation as treatment for dystonic storm in pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration syndrome: case report of a patient with homozygous C.628 2 T > G mutation of the PANK2 gene.

    PubMed

    Tanrıkulu, Bahattin; Özen, Ali; Günal, Dilek Ince; Türkdoğan, Dilşad; Bayraklı, Fatih; Bayri, Yaşar; Dağçınar, Adnan; Şeker, Aşkın

    2015-09-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) syndrome is an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive generalized dystonia. Currently, the disorder remains pharmacologically intractable. Herein we report the first case in which deep brain stimulation helped to relieve dystonic storm in a patient with PKAN syndrome who had homozygous c.628 2 T > G mutation of the PANK2 gene. A 10-year-old boy with PKAN disease presented with dystonic storm and was admitted to the emergency department. Examination revealed generalized dystonia and impaired breathing due to involvement of the respiratory muscles. The patient underwent surgery for bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation. The patient showed marked response to treatment.

  1. Does dystonic muscle activity affect sense of effort in cervical dystonia?

    PubMed Central

    Carment, Loïc; Maier, Marc A.; Sangla, Sophie; Guiraud, Vincent; Mesure, Serge; Vidailhet, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background Focal dystonia has been associated with deficient processing of sense of effort cues. However, corresponding studies are lacking in cervical dystonia (CD). We hypothesized that dystonic muscle activity would perturb neck force control based on sense of effort cues. Methods Neck extension force control was investigated in 18 CD patients with different clinical features (7 with and 11 without retrocollis) and in 19 control subjects. Subjects performed force-matching and force-maintaining tasks at 5% and 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Three task conditions were tested: i) with visual force feedback, ii) without visual feedback (requiring use of sense of effort), iii) without visual feedback, but with neck extensor muscle vibration (modifying muscle afferent cues). Trapezius muscle activity was recorded using electromyography (EMG). Results CD patients did not differ in task performance from healthy subjects when using visual feedback (ANOVA, p>0.7). In contrast, when relying on sense of effort cues (without visual feedback, 5% MVC), force control was impaired in patients without retrocollis (p = 0.006), but not in patients with retrocollis (p>0.2). Compared to controls, muscle vibration without visual feedback significantly affected performance in patients with retrocollis (p<0.001), but not in patients without retrocollis. Extensor EMG during rest, included as covariate in ANOVA, explained these group differences. Conclusion This study shows that muscle afferent feedback biases sense of effort cues when controlling neck forces in patients with CD. The bias acts on peripheral or central sense of effort cues depending on whether the task involves dystonic muscles. This may explain why patients with retrocollis more accurately matched isometric neck extension forces. This highlights the need to consider clinical features (pattern of dystonic muscles) when evaluating sensorimotor integration in CD. PMID:28192488

  2. Confusion, Faciobrachial Dystonic Seizures, and Critical Hyponatremia in a Patient with Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune limbic encephalitis is a rare cause of encephalitic disease. It is associated with various target antigens and is difficult to diagnose, and experience with its treatment is limited. This case report describes a 69-year-old man, who presented with life-threatening hyponatremia and confusion, following several months of gradually worsening faciobrachial dystonic seizures. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures are a well-described feature classically observed in voltage-gated potassium channel autoimmune encephalitis. The presence of chronic hyponatremia without cognitive dysfunction, eventually culminating in an acute episode of encephalopathy and severe hyponatremia, is a pattern of natural history not previously documented in this condition. PMID:28360986

  3. Correlation between neuroleptic binding to sigma(1) and sigma(2) receptors and acute dystonic reactions.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, R R; Pouw, B

    2000-08-04

    Acute dystonic reactions are motor side effects that occur soon after the initiation of neuroleptic treatment. Although earlier studies indicate that these abnormal movements can be induced in animals and humans via activation of sigma receptors, the relative contribution of the different sigma receptor subtypes is unknown. Since sigma(1) and sigma(2) receptor are differentially represented in motor regions of the brain, the affinities of 17 neuroleptics for these sigma receptor subtypes were determined using competition binding studies. The results revealed that most neuroleptics do not exhibit selectivity for either of the sigma receptor subtypes, as reflected by a significant correlation between the affinities of the neuroleptics for sigma(1) vs. sigma(2) receptors. Moreover, when the sigma binding affinities of the neuroleptics were correlated with the tendency of the drugs to produce acute dystonic reactions in humans, there was a significant correlation for both subtypes. Together with earlier studies in animals, the data suggest that neuroleptic-induced motor side effects can be mediated through both sigma(1) and sigma(2) receptors.

  4. Temperament features in adolescents with ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Carlo; Ampollini, Paolo; DePanfilis, Chiara; Maggini, Carlo

    2008-09-01

    The present study evaluated whether different patterns of temperament may predict a different threshold of acceptability of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in adolescents. OC symptomatology was detected with the Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version (LOI-CV) and temperament was assessed using the tridimensional personality questionnaire in 2,775 high-school students. According to the LOI-CV scores, the adolescents were classified as high interference (interfering, ego-dystonic symptoms) (HI), supernormal (noninterfering, ego-syntonic symptoms) (Sn) and controls (C) HI were 119 (4.3%), Sn 85 (3.1%) and C 2,571 (92.6%). The best predictor of belonging to HI or Sn groups was the temperament configuration of high Harm Avoidance (HA) and high Persistence (P). The feature that mainly distinguishes the two symptomatic groups were Novelty Seeking (NS) levels. Our data suggest that people characterized by pessimistic worry in anticipation of future problems, passive avoidant behaviour, rapid fatigability (high HA) and irresoluteness, ambitiousness, perseverance, perfectionism, enduring feelings of frustration (high P) might develop OC symptoms. Whether OC symptoms become ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic seems to mainly depend on NS levels: low NS might protect people (with the prevention of "exploratory and active behaviours" that may elicit loss of control on symptoms) from the development of interfering OC symptoms.

  5. Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

  6. Glutaric aciduria type 1 as a cause of dystonic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Sarar; Hamad, Muddathir H.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Salih, Mustafa A.

    2015-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an inherited inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glutaryl Co-A dehydrogenase (GCDH). Here, we report a 14-month-old Saudi boy with GA1 who presented with severe dystonia and was mis-diagnosed as cerebral palsy (CP). He presented to our institute with encephalopathy following an episode of gastroenteritis. His physical examination showed dystonia and spastic quadriplegia. His investigations revealed elevated both urinary 3-hydroxy glutaric acid, and serum glutarylcarnitine. The DNA analysis confirmed homozygosity for a mutation in the GCDH-coding gene (c.482G>A;p.R161Q). This case alerts pediatricians to consider GA1 as a differential diagnosis of children presenting with dystonic CP. PMID:26593172

  7. Increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the cerebellum of the x-irradiated dystonic rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dopico, A.M.; Rios, H.; Mayo, J.; Zieher, L.M. )

    1990-08-01

    The exposure of the cephalic end of rats to repeated doses of x-irradiation (150 rad) immediately after birth induces a long-term increase in the noradrenaline (NA) content of cerebellum (CE) (+ 37.8%), and a decrease in cerebellar weight (65.2% of controls), which results in an increased NA concentration (+ 109%). This increase in the neurotransmitter level is accompanied by a dystonic syndrome and histological abnormalities: Purkinje cells (the target cells for NA afferents to CE) fail to arrange in a characteristic monolayer, and their primary dendritic tree appears randomly oriented. The injection of reserpine 0.9 and 1.2 mg/kg ip to adult rats for 18 h depletes cerebellar NA content in both controls (15.7 {plus minus} 4 ng/CE and 2.8 {plus minus} 1.5 ng/CE, respectively) and x-irradiated rats (17.1 {plus minus} 1 ng/CE and 8.3 {plus minus} 2 ng/CE, respectively). The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in CE of adult rats, measured by an in vitro assay, is significantly increased in neonatally x-irradiated animals when compared to age-matched controls (16.4 {plus minus} 1.4 vs 6.32 {plus minus} 0.6 nmol CO2/h/mg prot., p less than 0.01). As observed for NA levels, a net increase in TH activity induced by the ionizing radiation is also measured: 308.9 {plus minus} 23.8 vs 408.2 {plus minus} 21.5 nmol CO2/h/CE, p less than 0.01 (controls and x-treated, respectively). These results suggest that x-irradiation at birth may induce an abnormal sprouting of noradrenergic afferents to CE. The possibility that these changes represent a response of the NA system to the dystonic syndrome is discussed.

  8. Deep brain stimulation suppresses pallidal low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonic movements.

    PubMed

    Barow, Ewgenia; Neumann, Wolf-Julian; Brücke, Christof; Huebl, Julius; Horn, Andreas; Brown, Peter; Krauss, Joachim K; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus alleviates involuntary movements in patients with dystonia. However, the mechanism is still not entirely understood. One hypothesis is that deep brain stimulation suppresses abnormally enhanced synchronized oscillatory activity within the motor cortico-basal ganglia network. Here, we explore deep brain stimulation-induced modulation of pathological low frequency (4-12 Hz) pallidal activity that has been described in local field potential recordings in patients with dystonia. Therefore, local field potentials were recorded from 16 hemispheres in 12 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation for severe dystonia using a specially designed amplifier allowing simultaneous high frequency stimulation at therapeutic parameter settings and local field potential recordings. For coherence analysis electroencephalographic activity (EEG) over motor areas and electromyographic activity (EMG) from affected neck muscles were recorded before and immediately after cessation of high frequency stimulation. High frequency stimulation led to a significant reduction of mean power in the 4-12 Hz band by 24.8 ± 7.0% in patients with predominantly phasic dystonia. A significant decrease of coherence between cortical EEG and pallidal local field potential activity in the 4-12 Hz range was revealed for the time period of 30 s after switching off high frequency stimulation. Coherence between EMG activity and pallidal activity was mainly found in patients with phasic dystonic movements where it was suppressed after high frequency stimulation. Our findings suggest that high frequency stimulation may suppress pathologically enhanced low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonia. These dystonic features are the quickest to respond to high frequency stimulation and may thus directly relate to modulation of pathological basal ganglia activity, whereas improvement in tonic features may depend on long-term plastic changes within the

  9. Cervical spondylotic radiculo-myelopathy in patients with athetoid-dystonic cerebral palsy: clinical evaluation and surgical treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, G; Kadoya, S

    1984-01-01

    The acute onset of symptoms of severe cervical radiculo-myelopathy in four patients with athetoid-dystonic cerebral palsy is reported. Neurological and radiological examination showed that the spondylotic changes of the cervical spine were responsible for new neurological deficits leading to the patients being bedridden. Dystonic-athetoid neck movements may cause excessive axial neck rotation as well as flexion and extension movements of the spine. These repetitive exaggerated movements may result in early degenerative changes of the vertebrae which may enhance the radiculo-myelopathy. The four patients were treated with an anterior discectomy with interbody fusion. They were bedridden pre-operatively but all have since been able to walk with or without a cane. It is concluded that early anterior decompression with interbody fusion is a treatment of choice for cervical spondylotic radiculo-myelopathy in association with athetoid cerebral palsy. Images PMID:6470718

  10. Forebrain deletion of the dystonia protein torsinA causes dystonic-like movements and loss of striatal cholinergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Samuel S; Darr, Katherine; Holley, Sandra M; Cepeda, Carlos; Mabrouk, Omar S; Wong, Jenny-Marie T; LeWitt, Tessa M; Paudel, Reema; Houlden, Henry; Kennedy, Robert T; Levine, Michael S; Dauer, William T

    2015-01-01

    Striatal dysfunction plays an important role in dystonia, but the striatal cell types that contribute to abnormal movements are poorly defined. We demonstrate that conditional deletion of the DYT1 dystonia protein torsinA in embryonic progenitors of forebrain cholinergic and GABAergic neurons causes dystonic-like twisting movements that emerge during juvenile CNS maturation. The onset of these movements coincides with selective degeneration of dorsal striatal large cholinergic interneurons (LCI), and surviving LCI exhibit morphological, electrophysiological, and connectivity abnormalities. Consistent with the importance of this LCI pathology, murine dystonic-like movements are reduced significantly with an antimuscarinic agent used clinically, and we identify cholinergic abnormalities in postmortem striatal tissue from DYT1 dystonia patients. These findings demonstrate that dorsal LCI have a unique requirement for torsinA function during striatal maturation, and link abnormalities of these cells to dystonic-like movements in an overtly symptomatic animal model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08352.001 PMID:26052670

  11. Basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity in LGI1-autoantibody faciobrachial dystonic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Kotsenas, Amy L.; Britton, Jeffrey W.; McKeon, Andrew; Watson, Robert E.; Klein, Christopher J.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Lowe, Val; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Shin, Cheolsu; Boes, Christopher J.; Crum, Brian A.; Laughlin, Ruple S.; Pittock, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the clinical features and MRI abnormalities of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1)-autoantibody (Ab) faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). Methods: Forty-eight patients with LGI1-Ab encephalopathy were retrospectively identified by searching our clinical and serologic database from January 1, 2002, to June 1, 2015. Of these, 26 met inclusion criteria for this case series: LGI1-Ab seropositivity and FBDS. In a separate analysis of all 48 patients initially identified, the MRIs of patients with (n = 26) and without (n = 22) FBDS were compared by 2 neuroradiologists blinded to the clinical details. Results: The median age of the 26 included patients was 62.5 years (range 37–78); 65% were men. FBDS involved arm (26), face (22), and leg (12). Ten were previously diagnosed as psychogenic. Ictal EEGs were normal in 20 of 23 assessed. Basal ganglia T1 and T2 signal abnormalities were detected in 11 patients (42%), with excellent agreement between neuroradiologists (κ scores of 0.86 and 0.93, respectively), and included T1 hyperintensity alone (2), T2 hyperintensity alone (1), or both (8). The T1 hyperintensities persisted longer than the T2 hyperintensities (median 11 weeks vs 1 week, p = 0.02). Improvement with immunotherapy (18/18) was more frequent than with antiepileptic medications (10/24). A separate analysis of all 48 patients initially identified with LGI1-Ab encephalopathy showed that basal ganglia MRI abnormalities were present in 11 of 26 with FBDS but not present in those without FBDS (0/22) (p < 0.001). In contrast, mesial temporal MRI abnormalities were less common among those with FBDS (42%) than those without (91%) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity is a clinically useful MRI biomarker of LGI1-Ab FBDS and suggests a basal ganglia localization. PMID:26468474

  12. [Early Experience with the VerciseTM DBS System in the Treatment of Dystonic Tremor].

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Yasushi

    2017-03-01

    Six cases of dystonic tremor were treated with the VerciseTM deep brain stimulation(DBS)system, which has the multiple independent current control(MICC)technology. The mean preoperative score of Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale was 16.2±9.4, which was reduced to 6.1±4.6 at 5 months postoperatively. A 65-year-old male presented an intractable dystonic tremor of the jaw, neck, and shoulders due to tardive syndrome. He experienced the successful tremor relief after unipolar DBS in the globus pallidus internus(GPi)with VerciseTM but complained of dysarthria. Steering the current ventrally induced nausea without alleviating dysarthria, while steering the current dorsally alleviated dysarthria but a further dorsal current induced mandibular dyskinesia. The current steering with MICC enabled the simulation field in GPi with successful balance, maximizing tremor suppression, and minimizing the adverse effects. In a second case, 61-year-old male in whom cervical dystonia with rotatory tremor had been successfully treated with interleaving stimulation of GPi-DBS had needed to repeat the replacement of a non-rechargeable pulse generator in only 15-month interval. After the substitution of VerciseTM, the interleaving stimulation of 9.5mA in total was replaced by 8.5mA with the current steering of MICC, while the patient's symptomatic control was unchanged. The microlesion effects after lead implantation are unclear and therapeutic effects are often delayed in cases of dystonia;therefore, the submaximal stimulation intensities must be frequently applied in the early phase following the implantation of DBS. A fine current steering of VerciseTM DBS is very useful in both, the early and late phases of GPi-DBS for dystonic syndrome.

  13. White Matter Abnormalities and Dystonic Motor Disorder Associated with Mutations in the "SLC16A2" Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gika, Artemis D.; Siddiqui, Ata; Hulse, Anthony J.; Edward, Selvakumari; Fallon, Penny; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Jan, Wajanat; Josifova, Dragana; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Drummond, James; Thompson, Edward; Refetoff, Samuel; Bonnemann, Carsten G.; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Mutations in the "SLC16A2" gene have been implicated in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked learning disability syndrome associated with thyroid function test (TFT) abnormalities. Delayed myelination is a non-specific finding in individuals with learning disability whose genetic basis is often uncertain. The aim of this study…

  14. Co-occurrence of Dystonic and Dyskinetic Tongue Movements with Oral Apraxia in Post-regression Dysphagia in Classical Rett Syndrome Years of Life 1 Through 5.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Suzanne S; Taragin, Ben; Djukic, Alesandra

    2015-04-01

    We do not know the natural history of dysphagia in classical Rett syndrome (RTT) by stage or age. This study investigated swallowing physiology in 23 females ages 1:7 to 5:8 (years, months) with classical Rett syndrome to determine common and distinguishing features of dysphagia in post-regression early Pseudostationary Stage III. In-depth analysis of videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) found dysmotility of oral stage events across subjects implicating oral apraxia. Impaired motility was further compromised by recurrent dystonic and dyskinetic movements that co-occurred with oral apraxia during oral ingestion in 78 % (n = 18) of the subjects with RTT. Of this group, 44 % displayed rocking and/or rolling lingual pattern, 56 % had recurrent oral tongue retroflexions, and/or elevated posturing of the tongue tip, and, 72 % displayed multi-wave oropharyngeal transfer pattern. The proportion of subjects whose swallowing motility was disrupted by aberrant involuntary tongue movements did not differ significantly between bolus types (liquid, puree, and solid) trialed. Liquid ingestion was significantly more efficient in subjects using bottles with nipples than their counterparts who used spouted or straw cups. Dystonic and dyskinetic tongue movements disrupted liquid ingestion in subjects using cups with spouts or straws significantly more than those using bottles. Analysis of food ingestion revealed that significantly more subjects were able to orally form, transport, and transfer a puree bolus into the pharynx than they were a solid bolus. A significantly larger number of subjects aspirated and penetrated liquid than they did puree or solid. No significant relationship was found between subjects with airway contamination and those with dystonic and dyskinetic tongue movements. Subjects' rocking and rolling lingual patterns were consistent with those evidenced in adults with Parkinson's disease. Subjects' tongue retroflexions were classified as provisionally

  15. Presentation and treatment of complicated obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brady, Charles F

    2014-03-01

    Some of the most common complicating factors for clinicians treating a person with obsessive-compulsive disorder include suicidal obsessions, dangerous compulsions, overvalued ideation, and low motivation. When a patient reports suicidal thoughts, clinicians must assess whether these thoughts are ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic because patients with ego-dystonic suicidal obsessions have less risk of imminent harm. For individuals whose compulsions are dangerous, clinicians must determine the best type of treatment facility to reduce the risk of harm. Patients with overvalued ideation may require unique interviewing approaches and the support of family members. Finally, clinicians should assess for health problems that can cause low energy and fatigue and consider motivational interviewing and additional therapies for patients who have low motivation to continue treatment.

  16. Nicotine-induced dystonic arousal complex in a mouse line harboring a human autosomal-dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy mutation.

    PubMed

    Teper, Yaroslav; Whyte, Douglas; Cahir, Elizabeth; Lester, Henry A; Grady, Sharon R; Marks, Michael J; Cohen, Bruce N; Fonck, Carlos; McClure-Begley, Tristan; McIntosh, J Michael; Labarca, Cesar; Lawrence, Andrew; Chen, Feng; Gantois, Ilse; Davies, Philip J; Petrou, Steven; Murphy, Mark; Waddington, John; Horne, Malcolm K; Berkovic, Samuel F; Drago, John

    2007-09-19

    We generated a mouse line harboring an autosomal-dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) mutation: the alpha4 nicotinic receptor S248F knock-in strain. In this mouse, modest nicotine doses (1-2 mg/kg) elicit a novel behavior termed the dystonic arousal complex (DAC). The DAC includes stereotypical head movements, body jerking, and forelimb dystonia; these behaviors resemble some core features of ADNFLE. A marked Straub tail is an additional component of the DAC. Similar to attacks in ADNFLE, the DAC can be partially suppressed by the sodium channel blocker carbamazepine or by pre-exposure to a very low dose of nicotine (0.1 mg/kg). The DAC is centrally mediated, genetically highly penetrant, and, surprisingly, not associated with overt ictal electrical activity as assessed by (1) epidural or frontal lobe depth-electrode electroencephalography or (2) hippocampal c-fos-regulated gene expression. Heterozygous knock-in mice are partially protected from nicotine-induced seizures. The noncompetitive antagonist mecamylamine does not suppress the DAC, although it suppresses high-dose nicotine-induced wild-type-like seizures. Experiments on agonist-induced 86Rb+ and neurotransmitter efflux from synaptosomes and on alpha4S248Fbeta2 receptors expressed in oocytes confirm that the S248F mutation confers resistance to mecamylamine blockade. Genetic background, gender, and mutant gene expression levels modulate expression of the DAC phenotype in mice. The S248F mouse thus appears to provide a model for the paroxysmal dystonic element of ADNFLE semiology. Our model complements what is seen in other ADNFLE animal models. Together, these mice cover the spectrum of behavioral and electrographic events seen in the human condition.

  17. [Primary neurogenic and myogenic disorders of posture].

    PubMed

    Schranz, C; Meinck, H-M

    2004-05-01

    Disturbance of posture may occur in a variety of neurological disorders and occasionally is the presenting or even the only sign. In the majority of cases, the head or the trunk or both are bent forward (bent spine syndrome, dropped head syndrome). A feature of these primary neurogenic or myogenic postural disturbances that is in contrast to antalgic contraction or ankylosis is that they are not fixed, but the trunk or head are easily erected by the examiner and show a characteristic sagging. Neuromuscular disorders are a frequent cause. They may be confined to the paraspinal muscles. Axial computed tomography of the spine, electromyography of the involved muscles, and muscle biopsy help to make the diagnosis. However, also central movement disorders may lead to a sagging of the head or trunk or of both due to a lessened tone of the head and trunk extensors. This is frequently seen in the various parkinsonian syndromes which may, however, occur in association with a focal myopathy of the paraspinal muscles. Occasionally, sagging of the trunk is seen as a side effect of neuropharmacologic medication. Sagging of the trunk or head should be differentiated from a pathologically increased innervation of the ventral muscles in dystonic movement disorders such as antecollis or camptocormia. Pathologic reclination of the head or trunk or both is a rare disturbance of posture. It may occur in dystonia (retrocollis) or, occasionally, as a consequence of musculotendinous contractures secondary to certain neuromuscular disorders such as the rigid spine syndrome.

  18. Dystonia: Related and Differential Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... head and the voice. Dystonic tremors are quite variable in their presentation and on some occasions can ... Oromandibular dystonia may be misdiagnosed as TMJ. Accelerating Research & Inspiring Hope The Dystonia Medical Research Foundation (DMRF) ...

  19. Acute and subacute drug-induced movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Pierre R

    2014-01-01

    Many pharmacological agents may induce a variety of movement disorders, including dystonia, tremor, parkinsonism, myoclonus and dyskinesia, with an acute, subacute or more chronic time course. Motor symptoms may be isolated or part of a more extensive cerebral or systemic condition, such as the neuroleptic malignant syndrome or the serotonin syndrome. Drug-induced movement disorders share a number of features that should make them easy to identify, including a clear temporal relationship between medication initiation and symptom onset, a dose-effect, and, with the exception of tardive syndromes, complete resolution after discontinuation of the offending agent. Diagnosis relies on a thorough medication history. Medications commonly involved include dopamine receptor blockers, antidepressants and anti-epileptics, among many others. Mechanisms underlying drug-induced movement disorders involve blockade, facilitation or imbalance of dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and cholinergic neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. The present review focuses on drug-induced movement disorders that typically develop as an acute (hours to days) or subacute (days to weeks) event, including acute dystonic reactions, akathisia, drug-induced parkinsonism, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonin syndrome, parkinsonism-hyperpyrexia syndrome, drug-induced tremor, drug-induced hyperkinesias and movement disorders associated with the use of recreational drugs.

  20. Movement disorders in adult surviving patients with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Carecchio, Miryam; Schneider, Susanne A; Chan, Heidi; Lachmann, Robin; Lee, Philip J; Murphy, Elaine; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2011-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is a rare metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex gene. Patients generally present early in life with a toxic encephalopathy because of the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine and the corresponding ketoacids. Movement disorders in maple syrup urine disease have typically been described during decompensation episodes or at presentation in the context of a toxic encephalopathy, with complete resolution after appropriate dietary treatment. Movement disorders in patients surviving childhood are not well documented. We assessed 17 adult patients with maple syrup urine disease (mean age, 27.5 years) with a special focus on movement disorders. Twelve (70.6%) had a movement disorder on clinical examination, mainly tremor and dystonia or a combination of both. Parkinsonism and simple motor tics were also observed. Pyramidal signs were present in 11 patients (64.7%), and a spastic-dystonic gait was observed in 6 patients (35.2%). In summary, movement disorders are common in treated adult patients with maple syrup urine disease, and careful neurological examination is advisable to identify those who may benefit from specific therapy. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  2. Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder; dysthymic disorder (a chronic, mild depression); and bipolar disorder (also called manic depression). Major depressive disorder is, ... to the World Health Organization. YESTERDAY Depression and bipolar disorder weren’t considered distinct brain illnesses, and distinct ...

  3. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... happiness and high activity or energy (mania) or depression and low activity or energy (depression). The following ...

  4. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Eating Disorders A A A ... average weight or can be overweight. continue Binge Eating Disorder This eating disorder is similar to anorexia and ...

  5. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Genetic Disorders Home For Patients Search FAQs Genetic Disorders ... Spanish Genetic Disorders FAQ094, April 2014 PDF Format Genetic Disorders Pregnancy What are genes? What are chromosomes? ...

  6. Conversion Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recent significant stress or emotional trauma Being female — women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders Having ...

  7. Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas H

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental health disorder that is frequently encountered in primary care. Many patients with depression may actually have bipolar disorder. The management of bipolar disorder requires proper diagnosis and awareness or referral for appropriate pharmacologic therapy. Patients with bipolar disorder require primary care management for comorbidities such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.

  8. Molecular imaging of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington’s disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette’s syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a

  9. Molecular imaging of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-03-28

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington's disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette's syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a caudal

  10. Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... older have mood disorders. These include depression and bipolar disorder (also called manic depression). Mood disorders can increase a person's risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other diseases. Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. ...

  11. Schizoaffective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder is thought to be less common than schizophrenia and mood disorders. Women may have the condition ... Possible Complications Complications are similar to those for schizophrenia and major mood disorders. These include: Drug use ...

  12. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  13. Phonological disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Articulation disorder; Developmental articulation disorder; Speech distortion; Sound distortion; Speech disorder - phonological ... of the muscles and bones that make speech sounds. These changes may include cleft palate and problems ...

  14. Borderline Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...

  15. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...

  16. Any Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...

  17. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...

  18. Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Carbohydrates are sugars. ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism NOTE: This is ...

