Science.gov

Sample records for dystonic disorders

  1. Familial dystonic choreoathetosis with myokymia; a sleep responsive disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, E; White, O; Cook, M

    1991-01-01

    A family is presented with paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis transmitted as a dominant trait over five generations. The family is unusual in the marked responsiveness of the episodes to short periods of sleep in several members, in the very variable age of onset, and in the association with prominent myokymia in some cases. These overlap features suggest a link between paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis and familial paroxysmal ataxia with myokymia. PMID:1783923

  2. Food for thought: ego-dystonicity and fear of self in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Purcell Lalonde, Magali; O'Connor, Kieron; Aardema, Frederick; Coelho, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    Degree of ego-dystonicity in obsessions is clinically relevant to the conceptualization and treatment of eating disorders (EDs). Obsessive-compulsive disorder research has suggested that the transformation of intrusive thoughts into obsessions is linked to the degree to which intrusive thoughts threaten core perceptions of the self. This study aims to explore the relationship between the ego-dystonic nature of obsessions in ED patients and a fear of self, the link between ED symptom severity and ego-dystonicity in obsessions, and differences between non-clinical and individuals with EDs in the presence of ego-dystonic thoughts and a fear of self. Ego-dystonicity (Ego-dystonicity Questionnaire (EDQ)) and feared self (Fear of Self Questionnaire (FSQ)) degrees were measured in a clinical sample (n = 57 with EDs) and a non-clinical sample (n = 45). EDQ and FSQ scores were highly correlated in both samples. EDQ scores were not significantly correlated to ED symptom severity with the exception of the EDQ Irrationality subscale, which was strongly related to compulsion severity. Participants with an ED had significantly higher EDQ and FSQ scores compared with controls.

  3. Ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity of eating-related intrusive thoughts in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Perpiñá, Conxa; Treasure, Janet

    2013-06-30

    The main objective of the present study was to analyse the role of the ego-dystonicity and ego-syntonicity of eating disorder intrusive thoughts (EDITs) in the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). Participants were 98 female patients with EDs, 56 Spanish and 42 English (27.19±9.59 years; body mass index (BMI): 18.72±2.87). All of them completed the eating attitudes test, the Eating Attitudes Test, the Eating Intrusive Thoughts Inventory, the Ego-Dystonicity Questionnaire-Reduced version, and the Ego-Syntonicity Questionnaire. Patients indicated that their EDITs were rational and also undesirable and immoral, suggesting that EDITs are not fully ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated no differences in ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity across ED subtypes. Path analyses were performed to investigate the mediating role of the EDITs' ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity in their interference, dysfunctional appraisals and control strategies. They showed, first, that the more interference an EDIT caused, the more ego-syntonic and the less ego-dystonic it was and, second, that when the EDITs were assessed as ego-syntonic, patients tried to do what they indicated, whereas when they were assessed as ego-dystonic, patients made efforts to neutralise them. Clinical implications for the conceptualisation and treatment of ED are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dystonic storm: a practical clinical and video review.

    PubMed

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Frucht, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    Dystonic storm is a frightening hyperkinetic movement disorder emergency. Marked, rapid exacerbation of dystonia requires prompt intervention and admission to the intensive care unit. Clinical features of dystonic storm include fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, sweating and autonomic instability, often progressing to bulbar dysfunction with dysarthria, dysphagia and respiratory failure. It is critical to recognize early and differentiate dystonic storm from other hyperkinetic movement disorder emergencies. Dystonic storm usually occurs in patients with known dystonia, such as DYT1 dystonia, Wilson's disease and dystonic cerebral palsy. Triggers such as infection or medication adjustment are present in about one-third of all events. Due to the significant morbidity and mortality of this disorder, we propose a management algorithm that divides decision making into two periods: the first 24 h, and the next 2-4 weeks. During the first 24 h, supportive therapy should be initiated, and appropriate patients should be identified early as candidates for pallidal deep brain stimulation or intrathecal baclofen. Management in the next 2-4 weeks aims at symptomatic dystonia control and supportive therapies.

  5. Photic induced-driven PLEDs in paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis.

    PubMed

    Jacome, D E; Risko, M

    1984-07-01

    An 82-year-old female had rare unilateral spontaneous attacks of paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis without loss of consciousness since early adolescence. Her maternal aunt had similar episodes. Previous interictal EEGs never recorded in close association to her attacks had been normal. Photic stimulation at low frequencies during EEG recordings performed near to one of her ictus, induced paroxysmal driven lateralized epileptiform discharges from the contralateral hemisphere. This peri-ictal finding in a patient with paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis is unique and suggests this disorder may have some epileptogenic basis.

  6. The Clinical Course of a Drug-induced Acute Dystonic Reaction in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Massimo; di Biase, Lazzaro; Salomone, Gaetano; Di Santo, Alessandro; Montiroli, Annalisa; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute dystonic reactions following the administration of safe, reliable drugs can occur and must be promptly recognized and treated in the emergency room. Phenomenology Shown The entire clinical course of an acute dystonic reaction due to metoclopramide, from early motor signs to full-blown clinical symptoms and resolution. Educational Value Providing elements for early recognition of a drug-induced movement disorder phenomenology. PMID:28105387

  7. A Stepwise Approach: Decreasing Infection in Deep Brain Stimulation for Childhood Dystonic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Johans, Stephen J; Swong, Kevin N; Hofler, Ryan C; Anderson, Douglas E

    2017-09-01

    Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions, which cause twisting movements or abnormal postures. Deep brain stimulation has been used to improve the quality of life for secondary dystonia caused by cerebral palsy. Despite being a viable treatment option for childhood dystonic cerebral palsy, deep brain stimulation is associated with a high rate of infection in children. The authors present a small series of patients with dystonic cerebral palsy who underwent a stepwise approach for bilateral globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation placement in order to decrease the rate of infection. Four children with dystonic cerebral palsy who underwent a total of 13 surgical procedures (electrode and battery placement) were identified via a retrospective review. There were zero postoperative infections. Using a multistaged surgical plan for pediatric patients with dystonic cerebral palsy undergoing deep brain stimulation may help to reduce the risk of infection.

  8. Intrathecal baclofen treatment in dystonic cerebral palsy: a randomized clinical trial: the IDYS trial.

    PubMed

    Bonouvrié, Laura A; Becher, Jules G; Vles, Johannes S H; Boeschoten, Karin; Soudant, Dan; de Groot, Vincent; van Ouwerkerk, Willem J R; Strijers, Rob L M; Foncke, Elisabeth; Geytenbeek, Joke; van de Ven, Peter M; Teernstra, Onno; Vermeulen, R Jeroen

    2013-10-28

    Dystonic cerebral palsy is primarily caused by damage to the basal ganglia and central cortex. The daily care of these patients can be difficult due to dystonic movements. Intrathecal baclofen treatment is a potential treatment option for dystonia and has become common practice. Despite this widespread adoption, high quality evidence on the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on daily activities is lacking and prospective data are needed to judge the usefulness and indications for dystonic cerebral palsy. The primary aim of this study is to provide level one clinical evidence for the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on the level of activities and participation in dystonic cerebral palsy patients. Furthermore, we hope to identify clinical characteristics that will predict a beneficial effect of intrathecal baclofen in an individual patient. A double blind placebo-controlled multi-center randomized clinical trial will be performed in 30 children with dystonic cerebral palsy. Patients aged between 4 and 25 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of dystonic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Functioning Classification System level IV or V, with lesions in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia or central cortex and who are eligible for intrathecal baclofen treatment will be included. Group A will receive three months of continuous intrathecal baclofen treatment and group B will receive three months of placebo treatment, both via an implanted pump. After this three month period, all patients will receive intrathecal baclofen treatment, with a follow-up after nine months. The primary outcome measurement will be the effect on activities of and participation in daily life measured by Goal Attainment Scaling. Secondary outcome measurements on the level of body functions include dystonia, spasticity, pain, comfort and sleep-related breathing disorders. Side effects will be monitored and we will study whether patient characteristics influence outcome. The results of

  9. Intrathecal baclofen treatment in dystonic cerebral palsy: a randomized clinical trial: the IDYS trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dystonic cerebral palsy is primarily caused by damage to the basal ganglia and central cortex. The daily care of these patients can be difficult due to dystonic movements. Intrathecal baclofen treatment is a potential treatment option for dystonia and has become common practice. Despite this widespread adoption, high quality evidence on the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on daily activities is lacking and prospective data are needed to judge the usefulness and indications for dystonic cerebral palsy. The primary aim of this study is to provide level one clinical evidence for the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on the level of activities and participation in dystonic cerebral palsy patients. Furthermore, we hope to identify clinical characteristics that will predict a beneficial effect of intrathecal baclofen in an individual patient. Methods/Design A double blind placebo-controlled multi-center randomized clinical trial will be performed in 30 children with dystonic cerebral palsy. Patients aged between 4 and 25 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of dystonic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Functioning Classification System level IV or V, with lesions in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia or central cortex and who are eligible for intrathecal baclofen treatment will be included. Group A will receive three months of continuous intrathecal baclofen treatment and group B will receive three months of placebo treatment, both via an implanted pump. After this three month period, all patients will receive intrathecal baclofen treatment, with a follow-up after nine months. The primary outcome measurement will be the effect on activities of and participation in daily life measured by Goal Attainment Scaling. Secondary outcome measurements on the level of body functions include dystonia, spasticity, pain, comfort and sleep-related breathing disorders. Side effects will be monitored and we will study whether patient characteristics

  10. The basal ganglia and cerebellum interact in the expression of dystonic movement.

    PubMed

    Neychev, Vladimir K; Fan, Xueliang; Mitev, V I; Hess, Ellen J; Jinnah, H A

    2008-09-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements or abnormal posturing. Traditional views place responsibility for dystonia with dysfunction of basal ganglia circuits, yet recent evidence has pointed towards cerebellar circuits as well. In the current studies we used two strategies to explore the hypothesis that the expression of dystonic movements depends on influences from a motor network that includes both the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The first strategy was to evaluate the consequences of subthreshold lesions of the striatum in two different animal models where dystonic movements are thought to originate from abnormal cerebellar function. The second strategy employed microdialysis to search for changes in striatal dopamine release in these two animal models where the cerebellum has been already implicated. One of the animal models involved tottering mice, which exhibit paroxysmal dystonia due to an inherited defect affecting calcium channels. In keeping with prior results implicating the cerebellum in this model, surgical removal of the cerebellum eliminated their dystonic attacks. In contrast, subclinical lesions of the striatum with either 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) or quinolinic acid (QA) exaggerated their dystonic attacks. Microdialysis of the striatum revealed dystonic attacks in tottering mice to be associated with a significant reduction in extracellular striatal dopamine. The other animal model involved the induction of dystonia via pharmacological excitation of the cerebellar cortex by local application of kainic acid in normal mice. In this model the site of stimulation determines the origin of dystonia in the cerebellum. However, subclinical striatal lesions with either 6OHDA or QA again exaggerated their generalized dystonia. When dystonic movements were triggered by pharmacological stimulation of the cerebellum, microdialysis revealed significant reductions in striatal

  11. Dystonic opisthotonus: a "red flag" for neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation syndromes?

    PubMed

    Stamelou, Maria; Lai, Scarlett C; Aggarwal, Annu; Schneider, Susanne A; Houlden, Henry; Yeh, Tu-Hsueh; Batla, Amit; Lu, Chin-Song; Bhatt, Mohit; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2013-09-01

    Back arching was reported in one of the very first patients with neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation syndrome (NBIAs) published in 1936. However, recent reports have mainly focused on the genetic and imaging aspects of these disorders, and the phenotypic characterization of the dystonia has been lost. In evaluating patients with NBIAs in our centers, we have observed that action-induced dystonic opisthotonus is a common and characteristic feature of NBIAs. Here, we present a case series of patients with NBIAs presenting this feature demonstrated by videos. We suggest that dystonic opisthotonus could be a useful "red flag" for clinicians to suspect NBIAs, and we discuss the differential diagnosis of this feature. This would be particularly useful in identifying patients with NBIAs and no iron accumulation as yet on brain imaging (for example, as in phospholipase A2, group IV (cytosolic, calcium-independent) [PLA2G6]-related disorders), and it has management implications.

  12. Theory of mind, emotional and social functioning, and motor severity in children and adolescents with dystonic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Adegboye, Dolapo; Sterr, Annette; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Owen, Tamsin J

    2017-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether children and adolescents with dystonic cerebral palsy (CP) present with emotional and social difficulties along side motor limitations. Twenty-two verbal and nonverbal children and adolescents with dystonic CP were compared with a normative sample of twenty children and adolescents on measures of theory of mind (ToM), emotion regulation (ER), and social difficulties (SD). Higher social and emotional difficulties were found in the dystonic CP group compared to the control group. Nonverbal participants with dystonic CP were found to present with greater social impairment and lower ToM ability than their verbal counterparts. Emotional regulation and hyperactivity and attentional difficulties (HAD) significantly predicted ToM ability and social difficulties. Lower Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level and IQ also contributed to differences in ToM ability. Findings support the need for greater attention to the emotional health and social development of children/adolescents with dystonic CP, along with assessments of motor difficulties in the planning and implementation of interventions and individual care plans. Further research is needed to explore links between motor disorder and mental state understanding in this clinical group. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neural correlates of dystonic tremor: a multimodal study of voice tremor in spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Kirke, Diana N; Battistella, Giovanni; Kumar, Veena; Rubien-Thomas, Estee; Choy, Melissa; Rumbach, Anna; Simonyan, Kristina

    2016-02-03

    Tremor, affecting a dystonic body part, is a frequent feature of adult-onset dystonia. However, our understanding of dystonic tremor pathophysiology remains ambiguous as its interplay with the main co-occurring disorder, dystonia, is largely unknown. We used a combination of functional MRI, voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-weighted imaging to investigate similar and distinct patterns of brain functional and structural alterations in patients with dystonic tremor of voice (DTv) and isolated spasmodic dysphonia (SD). We found that, compared to controls, SD patients with and without DTv showed similarly increased activation in the sensorimotor cortex, inferior frontal (IFG) and superior temporal gyri, putamen and ventral thalamus, as well as deficient activation in the inferior parietal cortex and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Common structural alterations were observed in the IFG and putamen, which were further coupled with functional abnormalities in both patient groups. Abnormal activation in left putamen was correlated with SD onset; SD/DTv onset was associated with right putaminal volumetric changes. DTv severity established a significant relationship with abnormal volume of the left IFG. Direct patient group comparisons showed that SD/DTv patients had additional abnormalities in MFG and cerebellar function and white matter integrity in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Our findings suggest that dystonia and dystonic tremor, at least in the case of SD and SD/DTv, are heterogeneous disorders at different ends of the same pathophysiological spectrum, with each disorder carrying a characteristic neural signature, which may potentially help development of differential markers for these two conditions.

  14. Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis: Tight linkage to chromosome 2q

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Rainier, S.; Wilkowski, J.; Jones, S.M.

    1996-07-01

    Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC) is characterized by attacks of involuntary movements that last up to several hours and occur at rest both spontaneously and following caffeine or alcohol consumption. We analyzed a Polish-American kindred with autosomal dominant PDC and identified tight linkage between the disorder and microsatellite markers on chromosome 2q (maximum two-point LOD score 4.77; recombination fraction 0). Our results clearly establish the existence of a locus for autosomal dominant PDC on distal chromosome 2q. The fact that three other paroxysmal neurological disorders (periodic ataxia with myokymia and hypo- and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis) are due to mutation in ion-channel genes raises the possibility that PDC is also due to an ion-channel gene mutation. It is noteworthy that a cluster of sodium-channel genes is located on distal chromosome 2q, near the PDC locus. Identifying the PDC locus on chromosome 2q will facilitate discovery whether PDC is genetically homogeneous and whether other paroxysmal movement disorders are also genetically linked to the PDC locus. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis: tight linkage to chromosome 2q.

    PubMed Central

    Fink, J. K.; Rainer, S.; Wilkowski, J.; Jones, S. M.; Kume, A.; Hedera, P.; Albin, R.; Mathay, J.; Girbach, L.; Varvil, T.; Otterud, B.; Leppert, M.

    1996-01-01

    Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC) is characterized by attacks of involuntary movements that last up to several hours and occur at rest both spontaneously and following caffeine or alcohol consumption. We analyzed a Polish-American kindred with autosomal dominant PDC and identified tight linkage between the disorder and microsatellite markers on chromosome 2q (maximum two-point LOD score 4.77; recombination fraction 0). Our results clearly establish the existence of a locus for autosomal dominant PDC on distal chromosome 2q. The fact that three other paroxysmal neurological disorders (periodic ataxia with myokymia and hypo- and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis) are due to mutation in ion-channel genes raises the possibility that PDC is also due to an ion-channel gene mutation. It is noteworthy that a cluster of sodium-channel genes is located on distal chromosome 2q, near the PDC locus. Identifying the PDC locus on chromosome 2q will facilitate discovery of the PDC gene and enable investigators to determine whether PDC is genetically homogeneous and whether other paroxysmal movement disorders are also genetically linked to the PDC locus. PMID:8659518

  16. Varenicline-induced acute dystonic reaction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Uca, Ali Ulvi; Kozak, Hasan Hüseyin; Uguz, Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Dystonia is a syndrome characterized by sustained muscle contractions frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. Dystonic reactions may be a complication of many drugs such as antipsychotics, anti-emetics and antidepressants. This report presents a 25-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with acute dystonia following the use of varenicline, a pharmacological agent used for the treatment of nicotine addiction. Dystonic reactions may be related to the dopaminergic deficiency caused by the use of varenicline. In conclusion, this report suggests that varenicline can cause dystonic reaction in at least some patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. “Club-Cutting” Dystonic Tremor: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kinley; Mahon, Barry; O’Rourke, Killian; Lynch, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Background Focal task-specific dystonic postures are well recognized. Often a tremor may be the main feature with little or no dystonia. These have been well reported in writers, musicians, and sportspeople. Case Report Herein we report a novel task-specific dystonic tremor in a 44-year-old Irish hairdresser due to club-cutting, a standard haircutting technique. Discussion Hairdresser’s dystonia is a novel task-specific dystonia. PMID:24156085

  18. [A Japanese family with paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, H; Okano, M; Kaida, K; Tadano, Y; Kamakura, K

    1997-10-01

    We present the first report of Japanese family with paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC). At least seventeen individuals of this family in six generations were affected by PDC by autosomal dominant inheritance. The affected individuals had attacks of choreoathetosis/dystonia-like involuntary movements without loss of consciousness. These attacks were precipitated by stress, caffeine, menstruation or ovulation, but not by sudden voluntary movements, which are common precipitating factors in paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC). MRI studies of the brain revealed no abnormalities. Some of the family members received clonazepam, or garlic with significant therapeutic effects, while one female case improved after hysterectomy. The pathogenesis of PDC remains unknown, but it could be attributed to a form of channelopathy. Recently, two linkage studies were reported and the PDC locus was identified on chromosome 2q, which may lead to clarify the PDC gene. The family described here may be important for the future biochemical and genetic analyses. We also suspect that PDC may relate to endocrinological abnormalities besides channelopathy.

  19. [Possibilities of treatment of dystonic syndromes with akineton].

    PubMed

    Karabanov, A V; Illarioshkin, S N

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of dystonia is a complex problem of current neurology due to the etiological and neurochemical heterogeneity of this clinical syndrome. Central cholinolytics is a most effective group of drugs for patients with dystonia and dystonic tremor. The authors present the results of the successful treatment with biperiden (akineton), a centrally active anticholinergic drug with additional peripheral choline- and ganglion-blocking effect in cervical dystonia. The time of response to treatment and duration of clinical effect, its possible predictors are analyzed. Perspectives of using cholinolytics in treatment of different forms of dystonic hyperkineses are discussed.

  20. Metoclopramide induced acute dystonic reaction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tianyi, Frank-Leonel; Agbor, Valirie Ndip; Njim, Tsi

    2017-01-07

    Metoclopramide is a commonly used anti-emetic drug known to cause extrapyramidal symptoms as adverse effects, amongst which are dystonic reactions. These reactions are more frequent at high doses of metoclopramide, in female patients, children and adults less than 30 years of age. We hereby present the case of a 16 year old female who had dystonic reactions from metoclopramide, highlighting its unpredictable nature and the shortcomings of the management in resource-limited settings. A 16 year old female Muslim from the Extreme North of Cameroon with no significant past history, was treated for severe malaria and associated refractory vomiting using intravenous quinine and metoclopramide respectively. She developed dystonic reactions after being administered her second dose of metoclopramide. The drug was discontinued and she was administered 8 mg of chlorpheniramine by mouth. Her symptoms resolved after 4 h. She was discharged 2 days later with no further complaints. Metoclopramide causes dystonic reactions which are often unpredictable and is frequently prescribed by health providers. This creates an environment of anxiety for the patient and the caregiver, and can result in life threatening consequences. Patients on metoclopramide should be monitored closely to detect these reactions early, and health facilities should be equipped to cope with the adverse effects before administration.

  1. Improved identification of dystonic cervical muscles via abnormal muscle activity during isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    De Bruijn, E; Nijmeijer, S W R; Forbes, P A; Koelman, J H T M; van der Helm, F C T; Tijssen, M A J; Happee, R

    2015-07-15

    The preferred treatment for cervical dystonia (CD) is injection of botulinum toxin in the dystonic muscles. Unfortunately, in the absence of reliable diagnostic methods it can be difficult to discriminate dystonic muscles from healthy muscles acting in compensation. We investigated if dystonic muscle activation patterns could be identified in cervical dystonia patients during a harmonized isometric contraction task. Furthermore, we investigated whether dystonia worsens at higher levels of voluntary contraction, which might further improve the identification of dystonic muscle activity. An isometric device was used to investigate muscle activation during voluntary contraction tasks in 10 controls and 10 CD patients. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the sternocleidomastoidus, splenius capitis, and semispinalis capitis muscles was evaluated during a rest task and when performing submaximal (20%) and maximal voluntary contractions for eight head transversal force directions and for head twist. Two measures were developed to identify dystonic activation: 1) Muscle activity in the contraction direction in which the contribution of the muscle was lowest (Minimum EMG), and 2) the average muscle activity over all contraction directions (Total Mean EMG). Patients showed increased dystonic activity in the rest task and during submaximal contractions relative to controls, but not during maximal contractions. Increases in Minimum EMG indicated an inability of patients to deactivate dystonic muscles counteracting the task. Increases in Total Mean EMG indicated dystonic activity in all task directions. During maximal contractions these effects were absent in dystonic muscles. Dystonia is therefore found not to worsen at higher levels of isometric voluntary contraction. The activity of dystonic muscles modulated with different loading directions similar to controls. Using Minimum EMG 54% of the muscles clinically diagnosed as dystonic and 91% of non-dystonic muscles were

  2. Jerky dystonic shoulder following infarction of the posterior thalamus.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth H

    2015-01-01

    The syndrome of the jerky dystonic hand is recognized as a consequence of infarction of the posterior thalamus. A patient with multiple risk factors for stroke developed jerky dystonia of more proximal involvement, affecting the shoulder and speech, several months after a stroke affecting the posterior thalamic region. The cause for the proximal, rather than distal, upper limb involvement, is unclear, and is not apparent from the distribution of the lesion on neuroimaging. Injections of botulinum toxin significantly improved the symptoms.

  3. 'Ego-dystonicity' in homosexuality: An Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Maroky, Ami Sebastian; Ratheesh, Aswin; Viswanath, Biju; Math, Suresh Bada; Chandrashekar, Channapatna R; Seshadri, Shekhar P

    2015-06-01

    Homosexual persons are targets of verbal and physical abuse, discrimination and face legal disadvantages in many countries, including India. These external factors could play a role in determining discomfort with their sexuality. We ascertained the association between ego-dystonicity of sexual orientation and indices of perceived acceptance, stigma and awareness of possible normative lifestyles. Fifty-one self-identified adult homosexual men were assessed using online questionnaires that covered information including their socio-demographic details; a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) that measured their degree of discomfort with their sexuality; Reactions to Homosexuality Scale, Perceived Acceptance Scale, Modified China Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) Stigma scale; and trait version of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. The participants were also asked to provide a written narrative of their experiences which influenced their comfort with their sexuality. Discomfort with sexuality significantly correlated with education, acceptance by friends and family, legal disadvantages, awareness and accessibility to non-heteronormative lifestyles and support systems and trait affect. Only acceptance by friends and awareness showed significance on linear regression. Qualitative analyses revealed external attributions for discomfort. Modifying external factors, reducing legal restrictions and improving societal acceptance and support systems could reduce 'ego-dystonicity'. 'Ego-dystonicity' as a determinant for psychiatric classification and intervention needs to be reexamined. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Use of chemodenervation in dystonic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Maurice

    2012-07-01

    Dystonia, an uncommon movement disorder that causes sustained muscle contractions and painful body positions, is a difficult diagnostic challenge; misdiagnosis is common. Classification may include etiology, area of physical involvement, or age of onset. Bodily distribution is varied, and dystonias can present as primary (genetic) or secondary (caused by other disease processes or use of neuroleptic drugs). Although there is no cure, the use of botulinum toxins for chemodenervation provides symptomatic relief and is considered the treatment of choice in focal dystonia. The dose of botulinum toxin may be titrated to provide significant relief for 12 weeks or more.

  5. Dystonic reactions and the pharmacokinetics of metoclopramide in children.

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, D N; Craft, A W; Nicholson, E; Pearson, A D

    1983-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of metoclopramide have been studied in nine children receiving the drug as prophylaxis for cytotoxic induced vomiting. Plasma concentrations of metoclopramide have also been studied in three children with dystonic reactions to the drug. The pharmacokinetics in children were similar to those reported in healthy adults. There was no difference in the plasma concentration of metoclopramide of children with dystonia when compared to those without this adverse effect. Kinetic differences in childhood do not explain the occurrence of dystonia, which in the individual appears to be related to factors other than plasma drug concentrations. PMID:6860530

  6. "Ego-dystonic" delusions as a predictor of dangerous behavior.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Zislin; Victor, Kuperman; Rimona, Durst

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims to report a possible warning sign for dangerous behavior in delusional psychotic patients. We demonstrate an association between aggressive or auto-aggressive ideation and "ego-dystonic" grandiose delusions, where the patient believes to possess unique qualities but finds them unbearable. The study is based on the sample of seven interviews with five psychotic in-patients at the Kfar Shaul Mental Health Center, Jerusalem, Israel. All patients experienced an acute psychotic episode, and committed acts of aggression or suicidality. The research method is narrative analysis of semi-structured interviews. Patients report ideas of grandiose self-identification with deities, Biblical figures or celebrities, yet report their reluctance to be in these high positions due to feelings of unworthiness, withdrawal, and social isolation. Resulting frustration arguably leads to aggressive and suicidal ideation or actions. Contrary to the established view, grandiose delusions are not free of association with (auto-)aggression. The patient's ego-dystonic attitude towards his/her delusional identity may serve as the warning sign for dangerous behavior and, as such, should be searched for and recognized by the mental health professionals.

  7. The treatment of dystonic tremor: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Lang, Anthony E

    2014-07-01

    Tremor is one of the clinical manifestations of dystonia; however, there are no specific therapeutic trials evaluating the efficacy of treatments for dystonic tremor (DT), tremor associated with dystonia or primary writing tremor (PWT). We systematically reviewed the literature available up to July 2013 on the treatment of these tremors and retrieved the data of 487 patients published in 43 papers detailing the effects of given interventions on tremor severity. Treatment outcome was highly variable, depending on the specific type of intervention and tremor distribution. No specifically designed studies were available for the treatment of tremor associated with dystonia. As for the other tremors, drug efficacy was generally disappointing and a moderate effect was only found with anticholinergics, tetrabenazine, clonazepam, β-blockers and primidone; levodopa was only efficacious on tremor due to dopa-responsive dystonia. The largest amount of data was available for botulinum toxin injections, which provided a marked improvement, particularly for the management of axial tremors (head or vocal cords). In refractory DTs, deep brain stimulation of several targets was attempted. Deep brain stimulation of globus pallidus internus, thalamus or subthalamic area led to a marked improvement of dystonic axial or appendicular tremors in most cases refractory to other treatments. Few other non-invasive treatments, for example, orthotic device in PWT, have been used with anecdotal success. In conclusion, considering the lack of good-quality studies, future randomised controlled trials are needed. In absence of evidence-based guidelines, we propose an algorithm for the treatment of DT based on currently available data.