  19. Complex movement disorders at disease onset in childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy

    PubMed Central

    Pizza, Fabio; Palaia, Vincenzo; Franceschini, Christian; Poli, Francesca; Moghadam, Keivan K.; Cortelli, Pietro; Nobili, Lino; Bruni, Oliviero; Dauvilliers, Yves; Lin, Ling; Edwards, Mark J.; Mignot, Emmanuel; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2011-01-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is characterized by daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (sudden loss of bilateral muscle tone triggered by emotions), sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and disturbed nocturnal sleep. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is most often associated with human leucocyte antigen-DQB1*0602 and is caused by the loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the hypothalamus of likely autoimmune aetiology. Noting that children with narcolepsy often display complex abnormal motor behaviours close to disease onset that do not meet the classical definition of cataplexy, we systematically analysed motor features in 39 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy in comparison with 25 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We found that patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy displayed a complex array of ‘negative’ (hypotonia) and ‘active’ (ranging from perioral movements to dyskinetic–dystonic movements or stereotypies) motor disturbances. ‘Active’ and ‘negative’ motor scores correlated positively with the presence of hypotonic features at neurological examination and negatively with disease duration, whereas ‘negative’ motor scores also correlated negatively with age at disease onset. These observations suggest that paediatric narcolepsy with cataplexy often co-occurs with a complex movement disorder at disease onset, a phenomenon that may vanish later in the course of the disease. Further studies are warranted to assess clinical course and whether the associated movement disorder is also caused by hypocretin deficiency or by additional neurochemical abnormalities. PMID:21930661

  20. NREM parasomnias: arousal disorders and differentiation from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zucconi, M; Ferini-Strambi, L

    2000-09-01

    Parasomnias emerging from NREM sleep such as sleep walking, sleep terrors and confusional arousals are considered arousal disorders. Nocturnal video-polysomnography is the gold standard to diagnosing and differentiating parasomnias from other arousals with atypical motor behaviors such as nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). This form of nocturnal seizures with prominent dystonic-dyskinetic components, in some cases genetic, has been recently identified by means of detailed video-analysis of movements during sleep. The clinical picture of parasomnias (with onset in early childhood, rare episodes of long duration, absence of stereotypy, general disappearance after puberty) is different from that of NFLE (which first occurs between the age of 10 and 20, manifests frequent complex and repetitive behaviors of short duration excluding rare prolonged seizures, nocturnal agitation, some daytime complaints such as fatigue or sleepiness, persistence into adulthood). Patients show no difference from classical sleep parameters whilst microstructure analysis shows sleep instability and arousal fluctuations in parasomnias and NFLE. In children as well, at least in our experience, the differential diagnosis between the two disorders is difficult and requires one or more complete nocturnal video-polygraphic recording. In any case the diagnosis of NFLE should be considered in children with nocturnal motor episodes or nocturnal motor agitation, when the attacks persist; this diagnosis is probably more frequent than expected.

  1. Dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative disorders, including "psychogenic" or "functional" amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple personality disorder), and depersonalization disorder, were once classified, along with conversion disorder, as forms of hysteria. The 1970s witnessed an "epidemic" of dissociative disorder, particularly DID, which may have reflected enthusiasm for the diagnosis more than its actual prevalence. Traditionally, the dissociative disorders have been attributed to trauma and other psychological stress, but the existing evidence favoring this hypothesis is plagued by poor methodology. Prospective studies of traumatized individuals reveal no convincing cases of amnesia not attributable to brain insult, injury, or disease. Treatment generally involves recovering and working through ostensibly repressed or dissociated memories of trauma; at present, there are few quantitative or controlled outcome studies. Experimental studies are few in number and have focused largely on state-dependent and implicit memory. Depersonalization disorder may be in line for the next "epidemic" of dissociation.

  2. [Learning disorders].

    PubMed

    Gérard, Christophe-Loïc

    2008-04-15

    Learning disorders are the center of medical process used for the assessment of school failure. We argue here that medical diagnosis is based on analysis of the interaction of three symptomatic clusters: cognitive symptoms, emotional symptoms, conduct disorders.

  3. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  4. Personality disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000939.htm Personality disorders To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in ...

  5. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  6. TMJ disorders

    MedlinePlus

    TMD; Temporomandibular joint disorders; Temporomandibular muscle disorders ... There are 2 matching temporomandibular joints on each side of your head. They are located just in front of your ears. The abbreviation "TMJ" refers to the ...

  7. Rumination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Katzman DK, Kearney SA, Becker AE. Feeding and eating disorders. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Eating Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  8. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Twenty years have passed from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and, in the meanwhile, a lot of research data about eating disorders has been published. This article reviews the main modifications to the classification of eating disorders reported in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" chapter of the DSM-5, and compares them with the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines. Particularly, we will show that DSM-5 criteria widened the diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa to less severe forms (so decreasing the frequency of Eating Disorders, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) diagnoses), introduced the new category of Binge Eating Disorder, and incorporated several feeding disorders that were first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. On the whole, the DSM-5 revision should allow the clinician to make more reliable and timely diagnoses for eating disorders.

  9. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... making life feel overwhelming or out of control. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) . For a person with OCD, anxiety takes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Taking Your Child to a Therapist Posttraumatic Stress ...

  10. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... making life feel overwhelming or out of control. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). For a person with OCD , anxiety takes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Social Phobia 5 Ways to Deal With Anxiety ...

  11. Swallowing Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder, but it is more likely in the elderly. It often happens because of other conditions, including Nervous system disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and cerebral palsy Problems with your esophagus, ...

  12. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Bipolar disorder, formerly called manic depression, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows ( ...

  13. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  14. Mathematics disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  15. Affective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder with lifetime prevalence of "major depressive disorder" estimated to be 16.2%. Although the disorder is common and impairs functioning, it often goes untreated, with less than adequate response even when treated. We review research indicating the likely value of utilizing currently available, well-validated,…

  16. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Binge-eating, which is out-of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can lead ...

  17. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  18. [Tic disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, S

    1993-11-01

    Tics are sudden, rapid, stereotyped, recurrent, nonrythmic, brief and purposeless involuntary movements or vocalization. The characteristics of tics is that they can be suppressed for certain minutes or hours. Tic disorders are classified into three subtypes in DSM-III. They are: transient tic chronic motor or vocal tic and Tourette's disorder. These three disorders are considered to be clinical varieties of a tic spectrum. Tic disorders are male-predominant, age-dependent (most tics appear by puberty) disorders. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been suggested in Tourette's disorder. It is highly interesting and important to investigate the pathogenesis of tic symptoms because tics are thought to be in between neurological symptoms and psychiatric symptoms.

  19. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasites , particularly ones that invade tissue, cause eosinophilia. Cancers that cause eosinophilia include Hodgkin lymphoma , leukemia , and myeloproliferative disorders . If the number of eosinophils is only ...

  20. Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  1. Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Marilyn

    Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of…

  2. Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  3. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted.

  4. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity.

  5. Neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam; Rutter, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder, although most commonly considered in childhood, can be lifelong conditions. In this Personal View that is shaped by clinical experience and research, we adopt a conceptual approach. First, we discuss what disorders are neurodevelopmental and why such a grouping is useful. We conclude that both distinction and grouping are helpful and that it is important to take into account the strong overlap across neurodevelopmental disorders. Then we highlight some challenges in bridging research and clinical practice. We discuss the complexity of clinical phenotypes and the importance of the social context. We also argue the importance of viewing neurodevelopmental disorders as traits but highlight that this is not the only approach to use. Finally, we consider developmental change across the life-span. Overall, we argue strongly for a flexible approach in clinical practice that takes into consideration the high level of heterogeneity and overlap in neurodevelopmental disorders and for research to link more closely to what is observed in real-life practice.

  6. Bleeding disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... which there is a problem with the body's blood clotting process. These disorders can lead to heavy and ... II, and III) Causes Watch this video about: Blood clotting Normal blood clotting involves blood components called platelets ...

  7. Dysthymic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    This ongoing column is dedicated to the challenging clinical interface between psychiatry and primary care—two fields that are inexorably linked. Dysthymic disorder is a smoldering mood disturbance characterized by a long duration (at least two years in adults) as well as transient periods of normal mood. The disorder is fairly common in the US general population (3–6%) as well as in primary care (7%) and mental health settings (up to one-third of psychiatric outpatients). While the etiology of dysthymia remains unknown, there appears to be a genetic susceptibility, which may manifest in the presence of various psychosocial stressors. While the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic criteria are fairly clear, the disorder can be easily under-recognized for a variety of reasons. Treatment may include pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, although the overall treatment course is oftentimes characterized by protracted symptoms and relapses. PMID:19724735

  8. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be done to diagnose an autoimmune disorder include: Antinuclear antibody tests Autoantibody tests CBC Comprehensive metabolic panel C-reactive protein (CRP) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) Urinalysis

  9. Bleeding Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Normally, if you get hurt, your body forms a blood clot to stop the bleeding. For blood ... body needs cells called platelets and proteins known as clotting factors. If you have a bleeding disorder, ...

  10. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from other people Skipped heartbeats and other physical complaints Trembling or twitching To have adjustment disorder, you ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  11. Corneal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injuries Dystrophies - conditions in which parts of the cornea lose clarity due to a buildup of cloudy material Treatments of corneal disorders include medicines, corneal transplantation, and corneal laser surgery. NIH: National Eye Institute

  12. Dissociative Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of continuity between thoughts, memories, surroundings, actions and identity. People with dissociative disorders escape reality in ways ... at bay. Symptoms — ranging from amnesia to alternate identities — depend in part on the type of dissociative ...

  13. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  14. Lymphatic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood from the upper body into the heart. Lymphatic System: Helping Defend Against Infection The lymphatic system is ... the neck, armpits, and groin. Disorders of the lymphatic system The lymphatic system may not carry out its ...

  15. Cyclothymic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... than 2 symptom-free months in a row Exams and Tests The diagnosis is usually based on ... or a loved one is having thoughts of suicide. Alternative Names Cyclothymia; Mood disorder - cyclothymia References American ...

  16. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  17. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a type of anxiety disorder. It causes panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of terror when there ... or a cold chill Tingly or numb hands Panic attacks can happen anytime, anywhere, and without warning. You ...

  18. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... by recurrent episodes of paralyzing fear, known as panic attacks. Panic disorder, which affects three million to six ... Americans, typically surfaces between ages fifteen and nineteen. Panic attacks may be precipitated by specific events, but they ...

  19. Learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, William G; Dunn, David W

    2003-11-01

    Three broad areas of LDs are recognized in the DSM-IV (RD, mathematics disorder, and disorder of written expression), and many atypical LDs (such as NVLD) also may be found in children with academic underachievement. These disorders are defined by a significant discrepancy between a child's intellectual (learning) ability and specific area of academic achievement, based on individual psychologic testing. Interventions for these disorders begin with careful evaluation and testing, followed by meetings at the school and development of an IEP. The recommendations of the IEP are performed in the school setting, whereas additional interventions may be sought at private learning clinics. Specific treatments for RD have been well defined, whereas those for other LDs must be tailored to match the strengths and weaknesses of the child. Although it is rare for individuals to completely outgrow the academic weaknesses characteristic of an LD, their performance in the area of weakness often can be improved markedly with appropriate interventions.

  20. Cartilage Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead to joint damage and deformity. Causes of cartilage problems include Tears and injuries, such as sports injuries Genetic factors Other disorders, such as some types of arthritis Osteoarthritis results from breakdown of cartilage. ...

  1. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure can appear in the form of teasing, bullying or ridicule because of size or weight. A ... Anosognosia Dual Diagnosis Psychosis Self-harm Sleep Disorders Suicide About Us Where We Stand on Public Policy ...

  2. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy weight Intense fear of gaining weight Distorted body image, a self-esteem that is heavily influenced by ... disorders, men also have a distorted sense of body image. For example, men may have muscle dysmorphia, a ...

  3. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  4. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  5. Learning Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most help. Sometimes tutors or speech or language therapists also work with the children. Learning disorders do not go away, but strategies to work around them can make them less of a problem. ...

  6. Parathyroid Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... make too much or too little hormone, it disrupts this balance. If they secrete extra PTH, you ... much phosphorous. Causes include injury to the glands, endocrine disorders, or genetic conditions. Treatment is aimed at ...

  7. Schizoaffective Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression or mania. The two types of schizoaffective disorder — both of which include some symptoms of schizophrenia — are: Bipolar type , which includes episodes of mania and sometimes major depression Depressive type , which includes only major depressive episodes ...

  8. Familial dyskinesia and facial myokymia (FDFM): a novel movement disorder.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M; Raskind, W; Wolff, J; Matsushita, M; Yuen, E; Graf, W; Lipe, H; Bird, T

    2001-04-01

    We describe here familial dyskinesia and facial myokymia (FDFM), a novel autosomal dominant disorder characterized by adventitious movements that sometimes appear choreiform and that are associated with perioral and periorbital myokymia. We report a 5-generation family with 18 affected members (10 males and 8 females) with FDFM. The disorder has an early childhood or adolescent onset. The involuntary movements are paroxysmal at early ages, increase in frequency and severity, and may become constant in the third decade. Thereafter, there is no further deterioration, and there may even be improvement in old age. The adventitious movements are worsened by anxiety but not by voluntary movement, startle, caffeine, or alcohol. The disease is socially disabling, but there is no intellectual impairment or decrease in lifespan. A candidate gene and haplotype analysis was performed in 9 affected and 3 unaffected members from 3 generations of this family using primers for polymorphic loci closely flanking or within genes of interest. We excluded linkage to 11 regions containing genes associated with chorea and myokymia: 1) the Huntington disease gene on chromosome 4p; 2) the paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis gene at 2q34; 3) the dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy gene at 12p13; 4) the choreoathetosis/spasticity disease locus on 1p that lies in a region containing a cluster of potassium (K+) channel genes; 5) the episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) locus on 12p that contains the KCNA1 gene and two other voltage-gated K+ channel genes, KCNA5 and KCNA6; 6) the chorea-acanthocytosis locus on 9q21; 7) the Huntington-like syndrome on 20p; 8) the paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia locus on 16p11.2-q11.2; 9) the benign hereditary chorea locus on 14q; 10) the SCA type 5 locus on chromosome 11; and 11) the chromosome 19 region that contains several ion channels and the CACNA1A gene, a brain-specific P/Q-type calcium channel gene associated with ataxia and hemiplegic migraine. Our results

  9. Talking about GI Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Talking About GI Disorders Personal Stories Social Security Benefits Contact Us About Kids & Teens GI Health ... Disorders Talking About GI Disorders Personal Stories Social Security Benefits Contact Us Talking About GI Disorders Home ...

  10. Bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Frederick K.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    1999-01-01

    Bipolar disorder's unique combination of three characteristics - clear genetic diathesis, distinctive clinical features, early availability of an effective treatment (lithium) - explains its special place in the history of psychiatry and its contribution to the current explosive growth of neuroscience. This article looks at the state of the art in bipolar disorder from the vantage point of: (i) genetics (possible linkages on chromosomes 18 and 21q, polygenic hypothesis, research into genetic markers); (ii) diagnosis (new focus on the subjective aspects of bipolar disorder to offset the current trend of underdiagnosis due to overreliance on standardized interviews and rating scales); (iii) outcome (increase in treatment-resistant forms signaling a change in the natural history of bipolar disorder); (iv) pathophysiology (research into circadian biological rhythms and the kindling hypothesis to explain recurrence); (v) treatment (emergence of the anticonvulsants, suggested role of chronic antidepressant treatment in the development of treatment resistance); (vi) neurobiology (evaluation of regulatory function in relation to affective disturbances, role of postsynaptic second-messenger mechanisms, advances in functional neuroimaging); and (vii) psychosocial research (shedding overly dualistic theories of the past to understand the mind and brain as an entity, thus emphasizing the importance of balancing the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches). Future progress in the understanding and treatment of bipolar disorder will rely on successful integration of the biological and psychosocial lines of investigation. PMID:22033232

  11. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...

  12. Digested disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a new issue of reader’s digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28232877

  13. Penis Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or ... not go away Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump ...

  14. Metabolic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... affect the breakdown of amino acids, carbohydrates, or lipids. Another group, mitochondrial diseases, affects the parts of the cells that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or pancreas, become diseased or do not function ...

  15. Immunodeficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Max D; Lanier, Lewis L; Conley, Mary Ellen; Puck, Jennifer M

    2003-01-01

    Hematological complications occur frequently in patients with both primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders. Anemia, thrombocytopenia or leukopenias may bring these individuals to the attention of hematologists. Conversely, evidence suggesting a lymphoproliferative disorder may be the cause for referral. This session will provide an update on the diagnosis and treatment of immunodeficiency diseases ranging from isolated defects in antibody production to the severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID). Immunodeficiency diseases have traditionally been defined as defects in the development and function of T and B cells, the primary effector cells of specific cellular and humoral immunity. However, it has become increasingly evident that innate immune mechanisms contribute greatly to host defense, either through acting alone or by enhancing specific T and B cell responses. In Section I, Dr. Lewis Lanier reviews the burgeoning information on the extensive families of activating and inhibitory immunoreceptors that are expressed on NK cells, dendritic cells, T and B cells, and phagocytic cells. He provides an overview on the biological functions of these receptors in host defense. In Section II, Dr. Mary Ellen Conley defines the spectrum of antibody deficiency disorders, the most frequently occurring types of primary immunodeficiencies. She covers the different defects in B-cell development and function that lead to antibody deficiencies, and includes diagnosis and therapy of these disorders. In Section III, Dr. Jennifer Puck discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the different types of SCID. She describes the genetic basis for SCID, and the benefits, pitfalls, and complications of gene therapy and bone marrow transplantation in SCID patients.

  16. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  17. Disorder solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, A.

    1982-12-20

    It is shown that in (3+1)-dimensional space-time the recently proposed supersymmetric models of disordered systems can have finite-energy solitonlike solutions. As a consequence, it is suggested that the lower critical dimension of a ferromagnet in a quenched random magnetic field is d/sub c/ = 3. .ID LV2096 .PG 1811 1815

  18. Dysthymic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avoid abusing drugs and alcohol. They can make depression worse.Get regular exercise. Exercise can improve your mood. Exercising 4 to 6 times a week for 30 to 60 minutes each time is a good goal. Last Updated: ... mood disorders, psychotherapy, stress, therapy Family Health, Women ...

  19. Other Disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental conditions, such as wind, water, and temperature, or genetic disorders can affect beet production but can also cause symptoms that may be confused with those associated with pest or disease damage. Listed below are some the potential abiotic stresses that may occur to beet but are unr...

  20. Reading Disorders:

    PubMed Central

    Seaber, Emma

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between eating disorders and reading behaviors, arguing that there is a meaningful difference in a minority of readers' approach to and understanding of anorexia life-writing, and of literary texts more broadly. To illuminate this distinction, this article begins by considering the reported deleterious influence of Marya Hornbacher’s anorexia memoir, Wasted, elaborating the ways Hornbacher offers a positive presentation of anorexia nervosa that may, intentionally or not, induce certain readers to “try it” themselves. This is followed by an exploration of how Hornbacher’s own reading praxis is implicated in a discursive feedback loop around anorexia narratives. It concludes with a discussion of disordered reading attitudes in relation to the emergence of the “pro-anorexia” phenomenon.

  1. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... 2012:chap 45. Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  2. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions > Fatty acid oxidation disorders Fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... these disorders, go to genetests.org . What fatty acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? ...

  3. Arousal disorders.

    PubMed

    Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca; Lugaresi, Elio

    2011-12-01

    Arousal Disorders (AD) are motor behaviours arising from NREM sleep. They comprise a spectrum of manifestations of increasing complexity from confusional arousal to sleep terror to sleepwalking. AD usually appear in childhood with a low frequency of episodes and spontaneously disappear before adolescence. The advent of video-polysomnography disclosed the existence of other phenomena alongside AD, in particular nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, requiring a differential diagnosis from AD. History-taking is usually sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis of AD even though viewing the episodes is essential for the clinician to distinguish the different motor events. Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes.

  4. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder A A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  5. Generalized anxiety disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007687.htm Generalized anxiety disorder - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental disorder in which a ...

  6. Generalized anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000917.htm Generalized anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental disorder in which a ...

  7. Chest Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... your neck and your abdomen. It includes the ribs and breastbone. Inside your chest are several organs, ... and collapsed lung Pleural disorders Esophagus disorders Broken ribs Thoracic aortic aneurysms Disorders of the mediastinum, the ...

  8. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  9. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders A ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  10. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally ...

  11. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000929.htm Obsessive-compulsive disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder in which people ...

  13. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  14. Panic Disorder and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your state. Panic Attacks, Panic Disorder, and Agoraphobia (Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians) - This online ... and examples of co-existing conditions. Panic Disorder & Agoraphobia (Copyright © Anxiety Disorders Association of America) - This web ...

  15. Histrionic personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorder - histrionic; Attention seeking - histrionic personality disorder ... Causes of histrionic personality disorder are unknown. Genes and early childhood events may be responsible. It is diagnosed more often in women than ...

  16. Schizoid Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Schizoid personality disorder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Schizoid personality disorder is an uncommon condition in which people avoid ... range of emotional expression. If you have schizoid personality disorder, you may be seen as a loner ...

  17. Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Schizotypal personality disorder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff People with schizotypal personality disorder are often described as odd or eccentric ... in social situations, as the person with schizotypal personality disorder responds inappropriately to social cues and holds ...

  18. Paranoid personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorder - paranoid; PPD ... American Psychiatric Association. Paranoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:649-652. Blais MA, ...

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC Helping Kids Cope With Stress Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Special Needs Factsheet Taking Your ... Childhood Stress About Teen Suicide Sadness and Depression Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Phobias Five Steps for Fighting Stress Going to ...

  20. What is Bipolar Disorder?

    MedlinePlus

    ... affect friends and family? For More Information Share Bipolar Disorder Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... brochure will give you more information. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  1. Trichotillomania, stereotypic movement disorder, and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Garner, Joseph P; Keuthen, Nancy J; Franklin, Martin E; Walkup, John T; Woods, Douglas W

    2007-08-01

    Trichotillomania is currently classified as an impulse control disorder not otherwise classified, whereas body-focused behaviors other than hair-pulling may be diagnosed as stereotypic movement disorder. A number of disorders characterized by repetitive, body-focused behaviors (eg, skin-picking) are prevalent and disabling and may have phenomenological and psychobiological overlap. Such disorders deserve greater recognition in the official nosology, and there would seem to be clinical utility in classifying them in the same diagnostic category.

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  3. ACE: Health - Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about children reported to have ever been diagnosed with four different neurodevelopmental disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, autism, and intellectual disability.

  4. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...

  5. Vaginal disorders.

    PubMed

    Soderberg, S F

    1986-05-01

    Chronic vaginitis is the most common vaginal disorder. Dogs with vaginitis show no signs of systemic illness but often lick at the vulva and have purulent or hemorrhagic vaginal discharges. Vaginitis is most commonly secondary to a noninfectious inciting factor such as congenital vaginal anomalies, clitoral hypertrophy, foreign bodies, trauma to the vaginal mucosa, or vaginal tumors. Inspection of the caudal vagina and vestibule both visually and digitally will often reveal the source of vaginal irritation. Vaginal cytology is used to establish the stage of the estrous cycle as well as distinguish uterine from vaginal sources of discharge. Vaginal cultures are used to establish the predominant offending organism associated with vaginal discharges and may be used as a guide for selection of a therapeutic agent. Vaginitis is best managed by removing the inciting cause and treating the area locally with antiseptic douches. Congenital malformations at the vestibulovaginal or vestibulovulvar junction may prevent normal intromission. Affected bitches may be reluctant to breed naturally because of pain. Such defects are detected best by digital examination. Congenital vaginal defects may be corrected by digital or surgical means. Prolapse of tissue through the lips of the vulva may be caused by clitoral hypertrophy, vaginal hyperplasia, or vaginal tumors. Enlargement of clitoral tissue is the result of endogenous or exogenous sources of androgens. Treatment of this condition includes removal of the androgen source and/or surgical removal of clitoral tissue. Vaginal hyperplasia is detected during proestrus or estrus of young bitches. Hyperplastic tissue will regress during diestrus. Tissue that is excessively traumatized and/or prolapse of the entire vaginal circumference may be removed surgically. Ovariohysterectomy may be used to prevent recurrence. Vaginal tumors are detected most often in older intact bitches. Such tumors are generally of smooth muscle or fibrous

  6. Movement disorders and sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  7. Learning and Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Anil; Uderman, Jodi; Feirsen, Nicole; Bedard, Anne-Claude; Marks, David

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to provide a select review of treatments for addressing reading disorder, mathematics disorder, disorder of written expression, auditory processing disorder and poor working memory. This information will be valuable to practitioners in determining the suitability of certain treatments for these various disorders/problems which has direct implications for providing comprehensive, multi-disciplinary treatment for youth. PMID:23806314

  8. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder].

    PubMed

    van Grootheest, D S; van den Heuvel, O A; Cath, D C; van Oppen, P; van Balkom, A J L M

    2008-10-25

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder characterised by obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessive-compulsive disorder has a relatively high prevalence and is a highly disabling disease. The disorder is associated with shame, which causes long delays in accessing treatment. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is caused by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Effective treatments exist in the form of either pharmacotherapy--clomipramine or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors--or cognitive behaviour therapy.

  9. Panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Craske, Michelle G; Waters, Allison M

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of recent empirical developments, current controversies, and areas in need of further research in relation to factors that are common as well as specific to the etiology and maintenance of panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. The relative contribution of broad risk factors to these disorders is discussed, including temperament, genetics, biological influences, cognition, and familial variables. In addition, the role that specific learning experiences play in relation to each disorder is reviewed. In an overarching hierarchical model, it is proposed that generalized anxiety disorder, and to some extent panic disorder, loads most heavily on broad underlying factors, whereas specific life history contributes most strongly to circumscribed phobias.

  10. Asperger disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Arora, Manu; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sarkhel, Sujit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Asperger disorder was first described in 1944 by the Austrian pediatrician, Hans Asperger. It was introduced as a separate diagnostic category from autistic disorder in DSM-IV and ICD-10. The pattern of comorbidity in Asperger disorder is different from autistic disorder, with a higher level of psychosis, violent behavior, anxiety, and mood disorders. We present three cases of Asperger disorder diagnosed for the first time in adulthood, with psychosis being the predominant reason for the referral. In each case, the psychosis improved with antipsychotic treatment, although core autistic symptoms remained the same.

  11. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment. PMID:19724751

  12. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A hidden disorder].

    PubMed

    Haraldsson, Magnús

    2015-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland.

  13. [Personality disorders in eating disorder patients].

    PubMed

    Martín Murcia, Francisco M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Pozo, Eugenia M; Martínez Sánchez, Margarita; López Pérez, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    Personality disorders in eating disorder patients. A follow-up study was designed to analyze the relation between personality disorders (PD) and the course of eating disorders (ED) in 34 patients who required treatment over 4 years and half. 91% of the clinical sample met the criteria for PD at the initial assessment and 36% at the end of treatment, with a significant reduction in MCMI-II scores at follow-up. The outcome of the ED was significantly related to the PD outcome. There was a higher rate of improvement of PD in the bulimic group (61%) than in anorexic group (34%). The patients who presented schizoid and avoidant personality disorders were the most resistant and they adhered less to treatment. The prevalence of PD in the clinical sample and its relation to the course of ED from a person-centered model is discussed.

  14. Genetic Brain Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  15. What Are Reading Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia . These disorders are present from a young age ... information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability ...

  16. Bipolar disorder (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and major depression. Treatment with lithium or mood stabilizers may be effective, but medication regimens are sometimes difficult to tolerate ...

  17. Chromosome Disorder Outreach

    MedlinePlus

    ... BLOG Join Us Donate You are not alone. Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non-profit organization, ... Support For all those diagnosed with any rare chromosome disorder. Since 1992, CDO has supported the parents ...

  18. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

  19. Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders Go Back Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders Email Print + Share The kidneys filter the ... but some less serious ones occur more frequently. Kidney stones These are probably the most commonly encountered ...

  20. Epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Knott, Sarah; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Thomas, Rhys H

    2015-11-01

    It is well recognized that mood disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. Despite this, our knowledge regarding the relationship between epilepsy and bipolar disorder is limited. Several shared features between the two disorders, such as their episodic nature and potential to run a chronic course, and the efficacy of some antiepileptic medications in the prophylaxis of both disorders, are often cited as evidence of possible shared underlying pathophysiology. The present paper aims to review the bidirectional associations between epilepsy and bipolar disorder, with a focus on epidemiological links, evidence for shared etiology, and the impact of these disorders on both the individual and wider society. Better recognition and understanding of these two complex disorders, along with an integrated clinical approach, are crucial for improved evaluation and management of comorbid epilepsy and mood disorders.

  1. Illness anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001236.htm Illness anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) is a preoccupation that physical symptoms ...

  2. Kinetics of Tetrataenite Disordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, E.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Scorzelli, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    Tetrataenite is a sensitive tracer of transient secondary thermal events that leads to disordering of tetrataenite into taenite. Thus, preliminary results concerning time-temperature data for tetrataenite disordering are presented.

  3. Bleeding Disorders in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Bleeding Disorders in Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... a bleeding disorder. What is excessive bleeding in women? Women with excessive bleeding may experience heavy, hard- ...

  4. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and men also are vulnerable. Boys with eating disorders show the same types of ... as girls, but for a variety of reasons, boys are less likely to be diagnosed with what ...