  8. A new clinical feature associated with familial early-onset of dystonic-guttural tics: An unusual diagnosis of PANDAS.

    PubMed

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Trifiletti, Rosario R; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Parano, Enrico; Spalice, Alberto; Pavone, Piero

    2014-01-01

    Until today there is a large debate about the existence of PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) or PANS (pediatric acute onset neuropsychiatric syndrome). These children usually have dramatic, "overnight" onset of symptoms, including motor or vocal tics, obsessions, and/or compulsions. In addition to these symptoms, children may also have comorbid features of associated disorders. Herein, we report a family with an early onset of tics, with exclusively dystonic and guttural tics. All patients had a particularly strong excitement trigger. Two of the patients were shown to have signs suggestive of PANDAS and all family members were Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) carriers. The PANDAS spectrum is probably a group of disorders. We have described a PANDAS variant, in which the family seems to share common autoimmune pattern and may be viewed in the large spectrum of PANDAS.

  9. Should we consider Vim thalamic deep brain stimulation for select cases of severe refractory dystonic tremor.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Takashi; Foote, Kelly D; Haq, Ihtsham U; Zeilman, Pamela; Jacobson, Charles E; Okun, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Dystonic tremor, which may present with many different clinical presentations (rhythmic oscillations, abnormal posture, pain, and/or a null point) has proven to be a challenge for the clinician to effectively treat. Although recent studies have demonstrated excellent outcomes in select cases following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal globus pallidus, the optimal target for dystonia and particularly for dystonic tremor remains unknown. We report 3 cases of dystonic tremor which were successfully addressed through the use of ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) DBS. We also review the literature concerning the efficacy of Vim DBS for addressing dystonia. This case series illustrates the potential use of Vim DBS for select cases of dystonic tremor. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. [Characteristic asymmetric abnormal eye movement and dystonic posture as the first symptoms of alternating hemiplegia of childhood].

    PubMed

    Motoki, Takahiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Ishii, Atsushi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    A 3-month-old girl exhibited asymmetric abnormal eye movement and unilateral dystonic posture intermittently after the first few days of life. Unilateral ocular deviation or nystagmus were the main signs of abnormal eye movements. She was suspected to have alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) despite the absence of apparent alternating hemiplegic episodes. Gene analysis revealed a de-novo missense mutation (Asp801Asn) of ATP1A3. AHC is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by recurrent transient attacks of hemiplegia affecting the unilateral or bilateral side of the body; in most cases, these attacks begin in the first 6 months of life. Initial symptoms of AHC are not alternating hemiplegic episodes, but rather asymmetric abnormal eye movement, dystonic posture, or seizures. It is difficult to diagnose AHC early because no specific findings are observed in the diagnostic laboratory or neuroradiological examinations. Early diagnosis is important because flunarizine may have a protective effect on the severe motor deterioration associated with AHC. Asymmetric abnormal eye movement could be an important clinical symptom for the diagnosis of AHC in early infancy.

  11. Diagnosis of dystonic syndromes--a new eight-question approach.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Kelly L; Williams, David R

    2012-03-20

    Dystonia is a syndrome of abnormal involuntary movements that are repetitive, twisting or patterned, and can result in abnormal postures. Dystonia may be generalized or focal, and can occur as a primary syndrome or secondary to another disease--over 50 clinical conditions are reported to cause dystonia. Classification of dystonia is based on genetic background, anatomical distribution, age at onset, and neurodegenerative processes. In many cases, manifestations of dystonia are identical regardless of the aetiology, which makes accurate diagnosis challenging, if not impossible, without additional investigations. Exhaustive lists of the causes of dystonia are not practical to aid clinicians when attempting to determine if a hyperkinetic movement can be diagnosed as dystonic. The existing diagnostic algorithms for dystonic syndromes rely on the clinician's experience, without a streamlined diagnostic pathway. Non-specialist clinicians and neurologists may, therefore, find diagnosis of dystonic syndromes difficult. In this Review, an eight-question approach is proposed, with a summary of the evidence for investigations that enable successful diagnosis of dystonic syndromes. The aim of this approach is to inform both specialists and general neurologists on the appropriate diagnostic test for each patient who presents with a possible dystonic syndrome.

  12. Cocaine-induced dystonic reaction: an unlikely presentation of child neglect.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jamie M; Babu, Kavita; Jenny, Carole

    2013-09-01

    Child neglect can be difficult to recognize. Parental substance abuse may place a child at increased risk of neglect. This report reviews 2 cases of dystonic reaction in children after accidental exposure to cocaine in their home environments. The reports are followed by a review of proposed physiologic mechanisms for cocaine-induced dystonia and a discussion on neurological symptoms that may develop after cocaine exposure. Pediatric emergency physicians should consider cocaine exposure when a child of any age presents with abnormal movements. Dystonic reaction is an uncommon, but reported, complication of cocaine exposure in the absence of other risk factors and may be the first presentation of child neglect.

  13. Acute dystonic reaction in an adolescent on risperidone when a concomitant stimulant medication is discontinued.

    PubMed

    Keshen, Aaron; Carandang, Carlo

    2007-12-01

    This report describes an acute dystonic reaction that occurred after dexamphetamine was discontinued from a drug regimen that included risperidone. This is the second report that has revealed a possible rebound dystonia when a stimulant medication is withdrawn from a patient taking risperidone. We also discuss the neurophysiological hypotheses and implications for treatment.

  14. Is Changing Sexual Orientation a Viable Option for Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Dana Ray

    This paper addresses the issue of homosexuals who want to change their sexual orientation. It is noted that many ego-dystonic homosexuals who want to become heterosexual, despite encouragement from psychotherapists to accept their homosexuality, are turning to self-help groups in an effort to change their sexual orientation. Studies that have…

  15. Deep brain stimulation as treatment for dystonic storm in pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration syndrome: case report of a patient with homozygous C.628 2 T > G mutation of the PANK2 gene.

    PubMed

    Tanrıkulu, Bahattin; Özen, Ali; Günal, Dilek Ince; Türkdoğan, Dilşad; Bayraklı, Fatih; Bayri, Yaşar; Dağçınar, Adnan; Şeker, Aşkın

    2015-09-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) syndrome is an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive generalized dystonia. Currently, the disorder remains pharmacologically intractable. Herein we report the first case in which deep brain stimulation helped to relieve dystonic storm in a patient with PKAN syndrome who had homozygous c.628 2 T > G mutation of the PANK2 gene. A 10-year-old boy with PKAN disease presented with dystonic storm and was admitted to the emergency department. Examination revealed generalized dystonia and impaired breathing due to involvement of the respiratory muscles. The patient underwent surgery for bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation. The patient showed marked response to treatment.

  16. Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of childhood dystonic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Keen, Joseph R; Przekop, Allison; Olaya, Joffre E; Zouros, Alexander; Hsu, Frank P K

    2014-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for dystonic cerebral palsy (CP) has rarely been reported, and its efficacy, though modest when compared with that for primary dystonia, remains unclear, especially in the pediatric population. The authors present a small series of children with dystonic CP who underwent bilateral pallidal DBS, to evaluate the treatment's efficacy and safety in the pediatric dystonic CP population. The authors conducted a retrospective review of patients (under the age of 18 years) with dystonic CP who had undergone DBS of the bilateral globus pallidus internus between 2010 and 2012. Two of the authors independently assessed outcomes using the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS) and the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-movement (BFMDRS-M). Five children were diagnosed with dystonic CP due to insults occurring before the age of 1 year. Mean age at surgery was 11 years (range 8-17 years), and the mean follow-up was 26.6 months (range 2-42 months). The mean target position was 20.6 mm lateral to the midcommissural point. The mean preoperative and postoperative BADS scores were 23.8 ± 4.9 (range 18.5-29.0) and 20.0 ± 5.5 (range 14.5-28.0), respectively, with a mean overall percent improvement of 16.0% (p = 0.14). The mean preoperative and postoperative BFMDRS-M scores were 73.3 ± 26.6 (range 38.5-102.0) and 52.4 ± 21.5 (range 34.0-80.0), respectively, with a mean overall percent improvement of 28.5% (p = 0.10). Those stimulated at least 23 months (4 patients) improved 18.3% (p = 0.14) on the BADS and 30.5% (p = 0.07) on the BFMDRS-M. The percentage improvement per body region yielded conflicting results between rating scales; however, BFMDRS-M scores for speech showed some of the greatest improvements. Two patients required hardware removal (1 complete system, 1 unilateral electrode) within 4 months after implantation because of infections that resolved with antibiotics. All postoperative dystonia rating scale scores improved with pallidal

  17. Does dystonic muscle activity affect sense of effort in cervical dystonia?

    PubMed Central

    Carment, Loïc; Maier, Marc A.; Sangla, Sophie; Guiraud, Vincent; Mesure, Serge; Vidailhet, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background Focal dystonia has been associated with deficient processing of sense of effort cues. However, corresponding studies are lacking in cervical dystonia (CD). We hypothesized that dystonic muscle activity would perturb neck force control based on sense of effort cues. Methods Neck extension force control was investigated in 18 CD patients with different clinical features (7 with and 11 without retrocollis) and in 19 control subjects. Subjects performed force-matching and force-maintaining tasks at 5% and 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Three task conditions were tested: i) with visual force feedback, ii) without visual feedback (requiring use of sense of effort), iii) without visual feedback, but with neck extensor muscle vibration (modifying muscle afferent cues). Trapezius muscle activity was recorded using electromyography (EMG). Results CD patients did not differ in task performance from healthy subjects when using visual feedback (ANOVA, p>0.7). In contrast, when relying on sense of effort cues (without visual feedback, 5% MVC), force control was impaired in patients without retrocollis (p = 0.006), but not in patients with retrocollis (p>0.2). Compared to controls, muscle vibration without visual feedback significantly affected performance in patients with retrocollis (p<0.001), but not in patients without retrocollis. Extensor EMG during rest, included as covariate in ANOVA, explained these group differences. Conclusion This study shows that muscle afferent feedback biases sense of effort cues when controlling neck forces in patients with CD. The bias acts on peripheral or central sense of effort cues depending on whether the task involves dystonic muscles. This may explain why patients with retrocollis more accurately matched isometric neck extension forces. This highlights the need to consider clinical features (pattern of dystonic muscles) when evaluating sensorimotor integration in CD. PMID:28192488

  18. Confusion, Faciobrachial Dystonic Seizures, and Critical Hyponatremia in a Patient with Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune limbic encephalitis is a rare cause of encephalitic disease. It is associated with various target antigens and is difficult to diagnose, and experience with its treatment is limited. This case report describes a 69-year-old man, who presented with life-threatening hyponatremia and confusion, following several months of gradually worsening faciobrachial dystonic seizures. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures are a well-described feature classically observed in voltage-gated potassium channel autoimmune encephalitis. The presence of chronic hyponatremia without cognitive dysfunction, eventually culminating in an acute episode of encephalopathy and severe hyponatremia, is a pattern of natural history not previously documented in this condition. PMID:28360986

  19. Correlation between neuroleptic binding to sigma(1) and sigma(2) receptors and acute dystonic reactions.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, R R; Pouw, B

    2000-08-04

    Acute dystonic reactions are motor side effects that occur soon after the initiation of neuroleptic treatment. Although earlier studies indicate that these abnormal movements can be induced in animals and humans via activation of sigma receptors, the relative contribution of the different sigma receptor subtypes is unknown. Since sigma(1) and sigma(2) receptor are differentially represented in motor regions of the brain, the affinities of 17 neuroleptics for these sigma receptor subtypes were determined using competition binding studies. The results revealed that most neuroleptics do not exhibit selectivity for either of the sigma receptor subtypes, as reflected by a significant correlation between the affinities of the neuroleptics for sigma(1) vs. sigma(2) receptors. Moreover, when the sigma binding affinities of the neuroleptics were correlated with the tendency of the drugs to produce acute dystonic reactions in humans, there was a significant correlation for both subtypes. Together with earlier studies in animals, the data suggest that neuroleptic-induced motor side effects can be mediated through both sigma(1) and sigma(2) receptors.

  20. Temperament features in adolescents with ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Carlo; Ampollini, Paolo; DePanfilis, Chiara; Maggini, Carlo

    2008-09-01

    The present study evaluated whether different patterns of temperament may predict a different threshold of acceptability of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in adolescents. OC symptomatology was detected with the Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version (LOI-CV) and temperament was assessed using the tridimensional personality questionnaire in 2,775 high-school students. According to the LOI-CV scores, the adolescents were classified as high interference (interfering, ego-dystonic symptoms) (HI), supernormal (noninterfering, ego-syntonic symptoms) (Sn) and controls (C) HI were 119 (4.3%), Sn 85 (3.1%) and C 2,571 (92.6%). The best predictor of belonging to HI or Sn groups was the temperament configuration of high Harm Avoidance (HA) and high Persistence (P). The feature that mainly distinguishes the two symptomatic groups were Novelty Seeking (NS) levels. Our data suggest that people characterized by pessimistic worry in anticipation of future problems, passive avoidant behaviour, rapid fatigability (high HA) and irresoluteness, ambitiousness, perseverance, perfectionism, enduring feelings of frustration (high P) might develop OC symptoms. Whether OC symptoms become ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic seems to mainly depend on NS levels: low NS might protect people (with the prevention of "exploratory and active behaviours" that may elicit loss of control on symptoms) from the development of interfering OC symptoms.

  1. Dystonic neck muscles show a shift in relative autospectral power during isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    De Bruijn, E; Nijmeijer, S W R; Forbes, P A; Koelman, J H T M; Van Der Helm, F C T; Tijssen, M A J; Happee, R

    2017-07-17

    To identify effects of a deviant motor drive in the autospectral power of dystonic muscles during voluntary contraction in cervical dystonia patients. Submaximal (20%) isometric head-neck tasks were performed with the head fixed, measuring surface EMG of the sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis and semispinalis capitis in CD patients and controls. Autospectral power of muscle activity, and head forces was analyzed using cumulative distribution functions (CDF). A downward shift between the theta/low alpha-band (3-10Hz) and the high alpha/beta-band (10-30Hz) was detected using the CDF10, defined as the cumulative power from 3 to 10Hz relative to power from 3 to 30Hz. CDF10 was increased in dystonic muscles compared to controls and patient muscles unaffected by dystonia, due to a 3-10Hz power increase and a 10-30Hz decrease. CDF10 also increased in patient head forces. Submaximal isometric contractions with the head fixed provided a well-defined test condition minimizing effects of reflexive feedback and tremor. We associate shifts in autospectral power with prokinetic sensorimotor control. Analysis of autospectral power in isometric tasks with the head fixed is a promising approach in research and diagnostics of cervical dystonia. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

  3. Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

  4. Glutaric aciduria type 1 as a cause of dystonic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Sarar; Hamad, Muddathir H.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Salih, Mustafa A.

    2015-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an inherited inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glutaryl Co-A dehydrogenase (GCDH). Here, we report a 14-month-old Saudi boy with GA1 who presented with severe dystonia and was mis-diagnosed as cerebral palsy (CP). He presented to our institute with encephalopathy following an episode of gastroenteritis. His physical examination showed dystonia and spastic quadriplegia. His investigations revealed elevated both urinary 3-hydroxy glutaric acid, and serum glutarylcarnitine. The DNA analysis confirmed homozygosity for a mutation in the GCDH-coding gene (c.482G>A;p.R161Q). This case alerts pediatricians to consider GA1 as a differential diagnosis of children presenting with dystonic CP. PMID:26593172

  5. Increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the cerebellum of the x-irradiated dystonic rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dopico, A.M.; Rios, H.; Mayo, J.; Zieher, L.M. )

    1990-08-01

    The exposure of the cephalic end of rats to repeated doses of x-irradiation (150 rad) immediately after birth induces a long-term increase in the noradrenaline (NA) content of cerebellum (CE) (+ 37.8%), and a decrease in cerebellar weight (65.2% of controls), which results in an increased NA concentration (+ 109%). This increase in the neurotransmitter level is accompanied by a dystonic syndrome and histological abnormalities: Purkinje cells (the target cells for NA afferents to CE) fail to arrange in a characteristic monolayer, and their primary dendritic tree appears randomly oriented. The injection of reserpine 0.9 and 1.2 mg/kg ip to adult rats for 18 h depletes cerebellar NA content in both controls (15.7 {plus minus} 4 ng/CE and 2.8 {plus minus} 1.5 ng/CE, respectively) and x-irradiated rats (17.1 {plus minus} 1 ng/CE and 8.3 {plus minus} 2 ng/CE, respectively). The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in CE of adult rats, measured by an in vitro assay, is significantly increased in neonatally x-irradiated animals when compared to age-matched controls (16.4 {plus minus} 1.4 vs 6.32 {plus minus} 0.6 nmol CO2/h/mg prot., p less than 0.01). As observed for NA levels, a net increase in TH activity induced by the ionizing radiation is also measured: 308.9 {plus minus} 23.8 vs 408.2 {plus minus} 21.5 nmol CO2/h/CE, p less than 0.01 (controls and x-treated, respectively). These results suggest that x-irradiation at birth may induce an abnormal sprouting of noradrenergic afferents to CE. The possibility that these changes represent a response of the NA system to the dystonic syndrome is discussed.

  6. Deep brain stimulation suppresses pallidal low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonic movements.

    PubMed

    Barow, Ewgenia; Neumann, Wolf-Julian; Brücke, Christof; Huebl, Julius; Horn, Andreas; Brown, Peter; Krauss, Joachim K; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus alleviates involuntary movements in patients with dystonia. However, the mechanism is still not entirely understood. One hypothesis is that deep brain stimulation suppresses abnormally enhanced synchronized oscillatory activity within the motor cortico-basal ganglia network. Here, we explore deep brain stimulation-induced modulation of pathological low frequency (4-12 Hz) pallidal activity that has been described in local field potential recordings in patients with dystonia. Therefore, local field potentials were recorded from 16 hemispheres in 12 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation for severe dystonia using a specially designed amplifier allowing simultaneous high frequency stimulation at therapeutic parameter settings and local field potential recordings. For coherence analysis electroencephalographic activity (EEG) over motor areas and electromyographic activity (EMG) from affected neck muscles were recorded before and immediately after cessation of high frequency stimulation. High frequency stimulation led to a significant reduction of mean power in the 4-12 Hz band by 24.8 ± 7.0% in patients with predominantly phasic dystonia. A significant decrease of coherence between cortical EEG and pallidal local field potential activity in the 4-12 Hz range was revealed for the time period of 30 s after switching off high frequency stimulation. Coherence between EMG activity and pallidal activity was mainly found in patients with phasic dystonic movements where it was suppressed after high frequency stimulation. Our findings suggest that high frequency stimulation may suppress pathologically enhanced low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonia. These dystonic features are the quickest to respond to high frequency stimulation and may thus directly relate to modulation of pathological basal ganglia activity, whereas improvement in tonic features may depend on long-term plastic changes within the

  7. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures: the influence of immunotherapy on seizure control and prevention of cognitive impairment in a broadening phenotype.

    PubMed

    Irani, Sarosh R; Stagg, Charlotte J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rosenthal, Clive R; Schneider, Susanne A; Pettingill, Philippa; Pettingill, Rosemary; Waters, Patrick; Thomas, Adam; Voets, Natalie L; Cardoso, Manuel J; Cash, David M; Manning, Emily N; Lang, Bethan; Smith, Shelagh J M; Vincent, Angela; Johnson, Michael R

    2013-10-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies, particularly those directed against leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1, are associated with a common form of limbic encephalitis that presents with cognitive impairment and seizures. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures have recently been reported as immunotherapy-responsive, brief, frequent events that often predate the cognitive impairment associated with this limbic encephalitis. However, these observations were made from a retrospective study without serial cognitive assessments. Here, we undertook the first prospective study of faciobrachial dystonic seizures with serial assessments of seizure frequencies, cognition and antibodies in 10 cases identified over 20 months. We hypothesized that (i) faciobrachial dystonic seizures would show a differential response to anti-epileptic drugs and immunotherapy; and that (ii) effective treatment of faciobrachial dystonic seizures would accelerate recovery and prevent the development of cognitive impairment. The 10 cases expand both the known age at onset (28 to 92 years, median 68) and clinical features, with events of longer duration, simultaneously bilateral events, prominent automatisms, sensory aura, and post-ictal fear and speech arrest. Ictal epileptiform electroencephalographic changes were present in three cases. All 10 cases were positive for voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (346-4515 pM): nine showed specificity for leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1. Seven cases had normal clinical magnetic resonance imaging, and the cerebrospinal fluid examination was unremarkable in all seven tested. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures were controlled more effectively with immunotherapy than anti-epileptic drugs (P = 0.006). Strikingly, in the nine cases who remained anti-epileptic drug refractory for a median of 30 days (range 11-200), the addition of corticosteroids was associated with cessation of faciobrachial dystonic seizures within 1 week in three and within 2

  8. Cervical spondylotic radiculo-myelopathy in patients with athetoid-dystonic cerebral palsy: clinical evaluation and surgical treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, G; Kadoya, S

    1984-01-01

    The acute onset of symptoms of severe cervical radiculo-myelopathy in four patients with athetoid-dystonic cerebral palsy is reported. Neurological and radiological examination showed that the spondylotic changes of the cervical spine were responsible for new neurological deficits leading to the patients being bedridden. Dystonic-athetoid neck movements may cause excessive axial neck rotation as well as flexion and extension movements of the spine. These repetitive exaggerated movements may result in early degenerative changes of the vertebrae which may enhance the radiculo-myelopathy. The four patients were treated with an anterior discectomy with interbody fusion. They were bedridden pre-operatively but all have since been able to walk with or without a cane. It is concluded that early anterior decompression with interbody fusion is a treatment of choice for cervical spondylotic radiculo-myelopathy in association with athetoid cerebral palsy. Images PMID:6470718

  9. Forebrain deletion of the dystonia protein torsinA causes dystonic-like movements and loss of striatal cholinergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Samuel S; Darr, Katherine; Holley, Sandra M; Cepeda, Carlos; Mabrouk, Omar S; Wong, Jenny-Marie T; LeWitt, Tessa M; Paudel, Reema; Houlden, Henry; Kennedy, Robert T; Levine, Michael S; Dauer, William T

    2015-01-01

    Striatal dysfunction plays an important role in dystonia, but the striatal cell types that contribute to abnormal movements are poorly defined. We demonstrate that conditional deletion of the DYT1 dystonia protein torsinA in embryonic progenitors of forebrain cholinergic and GABAergic neurons causes dystonic-like twisting movements that emerge during juvenile CNS maturation. The onset of these movements coincides with selective degeneration of dorsal striatal large cholinergic interneurons (LCI), and surviving LCI exhibit morphological, electrophysiological, and connectivity abnormalities. Consistent with the importance of this LCI pathology, murine dystonic-like movements are reduced significantly with an antimuscarinic agent used clinically, and we identify cholinergic abnormalities in postmortem striatal tissue from DYT1 dystonia patients. These findings demonstrate that dorsal LCI have a unique requirement for torsinA function during striatal maturation, and link abnormalities of these cells to dystonic-like movements in an overtly symptomatic animal model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08352.001 PMID:26052670

  10. Basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity in LGI1-autoantibody faciobrachial dystonic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Kotsenas, Amy L.; Britton, Jeffrey W.; McKeon, Andrew; Watson, Robert E.; Klein, Christopher J.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Lowe, Val; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Shin, Cheolsu; Boes, Christopher J.; Crum, Brian A.; Laughlin, Ruple S.; Pittock, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the clinical features and MRI abnormalities of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1)-autoantibody (Ab) faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). Methods: Forty-eight patients with LGI1-Ab encephalopathy were retrospectively identified by searching our clinical and serologic database from January 1, 2002, to June 1, 2015. Of these, 26 met inclusion criteria for this case series: LGI1-Ab seropositivity and FBDS. In a separate analysis of all 48 patients initially identified, the MRIs of patients with (n = 26) and without (n = 22) FBDS were compared by 2 neuroradiologists blinded to the clinical details. Results: The median age of the 26 included patients was 62.5 years (range 37–78); 65% were men. FBDS involved arm (26), face (22), and leg (12). Ten were previously diagnosed as psychogenic. Ictal EEGs were normal in 20 of 23 assessed. Basal ganglia T1 and T2 signal abnormalities were detected in 11 patients (42%), with excellent agreement between neuroradiologists (κ scores of 0.86 and 0.93, respectively), and included T1 hyperintensity alone (2), T2 hyperintensity alone (1), or both (8). The T1 hyperintensities persisted longer than the T2 hyperintensities (median 11 weeks vs 1 week, p = 0.02). Improvement with immunotherapy (18/18) was more frequent than with antiepileptic medications (10/24). A separate analysis of all 48 patients initially identified with LGI1-Ab encephalopathy showed that basal ganglia MRI abnormalities were present in 11 of 26 with FBDS but not present in those without FBDS (0/22) (p < 0.001). In contrast, mesial temporal MRI abnormalities were less common among those with FBDS (42%) than those without (91%) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity is a clinically useful MRI biomarker of LGI1-Ab FBDS and suggests a basal ganglia localization. PMID:26468474

  11. [Early Experience with the VerciseTM DBS System in the Treatment of Dystonic Tremor].

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Yasushi

    2017-03-01

    Six cases of dystonic tremor were treated with the VerciseTM deep brain stimulation(DBS)system, which has the multiple independent current control(MICC)technology. The mean preoperative score of Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale was 16.2±9.4, which was reduced to 6.1±4.6 at 5 months postoperatively. A 65-year-old male presented an intractable dystonic tremor of the jaw, neck, and shoulders due to tardive syndrome. He experienced the successful tremor relief after unipolar DBS in the globus pallidus internus(GPi)with VerciseTM but complained of dysarthria. Steering the current ventrally induced nausea without alleviating dysarthria, while steering the current dorsally alleviated dysarthria but a further dorsal current induced mandibular dyskinesia. The current steering with MICC enabled the simulation field in GPi with successful balance, maximizing tremor suppression, and minimizing the adverse effects. In a second case, 61-year-old male in whom cervical dystonia with rotatory tremor had been successfully treated with interleaving stimulation of GPi-DBS had needed to repeat the replacement of a non-rechargeable pulse generator in only 15-month interval. After the substitution of VerciseTM, the interleaving stimulation of 9.5mA in total was replaced by 8.5mA with the current steering of MICC, while the patient's symptomatic control was unchanged. The microlesion effects after lead implantation are unclear and therapeutic effects are often delayed in cases of dystonia;therefore, the submaximal stimulation intensities must be frequently applied in the early phase following the implantation of DBS. A fine current steering of VerciseTM DBS is very useful in both, the early and late phases of GPi-DBS for dystonic syndrome.

  12. White Matter Abnormalities and Dystonic Motor Disorder Associated with Mutations in the "SLC16A2" Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gika, Artemis D.; Siddiqui, Ata; Hulse, Anthony J.; Edward, Selvakumari; Fallon, Penny; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Jan, Wajanat; Josifova, Dragana; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Drummond, James; Thompson, Edward; Refetoff, Samuel; Bonnemann, Carsten G.; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Mutations in the "SLC16A2" gene have been implicated in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked learning disability syndrome associated with thyroid function test (TFT) abnormalities. Delayed myelination is a non-specific finding in individuals with learning disability whose genetic basis is often uncertain. The aim of this study…

  13. White Matter Abnormalities and Dystonic Motor Disorder Associated with Mutations in the "SLC16A2" Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gika, Artemis D.; Siddiqui, Ata; Hulse, Anthony J.; Edward, Selvakumari; Fallon, Penny; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Jan, Wajanat; Josifova, Dragana; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Drummond, James; Thompson, Edward; Refetoff, Samuel; Bonnemann, Carsten G.; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Mutations in the "SLC16A2" gene have been implicated in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked learning disability syndrome associated with thyroid function test (TFT) abnormalities. Delayed myelination is a non-specific finding in individuals with learning disability whose genetic basis is often uncertain. The aim of this study…

  14. Clinical outcome and intraoperative neurophysiology for focal limb dystonic tremor without generalized dystonia treated with deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Kaszuba, Brian; Gee, Lucy; Prusik, Julia; Molho, Eric; Wilock, Meghan; Shin, Damian; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2016-11-01

    Dystonic tremor (DT) is defined as a postural/kinetic tremor occurring in the body region affected by dystonia. DT is typically characterized by focal tremors with irregular amplitudes and variable frequencies typically below 7Hz. Pharmacological treatment is generally unsuccessful and guidelines for deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting and indications are scarce. In this article, we present the outcome and neurophysiologic data of two patients with refractory, focal limb DT treated with Globus Pallidus interna (Gpi) DBS and critically review the current literature regarding surgical treatment of DT discussing stereotactic targets and treatment considerations. A search of literature concerning treatment of DT was conducted. Additionally, Gpi DBS was performed in two patients with DT and microelectrode recordings for multi unit analysis (MUAs) and local field potentials (LFPs) were obtained. The mean percentage improvement in tremor severity was 80.5% at 3 years follow up. MUAs and LFPs did not show significant differences in DT patients compared with other forms of dystonia or PD except for higher interspikes bursting indices. LFP recordings in DT demonstrated high power at low frequencies with action (<3.5Hz). Gpi DBS is an effective treatment in patients with focal limb DT without associated generalized dystonia. Intraoperative neurophysiologic findings suggest that DT is part of phenotypic motor manifestations in dystonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Co-occurrence of Dystonic and Dyskinetic Tongue Movements with Oral Apraxia in Post-regression Dysphagia in Classical Rett Syndrome Years of Life 1 Through 5.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Suzanne S; Taragin, Ben; Djukic, Alesandra

    2015-04-01

    We do not know the natural history of dysphagia in classical Rett syndrome (RTT) by stage or age. This study investigated swallowing physiology in 23 females ages 1:7 to 5:8 (years, months) with classical Rett syndrome to determine common and distinguishing features of dysphagia in post-regression early Pseudostationary Stage III. In-depth analysis of videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) found dysmotility of oral stage events across subjects implicating oral apraxia. Impaired motility was further compromised by recurrent dystonic and dyskinetic movements that co-occurred with oral apraxia during oral ingestion in 78 % (n = 18) of the subjects with RTT. Of this group, 44 % displayed rocking and/or rolling lingual pattern, 56 % had recurrent oral tongue retroflexions, and/or elevated posturing of the tongue tip, and, 72 % displayed multi-wave oropharyngeal transfer pattern. The proportion of subjects whose swallowing motility was disrupted by aberrant involuntary tongue movements did not differ significantly between bolus types (liquid, puree, and solid) trialed. Liquid ingestion was significantly more efficient in subjects using bottles with nipples than their counterparts who used spouted or straw cups. Dystonic and dyskinetic tongue movements disrupted liquid ingestion in subjects using cups with spouts or straws significantly more than those using bottles. Analysis of food ingestion revealed that significantly more subjects were able to orally form, transport, and transfer a puree bolus into the pharynx than they were a solid bolus. A significantly larger number of subjects aspirated and penetrated liquid than they did puree or solid. No significant relationship was found between subjects with airway contamination and those with dystonic and dyskinetic tongue movements. Subjects' rocking and rolling lingual patterns were consistent with those evidenced in adults with Parkinson's disease. Subjects' tongue retroflexions were classified as provisionally

  16. Ego-dystonic homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Lief, H I; Kaplan, H S

    1986-01-01

    The patient coming in with a dysphoria over his or her homosexual feelings, fantasies or behavior must be given the choice of working through the homophobia or the heterophobia. With the first choice, treatment is directed toward decreasing shame over the homosexual orientation and integrating the patient's social role and personal identity. If a move toward greater heterosexuality is chosen, techniques range from psychoanalysis to time-limited psychodynamic psychotherapy to behavioral techniques. Behavioral techniques may involve in vitro or in vivo desensitization. Issues in selecting the appropriate form of therapy are sometimes subtle and complex, and ethical issues frequently beset the therapist. The patient must be kept fully informed of his or her options, and the choice and the goals of therapy must be arrived at by both patient and therapist.

  17. Quetiapine responsive catatonia in an autistic patient with comorbid bipolar disorder and idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.

    PubMed

    Ishitobi, Makoto; Kawatani, Masao; Asano, Mizuki; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Goto, Takashi; Hiratani, Michio; Wada, Yuji

    2014-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been linked with the manifestation of catatonia in subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterized by movement disorders and various neuropsychiatric disturbances including mood disorder. We present a patient with ASD and IBGC who developed catatonia presenting with prominent dystonic feature caused by comorbid BD, which was treated effectively with quetiapine. In addition to considering the possibility of neurodegenerative disease, careful psychiatric interventions are important to avoid overlooking treatable catatonia associated with BD in cases of ASD presenting with both prominent dystonic features and apparent fluctuation of the mood state. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nicotine-induced dystonic arousal complex in a mouse line harboring a human autosomal-dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy mutation.

    PubMed

    Teper, Yaroslav; Whyte, Douglas; Cahir, Elizabeth; Lester, Henry A; Grady, Sharon R; Marks, Michael J; Cohen, Bruce N; Fonck, Carlos; McClure-Begley, Tristan; McIntosh, J Michael; Labarca, Cesar; Lawrence, Andrew; Chen, Feng; Gantois, Ilse; Davies, Philip J; Petrou, Steven; Murphy, Mark; Waddington, John; Horne, Malcolm K; Berkovic, Samuel F; Drago, John

    2007-09-19

    We generated a mouse line harboring an autosomal-dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) mutation: the alpha4 nicotinic receptor S248F knock-in strain. In this mouse, modest nicotine doses (1-2 mg/kg) elicit a novel behavior termed the dystonic arousal complex (DAC). The DAC includes stereotypical head movements, body jerking, and forelimb dystonia; these behaviors resemble some core features of ADNFLE. A marked Straub tail is an additional component of the DAC. Similar to attacks in ADNFLE, the DAC can be partially suppressed by the sodium channel blocker carbamazepine or by pre-exposure to a very low dose of nicotine (0.1 mg/kg). The DAC is centrally mediated, genetically highly penetrant, and, surprisingly, not associated with overt ictal electrical activity as assessed by (1) epidural or frontal lobe depth-electrode electroencephalography or (2) hippocampal c-fos-regulated gene expression. Heterozygous knock-in mice are partially protected from nicotine-induced seizures. The noncompetitive antagonist mecamylamine does not suppress the DAC, although it suppresses high-dose nicotine-induced wild-type-like seizures. Experiments on agonist-induced 86Rb+ and neurotransmitter efflux from synaptosomes and on alpha4S248Fbeta2 receptors expressed in oocytes confirm that the S248F mutation confers resistance to mecamylamine blockade. Genetic background, gender, and mutant gene expression levels modulate expression of the DAC phenotype in mice. The S248F mouse thus appears to provide a model for the paroxysmal dystonic element of ADNFLE semiology. Our model complements what is seen in other ADNFLE animal models. Together, these mice cover the spectrum of behavioral and electrographic events seen in the human condition.

  19. Presentation and treatment of complicated obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brady, Charles F

    2014-03-01

    Some of the most common complicating factors for clinicians treating a person with obsessive-compulsive disorder include suicidal obsessions, dangerous compulsions, overvalued ideation, and low motivation. When a patient reports suicidal thoughts, clinicians must assess whether these thoughts are ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic because patients with ego-dystonic suicidal obsessions have less risk of imminent harm. For individuals whose compulsions are dangerous, clinicians must determine the best type of treatment facility to reduce the risk of harm. Patients with overvalued ideation may require unique interviewing approaches and the support of family members. Finally, clinicians should assess for health problems that can cause low energy and fatigue and consider motivational interviewing and additional therapies for patients who have low motivation to continue treatment.

  20. Alterations of M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptors in the genetically dystonic (dt(sz)) hamster and moderate antidystonic efficacy of M1 and M4 anticholinergics.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Melanie; Plank, Jagoda; Richter, Franziska; Bode, Christoph; Smiljanic, Sinisa; Creed, Meaghan; Nobrega, José N; Richter, Angelika

    2017-08-15

    Striatal cholinergic dysfunction has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In the dt(sz) hamster, a phenotypic model of paroxysmal dystonia, M1 antagonists exerted moderate antidystonic efficacy after acute systemic administration. In the present study, we examined the effects of the M4 preferring antagonist tropicamid and whether long-term systemic or acute intrastriatal injections of the M1 preferring antagonist trihexyphenidyl are more effective in mutant hamsters. Furthermore, M1 and M4 receptors were analyzed by autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. Tropicamide retarded the onset of dystonic attacks, as previously observed after acute systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl. Combined systemic administration of trihexyphenidyl (30mg/kg) and tropicamide (15mg/kg) reduced the severity in acute trials and delayed the onset of dystonia during long-term treatment. In contrast, acute striatal microinjections of trihexyphenidyl, tropicamid or the positive allosteric M4 receptor modulator VU0152100 did not exert significant effects. Receptor analyses revealed changes of M1 receptors in the dorsomedial striatum, suggesting that the cholinergic system is involved in abnormal striatal plasticity in dt(sz) hamsters, but the pharmacological data argue against a crucial role on the phenotype in this animal model. However, antidystonic effects of tropicamide after systemic administration point to a novel therapeutic potential of M4 preferring anticholinergics for the treatment of dystonia. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pica responding to SSRI: an OCD spectrum disorder?

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Manjeet S; Gupta, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    Pica is a common disorder in childhood, however, in adults it is associated with mental retardation, psychosis and pregnancy. A few case reports have described it being associated with obsessive compulsive disorder in adults. We describe the case of an adult female patient who developed an impulse to ingest chalk only in stressful situations. These thoughts were ego-dystonic and kept on hammering her mind until she ate it. She was diagnosed as having Major Depressive Disorder with relational problems and pica. We prescribed her escitalopram with clonazepam and asked her to ventilate her feelings during stressful situations. Her depression improved within three weeks, with remarkable improvement in pica symptoms. We concluded that stress may induce the pica in some adults and that such feelings have impulsive/compulsive characters. In addition, appropriate management of stress may help to alleviate the symptoms of pica.

  2. [Primary neurogenic and myogenic disorders of posture].

    PubMed

    Schranz, C; Meinck, H-M

    2004-05-01

    Disturbance of posture may occur in a variety of neurological disorders and occasionally is the presenting or even the only sign. In the majority of cases, the head or the trunk or both are bent forward (bent spine syndrome, dropped head syndrome). A feature of these primary neurogenic or myogenic postural disturbances that is in contrast to antalgic contraction or ankylosis is that they are not fixed, but the trunk or head are easily erected by the examiner and show a characteristic sagging. Neuromuscular disorders are a frequent cause. They may be confined to the paraspinal muscles. Axial computed tomography of the spine, electromyography of the involved muscles, and muscle biopsy help to make the diagnosis. However, also central movement disorders may lead to a sagging of the head or trunk or of both due to a lessened tone of the head and trunk extensors. This is frequently seen in the various parkinsonian syndromes which may, however, occur in association with a focal myopathy of the paraspinal muscles. Occasionally, sagging of the trunk is seen as a side effect of neuropharmacologic medication. Sagging of the trunk or head should be differentiated from a pathologically increased innervation of the ventral muscles in dystonic movement disorders such as antecollis or camptocormia. Pathologic reclination of the head or trunk or both is a rare disturbance of posture. It may occur in dystonia (retrocollis) or, occasionally, as a consequence of musculotendinous contractures secondary to certain neuromuscular disorders such as the rigid spine syndrome.

  3. Sensorimotor integration in movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2003-03-01

    Although current knowledge attributes movement disorders to a dysfunction of the basal ganglia-motor cortex circuits, abnormalities in the peripheral afferent inputs or in their central processing may interfere with motor program execution. We review the abnormalities of sensorimotor integration described in the various types of movement disorders. Several observations, including those of parkinsonian patients' excessive reliance on ongoing visual information during movement tasks, suggest that proprioception is defective in Parkinson's disease (PD). The disturbance of proprioceptive regulation, possibly related to the occurrence of abnormal muscle-stretch reflexes, might be important for generating hypometric or bradykinetic movements. Studies with somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), prepulse inhibition, and event-related potentials support the hypothesis of central abnormalities of sensorimotor integration in PD. In Huntington's disease (HD), changes in SEPs and long-latency stretch reflexes suggest that a defective gating of peripheral afferent input to the brain might impair sensorimotor integration in cortical motor areas, thus interfering with the processing of motor programs. Defective motor programming might contribute to some features of motor impairment in HD. Sensory symptoms are frequent in focal dystonia and sensory manipulation can modify the dystonic movements. In addition, specific sensory functions (kinaesthesia, spatial-temporal discrimination) can be impaired in patients with focal hand dystonia, thus leading to a "sensory overflow." Sensory input may be abnormal and trigger focal dystonia, or defective "gating" may cause an input-output mismatch in specific motor programs. Altogether, several observations strongly support the idea that sensorimotor integration is impaired in focal dystonia. Although elemental sensation is normal in patients with tics, tics can be associated with sensory phenomena. Some neurophysiological studies suggest that

  4. Disruption of SOX6 is associated with a rapid-onset dopa-responsive movement disorder, delayed development, and dysmorphic features.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Maas, Bianca; Haneke, Christian; Niehues, Tim; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Assmann, Birgit E; Runz, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Sox6 is a transcription factor that is crucial for the differentiation and development of cortical interneurons and dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compact. Loss-of-function mutations might thus result in complex paroxysmal diseases such as epilepsy syndromes or movement disorders. We present a 15-year-old boy with delayed speech development and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who presented with a rapid-onset generalized dopa-responsive dystonia. Neurological examination revealed generalized dystonic and frequent athetoid movements of the arms, trunk, and neck. Gait was severely impaired secondary to frequent dystonic postures. Both a resting tremor and action tremors were observed in both hands. Speech was dysarthric but language comprehension was unimpaired. Testing for saccadic dysfunction revealed hypometric horizontal and vertical saccades. Physical examination was otherwise significant for a pectus carinatum and splenomegaly. Laboratory studies, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and electroencephalography were unremarkable. Treatment with levodopa/carbidopa led to a complete and sustained remission of neurological symptoms. Genetic testing revealed a mono-allelic de novo 84-kb deletion on chromosome 11p15.2 encompassing exons 14-16 of the SOX6 gene (chr11: 15944880-16029095, NCBI 37/hg19). This is the first report of a dopa-responsive movement disorder associated with SOX6 disruption. SOX6 mutations should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained dopa-responsive dystonia syndromes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinematic and electromyographic tools for characterizing movement disorders in mice.

    PubMed

    Scholle, Hans C; Jinnah, H A; Arnold, Dirk; Biedermann, Frank H W; Faenger, Bernd; Grassme, Roland; Hess, Ellen J; Schumann, Nikolaus P

    2010-02-15

    Increasing interest in rodent models for movement disorders has led to an increasing need for more accurate and precise methods for both delineating the nature of abnormal movements and measuring their severity. These studies describe application of simultaneous high-speed video kinematics with multichannel electromyography (EMG) to characterize the movement disorder exhibited by tottering mutant mice. These mice provide a uniquely valuable model, because they exhibit paroxysmal dystonia superimposed on mild baseline ataxia, permitting the examination of these two different problems within the same animals. At baseline with mild ataxia, the mutants exhibited poorly coordinated movements with increased variation of stance and swing times, and slower spontaneous walking velocities. The corresponding EMG showed reduced mean amplitudes of biceps femoris and vastus lateralis, and poorly modulated EMG activities during the step cycle. Attacks of paroxysmal dystonia were preceded by trains of EMG bursts with doublets and triplets simultaneously in the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis followed by more sustained coactivation. These EMG characteristics are consistent with the clinical phenomenology of the motor phenotype of tottering mice as a baseline of mild ataxia with intermittent attacks of paroxysmal dystonia. The EMG characteristics of ataxia and dystonia in the tottering mice also are consistent with EMG studies of other ataxic or dystonic animals and humans. These studies provide insights into how these methods can be used for delineating movement disorders in mice and for how they may be compared with similar disorders of humans. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Acute and subacute drug-induced movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Pierre R

    2014-01-01

    Many pharmacological agents may induce a variety of movement disorders, including dystonia, tremor, parkinsonism, myoclonus and dyskinesia, with an acute, subacute or more chronic time course. Motor symptoms may be isolated or part of a more extensive cerebral or systemic condition, such as the neuroleptic malignant syndrome or the serotonin syndrome. Drug-induced movement disorders share a number of features that should make them easy to identify, including a clear temporal relationship between medication initiation and symptom onset, a dose-effect, and, with the exception of tardive syndromes, complete resolution after discontinuation of the offending agent. Diagnosis relies on a thorough medication history. Medications commonly involved include dopamine receptor blockers, antidepressants and anti-epileptics, among many others. Mechanisms underlying drug-induced movement disorders involve blockade, facilitation or imbalance of dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and cholinergic neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. The present review focuses on drug-induced movement disorders that typically develop as an acute (hours to days) or subacute (days to weeks) event, including acute dystonic reactions, akathisia, drug-induced parkinsonism, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonin syndrome, parkinsonism-hyperpyrexia syndrome, drug-induced tremor, drug-induced hyperkinesias and movement disorders associated with the use of recreational drugs.

  7. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias Bipolar disorder Depression Mood ...

  8. Movement disorders in adult surviving patients with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Carecchio, Miryam; Schneider, Susanne A; Chan, Heidi; Lachmann, Robin; Lee, Philip J; Murphy, Elaine; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2011-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is a rare metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex gene. Patients generally present early in life with a toxic encephalopathy because of the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine and the corresponding ketoacids. Movement disorders in maple syrup urine disease have typically been described during decompensation episodes or at presentation in the context of a toxic encephalopathy, with complete resolution after appropriate dietary treatment. Movement disorders in patients surviving childhood are not well documented. We assessed 17 adult patients with maple syrup urine disease (mean age, 27.5 years) with a special focus on movement disorders. Twelve (70.6%) had a movement disorder on clinical examination, mainly tremor and dystonia or a combination of both. Parkinsonism and simple motor tics were also observed. Pyramidal signs were present in 11 patients (64.7%), and a spastic-dystonic gait was observed in 6 patients (35.2%). In summary, movement disorders are common in treated adult patients with maple syrup urine disease, and careful neurological examination is advisable to identify those who may benefit from specific therapy. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  9. [Unexplicated neuropsychiatric disorders: Do not ignore dysimmune encephalitis. A case report of a dysimmune encephalitis with anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI-1) antibodies].

    PubMed

    Le Dault, E; Lagarde, S; Guedj, E; Dufournet, B; Rey, C; Kaphan, E; Tanguy, G; Bregigeon, M; Sagui, E; Brosset, C

    2016-02-01

    Anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 encephalitis is a common and a treatable etiology of autoimmune encephalitis. Its diagnosis is a challenge because the initial diagnostic work-up is often normal. A 48-year-old man experienced cognitive and behavioral troubles, facio-brachial dystonic seizures and a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. First line tests excluded infectious, neoplastic, systemic inflammatory, endrocrine or toxic etiologies. Cerebral (18)Fluoro-desoxy-glucose (FDG) position emission tomography and research of specific antibodies in cerebro-spinal fluid and serum led to diagnose an anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 encephalitis. Intravenous immunoglobulins and corticosteroids were partially effective. Cyclophosphamid permitted a good recovery. In the presence of acute neuropsychiatric disorders with a negative etiologic research, physician should think about dysimmune encephalitis. Facio-brachial dystonic seizures and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion are highly evocative of anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 encephalitis. The diagnosis needs specific diagnostic tests (cerebral (18)FDG position emission tomography and antibodies research in cerebro-spinal fluid and in serum), after the exclusion of alternative diagnoses. Extensive and repeated diagnostic work-up for neoplasia is required. Immunosupressive therapies are effective in most cases. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep-related adductor laryngeal dystonia causing sleep apnea: a sleep-related breathing disorder diagnosed with sleep endoscopy and treated with botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Marchese-Ragona, Rosario; Vianello, Andrea; Restivo, Domenico A; Pittoni, Giovanni; Lionello, Marco; Martini, Alessandro; Manfredini, Daniele; Kotecha, Bhik; Staffieri, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a chronic condition, characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse during sleep, which affects up to 5% of adults in the Western population. The muscle tone of the human body ordinarily relaxes during sleep, thus causing airway obstruction and leading to sleep apnea. We report a case of a 68-years old male in which dystonic closure of the larynx during sleep caused OSAS. The sleep endoscopy was crucial in establishing the diagnosis of laryngeal dystonia. A botulinum toxin injection in the vocal cord improved the OSAS. These findings define a novel sleep-related breathing disorder. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Dissociative Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... last minutes, hours, or rarely, months or years. Dissociative identity disorder. Formerly known as multiple personality disorder, this disorder ... each identity is with the others. People with dissociative identity disorder typically also have dissociative amnesia and often have ...

  12. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... here. generalized anxiety disorder social phobia panic disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Click for more information All of us ... health, money, or family problems. But people with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are extremely worried about these and many ...

  13. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Eating Disorders A A A ... average weight or can be overweight. continue Binge Eating Disorder This eating disorder is similar to anorexia and ...

  14. Molecular imaging of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-03-28

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington's disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette's syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a caudal

  15. Molecular imaging of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington’s disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette’s syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a

  16. Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas H

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental health disorder that is frequently encountered in primary care. Many patients with depression may actually have bipolar disorder. The management of bipolar disorder requires proper diagnosis and awareness or referral for appropriate pharmacologic therapy. Patients with bipolar disorder require primary care management for comorbidities such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.

  17. Autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection: Sydenham chorea, PANDAS, and PANDAS variants.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Piero; Parano, Enrico; Rizzo, Renata; Trifiletti, Rosario R

    2006-09-01

    Streptococcal infection in children is usually benign and self-limited. In a small percentage of children, prominent neurologic and/or psychiatric sequelae can occur. Sydenham chorea is the best defined and best recognized. PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection) is a well-defined syndrome in which tics (motor and/or vocal) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder consistently exacerbate in temporal correlation to a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection. PANDAS constitutes a subset of children with tics, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to strictly defined PANDAS, we and others have recognized several PANDAS variants, including adult-onset variant, a dystonic variant, a myoclonic variant, and a "chronic" PANDAS variant. The nosology and classification of these entities are rapidly evolving. The recognition that some pediatric neurobehavioral syndromes have infectious and/or immunologic triggers points to important new avenues of disease treatment. In this review, we summarize this complex and rapidly evolving area of clinical research.

  18. Cerebellar Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... balance. Problems with the cerebellum include Cancer Genetic disorders Ataxias - failure of muscle control in the arms and legs that result in movement disorders Degeneration - disorders caused by brain cells decreasing in ...

  19. Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... they're in a bad mood. A mood disorder is different. It affects a person's everyday emotional ... ten people aged 18 and older have mood disorders. These include depression and bipolar disorder (also called ...

  20. Schizoaffective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder is thought to be less common than schizophrenia and mood disorders. Women may have the condition ... Possible Complications Complications are similar to those for schizophrenia and major mood disorders. These include: Drug use ...

  1. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  2. Complex movement disorders at disease onset in childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy

    PubMed Central

    Pizza, Fabio; Palaia, Vincenzo; Franceschini, Christian; Poli, Francesca; Moghadam, Keivan K.; Cortelli, Pietro; Nobili, Lino; Bruni, Oliviero; Dauvilliers, Yves; Lin, Ling; Edwards, Mark J.; Mignot, Emmanuel; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2011-01-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is characterized by daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (sudden loss of bilateral muscle tone triggered by emotions), sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and disturbed nocturnal sleep. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is most often associated with human leucocyte antigen-DQB1*0602 and is caused by the loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the hypothalamus of likely autoimmune aetiology. Noting that children with narcolepsy often display complex abnormal motor behaviours close to disease onset that do not meet the classical definition of cataplexy, we systematically analysed motor features in 39 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy in comparison with 25 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We found that patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy displayed a complex array of ‘negative’ (hypotonia) and ‘active’ (ranging from perioral movements to dyskinetic–dystonic movements or stereotypies) motor disturbances. ‘Active’ and ‘negative’ motor scores correlated positively with the presence of hypotonic features at neurological examination and negatively with disease duration, whereas ‘negative’ motor scores also correlated negatively with age at disease onset. These observations suggest that paediatric narcolepsy with cataplexy often co-occurs with a complex movement disorder at disease onset, a phenomenon that may vanish later in the course of the disease. Further studies are warranted to assess clinical course and whether the associated movement disorder is also caused by hypocretin deficiency or by additional neurochemical abnormalities. PMID:21930661

  3. NREM parasomnias: arousal disorders and differentiation from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zucconi, M; Ferini-Strambi, L

    2000-09-01

    Parasomnias emerging from NREM sleep such as sleep walking, sleep terrors and confusional arousals are considered arousal disorders. Nocturnal video-polysomnography is the gold standard to diagnosing and differentiating parasomnias from other arousals with atypical motor behaviors such as nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). This form of nocturnal seizures with prominent dystonic-dyskinetic components, in some cases genetic, has been recently identified by means of detailed video-analysis of movements during sleep. The clinical picture of parasomnias (with onset in early childhood, rare episodes of long duration, absence of stereotypy, general disappearance after puberty) is different from that of NFLE (which first occurs between the age of 10 and 20, manifests frequent complex and repetitive behaviors of short duration excluding rare prolonged seizures, nocturnal agitation, some daytime complaints such as fatigue or sleepiness, persistence into adulthood). Patients show no difference from classical sleep parameters whilst microstructure analysis shows sleep instability and arousal fluctuations in parasomnias and NFLE. In children as well, at least in our experience, the differential diagnosis between the two disorders is difficult and requires one or more complete nocturnal video-polygraphic recording. In any case the diagnosis of NFLE should be considered in children with nocturnal motor episodes or nocturnal motor agitation, when the attacks persist; this diagnosis is probably more frequent than expected.

  4. Overview of Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Throat Disorders Eye Disorders Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders Liver ...

  5. Borderline Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  6. Anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Craske, Michelle G; Stein, Murray B; Eley, Thalia C; Milad, Mohammed R; Holmes, Andrew; Rapee, Ronald M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-05-04

    Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental disorders in most western societies and are a leading cause of disability. The essential features of anxiety disorders are excessive and enduring fear, anxiety or avoidance of perceived threats, and can also include panic attacks. Although the neurobiology of individual anxiety disorders is largely unknown, some generalizations have been identified for most disorders, such as alterations in the limbic system, dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and genetic factors. In addition, general risk factors for anxiety disorders include female sex and a family history of anxiety, although disorder-specific risk factors have also been identified. The diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders varies for the individual disorders, but are generally similar across the two most common classification systems: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10). Despite their public health significance, the vast majority of anxiety disorders remain undetected and untreated by health care systems, even in economically advanced countries. If untreated, these disorders are usually chronic with waxing and waning symptoms. Impairments associated with anxiety disorders range from limitations in role functioning to severe disabilities, such as the patient being unable to leave their home.

  7. Growth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... because their parents are. But some children have growth disorders. Growth disorders are problems that prevent children from developing ... or other features. Very slow or very fast growth can sometimes signal a gland problem or disease. ...

  8. Tooth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... include eating, speaking and even smiling. But tooth disorders are nothing to smile about. They include problems ... your teeth. Fortunately, you can prevent many tooth disorders by taking care of your teeth and keeping ...

  9. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  10. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  11. Tailbone Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bottom of your backbone, or spine. Tailbone disorders include tailbone injuries, pain, infections, cysts and tumors. ... cause of such injuries. Symptoms of various tailbone disorders include pain in the tailbone area, pain upon ...

  12. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce more of them in response to Allergic disorders Skin conditions Parasitic and fungal infections Autoimmune diseases Some cancers Bone marrow disorders In some conditions, the eosinophils can move outside ...

  13. Peritoneal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... peritoneal fluid, lubricates the surface of this tissue. Disorders of the peritoneum are not common. They include ... fluid to diagnose the problem. Treatment of peritoneal disorders depends on the cause.

  14. Pituitary Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of other glands in the body. With pituitary disorders, you often have too much or too little ... one of your hormones. Injuries can cause pituitary disorders, but the most common cause is a pituitary ...

  15. Bleeding Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... as clotting factors. If you have a bleeding disorder, you either do not have enough platelets or ... don't work the way they should. Bleeding disorders can be the result of other diseases, such ...

  16. Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the vocal cords. Other causes of voice disorders include infections, upward movement of stomach acids into ... become an effort to talk Treatment for voice disorders varies depending on the cause. Most voice problems ...

  17. Conduct disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity. Causes Conduct disorder has been linked to: Child abuse Drug or alcohol abuse in the parents Family ... 2016:chap 23. Read More Antisocial personality disorder Child abuse - physical Review Date 3/4/2015 Updated by: ...