  5. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  6. Specific Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Genetic Terms Definitions for genetic terms Specific Genetic Disorders Many human diseases have a genetic component. ... Condition in an Adult The Undiagnosed Diseases Program Genetic Disorders Achondroplasia Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Antiphospholipid Syndrome ...

  7. Narcissistic personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Narcissistic personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;669-672. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves ...

  8. Borderline personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Borderline personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:663-666. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves ...

  9. Dependent personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Dependent personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;675-678. Blais MA, Smallwood ...

  10. Schizotypal personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Schizotypal personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;655-659. Blais MA, Smallwood ...

  11. Avoidant personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Avoidant personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;672-675. Blais MA, Smallwood ...

  12. Schizoid personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Schizoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:652-655. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves ...

  13. Pregnancy Complications: Liver Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Liver disorders Liver disorders Now playing: E-mail to a friend ... have blood on them (razors, toothbrushes). Acute fatty liver of pregnancy What is acute fatty liver of ...

  14. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Thyroid Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Thyroid Disorders A A ... the world is a thyroid? What Is the Thyroid? The thyroid (say: THYE-royd) is a gland, ...

  15. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused ... language therapy can help. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  16. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... breaks the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body's fuel. Your body can use this ... process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple ...

  17. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed.

  18. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  19. Overview of Immunodeficiency Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Raje, Nikita; Dinakar, Chitra

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The spectrum of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) is expanding. It includes typical disorders that primarily present with defective immunity as well as disorders that predominantly involve other systems and exhibit few features of impaired immunity. The rapidly growing list of new immunodeficiency disorders and treatment modalities makes it imperative for the provider to stay abreast of the latest and best management strategies. We present a brief overview of recent clinical advances in the field of PIDs. PMID:26454309

  20. Rare Disorders and Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umlauf, Mary; Monaco, Jana; FitzZaland, Mary; FitzZaland, Richard; Novitsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), a rare or "orphan" disease affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. There are more than 6,000 rare disorders that, taken together, affect approximately 25 million Americans. "Exceptional Parent" ("EP") recognizes that when a disorder affects a child or adult, it…

  1. Pituitary Disorders and Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Various hormonal disorders can influence bone metabolism and cause secondary osteoporosis. The consequence of this is a significant increase of fracture risk. Among pituitary disorders such effects are observed in patients with Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly, and hypopituitarism. Severe osteoporosis is the result of the coexistence of some of these disorders and hypogonadism at the same time, which is quite often. PMID:25873948

  2. Diagnosis of Mood Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda; Moore, Bonita Marcus

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of mood disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (fourth edition) criteria and other relevant information. Differential diagnosis is facilitated through discussion of differences and similarities among mental disorders, age and gender-related patterns of mood disorders, and useful diagnostic tools. (Author)

  3. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  4. Identify bipolar spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Sarah; Cunningham, Patricia; Manning, J Sloan

    2002-06-01

    Patients with bipolar spectrum disorders commonly present with depressive symptoms to primary care clinicians. This article details bipolar spectrum disorder assessment, treatment, and treatment response. By intervening early in the course of depressive and hypomanic episodes, you can help decrease the morbidity and suffering associated with bipolar spectrum disorders.

  5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder A A ... Diagnosing OCD Getting Therapy for OCD What Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? Everyone feels anxiety, fear, uncertainty, or worry at ...

  6. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... autism spectrum disorder . Images Motormental disability Read More Autism spectrum disorder Review Date 4/21/2015 Updated by: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. ... Spectrum Disorder Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  7. Sleep disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oyiengo, Dennis; Louis, Mariam; Hott, Beth; Bourjeily, Ghada

    2014-09-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pregnancy and may be influenced by a multitude of factors. Pregnancy physiology may predispose to sleep disruption but may also result in worsening of some underlying sleep disorders, and the de novo development of others. Apart from sleep disordered breathing, the impact of sleep disorders on pregnancy, fetal, and neonatal outcomes is poorly understood. In this article, we review the literature and discuss available data pertaining to the most common sleep disorders in perinatal women. These include restless legs syndrome, insomnia, circadian pattern disturbances, narcolepsy, and sleep-disordered breathing.

  8. Headaches and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Freedom, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Headaches and sleep disorders are associated in a complex manner. Both the disorders are common in the general population, but the relationship between the two is more than coincidental. Sleep disorders can exacerbate headache sand the converse is also true. Treatment of sleep disorders can have a positive impact on the treatment of headaches. Screening for sleep disorders should be considered in all patients with headaches. This can be accomplished with brief screening tools. Those who screen positively can be further evaluated or referred to asleep specialist.

  9. Developmental disorders of vision.

    PubMed

    Galaburda, Albert M; Duchaine, Bradley C

    2003-08-01

    This review of developmental disorders of vision focuses on only a few of the many disorders that disrupt visual development. Given the enormity of the human visual system in the primate brain and complexity of visual development, however, there are likely hundreds or thousands of types of disorders affecting high-level vision. The rapid progress seen in developmental dyslexia and WMS demonstrates the possibilities and difficulties inherent in researching such disorders, and the authors hope that similar progress will be made for congenital prosopagnosia and other disorders in the near future.

  10. Mood Disorders after TBI

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Ricardo E.; Arciniegas, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis In this article, we will examine the epidemiology and risk factors for the development of the most common mood disorders observed in the aftermath of TBI: depressive disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. We will describe the classification approach and diagnostic criteria proposed in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-V). We will also examine the differential diagnosis of post-TBI mood disorders and describe the mainstay of the evaluation process. Finally, we will place a special emphasis on the analysis of the different therapeutic options and provide guidelines for the appropriate management of these conditions. PMID:24529421

  11. Sleep disorders during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pien, Grace W; Schwab, Richard J

    2004-11-01

    This paper reviews the topic of sleep disorders in pregnant women. We describe changes in sleep architecture and sleep pattern during pregnancy, discuss the impact of the physical and biochemical changes of pregnancy on sleep in pregnant women and examine whether maternal-fetal outcomes may be adversely affected in women with disordered sleep. The literature on common sleep disorders affecting pregnant women, including insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing and restless legs syndrome, is reviewed and recommendations are made for the management of these disorders during pregnancy.

  12. Genetics of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Michael A; Zavala, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder especially the most severe type (type I), has a strong genetic component. Family studies suggest that a small number of genes of modest effect are involved in this disorder. Family-based studies have identified a number of chromosomal regions linked to bipolar disorder, and progress is currently being made in identifying positional candidate genes within those regions. A number of candidate genes have also shown evidence of association with bipolar disorder, and genome-wide association studies are now under way, using dense genetic maps. Replication studies in larger or combined datasets are needed to definitively assign a role for specific genes in this disorder. This review covers our current knowledge of the genetics of bipolar disorder, and provides a commentary on current approaches used to identify the genes involved in this complex behavioral disorder.

  13. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    PubMed Central

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  14. Mood disorders in Asians.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Albert; Chang, Doris

    2014-02-01

    Mood disorders are disorders that have a disturbance in mood as the predominant feature. They are common psychiatric disorders and are associated with significant distress and functional impairment. As the theory of mood disorders is based on the philosophy of mind/body dichotomy in the West, it contradicts the holistic tradition of medicine in the East. This may partially explain why many Asians with mood disorders emphasize their physical symptoms in discussions with their treatment providers. In the development of the DSM and ICD diagnostic systems, it is presumed that the diagnostic categories are applicable to all races and ethnicities. Similarly, many consider pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches to mood disorders universally applicable. To effectively treat Asians with mood disorders, clinicians need to customize biological and psychosocial interventions in consideration of patients' potential genetic and cultural differences.

  15. Structural disorder in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Pancsa, Rita; Tompa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Based on early bioinformatic studies on a handful of species, the frequency of structural disorder of proteins is generally thought to be much higher in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes. To refine this view, we present here a comparative prediction study and analysis of 194 fully described eukaryotic proteomes and 87 reference prokaryotes for structural disorder. We found that structural disorder does distinguish eukaryotes from prokaryotes, but its frequency spans a very wide range in the two superkingdoms that largely overlap. The number of disordered binding regions and different Pfam domain types also contribute to distinguish eukaryotes from prokaryotes. Unexpectedly, the highest levels--and highest variability--of predicted disorder is found in protists, i.e. single-celled eukaryotes, often surpassing more complex eukaryote organisms, plants and animals. This trend contrasts with that of the number of domain types, which increases rather monotonously toward more complex organisms. The level of structural disorder appears to be strongly correlated with lifestyle, because some obligate intracellular parasites and endosymbionts have the lowest levels, whereas host-changing parasites have the highest level of predicted disorder. We conclude that protists have been the evolutionary hot-bed of experimentation with structural disorder, in a period when structural disorder was actively invented and the major functional classes of disordered proteins established.

  16. Histrionic personality disorder in women with somatization disorder.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J

    1989-01-01

    The clinical distinctions between histrionic personality disorder and somatization disorder have frequently been blurred. In this study, 60 women with somatization disorder were found to have histrionic personality disorder. A DSM-III diagnosis of histrionic personality disorder did not significantly help to improve the diagnosis of somatization disorder. A diagnosis of histrionic personality disorder should stimulate a search for better-validated Axis I diagnoses.

  17. Migraine and neurogenetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Swati

    2013-09-01

    In the current classification of headache disorders, headache attributable to genetic disorders is not classified separately, rather as headache attributed to cranial or cervical vascular disorder. The classification thus implies that a vascular pathology causes headache in these genetic disorders. Unquestionably, migraine is one of the prominent presenting features of several genetic cerebral small vessel diseases such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy, retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, and hereditary infantile hemiparessis, retinal arteriolar tortuosity and leukoencephalopahty. Shared genetic features, increased susceptibility, and/or vascular endothelial dysfunction may play a role in pathogenesis of migraine. Common or overlapping pathways involving the responsible genes may provide insight regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms that can explain their comorbidity with migraine. This review focuses on clinical features of genetic vasculopathies. An independent category-migraine related to genetic disorders-should be considered to classify these disorders.

  18. The spreading of disorder.

    PubMed

    Keizer, Kees; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda

    2008-12-12

    Imagine that the neighborhood you are living in is covered with graffiti, litter, and unreturned shopping carts. Would this reality cause you to litter more, trespass, or even steal? A thesis known as the broken windows theory suggests that signs of disorderly and petty criminal behavior trigger more disorderly and petty criminal behavior, thus causing the behavior to spread. This may cause neighborhoods to decay and the quality of life of its inhabitants to deteriorate. For a city government, this may be a vital policy issue. But does disorder really spread in neighborhoods? So far there has not been strong empirical support, and it is not clear what constitutes disorder and what may make it spread. We generated hypotheses about the spread of disorder and tested them in six field experiments. We found that, when people observe that others violated a certain social norm or legitimate rule, they are more likely to violate other norms or rules, which causes disorder to spread.

  19. Adrenal gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Berry, Matthew E

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging of the adrenal glands is an important aspect of the diagnosis of any adrenal gland disorder. This article discusses the normal anatomy and functions of the adrenal glands, as well as specific adrenal gland disorders and how they are diagnosed and treated. Radiologic technologists need to understand the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of disorders that prevent the adrenal glands from functioning properly.

  20. From Self-Disorders to Ego Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While the concept of disorders of basic self-experience as the clinical core of schizophrenia spectrum disorders has gained increasing significance and empirical support, several questions remain still unresolved. One major problem is to understand how the basic and prodromal self-disturbances are related to Schneider's first rank symptoms, in particular to the so-called 'ego disorders' found in acute psychotic episodes. The study of the transition from prodromal to first rank symptoms, for example from alienated thoughts to thoughts aloud or thought insertions, is of particular importance for understanding the nature and course of schizophrenia. The paper analyses the emergence of ego disorders from basic self-disorders in phenomenological terms, taking the examples of motor passivity experiences and thought insertion. It is argued that full-blown delusions of alien control are ultimately based on a disturbance of the intentionality of thinking, feeling and acting. This disturbance, for its part, may be traced back to anomalies of self-experience in prodromal stages of schizophrenia.

  1. [Schizophrenia and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Foulon, C

    2003-01-01

    The comorbidity of schizophrenia and eating disorders is understudied. In the early nineteenth century, Eugen Bleuler has reported cases of schizophrenia with eating disorders that were related to delusional ideas. Potomania, merycism and pica have often been described in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients with eating disorders usually do not meet all criteria for typical eating disorders and are therefore classified as "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS). It may even be difficult to recognize schizophrenia in patients with eating disorders associated to delusional ideas and distorted cognitions related to food or body perception. In any case, the diagnosis of schizophrenia should preferably be made and is only valid after renutrition is achieved. The prevalence of schizophrenia in samples of patients with eating disorders is generally below 10% but reaches 35% in males, the most frequent form being hebephrenia. Cognitive behavioural therapies for eating disorders need to be adapted in cases of comorbid schizophrenia. The new antipsychotic medications seem helpful in patients with eating disorders with or without schizophrenia. They reduce anxiety towards eating and bring in better adherence to treatments.

  2. Tilted disordered Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trescher, Maximilian; Sbierski, Björn; Brouwer, Piet W.; Bergholtz, Emil J.

    2017-01-01

    Although Lorentz invariance forbids the presence of a term that tilts the energy-momentum relation in the Weyl Hamiltonian, a tilted dispersion is not forbidden and, in fact, generic for condensed matter realizations of Weyl semimetals. We here investigate the combined effect of such a tilted Weyl dispersion and the presence of potential disorder. In particular, we address the influence of a tilt on the disorder-induced phase transition between a quasiballistic phase at weak disorder, in which the disorder is an irrelevant perturbation, and a diffusive phase at strong disorder. Our main result is that the presence of a tilt leads to a reduction of the critical disorder strength for this transition or, equivalently, that increasing the tilt at fixed disorder strength drives the system through the phase transition to the diffusive strong-disorder phase. Notably this obscures the tilt-induced Lifshitz transition to an overtilted type II Weyl phase at any finite disorder strength. Our results are supported by analytical calculations using the self-consistent Born approximation and numerical calculations of the density of states and of transport properties.

  3. Functional eye movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, D; Bronstein, A M

    2017-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) eye movement disorders are perhaps less established in the medical literature than other types of functional movement disorders. Patients may present with ocular symptoms (e.g., blurred vision or oscillopsia) or functional eye movements may be identified during the formal examination of the eyes in patients with other functional disorders. Convergence spasm is the most common functional eye movement disorder, but functional gaze limitation, functional eye oscillations (also termed "voluntary nystagmus"), and functional convergence paralysis may be underreported. This chapter reviews the different types of functional eye movement abnormalities and provides a practical framework for their diagnosis and management.

  4. Neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Guidon, Amanda C; Massey, E Wayne

    2012-08-01

    Preexisting and coincident neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy are challenging for clinicians because of the heterogeneity of disease and the limited data in the literature. Many questions arise regarding the effect of disease on the pregnancy, delivery, and newborn in addition to the effect of pregnancy on the course of disease. Each disorder has particular considerations and possible complications. An interdisciplinary team of physicians is essential. This article discusses the most recent literature on neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy including acquired root, plexus, and peripheral nerve lesions; acquired and inherited neuropathies and myopathies; disorders of the neuromuscular junction; and motor neuron diseases.

  5. Antisocial personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... are often seen in the development of antisocial personality. Some doctors believe that psychopathic personality (psychopathy) is ...

  6. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations.

  7. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases.

  8. Athletes with seizure disorders.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports.

  9. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  10. Betaxolol in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Swartz, C M

    1998-03-01

    Betaxolol, a long-acting beta-adrenergic blocker that enters the central nervous system, was examined for therapeutic effects on the persistent anxiety of anxiety disorders. Prior studies of beta-blockers examined only agents that were short-acting or did not enter the brain. Betaxolol was administered to 31 patients in open trials. Of 13 outpatients, 11 had generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 2 had adjustment disorder with anxiety. Five with GAD had concurrent panic disorder. Of 18 inpatients, 16 had GAD and 2 had adjustment disorder with anxiety. Betaxolol doses were increased until the patient responded or declined further dosage. Severity was rated on a 4-point global scale. Before betaxolol, all were moderately or severely ill. In all patients with panic disorder panic attacks stopped within 2 days (p<0.001). Anxiety decreased to no more than marginally ill in 85% of outpatients (p<0.0001) and all inpatients (p<0.0001). Betaxolol doses were usually 5 mg once or twice daily; four inpatients took 10 to 20 mg twice daily. In sum, betaxolol administration was rapidly followed by improvements that were easily noticed by the doctor, even in patients with longstanding anxiety and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Preliminary observations in posttraumatic stress disorder are similar.

  11. Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders continue to be a prevalent set of conditions faced by the healthcare team and have a significant emotional and economic impact. In this review, the authors highlight some of the common functional disorders seen in pediatric patients (functional dyspepsia, irrita...

  12. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems, or perform poorly in school or at work. Family, friends and people experiencing symptoms may not recognize these problems as signs of a major mental illness such as bipolar disorder. Risk Factors Scientists are studying the possible causes of bipolar disorder. Most agree ...

  13. Eating Disorders and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…

  14. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  15. Related Addictive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  16. Neuromuscular disorders in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Govett, G S; Amedee, R G

    1991-03-01

    Neuromuscular disorders pose an interesting diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma to clinicians. The initial manifestations of these disorders on physical examination are frequently subtle but may eventually progress to disabling, complex findings. Management options are varied and include pharmacologic, surgical, and other supportive modalities.

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  18. Communication Disorders Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Special Education Services Unit.

    These guidelines outline procedures for the communication disorders specialist/speech-language pathologist employed in the Utah public schools. The guidelines are designed to ensure that all students with communication disorders, ages 3-21, will be provided with appropriate speech-language services in the public schools, that the criteria for…

  19. Posttraumatic functional movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Ganos, C; Edwards, M J; Bhatia, K P

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the nervous system may account for a range of neurologic symptoms. Trauma location and severity are important determinants of the resulting symptoms. In severe head injury with structural brain abnormalities, the occurrence of trauma-induced movement disorders, most commonly hyperkinesias such as tremor and dystonia, is well recognized and its diagnosis straightforward. However, the association of minor traumatic events, which do not lead to significant persistent structural brain damage, with the onset of movement disorders is more contentious. The lack of clear clinical-neuroanatomic (or symptom lesion) correlations in these cases, the variable timing between traumatic event and symptom onset, but also the presence of unusual clinical features in a number of such patients, which overlap with signs encountered in patients with functional neurologic disorders, contribute to this controversy. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the movement disorders, most notably dystonia, that have been associated with peripheral trauma and focus on their unusual characteristics, as well as their overlap with functional neurologic disorders. We will then provide details on pathophysiologic views that relate minor peripheral injuries to the development of movement disorders and compare them to knowledge from primary organic and functional movement disorders. Finally, we will comment on the appropriate management of these disorders.

  20. Movement Disorders in 2012

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Nikolaus R.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Standfirst Research in movement disorders in 2012 had led to advances in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of disease and to development of potential novel therapeutic approaches. Key advances include elucidating mechanisms of spreading neurodegenerative pathology, immunotherapy, stem cells, genetics and deep brain stimulation in Parkinsonisms and related disorders. PMID:23296342

  1. Gastritis and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Renee D; Cowles, Robert A; Galea, Sandro; Jacobi, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have suggested an association between various gastrointestinal disorders and mood and anxiety disorders, no previous study has examined the relationship between a diagnosis of gastritis and mood and anxiety disorders in the community. This work aimed to investigate the association between physician-diagnosed gastritis and DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders among adults in the general population, and to examine sex differences in these relationships. Data were drawn from a population-based, representative sample of 4181 adults aged 18-79 in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey. Anxiety disorders (27.0% vs. 15.3%) and affective disorders (20.1% vs. 11.5%) were significantly more common among adults with compared to without a diagnosis of gastritis. Lifetime and current physician diagnosed gastritis were associated with an increased prevalence of panic attacks, social phobia, any mood disorder and major depression, compared to those without gastritis. There were no significant sex differences in these associations. A diagnosis of gastritis appears to be associated with significantly increased odds of mood and anxiety disorders among adults in the general population. Contrary to findings from animal studies, we found the relationship between gastritis and mood/anxiety consistent among both sexes.

  2. Understanding Panic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Mary Lynn

    This booklet is part of the National Institute of Mental Health's efforts to educate the public and health care professionals about panic disorder. Discussed here are the causes, definition, and symptoms of the disorder. Panic attacks, which can seriously interfere with a person's life, may strike more than three million U.S. citizens at some time…

  3. Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-01

    Immune Deficiency Disorders; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorders; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

  4. Temperament and Attachment Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited…

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This brief paper summarizes information on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). First it identifies eight common characteristics of this disorder: (1) inattentiveness and distractibility, (2) impulsiveness, (3) hyperactivity, (4) attention-demanding behavior, (5) learning difficulties, (6) coordination difficulties, (7) unacceptable…

  6. Body dysmorphic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bjornsson, Andri S.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common disorder that consists of a distressing or impairing preoccupation with imagined or slight defects in appearance. BDD is commonly considered to be an obsessivecompulsive spectrum disorder, based on similarities it has with obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is important to recognize and appropriately treat BDD, as this disorder is associated with marked impairment in psychosocial functioning, notably poor quality of life, and high suicidality rates. In this review, we provide an overview of research findings on BDD, including its epidemiology, clinical features, course of illness, comorbidity, psychosocial functioning, and suicidality We also briefly review recent research on neural substrates and cognitive processing. Finally, we discuss treatment approaches that appear efficacious for BDD, with a focus on serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and cognitive-behavioral therapy. PMID:20623926

  7. Genomics in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Han, Guangchun; Sun, Jiya; Wang, Jiajia; Bai, Zhouxian; Song, Fuhai; Lei, Hongxing

    2014-08-01

    Neurological disorders comprise a variety of complex diseases in the central nervous system, which can be roughly classified as neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. The basic and translational research of neurological disorders has been hindered by the difficulty in accessing the pathological center (i.e., the brain) in live patients. The rapid advancement of sequencing and array technologies has made it possible to investigate the disease mechanism and biomarkers from a systems perspective. In this review, recent progresses in the discovery of novel risk genes, treatment targets and peripheral biomarkers employing genomic technologies will be discussed. Our major focus will be on two of the most heavily investigated neurological disorders, namely Alzheimer's disease and autism spectrum disorder.

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder's pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder.

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life.

  10. [Neurological sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Khatami, Ramin

    2014-11-01

    Neurological sleep disorders are common in the general population and may have a strong impact on quality of life. General practitioners play a key role in recognizing and managing sleep disorders in the general population. They should therefore be familiar with the most important neurological sleep disorders. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most prevalent and important neurological sleep disorders, including Restless legs syndrome (with and without periodic limb movements in sleep), narcolepsy, NREM- and REM-sleep parasomnias and the complex relationship between sleep and epilepsies. Although narcolepsy is considered as a rare disease, recent discoveries in narcolepsy research provided insight in the function of brain circuitries involved in sleep wake regulation. REM sleep behavioral parasomnia (RBD) is increasingly recognized to represent an early manifestation of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular evolving synucleinopathies. Early diagnosis may thus open new perspectives for developing novel treatment options by targeting neuroprotective substances.

  11. [Antibiotics and gait disorders].

    PubMed

    Gomez-Porro, P; Vinagre-Aragon, A; Zabala-Goiburu, J A

    2016-12-01

    The neurological toxicity of many antibiotics has been reported in a number of articles and clinical notes. In this review antibiotics are classified according to the physiopathogenic mechanism that can give rise to a gait disorder, taking both clinical and experimental data into account. An exhaustive search was conducted in Google Scholar and PubMed with the aim of finding reviews, articles and clinical cases dealing with gait disorders secondary to different antibiotics. The different antibiotics were separated according to the physiopathogenic mechanism that could cause them to trigger a gait disorder. They were classified into antibiotics capable of producing cerebellar ataxia, vestibular ataxia, sensitive ataxia or an extrapyramidal gait disorder. The main aim was to group all the drugs that can give rise to a gait disorder, in order to facilitate the clinical suspicion and, consequently, the management of patients.

  12. Temperament and attachment disorders.

    PubMed

    Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A

    2004-03-01

    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited pattern and an indiscriminate-disinhibited pattern, arise from similarly aberrant environments. In this article, we consider whether temperamental differences might contribute to the different manifestations of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) in the context of adverse environments. Although the association between attachment and temperament has been studied extensively and has been the subject of spirited debate within the field of child development, there are no extant data on the influence of temperament on the development of attachment disorders. We consider possible directions for research efforts designed to explore the biological underpinnings of the complex phenomenon of attachment disorders.

  13. Autistic disorder in 2 children with mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Chang-Yong; Mendell, Jerry R

    2007-09-01

    Autistic disorder is a heterogeneous disorder. The majority of the cases are idiopathic, and only a small number of the autistic children have associated secondary diagnosis. This article reports 2 children with mitochondrial disorders associated with autistic disorder fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association Manual of Psychiatric Diseases, 4th edition, and briefly reviews the literature on autistic disorder associated with mitochondrial disorders.

  14. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rasquin-Weber, A; Hyman, P; Cucchiara, S; Fleisher, D; Hyams, J; Milla, P; Staiano, A

    1999-01-01

    This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it is organized according to main complaints instead of being organ-targeted. Because the child is still developing, some disorders such as toddler's diarrhea (or functional diarrhea) are linked to certain physiologic stages; others may result from behavioral responses to sphincter function acquisition such as fecal retention; others will only be recognizable after the child is cognitively mature enough to report the symptoms (e.g., dyspepsia). Infant regurgitation, rumination, and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine, and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention, and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Some disorders, such as IBS and dyspepsia and functional abdominal pain, are exact replications of the adult criteria because there are enough data to confirm that they represent specific and similar disorders in pediatrics. Other disorders not included in the pediatric classification, such as functional biliary disorders, do occur in children; however, existing data are insufficient to warrant including them at the present time. For these disorders, it is suggested that, for the time being, clinicians refer to the criteria established for the adult population.


Keywords: infant vomiting; cyclic vomiting syndrome; functional dyspepsia in children; irritable bowel syndrome in children; functional abdominal pain in children; functional

  15. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  16. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Rash, Carla J; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Van Patten, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder was recategorized from the "Impulse Control Disorder" section to the newly expanded "Substance-related and Addictive Disorders" section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed.

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Small Text Medium Text Large Text Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one ...

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000925.htm Post-traumatic stress disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a type of anxiety disorder . ...

  19. Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Substance abuse, such as drinking too much alcohol Suicide or suicide attempts Other anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, substance ... disorder symptoms, your doctor may: Perform a physical exam to determine if there may be any physical ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions bipolar disorder bipolar disorder Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... bipolar affective psychosis bipolar spectrum disorder depression, bipolar manic depressive illness Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  1. Schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Chemerinski, Eran; Triebwasser, Joseph; Roussos, Panos; Siever, Larry J

    2013-10-01

    Early phenomenological descriptions of schizophrenia have acknowledged the existence of milder schizophrenia spectrum disorders characterized by the presence of attenuated symptoms typically present in chronic schizophrenia. The investigation of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders offers an opportunity to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms giving rise to schizophrenia. Differences and similarities between subjects with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), the prototypical schizophrenia personality disorder, and chronic schizophrenia have been investigated with genetic, neurochemical, imaging, and pharmacological techniques. Patients with SPD and the more severely ill patients with chronic schizophrenia share cognitive, social, and attentional deficits hypothesized to result from common neurodevelopmentally based cortical temporal and prefrontal pathology. However, these deficits are milder in SPD patients due to their capacity to recruit other related brain regions to compensate for dysfunctional areas. Individuals with SPD are also less vulnerable to psychosis due to the presence of protective factors mitigating subcortical DA hyperactivity. Given the documented close relationship to other schizophrenic disorders, SPD will be included in the psychosis section of DSM-5 as a schizophrenia spectrum disorder as well as in the personality disorder section.