  18. Hoarding disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association. This ... In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; ...

  19. Conversion Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). This manual, published by the American Psychiatric Association, ... In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; ...

  20. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... making life feel overwhelming or out of control. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) . For a person with OCD, anxiety takes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Taking Your Child to a Therapist Posttraumatic Stress ...

  1. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... making life feel overwhelming or out of control. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). For a person with OCD , anxiety takes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Social Phobia 5 Ways to Deal With Anxiety ...

  2. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... will only review a few in each cluster. Cluster A: Schizoid Personality Disorder. Schizoid personalities are introverted, ... into the future or read other people’s minds. Cluster B: Antisocial Personality Disorder . People with antisocial personality ...

  3. Neurocognitive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Organic mental disorder (OMS); Organic brain syndrome ... Beck BJ, Tompkins KJ. Mental disorders due to another medical condition. In: Stern TA, Fava M, Wilens TE, Rosenbaum JF, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical ...

  4. Swallowing Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder, but it is more likely in the elderly. It often happens because of other conditions, including Nervous system disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and cerebral palsy Problems with your esophagus, ...

  5. Personality disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000939.htm Personality disorders To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in ...

  6. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  7. Rumination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Katzman DK, Kearney SA, Becker AE. Feeding and eating disorders. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Eating Disorders Read more Latest Health News Read more Health ...

  8. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Twenty years have passed from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and, in the meanwhile, a lot of research data about eating disorders has been published. This article reviews the main modifications to the classification of eating disorders reported in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" chapter of the DSM-5, and compares them with the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines. Particularly, we will show that DSM-5 criteria widened the diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa to less severe forms (so decreasing the frequency of Eating Disorders, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) diagnoses), introduced the new category of Binge Eating Disorder, and incorporated several feeding disorders that were first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. On the whole, the DSM-5 revision should allow the clinician to make more reliable and timely diagnoses for eating disorders.

  9. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  10. Dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative disorders, including "psychogenic" or "functional" amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple personality disorder), and depersonalization disorder, were once classified, along with conversion disorder, as forms of hysteria. The 1970s witnessed an "epidemic" of dissociative disorder, particularly DID, which may have reflected enthusiasm for the diagnosis more than its actual prevalence. Traditionally, the dissociative disorders have been attributed to trauma and other psychological stress, but the existing evidence favoring this hypothesis is plagued by poor methodology. Prospective studies of traumatized individuals reveal no convincing cases of amnesia not attributable to brain insult, injury, or disease. Treatment generally involves recovering and working through ostensibly repressed or dissociated memories of trauma; at present, there are few quantitative or controlled outcome studies. Experimental studies are few in number and have focused largely on state-dependent and implicit memory. Depersonalization disorder may be in line for the next "epidemic" of dissociation.

  11. Phonological disorder

    MedlinePlus

    This disorder is more common in boys. The cause in children is often unknown. Close relatives may have had speech and language problems. Other risk factors may include poverty and coming from a large family. Phonological disorders ...

  12. [Learning disorders].

    PubMed

    Gérard, Christophe-Loïc

    2008-04-15

    Learning disorders are the center of medical process used for the assessment of school failure. We argue here that medical diagnosis is based on analysis of the interaction of three symptomatic clusters: cognitive symptoms, emotional symptoms, conduct disorders.

  13. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  14. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Bipolar disorder, formerly called manic depression, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows ( ...

  15. Mathematics disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  16. Factitious Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mayo Clinic Staff Factitious disorder is a serious mental disorder in which someone deceives others by appearing sick, by purposely getting sick or by self-injury. Factitious disorder also can happen when family members or caregivers falsely present others, such as children, as being ill, injured ...

  17. Affective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder with lifetime prevalence of "major depressive disorder" estimated to be 16.2%. Although the disorder is common and impairs functioning, it often goes untreated, with less than adequate response even when treated. We review research indicating the likely value of utilizing currently available, well-validated,…

  18. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the baby’s father. What determines my baby’s sex? Your baby’s sex is determined by sex chromosomes. ... be a carrier of the disorder. What are sex-linked disorders? Sex-linked disorders are caused by ...

  19. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  20. Affective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder with lifetime prevalence of "major depressive disorder" estimated to be 16.2%. Although the disorder is common and impairs functioning, it often goes untreated, with less than adequate response even when treated. We review research indicating the likely value of utilizing currently available, well-validated,…

  1. Somatic symptom disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder ... a history of abuse. SSD is similar to anxiety disorder . This is when people are overly anxious ...

  2. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder; Speech disorder - stuttering ... a person repeats a sound, word, or phrase. Stuttering may be the most serious disfluency. Articulation disorders ...

  3. Bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Grande, Iria; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-04-09

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent chronic disorder characterised by fluctuations in mood state and energy. It affects more than 1% of the world's population irrespective of nationality, ethnic origin, or socioeconomic status. Bipolar disorder is one of the main causes of disability among young people, leading to cognitive and functional impairment and raised mortality, particularly death by suicide. A high prevalence of psychiatric and medical comorbidities is typical in affected individuals. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is difficult in clinical practice because onset is most commonly a depressive episode and looks similar to unipolar depression. Moreover, there are currently no valid biomarkers for the disorder. Therefore, the role of clinical assessment remains key. Detection of hypomanic periods and longitudinal assessment are crucial to differentiate bipolar disorder from other conditions. Current knowledge of the evolving pharmacological and psychological strategies in bipolar disorder is of utmost importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.

  5. [Tic disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, S

    1993-11-01

    Tics are sudden, rapid, stereotyped, recurrent, nonrythmic, brief and purposeless involuntary movements or vocalization. The characteristics of tics is that they can be suppressed for certain minutes or hours. Tic disorders are classified into three subtypes in DSM-III. They are: transient tic chronic motor or vocal tic and Tourette's disorder. These three disorders are considered to be clinical varieties of a tic spectrum. Tic disorders are male-predominant, age-dependent (most tics appear by puberty) disorders. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been suggested in Tourette's disorder. It is highly interesting and important to investigate the pathogenesis of tic symptoms because tics are thought to be in between neurological symptoms and psychiatric symptoms.

  6. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasites , particularly ones that invade tissue, cause eosinophilia. Cancers that cause eosinophilia include Hodgkin lymphoma , leukemia , and myeloproliferative disorders . If the number of eosinophils is only ...

  7. Familial dyskinesia and facial myokymia (FDFM): a novel movement disorder.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M; Raskind, W; Wolff, J; Matsushita, M; Yuen, E; Graf, W; Lipe, H; Bird, T

    2001-04-01

    We describe here familial dyskinesia and facial myokymia (FDFM), a novel autosomal dominant disorder characterized by adventitious movements that sometimes appear choreiform and that are associated with perioral and periorbital myokymia. We report a 5-generation family with 18 affected members (10 males and 8 females) with FDFM. The disorder has an early childhood or adolescent onset. The involuntary movements are paroxysmal at early ages, increase in frequency and severity, and may become constant in the third decade. Thereafter, there is no further deterioration, and there may even be improvement in old age. The adventitious movements are worsened by anxiety but not by voluntary movement, startle, caffeine, or alcohol. The disease is socially disabling, but there is no intellectual impairment or decrease in lifespan. A candidate gene and haplotype analysis was performed in 9 affected and 3 unaffected members from 3 generations of this family using primers for polymorphic loci closely flanking or within genes of interest. We excluded linkage to 11 regions containing genes associated with chorea and myokymia: 1) the Huntington disease gene on chromosome 4p; 2) the paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis gene at 2q34; 3) the dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy gene at 12p13; 4) the choreoathetosis/spasticity disease locus on 1p that lies in a region containing a cluster of potassium (K+) channel genes; 5) the episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) locus on 12p that contains the KCNA1 gene and two other voltage-gated K+ channel genes, KCNA5 and KCNA6; 6) the chorea-acanthocytosis locus on 9q21; 7) the Huntington-like syndrome on 20p; 8) the paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia locus on 16p11.2-q11.2; 9) the benign hereditary chorea locus on 14q; 10) the SCA type 5 locus on chromosome 11; and 11) the chromosome 19 region that contains several ion channels and the CACNA1A gene, a brain-specific P/Q-type calcium channel gene associated with ataxia and hemiplegic migraine. Our results

  8. Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  9. Vascular Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Vascular Disorders Email to a friend * required fields From * To * DESCRIPTION Vascular disorders are problems with arteries and veins. Arteries are pipes that bring oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the fingers. Veins ...

  10. Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  11. Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Marilyn

    Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of…

  12. Chest Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside of the chest cavity. Chest injuries and disorders include Heart diseases Lung diseases and collapsed lung Pleural disorders Esophagus disorders Broken ribs Thoracic aortic aneurysms Disorders ...

  13. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity.

  14. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam; Rutter, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder, although most commonly considered in childhood, can be lifelong conditions. In this Personal View that is shaped by clinical experience and research, we adopt a conceptual approach. First, we discuss what disorders are neurodevelopmental and why such a grouping is useful. We conclude that both distinction and grouping are helpful and that it is important to take into account the strong overlap across neurodevelopmental disorders. Then we highlight some challenges in bridging research and clinical practice. We discuss the complexity of clinical phenotypes and the importance of the social context. We also argue the importance of viewing neurodevelopmental disorders as traits but highlight that this is not the only approach to use. Finally, we consider developmental change across the life-span. Overall, we argue strongly for a flexible approach in clinical practice that takes into consideration the high level of heterogeneity and overlap in neurodevelopmental disorders and for research to link more closely to what is observed in real-life practice.

  16. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Treasure, Janet; Claudino, Angélica M; Zucker, Nancy

    2010-02-13

    This Seminar adds to the previous Lancet Seminar about eating disorders, published in 2003, with an emphasis on the biological contributions to illness onset and maintenance. The diagnostic criteria are in the process of review, and the probable four new categories are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. These categories will also be broader than they were previously, which will affect the population prevalence; the present lifetime prevalence of all eating disorders is about 5%. Eating disorders can be associated with profound and protracted physical and psychosocial morbidity. The causal factors underpinning eating disorders have been clarified by understanding about the central control of appetite. Cultural, social, and interpersonal elements can trigger onset, and changes in neural networks can sustain the illness. Overall, apart from studies reporting pharmacological treatments for binge eating disorder, advances in treatment for adults have been scarce, other than interest in new forms of treatment delivery. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Sleep disorders and mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Gude, Tore

    2002-08-20

    Recent research has revealed a lot of the secrets of sleep and how sleep influences our daily life and mental functioning. Current knowledge on the interaction between sleep disturbances and mental disorders is reviewed. The review is based on relevant literature identified by search in Medline and PsycInfo. Research shows that sleep as a psychobiological phenomenon interacts with the processes of mental disorders. The best evidence for interactions between sleep disturbances and mental problems is found in depression, and sleep disturbances over some weeks have been found to be a predictor for depressive disorders. Clinicians must distinguish between primary chronic sleep disorders of functional origin and secondary sleep disorders as part of a psychiatric condition. The former category should be treated by non-pharmacological interventions, while the latter should be adequately treated in a biopsychosocial model.

  18. Balance Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders. In one NIDCD-funded study, researchers used virtual reality technology to simulate the aisles of a grocery store. The researchers are testing whether practicing in the virtual store will lessen episodes of dizziness in real- ...

  19. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... clear cause for the periods (episodes) of extreme happiness and high activity or energy (mania) or depression ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Bipolar Disorder Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  20. Cyclothymic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... any of the following: Periods (episodes) of extreme happiness and high activity or energy (mania), or low ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Mood Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  1. Learning Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most help. Sometimes tutors or speech or language therapists also work with the children. Learning disorders do not go away, but strategies to work around them can make them less of a problem. ...

  2. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  3. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  4. Immunodeficiency disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect T cells may cause repeated Candida (yeast) infections. Inherited combined immunodeficiency affects both T cells ... infections (including some forms of pneumonia or repeated yeast infections) Symptoms depend on the disorder. For example, ...

  5. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... by recurrent episodes of paralyzing fear, known as panic attacks. Panic disorder, which affects three million to six ... Americans, typically surfaces between ages fifteen and nineteen. Panic attacks may be precipitated by specific events, but they ...

  6. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a type of anxiety disorder. It causes panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of terror when there ... or a cold chill Tingly or numb hands Panic attacks can happen anytime, anywhere, and without warning. You ...

  7. Corneal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injuries Dystrophies - conditions in which parts of the cornea lose clarity due to a buildup of cloudy material Treatments of corneal disorders include medicines, corneal transplantation, and corneal laser surgery. NIH: National Eye Institute

  8. Psychotic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions. People with psychoses lose touch with reality. Two ... is sending you secret messages. Hallucinations are false perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or feeling something that ...

  9. Taste Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... combine with a food’s aroma to produce a perception of flavor. It is flavor that lets you ... The most common taste disorder is phantom taste perception : a lingering, often unpleasant taste even though there ...

  10. Parathyroid Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... much phosphorous. Causes include injury to the glands, endocrine disorders, or genetic conditions. Treatment is aimed at restoring the balance of calcium and phosphorous. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  11. Dissociative Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of continuity between thoughts, memories, surroundings, actions and identity. People with dissociative disorders escape reality in ways ... at bay. Symptoms — ranging from amnesia to alternate identities — depend in part on the type of dissociative ...

  12. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be done to diagnose an autoimmune disorder include: Antinuclear antibody tests Autoantibody tests CBC Comprehensive metabolic panel C-reactive protein (CRP) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) Urinalysis

  13. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  14. Disorderly Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ivars

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between theories about electrical conductivity in microscopic wires and laser speckle patterns is described. Practical applications of laser speckle patterns are included. Wave ideas are being used to describe and predict novel phenomena in disordered solids. (KR)

  15. Bleeding disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... which there is a problem with the body's blood clotting process. These disorders can lead to heavy and ... II, and III) Causes Watch this video about: Blood clotting Normal blood clotting involves blood components called platelets ...

  16. Conduct Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain damage, child abuse or neglect, genetic vulnerability, school failure, and traumatic life experiences . Children or adolescents with conduct disorder may exhibit some of the following behaviors: Aggression to people and animals bullies , threatens or intimidates ...

  17. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  18. TMJ Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... with TMJ disorders, such as chronic fatigue syndrome, sleep disturbances or fibromyalgia, a painful condition that affects muscles ... reducing stress, practicing gentle jaw stretching and relaxing exercises that may help increase jaw movement. Your health ...

  19. Cartilage Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead to joint damage and deformity. Causes of cartilage problems include Tears and injuries, such as sports injuries Genetic factors Other disorders, such as some types of arthritis Osteoarthritis results from breakdown of cartilage. ...

  20. Learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, William G; Dunn, David W

    2003-11-01

    Three broad areas of LDs are recognized in the DSM-IV (RD, mathematics disorder, and disorder of written expression), and many atypical LDs (such as NVLD) also may be found in children with academic underachievement. These disorders are defined by a significant discrepancy between a child's intellectual (learning) ability and specific area of academic achievement, based on individual psychologic testing. Interventions for these disorders begin with careful evaluation and testing, followed by meetings at the school and development of an IEP. The recommendations of the IEP are performed in the school setting, whereas additional interventions may be sought at private learning clinics. Specific treatments for RD have been well defined, whereas those for other LDs must be tailored to match the strengths and weaknesses of the child. Although it is rare for individuals to completely outgrow the academic weaknesses characteristic of an LD, their performance in the area of weakness often can be improved markedly with appropriate interventions.

  1. Dysthymic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    This ongoing column is dedicated to the challenging clinical interface between psychiatry and primary care—two fields that are inexorably linked. Dysthymic disorder is a smoldering mood disturbance characterized by a long duration (at least two years in adults) as well as transient periods of normal mood. The disorder is fairly common in the US general population (3–6%) as well as in primary care (7%) and mental health settings (up to one-third of psychiatric outpatients). While the etiology of dysthymia remains unknown, there appears to be a genetic susceptibility, which may manifest in the presence of various psychosocial stressors. While the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic criteria are fairly clear, the disorder can be easily under-recognized for a variety of reasons. Treatment may include pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, although the overall treatment course is oftentimes characterized by protracted symptoms and relapses. PMID:19724735

  2. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of specialists to address all the issues that led to the eating disorder. Recovery is much more ... and stories with each other, and is usually led by a therapist or counselor. Median body weight: ...

  3. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Clots) Blood clot in a deep vein. Hemophilia Blood does not clot properly. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia ( ... infants. Blood Disorders Homepage Venous Thromboembolism (Blood Clots) Hemophilia Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) Sickle Cell Disease Thalassemia ...

  4. Schizoaffective Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression or mania. The two types of schizoaffective disorder — both of which include some symptoms of schizophrenia — are: Bipolar type , which includes episodes of mania and sometimes major depression Depressive type , which includes only major depressive episodes ...

  5. Talking about GI Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Talking About GI Disorders Personal Stories Social Security Benefits Contact Us About Kids & Teens GI Health ... Disorders Talking About GI Disorders Personal Stories Social Security Benefits Contact Us Talking About GI Disorders Home ...

  6. Bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Frederick K.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    1999-01-01

    Bipolar disorder's unique combination of three characteristics - clear genetic diathesis, distinctive clinical features, early availability of an effective treatment (lithium) - explains its special place in the history of psychiatry and its contribution to the current explosive growth of neuroscience. This article looks at the state of the art in bipolar disorder from the vantage point of: (i) genetics (possible linkages on chromosomes 18 and 21q, polygenic hypothesis, research into genetic markers); (ii) diagnosis (new focus on the subjective aspects of bipolar disorder to offset the current trend of underdiagnosis due to overreliance on standardized interviews and rating scales); (iii) outcome (increase in treatment-resistant forms signaling a change in the natural history of bipolar disorder); (iv) pathophysiology (research into circadian biological rhythms and the kindling hypothesis to explain recurrence); (v) treatment (emergence of the anticonvulsants, suggested role of chronic antidepressant treatment in the development of treatment resistance); (vi) neurobiology (evaluation of regulatory function in relation to affective disturbances, role of postsynaptic second-messenger mechanisms, advances in functional neuroimaging); and (vii) psychosocial research (shedding overly dualistic theories of the past to understand the mind and brain as an entity, thus emphasizing the importance of balancing the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches). Future progress in the understanding and treatment of bipolar disorder will rely on successful integration of the biological and psychosocial lines of investigation. PMID:22033232

  7. Disorders of the Small Intestine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of the Pelvic Floor Motility Testing Personal ... Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of the ...

  8. Disorders of the Large Intestine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of the Pelvic Floor Motility Testing Personal ... Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of the ...

  9. Peroxisomal disorders.

    PubMed

    Raymond, G V

    2001-12-01

    Peroxisomes are membrane-bound subcellular organelles that are involved in a variety of cellular functions. Disorders of peroxisomes, either in their assembly or single enzyme deficiencies, manifest themselves in the nervous system both in development and later in life. Most peroxisomal matrix proteins are targeted using one of the targeting sequences, whereas integral peroxisomal membrane proteins employ a different method. Peroxisomal importation is unique, allowing the importation of oligomerized proteins, and uses a specific extended shuttle system of receptor and cargo. The understanding of peroxisomal assembly is important because peroxisomal biogenesis disorders such as Zellweger syndrome result from these defects, and the resulting failure causes widespread deficiencies in peroxisomal biochemical function. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, representing the other group of peroxisomal disorders, is caused by the lack of the adrenoleukodystrophy protein, with an accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. New information on clinical incidence, phenotypic variability, and pathogenesis is becoming available and will have implications for possible therapies.

  10. Digested disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a new issue of reader’s digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28232877

  11. Disordered photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, Diederik S.

    2013-03-01

    What do lotus flowers have in common with human bones, liquid crystals with colloidal suspensions, and white beetles with the beautiful stones of the Taj Mahal? The answer is they all feature disordered structures that strongly scatter light, in which light waves entering the material are scattered several times before exiting in random directions. These randomly distributed rays interfere with each other, leading to interesting, and sometimes unexpected, physical phenomena. This Review describes the physics behind the optical properties of disordered structures and how knowledge of multiple light scattering can be used to develop new applications. The field of disordered photonics has grown immensely over the past decade, ranging from investigations into fundamental topics such as Anderson localization and other transport phenomena, to applications in imaging, random lasing and solar energy.

  12. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight–flight response, stressful life circumstances, and learned behavior. A child with a family member who has an anxiety ... disorder, and create a plan to help a child cope. A type of talk therapy called cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is often used. In CBT, kids ...

  13. Other Disorders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental conditions, such as wind, water, and temperature, or genetic disorders can affect beet production but can also cause symptoms that may be confused with those associated with pest or disease damage. Listed below are some the potential abiotic stresses that may occur to beet but are unr...

  14. Eating disorders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  15. Penis Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or ... not go away Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump ...

  16. Immunodeficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Max D; Lanier, Lewis L; Conley, Mary Ellen; Puck, Jennifer M

    2003-01-01

    Hematological complications occur frequently in patients with both primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders. Anemia, thrombocytopenia or leukopenias may bring these individuals to the attention of hematologists. Conversely, evidence suggesting a lymphoproliferative disorder may be the cause for referral. This session will provide an update on the diagnosis and treatment of immunodeficiency diseases ranging from isolated defects in antibody production to the severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID). Immunodeficiency diseases have traditionally been defined as defects in the development and function of T and B cells, the primary effector cells of specific cellular and humoral immunity. However, it has become increasingly evident that innate immune mechanisms contribute greatly to host defense, either through acting alone or by enhancing specific T and B cell responses. In Section I, Dr. Lewis Lanier reviews the burgeoning information on the extensive families of activating and inhibitory immunoreceptors that are expressed on NK cells, dendritic cells, T and B cells, and phagocytic cells. He provides an overview on the biological functions of these receptors in host defense. In Section II, Dr. Mary Ellen Conley defines the spectrum of antibody deficiency disorders, the most frequently occurring types of primary immunodeficiencies. She covers the different defects in B-cell development and function that lead to antibody deficiencies, and includes diagnosis and therapy of these disorders. In Section III, Dr. Jennifer Puck discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the different types of SCID. She describes the genetic basis for SCID, and the benefits, pitfalls, and complications of gene therapy and bone marrow transplantation in SCID patients.

  17. Disorder solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, A.

    1982-12-20

    It is shown that in (3+1)-dimensional space-time the recently proposed supersymmetric models of disordered systems can have finite-energy solitonlike solutions. As a consequence, it is suggested that the lower critical dimension of a ferromagnet in a quenched random magnetic field is d/sub c/ = 3. .ID LV2096 .PG 1811 1815

  18. Digested disorder

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is blooming. A simple PubMed search for “intrinsically disordered protein OR natively unfolded protein” returns about 1,800 hits (as of June 17, 2013), with many papers published quite recently. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we are starting a “Digested Disorder” project, which will encompass a series of reader’s digest type of publications aiming at the objective representation of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only two criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest covers papers published during the period of January, February and March of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28516015

  19. [Affective disorders and personality disorders].

    PubMed

    Maurel, M; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Coexistence in an individual of an affective disorder and a personality disorder is very common and there is an abundant literature on it. Articles are numerous and heterogeneous ; the results are sometimes imprecise or discordant. Some data are, despite these reserves, shared by the scientific community. The main consensus is first on a bad prognosis, with a high rate of all DSM axes comorbidities, secondly on the trap of a same phenomenology for different underlying mechanisms. A review is presented. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  20. Autism and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  1. Reading Disorders:

    PubMed Central

    Seaber, Emma

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between eating disorders and reading behaviors, arguing that there is a meaningful difference in a minority of readers' approach to and understanding of anorexia life-writing, and of literary texts more broadly. To illuminate this distinction, this article begins by considering the reported deleterious influence of Marya Hornbacher’s anorexia memoir, Wasted, elaborating the ways Hornbacher offers a positive presentation of anorexia nervosa that may, intentionally or not, induce certain readers to “try it” themselves. This is followed by an exploration of how Hornbacher’s own reading praxis is implicated in a discursive feedback loop around anorexia narratives. It concludes with a discussion of disordered reading attitudes in relation to the emergence of the “pro-anorexia” phenomenon. PMID:28569728

  2. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... 2012:chap 45. Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  3. Schizoid Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... you mostly work alone. Schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia Although a different disorder, schizoid personality disorder can ... some similar symptoms to schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia, such as a severely limited ability to make ...

  4. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions > Fatty acid oxidation disorders Fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... these disorders, go to genetests.org . What fatty acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? ...

  5. Disorders of Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkweather, C. Woodruff

    1977-01-01

    The author explores the idea that nonverbal communication can be disordered, describes several types of nonverbal disorders (such as impaired eye movement, inappropriate body movements, idiosyncratic mannerisms, and voice disorders), explains sources of nonverbal disorders, and suggests therapeutic procedures. (IM)

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a ... and pervasive developmental disorders. It is called a "spectrum" disorder because people with ASD can have a ...

  7. [Deglutition disorders].

    PubMed

    Walther, E K

    1998-08-01

    Dysphagia is related to the impairment of food passage from the mouth to the stomach. Globus pharyngis implies the frequent and often painful sensation of a lump in the throat that usually does not interfere with swallowing and may even be relieved by food intake. The diagnosis is based upon a careful history, clinical examination, endoscopy, dynamic imaging (videofluoroscopy, cinematography, videosonography) and electrophysiologic procedures (including pharyngoesophageal manometry, electromyography and pH determinations). Structural lesions of the cervical spine such as diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis are rare causes of dysphagia. Dysphagia following anterior cervical fusion as well as globus and dysphonia due to dysfunction of the vertebral joints are more likely. Symptoms with swallowing fluids indicate a neurogenic origin. Dyscoordinated swallowing, nasal reflux, dysphonia or general weakness may also occur. Chronic aspiration with respiratory compromize is the main consequence in a variety of neurological disorders as well as in cases of postsurgical dysphagia. Relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter indicates coordinated muscle movement between the pharynx and esophagus. Dysfunction of the pharyngoesophageal segment may lead to cricopharyngeal achalasia. A dyskinetic sphincter commonly represents an extrapharyngeal cause: i.e., disease associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Disorders of the esophageal phase of deglutition can produce retrosternal pain, heartburn, regurgitation and vomiting, as well as laryngeal and respiratory signs. Esophageal motility disorders include lower achalasia, tumors, peptic strictures, inflammatory diseases, drug-induced ulcers, rings and webs. Motility disorders present with aperistaltic, spontaneous contractions, diffuse esophagospasm, or a hypermotile esophagus. Gastroesophageal reflux with esophagitis must always be excluded, especially in patients with a globus sensation. The multiple features of the

  8. [Are eating disorders addictions?].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed.

  9. Disordered eating practices in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Satherley, R; Howard, R; Higgs, S

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review evidence concerning disordered eating practices in dietary-controlled gastrointestinal conditions. Three key questions were examined: a) are disordered eating practices a feature of GI disorders?; b) what abnormal eating practices are present in those with GI disorders?; and c) what factors are associated with the presence of disordered eating in those with GI disorders? By exploring these questions, we aim to develop a conceptual model of disordered eating development in GI disease. Five key databases, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings (1900-2014) and MEDLINE (1950-2014), PubMed, PsycINFO (1967-2014) and Google Scholar, were searched for papers relating to disordered eating practices in those with GI disorders. All papers were quality assessed before being included in the review. Nine papers were included in the review. The majority of papers reported that the prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls. Disordered eating patterns in dietary-controlled GI disorders may be associated with both anxiety and GI symptoms. Evidence concerning the correlates of disordered eating was limited. The presence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls, but the direction of the relationship is not clear. Implications for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Arousal disorders.

    PubMed

    Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca; Lugaresi, Elio

    2011-12-01

    Arousal Disorders (AD) are motor behaviours arising from NREM sleep. They comprise a spectrum of manifestations of increasing complexity from confusional arousal to sleep terror to sleepwalking. AD usually appear in childhood with a low frequency of episodes and spontaneously disappear before adolescence. The advent of video-polysomnography disclosed the existence of other phenomena alongside AD, in particular nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, requiring a differential diagnosis from AD. History-taking is usually sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis of AD even though viewing the episodes is essential for the clinician to distinguish the different motor events. Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes.

  11. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder A A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  12. Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurogenetic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Dosier, Laura Beth Mann; Vaughn, Bradley V; Fan, Zheng

    2017-09-12

    enetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as "rare disease," but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric practice. The authors decided to select eight relatively well-known neurogenetic disorders including Down syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Each disorder is presented in the following format: overview, clinical characteristics, developmental aspects, associated sleep disorders, management and research/future directions.

  13. Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurogenetic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dosier, Laura Beth Mann; Vaughn, Bradley V.; Fan, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Genetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as “rare disease,” but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric practice. The authors decided to select eight relatively well-known neurogenetic disorders including Down syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Smith–Magenis syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Each disorder is presented in the following format: overview, clinical characteristics, developmental aspects, associated sleep disorders, management and research/future directions. PMID:28895939

  14. Diagnosing Tic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ( DSM-5 ) 1 is used by health professionals to ... unwillingly. Three tic disorders are included in the DSM-5 : Tourette’s disorder (also called Tourette Syndrome [TS]) ...

  15. Children with Learning Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... but a common one is a specific learning disorder. Children with learning disorders can have intelligence in the normal but the specific learning disorder may make teachers and parents concerned about their ...

  16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC Helping Kids Cope With Stress Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Special Needs Factsheet Taking Your ... Childhood Stress About Teen Suicide Sadness and Depression Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Phobias Five Steps for Fighting Stress Going to ...

  17. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally ...

  18. Paranoid personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorder - paranoid; PPD ... American Psychiatric Association. Paranoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:649-652. Blais MA, ...

  19. Histrionic personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorder - histrionic; Attention seeking - histrionic personality disorder ... Causes of histrionic personality disorder are unknown. Genes and early childhood events may be responsible. It is diagnosed more often in women than ...

  20. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000929.htm Obsessive-compulsive disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder in which people ...

  1. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Walking: A Step in the Right Direction Binge Eating Disorder View or Print All Sections ​​Definition & Facts Binge ... cannot control your eating, you may have binge eating disorder. Symptoms & Causes If you have binge eating disorder, ...

  2. Generalized anxiety disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007687.htm Generalized anxiety disorder - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental disorder in which a ...

  3. Generalized anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000917.htm Generalized anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental disorder in which a ...

  4. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  5. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask ... Rafeul Alam, MD, PhD (July 01, 2012) Eosinophilic lung disorders are a category of lung problems characterized ...

  6. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  7. Panic Disorder and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your state. Panic Attacks, Panic Disorder, and Agoraphobia (Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians) - This online ... and examples of co-existing conditions. Panic Disorder & Agoraphobia (Copyright © Anxiety Disorders Association of America) - This web ...

  8. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  9. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders A ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  10. Autism spectrum disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder. It often appears in the first 3 years of life. ASD ... better diagnosis and newer definitions of ASD. Autism spectrum disorder now includes syndromes that used to be ...

  11. Trichotillomania, stereotypic movement disorder, and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Garner, Joseph P; Keuthen, Nancy J; Franklin, Martin E; Walkup, John T; Woods, Douglas W

    2007-08-01

    Trichotillomania is currently classified as an impulse control disorder not otherwise classified, whereas body-focused behaviors other than hair-pulling may be diagnosed as stereotypic movement disorder. A number of disorders characterized by repetitive, body-focused behaviors (eg, skin-picking) are prevalent and disabling and may have phenomenological and psychobiological overlap. Such disorders deserve greater recognition in the official nosology, and there would seem to be clinical utility in classifying them in the same diagnostic category.

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  13. ACE: Health - Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about children reported to have ever been diagnosed with four different neurodevelopmental disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, autism, and intellectual disability.

  14. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...

  15. Vaginal disorders.

    PubMed

    Soderberg, S F

    1986-05-01

    Chronic vaginitis is the most common vaginal disorder. Dogs with vaginitis show no signs of systemic illness but often lick at the vulva and have purulent or hemorrhagic vaginal discharges. Vaginitis is most commonly secondary to a noninfectious inciting factor such as congenital vaginal anomalies, clitoral hypertrophy, foreign bodies, trauma to the vaginal mucosa, or vaginal tumors. Inspection of the caudal vagina and vestibule both visually and digitally will often reveal the source of vaginal irritation. Vaginal cytology is used to establish the stage of the estrous cycle as well as distinguish uterine from vaginal sources of discharge. Vaginal cultures are used to establish the predominant offending organism associated with vaginal discharges and may be used as a guide for selection of a therapeutic agent. Vaginitis is best managed by removing the inciting cause and treating the area locally with antiseptic douches. Congenital malformations at the vestibulovaginal or vestibulovulvar junction may prevent normal intromission. Affected bitches may be reluctant to breed naturally because of pain. Such defects are detected best by digital examination. Congenital vaginal defects may be corrected by digital or surgical means. Prolapse of tissue through the lips of the vulva may be caused by clitoral hypertrophy, vaginal hyperplasia, or vaginal tumors. Enlargement of clitoral tissue is the result of endogenous or exogenous sources of androgens. Treatment of this condition includes removal of the androgen source and/or surgical removal of clitoral tissue. Vaginal hyperplasia is detected during proestrus or estrus of young bitches. Hyperplastic tissue will regress during diestrus. Tissue that is excessively traumatized and/or prolapse of the entire vaginal circumference may be removed surgically. Ovariohysterectomy may be used to prevent recurrence. Vaginal tumors are detected most often in older intact bitches. Such tumors are generally of smooth muscle or fibrous

  16. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychotic and Bipolar Disorders: Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Holder, Sarah D

    2017-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe chronic mental illness that affects a large number of individuals. This disorder is separated into two major types, bipolar I disorder, with mania and typically recurrent depression, and bipolar II disorder, with recurrent major depression and hypomania. Patients with bipolar disorder spend the majority of time experiencing depression, and this typically is the presenting symptom. Because outcomes are improved with earlier diagnosis and treatment, physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for bipolar disorder. The most effective long-term treatments are lithium and valproic acid, although other drugs also are used. In addition to referral to a mental health subspecialist for initiation and management of drug treatment, patients with bipolar disorder should be provided with resources for psychotherapy. Several comorbidities commonly associated with bipolar disorder include other mental disorders, substance use disorders, migraine headaches, chronic pain, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Family physicians who care for patients with bipolar disorder should focus their efforts on prevention and management of comorbidities. These patients should be assessed continually for risk of suicide because they are at high risk and their suicide attempts tend to be successful. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  18. [Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorders].

    PubMed

    Iancu, Iulian

    2014-11-01

    Social anxiety disorder is a mental condition with anxiety and avoidance in social settings and is frequently accompanied by self-medication with alcohol. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that the risk that patients with social anxiety disorder will develop alcohol dependence is more than two-fold. We will discuss epidemiological research findings about this comorbidity, as well as reasons for the comorbidity and the various treatments available for these conditions. Very few studies have analyzed the efficacy of treatments for the combination of these disorders and it is not yet clear whether to treat the social anxiety disorder first, to treat the alcohol use disorder first or to treat both conditions simultaneously. Nevertheless, we propose to treat the symptoms of social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder in combination with the hope of achieving maximal improvement in these patients. Disclosure: I received financial assistance from Lundbeck Israel.

  19. Movement disorders and sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  20. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder].

    PubMed

    van Grootheest, D S; van den Heuvel, O A; Cath, D C; van Oppen, P; van Balkom, A J L M

    2008-10-25

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder characterised by obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessive-compulsive disorder has a relatively high prevalence and is a highly disabling disease. The disorder is associated with shame, which causes long delays in accessing treatment. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is caused by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Effective treatments exist in the form of either pharmacotherapy--clomipramine or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors--or cognitive behaviour therapy.

  1. Learning and Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Anil; Uderman, Jodi; Feirsen, Nicole; Bedard, Anne-Claude; Marks, David

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to provide a select review of treatments for addressing reading disorder, mathematics disorder, disorder of written expression, auditory processing disorder and poor working memory. This information will be valuable to practitioners in determining the suitability of certain treatments for these various disorders/problems which has direct implications for providing comprehensive, multi-disciplinary treatment for youth. PMID:23806314

  2. Panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Craske, Michelle G; Waters, Allison M

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of recent empirical developments, current controversies, and areas in need of further research in relation to factors that are common as well as specific to the etiology and maintenance of panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. The relative contribution of broad risk factors to these disorders is discussed, including temperament, genetics, biological influences, cognition, and familial variables. In addition, the role that specific learning experiences play in relation to each disorder is reviewed. In an overarching hierarchical model, it is proposed that generalized anxiety disorder, and to some extent panic disorder, loads most heavily on broad underlying factors, whereas specific life history contributes most strongly to circumscribed phobias.

  3. Eating disorders during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    Eating disorders during pregnancy, once thought to be rare, occur in a significant number of women. The incidences of the major eating disorders-anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa-are increasing because of cultural pressures on the drive for thinness. Because the age range for these major eating disorders overlaps with the age range for reproductive function, it is not unusual for a clinician to encounter a pregnant patient with a major eating disorder. Eating disorders attributable to the pregnant state include pregnancy sickness, pica, and ptyalism. The diagnostic criteria, etiology, nutritional behavioral influences, evolutionary psychological considerations where elucidated, and treatment of these disorders will be presented. Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to review how the major eating disorders impact pregnancy, to diagnose eating disorders during pregnancy using the diagnostic criteria, and to treat eating disorders during pregnancy.

  4. Asperger disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Arora, Manu; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sarkhel, Sujit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Asperger disorder was first described in 1944 by the Austrian pediatrician, Hans Asperger. It was introduced as a separate diagnostic category from autistic disorder in DSM-IV and ICD-10. The pattern of comorbidity in Asperger disorder is different from autistic disorder, with a higher level of psychosis, violent behavior, anxiety, and mood disorders. We present three cases of Asperger disorder diagnosed for the first time in adulthood, with psychosis being the predominant reason for the referral. In each case, the psychosis improved with antipsychotic treatment, although core autistic symptoms remained the same.

  5. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment. PMID:19724751

  6. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

  7. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A hidden disorder].

    PubMed

    Haraldsson, Magnús

    2015-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland.

  8. [Personality disorders in eating disorder patients].

    PubMed

    Martín Murcia, Francisco M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Pozo, Eugenia M; Martínez Sánchez, Margarita; López Pérez, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    Personality disorders in eating disorder patients. A follow-up study was designed to analyze the relation between personality disorders (PD) and the course of eating disorders (ED) in 34 patients who required treatment over 4 years and half. 91% of the clinical sample met the criteria for PD at the initial assessment and 36% at the end of treatment, with a significant reduction in MCMI-II scores at follow-up. The outcome of the ED was significantly related to the PD outcome. There was a higher rate of improvement of PD in the bulimic group (61%) than in anorexic group (34%). The patients who presented schizoid and avoidant personality disorders were the most resistant and they adhered less to treatment. The prevalence of PD in the clinical sample and its relation to the course of ED from a person-centered model is discussed.

  9. Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Like static on a telephone line, peripheral nerve disorders distort or interrupt the messages between the brain ... are more than 100 kinds of peripheral nerve disorders. They can affect one nerve or many nerves. ...

  10. Optic Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are many different types of optic nerve disorders, including: Glaucoma is a group of diseases that ... are having vision problems. Tests for optic nerve disorders may include eye exams, ophthalmoscopy (an examination of ...

  11. Epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Knott, Sarah; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Thomas, Rhys H

    2015-11-01

    It is well recognized that mood disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. Despite this, our knowledge regarding the relationship between epilepsy and bipolar disorder is limited. Several shared features between the two disorders, such as their episodic nature and potential to run a chronic course, and the efficacy of some antiepileptic medications in the prophylaxis of both disorders, are often cited as evidence of possible shared underlying pathophysiology. The present paper aims to review the bidirectional associations between epilepsy and bipolar disorder, with a focus on epidemiological links, evidence for shared etiology, and the impact of these disorders on both the individual and wider society. Better recognition and understanding of these two complex disorders, along with an integrated clinical approach, are crucial for improved evaluation and management of comorbid epilepsy and mood disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is a chronic (ongoing) type of depression in which a person's moods are regularly low. ... are not as severe as with major depression . Persistent depressive disorder used to be called dysthymia.

  13. Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association. This ... In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; ...

  14. Any Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Statistical Manual on Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) . These patterns tend to be fixed and ... MF, Lane MC, Loranger AW, Kessler RC (2007). DSM-IV personality disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey ...

  15. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Statistical Manual on Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) as “...a pervasive pattern of disregard for, ... MF, Lane MC, Loranger AW, Kessler RC (2007). DSM-IV personality disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey ...

  16. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication ( ... Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication ( ...

  17. Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, to ... used by insurance companies to reimburse for treatment. DSM-5 criteria for narcissistic personality disorder include these ...

  18. Illness anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001236.htm Illness anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) is a preoccupation that physical symptoms ...

  19. Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders Go Back Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders Email Print + Share The kidneys filter the ... but some less serious ones occur more frequently. Kidney stones These are probably the most commonly encountered ...

  20. Disorder of written expression

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a childhood learning disorder that involves poor writing skills. It is also called disorder of written ... and punctuation Poor handwriting Poor spelling Poorly organized writing Has to say words aloud when writing Exams ...

  1. Narcissistic personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Narcissistic personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;669-672. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves ...

  2. Borderline personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Borderline personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:663-666. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves ...

  3. Schizotypal personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Schizotypal personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;655-659. Blais MA, Smallwood ...

  4. Avoidant personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Avoidant personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013;672-675. Blais MA, Smallwood ...

  5. Schizoid personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Schizoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:652-655. Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves ...

  6. Chromosome Disorder Outreach

    MedlinePlus

    ... Visit our Photo Gallery Education, Advocacy, Information & Support Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc is a non-profit organization. ... Inc. All Rights Reserved You are donating to : Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc, a 501c non-profit organization. ...

  7. Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Panic Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Glycosylation Disorders with Immunodeficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... affected by these disorders and build upon our knowledge of harmful pathogens. Glycosylation disorders with immunodeficiency are ... Helps Researchers Explore Microbial Genomic Data Biological Materials Biological ... Clinical Sciences Support Center Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units Topical ...

  9. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... compulsive disorder. Environment. Your environment, life experiences and culture may contribute to body dysmorphic disorder, especially if they involve negative social evaluations about your body or self-image, or ...

  10. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

  11. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  12. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  13. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  14. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders Print ... to parties or out for dinner) What Is Bulimia? Instead of starving themselves, people who have bulimia ...

  15. Bipolar disorder (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and major depression. Treatment with lithium or mood stabilizers may be effective, but medication regimens are sometimes difficult to tolerate ...

  16. What Are Reading Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia . These disorders are present from a young age ... information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability ...

  17. Kinetics of Tetrataenite Disordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, E.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Scorzelli, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    Tetrataenite is a sensitive tracer of transient secondary thermal events that leads to disordering of tetrataenite into taenite. Thus, preliminary results concerning time-temperature data for tetrataenite disordering are presented.

  18. Seasonal affective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001532.htm Seasonal affective disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs ...

  19. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated.

  20. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular heartbeats, called ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...

  1. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused ... language therapy can help. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  2. Genetic Brain Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can ... that may put children at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities. More E- ...

  4. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Thyroid Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Thyroid Disorders A A ... the world is a thyroid? What Is the Thyroid? The thyroid (say: THYE-royd) is a gland, ...

  5. How to characterize disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, T.

    2016-05-01

    Researchers working on nuclear materials encounter disorder in the atomic structure all the time, usually caused by irradiation. The nature of disorder varies widely, from lattice defects to amorphous phase formation. Generally it is not easy to characterize the state of disorder with the accuracy necessary to elucidate the properties caused by structural disorder. However, owing to advances in the tools of characterization and rapid rise in computer power, significant progress has been made in characterizing structural disorder. We discuss how to describe and determine the structure and dynamics of disordered materials using scattering measurements and modeling. Lattice defects caused by irradiation usually has negative effects on properties, but glasses and highly disordered materials can be irradiation resistant, and could be useful as nuclear materials. Characterizing and controlling disorder is becoming an important endeavor in the field of nuclear materials.

  6. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Balance Disorders KidsHealth > For Parents > Balance Disorders Print A ... feel as happy and healthy as possible. How Balance Works To understand balance problems, it's important to ...

  7. Overview of Immunodeficiency Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Raje, Nikita; Dinakar, Chitra

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The spectrum of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) is expanding. It includes typical disorders that primarily present with defective immunity as well as disorders that predominantly involve other systems and exhibit few features of impaired immunity. The rapidly growing list of new immunodeficiency disorders and treatment modalities makes it imperative for the provider to stay abreast of the latest and best management strategies. We present a brief overview of recent clinical advances in the field of PIDs. PMID:26454309

  8. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  9. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder A A ... Diagnosing OCD Getting Therapy for OCD What Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? Everyone feels anxiety, fear, uncertainty, or worry at ...

  11. Identify bipolar spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Sarah; Cunningham, Patricia; Manning, J Sloan

    2002-06-01

    Patients with bipolar spectrum disorders commonly present with depressive symptoms to primary care clinicians. This article details bipolar spectrum disorder assessment, treatment, and treatment response. By intervening early in the course of depressive and hypomanic episodes, you can help decrease the morbidity and suffering associated with bipolar spectrum disorders.

  12. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  13. Rare Disorders and Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umlauf, Mary; Monaco, Jana; FitzZaland, Mary; FitzZaland, Richard; Novitsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), a rare or "orphan" disease affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. There are more than 6,000 rare disorders that, taken together, affect approximately 25 million Americans. "Exceptional Parent" ("EP") recognizes that when a disorder affects a child or adult, it…

  14. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Binge Eating Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Binge Eating Disorder Print A A A What's in this article? ... takes a combination of things to develop an eating disorder — including a person's genes, emotions, and behaviors (such ...

  15. Diagnosis of Mood Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda; Moore, Bonita Marcus

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of mood disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (fourth edition) criteria and other relevant information. Differential diagnosis is facilitated through discussion of differences and similarities among mental disorders, age and gender-related patterns of mood disorders, and useful diagnostic tools. (Author)

  16. Pituitary Disorders and Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Various hormonal disorders can influence bone metabolism and cause secondary osteoporosis. The consequence of this is a significant increase of fracture risk. Among pituitary disorders such effects are observed in patients with Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly, and hypopituitarism. Severe osteoporosis is the result of the coexistence of some of these disorders and hypogonadism at the same time, which is quite often. PMID:25873948

  17. Rare Disorders and Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umlauf, Mary; Monaco, Jana; FitzZaland, Mary; FitzZaland, Richard; Novitsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), a rare or "orphan" disease affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. There are more than 6,000 rare disorders that, taken together, affect approximately 25 million Americans. "Exceptional Parent" ("EP") recognizes that when a disorder affects a child or adult, it…

  18. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... autism spectrum disorder . Images Motormental disability Read More Autism spectrum disorder Review Date 4/21/2015 Updated by: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. ... Spectrum Disorder Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  19. [Ejaculatory disorders except premature ejaculation, orgasmic disorders].

    PubMed

    Rigot, J-M; Marcelli, F; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    Disorders of ejaculation and orgasm apart from premature ejaculation are pretty uncommon. Medical literature was reviewed and combined with expert opinion of the authors. The semiology of these disorders is essential: aspermia, hypospermia, retrograde ejaculation, delayed or absent ejaculation with or without orgasm. Whether this is a lifelong or acquired condition, it is essential to assess the side-effects of medications i.e. psychotropic drugs, including antidepressant, neuroleptics, tramadol, alphablockers: tamsulosin and silodosin must always be surveyed. The management is often difficult, especially with a parenthood perspective. The management of lifelong disorders must rely on psychosexual therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Developmental disorders of vision.

    PubMed

    Galaburda, Albert M; Duchaine, Bradley C

    2003-08-01

    This review of developmental disorders of vision focuses on only a few of the many disorders that disrupt visual development. Given the enormity of the human visual system in the primate brain and complexity of visual development, however, there are likely hundreds or thousands of types of disorders affecting high-level vision. The rapid progress seen in developmental dyslexia and WMS demonstrates the possibilities and difficulties inherent in researching such disorders, and the authors hope that similar progress will be made for congenital prosopagnosia and other disorders in the near future.

  1. Pediatric bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Carbray, M Julie A; McGuinness, Teena

    2009-12-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder differs from the adult form of the disorder, marked by longer episodes, rapid cycling, prominent irritability, and high rates of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorders. A careful assessment by families of children's symptoms, including their duration and intensity, helps with accurate diagnosis. After the diagnosis is made and careful psychopharmacological intervention is initiated, psychiatric nursing treatment of children and adolescents with pediatric bipolar disorder should involve child-and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapies, family support, and psychoeducation.

  2. Mood Disorders after TBI

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Ricardo E.; Arciniegas, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis In this article, we will examine the epidemiology and risk factors for the development of the most common mood disorders observed in the aftermath of TBI: depressive disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. We will describe the classification approach and diagnostic criteria proposed in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-V). We will also examine the differential diagnosis of post-TBI mood disorders and describe the mainstay of the evaluation process. Finally, we will place a special emphasis on the analysis of the different therapeutic options and provide guidelines for the appropriate management of these conditions. PMID:24529421

  3. Personality disorder diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    WIDIGER, THOMAS A

    2003-01-01

    Every person has a characteristic manner of thinking, feeling, and relating to others. Some of these personality traits can be so dysfunctional as to warrant a diagnosis of personality disorder. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD- 10) includes ten personality disorder diagnoses. Three issues of particular importance for the diagnosis of personality disorders are their differentiation from other mental disorders, from general personality functioning, and from each other. Each of these issues is discussed in turn, and it is suggested that personality disorders are more accurately and effectively diagnosed as maladaptive variants of common personality traits. PMID:16946918

  4. Headaches and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Freedom, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Headaches and sleep disorders are associated in a complex manner. Both the disorders are common in the general population, but the relationship between the two is more than coincidental. Sleep disorders can exacerbate headache sand the converse is also true. Treatment of sleep disorders can have a positive impact on the treatment of headaches. Screening for sleep disorders should be considered in all patients with headaches. This can be accomplished with brief screening tools. Those who screen positively can be further evaluated or referred to asleep specialist.

  5. Sleep disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oyiengo, Dennis; Louis, Mariam; Hott, Beth; Bourjeily, Ghada

    2014-09-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pregnancy and may be influenced by a multitude of factors. Pregnancy physiology may predispose to sleep disruption but may also result in worsening of some underlying sleep disorders, and the de novo development of others. Apart from sleep disordered breathing, the impact of sleep disorders on pregnancy, fetal, and neonatal outcomes is poorly understood. In this article, we review the literature and discuss available data pertaining to the most common sleep disorders in perinatal women. These include restless legs syndrome, insomnia, circadian pattern disturbances, narcolepsy, and sleep-disordered breathing.

  6. Sleep disorders during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pien, Grace W; Schwab, Richard J

    2004-11-01

    This paper reviews the topic of sleep disorders in pregnant women. We describe changes in sleep architecture and sleep pattern during pregnancy, discuss the impact of the physical and biochemical changes of pregnancy on sleep in pregnant women and examine whether maternal-fetal outcomes may be adversely affected in women with disordered sleep. The literature on common sleep disorders affecting pregnant women, including insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing and restless legs syndrome, is reviewed and recommendations are made for the management of these disorders during pregnancy.

  7. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    PubMed Central

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  8. [Sleep in neurodevelopmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Idiazábal-Aletxa, M A; Aliagas-Martínez, S

    2009-02-27

    Sleep disorders can affect daytime functioning in a variety of neurodevelopmental disabilities as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Asperger syndrome. Researchers using behavioural and/or electrophysiological measures have identified differences in sleep architecture among people with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other developmental disorders. Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities have significant sleep problems, most commonly disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep. Studies of sleep disturbance in children with academic and behavioural problems have underscored the role that primary sleep disorders play in the clinical presentation of symptoms of inattention and behavioural dysregulation. Identification and treatment of sleep disorders in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities may improve daytime behaviour in this patients. When establishing a treatment plan, it is imperative to understand the underlying etiology of the sleep problem, which in many cases is multifactorial.

  9. Genetics of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Michael A; Zavala, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder especially the most severe type (type I), has a strong genetic component. Family studies suggest that a small number of genes of modest effect are involved in this disorder. Family-based studies have identified a number of chromosomal regions linked to bipolar disorder, and progress is currently being made in identifying positional candidate genes within those regions. A number of candidate genes have also shown evidence of association with bipolar disorder, and genome-wide association studies are now under way, using dense genetic maps. Replication studies in larger or combined datasets are needed to definitively assign a role for specific genes in this disorder. This review covers our current knowledge of the genetics of bipolar disorder, and provides a commentary on current approaches used to identify the genes involved in this complex behavioral disorder.

  10. Mood disorders in Asians.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Albert; Chang, Doris

    2014-02-01

    Mood disorders are disorders that have a disturbance in mood as the predominant feature. They are common psychiatric disorders and are associated with significant distress and functional impairment. As the theory of mood disorders is based on the philosophy of mind/body dichotomy in the West, it contradicts the holistic tradition of medicine in the East. This may partially explain why many Asians with mood disorders emphasize their physical symptoms in discussions with their treatment providers. In the development of the DSM and ICD diagnostic systems, it is presumed that the diagnostic categories are applicable to all races and ethnicities. Similarly, many consider pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches to mood disorders universally applicable. To effectively treat Asians with mood disorders, clinicians need to customize biological and psychosocial interventions in consideration of patients' potential genetic and cultural differences.

  11. Disability in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-09-01

    This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety disorders. Data were from 1826 subjects from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose anxiety disorders. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II was used to measure disability in six domains (cognition, mobility, selfcare, social interaction, life activities, participation). Severity of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour symptoms was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear Questionnaire. All anxiety disorders were associated with higher disability. Disability was generally highest in multiple anxiety disorder (e.g. mean disability in cognition=33.7) and social anxiety disorder (mean=32.7), followed by generalized anxiety disorder (mean=27.2) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (mean=26.3), and lowest in panic disorder without agoraphobia (mean=22.1). Anxiety arousal was more associated with disability in life activities (B=8.5, p<0.001) and participation (B=9.9, p<0.001) whereas avoidance behaviour was more associated with disability in cognition (B=7.4, p<0.001) and social interaction (B=8.6, p<0.001). Different disability patterns between anxiety disorders were not completely explained by anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour. The cross-sectional study design precludes any causal interpretations. In order to examine the full range of comorbidity among anxiety, a greater range of anxiety disorders would have been preferable. Disability is highest in social anxiety disorder and multiple anxiety disorder. Both anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour are associated with higher disability levels but do not fully explain the differences across anxiety

  12. Gender identity disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Urs; Milos, Gabriella

    2002-12-01

    We report three cases of transsexual patients who are suffering from an eating disorder: a biological male patient diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN), a biological male patient with bulimia nervosa (BN), and a biological female patient with AN as well as a severe alcohol dependence. The relationship between eating behavior, gender identity, sexual orientation, and body dissatisfaction is discussed. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 32: 473-478, 2002.

  13. Structural Disorder in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Pancsa, Rita; Tompa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Based on early bioinformatic studies on a handful of species, the frequency of structural disorder of proteins is generally thought to be much higher in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes. To refine this view, we present here a comparative prediction study and analysis of 194 fully described eukaryotic proteomes and 87 reference prokaryotes for structural disorder. We found that structural disorder does distinguish eukaryotes from prokaryotes, but its frequency spans a very wide range in the two superkingdoms that largely overlap. The number of disordered binding regions and different Pfam domain types also contribute to distinguish eukaryotes from prokaryotes. Unexpectedly, the highest levels – and highest variability – of predicted disorder is found in protists, i.e. single-celled eukaryotes, often surpassing more complex eukaryote organisms, plants and animals. This trend contrasts with that of the number of domain types, which increases rather monotonously toward more complex organisms. The level of structural disorder appears to be strongly correlated with lifestyle, because some obligate intracellular parasites and endosymbionts have the lowest levels, whereas host-changing parasites have the highest level of predicted disorder. We conclude that protists have been the evolutionary hot-bed of experimentation with structural disorder, in a period when structural disorder was actively invented and the major functional classes of disordered proteins established. PMID:22496841

  14. Structural disorder in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Pancsa, Rita; Tompa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Based on early bioinformatic studies on a handful of species, the frequency of structural disorder of proteins is generally thought to be much higher in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes. To refine this view, we present here a comparative prediction study and analysis of 194 fully described eukaryotic proteomes and 87 reference prokaryotes for structural disorder. We found that structural disorder does distinguish eukaryotes from prokaryotes, but its frequency spans a very wide range in the two superkingdoms that largely overlap. The number of disordered binding regions and different Pfam domain types also contribute to distinguish eukaryotes from prokaryotes. Unexpectedly, the highest levels--and highest variability--of predicted disorder is found in protists, i.e. single-celled eukaryotes, often surpassing more complex eukaryote organisms, plants and animals. This trend contrasts with that of the number of domain types, which increases rather monotonously toward more complex organisms. The level of structural disorder appears to be strongly correlated with lifestyle, because some obligate intracellular parasites and endosymbionts have the lowest levels, whereas host-changing parasites have the highest level of predicted disorder. We conclude that protists have been the evolutionary hot-bed of experimentation with structural disorder, in a period when structural disorder was actively invented and the major functional classes of disordered proteins established.