  2. Cardiomyopathy in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Wahbi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    According to the American Heart Association, cardiomyopathies are classified as primary (solely or predominantly confined to heart muscle), secondary (those showing pathological myocardial involvement as part of a neuromuscular disorder) and those in which cardiomyopathy is the first/predominant manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder. Cardiomyopathies may be further classified as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, or unclassified cardiomyopathy (noncompaction, Takotsubo-cardiomyopathy). This review focuses on secondary cardiomyopathies and those in which cardiomyopathy is the predominant manifestation of a myopathy. Any of them may cause neurological disease, and any of them may be a manifestation of a neurological disorder. Neurological disease most frequently caused by cardiomyopathies is ischemic stroke, followed by transitory ischemic attack, syncope, or vertigo. Neurological disease, which most frequently manifests with cardiomyopathies are the neuromuscular disorders. Most commonly associated with cardiomyopathies are muscular dystrophies, myofibrillar myopathies, congenital myopathies and metabolic myopathies. Management of neurological disease caused by cardiomyopathies is not at variance from the same neurological disorders due to other causes. Management of secondary cardiomyopathies is not different from that of cardiomyopathies due to other causes either. Patients with neuromuscular disorders require early cardiologic investigations and close follow-ups, patients with cardiomyopathies require neurological investigation and avoidance of muscle toxic medication if a neuromuscular disorder is diagnosed. Which patients with cardiomyopathy profit most from primary stroke prevention is unsolved and requires further investigations.

  3. [Sleep and movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Poryazova, R; Bassetti, C L

    2007-01-01

    The three different states of being (wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep) are associated with profound neurophysiological and neurochemical changes in the brain. These changes explain the existence of movement disorders appearing only or preferentially during sleep, and the effects of sleep on movement disorders. Sleep-related movement disorders are of clinical relevance for multiple reasons: 1) high frequency (e.g. restless legs syndrome (RLS)); 2) diagnostic relevance (e.g. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as first manifestation of Parkinson disorder); 3) diagnostic uncertainty (e.g. parasomnias vs nocturnal epilepsy); 4) association with injuries (e.g. RBD, sleepwalking), sleep disruption/daytime sleepiness (e.g. RLS), and psycho-social burden (e.g. enuresis); 5) requirement of specific treatments (e.g. nocturnal epilepsy, stridor, RBD). This article gives an overview on clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, work-up and treatment of sleep-related movement disorders (e.g. RLS, bruxism), parasomnias (e.g. sleepwalking, RBD), sleep-related epilepsies, and on sleep-associated manifestations of movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy).

  4. Autoimmune movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Mckeon, Andrew; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune movement disorders encapsulate a large and diverse group of neurologic disorders occurring either in isolation or accompanying more diffuse autoimmune encephalitic illnesses. The full range of movement phenomena has been described and, as they often occur in adults, many of the presentations can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease. Disorders may be ataxic, hypokinetic (parkinsonism), or hyperkinetic (myoclonus, chorea, tics, and other dyskinetic disorders). The autoantibody targets are diverse and include neuronal surface proteins such as leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glycine receptors, as well as antibodies (such as intracellular antigens) that are markers of a central nervous system process mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. However, there are two conditions, stiff-person syndrome (also known as stiff-man syndrome) and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), that are always autoimmune movement disorders. In some instances (such as Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody-1 (PCA-1) autoimmunity), antibodies detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid can be indicative of a paraneoplastic cause, and may direct the cancer search. In other instances (such as 65kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoimmunity), a paraneoplastic cause is very unlikely, and early treatment with immunotherapy may promote improvement or recovery. Here we describe the different types of movement disorder and the clinical features and antibodies associated with them, and discuss treatment.

  5. Schizoid personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Triebwasser, Joseph; Chemerinski, Eran; Roussos, Panos; Siever, Larry J

    2012-12-01

    Schizoid personality disorder (ScPD) is one of the "odd cluster" or "cluster A" personality disorders in DSM-IV. In the present article, the authors review information pertaining to the psychometric characteristics of ScPD as gleaned from a search of relevant publications as well as from databases of personality disorder study groups. Comparatively little evidence exists for the validity and reliability of ScPD as a separate, multifaceted personality disorder. Some authors, moreover, have contended that the group of patients termed "schizoid" actually fall into two distinct groups--an "affect constricted" group, who might better be subsumed within schizotypal personality disorder, and a "seclusive" group, who might better be subsumed within avoidant personality disorder. The research-based justification for retaining ScPD as an independent diagnosis is sufficiently sparse for it to seem reasonable to remove ScPD from the list of personality disorders in DSM-V, and instead to invite clinicians to code for schizoid traits using a dimensional model.

  6. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jung Hie; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including underlying causes, diagnostic considerations, and typical treatments. Methods Literature review and discussion of specific cases. Results Survey studies 1,2 suggest that up to 3% of the adult population suffers from a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD). However, these sleep disorders are often confused with insomnia, and an estimated 10% of adult and 16% of adolescent sleep disorders patients may have a CRSD 3-6. While some CRSD (such as jet lag) can be self-limiting, others when untreated can lead to adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders classifies CRSD as dyssomnias, with six subtypes: Advanced Sleep Phase Type, Delayed Sleep Phase Type, Irregular Sleep Wake Type, Free Running Type, Jet Lag Type, and Shift Work Type. The primary clinical characteristic of all CRSD is an inability to fall asleep and wake at the desired time. It is believed that CRSD arise from a problem with the internal biological clock (circadian timing system) and/or misalignment between the circadian timing system and the external 24-hour environment. This misalignment can be the result of biological and/or behavioral factors. CRSD can be confused with other sleep or medical disorders. Conclusions Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a distinct class of sleep disorders characterized by a mismatch between the desired timing of sleep and the ability to fall asleep and remain asleep. If untreated, CRSD can lead to insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, with negative medical, psychological, and social consequences. It is important for physicians to recognize potential circadian rhythm sleep disorders so that appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and referral can be made. PMID:25368503

  7. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety.

  8. [Clothing and heat disorder].

    PubMed

    Satsumoto, Yayoi

    2012-06-01

    The influence of the clothing material properties(like water absorbency and rapid dryness, water vapor absorption, water vapor permeability and air permeability) and the design factor of the clothing(like opening condition and fitting of clothing), which contributed to prevent heat disorder, was outlined. WBGT(wet-bulb globe temperature) is used to show a guideline for environmental limitation of activities to prevent heat disorder. As the safety function is more important than thermal comfort for some sportswear and protective clothing with high cover area, clothing itself increases the risk of heat disorder. WBGT is corrected by CAF (clothing adjustment factor) in wearing such kind of protective clothing.

  9. Multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Piper, A

    1994-05-01

    Five aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) were examined. The following five conclusions were made: the contemporary diagnostic criteria are vague and overinclusive; the recent alleged increase in prevalence of the disorder is almost certainly artefactual; legal proceedings involving MPD patients raise disturbing questions about personal responsibility; there is little literature support for the theory that MPD results from childhood trauma; and many of the techniques used to diagnose and treat the condition reinforce its symptoms. A careful revision of diagnostic criteria for the disorder is recommended.

  10. Psychogenic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Thenganatt, Mary Ann; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) can present with varied phenomenology that may resemble organic movement disorders. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation with a supporting history and classic features on neurologic examination. Ancillary testing, such as imaging and neurophysiologic studies, can provide supplementary information but is not necessary for diagnosis. There is no standard protocol for the treatment of PMDs, but a multidisciplinary approach has been recommended. This review discusses the clinical characteristics of various PMDs as well as ancillary testing, treatment, and research in the pathophysiology of this complex group of disorders.

  11. Atypical neuroleptics: compulsive disorders.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Compulsive disorders are known adverse effects of dopamine agonists. Atypical neuroleptics (amisulpride, aripiprazole, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine and risperidone) have also been implicated in cases of pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive eating and shopping, with sometimes serious social and familial consequences. The compulsive disorders improved or ceased when the neuroleptic was withdrawn or replaced. Patients must be informed of these possible adverse effects and monitored for behavioural changes. If such disorders occur, they can be managed by withdrawing the drug, reducing the dosage, or switching to another neuroleptic.

  12. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  13. Temporomandibular disorders: associated features.

    PubMed

    Auvenshine, Ronald C

    2007-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) encompasses a number of clinical problems involving the masticatory muscles or the temporomandibular joints. These disorders are a major cause of nondental pain in the orofacial region, and are considered to be a subclassification of musculoskeletal disorders. Orofacial pain and TMD can be associated with pathologic conditions or disorders related to somatic and neurologic structures. When patients present to the dental office with a chief complaint of pain or headaches, it is vital for the practitioner to understand the cause of the complaint and to perform a thorough examination that will lead to the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. A complete understanding of the associated medical conditions with symptomology common to TMD and orofacial pain is necessary for a proper diagnosis.

  14. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kirsten; Bandelow, Borwin; Gruber, Oliver; Wedekind, Dirk

    2009-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies have gained increasing importance in validating neurobiological network hypotheses for anxiety disorders. Functional imaging procedures and radioligand binding studies in healthy subjects and in patients with anxiety disorders provide growing evidence of the existence of a complex anxiety network, including limbic, brainstem, temporal, and prefrontal cortical regions. Obviously, "normal anxiety" does not equal "pathological anxiety" although many phenomena are evident in healthy subjects, however to a lower extent. Differential effects of distinct brain regions and lateralization phenomena in different anxiety disorders are mentioned. An overview of neuroimaging investigations in anxiety disorders is given after a brief summary of results from healthy volunteers. Concluding implications for future research are made by the authors.

  15. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to relationship problems, divorce and family stress. Trouble at work, home or school. Other complications of intermittent explosive disorder may include job loss, school suspension, car accidents, financial problems or trouble with the law. Problems with ...

  16. About Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... than the blood and intestine. If you have seasonal allergies, eosinophils are in your nose; if you have ... EoE often have other allergic disorders like asthma, seasonal allergies or eczema. Thirty years ago, EoE was unknown. ...

  17. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  18. Developmental coordination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... with visual or fine motor coordination (for example, writing, using scissors, tying shoelaces, or tapping one finger ... take notes may help children who have trouble writing. Children with developmental coordination disorder are more likely ...

  19. Disorder of written expression

    MedlinePlus

    ... expression is a childhood condition that involves poor writing skills. Causes Specific learning disorder with impairment in ... and punctuation Poor handwriting Poor spelling Poorly organized writing Exams and Tests Other causes of learning disabilities ...

  20. Autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara; Hyman, Mark; Swift, Kathie

    2012-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are collectively the most commonly diagnosed pediatric neurodevelopmental condition. ASDs include autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Rett syndrome and Asperger disorder. ASD is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction and may involve developmental delays and seizure disorders. Recent parent-reported diagnosis of ASD in the United States put it at higher levels (1:91) than previously thought, with its diagnosis in boys occurring 4 to 5 times more frequently than in girls (1:58).(1) CDC estimates are currently 1:110;(1) up from 1:150 in 2007.(2) Annual medical expenditures for those affected are generally four to six times greater than for those without ASD.(1) While twin studies demonstrate that genetics play a significant role in ASD, the impact of environment should not be underestimated, given the approximate 20-fold increase in incidence over the last 20 years.(3.)

  1. Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... include Numbness Pain Burning or tingling Muscle weakness Sensitivity to touch Treatment aims to treat any underlying problem, reduce pain and control symptoms. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  2. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001430.htm Speech disorders - children To use the sharing features on ... 2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  3. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  4. Expressive language disorder - developmental

    MedlinePlus

    If you are concerned about a child's language development, have the child tested. ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:chap 45. Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  5. Types of Vestibular Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... include complications from aging, autoimmune disorders, and allergies. Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuroma (also called a vestibular schwannoma) is a ... This nerve is also referred to as the acoustic nerve, hence the name.) As an acoustic neuroma ...

  6. Employees with Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential functions Allow the employee to listen to music or white noise with a headset Memory Deficits: ... sleep disorders, and how anxiety and diet may influence rest. Retrieved September 5, 2008, from http://www. ...

  7. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... of “Pervasive Developmental Disorders.” However, this separation has changed. The latest edition of the manual from the ... in ASD since the guidelines for diagnosis have changed in recent years as well. Also, many more ...

  9. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage the heart muscle or valves. Electrical Disorders Arrhythmias that start in the heart’s upper chambers, the ... low blood count) or hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland). Arrhythmias that originate in the heart’s lower chambers, the ...

  10. Pelvic Floor Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Pelvic Floor Disorders: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is the pelvic floor? The term "pelvic floor" refers to the group ...

  11. Smell and Taste Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... rarely, loss of smell or taste becomes permanent. Did You Know? Occasionally, smell and taste disorders are ... aspirin , quinine , or aloes). Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know? Figure 1 ...

  12. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of thyroid disorder or thyroid disease. Hyperthyroidism (say: hi-per-THYE-roy-diz-em) happens when the ... Kids with the opposite problem have hypothyroidism (say: hi-po-THYE-roy-diz-em). In this case, ...

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential data on ASD, search for factors that put children at risk for ASD and possible causes, ... United States to help identify factors that may put children at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ...

  14. Cyclothymia (Cyclothymic Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    ... slowed down Problems concentrating Thinking of death or suicide When to see a doctor If you have ... I or II disorder. If you're considering suicide right now: Call 911 or your local emergency ...

  15. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... TOPIC Depression Talking to Parents About Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Going to a Therapist When Depression Is Severe Why Do People Get Depressed? Cutting 5 Ways to Help Yourself Through Depression Suicide Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Serious Stress Anxiety Disorders Death and Grief Stress & Coping Center Finding Low-Cost Mental Health Care Coping With Stressful Situations Date Rape Suicide Rape Contact Us Print Resources Send to a ...

  17. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and ...

  18. Factitious disorder (Munchausen's syndrome).

    PubMed

    Steel, R M

    2009-12-01

    Factitious disorder, often referred to as Munchausen's syndrome, is a condition in which sufferers present to healthcare professionals seeking investigation and treatment for signs and symptoms that they have consciously fabricated for no obvious reason. Factitious presentations have been described all over the world, in every medical specialty and in every age group, yet by its very nature factitious disorder is difficult to study. There is therefore a dearth of evidence in the literature relating to epidemiology, aetiology and therapeutics. The disorder is notoriously difficult to recognise in clinical practice and there are as yet no definitive treatment options available. This article provides a brief overview of the literature before offering guidance on the diagnosis and management of factitious disorder presenting in the general hospital. It also considers fabricated or induced illness, also known as Munchausen's syndrome by proxy.

  19. Assessment of Communication Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiig, Elisabeth H.

    1985-01-01

    Current assessment models in communication disorders are reviewed, factors involved in meeting the demands of P.L. 94-142 are addressed, and recommended practices as well as future considerations are noted. (CL)

  20. Connective Tissue Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Connective tissue is the material inside your body that supports many of its parts. It is the "cellular ... their work. Cartilage and fat are examples of connective tissue. There are over 200 disorders that impact connective ...

  1. Glycosylation Disorders with Immunodeficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... the use of glycosylation inhibitors to prevent and control viral infections. What's New: Latest News Releases NIAID Research Aids Discovery of Genetic Immune Disorder , December 23, 2016 Gene Therapy Restores ...

  2. [Prevention of psychic disorders].

    PubMed

    Siepmann, M

    2012-06-01

    Prevention aims to avoid the occurrence of psychiatric illness and disability caused by psychic disorders. The relevant interventions refer to the individual, the family context and other environmental factors. Universal and primary prevention target the entire population or a part of this (i. e. students). Secondary and selective intervention should prevent the manifestation of psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals (i. e. children with behavioral problems). Tertiary measures aim at preventing the worsening or recurrence of symptoms in individuals who already suffer from mental illness. Within the past 25 years protective and risk factors that reduce or increase the probability of occurrence of mental disorders have increasingly been identified. This results in improved prevention. The present article gives an overview of preventive measures against the most common mental disorders in the light of the current evidence base.

  3. Disorders of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Woimant, France; Trocello, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals and trace elements play an important role in relation to the physiology and pathology of the nervous system. Neurologic diseases related to disorders of metabolism of copper and iron are reviewed. Copper disorders are divided into two classes: ATP7A- or ATP7B-related inherited copper transport disorders (Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome, ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy, and Wilson disease) and acquired diseases associated with copper deficiency or copper excess. Iron brain disorders are divided into genetic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, neuroferritinopathy, and aceruloplasminemia), genetic systemic iron accumulation with neurologic features (hemochromatosis), and acquired diseases associated with iron excess (superficial siderosis) or iron deficiency (restless leg syndrome). The main features of cadmium, lead, aluminum, mercury, and manganese toxicity are summarized.

  4. Schizophrenia: a systemic disorder.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Miller, Brian; García-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    The concept of schizophrenia that is most widely taught is that it is a disorder in which psychotic symptoms are the main problem, and a dysregulation of dopamine signaling is the main feature of pathophysiology. However, this concept limits clinical assessment, the treatments offered to patients, research, and the development of therapeutics. A more appropriate conceptual model is that: 1) schizophrenia is not a psychotic disorder, but a disorder of essentially every brain function in which psychosis is present; 2) it is not a brain disease, but a disorder with impairments throughout the body; 3) for many patients, neuropsychiatric problems other than psychosis contribute more to impairment in function and quality of life than does psychosis; and, 4) some conditions that are considered to be comorbid are integral parts of the illness. In conclusion, students, patients, and family members should be taught this model, along with its implications for assessment, research, and therapeutics.

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Condition Information Skip sharing on ... Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors Different people with autism can have different symptoms. For this reason, autism ...

  6. Other Rhythm Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... In addition to tachycardia, bradycardia, premature contraction and fibrillation, rhythm disorders include: ADAMS-STOKES DISEASE (also called ... can also occur in someone who has atrial fibrillation (or AFib/flutter), or it can be its ...

  7. Optic Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of optic nerve disorders, including: Glaucoma is a group of diseases that are the leading cause of blindness in the United States. Glaucoma usually happens when the fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises and damages the ...

  8. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... less effect than before? Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such ...

  9. Paranoid personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Triebwasser, Joseph; Chemerinski, Eran; Roussos, Panos; Siever, Larry J

    2013-12-01

    Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is currently included in DSM-IV's "odd cluster" or "cluster A." In the present article, the authors review available information pertaining to the psychometric properties of PPD, as derived from the relevant literature and from databases of personality disorder study groups. There is comparatively little published evidence for the reliability and validity of PPD, and researchers by and large have tended not to study the disorder, either because of investigators' difficulty recruiting individuals with PPD into research studies, or (as seems more likely) because the trait-paranoia from which many psychiatric patients suffer has seemed better explained by other DSM-IV disorders on Axis I and/or Axis II than by PPD. Given the scant empirical evidence on PPD, it seems reasonable to remove it as an independent diagnosis from the next edition of DSM, and instead to encourage clinicians to code trait-paranoia using a dimensional approach.

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these ... children. The main features of ADHD are Inattention Hyperactivity Impulsivity No one knows exactly what causes ADHD. ...

  11. Obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wayne K; Grice, Dorothy E; Lapidus, Kyle A B; Coffey, Barbara J

    2014-09-01

    This article reviews the clinical features and neurochemical hypotheses of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with a focus on the serotonin system. In DSM-5, OCD was moved from the anxiety disorders to a new category of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. OCD is a common, typically persistent disorder marked by intrusive and disturbing thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that the person feels driven to perform. The preferential efficacy of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in OCD led to the so-called serotonin hypothesis. However, direct support for a role of serotonin in the pathophysiology (e.g., biomarkers in pharmacological challenge studies) of OCD remains elusive. A role of the glutamatergic system in OCD has been gaining traction based on imaging data, genomic studies and animal models of aberrant grooming behavior. These findings have spurred interest in testing the efficacy of medications that modulate glutamate function. A role of glutamate is compatible with circuit-based theories of OCD.

  12. Child Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  13. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Polycythemia vera is a disorder of the blood- ... Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge . Merck Manuals About Disclaimer Permissions Privacy Contributors Terms ...

  14. Stereotypic movement disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Motor stereotypies ... Ryan CA, Trieu ML, DeMaso DR, Walter HJ. Motor disorders and habits. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... Singer HS, Mink JW, Gilbert DL, Jankovic J. Motor stereotypies. In: Singer HS, Mink JW, Gilbert DL, ...

  15. Diagnosing Tic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... seizures, Huntington disease, or postviral encephalitis). Persistent (Chronic) Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder For a person to ... he or she must: have one or more motor tics (for example, blinking or shrugging the shoulders) ...

  16. Toe Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... on your foot can damage your toes. Wearing shoes that are too loose or too tight can ... toe injuries and disorders vary. They might include shoe inserts or special shoes, padding, taping, medicines, rest, ...

  17. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... But, symptoms are not as severe as with major depression . Persistent depressive disorder used to be called dysthymia. ... with PDD will also have an episode of major depression at some point in their lives. Older people ...

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  19. Co-Occurring Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plan? College with a Mental Health Disorder Balancing Work and School Taking a Leave of Absence: What You Need to Know Sleep and the Student - College Concerns Stressed or Depressed? Know the Difference Boost ...

  20. Oral and esophageal disorders.

    PubMed

    Noyer, C M; Simon, D

    1997-06-01

    This article focused on the approach to oral and esophageal disorders in patients with AIDS. Most of these disorders respond to various therapeutic regimens. Some of the oral complications can be prevented with dental prophylaxis, whereas recurrent esophageal disease in some patients may require long-term suppressive therapy. As patients with AIDS live longer with lower CD4 counts, gastroenterologists need to become familiar with the approach to and management of the more common lesions of the mouth and esophagus.

  1. Primary headache disorders.

    PubMed

    Benoliel, Rafael; Eliav, Eli

    2013-07-01

    Primary headache disorders include migraine, tension-type headaches, and the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs). "Primary" refers to a lack of clear underlying causative pathology, trauma, or systemic disease. The TACs include cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing; hemicrania continua, although classified separately by the International Headache Society, shares many features of both migraine and the TACs. This article describes the features and treatment of these disorders.

  2. Women and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    White, J H

    1993-01-01

    The eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are important health problems for women today. Nurses at different practice sites are in a position to assess, treat, and refer these women, depending on educational and clinical preparation. This article presents information to facilitate the role of the nurse in working with women with eating disorders. Clinical features, risk factors, and treatment options are discussed.

  3. Eating disorders in women

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  4. Dyslipidemia in Dermatological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Chetana; Shenoy, Manjunath Mala; Rao, Gururaja K.

    2015-01-01

    Dyslipidemias are one of the common metabolic disorders. A link between dermatological disorders like psoriasis and dyslipidemia has been established in the recent past. Many dermatological disorders could have a systemic inflammatory component which explains such association. Chronic inflammatory dermatological disorders could also have other metabolic imbalances that may contribute to dyslipidemia. Presence of such abnormal metabolism may justify routine screening of these disorders for associated dyslipidemia and other metabolic abnormalities and early treatment of such comorbidities to improve quality of life. Some of the drugs used by dermatologists such as retinoids are also likely to be a cause of dyslipidemia. Hence, it is imperative that the dermatologists obtain scientific knowledge on the underlying mechanisms involved in dyslipidemia and understand when to intervene with therapies. A systematic review of the English language literature was done by using Google Scholar and PubMed. In this review, attempts are made to list the dermatological disorders associated with dyslipidemia; to simplify the understanding of underlying mechanisms; and to give a brief idea about the interventions. PMID:26713286

  5. Neurological disorders and travel.

    PubMed

    Awada, Adnan; Kojan, Suleiman

    2003-02-01

    Travel is associated with a number of neurological disorders that can be divided into two categories: (1) Neurological infections including encephalitides, neurotuberculosis, neurobrucellosis, cysticercosis and trichinosis. Some of these disorders can be prevented by vaccinations, such as Japanese B encephalitis and rabies, some by the use of insect repellents and some by avoiding raw milk products and undercooked meat. (2) Non-infective neurological disorders, such as acute mountain sickness and high altitude cerebral oedema, problems occurring during air travel such as syncope, seizures, strokes, nerve compression, barotrauma and vertigo, motion sickness and foodborne neurotoxic disorders such as ciguatera, shellfish poisoning and intoxication by cassava. This group of diseases and disorders could be prevented if the traveller knows about them, applies simple physiological rules, takes some specific medications and knows how to avoid intoxications in certain geographical areas. Meningococcal meningitis, malaria and jet lag syndrome are extensively discussed in other articles of this issue. The discussion in this paper will be limited to the other disorders.

  6. Perfectionism in depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Lauro, Leonor J Romero; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria; Mauri, Massimo C; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Frost, Randy

    2008-06-01

    High levels of perfectionism have been observed in major depression, anxiety disorders and eating disorders. Though few studies have compared levels of perfectionism across these disorders, there is reason to believe that different dimensions of perfectionism may be involved in eating disorders than in depression or anxiety [Bardone-Cone, A. M. et al. (2007). Perfectionism and eating disorders: Current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 84-405]. The present study compared patients with major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders on dimensions of perfectionism. Concern over Mistakes was elevated in each of the patient groups while Pure Personal Standards was only elevated in the eating disorder sample. Doubts about Actions was elevated in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, but not in depressed patients. Analyses of covariance indicated that Concern over Mistakes accounted for most of the variance in the relationship of perfectionism to these forms of psychopathology.

  7. Novel glutamatergic agents for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Ibrahim, Lobna; Henter, Ioline D.; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are common, chronic, recurrent mental illnesses that affect the lives and functioning of millions of individuals worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that the glutamatergic system is central to the neurobiology and treatment of these disorders. Here, we review data supporting the involvement of the glutamatergic system in the pathophysiology of mood disorders as well as the efficacy of glutamatergic agents as novel therapeutics. PMID:21971560

  8. Pharmacotherapy for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jared Wilson

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current pharmacotherapy options available for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders. In the United States there are medications available to treat tobacco use disorders (nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline), alcohol use disorders (naltrexone and acamprosate), and opioid use disorders (methadone and buprenorphine). These medications are likely underused and physicians should more readily prescribe for eligible patients.

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... used on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Disorders What are genetic disorders? A genetic disorder is a disease caused ... significant risk of developing the disease. . Geneticists group genetic disorders into three categories: Monogenetic disorders are caused ...

  10. Complex oxides: Intricate disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro

    2016-02-29

    In this study, complex oxides such as pyrochlores have a myriad of potential technological applications, including as fast ion conductors and radiation-tolerant nuclear waste forms. They are also of interest for their catalytic and spin ice properties. Many of these functional properties are enabled by the atomic structure of the cation sublattices. Pyrochlores (A2B2O7) contain two different cations (A and B), typically a 3+ rare earth and a 4+ transition metal such as Hf, Zr, or Ti. The large variety of chemistries that can form pyrochlores leads to a rich space in which to search for exotic new materials. Furthermore, how cations order or disorder on their respective sublattices for a given chemical composition influences the functional properties of the oxide. For example, oxygen ionic conductivity is directly correlated with the level of cation disorder — the swapping of A and B cations1. Further, the resistance of these materials against amorphization has also been connected with the ability of the cations to disorder2, 3. These correlations between cation structure and functionality have spurred great interest in the structure of the cation sublattice under irradiation, with significant focus on the disordering mechanisms and disordered structure. Previous studies have found that, upon irradiation, pyrochlores often undergo an order-to-disorder transformation, in which the resulting structure is, from a diffraction point of view, indistinguishable from fluorite (AO2) (ref. 3). Shamblin et al. now reveal that the structure of disordered pyrochlore is more complicated than previously thought4.