  15. Histrionic personality disorder in women with somatization disorder.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J

    1989-01-01

    The clinical distinctions between histrionic personality disorder and somatization disorder have frequently been blurred. In this study, 60 women with somatization disorder were found to have histrionic personality disorder. A DSM-III diagnosis of histrionic personality disorder did not significantly help to improve the diagnosis of somatization disorder. A diagnosis of histrionic personality disorder should stimulate a search for better-validated Axis I diagnoses.

  16. The spreading of disorder.

    PubMed

    Keizer, Kees; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda

    2008-12-12

    Imagine that the neighborhood you are living in is covered with graffiti, litter, and unreturned shopping carts. Would this reality cause you to litter more, trespass, or even steal? A thesis known as the broken windows theory suggests that signs of disorderly and petty criminal behavior trigger more disorderly and petty criminal behavior, thus causing the behavior to spread. This may cause neighborhoods to decay and the quality of life of its inhabitants to deteriorate. For a city government, this may be a vital policy issue. But does disorder really spread in neighborhoods? So far there has not been strong empirical support, and it is not clear what constitutes disorder and what may make it spread. We generated hypotheses about the spread of disorder and tested them in six field experiments. We found that, when people observe that others violated a certain social norm or legitimate rule, they are more likely to violate other norms or rules, which causes disorder to spread.

  17. [Affective disorders and impulsivity].

    PubMed

    Belzeaux, R; Correard, N; Mazzola-Pomietto, P; Adida, M; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Impulsivity is a complex and important phenomenon in mood disorders. Impulse control disorders, as defined in DSM, are more frequent in mood disorders especially in Bipolar Disorder type I, and are associated with a more severe course of illness. Dimensional studies demonstrate that impulsivity is a core manifestation of bipolar disorder both as state- and trait-dependent markers in patients. Comorbid substance use disorders are often associated with a higher level of impulsivity whereas the relation between suicidal behaviors and higher impulsivity remains uncertain. Moreover, neuropsychological tests were used to study correlation between clinical impulsivity and laboratory measurements of impulsivity. Level of correlation remains weak and several explanations are proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  18. Migraine and neurogenetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Swati

    2013-09-01

    In the current classification of headache disorders, headache attributable to genetic disorders is not classified separately, rather as headache attributed to cranial or cervical vascular disorder. The classification thus implies that a vascular pathology causes headache in these genetic disorders. Unquestionably, migraine is one of the prominent presenting features of several genetic cerebral small vessel diseases such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy, retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, and hereditary infantile hemiparessis, retinal arteriolar tortuosity and leukoencephalopahty. Shared genetic features, increased susceptibility, and/or vascular endothelial dysfunction may play a role in pathogenesis of migraine. Common or overlapping pathways involving the responsible genes may provide insight regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms that can explain their comorbidity with migraine. This review focuses on clinical features of genetic vasculopathies. An independent category-migraine related to genetic disorders-should be considered to classify these disorders.

  19. [Pharmacotherapy of Anxiety Disorders].

    PubMed

    Zwanzger, P

    2016-05-01

    Anxiety disorders belong to the most frequent psychiatric disorders according to epidemiological studies and are associated with a high economic burden. Panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia belong to the most important clinical disorders. The etiology is complex, including genetic, neurobiological as well as psychosocial factors. With regard to treatment, both psychotherapy and medication can be employed according to current treatment guidelines. With regard to psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the treatment of choice. As for pharmacological treatment, in particular modern antidepressants and pregabalin are recommended. However, several recommendations have to be considered in daily clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Posttraumatic Balance Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    69 International Tinnitus Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, 69–72 (2007) Posttraumatic Balance Disorders Michael E. Hoffer, Ben J. Balough, and Kim R...trauma is being more frequently recognized as a causative agent in balance disorders . Most of the published literature examining traumatic brain injury...TBI) after head trauma has focused on short-term prognostic indicators and neurocognitive disorders . Few data are available to guide those individuals

  1. Neurologic disorders of gait.

    PubMed

    Sudarsky, L

    2001-07-01

    Gait disorders are important because of their prevalence, particularly among the elderly, and the associated risk of falls and injury. Neural networks that organize locomotion and maintain balance are briefly reviewed. Gait disorders can be classified based on observational features or by etiology. Several common disorders are discussed in more detail. Recent progress includes use of botulinum toxin for spastic gait in cerebral palsy, neurosurgical treatment of Parkinson's disease, and newer rehabilitation approaches to gait and balance training.

  2. Adrenal gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Berry, Matthew E

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging of the adrenal glands is an important aspect of the diagnosis of any adrenal gland disorder. This article discusses the normal anatomy and functions of the adrenal glands, as well as specific adrenal gland disorders and how they are diagnosed and treated. Radiologic technologists need to understand the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of disorders that prevent the adrenal glands from functioning properly.

  3. From Self-Disorders to Ego Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While the concept of disorders of basic self-experience as the clinical core of schizophrenia spectrum disorders has gained increasing significance and empirical support, several questions remain still unresolved. One major problem is to understand how the basic and prodromal self-disturbances are related to Schneider's first rank symptoms, in particular to the so-called 'ego disorders' found in acute psychotic episodes. The study of the transition from prodromal to first rank symptoms, for example from alienated thoughts to thoughts aloud or thought insertions, is of particular importance for understanding the nature and course of schizophrenia. The paper analyses the emergence of ego disorders from basic self-disorders in phenomenological terms, taking the examples of motor passivity experiences and thought insertion. It is argued that full-blown delusions of alien control are ultimately based on a disturbance of the intentionality of thinking, feeling and acting. This disturbance, for its part, may be traced back to anomalies of self-experience in prodromal stages of schizophrenia.

  4. The New World Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-18

    DTIC in • ELECTE JUL 12 1993 C~n(Unclassified Paper) No NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, RI THE NEW WORLD DISORDER by LINDA M. LENTZ Captain, U.S. Navy A...1I. E:M E.JT ti. O N CESSItSN %’. The New World Disorder -Unclassified I13a. TYP:E GF REFORf F 3b. i-A-E COVERED 114. DATE OF REFORT (Yei r* )cr... Disorder AýSTR.VCT (Con tnue on re~erse if nor.ces.,ry ,r4d ~entify by b~c<k nunitxzr) Abstract of THE NIEW WORLD DISORDER Today the imperative for

  5. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tilted disordered Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trescher, Maximilian; Sbierski, Björn; Brouwer, Piet W.; Bergholtz, Emil J.

    2017-01-01

    Although Lorentz invariance forbids the presence of a term that tilts the energy-momentum relation in the Weyl Hamiltonian, a tilted dispersion is not forbidden and, in fact, generic for condensed matter realizations of Weyl semimetals. We here investigate the combined effect of such a tilted Weyl dispersion and the presence of potential disorder. In particular, we address the influence of a tilt on the disorder-induced phase transition between a quasiballistic phase at weak disorder, in which the disorder is an irrelevant perturbation, and a diffusive phase at strong disorder. Our main result is that the presence of a tilt leads to a reduction of the critical disorder strength for this transition or, equivalently, that increasing the tilt at fixed disorder strength drives the system through the phase transition to the diffusive strong-disorder phase. Notably this obscures the tilt-induced Lifshitz transition to an overtilted type II Weyl phase at any finite disorder strength. Our results are supported by analytical calculations using the self-consistent Born approximation and numerical calculations of the density of states and of transport properties.

  7. Antisocial personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... are often seen in the development of antisocial personality. Some doctors believe that psychopathic personality (psychopathy) is ...

  8. Dependent personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Having problems expressing disagreements with others Exams and Tests Dependent personality disorder is diagnosed based on a psychological evaluation. The health care provider will consider how ...

  9. Neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Guidon, Amanda C; Massey, E Wayne

    2012-08-01

    Preexisting and coincident neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy are challenging for clinicians because of the heterogeneity of disease and the limited data in the literature. Many questions arise regarding the effect of disease on the pregnancy, delivery, and newborn in addition to the effect of pregnancy on the course of disease. Each disorder has particular considerations and possible complications. An interdisciplinary team of physicians is essential. This article discusses the most recent literature on neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy including acquired root, plexus, and peripheral nerve lesions; acquired and inherited neuropathies and myopathies; disorders of the neuromuscular junction; and motor neuron diseases.

  10. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Raymond W.; Fleming, Jonathan A.E.; Buchanan, Alan; Remick, Ronald A.

    1990-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a recently described mood disorder characterized by recurrent winter depressive episodes and summer remissions. The symptoms of SAD include DSM III-R criteria for recurrent major depression, but atypical depressive symptoms predominate with hypersomnia, hyperphagia and carbohydrate craving, and anergia. Seasonal affective disorder is effectively treated by exposure to bright light (phototherapy or light therapy), a novel antidepressant treatment. The authors review the syndrome of SAD, hypotheses about its pathophysiology, and the use of phototherapy to treat the disorder. PMID:21233986

  11. Functional eye movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, D; Bronstein, A M

    2017-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) eye movement disorders are perhaps less established in the medical literature than other types of functional movement disorders. Patients may present with ocular symptoms (e.g., blurred vision or oscillopsia) or functional eye movements may be identified during the formal examination of the eyes in patients with other functional disorders. Convergence spasm is the most common functional eye movement disorder, but functional gaze limitation, functional eye oscillations (also termed "voluntary nystagmus"), and functional convergence paralysis may be underreported. This chapter reviews the different types of functional eye movement abnormalities and provides a practical framework for their diagnosis and management.

  12. [Schizophrenia and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Foulon, C

    2003-01-01

    The comorbidity of schizophrenia and eating disorders is understudied. In the early nineteenth century, Eugen Bleuler has reported cases of schizophrenia with eating disorders that were related to delusional ideas. Potomania, merycism and pica have often been described in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients with eating disorders usually do not meet all criteria for typical eating disorders and are therefore classified as "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS). It may even be difficult to recognize schizophrenia in patients with eating disorders associated to delusional ideas and distorted cognitions related to food or body perception. In any case, the diagnosis of schizophrenia should preferably be made and is only valid after renutrition is achieved. The prevalence of schizophrenia in samples of patients with eating disorders is generally below 10% but reaches 35% in males, the most frequent form being hebephrenia. Cognitive behavioural therapies for eating disorders need to be adapted in cases of comorbid schizophrenia. The new antipsychotic medications seem helpful in patients with eating disorders with or without schizophrenia. They reduce anxiety towards eating and bring in better adherence to treatments.

  13. Addictive Disorders in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Truong, Anh; Moukaddam, Nidal; Toledo, Alexander; Onigu-Otite, Edore

    2017-09-01

    Addictive disorders in youth represent a dynamic field characterized by shifting patterns of substance use and high rates of experimentation, while retaining the risky behaviors and negative outcomes associated with established drug classes. Youth/adolescents are also at the forefront of use of new technologies, and non-substance-related disorders are pertinent. These disorders present with similar pictures of impairment, and can be diagnosed following the same principles. An underlying mental disorder and the possibility of a dual diagnosis need to be assessed carefully, and optimal treatment includes psychosocial treatments with applicable pharmacologic management, the latter representing an expanding field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Prevention of bipolar disorders].

    PubMed

    Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Severus, E; Bauer, M

    2013-11-01

    In the past, preventive measures for psychoses have focused mainly on schizophrenic disorders. Bipolar disorders are often diagnosed and treated with a significant delay. The expansion of preventive measures for bipolar disorders aims at minimizing the substantial negative consequences associated with the disease. Some of the shared aspects of prevention in psychoses and bipolar disorders are that the first symptoms commonly appear during adolescence and early adulthood and that there is a symptomatic overlap between the disorders. To improve efforts to seek early help, public information about mental illness, low threshold services as well as cooperation between adult, child and adolescent psychiatry are needed for this target group. One differences is that psychotic symptoms play a minor role in bipolar disorders. Specific biological markers, such as disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythm and clinical characteristics, such as substance use and behavioral problems in childhood and youth supplement (subsyndromal) clinical symptoms in a multifactorial risk model. Besides severity and frequency of symptoms, specific periodic course patterns are crucial. Strategies of early intervention require a careful consideration of risks and benefits. Two aims should be distinguished: the improvement of current symptomatology and the prevention of conversion to bipolar disorder. Currently, studies evaluating risks and benefits of such interventions are first conducted. Expertise and resources for early recognition of psychoses and bipolar disorders should be pooled. Common standards are the basis for advancement and implementation of preventive strategies for bipolar disorders.

  15. Psychopharmacology of tic disorders.

    PubMed

    Srour, Myriam; Lespérance, Paul; Richer, Francois; Chouinard, Sylvain

    2008-08-01

    Tics disorders and Tourette syndrome are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Currently, a vast number of behavioural, pharmacological and surgical treatments are available. Relevant and recent articles about clinical features, neurobiology and treatment of tic disorders and Tourette syndrome were reviewed and summarized. Tic disorders and Tourette syndrome are frequently associated with comorbid conditions such as obsessive compulsive symptoms, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and depression, behavioural disorders and sleep difficulties. Fronto-striatal circuits and the dopaminergic system are believed to be involved in the pathophysiology of TS and tics. Pharmacological options that have been studied for treatment of tic disorders are reviewed. Behavioural therapy such as habit reversal training, and surgical treatment are other options. It is essential to identify and address comorbid conditions such as attention deficit disorder, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, behavioural disorders and sleep disturbances, as they often cause more distress and disability than the tics themselves. Tic disorders frequently do not require pharmacological treatment, but if required, first line treatment options include dopamine modulators, tetrabenazine, clonidine and behavioural therapy.

  16. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases.

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This brief paper summarizes information on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). First it identifies eight common characteristics of this disorder: (1) inattentiveness and distractibility, (2) impulsiveness, (3) hyperactivity, (4) attention-demanding behavior, (5) learning difficulties, (6) coordination difficulties, (7) unacceptable…

  18. Employees with Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) lists over 84 different types of sleep disorders that affect the body’s normal cycle of ... factor in the occurrence (Haran, 2005). Sleep Apnea: Over 12 million Americans have sleep apnea; it is more common in men over ...

  19. Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-01

    Immune Deficiency Disorders; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorders; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

  20. Movement Disorders in 2012

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Nikolaus R.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Standfirst Research in movement disorders in 2012 had led to advances in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of disease and to development of potential novel therapeutic approaches. Key advances include elucidating mechanisms of spreading neurodegenerative pathology, immunotherapy, stem cells, genetics and deep brain stimulation in Parkinsonisms and related disorders. PMID:23296342

  1. Understanding Panic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Mary Lynn

    This booklet is part of the National Institute of Mental Health's efforts to educate the public and health care professionals about panic disorder. Discussed here are the causes, definition, and symptoms of the disorder. Panic attacks, which can seriously interfere with a person's life, may strike more than three million U.S. citizens at some time…

  2. Communication Disorders Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Special Education Services Unit.

    These guidelines outline procedures for the communication disorders specialist/speech-language pathologist employed in the Utah public schools. The guidelines are designed to ensure that all students with communication disorders, ages 3-21, will be provided with appropriate speech-language services in the public schools, that the criteria for…

  3. Temperament and Attachment Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited…

  4. Posttraumatic functional movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Ganos, C; Edwards, M J; Bhatia, K P

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the nervous system may account for a range of neurologic symptoms. Trauma location and severity are important determinants of the resulting symptoms. In severe head injury with structural brain abnormalities, the occurrence of trauma-induced movement disorders, most commonly hyperkinesias such as tremor and dystonia, is well recognized and its diagnosis straightforward. However, the association of minor traumatic events, which do not lead to significant persistent structural brain damage, with the onset of movement disorders is more contentious. The lack of clear clinical-neuroanatomic (or symptom lesion) correlations in these cases, the variable timing between traumatic event and symptom onset, but also the presence of unusual clinical features in a number of such patients, which overlap with signs encountered in patients with functional neurologic disorders, contribute to this controversy. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the movement disorders, most notably dystonia, that have been associated with peripheral trauma and focus on their unusual characteristics, as well as their overlap with functional neurologic disorders. We will then provide details on pathophysiologic views that relate minor peripheral injuries to the development of movement disorders and compare them to knowledge from primary organic and functional movement disorders. Finally, we will comment on the appropriate management of these disorders.

  5. Gastritis and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Renee D; Cowles, Robert A; Galea, Sandro; Jacobi, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have suggested an association between various gastrointestinal disorders and mood and anxiety disorders, no previous study has examined the relationship between a diagnosis of gastritis and mood and anxiety disorders in the community. This work aimed to investigate the association between physician-diagnosed gastritis and DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders among adults in the general population, and to examine sex differences in these relationships. Data were drawn from a population-based, representative sample of 4181 adults aged 18-79 in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey. Anxiety disorders (27.0% vs. 15.3%) and affective disorders (20.1% vs. 11.5%) were significantly more common among adults with compared to without a diagnosis of gastritis. Lifetime and current physician diagnosed gastritis were associated with an increased prevalence of panic attacks, social phobia, any mood disorder and major depression, compared to those without gastritis. There were no significant sex differences in these associations. A diagnosis of gastritis appears to be associated with significantly increased odds of mood and anxiety disorders among adults in the general population. Contrary to findings from animal studies, we found the relationship between gastritis and mood/anxiety consistent among both sexes.

  6. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  7. [Problems of deglutition disorders].

    PubMed

    Guatterie, M; Lozano, V

    1990-01-01

    Disorders associated with swallowing often appear with difficulty in swallowing or with a cough when food goes down the wrong way. However, a detailed analysis of such disorders shows some distinctive characteristics based on neurological or surgical etiologies. Identification of the physiopathological mechanisms of the different types of deglutition allows for the elaboration of the appropriate rehabilitation strategies.

  8. Eating Disorders among Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, George

    1987-01-01

    Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

  9. Athletes with seizure disorders.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports.

  10. Eating Disorders and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…

  11. Neuromuscular disorders in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Govett, G S; Amedee, R G

    1991-03-01

    Neuromuscular disorders pose an interesting diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma to clinicians. The initial manifestations of these disorders on physical examination are frequently subtle but may eventually progress to disabling, complex findings. Management options are varied and include pharmacologic, surgical, and other supportive modalities.

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  13. Related Addictive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  14. Menarche and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Martino, Sara; Lester, David

    2013-08-01

    160 undergraduate women (M age = 20.3, SD = 1.52) were assessed for depression, drug abuse, and eating disorders. The age of menarche was positively correlated with higher scores on a screening measure for eating disorders, a finding opposite to past studies for adolescent girls.

  15. Treatment of anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie; Wedekind, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and others) are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and are associated with a high burden of illness. Anxiety disorders are often underrecognized and undertreated in primary care. Treatment is indicated when a patient shows marked distress or suffers from complications resulting from the disorder. The treatment recommendations given in this article are based on guidelines, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews of randomized controlled studies. Anxiety disorders should be treated with psychological therapy, pharmacotherapy, or a combination of both. Cognitive behavioral therapy can be regarded as the psychotherapy with the highest level of evidence. First-line drugs are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Benzodiazepines are not recommended for routine use. Other treatment options include pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, buspirone, moclobemide, and others. After remission, medications should be continued for 6 to 12 months. When developing a treatment plan, efficacy, adverse effects, interactions, costs, and the preference of the patient should be considered. PMID:28867934

  16. Betaxolol in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Swartz, C M

    1998-03-01

    Betaxolol, a long-acting beta-adrenergic blocker that enters the central nervous system, was examined for therapeutic effects on the persistent anxiety of anxiety disorders. Prior studies of beta-blockers examined only agents that were short-acting or did not enter the brain. Betaxolol was administered to 31 patients in open trials. Of 13 outpatients, 11 had generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 2 had adjustment disorder with anxiety. Five with GAD had concurrent panic disorder. Of 18 inpatients, 16 had GAD and 2 had adjustment disorder with anxiety. Betaxolol doses were increased until the patient responded or declined further dosage. Severity was rated on a 4-point global scale. Before betaxolol, all were moderately or severely ill. In all patients with panic disorder panic attacks stopped within 2 days (p<0.001). Anxiety decreased to no more than marginally ill in 85% of outpatients (p<0.0001) and all inpatients (p<0.0001). Betaxolol doses were usually 5 mg once or twice daily; four inpatients took 10 to 20 mg twice daily. In sum, betaxolol administration was rapidly followed by improvements that were easily noticed by the doctor, even in patients with longstanding anxiety and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Preliminary observations in posttraumatic stress disorder are similar.

  17. Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders continue to be a prevalent set of conditions faced by the healthcare team and have a significant emotional and economic impact. In this review, the authors highlight some of the common functional disorders seen in pediatric patients (functional dyspepsia, irrita...

  18. Functional neurological disorders: imaging.

    PubMed

    Voon, V

    2014-10-01

    Functional neurological disorders, also known as conversion disorder, are unexplained neurological symptoms. These symptoms are common and can be associated with significant consequences. This review covers the neuroimaging literature focusing on functional motor symptoms including motor functioning and upstream influences including self-monitoring and internal representations, voluntariness and arousal and trauma. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  20. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  1. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  2. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  3. Skin picking disorder.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2012-11-01

    Although skin picking has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century, only now is it receiving serious consideration as a DSM psychiatric disorder in discussions for DSM-5. Recent community prevalence studies suggest that skin picking disorder appears to be as common as many other psychiatric disorders, with reported prevalences ranging from 1.4% to 5.4%. Clinical evaluation of patients with skin picking disorder entails a broad physical and psychiatric examination, encouraging an interdisciplinary approach to evaluation and treatment. Approaches to treatment should include cognitive-behavioral therapy (including habit reversal or acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy) and medication (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine, or naltrexone). Based on clinical experience and research findings, the authors recommend several management approaches to skin picking disorder.

  4. Genetics and delusional disorder.

    PubMed

    Cardno, Alastair G; McGuffin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article gives an overview of genetic research approaches and their application to delusional disorder. Most studies have been based on small samples and have had other methodological limitations, so it is not clear whether there is a genetic contribution to the aetiology of delusional disorder. It is unlikely that delusional disorder is strongly related genetically to affective disorder or schizophrenia, but more subtle relationships cannot be ruled out. The rarity of multiply affected families prohibits linkage studies and, to date, molecular genetic investigations have been mainly limited to small association studies of dopamine receptor polymorphisms. A range of considerably larger, epidemiologically rigorous studies is required, but the uncommonness and other features of the disorder put strong limitations on the prospects for ascertaining adequate samples.

  5. Temperament and attachment disorders.

    PubMed

    Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A

    2004-03-01

    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited pattern and an indiscriminate-disinhibited pattern, arise from similarly aberrant environments. In this article, we consider whether temperamental differences might contribute to the different manifestations of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) in the context of adverse environments. Although the association between attachment and temperament has been studied extensively and has been the subject of spirited debate within the field of child development, there are no extant data on the influence of temperament on the development of attachment disorders. We consider possible directions for research efforts designed to explore the biological underpinnings of the complex phenomenon of attachment disorders.

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder's pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder.

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life.

  8. Seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Stephen J; Gawinski, Barbara; Pierce, Deborah; Rousseau, Sally J

    2006-11-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder have episodes of major depression that tend to recur during specific times of the year, usually in winter. Like major depression, seasonal affective disorder probably is underdiagnosed in primary care settings. Although several screening instruments are available, such screening is unlikely to lead to improved outcomes without personalized and detailed attention to individual symptoms. Physicians should be aware of comorbid factors that could signal a need for further assessment. Specifically, some emerging evidence suggests that seasonal affective disorder may be associated with alcoholism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Seasonal affective disorder often can be treated with light therapy, which appears to have a low risk of adverse effects. Light therapy is more effective if administered in the morning. It remains unclear whether light is equivalent to drug therapy, whether drug therapy can augment the effects of light therapy, or whether cognitive behavior therapy is a better treatment choice.

  9. [Eating disorders among athletes].

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Skårderud, Finn

    2004-08-26

    Over the past 20 years, a number of studies have been published that generally suggest a higher frequency of eating disorders among athletes than among non-athletes. Participation in competitive sport has also been considered an important factor related to the development of eating disorders. Taken together, most studies have suggested that eating disorders are particularly prevalent in sports that emphasise leanness or low body weight. However, some studies suggest a similar or lower prevalence of eating disorders compared with controls or athletes at a lower competitive level. Athletes constitute a unique population and the impact of factors such as training, eating pattern, extreme diets, restriction of food intake and psychopathological profile among them must be evaluated differently from that among non-athletes. A concerted effort by coaches, athletic trainers, parents, athletes and healthcare personnel is optimal in order to recognise, prevent and treat eating disorders in athletes.

  10. Body dysmorphic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bjornsson, Andri S.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common disorder that consists of a distressing or impairing preoccupation with imagined or slight defects in appearance. BDD is commonly considered to be an obsessivecompulsive spectrum disorder, based on similarities it has with obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is important to recognize and appropriately treat BDD, as this disorder is associated with marked impairment in psychosocial functioning, notably poor quality of life, and high suicidality rates. In this review, we provide an overview of research findings on BDD, including its epidemiology, clinical features, course of illness, comorbidity, psychosocial functioning, and suicidality We also briefly review recent research on neural substrates and cognitive processing. Finally, we discuss treatment approaches that appear efficacious for BDD, with a focus on serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and cognitive-behavioral therapy. PMID:20623926

  11. [Antibiotics and gait disorders].

    PubMed

    Gomez-Porro, P; Vinagre-Aragon, A; Zabala-Goiburu, J A

    2016-12-01

    The neurological toxicity of many antibiotics has been reported in a number of articles and clinical notes. In this review antibiotics are classified according to the physiopathogenic mechanism that can give rise to a gait disorder, taking both clinical and experimental data into account. An exhaustive search was conducted in Google Scholar and PubMed with the aim of finding reviews, articles and clinical cases dealing with gait disorders secondary to different antibiotics. The different antibiotics were separated according to the physiopathogenic mechanism that could cause them to trigger a gait disorder. They were classified into antibiotics capable of producing cerebellar ataxia, vestibular ataxia, sensitive ataxia or an extrapyramidal gait disorder. The main aim was to group all the drugs that can give rise to a gait disorder, in order to facilitate the clinical suspicion and, consequently, the management of patients.

  12. Genomics in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Han, Guangchun; Sun, Jiya; Wang, Jiajia; Bai, Zhouxian; Song, Fuhai; Lei, Hongxing

    2014-08-01

    Neurological disorders comprise a variety of complex diseases in the central nervous system, which can be roughly classified as neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. The basic and translational research of neurological disorders has been hindered by the difficulty in accessing the pathological center (i.e., the brain) in live patients. The rapid advancement of sequencing and array technologies has made it possible to investigate the disease mechanism and biomarkers from a systems perspective. In this review, recent progresses in the discovery of novel risk genes, treatment targets and peripheral biomarkers employing genomic technologies will be discussed. Our major focus will be on two of the most heavily investigated neurological disorders, namely Alzheimer's disease and autism spectrum disorder.

  13. [Neurological sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Khatami, Ramin

    2014-11-01

    Neurological sleep disorders are common in the general population and may have a strong impact on quality of life. General practitioners play a key role in recognizing and managing sleep disorders in the general population. They should therefore be familiar with the most important neurological sleep disorders. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most prevalent and important neurological sleep disorders, including Restless legs syndrome (with and without periodic limb movements in sleep), narcolepsy, NREM- and REM-sleep parasomnias and the complex relationship between sleep and epilepsies. Although narcolepsy is considered as a rare disease, recent discoveries in narcolepsy research provided insight in the function of brain circuitries involved in sleep wake regulation. REM sleep behavioral parasomnia (RBD) is increasingly recognized to represent an early manifestation of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular evolving synucleinopathies. Early diagnosis may thus open new perspectives for developing novel treatment options by targeting neuroprotective substances.

  14. Autistic disorder in 2 children with mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Chang-Yong; Mendell, Jerry R

    2007-09-01

    Autistic disorder is a heterogeneous disorder. The majority of the cases are idiopathic, and only a small number of the autistic children have associated secondary diagnosis. This article reports 2 children with mitochondrial disorders associated with autistic disorder fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association Manual of Psychiatric Diseases, 4th edition, and briefly reviews the literature on autistic disorder associated with mitochondrial disorders.

  15. Affective Disorders among Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sjåstad, Hege Nordem; Gråwe, Rolf W.; Egeland, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. Methods In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. Results More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. Conclusions The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar

  16. Is premenstrual dysphoric disorder really a disorder?

    PubMed

    Browne, Tamara Kayali

    2015-06-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) was recently moved to a full category in the DSM-5 (the latest edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). It also appears set for inclusion as a separate disorder in the ICD-11 (the upcoming edition of the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems). This paper argues that PMDD should not be listed in the DSM or the ICD at all, adding to the call to recognise PMDD as a socially constructed disorder. I first present the argument that PMDD pathologises understandable anger/distress and that to do so is potentially dangerous. I then present evidence that PMDD is a culture-bound phenomenon, not a universal one. I also argue that even if (1) medication produces a desired effect, (2) there are biological correlates with premenstrual anger/distress, (3) such anger/distress seems to occur monthly, and (4) women are more likely than men to be diagnosed with affective disorders, none of these factors substantiates that premenstrual anger/distress is caused by a mental disorder. I argue that to assume they do is to ignore the now accepted role that one's environment and psychology play in illness development, as well as arguments concerning the social construction of mental illness. In doing so, I do not claim that there are no women who experience premenstrual distress or that their distress is not a lived experience. My point is that such distress can be recognised and considered significant without being pathologised and that it is unethical to describe premenstrual anger/distress as a mental disorder. Further, if the credibility of women's suffering is subject to doubt without a clinical diagnosis, then the way to address this problem is to change societal attitudes towards women's suffering, not to label women as mentally ill. The paper concludes with some broader implications for women and society of the

  17. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rasquin-Weber, A; Hyman, P; Cucchiara, S; Fleisher, D; Hyams, J; Milla, P; Staiano, A

    1999-01-01

    This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it is organized according to main complaints instead of being organ-targeted. Because the child is still developing, some disorders such as toddler's diarrhea (or functional diarrhea) are linked to certain physiologic stages; others may result from behavioral responses to sphincter function acquisition such as fecal retention; others will only be recognizable after the child is cognitively mature enough to report the symptoms (e.g., dyspepsia). Infant regurgitation, rumination, and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine, and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention, and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Some disorders, such as IBS and dyspepsia and functional abdominal pain, are exact replications of the adult criteria because there are enough data to confirm that they represent specific and similar disorders in pediatrics. Other disorders not included in the pediatric classification, such as functional biliary disorders, do occur in children; however, existing data are insufficient to warrant including them at the present time. For these disorders, it is suggested that, for the time being, clinicians refer to the criteria established for the adult population.


Keywords: infant vomiting; cyclic vomiting syndrome; functional dyspepsia in children; irritable bowel syndrome in children; functional abdominal pain in children; functional

  18. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Rash, Carla J; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Van Patten, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder was recategorized from the "Impulse Control Disorder" section to the newly expanded "Substance-related and Addictive Disorders" section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed.

  19. Biomechanic characteristics of patients with spastic and dystonic hypertonia in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lebiedowska, Maria K; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Burns, Richard S; Fisk, John R

    2004-06-01

    To determine what biomechanic characteristics of knee joint motion and walking show potential to quantitatively differentiate spasticity and dystonia in cerebral palsy (CP). Descriptive measurement study. University hospital. Seventeen pediatric and adult patients with CP. Not applicable. We measured the resistance of the knee joint at different velocities and positions, maximum muscle activation during external motion, amplitude of knee tendon reflexes, maximum isometric flexion and extension torques, velocity of walking, and knee kinematics during the gait cycle. Patients were classified into 2 groups (dystonia or spasticity) if at least 2 of 3 physicians agreed that a prominent component of dystonia was present. Patients with dystonia had a greater degree of co-contraction and an increased resistance to external motion at slow velocities. The tendon reflexes were almost normal in patients with dystonia, whereas they were increased in patients with spasticity. Muscle strength was more impaired in patients with dystonia, probably as a result of greater muscle co-contraction. They also walked slower, with smaller knee ranges of motion, during the stance phase of walking. The measurement of resistance and of muscle activation during passive motion and tendon reflexes shows potential to differentiate dystonia from spasticity in CP patients with a mixed form of hypertonia. More studies are needed to confirm these results.

  20. Dystonia: Related and Differential Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Dystonia can occur in combination with other movement disorders and/or symptoms may resmble other conditions. ... Essential tremor is one of the most common movement disorders. It is usually inherited. The tremor is ...

  1. Autoimmune movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Mckeon, Andrew; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune movement disorders encapsulate a large and diverse group of neurologic disorders occurring either in isolation or accompanying more diffuse autoimmune encephalitic illnesses. The full range of movement phenomena has been described and, as they often occur in adults, many of the presentations can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease. Disorders may be ataxic, hypokinetic (parkinsonism), or hyperkinetic (myoclonus, chorea, tics, and other dyskinetic disorders). The autoantibody targets are diverse and include neuronal surface proteins such as leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glycine receptors, as well as antibodies (such as intracellular antigens) that are markers of a central nervous system process mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. However, there are two conditions, stiff-person syndrome (also known as stiff-man syndrome) and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), that are always autoimmune movement disorders. In some instances (such as Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody-1 (PCA-1) autoimmunity), antibodies detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid can be indicative of a paraneoplastic cause, and may direct the cancer search. In other instances (such as 65kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoimmunity), a paraneoplastic cause is very unlikely, and early treatment with immunotherapy may promote improvement or recovery. Here we describe the different types of movement disorder and the clinical features and antibodies associated with them, and discuss treatment.

  2. [Sleep and movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Poryazova, R; Bassetti, C L

    2007-01-01

    The three different states of being (wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep) are associated with profound neurophysiological and neurochemical changes in the brain. These changes explain the existence of movement disorders appearing only or preferentially during sleep, and the effects of sleep on movement disorders. Sleep-related movement disorders are of clinical relevance for multiple reasons: 1) high frequency (e.g. restless legs syndrome (RLS)); 2) diagnostic relevance (e.g. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as first manifestation of Parkinson disorder); 3) diagnostic uncertainty (e.g. parasomnias vs nocturnal epilepsy); 4) association with injuries (e.g. RBD, sleepwalking), sleep disruption/daytime sleepiness (e.g. RLS), and psycho-social burden (e.g. enuresis); 5) requirement of specific treatments (e.g. nocturnal epilepsy, stridor, RBD). This article gives an overview on clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, work-up and treatment of sleep-related movement disorders (e.g. RLS, bruxism), parasomnias (e.g. sleepwalking, RBD), sleep-related epilepsies, and on sleep-associated manifestations of movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy).

  3. Cardiomyopathy in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Wahbi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    According to the American Heart Association, cardiomyopathies are classified as primary (solely or predominantly confined to heart muscle), secondary (those showing pathological myocardial involvement as part of a neuromuscular disorder) and those in which cardiomyopathy is the first/predominant manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder. Cardiomyopathies may be further classified as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, or unclassified cardiomyopathy (noncompaction, Takotsubo-cardiomyopathy). This review focuses on secondary cardiomyopathies and those in which cardiomyopathy is the predominant manifestation of a myopathy. Any of them may cause neurological disease, and any of them may be a manifestation of a neurological disorder. Neurological disease most frequently caused by cardiomyopathies is ischemic stroke, followed by transitory ischemic attack, syncope, or vertigo. Neurological disease, which most frequently manifests with cardiomyopathies are the neuromuscular disorders. Most commonly associated with cardiomyopathies are muscular dystrophies, myofibrillar myopathies, congenital myopathies and metabolic myopathies. Management of neurological disease caused by cardiomyopathies is not at variance from the same neurological disorders due to other causes. Management of secondary cardiomyopathies is not different from that of cardiomyopathies due to other causes either. Patients with neuromuscular disorders require early cardiologic investigations and close follow-ups, patients with cardiomyopathies require neurological investigation and avoidance of muscle toxic medication if a neuromuscular disorder is diagnosed. Which patients with cardiomyopathy profit most from primary stroke prevention is unsolved and requires further investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Chemerinski, Eran; Triebwasser, Joseph; Roussos, Panos; Siever, Larry J

    2013-10-01

    Early phenomenological descriptions of schizophrenia have acknowledged the existence of milder schizophrenia spectrum disorders characterized by the presence of attenuated symptoms typically present in chronic schizophrenia. The investigation of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders offers an opportunity to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms giving rise to schizophrenia. Differences and similarities between subjects with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), the prototypical schizophrenia personality disorder, and chronic schizophrenia have been investigated with genetic, neurochemical, imaging, and pharmacological techniques. Patients with SPD and the more severely ill patients with chronic schizophrenia share cognitive, social, and attentional deficits hypothesized to result from common neurodevelopmentally based cortical temporal and prefrontal pathology. However, these deficits are milder in SPD patients due to their capacity to recruit other related brain regions to compensate for dysfunctional areas. Individuals with SPD are also less vulnerable to psychosis due to the presence of protective factors mitigating subcortical DA hyperactivity. Given the documented close relationship to other schizophrenic disorders, SPD will be included in the psychosis section of DSM-5 as a schizophrenia spectrum disorder as well as in the personality disorder section.

  5. Schizoid personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Triebwasser, Joseph; Chemerinski, Eran; Roussos, Panos; Siever, Larry J

    2012-12-01

    Schizoid personality disorder (ScPD) is one of the "odd cluster" or "cluster A" personality disorders in DSM-IV. In the present article, the authors review information pertaining to the psychometric characteristics of ScPD as gleaned from a search of relevant publications as well as from databases of personality disorder study groups. Comparatively little evidence exists for the validity and reliability of ScPD as a separate, multifaceted personality disorder. Some authors, moreover, have contended that the group of patients termed "schizoid" actually fall into two distinct groups--an "affect constricted" group, who might better be subsumed within schizotypal personality disorder, and a "seclusive" group, who might better be subsumed within avoidant personality disorder. The research-based justification for retaining ScPD as an independent diagnosis is sufficiently sparse for it to seem reasonable to remove ScPD from the list of personality disorders in DSM-V, and instead to invite clinicians to code for schizoid traits using a dimensional model.

  6. Bipolar disorder and aggression.

    PubMed

    Látalová, K

    2009-06-01

    In clinical practice, overt aggressive behaviour is frequently observed in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. It can be dangerous and complicates patient care. Nevertheless, it has not been adequately studied as a phenomenon that is separate from other symptoms such as agitation. The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical context, and clinical management of aggression in patients with bipolar disorder. MEDLINE and PsycInfo data bases were searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2008 using the combination of key words 'aggression' or 'violence' with 'bipolar disorder'. For the treatment searches, generic names of mood stabilisers and antipsychotics were used in combination with key words 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression'. No language constraint was applied. Articles dealing with children and adolescents were not included. Acutely ill hospitalised bipolar patients have a higher risk for aggression than other inpatients. In a population survey, the prevalence of aggressive behaviour after age 15 years was 0.66% in persons without lifetime psychiatric disorder, but 25.34% in bipolar I disorder. Comorbidity with personality disorders and substance use disorders is frequent, and it elevates the risk of aggression in bipolar patients. Impulsive aggression appears to be the most frequent subtype observed in bipolar patients. Clinical management of aggression combines pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. A major problem with the evidence is that aggression is frequently reported only as one of the items contributing to the total score on a scale or a subscale. This makes it impossible to ascertain specifically aggressive behaviour. Large controlled head-to-head randomised controlled studies comparing treatments for aggressive behaviour in bipolar disorder are not yet available. There is some evidence favouring divalproex, but it is not particularly strong .We do not know if there are any efficacy

  7. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jung Hie; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including underlying causes, diagnostic considerations, and typical treatments. Methods Literature review and discussion of specific cases. Results Survey studies 1,2 suggest that up to 3% of the adult population suffers from a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD). However, these sleep disorders are often confused with insomnia, and an estimated 10% of adult and 16% of adolescent sleep disorders patients may have a CRSD 3-6. While some CRSD (such as jet lag) can be self-limiting, others when untreated can lead to adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders classifies CRSD as dyssomnias, with six subtypes: Advanced Sleep Phase Type, Delayed Sleep Phase Type, Irregular Sleep Wake Type, Free Running Type, Jet Lag Type, and Shift Work Type. The primary clinical characteristic of all CRSD is an inability to fall asleep and wake at the desired time. It is believed that CRSD arise from a problem with the internal biological clock (circadian timing system) and/or misalignment between the circadian timing system and the external 24-hour environment. This misalignment can be the result of biological and/or behavioral factors. CRSD can be confused with other sleep or medical disorders. Conclusions Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a distinct class of sleep disorders characterized by a mismatch between the desired timing of sleep and the ability to fall asleep and remain asleep. If untreated, CRSD can lead to insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, with negative medical, psychological, and social consequences. It is important for physicians to recognize potential circadian rhythm sleep disorders so that appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and referral can be made. PMID:25368503

  8. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety.

  9. Scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Pecak, F; Trontelj, J V; Dimitrijevic, M R

    1980-01-01

    Hundred-seventy patients with the 4 commonest degenerative neuro-muscular disorders (limbgirdle and Duchenne muscular dystrphy, Kugelberg-Welander's spinal muscular atrophy and peroneal muscular atrophy) were screened for scoliosis, which was found in 56%. Of 76 patients in the early stages of their respective disorders (stages 1-6 of Gardner-Medwin and Walton), scoliosis was found in 72%. The incidence of scoliosis was not related to the duration or degree of clinical weakness. Morphologically, scoliosis in these disorders was not found to differ from idiopathic scoliosis. Neither side nor site of the scoliosis were related to the distribution of muscle weakness as determined by manual testing.

  10. Tobacco Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Camenga, Deepa R; Klein, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco use is a pervasive public health problem and the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. This article reviews the epidemiology of tobacco use in youth, with a description of cigarettes, alternative tobacco product, and polytobacco use patterns among the general population and among adolescents with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. The article also provides an update on the diagnosis and assessment of tobacco use disorder in adolescents, with a particular focus on the clinical management of tobacco use in adolescents with co-occurring disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychogenic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Thenganatt, Mary Ann; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) can present with varied phenomenology that may resemble organic movement disorders. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation with a supporting history and classic features on neurologic examination. Ancillary testing, such as imaging and neurophysiologic studies, can provide supplementary information but is not necessary for diagnosis. There is no standard protocol for the treatment of PMDs, but a multidisciplinary approach has been recommended. This review discusses the clinical characteristics of various PMDs as well as ancillary testing, treatment, and research in the pathophysiology of this complex group of disorders.

  12. Microangiopathic disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pels, Salley G; Paidas, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Microangiopathic disorders present with thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and multiorgan damage. In pregnancy, these disorders present a challenge both diagnostically and therapeutically, with widely overlapping clinical scenarios and disparate treatments. Although rare, a clear understanding of these diseases is important because devastating maternal and fetal outcomes may ensue if there is misdiagnosis and improper treatment. Microangiopathic disorders presenting in pregnancy are thus best assessed and treated by both obstetric and hematology teams. As a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying each of the disease processes is gained, new diagnostic testing and therapies will be available, which will lead to improved outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ghrelin and Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

  14. [Clothing and heat disorder].

    PubMed

    Satsumoto, Yayoi

    2012-06-01

    The influence of the clothing material properties(like water absorbency and rapid dryness, water vapor absorption, water vapor permeability and air permeability) and the design factor of the clothing(like opening condition and fitting of clothing), which contributed to prevent heat disorder, was outlined. WBGT(wet-bulb globe temperature) is used to show a guideline for environmental limitation of activities to prevent heat disorder. As the safety function is more important than thermal comfort for some sportswear and protective clothing with high cover area, clothing itself increases the risk of heat disorder. WBGT is corrected by CAF (clothing adjustment factor) in wearing such kind of protective clothing.

  15. Multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Piper, A

    1994-05-01

    Five aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) were examined. The following five conclusions were made: the contemporary diagnostic criteria are vague and overinclusive; the recent alleged increase in prevalence of the disorder is almost certainly artefactual; legal proceedings involving MPD patients raise disturbing questions about personal responsibility; there is little literature support for the theory that MPD results from childhood trauma; and many of the techniques used to diagnose and treat the condition reinforce its symptoms. A careful revision of diagnostic criteria for the disorder is recommended.

  16. Eating disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    Stunkard, Albert J

    2011-12-01

    In conclusion, 2 types of disordered eating behaviors affect some overweight and obese persons. BED and NES present an excellent opportunity to recognize, treat, and prevent these disorders that, at the least, maintain, and at worst, promote, overweight and obesity. Articles in this volume by Wilson and co-workers and Allison and colleagues discuss current treatment options for BED and NES, respectively. Clinicians are encouraged to evaluate the presence of BED and NES in all patients who seek treatment for their obesity. Although the prevalence of these 2 eating disorders is relatively low, both are associated with significant distress and dysfunction that can be ameliorated with effective treatment.

  17. Atypical neuroleptics: compulsive disorders.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Compulsive disorders are known adverse effects of dopamine agonists. Atypical neuroleptics (amisulpride, aripiprazole, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine and risperidone) have also been implicated in cases of pathological gambling, hypersexuality, and compulsive eating and shopping, with sometimes serious social and familial consequences. The compulsive disorders improved or ceased when the neuroleptic was withdrawn or replaced. Patients must be informed of these possible adverse effects and monitored for behavioural changes. If such disorders occur, they can be managed by withdrawing the drug, reducing the dosage, or switching to another neuroleptic.

  18. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  19. Mast cell activation disorders.

    PubMed

    Akin, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Disorders associated with mast cell activation range from relatively common IgE-mediated disease and chronic urticaria to rarer conditions such as mastocytosis or monoclonal mast cell activation disorder. Mast cell activation disorders can be mechanistically classified into primary (associated with abnormal production of mast cells that carry pathologic markers of clonality), secondary (normal mast cells activated in reaction to a microenvironmental trigger), and idiopathic (no etiology is found). Clinical presentations, diagnostic criteria as well as general principles of a stepwise therapy approach are discussed.

  20. Schizoaffective disorder (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Schizoaffective disorder is a psychotic illness with both schizophrenic and affective (mood) symptoms. While symptoms vary greatly, they may include depression, poor temper control, racing thoughts (affective), and delusions and hallucinations (schizophrenic).

  1. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    ... out a questionnaire to help answer these questions. DSM-5. Your mental health professional may use the ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association. This ...

  2. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, to ... by insurance companies to reimburse for treatment. The DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing depression with a seasonal ...

  3. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, lists ... and by insurance companies to reimburse for treatment. DSM-5 criteria for diagnosis of ODD show a ...

  4. Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) as including persistent symptoms of “negativistic, defiant, ... more extreme condition than ODD. Defined in the DSM-IV as “a repetitive and persistent pattern of ...

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the common manual health care providers use ... diagnose different mental health conditions, was released. The DSM-5 made significant changes to how autism is ...

  6. Alcohol Use Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... questionnaire to help answer these questions. Use the DSM-5 criteria. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, is ...

  7. About Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... people of all ages, races, ethnic groups and social classes. Although it can occur at any age, the ... is found among all races, ethnic groups and social classes. Like depression and other serious illnesses, bipolar disorder ...

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  10. What Are Related Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dietz syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection. Disorders related to Marfan syndrome can ... Loeys-Dietz Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection MASS Phenotype Ectopia Lentis Syndrome Beals ...

  11. Talking about GI Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join eNewsletter Sidebar × MOBILE MENU About Us Upper GI Aerophagia Dyspepsia Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Gastroparesis GERD Infant Regurgitation Rumination Syndrome Lower GI Bellyaches in Children Childhood Defecation Disorders Diarrhea Hirschsprung's ...

  12. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  13. Schizophrenia: A Systemic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Miller, Brian; García-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of schizophrenia that is most widely taught is that it is a disorder in which psychotic symptoms are the main problem, and a dysregulation of dopamine signaling is the main feature of pathophysiology. However, this concept limits clinical assessment, the treatments offered to patients, research, and the development of therapeutics. A more appropriate conceptual model is that: 1) schizophrenia is not a psychotic disorder, but a disorder of essentially every brain function in which psychosis is present; 2) it is not a brain disease, but a disorder with impairments throughout the body; 3) for many patients, neuropsychiatric problems other than psychosis contribute more to impairment in function and quality of life than does psychosis; and, 4) some conditions that are considered to be comorbid are integral parts of the illness. In conclusion, students, patients, and family members should be taught this model, along with its implications for assessment, research, and therapeutics. PMID:23518782

  14. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that comes and goes with the seasons. It ... and summer. Some people do have episodes of depression that start in the spring or summer, but ...

  15. Eating Disorders Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maudsley Therapy, Family Based Therapy (FBT) Meal Plan Mental illness Mindful eating Motivation Motivational enhancement therapy (MET) Multifamily ... T.'s founding principles: Eating disorders are biologically based mental illness and fully treatable with a combination of nutritional, ...

  16. Developmental coordination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... with visual or fine motor coordination (for example, writing, using scissors, tying shoelaces, or tapping one finger ... take notes may help children who have trouble writing. Children with developmental coordination disorder are more likely ...

  17. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events News & Events Home Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds ... healthy people or people with other mental disorders. Learning more about these differences, along with new information ...

  18. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of thyroid disorder or thyroid disease. Hyperthyroidism (say: hi-per-THYE-roy-diz-em) happens when the ... Kids with the opposite problem have hypothyroidism (say: hi-po-THYE-roy-diz-em). In this case, ...

  19. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  20. What is Bipolar Disorder?

    MedlinePlus

    ... sex. These problems can damage lives and hurt relationships. Some people with bipolar disorder have trouble keeping ... too much. Sometimes the stress can strain your relationships with other people. Caregivers can miss work or ...

  1. Vertigo-associated disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or that the world is spinning around them. Causes There are two types of vertigo, peripheral and ... Elsevier; 2014:chap 23. Kerber KA, Baloh RW. Neuro-otology: diagnosis and management of neuro-otoligical disorders. ...

  2. Psychoneuroimmunology of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier

    2017-10-06

    The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Expressive language disorder - developmental

    MedlinePlus

    If you are concerned about a child's language development, have the child tested. ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:chap 45. Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  4. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... adrenal gland disorders include Genetic mutations Tumors including pheochromocytomas Infections A problem in another gland, such as the pituitary, which helps to regulate the adrenal gland Certain medicines Treatment depends on which problem you have. Surgery or ...

  5. Pelvic Floor Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Pelvic Floor Disorders: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is the pelvic floor? The term "pelvic floor" refers to the group ...

  6. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrist, often making your fingers feel numb Injuries that result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations ... deformity Tendinitis - irritation of the tendons Disorders and injuries of your fingers and thumb

  7. Sleep in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Esbensen, Anna J; Schwichtenberg, Amy J

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience sleep problems at higher rates than the general population. Although individuals with IDD are a heterogeneous group, several sleep problems cluster within genetic syndromes or disorders. This review summarizes the prevalence of sleep problems experienced by individuals with Angelman syndrome, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Cri du Chat syndrome, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, Williams syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, and idiopathic IDD. Factors associated with sleep problems and the evidence for sleep treatments are reviewed for each neurodevelopmental disorder. Sleep research advancements in neurodevelopmental disorders are reviewed, including the need for consistency in defining and measuring sleep problems, considerations for research design and reporting of results, and considerations when evaluating sleep treatments. PMID:28503406

  8. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? Everyone feels anxiety, fear, uncertainty, or worry at some time. These normal ... is a constant stream of uncertainty, doubt, or fear in the person's mind. OCD is a type ...

  9. Mental Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... An Introduction) - español (Spanish) MP3 Healthy Roads Media Mental Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedades mentales: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine ...

  10. Disorders of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Woimant, France; Trocello, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals and trace elements play an important role in relation to the physiology and pathology of the nervous system. Neurologic diseases related to disorders of metabolism of copper and iron are reviewed. Copper disorders are divided into two classes: ATP7A- or ATP7B-related inherited copper transport disorders (Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome, ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy, and Wilson disease) and acquired diseases associated with copper deficiency or copper excess. Iron brain disorders are divided into genetic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, neuroferritinopathy, and aceruloplasminemia), genetic systemic iron accumulation with neurologic features (hemochromatosis), and acquired diseases associated with iron excess (superficial siderosis) or iron deficiency (restless leg syndrome). The main features of cadmium, lead, aluminum, mercury, and manganese toxicity are summarized.

  11. Types of Vestibular Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... include complications from aging, autoimmune disorders, and allergies. Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuroma (also called a vestibular schwannoma) is a ... This nerve is also referred to as the acoustic nerve, hence the name.) As an acoustic neuroma ...

  12. Schizophrenia: a systemic disorder.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Miller, Brian; García-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    The concept of schizophrenia that is most widely taught is that it is a disorder in which psychotic symptoms are the main problem, and a dysregulation of dopamine signaling is the main feature of pathophysiology. However, this concept limits clinical assessment, the treatments offered to patients, research, and the development of therapeutics. A more appropriate conceptual model is that: 1) schizophrenia is not a psychotic disorder, but a disorder of essentially every brain function in which psychosis is present; 2) it is not a brain disease, but a disorder with impairments throughout the body; 3) for many patients, neuropsychiatric problems other than psychosis contribute more to impairment in function and quality of life than does psychosis; and, 4) some conditions that are considered to be comorbid are integral parts of the illness. In conclusion, students, patients, and family members should be taught this model, along with its implications for assessment, research, and therapeutics.

  13. Connective Tissue Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Connective tissue is the material inside your body that supports many of its parts. It is the "cellular ... their work. Cartilage and fat are examples of connective tissue. There are over 200 disorders that impact connective ...

  14. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  15. Skin disorders of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Errickson, C V; Matus, N R

    1994-02-15

    Skin disorders of pregnancy fall into three major groups: disorders due to physiologic changes, specific skin disorders of pregnancy, and skin tumors. Elevated levels of estrogen and progesterone stimulate melanogenesis, which causes hyperpigmentation, including melasma; high levels of circulating hormones also cause vascular changes and alter hair growth cycles. Specific skin disorders of pregnancy range from pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy and pruritus gravidarum, which are fairly common, to pemphigus gestationis and impetigo herpetiformis, which are rare. Common skin tumors in pregnant women include pyogenic granuloma, which occurs primarily in the gingiva, and molluscum fibrosum gravidarum, or skin tags. While the effect of pregnancy on malignant melanoma continues to be disputed, recent studies indicate that long-term survival is close to that in the general population, although the disease-free interval is reduced.

  16. Boys with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-12-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a growing boy's risk of developing an eating disorder. Issues of body image and sexual development can complicate and can distort previously normal eating habits. Students may use powerful and dangerous drugs readily available via the Internet, including growth hormone, creatine, testosterone, and aminophylline, to build muscle and to eliminate fat, potentially causing serious health consequences. School nurses can partner with health and physical education teachers, coaches, school staff, parents, and students to identify and to support boys with eating disorders

  17. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kirsten; Bandelow, Borwin; Gruber, Oliver; Wedekind, Dirk

    2009-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies have gained increasing importance in validating neurobiological network hypotheses for anxiety disorders. Functional imaging procedures and radioligand binding studies in healthy subjects and in patients with anxiety disorders provide growing evidence of the existence of a complex anxiety network, including limbic, brainstem, temporal, and prefrontal cortical regions. Obviously, "normal anxiety" does not equal "pathological anxiety" although many phenomena are evident in healthy subjects, however to a lower extent. Differential effects of distinct brain regions and lateralization phenomena in different anxiety disorders are mentioned. An overview of neuroimaging investigations in anxiety disorders is given after a brief summary of results from healthy volunteers. Concluding implications for future research are made by the authors.