  11. Complex oxides: Intricate disorder

    DOE PAGES

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro

    2016-02-29

    In this study, complex oxides such as pyrochlores have a myriad of potential technological applications, including as fast ion conductors and radiation-tolerant nuclear waste forms. They are also of interest for their catalytic and spin ice properties. Many of these functional properties are enabled by the atomic structure of the cation sublattices. Pyrochlores (A2B2O7) contain two different cations (A and B), typically a 3+ rare earth and a 4+ transition metal such as Hf, Zr, or Ti. The large variety of chemistries that can form pyrochlores leads to a rich space in which to search for exotic new materials. Furthermore,more » how cations order or disorder on their respective sublattices for a given chemical composition influences the functional properties of the oxide. For example, oxygen ionic conductivity is directly correlated with the level of cation disorder — the swapping of A and B cations1. Further, the resistance of these materials against amorphization has also been connected with the ability of the cations to disorder2, 3. These correlations between cation structure and functionality have spurred great interest in the structure of the cation sublattice under irradiation, with significant focus on the disordering mechanisms and disordered structure. Previous studies have found that, upon irradiation, pyrochlores often undergo an order-to-disorder transformation, in which the resulting structure is, from a diffraction point of view, indistinguishable from fluorite (AO2) (ref. 3). Shamblin et al. now reveal that the structure of disordered pyrochlore is more complicated than previously thought4.« less

  12. Psychosexual disorders and dermatologists

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Tarun; Garima; Singh, Shubh M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual problems that are psychological in origin, rather than physiological, are called psychosexual disorders. Multiple factors, such as general health of the patient, chronic illnesses, psychiatric/psychological disorders, and socio-cultural factors, alone or in combination can be attributed to the development of psychosexual dysfunctions. The symptoms of these disorders vary for each individual and differ with gender. These disorders may be categorized as sexual dysfunction, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders. Dermatologists are sometimes consulted for sexual dysfunctions in their routine practice by the patients visiting sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinics because a majority of the patients believe that these problems are caused by dysfunctions in the sex organs, and because people are hesitant to go to sexuality clinics and psychiatrists for such problems. Sometimes these patients are referred from other specialties such as urology or gynecology; most often, we attempt to search for STIs or other dermatoses on the genitalia and refer them back. We often underestimate the prevalence of sexual concerns of the patients or feel uncomfortable discussing matters of sexuality with them. Dermatologists should understand basic sexual medicine and ask patients for sexual problems. They should be trained to manage such patients accordingly. In this review, we will be focusing on sexual dysfunctions, their etiopathogenesis, and management from a dermatologist's perspective. PMID:27294047

  13. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  14. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    PubMed Central

    Pertyński, Tomasz; Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women's life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases) in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT). According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy). Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26327890

  15. Metabolic disorders in menopause.

    PubMed

    Stachowiak, Grzegorz; Pertyński, Tomasz; Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance - IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus - T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women's life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases) in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT). According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy). Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  16. Bipolar disorder in women

    PubMed Central

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  17. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  18. Monogenic human skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Johannes R; Kernland-Lang, Kristin; Hörtnagel, Konstanze; Itin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Human genodermatoses represent a broad and partly confusing spectrum of countless rare diseases with confluent and overlapping phenotypes often impeding a precise diagnosis in an affected individual. High-throughput sequencing techniques have expedited the identification of novel genes and have dramatically simplified the establishment of genetic diagnoses in such heterogeneous disorders. The precise genetic diagnosis of a skin disorder is crucial for the appropriate counselling of patients and their relatives regarding the course of the disease, prognosis and recurrence risks. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology is a prerequisite to understanding the disease and developing specific, targeted or individualized therapeutic approaches. We aimed to create a comprehensive overview of human genodermatoses and their respective genetic aetiology known to date. We hope this may represent a useful tool in guiding dermatologists towards genetic diagnoses, providing patients with individual knowledge on the respective disorder and applying novel research findings to clinical practice.

  19. Key sleep neurologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    St. Louis, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sleep disorders are frequent comorbidities in neurologic patients. This review focuses on clinical aspects and prognosis of 3 neurologic sleep disorders: narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED), and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Narcolepsy causes pervasive, enduring excessive daytime sleepiness, adversely affecting patients' daily functioning. RLS/WED is characterized by an uncomfortable urge to move the legs before sleep, often evolving toward augmentation and resulting in daylong bothersome symptoms. RBD causes potentially injurious dream enactment behaviors that often signify future evolution of overt synucleinopathy neurodegeneration in as many as 81% of patients. Timely recognition, referral for polysomnography, and longitudinal follow-up of narcolepsy, RLS/WED, and RBD patients are imperatives for neurologists in providing quality comprehensive patient care. PMID:24605270

  20. Psychotherapy for panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Shear, M K; Weiner, K

    1997-01-01

    Although medications and panic-focused cognitive behavior therapy are considered standard treatments for panic disorder, other types of psychotherapy may also be helpful. Many patients with panic disorder have some residual underlying vulnerability, as suggested by the continued occurrence of symptoms. These patients may benefit from a more broad-based psychotherapy, as might those in whom comorbid symptoms occur. Some patients are unable or choose not to participate in a structured prescriptive treatment requiring homework. Our psychotherapeutic approach to treating panic disorder, called emotion-focused treatment, targets identifying and managing negative emotions, especially as they relate to common psychological themes of fear of separation, fear of constriction, and the need for interpersonal control.

  1. Occupational musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Peate, W F

    1994-06-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders of the workplace include the acute, cumulative and chronic injuries or illnesses of the soft tissues which are caused by mechanical stress, strain, sprain, vibration, inflammation, or irritation. The successful management of occupational musculoskeletal disorders must account for workplace conditions (ergonomics and work practices), psychosocial factors, diagnostic uncertainties, and the need for active modalities (exercises and a progressive increase in activities of daily living), rather than passive (bed rest and traction). Although most occupational musculoskeletal disorders respond to conservative measures such as ice or heat, protective devices such as, neutral splints for carpal tunnel syndrome, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and progressive strengthening, resolution may take months. Prevention is often more important than treatment, and may entail workplace revisions and special worker training. Worker selection programs--strength testing, pre-placement radiographs, and inquiries about prior low back pain--have poor predictive value.

  2. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    PubMed

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  3. Psychopathy, adaptation, and disorder

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, Daniel Brian; Sewall, Lindsay A.; Lalumière, Martin L.; Sheriff, Craig; Harris, Grant T.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent study, we found a negative association between psychopathy and violence against genetic relatives. We interpreted this result as a form of nepotism and argued that it failed to support the hypothesis that psychopathy is a mental disorder, suggesting instead that it supports the hypothesis that psychopathy is an evolved life history strategy. This interpretation and subsequent arguments have been challenged in a number of ways. Here, we identify several misunderstandings regarding the harmful dysfunction definition of mental disorder as it applies to psychopathy and regarding the meaning of nepotism. Furthermore, we examine the evidence provided by our critics that psychopathy is associated with other disorders, and we offer a comment on their alternative model of psychopathy. We conclude that there remains little evidence that psychopathy is the product of dysfunctional mechanisms. PMID:23543424

  4. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rash, Carla J; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Van Patten, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders” section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed. PMID:27051333

  5. Genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Browne, Heidi A; Gair, Shannon L; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Grice, Dorothy E

    2014-09-01

    Twin and family studies support a significant genetic contribution to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders, such as chronic tic disorders, trichotillomania, skin-picking disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and hoarding disorder. Recently, population-based studies and novel laboratory-based methods have confirmed substantial heritability in OCD. Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene association studies have provided information on specific gene variations that may be involved in the pathobiology of OCD, though a substantial portion of the genetic risk architecture remains unknown.

  6. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable.

  7. HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Saksena, Nitin K.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is associated with the development of neurocognitive disorders in many infected individuals, including a broad spectrum of motor impairments and cognitive deficits. Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is still not clear. This review provides a comprehensive view of HAND, including HIV neuroinvasion, HAND diagnosis and different level of disturbances, influence of highly-active antiretroviral therapy to HIV-associated dementia (HAD), possible pathogenesis of HAD, etc. Together, this review will give a thorough and clear understanding of HAND, especially HAD, which will be vital for future research, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24470972

  8. [Narcissistic personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Lammers, C-H; Vater, A; Roepke, S

    2013-07-01

    Narcissism is a multifaceted term which encompasses traits of normal personality as well as a specific personality disorder. While much research has been concerned with narcissism as a trait there are only few empirical studies available on narcissistic personality disorder (NPS). The current diagnostic of NPS according to DSM-IV-TR focuses on grandiose type narcissism whereas vulnerable narcissism, which has been described by clinicians and researchers has not yet been recognised. Psychotherapy of narcissistic patients through different psychotherapeutic schools focuses mainly on processes in the therapeutic relationship, the analysis and change of grandiose and vulnerable schemas, emotion regulation techniques and correction of narcissistic behavior in favor of prosocial interactions.

  9. Blistering Disorders in Children.

    PubMed

    Yun, Duri; Stein, Sarah L

    2015-08-01

    Bullous disorders in children are challenging as they encompass a wide range of entities. The etiologies range from inherited to acquired disorders. Some of the more common acquired forms include allergic reactions, infections, autoimmune-mediated conditions, and toxin-mediated conditions. Some eruptions are self-limited, whereas others can be life-threatening. Obtaining a careful history, performing a detailed morphologic examination, recognizing when a skin scraping, biopsy, or culture is indicated, and having an understanding of the associated pathophysiology allows one to narrow the differential and ultimately arrive at the correct diagnosis. This review discusses the more commonly acquired bullous eruptions and how to differentiate them.

  10. Selected disorders of malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Zafreen; Osayande, Amimi S

    2011-09-01

    Malabsorption syndrome encompasses numerous clinical entities that result in chronic diarrhea, abdominal distention, and failure to thrive. These disorders may be congenital or acquired and include cystic fibrosis and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome; the rare congenital lactase deficiency; glucose-galactose malabsorption; sucrase-isomaltase deficiency; adult-type hypolactasia leading to acquired lactose intolerance. The pathology may be due to impairment in absorption or digestion of nutrients resulting in Nutritional deficiency, gastrointestinal symptoms, and extra gastrointestinal symptoms. Treatment is aimed at correcting the deficiencies and symptoms to improve quality of life. Common disorders of malabsorption celiac disease, pernicious anemia, and lactase deficiency are discussed in this article.

  11. Factitious posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Sparr, L; Pankratz, L D

    1983-08-01

    A growing number of young men have reported an array of symptoms that suggest a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Five such men, all claiming to be Viet Nam veterans, were treated at a VA medical center; three said they were former prisoners of war. In fact, none had been prisoners of war, four had never been in Viet Nam, and two had never even been in the military. Instead, all five suffered factitious disorders. The authors describe the five patients and discuss differential diagnoses; the value of verifying military histories is stressed.

  12. Plasma Cell Disorders.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jorge J

    2016-12-01

    Plasma cell disorders are benign, premalignant, and malignant conditions characterized by the presence of a monoclonal paraprotein detected in serum or urine. These conditions are biologically, pathologically, and clinically heterogeneous. There have been major advances in the understanding of the biology of these diseases, which are promoting the development of therapies with novel mechanisms of action. Novel agents such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and monoclonal antibodies have gained approval in the United States and Europe for the treatment of plasma cell disorders. Such therapies are translating into higher rates of response and survival and better toxicity profiles.

  13. Phosphate homeostasis and disorders.

    PubMed

    Manghat, P; Sodi, R; Swaminathan, R

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies of inherited disorders of phosphate metabolism have shed new light on the understanding of phosphate metabolism. Phosphate has important functions in the body and several mechanisms have evolved to regulate phosphate balance including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and phosphatonins such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). Disorders of phosphate homeostasis leading to hypo- and hyperphosphataemia are common and have clinical and biochemical consequences. Notably, recent studies have linked hyperphosphataemia with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This review outlines the recent advances in the understanding of phosphate homeostasis and describes the causes, investigation and management of hypo- and hyperphosphataemia.

  14. Disorders of Human Hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Arthur; Mears, J. Gregory; Ramirez, Francesco

    1980-02-01

    Studies of the human hemoglobin system have provided new insights into the regulation of expression of a group of linked human genes, the γ -δ -β globin gene complex in man. In particular, the thalassemia syndromes and related disorders of man are inherited anemias that provide mutations for the study of the regulation of globin gene expression. New methods, including restriction enzyme analysis and cloning of cellular DNA, have made it feasible to define more precisely the structure and organization of the globin genes in cellular DNA. Deletions of specific globin gene fragments have already been found in certain of these disorders and have been applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  15. [Coagulation disorders in cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Téllez-Avila, Felix I; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Torre-Delgadillo, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in the clotting process. In this organ are sintetizated the major part of the coagulation factors. Historically, was considered that alteration in liver function causes important bleeding disorders. However, actual evidence is not in agreement with this asseveration. Decreased synthesis of clotting and inhibitor factors, decrease clearance of activated factors, quantitative and qualitative platelet defects, hyperfibrinolysis and intravascular coagulation are some of the defects observed in liver diseases. Thrombotic events, even if rare in cirrhotic patients, occur manly in the portal and mesenteric veins. The aim of the present work is to review the present evidence in coagulation disorders and liver disease.

  16. Neuropsychopathological comorbidities in learning disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Learning Disorders (LD) are complex diseases that affect about 2-10% of the school-age population. We performed neuropsychological and psychopathological evaluation, in order to investigate comorbidity in children with LD. Methods Our sample consisted of 448 patients from 7 to 16 years of age with a diagnosis of LD, divided in two subgroups: Specific Learning Disorders (SLD), including reading, writing, mathematics disorders, and Learning Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (LD NOS). Results Comorbidity with neuropsychopathologies was found in 62.2% of the total sample. In the LSD subgroup, ADHD was present in 33%, Anxiety Disorder in 28.8%, Developmental Coordination Disorder in 17.8%, Language Disorder in 11% and Mood Disorder in 9.4% of patients. In LD NOS subgroup, Language Disorder was present in 28.6%, Developmental Coordination Disorder in 27.5%, ADHD in 25.4%, Anxiety Disorder in 16.4%, Mood Disorder in 2.1% of patients. A statistically significant presence was respectively found for Language and Developmental Coordination Disorder comorbidity in LD NOS and for ADHD, mood and anxiety disorder comorbidity in SLD subgroup. Conclusions The different findings emerging in this study suggested to promote further investigations to better define the difference between SLD and LD NOS, in order to improve specific interventions to reduce the long range consequences. PMID:24330722

  17. Disorder in large- N theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharony, Ofer; Komargodski, Zohar; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2016-04-01

    We consider Euclidean Conformal Field Theories perturbed by quenched disorder, namely by random fluctuations in their couplings. Such theories are relevant for second-order phase transitions in the presence of impurities or other forms of disorder. Theories with quenched disorder often flow to new fixed points of the renormalization group. We begin with disorder in free field theories. Imry and Ma showed that disordered free fields can only exist for d > 4. For d > 4 we show that disorder leads to new fixed points which are not scale-invariant. We then move on to large- N theories (vector models or gauge theories in the `t Hooft limit). We compute exactly the beta function for the disorder, and the correlation functions of the disordered theory. We generalize the results of Imry and Ma by showing that such disordered theories exist only when disorder couples to operators of dimension Δ > d/4. Sometimes the disordered fixed points are not scale-invariant, and in other cases they have unconventional dependence on the disorder, including non-trivial effects due to irrelevant operators. Holography maps disorder in conformal theories to stochastic differential equations in a higher dimensional space. We use this dictionary to reproduce our field theory results. We also study the leading 1 /N corrections, both by field theory methods and by holography. These corrections are particularly important when disorder scales with the number of degrees of freedom.

  18. Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder features in adult mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kyu Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Song, Joo Youn; Bang, Yang Weon; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2012-04-01

    A significant overlap between childhood mood disorders and many aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been established. High rates of co-occurrence, familial aggregation, and more severe clinical manifestations of the illnesses when they are comorbid suggest that common genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of both disorders. Research on the co-occurrence of childhood ADHD and mood disorders in childhood has been conducted. We retrospectively investigated childhood ADHD features in adults with mood disorders. Childhood ADHD features were measured with the Korean version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). The sample consisted of 1305 subjects: 108 subjects were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, 41 with bipolar disorder type II, 101 with major depressive disorder, and 1055 served as normal controls. We compared total WURS scores as well as scores on 3 factors (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability and anxiety) among the 4 different diagnostic groups. The 4 groups differed significantly from one another on all scores. The group with bipolar disorder type II obtained the highest total scores on the WURS. The impulsivity and inattention associated with childhood ADHD were more significantly related to bipolar disorder type II than with bipolar disorder type I. The mood instability and anxiety associated with childhood ADHD seem to be significantly related to major depressive disorder in adulthood. In conclusion, multifactorial childhood ADHD features were associated with mood disorders of adulthood.

  19. Treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Amy; Dodds, Alice; Walkup, John T; Rynn, Moira

    2013-11-01

    This article provides a brief review of the current available data concerning present treatment and potential new treatment advances for pediatric anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Disorder-specific treatment methods and innovations, particularly computer-assisted methods of delivery for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) will be reviewed. Additionally, the paper will discuss novel psychopharmacological compounds (e.g., D-cycloserine, riluzole, memantine, and anticonvulsant medications). Available evidence for the efficacy of novel medication strategies in adult studies and implications for their use in pediatrics will be discussed.

  20. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed.

  1. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Patel, Rupal; Rughooputh, Fabienne; Abrahams, Hannah; Watson, Andrew J.; Drummond, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population. PMID:26366407

  2. [Therapy of tic disorders].

    PubMed

    Roessner, Veit; Schoenefeld, Katia; Buse, Judith; Wanderer, Sina; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2012-07-01

    Tremendous progress has taken place in the last 8 years since the publication of our review on «Therapy of Tic Disorders» in the Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie. Several steps in treatment have been specified. For example, consensus-based indications for treatment have been published, and a detailed manual for a so-called habit-reversal training program has been developed and evaluated. In addition, new treatment options such as aripiprazole and deep-brain stimulation have been implemented. Increasing attention is being given to the disabling consequences of the commonly co-occurring psychiatric conditions known as ADHD or OCD. Nevertheless, there is still much to be learned about the treatment of tic disorders; standardized and sufficiently large drug trials in patients with tic disorders fulfilling evidence-based medicine standards are still scarce. The same is true for direct comparisons of different agents as well as of medication versus behavioral treatment. Finally, the question of how to predict the individual course of tics and how best to deal with the problems of waxing and waning of tics in this context still limits evidence base for treatment decisions. Large clinical experience is still a pre-requisite for making optimal decisions for the treatment of individual patients suffering from a tic disorder.

  3. Hepatitic inherited metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, May; Crawford, James M

    2006-01-01

    Primary metabolic disorders are a disparate group of diseases that may or may not be accompanied by hepatic manifestations. Those with liver involvement may show a range of histopathologic changes. Proper histologic diagnosis requires correlation with clinical and laboratory data, including evaluation for mutations either via serum protein electrophoresis or through formal genetic analysis. This article is a review of the three most common inherited metabolic disorders which may present with a hepatitic pattern. In alpha1-antitrypsin disorder, there is a broad range of clinical presentations, age at presentation, and histological features ranging from "neonatal hepatitis" to a chronic progressive hepatitis in later childhood and adulthood. Hence, this disorder must be in the differential diagnosis of liver disease of the very young, and in older children and adults, with or without coexistent overt pulmonary symptoms. In Wilson disease, presentation tends to be in older childhood or the adult, with a progressive chronic hepatitis. Cystic fibrosis may feature a characteristic obstructive biliary syndrome, coexisting with the many extrahepatic manifestations of this debilitating disease. Lastly, the progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) syndromes are given as examples of inherited metabolic conditions in which relentlessly progressive cholestatic liver disease eventuates over years in end-stage cholestatic liver disease with cirrhosis. Distinguishing features include absence of elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) in PFIC-1 and PFIC-2, and elevated GGT in PFIC-3. However, molecular studies are required for a confident diagnosis of the rare PFIC syndromes.

  4. Multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Salama, A A

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents a description of Multiple Personality Disorder--its development, etiology, and presentation. The paper stresses the criteria for diagnosis that can help professionals to identify individuals at an early stage. An overview of treatment approaches and indications for hospitalization, length of treatment, and goals are also explained.

  5. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  6. Bleeding Disorders Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Annual Report History of the WFH Our Community Our Board and Committees Our Staff Awards Employment WFH USA Our Work What We Do Programs ... Disorders About Us About Us Annual Report Our Community Our Board and Committees Our Staff Awards Employment WFH USA New menu item Our Work What ...

  7. Postpartum Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Misri, Shaila; Burgmann, Allan J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Adjusting to the role of mother, a creative and joyous change for most women, combines with simultaneous physiological and psychological changes to develop into psychiatric problems in some women. Three common syndromes during the postpartum period are postpartum blues, postpartum depression, and postpartum psychosis. Any postpartum condition should be diagnosed rapidly to prevent short- and long-term disorders. PMID:21221273

  8. Dissociative Motor Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jith, Arya; Narayanan, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Conversion disorders are more prevalent in childhood and adolescence, especially in females. They are usually associated with stressors and symptoms usually reflect a means to avoid the stressor, or also with a primary and secondary gain. This case report involves a similar situation where a young girl was treated successfully with diazepam, therapeutic nerve conduction study, and behavioral psychotherapy. PMID:28250569

  9. Wikipedia and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, Willem M

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. The following Wikipedia articles were considered: Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Dementia; Epilepsy; Epileptic seizure; Migraine; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Traumatic brain injury. We analyzed information regarding the total article views for 90 days and the rank of these articles among all those available in Wikipedia. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. No relation between incidence or prevalence of neurological disorders and the search volume for the related articles was found. Seven out of 10 neurological conditions showed relations in search volume peaks and news headlines. Six out of these seven peaks were related to news about famous people suffering from neurological disorders, especially those from showbusiness. Identification of discrepancies between disease burden and health seeking behavior on Wikipedia is useful in the planning of public health campaigns. Celebrities who publicly announce their neurological diagnosis might effectively promote awareness programs, increase public knowledge and reduce stigma related to diagnoses of neurological disorders.

  10. Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Written by a British parent, this case study tells the story of an adopted child who experienced many difficulties adjusting to life at home and school. It describes attachment disorder, possible causes of attachment difficulties, the bonding cycle, therapeutic parenting, and how schools can support the re-nurturing process. (Contains references.)…

  11. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Charan, Sri Hari

    2012-01-01

    We are presenting a case of a 10-year-old female child who presented with normal development till 5 years of age followed by deterioration in previously acquired language and social skills with stereotypic hand movements suggestive of childhood disintegrative disorder. This case is reported as this condition is very rare. PMID:22837782

  12. Hip Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems. Osteoarthritis can cause pain and limited motion. Osteoporosis of the hip causes weak bones that break easily. Both of these are common in older people. Treatment for hip disorders may include rest, medicines, physical therapy, or surgery, including hip replacement.

  13. Exporting Our Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association will release its newest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5). This tome has evolved over the decades, originally including just 112 diagnoses across 128 pages. The upcoming edition is expected to eclipse the 943 pages, and 350+ disorders of the current DSM-IV-TR, offering a variety of…

  14. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the anterior (front part) of the pituitary gland: Prolactin - Prolactin stimulates breast milk production after childbirth. It also affects sex ... Oxytocin – Oxytocin causes milk to flow from the breasts in breastfeeding women, ... disorder is a pituitary gland tumor. These tumors are fairly common in adults. ...

  15. Reelin and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Proper neuronal migration and laminar formation during corticogenesis is essential for normal brain function. Disruption of these developmental processes is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of some neuropsychiatric conditions. Especially, Reelin, a glycoprotein mainly secreted by the Cajal-Retzius cells and a subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons, has been shown to play a critical role, both during embryonic and postnatal periods. Indeed, animal studies have clearly revealed that Reelin is an essential molecule for proper migration of cortical neurons and finally regulates the cell positioning in the cortex during embryonic and early postnatal stages; by contrast, Reelin signaling is closely involved in synaptic function in adulthood. In humans, genetic studies have shown that the reelin gene (RELN) is associated with a number of psychiatric diseases, including Schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BP) and autistic spectrum disorder. Indeed, Reln haploinsufficiency has been shown to cause cognitive impairment in rodents, suggesting the expression level of the Reelin protein is closely related to the higher brain functions. However, the molecular abnormalities in the Reelin pathway involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders are not yet fully understood. In this article, we review the current progress in the understanding of the Reelin functions that could be related to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, we discuss the basis for selecting Reelin and molecules in its downstream signaling pathway as potential therapeutic targets for psychiatric illnesses. PMID:27803648

  16. Understanding Neurotic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charlotte Dickinson

    Understanding, one of the chief components of prevention in mental health, is not for the researcher or clinician only, but for all who may be concerned with their own conflict and pain or that of family members. Looking at neurotic disorders requires the examination of guilt which burdens individuals as they realize their failure to fulfill…

  17. Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a result of OMD. OMD most often causes sounds like /s/,/z/, "sh", "zh", "ch" and "j" to ... tonsils or adenoids or from allergies) that may cause forward tongue posture. SLPs ... errors swallowing disorders SLPs develop a treatment plan ...

  18. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  19. Reelin and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Proper neuronal migration and laminar formation during corticogenesis is essential for normal brain function. Disruption of these developmental processes is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of some neuropsychiatric conditions. Especially, Reelin, a glycoprotein mainly secreted by the Cajal-Retzius cells and a subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons, has been shown to play a critical role, both during embryonic and postnatal periods. Indeed, animal studies have clearly revealed that Reelin is an essential molecule for proper migration of cortical neurons and finally regulates the cell positioning in the cortex during embryonic and early postnatal stages; by contrast, Reelin signaling is closely involved in synaptic function in adulthood. In humans, genetic studies have shown that the reelin gene (RELN) is associated with a number of psychiatric diseases, including Schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BP) and autistic spectrum disorder. Indeed, Reln haploinsufficiency has been shown to cause cognitive impairment in rodents, suggesting the expression level of the Reelin protein is closely related to the higher brain functions. However, the molecular abnormalities in the Reelin pathway involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders are not yet fully understood. In this article, we review the current progress in the understanding of the Reelin functions that could be related to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, we discuss the basis for selecting Reelin and molecules in its downstream signaling pathway as potential therapeutic targets for psychiatric illnesses.

  20. Vestibular Disorders Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... get started on your journey to diagnosis and recovery. VEDA Resource Library Visit VEDA's Resource Library to get more information about your vestibular disorder and download one of VEDA's many short ... the first step toward recovery! Use VEDA's free provider directory to search for ...

  1. Oppositional defiant disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... punishments too harsh or inconsistent. Model the right behaviors for your child. Abuse and neglect increase the chances that this ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Behavior Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  2. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions.

  3. Temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Buescher, Jennifer J

    2007-11-15

    Temporomandibular joint disorders are common in adults; as many as one third of adults report having one or more symptoms, which include jaw or neck pain, headache, and clicking or grating within the joint. Most symptoms improve without treatment, but various noninvasive therapies may reduce pain for patients who have not experienced relief from self-care therapies. Physical therapy modalities (e.g., iontophoresis, phonophoresis), psychological therapies (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy), relaxation techniques, and complementary therapies (e.g., acupuncture, hypnosis) are all used for the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders; however, no therapies have been shown to be uniformly superior for the treatment of pain or oral dysfunction. Noninvasive therapies should be attempted before pursuing invasive, permanent, or semi-permanent treatments that have the potential to cause irreparable harm. Dental occlusion therapy (e.g., oral splinting) is a common treatment for temporomandibular joint disorders, but a recent systematic review found insufficient evidence for or against its use. Some patients with intractable temporomandibular joint disorders develop chronic pain syndrome and may benefit from treatment, including antidepressants or cognitive behavior therapy.

  4. Continuum: The Paraneoplastic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Paraneoplastic disorders are autoimmune diseases associated with risks for specific cancers and marked by specific autoantibodies. They cause diverse clinical syndromes of the central or peripheral nervous systems. Recent Findings In the peripheral nervous system, autoimmunity to synaptic or axonal proteins has long been recognized to associate with specific cancers. In these disorders, typified by myasthenia gravis, the antibodies are directly toxic, and recovery with immunotherapy is the rule. In contrast, the “classical” paraneoplastic syndromes involve a higher risk of cancer, autoantibodies to intracellular proteins (e.g. Hu proteins), T-cell dependent disease mechanisms targeting the CNS or PNS, and a poor response to treatment. Following the discovery of NMDAR antibodies, there has emerged a new and expanding group of disorders involves autoantibodies to CNS synaptic and neuronal membrane proteins, and a favorable response to immunotherapy. A final group involves antibodies to intracellular synaptic proteins such as GAD65, and both antibody and T-cell mechanisms have been proposed. Summary Neurologists should recognize the clinical syndromes associated with paraneoplastic disorders, utilize autoantibody and other testing to confirm the diagnosis, understand the pathological basis of the diseases, and promptly give appropriate therapies. PMID:25837906

  5. [Borderline personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Sipos, V; Schweiger, U

    2006-02-23

    Characteristics of a borderline personality disorder include emotional instability and a self-threatening lack of impulsive control. As a result, interpersonal relationships are rendered difficult. The central elements of treatment are psychoeducation, self-management, improved stress tolerance and awareness, emotion managment and training in social competence.

  6. Comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    PENG, Daihui; JIANG, Kaida

    2015-01-01

    Summary Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are common in patients with bipolar disorders. This comorbid condition complicates the clinical treatment of the two disorders, so identifying these individuals is important. We discuss the comorbid occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder, introduce possible etiological mechanisms that could result in this common comorbid condition, discuss recent research advances in the area, and propose some clinical principles for managing such patients. PMID:26549961

  7. Sleep in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Christoph J; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian

    2004-04-01

    Sleep research on eating disorders has addressed two major questions: (1) the effects of chronic starvation in anorexia nervosa and of rapidly fluctuating eating patterns in bulimia nervosa on the sleep regulating processes and (2) the search for a significant neurobiological relationship between eating disorders and major depression. At present, the latter question appears to be resolved, since most of the available evidences clearly underline the notion that eating disorders (such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa) and affective disorders are two distinct entities. Regarding the effects of starvation on sleep regulation, recent research in healthy humans and in animals demonstrates that such a condition results in a fragmentation of sleep and a reduction of slow wave sleep. Although several peptides are supposed to be involved in these regulatory processes (i.e. CCK, orexin, leptin), their mode of action is still poorly understood. In opposite to these experimentally induced sleep disturbances are the findings that the sleep patterns in eating disorder patients per se do not markedly differ from those in healthy subjects. However, when focusing on the so-called restricting anorexics, who maintain their chronic underweight by strictly dieting, the expected effects of malnutrition on sleep can be ascertained. Furthermore, at least partial weight restoration results in a 'deepening' of nocturnal sleep in the anorexic patients. However, our knowledge about the neurobiological systems (as well as their circadian pattern of activity) that transmit the effects of starvation and of weight restoration on sleep is still limited and should be extended to metabolic signals mediating sleep.

  8. Personality Disorders (and Their Relation to Syndromal Disorders).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Aaron T.

    Personality disorders and their syndromal disorders may be considered in terms of their distal, phylogenetic origins, and their structures and functions. From an evolutionary standpoint, the syndromal disorders such as anxiety and depression may be viewed as preprogrammed reactions to a perceived threat or a perceived depletion of the individual's…

  9. Disorders of Smell and Taste

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Complications of Sinusitis Epistaxis (Nosebleeds) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste ... A Complications of Sinusitis Epistaxis (Nosebleeds) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste ...

  10. Sleep Disorders in Atypical Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Sabra M.; Videnovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders are commonly seen in atypical parkinsonism, with particular disorders occurring more frequently in specific parkinsonian disorders. Multiple systems atrophy (MSA) is a synucleinopathy often associated with nocturnal stridor which is a serious, but treatable condition highly specific to MSA. In addition, this disorder is strongly associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), which is also seen in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). RBD is far less prevalent in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), which is a tauopathy. Insomnia and impaired sleep architecture are the most common sleep abnormalities seen in PSP. Corticobasilar degeneration (CBD) is also a tauopathy, but has far fewer sleep complaints associated with it than PSP. In this manuscript we review the spectrum of sleep dysfunction across the atypical parkinsonian disorders, emphasize the importance of evaluating for sleep disorders in patients with parkinsonian symptoms, and point to sleep characteristics that can provide diagnostic clues to the underlying parkinsonian disorder. PMID:24955381

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by the presence ...

  12. Movement disorders in cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Raja; Jankovic, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Movement disorders can occur as primary (idiopathic) or genetic disease, as a manifestation of an underlying neurodegenerative disorder, or secondary to a wide range of neurological or systemic diseases. Cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% of secondary movement disorders, and involuntary movements develop after 1-4% of strokes. Post-stroke movement disorders can manifest in parkinsonism or a wide range of hyperkinetic movement disorders including chorea, ballism, athetosis, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia. Some of these disorders occur immediately after acute stroke, whereas others can develop later, and yet others represent delayed-onset progressive movement disorders. These movement disorders have been encountered in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula affecting the basal ganglia, their connections, or both.

  13. Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder and other psychiatric disorders Increased risk of suicide or suicidal thoughts Alcohol or other substance misuse ... work and personal relationships? Did you experience major stress or a traumatic event shortly before your first ...

  14. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue, and in the special functioning of certain tissues. Connective tissue is made up of dozens of proteins, ... as “X-linked.” Who Gets Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue? Heritable disorders of connective tissue can affect people ...

  15. Common Disorders of the Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... States is chronic alcohol consumption. Additional causes include cystic fibrosis and other hereditary disorders ofthe pancreas. For a ... inherited disorder that leads to chronic pancreatitis is cystic fibrosis. Recent research demonstrates genetic testing can be a ...

  16. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;678-682. Blais MA, Smallwood ...

  17. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and stressor-related disorders. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://www.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed Dec. 1, ...

  18. Personal Relationships and Digestive Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diarrhea Relaxation to Treat Digestive Disorders Medications SAFER Medicine Managing Medications Avoiding Drug Adverse Effects Medications that can Affect Colonic Function Gut Microbiota and Brain-Gut Interactions in Functional GI Disorders Tips & Daily Living Personal Relationships Holiday ...

  19. [Basic disorders in human communication].

    PubMed

    Peñaloza-López, Y; Gutiérrez-Silva, J; Andrade-Illañez, E N; Fierro-Evans, M A; Hernández-López, X

    1989-01-01

    This paper specifies the areas and disorders that concern human communication medicine. The frequency of the diverse disorders is analyzed in relation to age and sex, and the distribution in group ages of several disabling diseases is also discussed.

  20. [Pharmacotherapy of panic disorder].

    PubMed

    Bougerol, T; Farisse, J

    1996-12-01

    The concept of Panic Disorders has itself been developed on the strength of therapeutic effects of drug treatments and it is therefore not surprising that psychotropic medications are currently the main therapeutic tool for this condition. Their use may be indicated in two differing circumstances, as treatment for Panic Attack itself or as a long-term treatment for what is properly called Panic Disorder. The latter scenario is that which has been most actively studied and represents the more original side of the question. Treatment of acute Panic Attack involves administration of sedative anxiolytics, principally benzodiazepines (BZD). Long-term treatment aiming to prevent repeated attacks is the core strategy for treatment for Panic Disorder. For the past fifteen years, a large number of research projects have shown the elective anti-panic efficacy of a number of drugs, principally antidepressants and anxiolytics. The response profile to anti-depressant treatment is characterized by a lag time which is sometimes longer than that observed when they are used solely as antidepressants; frequently they are also less well tolerated which necessitates a very gradual step-up in dosage. The "classic" MAOI (non-selective and irreversible) have a proven anti-panic effect. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) anti-depressants are currently drugs of choice in the treatment of Panic Disorder. Although the anti-panic effect appears to be common to all the various SSRI drugs available, and directly attributable to their mechanism of action, not all of them however have undergone controlled studies. In France, paroxetine is the first anti-depressant in this group to obtain a marketing authorization for this particular indication. The advantages of the SSRI drugs are principally related to their limited adverse effects and lack of toxicity, thereby making them particularly straightforward to use. Benzodiazepines (BZD) are the second group of psychotropic medications which

  1. Disordered holographic systems: Functional renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Allan; Yaida, Sho

    2015-12-01

    We study quenched disorder in strongly correlated systems via holography, focusing on the thermodynamic effects of mild electric disorder. Disorder is introduced through a random potential which is assumed to self-average on macroscopic scales. Studying the flow of this distribution with energy scale leads us to develop a holographic functional renormalization scheme. We test this scheme by computing thermodynamic quantities and confirming that the Harris criterion for relevance, irrelevance, or marginality of quenched disorder holds.

  2. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD.

  3. Discriminating Between Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vöhringer, Paul A; Perlis, Roy H

    2016-03-01

    Rates of misdiagnosis between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder have been reported to be substantial, and the consequence of such misdiagnosis is likely to be a delay in achieving effective control of symptoms, in some cases spanning many years. Particularly in the midst of a depressive episode, or early in the illness course, it may be challenging to distinguish the 2 mood disorders purely on the basis of cross-sectional features. To date, no useful biological markers have been reliably shown to distinguish between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

  4. [Memory disorders in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Danion, J M; Peretti, S; Gras-Vincendon, A; Singer, L

    1992-01-01

    The current interest in memory disorders in schizophrenia results from the way perceptions of schizophrenia--whose organic origin is becoming increasingly evident--and memory--according to which there exist not one, but several memories--have developed. Memory disorders in the schizophrenic cannot be considered in isolation from knowledge accumulated in other areas of the cognitive and neuro-sciences; a more detailed understanding of these disorders requires a comparison of the different cognitive approaches, both with each other and with the neurobiological and clinical approaches, so that they can be integrated. Despite numerous methodological and conceptual difficulties, it now appears to have been established that the schizophrenic's memory deficit should be seen in the context of a wider cognitive deficit, that the memory tasks are not all disturbed and that the memory deficit cannot be identified with one specific form of memory. Thus, iconic formation, short-term memory in the traditionally accepted sense and implicit memory are hardly, if at all, affected; in contrast, the early processing of information, working memory and explicit memory are disturbed, probably to the extent that they require the implementation of strategies to organise the information to be memorized. Finally, in certain tasks, such as those evaluating latent inhibition or negative priming, schizophrenics perform better than normal subjects, suggesting that schizophrenics' cognitive deficit is localised. This profile of memory disorders is compatible with a dysfunction predominating in the frontal and temporo-hippocampal regions. Neuroleptics and anticholinergics have opposite effects on cognitive and mnesic performance, which is improved by the former and aggravated by the latter. The influence of clinical symptoms, positive or negative, institutionalisation of patients and chronic tardive dyskinesia is unclear. Among the theoretical proposals put forward to account for the observed

  5. Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Gheno, Ramon; Cepparo, Juan M.; Rosca, Cristina E.; Cotten, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most common problems affecting the elderly. The resulting loss of mobility and physical independence can be particularly devastating in this population. The aim of this article is to present some of the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders of the elderly, such as fractures, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, microcrystal disorders, infections, and tumors. PMID:22919553

  6. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  7. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Auditory Processing Disorder KidsHealth > For Parents > Auditory Processing Disorder Print A A A What's in this ... Speech Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Helping Your Child Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing ...

  8. Hyperactivity as a Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Kathleen J.

    While hyperactivity in children has been alternately viewed as a form of minimal brain dysfunction, as a behavior disorder, or as an attention deficit disorder, recent findings on hyperactive adolescents and adults suggest that hyperactivity can be better understood as a personality disorder. Striking similarities appear when characteristics of…

  9. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  10. Clinical spectrum of dopa-responsive dystonia and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woong-Woo; Jeon, Beom Seok

    2014-07-01

    Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) has a classic presentation of childhood or adolescent-onset dystonia, mild parkinsonism, marked diurnal fluctuations, improvement with sleep or rest, and a dramatic and sustained response to low doses of L-dopa without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias. However, there have been many papers on patients with a wide range of features, which report them as DRD mainly because they had dystonic syndromes with L-dopa responsiveness. Many mutations in the dopaminergic system have been found as molecular genetic defects. Therefore, the clinical and genetic spectra of DRD are unclear, which lead to difficulties in diagnostic work-ups and planning treatments. We propose the concept of DRD and DRD-plus to clarify the confusion in this area and to help understand the pathophysiology and clinical features, which will help in guiding diagnostic investigations and planning treatments. We critically reviewed the literature on atypical cases and discussed the limitations of the gene study.

  11. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A

    2013-06-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum.

  12. Unreported intrinsic disorder in proteins: Disorder emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    This article continues an “Unreported Intrinsic Disorder in Proteins” series, the goal of which is to expose some interesting cases of missed (or overlooked, or ignored) disorder in proteins. The need for this series is justified by the observation that despite the fact that protein intrinsic disorder is widely accepted by the scientific community, there are still numerous instances when appreciation of this phenomenon is absent. This results in the avalanche of research papers which are talking about intrinsically disordered proteins (or hybrid proteins with ordered and disordered regions) not recognizing that they are talking about such proteins. Articles in the “Unreported Intrinsic Disorder in Proteins” series provide a fast fix for some of the recent noticeable disorder overlooks.

  13. Antisocial personality disorder and anxiety disorder: a diagnostic variant?

    PubMed

    Coid, Jeremy; Ullrich, Simone

    2010-06-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with co-morbid anxiety disorder may be a variant of ASPD with different etiology and treatment requirements. We investigated diagnostic co-morbidity, ASPD criteria, and anxiety/affective symptoms of ASPD/anxiety disorder. Weighted analyses were carried out using survey data from a representative British household sample. ASPD/anxiety disorder demonstrated differing patterns of antisocial criteria, co-morbidity with clinical syndromes, psychotic symptoms, and other personality disorders compared to ASPD alone. ASPD criteria demonstrated specific associations with CIS-R scores of anxiety and affective symptoms. Findings suggest ASPD/anxiety disorder is a variant of ASPD, determined by symptoms of anxiety. Although co-morbid anxiety and affective symptoms are the same as in anxiety disorder alone, associations with psychotic symptoms require further investigation.

  14. Updates on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Bledsoe, Jesse

    2011-10-01

    The relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to learning disorders was reviewed and included reading disability, mathematics learning disability, and nonverbal learning disability. Genetic, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological functioning were examined for each disorder, along with a discussion of any existing literature when ADHD co-occurred with the disorder. All the disorders were found to frequently co-occur with ADHD. A review of the underlying neuroanatomic and neurofunctional data found specific structures that frequently co-occur in these disorders with others that are specific to the individual diagnosis. Aberrations in structure and/or function were found for the caudate, corpus callosum, and cerebellum, making these structures sensitive for the disorder but not specific. Suggestions for future research, particularly in relation to intervention, are provided.

  15. Storm in My Brain: Kids and Mood Disorders (Bipolar Disorder and Depression)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Kids and Mood Disorders (Bipolar Disorder and Depression) What is a mood disorder? Everyone feels sad, ... one part of bipolar disorder, also called manic depression. In bipolar disorder, moods change between mania (excited ...

  16. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD.

  17. Reactive attachment disorder.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect affects the lives of many American children and can result in physical injury and disability as well as psychological trauma. Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is one possible psychological consequence of child abuse and neglect for very young children, younger than 5 years of age. RAD is described as markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness usually beginning before age 5 years. These behavioral manifestations are the direct result of and come after pathogenic care. To better understand RAD, it is first necessary to understand attachment; therefore, attachment theory is examined. Risk factors for the development of RAD are presented. Implications for pediatric nurse practitioner practice are explored. The pediatric nurse practitioner can play a vital role in recognizing RAD and ensuring that children with this disorder receive prompt mental health assessment and therapy.

  18. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V.; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving. PMID:27570347

  19. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder.

    PubMed

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving.

  20. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland abnormalities and salivary dysfunction are important orofacial disorders. Patients with such problems are usually seen in the dental office for evaluation and therapy, and the dental practitioner is required to make a diagnosis and institute care. Therefore, it is necessary for the dentist to be knowledgeable regarding the more common pathologic entities that involve the salivary apparatus, and also be familiar with the diagnostic and therapeutic tools that are available. Successful diagnosis is dependent on the organized integration of the information derived from past history, clinical examination, salivary volume study, imaging, serology, and histopathologic examination. This article discusses the most common disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center and indicates the current approaches to diagnosis. Improvement in diagnostic skills will avoid serious complications and lead to specific and effective therapy.

  1. Functional Esophageal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Qasim; Fass, Ronnie; Gyawali, C Prakash; Miwa, Hiroto; Pandolfino, John E; Zerbib, Frank

    2016-02-15

    Functional esophageal disorders consist of a disease category that present with esophageal symptoms (heartburn, chest pain, dysphagia, globus) not explained by mechanical obstruction (stricture, tumor, eosinophilic esophagitis), major motor disorders (achalasia, EGJ outflow obstruction, absent contractility, distal esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus), or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). While mechanisms responsible are unclear, it is theorized that visceral hypersensitivity and hypervigilance play an important role in symptom generation, in the context of normal or borderline function. Treatments directed at improving borderline motor dysfunction or reducing reflux burden to sub-normal levels have limited success in symptom improvement. In contrast, strategies focused on modulating peripheral triggering and central perception are mechanistically viable and clinically meaningful. However, outcome data from these treatment options are limited. Future research needs to focus on understanding mechanisms underlying visceral hypersensitivity and hypervigilance so that appropriate targets and therapies can be developed.

  2. Autoimmune Neuromuscular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kraker, Jessica; Živković, Saša A

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune neuromuscular disorders affecting peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction or muscle have a wide clinical spectrum with diverse pathogenetic mechanisms. Peripheral nervous system may be targeted in the context of complex immune reactions involving different cytokines, antigen-presenting cells, B cells and different types of T cells. Various immunomodulating and cytotoxic treatments block proliferation or activation of immune cells by different mechanisms attempting to control the response of the immune system and limit target organ injury. Most treatment protocols for autoimmune neuromuscular disorders are based on the use of corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis, with cytotoxic agents mostly used as steroid-sparing medications. More recently, development of specific monoclonal antibodies targeting individual cell types allowed a different approach targeting specific immune pathways, but these new treatments are also associated with various adverse effects and their long-term efficacy is still unknown. PMID:22379454

  3. Endocannabinoids and Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Cota, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is known to exert regulatory control on essentially every aspect related to the search for, and the intake, metabolism and storage of calories, and consequently it represents a potential pharmacotherapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and eating disorders. While the clinical use of the first generation of cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor blockers has been halted due to the psychiatric side effects that their use occasioned, recent research in animals and humans has provided new knowledge on the mechanisms of actions of the ECS in the regulation of eating behavior, energy balance, and metabolism. In this review, we discuss these recent advances and how they may allow targeting the ECS in a more specific and selective manner for the future development of therapies against obesity, metabolic syndrome, and eating disorders.

  4. Kisspeptin and Clinical Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Letícia G.; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Seminara, Stephanie B.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamic hormone GnRH has traditionally been viewed as a central driver of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Pulsatile GnRH release is required for pulsatile gonadotropin secretion, which then modulates gonadal steroid feedback, and brings about full fertility in the adult. Pathways governing GnRH ontogeny and physiology have been discovered by studying humans with disorders of GnRH secretion. In this chapter, the human genetics of the kisspeptin signaling pathway in patients with diverse reproductive phenotypes will be explored. The discovery of defects in the kisspeptin system in several reproductive disorders has shed light on the mechanisms involved in regulating GnRH secretion, revealing the critical role played by the kisspeptin signaling pathway in pubertal initiation and reproductive function. PMID:23550007

  5. Bromocriptine and endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Spark, R F; Dickstein, G

    1979-06-01

    Bromocriptine, a dopaminergic agonist, has been used to treat many endocrine disorders. In hyperprolactinemia associated with galactorrhea, amenorrhea, oligospermia, and impotence, bromocriptine reduces prolactin levels to normal and allows for satisfactory return of sexual and reproductive function in 90% of patients. In acromegaly, bromocriptine brings about subjective improvement in 75% of patients with reduction in growth-hormone levels to normal in 22% of patients. Bromocriptine has been used in premenstrual tension, functional infertility, Nelson's syndrome, and Cushing's disease with variable benefit. In low doses, side-effects are minimal. In higher doses, digital vasospasm and gastrointestinal bleeding have occurred. Although bromocriptine has been used in a wide variety of endocrine disorders, it appears to be most useful in treatment of male and female infertility associated with hyperprolactinemia.

  6. Eosinophilic Myeloproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Klion, Amy D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent attempts to define and classify patients with marked eosinophilia and features consistent with myeloproliferative disease, areas of controversy remain. These are particularly apparent in situations in which multiple lineages are involved in a clonal process and clinical manifestations are overlapping. Although the introduction of new molecular diagnostics and targeted therapies has begun to clarify the boundaries between some of these disorders, several questions remain with respect to the classification of patients with myeloproliferative hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) of unknown etiology. PMID:22160043

  7. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  8. Neonatal hematologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Purves, Erica

    2005-01-01

    Neonatal hematology is a complex subspecialty of pediatric hematology, combining the unique aspects of the maternal/fetal relationship, the delicate balance of coagulation factors, and the distinctive physiologic conditions of the newborn period. The objective of this article is to briefly review specific hematologic disorders that commonly present in the newborn period. Alloimmune cytopenias, polycythemia, thrombosis and bleeding associated with vitamin K deficiency will be discussed through a focus on pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, current treatment strategies, and implications for nursing care.

  9. Balance Function Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

  10. Diabetes and Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Goebel-Fabbri, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of insulin restriction is an important women's health issue in type 1 diabetes. This behavior is associated with increased rates of diabetes complications and decreased quality of life. Clinical and technological research is greatly needed to improve treatment tools and strategies for this problem. In this commentary, the author describes the scope of the problem of eating disorders and diabetes, as well as offers ideas about ways technology may be applied to help solve this complex problem. PMID:19885221

  11. Smell and taste disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Thomas; Landis, Basile N.; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Smell and taste disorders can markedly affect the quality of life. In recent years we have become much better in the assessment of the ability to smell and taste. In addition, information is now available to say something about the prognosis of individual patients. With regard to therapy there also seems to be low but steady progress. Of special importance for the treatment is the ability of the olfactory epithelium to regenerate. PMID:22558054

  12. Immunodeficiency disorders in horses.

    PubMed

    Crisman, Mark V; Scarratt, W Kent

    2008-08-01

    Immunodeficiencies are characterized as primary (genetic) or secondary (acquired). Primary immunodeficiencies are relatively uncommon; however, clinically, they present a significant challenge to the practitioner, especially if the underlying disorder goes unrecognized. Secondary immunodeficiencies may present at any age, but failure of passive transfer in neonatal foals is most commonly encountered. This article provides a general overview of clinical signs and diagnosis of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies currently recognized in horses.

  13. Panic Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Families Guide Panic Disorder In Children And Adolescents No. 50; Updated July 2013 Panic disorder is a common and treatable disorder. Children and adolescents with panic disorder have unexpected and repeated periods ...

  14. Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...

  15. Disorders of body temperature.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Camilo R

    2014-01-01

    The human body generates heat capable of raising body temperature by approximately 1°C per hour. Normally, this heat is dissipated by means of a thermoregulatory system. Disorders resulting from abnormally high or low body temperature result in neurologic dysfunction and pose a threat to life. In response to thermal stress, maintenance of normal body temperature is primarily maintained by convection and evaporation. Hyperthermia results from abnormal temperature regulation, leading to extremely elevated body temperature while fever results from a normal thermoregulatory mechanism operating at a higher set point. The former leads to specific clinical syndromes with inability of the thermoregulatory mechanism to maintain a constant body temperature. Heat related illness encompasses heat rash, heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke, in order of severity. In addition, drugs can induce hyperthermia and produce one of several specific clinical syndromes. Hypothermia is the reduction of body temperature to levels below 35°C from environmental exposure, metabolic disorders, or therapeutic intervention. Management of disorders of body temperature should be carried out decisively and expeditiously, in order to avoid secondary neurologic injury.

  16. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  17. Human HOX gene disorders.

    PubMed

    Quinonez, Shane C; Innis, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    The Hox genes are an evolutionarily conserved family of genes, which encode a class of important transcription factors that function in numerous developmental processes. Following their initial discovery, a substantial amount of information has been gained regarding the roles Hox genes play in various physiologic and pathologic processes. These processes range from a central role in anterior-posterior patterning of the developing embryo to roles in oncogenesis that are yet to be fully elucidated. In vertebrates there are a total of 39 Hox genes divided into 4 separate clusters. Of these, mutations in 10 Hox genes have been found to cause human disorders with significant variation in their inheritance patterns, penetrance, expressivity and mechanism of pathogenesis. This review aims to describe the various phenotypes caused by germline mutation in these 10 Hox genes that cause a human phenotype, with specific emphasis paid to the genotypic and phenotypic differences between allelic disorders. As clinical whole exome and genome sequencing is increasingly utilized in the future, we predict that additional Hox gene mutations will likely be identified to cause distinct human phenotypes. As the known human phenotypes closely resemble gene-specific murine models, we also review the homozygous loss-of-function mouse phenotypes for the 29 Hox genes without a known human disease. This review will aid clinicians in identifying and caring for patients affected with a known Hox gene disorder and help recognize the potential for novel mutations in patients with phenotypes informed by mouse knockout studies.

  18. Obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bokor, Gyula; Anderson, Peter D

    2014-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common heterogeneous psychiatric disorder manifesting with obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are intrusive, recurrent, and persistent unwanted thoughts. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to the obsessions. The heterogeneity of OCD includes themes of obsessions, types of rituals, presence or absence of tics, etiology, genetics, and response to pharmacotherapy. Complications of OCD include interpersonal difficulties, unemployment, substance abuse, criminal justice issues, and physical injuries. Areas of the brain involved in the pathophysiology include the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and basal ganglia. Overall, OCD may be due to a malfunction in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit in the brain. Neurotransmitters implicated in OCD include serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. Numerous drugs such as atypical antipsychotics and dopaminergic agents can cause or exacerbate OCD symptoms. The etiology includes genetics and neurological insults. Treatment of OCD includes psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic simulation, and in extreme cases surgery. Exposure and response prevention is the most effective form of psychotherapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the preferred pharmacotherapy. Higher doses than listed in the package insert and a longer trial are often needed for SSRIs than compared to other psychiatric disorders. Alternatives to SSRIs include clomipramine and serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Treatment of resistant cases includes augmentation with atypical antipsychotics, pindolol, buspirone, and glutamate-blocking agents.

  19. Nonepileptic paroxysmal sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Frenette, Eric; Guilleminault, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Events occurring during nighttime sleep in children can be easily mislabeled, as witnesses are usually not immediately available. Even when observers are present, description of the events can be sketchy, as these individuals are frequently aroused from their own sleep. Errors of perception are thus common and can lead to diagnosis of epilepsy where other sleep-related conditions are present, sometimes initiating unnecessary therapeutic interventions, especially with antiepileptic drugs. Often not acknowledged, paroxysmal nonepileptic behavioral and motor episodes in sleep are encountered much more frequently than their epileptic counterpart. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) 2nd edition displays an extensive list of such conditions that can be readily mistaken for epilepsy. The most prevalent ones are reviewed, such as nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias, comprised of sleepwalking, confusional arousals and sleep terrors, periodic leg movements of sleep, repetitive movement disorders, benign neonatal myoclonus, and sleep starts. Apnea of prematurity is also briefly reviewed. Specific issues regarding management of these selected disorders, both for diagnostic consideration and for therapeutic intervention, are addressed.

  20. Thyroid disorders in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ramprasad, Menaka; Bhattacharyya, Shaila Shamanur; Bhattacharyya, Arpandev

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid disorders are common in pregnancy and the most common disorder is subclinical hypothyroidism. Due to the complex hormonal changes during pregnancy, it is important to remember that thyroxine requirements are higher in pregnancy. According to recent American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines, the recommended reference ranges for TSH are 0.1 to 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester, 0.2 to 3.0 mIU/L in the second trimester, and 0.3 to 3.0 mIU/L in the third trimester. Maternal hypothyroidism is an easily treatable condition that has been associated with increased risk of low birth weight, fetal distress, and impaired neuropsychological development. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is less common as conception is a problem. Majority of them are due to Graves’ disease, though gestational hyperthyroidism is to be excluded. Preferred drug is propylthiouracil (PTU) with the target to maintain free T4 in upper normal range. Doses can be reduced in third trimester due to the immune-suppressant effects of pregnancy. Early and effective treatment of thyroid disorder ensures a safe pregnancy with minimal maternal and neonatal complications. PMID:23565370

  1. [Autoimmune bullous skin disorders].

    PubMed

    Hertl, Michael; Niedermeier, Andrea; Borradori, Luca

    2010-09-01

    Autoimmune bullous skin disorders are rare, potentially fatal disorders of skin and mucous membranes which are associated with IgG or IgA autoantibodies against distinct adhesion molecules of the epidermis and dermal epidermal basement membrane zone, respectively. These autoantibodies lead to a loss of skin adhesion which shows up clinically as the formation of blisters or erosions. In pemphigus, loss of adhesion occurs within the epidermis while in the pemphigoids, linear IgA dermatosis, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and dermatitis herpetiformis, loss of adhesion takes place within or underneath the basement membrane zone. The autoantigens of these disorders are largely identified and characterized. Making the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous skin diseases is based on histology and direct immunofluorescence of perilesional skin and the serological detection of autoantibodides by indirect immunofluorescence and recombinant autoantigens. Therapeutically, systemic treatment with glucocorticoids is combined with immunosuppressive adjuvants which allow for the fast reduction of systemic steroids. A prospective trial in pemphigus showed that adjuvant treatment with azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide, respectively, led to a significant reduction of the cummulative dose of systemic steroids until complete clinical remission was achieved. In bullous pemphigoid, topical treatment with clobetasol led to complete clinical remissions without major side effects seen when glucocorticoids were applied systemically. Therapeutic depletion of B cells by rituximab as a second line therapy has significantly improved the overall prognosis of pemphigus. Comparable controlled therapeutic trials have not yet been performed in dermatitis herpetiformis and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

  2. Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Dimitri; Doghramji, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Sleep disorders are becoming more prevalent. There is an overlap of symptoms related to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and many psychiatric conditions. Complaints of excessive sleepiness, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and depressive symptoms can be related to both disease states. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive disruption of sleep by cessation of breathing and was first described in the 19th century by bedside observation during sleep. Physicians observed this cessation of breathing while the patient slept and postulated that these episodes were responsible for subsequent complaints of sleepiness. OSAS can coexist with major depressive disorder, exacerbate depressive symptoms, or be responsible for a large part of the symptom complex of depression. Additionally, in schizophrenia, sleep apnea may develop as a result of chronic neuroleptic treatment and its effect on gains in body weight, a major risk factor for the development of OSAS. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of sleep apnea, namely excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and witnessed apneas. Recognition of the existence of sleep apnea, prompt referral to a sleep specialist, and ultimately treatment of an underlying sleep disorder, such as OSAS, can ameliorate symptoms of psychiatric disease. PMID:20975818

  3. Disorders of the pupil.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Pupil size is determined by the interaction of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic system conducts the light reaction with its major center in the dorsal midbrain. The sympathetic nervous system acts either directly on the dilator muscle (peripherally) or centrally by inhibiting the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Psychosensory reactions are transmitted via the sympathetic system. The afferent input of the light reflex system in humans is characteristically wired, allowing a detailed analysis of a lesion of the afferent input. Even in humans a subgroup of ganglion cells containing melansopsin plays an important role as a light sensor for the pupillary system. To diagnose normal pupillary function, pupils need to be isocoric and react bilaterally equally to light. Anisocoria indicates a problem of the efferent pupillary pathway. Pupillary disorders may involve the afferent pathways (relative afferent pupillary defect) or the efferent pathways. Physiological anisocoria is a harmless condition that has to be distinguished from Horner's syndrome. In this case pharmacological testing with cocaine eye-drops is helpful. Disorders of the parasympathetic system will impair the light response. They include dorsal midbrain syndrome, third-nerve palsy, and tonic pupil. Tonic pupils are mainly idiopathic and do not need imaging. Disorders of the iris, including application of cholinergic agents, need also to be considered in impaired pupillary light reaction.

  4. Temporomandibular disorders and occlusion.

    PubMed

    Badel, Tomislav; Marotti, Miljenko; Pavicin, Ivana Savić; Basić-Kes, Vanja

    2012-09-01

    Occlusion has an important place within the multifactorial concept of the temporomandibular disorder (TMD) etiopathogenesis as well as in every form of dental treatment. The modern concept of treatment of these disorders differentiates initial and definitive forms of treatment. The aim of this paper is to analyze recent viewpoints on the role of occlusion in the etiopathogenesis and treatment ofTMDs. Masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joints are directly connected with occlusal relations and TMDs are traditionally linked with occlusal disorders. The initial occlusal treatment can be applied to all TMD patients, regardless of their having intact teeth with respect to physiological occlusal relations and in patients in need of orthodontic or prosthodontic treatment or an oral surgical procedure. On managing TMD patients, there are doubts about the indications for definitive treatment and whether there has been a possibility of treating a painful TMD by reversible treatment modalities, that is, by initial treatment. Other types of orofacial pain such as trigeminal neuralgia can be comorbid with TMDs but also result in unnecessary procedures on the teeth and prosthodontic work if they are not recognized. Although dental profession mainly recognizes the importance of occlusal treatment of TMD problems, their relationship is controversial because it is not strictly demonstrated in numerous scientific studies. Occlusion is not the dominant cause of TMD problems.

  5. Inflammasome mediated autoinflammatory disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Shruti P.; Cassel, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) family of receptors are members of the innate immune system with a critical role in host defense. These molecules are key to driving inflammatory responses to abnormal cellular conditions. A number of the NLRs serve this role upon activation by forming a multi-protein complex called an inflammasome. The inflammasome drives the processing and release of cytokines such as the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. The important function of NLR molecules in autoinflammatory disorders has recently been recognized in part through the identification of the role of IL-1β in pathogenesis of several autoinflammatory diseases. Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) were the first autoinflammatory disorders found to be directly mediated by dysfunctional inflammasome activation. This finding has subsequently led to studies in both murine models and humans that have revealed several other inflammatory conditions associated with activation of NLR containing inflammasomes. Understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of these autoinflammatory disorders has further guided the successful development of targeted therapy against IL-1. In this review, we will provide an overview of the inflammasomes and describe the important role they play in the development and manifestations of autoinflammatory diseases. PMID:20861596

  6. Stress and Sleep Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kuem Sun; Kim, Lin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review potential, physiological, hormonal and neuronal mechanisms that may mediate the sleep changes. This paper investigates the literatures regarding the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main neuroendocrine stress systems during sleep in order to identify relations between stress and sleep disorder and the treatment of stress-induced insomnia. Sleep and wakefulness are regulated by the aminergic, cholinergic brainstem and hypothalamic systems. Activation of the HPA and/or the sympathetic nervous systems results in wakefulness and these hormones including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol or corticosterone, noradrenaline, and adrenaline, are associated with attention and arousal. Stress-related insomnia leads to a vicious circle by activating the HPA system. An awareness of the close interaction between sleep and stress systems is emerging and the hypothalamus is now recognized as a key center for sleep regulation, with hypothalamic neurontransmitter systems providing the framework for therapeutic advances. An updated understanding of these systems may allow researchers to elucidate neural mechanisms of sleep disorder and to develop effective intervention for sleep disorder. PMID:23319874

  7. Hypnotherapy for Esophageal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Megan E; Keefer, Laurie

    2015-07-01

    Hypnotherapy is an evidence based intervention for the treatment of functional bowel disorders, particularly irritable bowel syndrome. While similar in pathophysiology, less is known about the utility of hypnotherapy in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal disorders, most of which are functional in nature, cause painful and uncomfortable symptoms that impact patient quality of life and are difficult to treat from a medical perspective. After a thorough medical workup and a failed trial of proton pump inhibitor therapy, options for treatment are significantly limited. While the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial, two critical factors are believed to drive esophageal symptoms--visceral hypersensitivity and symptom hypervigilance. The goal of esophageal directed hypnotherapy is to promote a deep state of relaxation with focused attention allowing the patient to learn to modulate physiological sensations and symptoms that are not easily addressed with conventional medical intervention. Currently, the use of hypnosis is suitable for dysphagia, globus, functional chest pain/non-cardiac chest pain, dyspepsia, and functional heartburn. In this article the authors will provide a rationale for the use of hypnosis in these disorders, presenting the science whenever available, describing their approach with these patients, and sharing a case study representing a successful outcome.

  8. Endocrine disorders & female infertility.

    PubMed

    Unuane, David; Tournaye, Herman; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Poppe, Kris

    2011-12-01

    Female infertility occurs in about 37% of all infertile couples and ovulatory disorders account for more than half of these. The ovaries are in continuous interaction with the other endocrine organs. The interplay may account for infertility occurring at different levels and may render the diagnosis of infertility a difficult exercise for the involved physician. A hypothalamic cause of female infertility should be considered in an appropriate clinical context, with tests pointing to a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It can be functional, physiological or related to organic causes. Hyperprolactinemia has well characterized effects on the normal gonadal function and treatment is well established. Acromegaly and Cushing's disease may impair fertility at different levels, mechanisms involved however remain ill defined. Thyroid disorders, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, can interact with the ovaries, through a direct effect on ovarian function, but autoimmunity may be involved, as well as alterations of the sex hormone binding protein levels. Primary ovarian disorders, such as the polycystic ovary syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency are frequent diseases, for which novel treatments are currently being developed and discussed. We will propose an algorithm for the diagnosis and approach of the female patient presenting with infertility on the basis of the available evidence in literature.

  9. [Separation anxiety and panic disorder].

    PubMed

    Seguí, J; Salvador, L; Canet, J; Márquez, M; Ortíz, M; García, L

    1998-01-01

    History od separation anxiety was investigated in several psychiatryc disorders and in 150 patients with panic disorder following DSM III-R criteria. Separation anxiety was reported by 15.3% of patients with panic disorder, 3.3% of the healthy control group, 13.3% of patients with major depression, 16.7% with dystymia, 13.3% with generalized anxiety and 33.3% with social phobia (p < 0.001). Separation anxiety is thus considered a common predisposing factor of anxiety and depressive disorders. Panic disorder patients with a history of separation anxiety had an earlier age at panic onset and greater comorbidity with social phobia and agoraphobia.

  10. Temporomandibular disorders: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Scott S; Greenberg, Martin S; Liu, Frederick; Steinkeler, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Temporomandibular disorders remain a common cause of visits to primary care physicians, internists, pediatricians, and emergency departments. Advances in the clinical diagnosis, radiographic imaging, and classification of these disorders have improved long-term management. There are several types of disorders of the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint as well as associated structures and each may have a complex cause, clinical course, and response to therapy. Host susceptibility plays a role at several stages of these disorders. Future research offers greater possibility in defining this heterogeneous group of disorders and providing more focused and effective treatment strategies.

  11. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity.

  12. Disordered hyperuniform heterogeneous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2016-10-01

    Disordered hyperuniform many-body systems are distinguishable states of matter that lie between a crystal and liquid: they are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These systems play a vital role in a number of fundamental and applied problems: glass formation, jamming, rigidity, photonic and electronic band structure, localization of waves and excitations, self-organization, fluid dynamics, quantum systems, and pure mathematics. Much of what we know theoretically about disordered hyperuniform states of matter involves many-particle systems. In this paper, we derive new rigorous criteria that disordered hyperuniform two-phase heterogeneous materials must obey and explore their consequences. Two-phase heterogeneous media are ubiquitous; examples include composites and porous media, biological media, foams, polymer blends, granular media, cellular solids, and colloids. We begin by obtaining some results that apply to hyperuniform two-phase media in which one phase is a sphere packing in d-dimensional Euclidean space {{{R}}d} . Among other results, we rigorously establish the requirements for packings of spheres of different sizes to be ‘multihyperuniform’. We then consider hyperuniformity for general two-phase media in {{{R}}d} . Here we apply realizability conditions for an autocovariance function and its associated spectral density of a two-phase medium, and then incorporate hyperuniformity as a constraint in order to derive new conditions. We show that some functional forms can immediately be eliminated from consideration and identify other forms that are allowable. Specific examples and counterexamples are described. Contact is made with well-known microstructural models (e.g. overlapping spheres and checkerboards) as well as irregular phase-separation and Turing-type patterns. We also ascertain a family of

  13. Disordered hyperuniform heterogeneous materials.

    PubMed

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2016-10-19

    Disordered hyperuniform many-body systems are distinguishable states of matter that lie between a crystal and liquid: they are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These systems play a vital role in a number of fundamental and applied problems: glass formation, jamming, rigidity, photonic and electronic band structure, localization of waves and excitations, self-organization, fluid dynamics, quantum systems, and pure mathematics. Much of what we know theoretically about disordered hyperuniform states of matter involves many-particle systems. In this paper, we derive new rigorous criteria that disordered hyperuniform two-phase heterogeneous materials must obey and explore their consequences. Two-phase heterogeneous media are ubiquitous; examples include composites and porous media, biological media, foams, polymer blends, granular media, cellular solids, and colloids. We begin by obtaining some results that apply to hyperuniform two-phase media in which one phase is a sphere packing in d-dimensional Euclidean space [Formula: see text]. Among other results, we rigorously establish the requirements for packings of spheres of different sizes to be 'multihyperuniform'. We then consider hyperuniformity for general two-phase media in [Formula: see text]. Here we apply realizability conditions for an autocovariance function and its associated spectral density of a two-phase medium, and then incorporate hyperuniformity as a constraint in order to derive new conditions. We show that some functional forms can immediately be eliminated from consideration and identify other forms that are allowable. Specific examples and counterexamples are described. Contact is made with well-known microstructural models (e.g. overlapping spheres and checkerboards) as well as irregular phase-separation and Turing-type patterns. We also ascertain a family

  14. [Motor disorders in neurodevelopmental disorders. Tics and stereotypies].

    PubMed

    Eirís-Puñal, Jesús

    2014-02-24

    Tics are repetitive, sharp, rapid, non-rhythmic movements or utterances that are the result of sudden, abrupt and involuntary muscular contractions. Stereotypies are repetitive, apparently impulsive, rhythmic, purposeless movements that follow an individual repertoire that is specific to each individual and that occur under a variable time pattern, which may be either transient or persistent. Both are included in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), among the neurodevelopmental disorders, and together with coordination development disorder go to make up the group of motor disorders. For tics, the categories of 'Tourette's disorder', 'chronic motor or vocal tic disorder' and 'unspecified tic disorder' have been maintained, whereas the category 'transient tics' has disappeared and 'provisional tic disorder' and 'other specified tic disorders' have been incorporated. Within stereotypic movement disorder, the DSM-5 replaces 'non-functional' by 'apparently purposeless'; the thresholds of the need for medical care are withdrawn and replaced with the manual's standard involvement criterion; mental retardation is no longer mentioned and emphasis is placed on the severity of the stereotypic movement; and a criterion concerning the onset of symptoms and specifiers of the existence or not of self-injurious behaviours have been added, together with the association with genetic or general medical diseases or extrinsic factors. Moreover, a categorisation depending on severity has also been included.

  15. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A Guide for Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is one of a group of behavioral disorders called disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). These disorders are called this because children who have these disorders tend to disrupt those around them. ODD is one of the more common mental health disorders found in children and adolescents. This paper discusses the…

  16. Body image in social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M; Gutner, Cassidy A; Lazarov, Amit; Hermesh, Haggai; Hofmann, Stefan G; Marom, Sofi

    2014-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder falls under the category of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, yet research has suggested it may also be highly associated with social anxiety disorder. The current study examined body image variables among 68 outpatients with primary obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=22), social anxiety disorder (SAD; n=25), and panic disorder (PD; n=21). Participants filled out self-report measures of body image disturbance, attitudes toward one's appearance, and anxiety. Body image disturbance and attitudes toward appearance did not significantly differ between the groups. However, SAD symptoms predicted body image disturbance, Appearance Evaluation and Body Areas Satisfaction, and OCD symptoms predicted Appearance Orientation. These findings suggest that SAD and OCD may be associated with different facets of body image. Implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders and for future research are discussed.

  17. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation?

    PubMed

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research.

  18. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Vieira, Karen F

    2008-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such noncompliant patients who

  19. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and the Structure of Common Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Krueger, Robert F; Campbell, W Keith; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-09-12

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results. We investigated how NPD related to other mental disorders in the internalizing-externalizing model using diagnoses from a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). NPD was best conceptualized as a distress disorder. NPD variance accounted for by transdiagnostic factors was modest, suggesting its variance is largely unique in the context of other common mental disorders. Results clarify NPD multivariate comorbidity, suggest avenues for classification and clinical endeavors, and highlight the need to understand vulnerable and grandiose narcissism subtypes' comorbidity patterns and structural relations.

  20. The relationship between panic disorder/agoraphobia and personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Mavissakalian, M

    1990-12-01

    This selective review of the relationship between panic disorder/agoraphobia and DSM-III personality disorders points to a preponderance of dependent, avoidant, and histrionic features and reveals a certain degree of covariation between severity of Axis I disorder and personality functioning. However, the link between panic/agoraphobia and Axis II disorders does not appear to be specific because (1) general features such as neuroticism, stress, dysphoric mood, and interpersonal sensitivity, rather than duration and severity of panic attacks and phobias, emerge as unique predictors or determinants of personality disorder; and (2) similar personality profiles are obtained in a heterogenous population of psychiatric outpatients or patients with social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depression.

  1. Inherited or acquired metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Florian; Ratai, Eva; Carroll, Jason J; Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter starts with a description of imaging of inherited metabolic disorders, followed by a discussion on imaging of acquired toxic-metabolic disorders of the adult brain. Neuroimaging is crucial for the diagnosis and management of a number of inherited metabolic disorders. Among these, inherited white-matter disorders commonly affect both the nervous system and endocrine organs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled new classifications of these disorders that have greatly enhanced both our diagnostic ability and our understanding of these complex disorders. Beyond the classic leukodystrophies, we are increasingly recognizing new hereditary leukoencephalopathies such as the hypomyelinating disorders. Conventional imaging can be unrevealing in some metabolic disorders, but proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may be able to directly visualize the metabolic abnormality in certain disorders. Hence, neuroimaging can enhance our understanding of pathogenesis, even in the absence of a pathologic specimen. This review aims to present pathognomonic brain MRI lesion patterns, the diagnostic capacity of proton MRS, and information from clinical and laboratory testing that can aid diagnosis. We demonstrate that applying an advanced neuroimaging approach enhances current diagnostics and management. Additional information on inherited and metabolic disorders of the brain can be found in Chapter 63 in the second volume of this series.

  2. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or bipolar disorder?].

    PubMed

    Da Fonseca, D; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The attention deficit disorder and the bipolar disorder maintain a complex relation. Indeed, these two syndromes share numerous symptoms that engender numerous diagnostic difficulties. According to several studies, it seems that these two disorders are really different with significant differences at the functional and anatomical level. However, there are common cognitive deficits as well as relatively frequent co-morbidity which is necessary to know in order to adjust the treatment.

  3. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele; Gabrielli, Filippo; Albano, Claudio; Fornaro, Stefania; Rizzato, Salvatore; Mattei, Chiara; Solano, Paola; Vinciguerra, Valentina; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to present a comprehensive, updated survey on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive related disorders (OCRDs) and their clinical management via literature review, critical analysis and synthesis. Information on OCD and OCRD current nosography, clinical phenomenology and etiology, may lead to a better comprehension of their management. Clinicians should become familiar with the broad spectrum of OCD disorders, since it is a pivotal issue in current clinical psychiatry. PMID:19450269

  4. Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder. PMID

  5. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Casey; Atta, Mohamed G

    2016-01-01

    Renal injury or failure may occur in the context of pregnancy requiring special considerations with regard to fetal and maternal health. The condition of pregnancy itself may be a major factor in such injuries. In addition, for many young women previously known to be healthy, pregnancy may be the first presentation for routine urine and blood testing which may yield previously subclinical renal disease. As such, pregnancy may add complexity to considerations in the management of renal disease presenting coincidentally requiring knowledge of the physiologic changes and potential renal disorders that may be encountered during pregnancy. PMID:27648405

  6. [Psychosomatic vertigo disorders].

    PubMed

    Eckhardt-Henn, A

    2013-09-01

    Somatoform vertigo is one of the most frequent forms of vertigo, alongside neuropathia vestibularis and benign peripheral positional vertigo. False diagnoses often lead to patients suffering from symptoms for periods of months or even years, which imposes significant limitations on their working and private lives. An early interdisciplinary diagnosis and the consequent timely commencement of a specific psychosomatic therapy is thus essential. Somatoform vertigo can be caused by many different psychological disorders. The clinical symptomatology, diagnosis and differential diagnosis are described and illustrated by case vignettes. Risk factors and preventive measures are briefly summarized.

  7. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lirong; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2012-01-01

    There have been remarkable advances in our understanding of the molecular, cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying the regulation of circadian rhythms, as well as the impact of circadian dysfunction on health and disease. This information has transformed our understanding of the effect of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) on health, performance and safety. CRSDs are caused by alterations of the central circadian time-keeping system, or a misalignment of the endogenous circadian rhythm and the external environment. In this section, we provide a review of circadian biology and discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of the most commonly encountered CRSDs in clinical practice. PMID:23099133

  8. SHOULDER DISORDERS AND OCCUPATION

    PubMed Central

    Linaker, CH; Walker-Bone, K

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder pain is very common and causes substantial morbidity. Standardised classification systems based upon presumed patho-anatomical origins have proved poorly reproducible and hampered epidemiological research. Despite this, there is evidence that exposure to combinations of physical workplace strains such as overhead working, heavy lifting and forceful work as well as working in an awkward posture increase the risk of shoulder disorders. Psychosocial risk factors are also associated. There is currently little evidence to suggest that either primary prevention or treatment strategies in the workplace are very effective and more research is required, particularly around the cost-effectiveness of different strategies. PMID:26612238

  9. [Mental disorders in puberty].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Andreas

    2005-03-24

    Puberty is characterized by a complexity of different developmental tasks. During this period of sometimes dramatic changes, the adolescent must find a new balance between personal experiences and the demands made by the environment. In this period of development, some 18% of all adolescents experience a mental crisis, and 5% need specialist treatment. Such mental disorders in puberty as anorexia nervosa, depression or suicidality can be classified on the basis of their development and course. They must be taken seriously and treated as early as possible.

  10. Disorders of lymph flow.

    PubMed

    Witte, C L; Witte, M H

    1995-04-01

    Disturbances in blood capillary exchange of fluid, macromolecules, and cells across intact and abnormal microvessels and deranged lymphatic transport are integral, interacting components in disorders of tissue swelling. Lymphedema or low-output failure of the lymph circulation is often indolent for many years before lymphatic insufficiency (failure) and tissue swelling emerge and persist. Superimposed occult or overt infection (lymphangitis) are probably major contributors to progressive limb deformity (elephantiasis). Long-standing lymphedema is characterized by trapping in the skin and subcutaneous tissue of fluid, extravasated plasma proteins, and other macromolecules: impaired immune cell trafficking; abnormal processing of autologous and foreign antigens; heightened susceptibility to superimposed infection; local immunodysregulation; defective lymphatic (lymphangion) propulsion from an imbalance of mediators regulating vasomotion; soft-tissue overgrowth; scarring and hypertrophy; and exuberant angiogenesis occasionally culminating in vascular tumors (Fig. 8). In contrast to the blood circulation, where flow depends primarily on the propulsive force of the myocardium, lymph propulsion depends predominately on intrinsic truncal contraction, a phylogenetic vestige of amphibian lymph hearts. Whereas venous "plasma" flows rapidly (2-3 l/min) against low vascular resistance, lymph flows slowly (1-2 ml/min) against high vascular resistance. On occasion, impaired transport of intestinal lymph may be associated with reflux and accumulation and leakage of intestinal chyle in a swollen leg. Although the term "lymphedema" is usually reserved for extremity swelling, the pathogenesis of a wide variety of visceral disorders also may be traceable to defective tissue fluid and macromolecular circulation and impaired cell trafficking of lymphocytes and macrophages. Thus, lymph stasis, with impaired tissue fluid flow, underlies or complicates an indolent subclinical course with

  11. Cerebral Disorders of Calves.

    PubMed

    Dore, Vincent; Smith, Geof

    2017-03-01

    Neurologic diseases of the cerebrum are relatively common in cattle. In calves, the primary cerebral disorders are polioencephalomalacia, meningitis, and sodium toxicity. Because diagnostic testing is not always readily available, the practitioner must often decide on a course of treatment based on knowledge of the likely disease, as well as his or her own clinical experience. This is particularly true with neurologic diseases in which the prognosis is often poor and euthanasia may be the most humane outcome. This article reviews the most common diseases affecting the cerebrum of calves with a focus on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

  12. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Berry, Casey; Atta, Mohamed G

    2016-09-06

    Renal injury or failure may occur in the context of pregnancy requiring special considerations with regard to fetal and maternal health. The condition of pregnancy itself may be a major factor in such injuries. In addition, for many young women previously known to be healthy, pregnancy may be the first presentation for routine urine and blood testing which may yield previously subclinical renal disease. As such, pregnancy may add complexity to considerations in the management of renal disease presenting coincidentally requiring knowledge of the physiologic changes and potential renal disorders that may be encountered during pregnancy.

  13. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorders.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Ivan K; Shearer, William T

    2015-11-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency disorders represent pediatric emergencies due to absence of adaptive immune responses to infections. The conditions result from either intrinsic defects in T-cell development (ie, severe combined immunodeficiency disease [SCID]) or congenital athymia (eg, complete DiGeorge anomaly). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant provides the only clinically approved cure for SCID, although gene therapy research trials are showing significant promise. For greatest survival, patients should undergo transplant before 3.5 months of age and before the onset of infections. Newborn screening programs have yielded successful early identification and treatment of infants with SCID and congenital athymia in the United States.

  14. Acute porphyric disorders.

    PubMed

    Moore, A W; Coke, J M

    2000-09-01

    Acute porphyrias are classified into 3 distinct groups of rare genetic disorders of metabolic enzyme biosynthesis. Acute porphyrias can significantly impact multiple organ systems, which often provides a challenge to the dentist presented with such a patient. A case of hereditary coproporphyria is reported in a patient with many of the classical signs and symptoms. The patient also had complex dental needs that required special medical and pharmacotherapeutic modifications. The acute porphyrias are reviewed by the authors with presentation of this challenging case. Recommendations for other dental health care professionals encountering these patients are then presented.

  15. Temporomandibular disorders and headaches.

    PubMed

    Graff-Radford, Steven B; Bassiur, Jennifer P

    2014-05-01

    Headache and temporomandibular disorders should be treated together but separately. If there is marked limitation of opening, imaging of the joint may be necessary. The treatment should then include education regarding limiting jaw function, appliance therapy, instruction in jaw posture, and stretching exercises, as well as medications to reduce inflammation and relax the muscles. The use of physical therapies, such as spray and stretch and trigger point injections, is helpful if there is myofascial pain. Tricyclic antidepressants and the new-generation antiepileptic drugs are effective in muscle pain conditions. Arthrocentesis and/or arthroscopy may help to restore range of motion.

  16. Borderline Personality Disorder and the Misdiagnosis of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ruggero, Camilo J.; Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports suggest bipolar disorder is not only under-diagnosed but may at times be over-diagnosed. Little is known about factors that increase the odds of such mistakes. The present work explores whether symptoms of borderline personality disorder increase the odds of a bipolar misdiagnosis. Psychiatric outpatients (N = 610) presenting for treatment were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality for DSM-IV axis II disorders (SIDP-IV), as well as a questionnaire asking if they had ever been diagnosed with bipolar disorder by a mental health care professional. Eighty-two patients who reported having been previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder but who did not have it according to the SCID were compared to 528 patients who had never been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Patients with borderline personality disorder had significantly greater odds of a previous bipolar misdiagnosis, but no specific borderline criteria was unique in predicting this outcome. Patients with borderline personality disorder, regardless of how they meet criteria, may be at increased risk of being misdiagnosed with bipolar disorder. PMID:19889426

  17. Postmodern Stress Disorder (PMSD): A Possible New Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eiser, Arnold R

    2015-11-01

    The murder of cardiovascular surgeon, Michael Davidson, MD, suggests the existence of a new disorder, postmodern stress disorder. This disorder is characterized by repetitive exposure to digital images of violence in a variety of electronic media, including films, television, video games, music videos, and other online sources. This disorder appears to be a variant of posttraumatic stress disorder, and shares with it excessive stimulation of the amygdala and loss of the normal inhibitory inputs from the orbitofrontal cingulate cortical gyrus. In postmodern stress disorder, repetitive digital microtraumas appear to have an effect similar to that of macrotraumas of warfare or civilian assaults. Other elements of the disorder include the development of fixed ideas of bullying or public shaming, access to weapons, and loss of impulse control. This syndrome could explain a number of previously inexplicable murders/suicides. Violence against health care professionals is a profound concern for the medical profession, as are assaults on nonclinicians. The recommendation is made to change forensic procedures to include obtaining historic information concerning the use of digital media during investigations of violent crimes and murders so that the disorder may be further characterized. Gaining an understanding of this disorder will require a multidisciplinary approach to this life-threatening public health problem. Research should also focus on the development and evaluation of possible antidotes to postmodern toxicities.

  18. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. II. Affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of affective disorders based on a survey conducted in Addis Ababa between September and December of 1994. An Amharic version of the CIDI was used to collect data from a random community sample of 1420 individuals aged 15 and above. The lifetime prevalence for specific affective disorders was as follows: bipolar disorders 0.3%, depressive episodes 2.7%, recurrent depressive episodes 0.2%, and persistent mood disorders 1.6%. The weighted lifetime prevalence of affective disorders was 5.0% (women 7.7% and men 3.2%). One-month prevalence was 3.8% (women 5.9% and men 2.3%). After adjusting for several potential confounders, the risk of affective disorders was only 29% higher in women compared to men. This difference in risk was not statistically significant. Age was also not associated with risk of affective disorders. On the other hand, education was associated with the risk of disorder, the risk decreasing with increasing educational attainment. This inverse trend was statistically significant (P for trend = 0.02). The risk was also 37% lower in the employed than the unemployed: Odds Ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.63 (0.39, 1.01). There were no statistically significant associations between affective disorders and marital status or ethnicity.

  19. Eating disorders in midlife women: A perimenopausal eating disorder?

    PubMed

    Baker, Jessica H; Runfola, Cristin D

    2016-03-01

    Eating disorders afflict women across the lifespan with peak onset during critical or sensitive developmental periods of reproductive hormone change, such as puberty. A growing body of research supports the role of reproductive hormones, specifically estrogen, in the risk for eating disorders and related symptomatology in adolescence and young adulthood. Like puberty, perimenopause is characterized by estrogen change and may also present a window of vulnerability to eating disorder development. Here, we discuss the evidence that suggests perimenopause indeed may be a vulnerable period for the development or redevelopment of an eating disorder for midlife women. Drawing from what is known about the influence of estrogen on eating disorders at younger ages and from other psychiatric disorders with similar risk trajectories (i.e., perimenopausal depression), we describe a potential mechanism of risk for a perimenopausal eating disorder and how this can be explored in future research. Investigating vulnerability to perimenopausal eating disorders will clarify eating disorder etiology, identify reproductive stage-specific risk profiles, and guide future treatment directions.

  20. Anxiety Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Celano, Christopher M; Daunis, Daniel J; Lokko, Hermioni N; Campbell, Kirsti A; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Given the associations between anxiety disorders and poor cardiac health, the timely and accurate identification and treatment of these conditions is of the utmost importance. Fortunately, pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for the management of anxiety disorders are generally safe and effective. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions to treat anxiety disorders ultimately impact both psychiatric and cardiovascular health.

  1. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan.

  2. The Burden of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, William W.; Martins, Silvia S.; Nestadt, Gerald; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Clarke, Diana; Alexandre, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been an increase in interest in the burden of chronic and disabling health conditions that are not necessarily fatal, such as the mental disorders. This review systematically summarizes data on the burden associated with 11 major mental disorders of adults. The measures of burden include estimates of prevalence, mortality associated with the disorders, disabilities and impairments related to the disorders, and costs. This review expands the range of mental disorders considered in a report on the global burden of disease, updates the literature, presents information on the range and depth of sources of information on burden, and adds estimates of costs. The purpose is to provide an accessible guide to the burden of mental disorders, especially for researchers and policy makers who may not be familiar with this subfield of epidemiology. PMID:18806255

  3. Disorder Operators and Their Descendants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradkin, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    I review the concept of a disorder operator, introduced originally by Kadanoff in the context of the two-dimensional Ising model. Disorder operators acquire an expectation value in the disordered phase of the classical spin system. This concept has had applications and implications to many areas of physics ranging from quantum spin chains to gauge theories to topological phases of matter. In this paper I describe the role that disorder operators play in our understanding of ordered, disordered and topological phases of matter. The role of disorder operators, and their generalizations, and their connection with dualities in different systems, as well as with majorana fermions and parafermions, is discussed in detail. Their role in recent fermion-boson and boson-boson dualities is briefly discussed.

  4. Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies.

  5. [Anxiety disorders in DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Márquez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the DSM-5 appeared officially in May 2013 during the development of the 166th Annual Meetingof the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in San Francisco. The drafting process was long and complex; much of the debate became public so that the expectations were great. And it must be said that the new edition did not disappoint, as many changes were made in relation to their predecessors. In Chapter of Anxiety Disorders, which is reviewed in this article, the changes were significant. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Stress-related disorders were excluded and new clinical pictures, such as separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism, were included. And took place was the long awaited split between panic disorder and agoraphobia, now two separate disorders.

  6. [Mental disorders and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Rießland-Seifert, Angelika; Fasching, Peter; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Toplak, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are common in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a twofold increase in depression which is associated with suboptimal glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality. Other psychiatric disorders with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus are cognitive impairment, dementia, disturbed eating behaviour, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and borderline personality disorder. The coincidence of mental disorders and diabetes mellitus has unfavourable influences on metabolic control and micro- and macroangiopathic late complications. Improvement of therapeutic outcome is a challenge in the modern health care system. The intentions behind this position paper are to rise awareness of this special set of problems, to intensify cooperation between involved health care providers and to reduce incidence of diabetes mellitus as well as morbidity and mortality from diabetes in this patient group.

  7. Hypersomnolence, Hypersomnia, and Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Franchi, Jean Arthur Micoulaud; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2017-02-01

    Relationships between symptoms of hypersomnolence, psychiatric disorders, and hypersomnia disorders (i.e., narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia) are complex and multidirectional. Hypersomnolence is a common complaint across mood disorders; however, patients suffering from mood disorders and hypersomnolence rarely have objective daytime sleepiness, as assessed by the current gold standard test, the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. An iatrogenic origin of symptoms of hypersomnolence, and sleep apnea syndrome must be considered in a population of psychiatric patients, often overweight and treated with sedative drugs. On the other hand, psychiatric comorbidities, especially depression symptoms, are often reported in patients with hypersomnia disorders, and an endogenous origin cannot be ruled out. A great challenge for sleep specialists and psychiatrists is to differentiate psychiatric hypersomnolence and a central hypersomnia disorder with comorbid psychiatric symptoms. The current diagnostic tools seem to be limited in that condition, and further research in that field is warranted.

  8. Neurodegenerative disorders and metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Germaine

    2013-08-01

    Most genetic causes of neurodegenerative disorders in childhood are due to neurometabolic disease. There are over 200 disorders, including aminoacidopathies, creatine disorders, mitochondrial cytopathies, peroxisomal disorders and lysosomal storage disorders. However, diagnosis can pose a challenge to the clinician when patients present with non-specific problems like epilepsy, developmental delay, autism, dystonia and ataxia. The variety of specialist tests involved can also be daunting. This review aims to give a practical approach to the investigation and diagnosis of neurometabolic disease from the neonatal period to late childhood while prioritising disorders where there are therapeutic options. In particular, patients who have a complex clinical picture of several neurological and non-neurological features should be investigated.

  9. Current Issues in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification. PMID:22035245

  10. Reading disorders and dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Recent findings Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. Summary There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed. PMID:27496059

  11. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  12. [Neurological Disorders and Pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Berlit, P

    2016-02-01

    Neurological disorders caused by pregnancy and puerperium include the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, the amniotic fluid embolism syndrome (AFES), the postpartum angiopathy due to reversible vasoconstriction syndrome, and the Sheehan syndrome. Hypertension and proteinuria are the hallmarks of preeclampsia, seizures define eclampsia. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets constitute the HELLP syndrome. Vision disturbances including cortical blindness occur in the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The Sheehan syndrome presents with panhypopituitarism post partum due to apoplexia of the pituitary gland in severe peripartal blood loss leading to longstanding hypotension. Some neurological disorders occur during pregnancy and puerperium with an increased frequency. These include stroke, sinus thrombosis, the restless legs syndrome and peripheral nerve syndromes, especially the carpal tunnel syndrome. Chronic neurologic diseases need an interdisciplinary approach during pregnancy. Some anticonvulsants double the risk of birth defects. The highest risk exists for valproic acid, the lowest for lamotrigine and levetiracetam. For MS interval treatment, glatiramer acetate and interferones seem to be safe during pregnancy. All other drugs should be avoided.

  13. Treatment of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953

  14. Gait and balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach.

  15. Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    The central disorders of hypersomnolence are characterized by severe daytime sleepiness, which is present despite normal quality and timing of nocturnal sleep. Recent reclassification distinguishes three main subtypes: narcolepsy type 1, narcolepsy type 2, and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), which are the focus of this review. Narcolepsy type 1 results from loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons, while the pathophysiology underlying narcolepsy type 2 and IH remains to be fully elucidated. Treatment of all three disorders focuses on the management of sleepiness, with additional treatment of cataplexy in those patients with narcolepsy type 1. Sleepiness can be treated with modafinil/armodafinil or sympathomimetic CNS stimulants, which have been shown to be beneficial in randomized controlled trials of narcolepsy and, quite recently, IH. In those patients with narcolepsy type 1, sodium oxybate is effective for the treatment of both sleepiness and cataplexy. Despite these treatments, there remains a subset of hypersomnolent patients with persistent sleepiness, in whom alternate therapies are needed. Emerging treatments for sleepiness include histamine H3 antagonists (eg, pitolisant) and possibly negative allosteric modulators of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (eg, clarithromycin and flumazenil). PMID:26149554

  16. Nutritional and Pubertal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Calvo, M Teresa; Argente, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Caloric-protein malnutrition can slow growth and cause pubertal delay. This chapter focuses on endocrine abnormalities and pubertal alterations in patients with eating disorders, childhood obesity, the female athlete triad and children cancer survivors. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit multiple endocrine abnormalities, including isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The delay in pubertal development and reduction in growth seen in AN patients may be a direct result of malnutrition. Appropriate psychiatric, nutritional and hormonal therapy is necessary. It is suggested that obesity during childhood can accelerate pubertal onset and these children usually exhibit accelerated linear growth during puberty. In girls the relationship between childhood obesity and early pubertal onset could be related to their insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia. The female athlete triad is often observed in physically active girls and women in whom low energy availability with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density can be present. In prepubertal girls excess exercise can cause delayed menarche with no effects on adult height, while in postpubertal females it results in menstrual cycle irregularities. The consequences of childhood cancer depend on the type of cancer, its location, the age at which the disease was diagnosed, the dose of radiotherapy, and the type and dose of chemotherapy.

  17. Disorders of communication: dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Enderby, Pam

    2013-01-01

    Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder which can be classified according to the underlying neuropathology and is associated with disturbances of respiration, laryngeal function, airflow direction, and articulation resulting in difficulties of speech quality and intelligibility. There are six major types of dysarthria: flaccid dysarthria associated with lower motor neuron impairment, spastic dysarthria associated with damaged upper motor neurons linked to the motor areas of the cerebral cortex, ataxic dysarthria primarily caused by cerebellar dysfunction, and hyperkinetic dysarthria and hypokinetic dysarthria, which are related to a disorder of the extrapyramidal system. The sixth is generally termed a mixed dysarthria and is associated with damage in more than one area, resulting in speech characteristics of at least two groups. The features of the speech disturbance of these six major types of dysarthria are distinctive and can assist with diagnosis. Dysarthria is a frequent symptom of many neurological conditions and is commonly associated with progressive neurological disease. It has a profound effect upon the patient and their families as communication is integrally related with expressing personality and social relationships. Speech and language therapy can be used to encourage the person to use the speech that is already available to them more effectively, can increase the range and consistency of sound production, can teach strategies for improving intelligibility and communicative effectiveness, can guide the individual to use methods that are less tiring and more successful, and can introduce the appropriate Augmentative and Alternative Communication approaches as and when required.

  18. Seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kurlansik, Stuart L; Ibay, Annamarie D

    2012-12-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is a combination of biologic and mood disturbances with a seasonal pattern, typically occurring in the autumn and winter with remission in the spring or summer. In a given year, about 5 percent of the U.S. population experiences seasonal affective disorder, with symptoms present for about 40 percent of the year. Although the condition is seasonally limited, patients may have significant impairment from the associated depressive symptoms. Treatment can improve these symptoms and also may be used as prophylaxis before the subsequent autumn and winter seasons. Light therapy is generally well tolerated, with most patients experiencing clinical improvement within one to two weeks after the start of treatment. To avoid relapse, light therapy should continue through the end of the winter season until spontaneous remission of symptoms in the spring or summer. Pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy are also appropriate treatment options and have been shown to be as effective as light therapy. Because of the comparable effectiveness of treatment options, first-line management should be guided by patient preference.

  19. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hazem A H; Naresh, Kikkeri N

    2012-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a group of diseases that range from benign polyclonal to malignant monoclonal lymphoid proliferations. They arise secondary to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs given to prevent transplant rejection. Three main pathologic subsets/stages of evolution are recognised: early, polymorphic, and monomorphic lesions. The pathogenesis of PTLDs seems to be multifactorial. Among possible infective aetiologies, the role of EBV has been studied in depth, and the virus is thought to play a central role in driving the proliferation of EBV-infected B cells that leads to subsequent development of the lymphoproliferative disorder. It is apparent, however, that EBV is not solely responsible for the "neoplastic" state. Accumulated genetic alterations of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes (deletions, mutations, rearrangements, and amplifications) and epigenetic changes (aberrant hypermethylation) that involve tumour suppressor genes are integral to the pathogenesis. Antigenic stimulation also plays an evident role in the pathogenesis of PTLDs. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) that are critical to fight viral infections have been thought to play a pathogenetically relevant role in PTLDs. Furthermore, regulatory T cells (Treg cells), which are modulators of immune reactions once incited, seem to have an important role in PTLDs where antigenic stimulation is key for the pathogenesis.

  20. New Described Dermatological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Keseroglu, Havva Ozge; Kaya Akis, Havva

    2014-01-01

    Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH) syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH) syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.” PMID:25243162

  1. Movement disorders in childhood.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review movement disorders in children. They are common but have etiology and phenomenology different than in adults. Tics are the most common phenomena although in most instances they are mild and have a favorable long-term prognosis. Dystonia is the second most common phenomena but when present it is usually genetic or idiopathic and causes meaningful disability. Sydenham's chorea is the most common cause of chorea in children worldwide. Systemic lupus erythematosus is a much rarer cause of chorea but it is always to be ruled out given the lack of a specific diagnostic marker for Sydenham's chorea. Tremor, usually caused by drugs or essential tremor, is regarded as rather uncommon in children. Arguably, most pediatric patients with tremor do not seek medical attention because of the lack of disability. Stereotypies are relatively uncommon but their recognition is clinically relevant since they are usually associated with severe conditions such as autism and Rett syndrome. Parkinsonism is quite rare in children and either results from encephalitis or is a side effect of medications. Wilson's disease must be ruled out in all children with movement disorders.

  2. Trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), skin picking disorder, and stereotypic movement disorder: toward DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Grant, Jon E; Franklin, Martin E; Keuthen, Nancy; Lochner, Christine; Singer, Harvey S; Woods, Douglas W

    2010-06-01

    In DSM-IV-TR, trichotillomania (TTM) is classified as an impulse control disorder (not classified elsewhere), skin picking lacks its own diagnostic category (but might be diagnosed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified), and stereotypic movement disorder is classified as a disorder usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. ICD-10 classifies TTM as a habit and impulse disorder, and includes stereotyped movement disorders in a section on other behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence. This article provides a focused review of nosological issues relevant to DSM-V, given recent empirical findings. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: (1) Although TTM fits optimally into a category of body-focused repetitive behavioral disorders, in a nosology comprised of relatively few major categories it fits best within a category of motoric obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, (2) available evidence does not support continuing to include (current) diagnostic criteria B and C for TTM in DSM-V, (3) the text for TTM should be updated to describe subtypes and forms of hair pulling, (4) there are persuasive reasons for referring to TTM as "hair pulling disorder (trichotillomania)," (5) diagnostic criteria for skin picking disorder should be included in DSM-V or in DSM-Vs Appendix of Criteria Sets Provided for Further Study, and (6) the diagnostic criteria for stereotypic movement disorder should be clarified and simplified, bringing them in line with those for hair pulling and skin picking disorder.

  3. [Affective disorders and neurological comorbidities].

    PubMed

    Tassy, S; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Mood disorders occupy a vast area in the field of psychiatry. Advances in the study of the brain, but also epidemiology and genetics allow us to make more solid connections between these disorders and neurological disorders, resuming a process of reconciliation between both specialties. The purpose of this short review is to draw the attention of the psychiatrist to these links, especially with a brief presentation of the psychiatric manifestations of a number of neurodegenerative diseases and more particularly frontotemporal dementia.

  4. Bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Mariana Inés; Moreira, Marcos Aurélio; Araújo, Carolina Reis; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2007-12-01

    Bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Although research in this area is limited, studies assessing the nature of this association have focused on genetic aspects, adverse reaction to drugs and brain demyelinating lesions. Herein we report three patients with MS that also presented bipolar disorder. The coexistence of neurological and psychiatric symptoms in most MS relapses highlights the relevance of biological factors in the emergence of mood disorders in these patients.

  5. Insights into the Pathology of the α3 Na+/K+-ATPase Ion Pump in Neurological Disorders; Lessons from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Thomas H.; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane Na+-/K+ ATPase is located at the plasma membrane of all mammalian cells. The Na+-/K+ ATPase utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis to extrude three Na+ cations and import two K+ cations into the cell. The minimum constellation for an active Na+-/K+ ATPase is one alpha (α) and one beta (β) subunit. Mammals express four α isoforms (α1−4), encoded by the ATP1A1-4 genes, respectively. The α1 isoform is ubiquitously expressed in the adult central nervous system (CNS) whereas α2 primarily is expressed in astrocytes and α3 in neurons. Na+ and K+ are the principal ions involved in action potential propagation during neuronal depolarization. The α1 and α3 Na+-/K+ ATPases are therefore prime candidates for restoring neuronal membrane potential after depolarization and for maintaining neuronal excitability. The α3 isoform has approximately four-fold lower Na+ affinity compared to α1 and is specifically required for rapid restoration of large transient increases in [Na+]i. Conditions associated with α3 deficiency are therefore likely aggravated by suprathreshold neuronal activity. The α3 isoform been suggested to support re-uptake of neurotransmitters. These processes are required for normal brain activity, and in fact autosomal dominant de novo mutations in ATP1A3 encoding the α3 isoform has been found to cause the three neurological diseases Rapid Onset Dystonia Parkinsonism (RDP), Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC), and Cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS). All three diseases cause acute onset of neurological symptoms, but the predominant neurological manifestations differ with particularly early onset of hemiplegic/dystonic episodes and mental decline in AHC, ataxic encephalopathy and impairment of vision and hearing in CAPOS syndrome and late onset of dystonia/parkinsonism in RDP. Several mouse models have been generated to study the in vivo consequences of Atp1a3 modulation

  6. Botulinum Toxin Is Effective in the Management of Neurogenic Dysphagia. Clinical-Electrophysiological Findings and Tips on Safety in Different Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Alfonsi, Enrico; Restivo, Domenico A.; Cosentino, Giuseppe; De Icco, Roberto; Bertino, Giulia; Schindler, Antonio; Todisco, Massimiliano; Fresia, Mauro; Cortese, Andrea; Prunetti, Paolo; Ramusino, Matteo C.; Moglia, Arrigo; Sandrini, Giorgio; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Neurogenic dysphagia linked to failed relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) can be treated by injecting botulinum toxin (BTX) into the cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle. We compared the effects of this treatment in different neurological disorders with dysphagia, to evaluate its efficacy over time including the response to a second injection. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with neurogenic dysphagia associated with incomplete or absent opening of the UES (24 with brainstem or hemispheric stroke, 21 with parkinsonian syndromes, 12 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 with spastic-dystonic syndromes secondary to post-traumatic encephalopathy) were treated with the injection of IncobotulinumtoxinA (dose 15–20 U) into the CP muscle under electromyographic guidance. The patients were assessed at baseline and after the first and second treatment through clinical evaluation and fiberoptic endoscopy of swallowing, while their dysphagia was quantified using the Dysphagia Outcome and Severity Scale (DOSS). An electrokinesiographic/electromyographic study of swallowing was performed at baseline. Results: Most patients responded to the first BTX treatment: 35 patients (52.2%) were classified as high responders (DOSS score increase >2 levels), while other 19 patients (28.4%) were low responders (DOSS score increase of ≤2 levels). The effect of the first treatment usually lasted longer than 4 months (67%), and in some cases up to a year. The treatment efficacy remained high also after the second injection: 31 patients (46.3%) qualified as high responders and other 22 patients (32.8%) showed a low response. Only in the parkinsonian syndromes group we observed a reduction in the percentage of high responders as compared with the first treatment. Side effects were mostly mild and reported in non-responders following the first injection. A severe side effect, consisting of ingestion pneumonia, was observed following the second BTX injection in

  7. MR spectroscopy of metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Kim M

    2006-02-01

    The application of MR spectroscopy (MRS) in pediatric brain disorders yields valued information on pathologic processes, such as ischemia, demyelination, gliosis, and neurodegeneration. Because these processes manifest in inborn errors of metabolism, the purposes of this article are to (1) describe the spectral changes that are associated with the relatively common metabolic disorders, with summaries of known spectroscopic features of these disorders; (2) offer suggestions for recognition and distinction of disorders; and (3) provide general guidelines for MRS implementation. Although many conditions have a similar presentation, MRS offers valuable information for the individual patient in diagnosis and therapy when integrated fully into the clinical setting.

  8. Disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Glogowska, E; Gallagher, P G

    2015-05-01

    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneities characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants that influence erythrocyte hydration and how they have yielded a better understanding of the pathways that influence cellular water and solute homeostasis.

  9. Sleep Disturbances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Shelton, Althea; Malow, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are extremely prevalent in children with neurodevelopmental disorders compared to typically developing children. The diagnostic criteria for many neurodevelopmental disorders include sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbance in this population is often multifactorial and caused by the interplay of genetic, neurobiological and environmental overlap. These disturbances often present either as insomnia or hypersomnia. Different sleep disorders present with these complaints and based on the clinical history and findings from diagnostic tests, an appropriate diagnosis can be made. This review aims to provide an overview of causes, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep disturbances in neurodevelopmental disorders that present primarily with symptoms of hypersomnia and/or insomnia.

  10. Autistic disorder and gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Karoly; Perman, Jay A

    2002-10-01

    Autistic disorder is a pervasive developmental disorder manifested in the first 3 years of life by dysfunction in social interaction and communication. Many efforts have been made to explore the biologic basis of this disorder, but the etiology remains unknown. Recent publications describing upper gastrointestinal abnormalities and ileocolitis have focused attention on gastrointestinal function and morphology in these children. High prevalence of histologic abnormalities in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon, and dysfunction of liver conjugation capacity and intestinal permeability were reported. Three surveys conducted in the United States described high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autistic disorder. Treatment of the digestive problems may have positive effects on their behavior.

  11. Emotional intelligence and mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Janine; Schütz, Astrid; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich

    2009-09-01

    Emotional abilities were measured with a performance test of emotional intelligence (The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002) in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, substance abuse disorder, or borderline personality disorder (BPD), and a nonclinical control group. Findings showed that all clinical groups differed from controls with respect to their overall emotional intelligence score, which dovetails with previous findings from self-report measures. Specifically, we found that the ability to understand emotional information and the ability to regulate emotions best distinguished the groups. Findings showed that patients with substance abuse disorder and BPD patients were most impaired.

  12. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS). For more information, please read this fact sheet on PANDAS . Treatments and Therapies OCD is typically treated with ...

  13. Movement disorders in systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Poewe, Werner; Djamshidian-Tehrani, Atbin

    2015-02-01

    Movement disorders, classically involving dysfunction of the basal ganglia commonly occur in neurodegenerative and structural brain disorders. At times, however, movement disorders can be the initial manifestation of a systemic disease. In this article we discuss the most common movement disorders which may present in infectious, autoimmune, paraneoplastic, metabolic and endocrine diseases. Management often has to be multidisciplinary involving primary care physicians, neurologists, allied health professionals including nurses, occupational therapists and less frequently neurosurgeons. Recognizing and treating the underlying systemic disease is important in order to improve the neurological symptoms.

  14. Anxiety and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua P.; Randall, Carrie L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is relatively common and is associated with a complex clinical presentation. Sound diagnosis and treatment planning requires that clinicians have an integrated understanding of the developmental pathways and course of this comorbidity. Moreover, standard interventions for anxiety disorders or AUDs may need to be modified and combined in targeted ways to accommodate the unique needs of people who have both disorders. Optimal combination of evidence-based treatments should be based on a comparative balance that considers the advantages and disadvantages of sequential, parallel, and integrated approaches. PMID:23584108

  15. Prescribing and borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chanen, Andrew M; Thompson, Katherine N

    2016-01-01

    Summary Accurate diagnosis is fundamental to effective management of borderline personality disorder, but many patients remain undetected. The first-line management for borderline personality disorder is psychosocial treatment, not drugs. There are major prescribing hazards including polypharmacy, overdose and misuse. Drug treatment might be warranted for patients who have a co-occurring mental disorder such as major depression. If a drug is prescribed for borderline personality disorder, it should only be as an adjunct to psychosocial treatment. There should be clear and collaborative goals that are regularly reviewed with the patient. Use single drugs prescribed in limited quantities for a limited time. Stop drugs that are ineffective. PMID:27340322

  16. [Dissociative identity disorder or schizophrenia?].

    PubMed

    Tschöke, S; Steinert, T

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of dissociative identity disorder in which Schneiderian first rank symptoms were present besides of various states of consciousness. Thus the diagnosis of schizophrenia had to be considered. Formally, the symptoms met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia. However, taking into account the lack of formal thought disorder and of negative symptoms as well as a typical history of severe and prolonged traumatisation, we did not diagnose a co-morbid schizophrenic disorder. There is good evidence for the existence of psychotic symptoms among patients with dissociative disorders. However, in clinical practice this differential diagnosis is rarely considered.

  17. Psychiatric disorders in civilian pilots.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G

    1983-07-01

    Psychiatric disorders are second only to cardiovascular disorders as a cause of permanent loss of licence in both professional aircrew and private pilots in the UK. In professional aircrew, psychiatric disorders are commonly aviation-related, whilst in private pilots less effective selection and the stresses of business and personal affairs are common factors. Because human error is a major cause of accidents, the early diagnosis of disorders of thought and behaviour is clearly crucial in promoting flight safety. Airline doctors and AMEs must play the most important part.

  18. [Panic disorder and atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Olazabal Eizaguirre, N; Chavez, R; González-Torres, M A; Gaviria, M

    2013-10-01

    This paper studies the relationship between atrial fibrillation and panic disorder. There are often doubts on the differential diagnosis in emergency services and general medical settings. Panic disorder prevalence rates have been found to be high in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation. Various studies have observed that patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders frequently have higher cardiovascular disease rates compared to the general population. Usually, patients suffering from panic disorder exhibit somatic complaints suggesting coronary disease, such as chest pain or palpitations. The aim is to make the correct diagnosis and treatment for these different illnesses, and to decrease the costs due to misdiagnosis.

  19. Depression as a communicable disorder.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Ekta K

    2004-01-01

    'Communicable disorder' can be defined as a disorder capable of being transmitted in the form of negative emotion(s) from living or non-living being(s) to susceptible host. Thus, communicable disorder is transmitted from the source or reservoir of disorder to the susceptible host. The source of disorder can be defined as the living or non-living being from which the disorder in the form of negative emotion(s) gets transmitted to the susceptible host. The reservoir of disorder can be defined as the living or non-living being in which the negative emotion(s) lives, on which it depends primarily for survival, and where it preserves and reproduces itself in such a manner that it can be transmitted to the susceptible host. Depression is a disorder and can be transmitted in the form of negative emotion(s) and therefore can be considered to fall under the category of communicable disorder. The detection and depression of the source and reservoir of depression can not only help in its diagnosis and treatment but can also prevent its spread. The paper proposes a study to help calculate the percentage susceptibility of an individual to depression and a means to treat depression by depressing the source and reservoir of depression. The paper also proposes a new word, Emotional immunization and defines it as that as that positive activity of emotion(s), which leads to its stabilization when, subjected to negative emotion(s).

  20. Assessment methods for eating disorders and body image disorders.

    PubMed

    Túry, Ferenc; Güleç, Hayriye; Kohls, Elisabeth

    2010-12-01

    The growing interest in the treatment and research of eating disorders has stimulated the development of assessment methods, and there are now many questionnaires for evaluating behavioral and attitudinal characteristics of eating pathology. The present article sets out to review the assessment tools that are widely used in clinical practice and research. In particular, it covers self-report measures with summaries of their psychometric properties. It also presents diagnostic questionnaires based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnostic criteria. The instruments described include screening questionnaires, measurement tools for specific eating disorder symptoms, measurement of quality of life in eating disorders, and some tools for the measurement of body image disorder, a common feature of eating disorders. There is also a discussion of distorting factors that decrease the authenticity of assessment tools. These problems arise from the definition of some constructs and from the phenomena of denial and concealment, which are frequent among eating-disordered individuals. The frequent co-occurrence of other psychopathological features (e.g., multiimpulsive symptoms) shows that other psychological phenomena should also be evaluated in line with the assessment of eating disorders.