  18. Assessment of Communication Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiig, Elisabeth H.

    1985-01-01

    Current assessment models in communication disorders are reviewed, factors involved in meeting the demands of P.L. 94-142 are addressed, and recommended practices as well as future considerations are noted. (CL)

  19. Factitious disorder (Munchausen's syndrome).

    PubMed

    Steel, R M

    2009-12-01

    Factitious disorder, often referred to as Munchausen's syndrome, is a condition in which sufferers present to healthcare professionals seeking investigation and treatment for signs and symptoms that they have consciously fabricated for no obvious reason. Factitious presentations have been described all over the world, in every medical specialty and in every age group, yet by its very nature factitious disorder is difficult to study. There is therefore a dearth of evidence in the literature relating to epidemiology, aetiology and therapeutics. The disorder is notoriously difficult to recognise in clinical practice and there are as yet no definitive treatment options available. This article provides a brief overview of the literature before offering guidance on the diagnosis and management of factitious disorder presenting in the general hospital. It also considers fabricated or induced illness, also known as Munchausen's syndrome by proxy.

  20. Autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara; Hyman, Mark; Swift, Kathie

    2012-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are collectively the most commonly diagnosed pediatric neurodevelopmental condition. ASDs include autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Rett syndrome and Asperger disorder. ASD is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction and may involve developmental delays and seizure disorders. Recent parent-reported diagnosis of ASD in the United States put it at higher levels (1:91) than previously thought, with its diagnosis in boys occurring 4 to 5 times more frequently than in girls (1:58).(1) CDC estimates are currently 1:110;(1) up from 1:150 in 2007.(2) Annual medical expenditures for those affected are generally four to six times greater than for those without ASD.(1) While twin studies demonstrate that genetics play a significant role in ASD, the impact of environment should not be underestimated, given the approximate 20-fold increase in incidence over the last 20 years.(3.)

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Mark; Swift, Kathie

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are collectively the most commonly diagnosed pediatric neurodevelopmental condition. ASDs include autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Rett syndrome and Asperger disorder. ASD is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction and may involve developmental delays and seizure disorders. Recent parent-reported diagnosis of ASD in the United States put it at higher levels (1:91) than previously thought, with its diagnosis in boys occurring 4 to 5 times more frequently than in girls (1:58).1 CDC estimates are currently 1:110;1 up from 1:150 in 2007.2 Annual medical expenditures for those affected are generally four to six times greater than for those without ASD.1 While twin studies demonstrate that genetics play a significant role in ASD, the impact of environment should not be underestimated, given the approximate 20-fold increase in incidence over the last 20 years.3 PMID:24278834

  2. Toe Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... on your foot can damage your toes. Wearing shoes that are too loose or too tight can ... toe injuries and disorders vary. They might include shoe inserts or special shoes, padding, taping, medicines, rest, ...

  3. Stereotypic movement disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Motor stereotypies ... Ryan CA, Trieu ML, DeMaso DR, Walter HJ. Motor disorders and habits. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... Singer HS, Mink JW, Gilbert DL, Jankovic J. Motor stereotypies. In: Singer HS, Mink JW, Gilbert DL, ...

  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wayne K; Grice, Dorothy E; Lapidus, Kyle A B; Coffey, Barbara J

    2014-09-01

    This article reviews the clinical features and neurochemical hypotheses of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with a focus on the serotonin system. In DSM-5, OCD was moved from the anxiety disorders to a new category of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. OCD is a common, typically persistent disorder marked by intrusive and disturbing thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that the person feels driven to perform. The preferential efficacy of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in OCD led to the so-called serotonin hypothesis. However, direct support for a role of serotonin in the pathophysiology (e.g., biomarkers in pharmacological challenge studies) of OCD remains elusive. A role of the glutamatergic system in OCD has been gaining traction based on imaging data, genomic studies and animal models of aberrant grooming behavior. These findings have spurred interest in testing the efficacy of medications that modulate glutamate function. A role of glutamate is compatible with circuit-based theories of OCD.

  5. Paranoid personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Triebwasser, Joseph; Chemerinski, Eran; Roussos, Panos; Siever, Larry J

    2013-12-01

    Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is currently included in DSM-IV's "odd cluster" or "cluster A." In the present article, the authors review available information pertaining to the psychometric properties of PPD, as derived from the relevant literature and from databases of personality disorder study groups. There is comparatively little published evidence for the reliability and validity of PPD, and researchers by and large have tended not to study the disorder, either because of investigators' difficulty recruiting individuals with PPD into research studies, or (as seems more likely) because the trait-paranoia from which many psychiatric patients suffer has seemed better explained by other DSM-IV disorders on Axis I and/or Axis II than by PPD. Given the scant empirical evidence on PPD, it seems reasonable to remove it as an independent diagnosis from the next edition of DSM, and instead to encourage clinicians to code trait-paranoia using a dimensional approach.

  6. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Anal Disorders URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/analdisorders.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  7. Bipolar Disorder - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bipolar Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bipolardisorder.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  9. [Prevention of psychic disorders].

    PubMed

    Siepmann, M

    2012-06-01

    Prevention aims to avoid the occurrence of psychiatric illness and disability caused by psychic disorders. The relevant interventions refer to the individual, the family context and other environmental factors. Universal and primary prevention target the entire population or a part of this (i. e. students). Secondary and selective intervention should prevent the manifestation of psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals (i. e. children with behavioral problems). Tertiary measures aim at preventing the worsening or recurrence of symptoms in individuals who already suffer from mental illness. Within the past 25 years protective and risk factors that reduce or increase the probability of occurrence of mental disorders have increasingly been identified. This results in improved prevention. The present article gives an overview of preventive measures against the most common mental disorders in the light of the current evidence base. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Other Rhythm Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... In addition to tachycardia, bradycardia, premature contraction and fibrillation, rhythm disorders include: ADAMS-STOKES DISEASE (also called ... can also occur in someone who has atrial fibrillation (or AFib/flutter), or it can be its ...

  11. Women and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    White, J H

    1993-01-01

    The eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are important health problems for women today. Nurses at different practice sites are in a position to assess, treat, and refer these women, depending on educational and clinical preparation. This article presents information to facilitate the role of the nurse in working with women with eating disorders. Clinical features, risk factors, and treatment options are discussed.

  12. [Bipolar mood disorders].

    PubMed

    Kupka, R W; Regeer, E J

    2007-10-13

    Bipolar mood disorders affect 2-4% of the population and have a high rate of recurrence. Manic and depressive episodes can be severe, and despite treatment there are often more residual symptoms and functional impairment between episodes than generally assumed. In recent years some advances have been made in pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. However, insight into the neurobiological and genetical aspects of bipolar mood disorders is still limited.

  13. Oral and esophageal disorders.

    PubMed

    Noyer, C M; Simon, D

    1997-06-01

    This article focused on the approach to oral and esophageal disorders in patients with AIDS. Most of these disorders respond to various therapeutic regimens. Some of the oral complications can be prevented with dental prophylaxis, whereas recurrent esophageal disease in some patients may require long-term suppressive therapy. As patients with AIDS live longer with lower CD4 counts, gastroenterologists need to become familiar with the approach to and management of the more common lesions of the mouth and esophagus.

  14. Primary headache disorders.

    PubMed

    Benoliel, Rafael; Eliav, Eli

    2013-07-01

    Primary headache disorders include migraine, tension-type headaches, and the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs). "Primary" refers to a lack of clear underlying causative pathology, trauma, or systemic disease. The TACs include cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing; hemicrania continua, although classified separately by the International Headache Society, shares many features of both migraine and the TACs. This article describes the features and treatment of these disorders.

  15. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, V. K.; Krishnaram, V. D.

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians are less sensitive in considering the diagnosis of mania in children because of the variations in clinical presentation and because of the high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. More often than the elated and expansive mood, irritability and significant aggression may be the presenting symptoms in these cases. One such case report is discussed highlighting the clinical aspects of pediatric bipolar disorder. PMID:21938101

  16. Pediatric photosensitivity disorders.

    PubMed

    Pacha, Omar; Hebert, Adelaide A

    2013-04-01

    Photosensitivity disorders in childhood are rare, with the notable exception of overexposure as sunburn, and therefore require a more circumspect approach. Practitioners who treat children are key players in identifying and managing the many photosensitivity disorders that rarely present in childhood. A classic photodistribution of skin findings may suggest photosensitivity, but a correct diagnosis depends on a detailed history correlated with clinical findings. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  18. Psychogenic gait disorders.

    PubMed

    Sudarsky, Lewis

    2006-07-01

    Psychogenic disorders of posture and gait are common and are the major manifestation in 8 to 10% of patients with psychogenic movement disorders. The colorful history of these disorders is reviewed. Anxiety and depression are the commonest psychological accompaniments of functional gait disorder in contemporary practice. The particular case of the cautious gait and its flip side, "fear of falling," are considered in more detail. Common presentations for somatoform disorders and malingering are also described. It is often possible to make this diagnosis based on recognition features and gait observation. Incongruous neurologic signs are commonly found, and several features are so typical as to be nearly diagnostic. Caveats and pitfalls in diagnosis based on observational features are noted. In particular, the cautious gait is often the presenting feature of an older patient with an organic balance impairment. An approach to the patient with psychogenic gait disorder is described. Although the nature of the problem is often quickly apparent in such patients, the optimal management is a challenge. Dramatic cures still occur, and some patients respond quickly to psychological management and rehabilitation therapies, but persistence for more than 6 to 12 months is frequently associated with an unfavorable prognosis and long-term disability. The outcome studies are reviewed.

  19. Neurological disorders and travel.

    PubMed

    Awada, Adnan; Kojan, Suleiman

    2003-02-01

    Travel is associated with a number of neurological disorders that can be divided into two categories: (1) Neurological infections including encephalitides, neurotuberculosis, neurobrucellosis, cysticercosis and trichinosis. Some of these disorders can be prevented by vaccinations, such as Japanese B encephalitis and rabies, some by the use of insect repellents and some by avoiding raw milk products and undercooked meat. (2) Non-infective neurological disorders, such as acute mountain sickness and high altitude cerebral oedema, problems occurring during air travel such as syncope, seizures, strokes, nerve compression, barotrauma and vertigo, motion sickness and foodborne neurotoxic disorders such as ciguatera, shellfish poisoning and intoxication by cassava. This group of diseases and disorders could be prevented if the traveller knows about them, applies simple physiological rules, takes some specific medications and knows how to avoid intoxications in certain geographical areas. Meningococcal meningitis, malaria and jet lag syndrome are extensively discussed in other articles of this issue. The discussion in this paper will be limited to the other disorders.

  20. Dyslipidemia in Dermatological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Chetana; Shenoy, Manjunath Mala; Rao, Gururaja K.

    2015-01-01

    Dyslipidemias are one of the common metabolic disorders. A link between dermatological disorders like psoriasis and dyslipidemia has been established in the recent past. Many dermatological disorders could have a systemic inflammatory component which explains such association. Chronic inflammatory dermatological disorders could also have other metabolic imbalances that may contribute to dyslipidemia. Presence of such abnormal metabolism may justify routine screening of these disorders for associated dyslipidemia and other metabolic abnormalities and early treatment of such comorbidities to improve quality of life. Some of the drugs used by dermatologists such as retinoids are also likely to be a cause of dyslipidemia. Hence, it is imperative that the dermatologists obtain scientific knowledge on the underlying mechanisms involved in dyslipidemia and understand when to intervene with therapies. A systematic review of the English language literature was done by using Google Scholar and PubMed. In this review, attempts are made to list the dermatological disorders associated with dyslipidemia; to simplify the understanding of underlying mechanisms; and to give a brief idea about the interventions. PMID:26713286

  1. Eating disorders in women

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  2. Red cell membrane disorders.

    PubMed

    Narla, J; Mohandas, N

    2017-05-01

    Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the structural basis for altered cell function in various inherited red cell membrane disorders with reduced red cell survival and resulting hemolytic anemia. The current review summarizes these advances as they relate to defining the molecular and structural basis for disorders involving altered membrane structural organization (hereditary spherocytosis [HS] and hereditary elliptocytosis [HE]) and altered membrane transport function (hereditary overhydrated stomatocytosis and hereditary xerocytosis). Mutations in genes encoding membrane proteins that account for these distinct red cell phenotypes have been identified. These molecular insights have led to improved understanding of the structural basis for altered membrane function in these disorders. Weakening of vertical linkage between the lipid bilayer and spectrin-based membrane skeleton leads to membrane loss in HS. In contrast, weakening of lateral linkages among different skeletal proteins leads to membrane fragmentation and decreased surface area in HE. The degrees of membrane loss and resultant increases in cell sphericity determine the severity of anemia in these two disorders. Splenectomy leads to amelioration of anemia by increasing the circulatory red cell life span of spherocytic red cells that are normally sequestered by the spleen. Disordered membrane cation permeability and resultant increase or decrease in red cell volume account for altered cellular deformability of hereditary overhydrated stomatocytosis and hereditary xerocytosis, respectively. Importantly, splenectomy is not beneficial in these two membrane transport disorders and in fact contraindicated due to severe postsplenectomy thrombotic complications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Perfectionism in depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Lauro, Leonor J Romero; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria; Mauri, Massimo C; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Frost, Randy

    2008-06-01

    High levels of perfectionism have been observed in major depression, anxiety disorders and eating disorders. Though few studies have compared levels of perfectionism across these disorders, there is reason to believe that different dimensions of perfectionism may be involved in eating disorders than in depression or anxiety [Bardone-Cone, A. M. et al. (2007). Perfectionism and eating disorders: Current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 84-405]. The present study compared patients with major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders on dimensions of perfectionism. Concern over Mistakes was elevated in each of the patient groups while Pure Personal Standards was only elevated in the eating disorder sample. Doubts about Actions was elevated in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, but not in depressed patients. Analyses of covariance indicated that Concern over Mistakes accounted for most of the variance in the relationship of perfectionism to these forms of psychopathology.

  4. Novel glutamatergic agents for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Ibrahim, Lobna; Henter, Ioline D.; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are common, chronic, recurrent mental illnesses that affect the lives and functioning of millions of individuals worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that the glutamatergic system is central to the neurobiology and treatment of these disorders. Here, we review data supporting the involvement of the glutamatergic system in the pathophysiology of mood disorders as well as the efficacy of glutamatergic agents as novel therapeutics. PMID:21971560

  5. Pharmacotherapy for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jared Wilson

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current pharmacotherapy options available for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders. In the United States there are medications available to treat tobacco use disorders (nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline), alcohol use disorders (naltrexone and acamprosate), and opioid use disorders (methadone and buprenorphine). These medications are likely underused and physicians should more readily prescribe for eligible patients.

  6. Valerian for anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, L S; Atallah, A N; Soares, B G O

    2006-10-18

    Anxiety disorders are very common mental health problems in the general population and in primary care settings. Herbal medicines are popular and used worldwide and might be considered as a treatment option for anxiety if shown to be effective and safe. To investigate the effectiveness and safety of valerian for treating anxiety disorders. Electronic searches: The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) searched on 04/08/2006, MEDLINE, Lilacs. References of all identified studies were inspected for additional studies. First authors of each included study, manufacturers of valerian products, and experts in the field were contacted for information regarding unpublished trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials of valerian extract of any dose, regime, or method of administration, for people with any primary diagnosis of general anxiety disorder, anxiety neurosis, chronic anxiety status, or any other disorder in which anxiety is the primary symptom (panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, agoraphobia, other types of phobia, postraumatic stress disorder). Effectiveness was measured using clinical outcome measures and other scales for anxiety symptoms. Two review authors independently applied inclusion criteria, extracted and entered data, and performed the trial quality assessments. Where disagreements occurred, the third review author was consulted. Methodological quality of included trials was assessed using Cochrane Handbook criteria. For dichotomous outcomes, relative risk (RR) was calculated, and for continuous outcomes, the weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. One RCT involving 36 patients wih generalised anxiety disorder was eligible for inclusion. This was a 4 week pilot study of valerian, diazepam and placebo. There were no significant differences between the

  7. [Sleep-wake transition disorders].

    PubMed

    Honma, H; Kobayashi, R; Koyama, T

    1998-02-01

    The term sleep-wake transition disorders refers to a group of parasomnias that occur during the transition from wakefulness to sleep or from one sleep stage to another. Rhythmic movement disorder, sleep starts, sleep talking, and nocturnal leg cramps--these four disorders belong to sleep-wake transition disorders in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Although these are common disorders, little attention is given to them and their mechanisms are remain unclear. The majority of patients are not so severe as to require any treatment. Their prognosis are usually well. This article describes sleep-wake transition disorders concerning the clinical features, differential diagnosis, treatment, etc.

  8. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... used on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Disorders What are genetic disorders? A genetic disorder is a disease caused ... significant risk of developing the disease. . Geneticists group genetic disorders into three categories: Monogenetic disorders are caused ...

  9. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Ingmar

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has shown that depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis are more common than previously supposed in elderly populations without dementia. It is unclear whether the frequency of these disorders increases or decreases with age. Clinical expression of psychiatric disorders in old age may be different from that seen in younger age groups, with less and often milder symptoms. Concurrently, comorbidity between different psychiatric disorders is immense, as well as comorbidity with somatic disorders. Cognitive function is often decreased in people with depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, but whether these disorders are risk factors for dementia is unclear. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly are often related to cerebral neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease, although psychosocial risk factors are also important. Psychiatric disorders, common among the elderly, have consequences that include social deprivation, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, disability, increased risk for somatic disorders, suicide, and increased nonsuicidal mortality.

  10. Lamotrigine in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jennifer G; Gitlin, Michael J; Altshuler, Lori L

    2013-07-01

    Owing to the prevalence of medication side effects and treatment resistance, prescribers often consider off-label uses of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents for the treatment of persistent symptoms. The authors review the available literature on the FDA-approved and non-FDA-approved uses of lamotrigine in adults with psychiatric disorders. We used PubMed, MEDLINE, and a hand search of relevant literature to find studies published between 1990 and 2012 and available in English language. The following keywords were searched: lamotrigine, psychiatric, mood disorders, depression, personality disorders, anxiety, schizophrenia, side effects, and rash. Data were selected from 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When RCTs were not available, open-label trials (6), retrospective case reviews (10), and case series (4) were summarized. We extracted results of monotherapy and augmentation trials of lamotrigine on primary and secondary outcome measures. Lamotrigine is generally well tolerated, with the best evidence for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, particularly in prevention of depressive episodes. In acute bipolar depression, meta-analyses suggested a modest benefit, especially for more severely depressed subjects, with switch rates similar to placebo. In unipolar depression, double-blind RCTs noted benefit on subsets of symptoms and improved response in more severely depressed subjects. Data are limited but promising in borderline personality disorder. Use of lamotrigine in schizophrenia and anxiety disorders has little supportive evidence. Lamotrigine is recommended in bipolar maintenance when depression is prominent. It also has a role in treating acute bipolar depression and unipolar depression, though the latter warrants more research. Data are too limited in other psychiatric disorders to recommend its use at this time. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. Complex oxides: Intricate disorder

    DOE PAGES

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro

    2016-02-29

    In this study, complex oxides such as pyrochlores have a myriad of potential technological applications, including as fast ion conductors and radiation-tolerant nuclear waste forms. They are also of interest for their catalytic and spin ice properties. Many of these functional properties are enabled by the atomic structure of the cation sublattices. Pyrochlores (A2B2O7) contain two different cations (A and B), typically a 3+ rare earth and a 4+ transition metal such as Hf, Zr, or Ti. The large variety of chemistries that can form pyrochlores leads to a rich space in which to search for exotic new materials. Furthermore,more » how cations order or disorder on their respective sublattices for a given chemical composition influences the functional properties of the oxide. For example, oxygen ionic conductivity is directly correlated with the level of cation disorder — the swapping of A and B cations1. Further, the resistance of these materials against amorphization has also been connected with the ability of the cations to disorder2, 3. These correlations between cation structure and functionality have spurred great interest in the structure of the cation sublattice under irradiation, with significant focus on the disordering mechanisms and disordered structure. Previous studies have found that, upon irradiation, pyrochlores often undergo an order-to-disorder transformation, in which the resulting structure is, from a diffraction point of view, indistinguishable from fluorite (AO2) (ref. 3). Shamblin et al. now reveal that the structure of disordered pyrochlore is more complicated than previously thought4.« less

  12. Complex oxides: Intricate disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro

    2016-02-29

    In this study, complex oxides such as pyrochlores have a myriad of potential technological applications, including as fast ion conductors and radiation-tolerant nuclear waste forms. They are also of interest for their catalytic and spin ice properties. Many of these functional properties are enabled by the atomic structure of the cation sublattices. Pyrochlores (A2B2O7) contain two different cations (A and B), typically a 3+ rare earth and a 4+ transition metal such as Hf, Zr, or Ti. The large variety of chemistries that can form pyrochlores leads to a rich space in which to search for exotic new materials. Furthermore, how cations order or disorder on their respective sublattices for a given chemical composition influences the functional properties of the oxide. For example, oxygen ionic conductivity is directly correlated with the level of cation disorder — the swapping of A and B cations1. Further, the resistance of these materials against amorphization has also been connected with the ability of the cations to disorder2, 3. These correlations between cation structure and functionality have spurred great interest in the structure of the cation sublattice under irradiation, with significant focus on the disordering mechanisms and disordered structure. Previous studies have found that, upon irradiation, pyrochlores often undergo an order-to-disorder transformation, in which the resulting structure is, from a diffraction point of view, indistinguishable from fluorite (AO2) (ref. 3). Shamblin et al. now reveal that the structure of disordered pyrochlore is more complicated than previously thought4.

  13. Obsessive compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obsessions or compulsions that cause personal distress or social dysfunction affect about 1% of adult men and 1.5% of adult women. About half of adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have an episodic course, whereas the other half have continuous problems. Prevalence in children and adolescents is 2.7%. The disorder persists in about 40% of children and adolescents at mean follow-up of 5.7 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of initial treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults? What are the effects of initial treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents? What are the effects of maintenance treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults? What are the effects of maintenance treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents? What are the effects of treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults who have not responded to initial treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 43 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: addition of antipsychotics to serotonin reuptake inhibitors, behavioural therapy alone or with serotonin reuptake inhibitors, cognitive therapy or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (alone or

  14. Anxiety disorders and older women.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Jay; Levine, Stephen R

    2007-01-01

    Anxiety is a problem for millions of Americans. It poses special challenges for women as they grow into advanced age. This paper provides a general overview of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, agoraphobia, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Etiology, assessment and treatment strategies are then addressed. Special focus is directed at biological and psychosocial issues as they relate to older women in the development, experience, treatment and prevention of anxiety disorders.

  15. Clinical status of comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Parker, Gordon; Bayes, Adam; McClure, Georgia; Del Moral, Yolanda Romàn Ruiz; Stevenson, Janine

    2016-09-01

    The status and differentiation of comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder is worthy of clarification. To determine whether comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are interdependent or independent conditions. We interviewed patients diagnosed with either a borderline personality disorder and/or a bipolar condition. Analyses of participants grouped by DSM diagnoses established that those with comorbid conditions scored similarly to those with a borderline personality disorder alone on all key variables (i.e. gender, severity of borderline personality scores, developmental stressors, illness correlates, self-injurious behaviour rates) and differed from those with a bipolar disorder alone on nearly all non-bipolar item variables. Similar findings were returned for groups defined by clinical diagnoses. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder is consistent with the formal definition of comorbidity in that, while coterminous, individuals meeting such criteria have features of two independent conditions. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  16. Immunologic endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Michels, Aaron W; Eisenbarth, George S

    2010-02-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA-like molecules determining tissue-specific targeting that, with the loss of tolerance, leads to organ-specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Addison disease, and many others result from autoimmune-mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in patients with type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. Although therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  18. The anxiety disorder spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Peter J.; McTeague, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    This review considers recent research assessing psychophysiological reactivity to fear imagery in anxiety disorder patients. As in animal subjects, fear cues prompt in humans a state of defensive motivation in which autonomic and somatic survival reflexes are markedly enhanced. Thus, a startle stimulus presented in a fear context yields a stronger (potentiated) reflex, providing a quantitative measure of fearful arousal. This fear potentiation is further exaggerated in specific or social phobia individuals when viewing pictures or imagining the phobic object. Paradoxically, fear imagery studies with more severe anxiety disorder patients—panic disorder with agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, or anxious patients with comorbid depression—show a blunted, less robust fear potentiated response. Furthermore, this reflex blunting appears to systematically be more pronounced over the anxiety disorder spectrum, coincident with lengthier chronicity, worsening clinician-based judgments of severity and prognosis, and increased questionnaire-based indices of negative affectivity, suggesting that normal defensive reactivity may be compromised by an experience of long-term stress. PMID:19096959

  19. Pharmacotherapy of addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephen; Peselow, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Substance use disorders are highly prevalent in the United States and cause considerable damage to our society. They are underrecognized and undertreated despite a vast body of literature demonstrating the efficacy of treatment using both psychosocial and psychopharmacological modalities. For the last decade, research and progress into the biological basis of the addictive process has led to a rapidly growing number of pharmacological agents used to interrupt the addictive process at its various stages such as the initiation of substance abuse, the transition from abuse to dependence, and the prevention of drug reinstatement or relapse. Food and Drug Administration-approved medications exist for nicotine, alcohol, and opioid use disorders, and progress is being made to develop agents for stimulant use disorders. Regarding nicotine use disorders, nicotine replacement therapies,bupropion and varenicline, have Food and Drug Administration approval, and future options exist with endocannabinoid antagonists and immune therapy. Aversive agents, opiate antagonists, and glutamate based interventions are currently approved to treat alcohol use disorders with future promise with GABAergic, serotonergic, and endocannabinoid system agents. Opiate addiction is treated by approved agonist and antagonist mu-opioid medications with the future potential for agents that can modulate the stress systems and the iboga alkaloids. Although no pharmacotherapies are currently approved for cocaine addiction, promising lines of research include agents that affect dopaminergic, GABAergic, serotonergic,and glutamatergic systems as well as the promise for immune therapies.

  20. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    PubMed Central

    Pertyński, Tomasz; Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women's life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases) in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT). According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy). Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26327890

  1. Psychosexual disorders and dermatologists

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Tarun; Garima; Singh, Shubh M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual problems that are psychological in origin, rather than physiological, are called psychosexual disorders. Multiple factors, such as general health of the patient, chronic illnesses, psychiatric/psychological disorders, and socio-cultural factors, alone or in combination can be attributed to the development of psychosexual dysfunctions. The symptoms of these disorders vary for each individual and differ with gender. These disorders may be categorized as sexual dysfunction, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders. Dermatologists are sometimes consulted for sexual dysfunctions in their routine practice by the patients visiting sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinics because a majority of the patients believe that these problems are caused by dysfunctions in the sex organs, and because people are hesitant to go to sexuality clinics and psychiatrists for such problems. Sometimes these patients are referred from other specialties such as urology or gynecology; most often, we attempt to search for STIs or other dermatoses on the genitalia and refer them back. We often underestimate the prevalence of sexual concerns of the patients or feel uncomfortable discussing matters of sexuality with them. Dermatologists should understand basic sexual medicine and ask patients for sexual problems. They should be trained to manage such patients accordingly. In this review, we will be focusing on sexual dysfunctions, their etiopathogenesis, and management from a dermatologist's perspective. PMID:27294047

  2. Psychostimulants and movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist.

  3. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  4. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  5. Functional anorectal disorders.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Wald, Arnold; Enck, Paul; Rao, Satish

    2006-04-01

    This report defines criteria for diagnosing functional anorectal disorders (ie, fecal incontinence, anorectal pain, and disorders of defecation). Functional fecal incontinence is defined as the uncontrolled passage of fecal material recurring for > or =3 months in an individual with a developmental age of > or =4 years that is associated with: (1) abnormal functioning of normally innervated and structurally intact muscles, and/or (2) no or minor abnormalities of sphincter structure and/or innervation insufficient to explain fecal incontinence, and/or (3) normal or disordered bowel habits (ie, fecal retention or diarrhea), and/or (4) psychological causes. However, conditions wherein structural and/or neurogenic abnormalities explain the symptom, or are part of a generalized process (eg, diabetic neuropathy) are not included within functional fecal incontinence. Functional fecal incontinence is a common, but underrecognized symptom, which is equally prevalent in men and women, and can often cause considerable distress. The clinical features are useful for guiding diagnostic testing and therapy. Functional anorectal pain syndromes include proctalgia fugax (fleeting pain) and chronic proctalgia; chronic proctalgia may be subdivided into levator ani syndrome and unspecified anorectal pain, which are defined by arbitrary clinical criteria. Functional defecation disorders are characterized by 2 or more symptoms of constipation, with > or =2 of the following features during defecation: impaired evacuation, inappropriate contraction of the pelvic floor muscles, and inadequate propulsive forces. Functional disorders of defecation may be amenable to pelvic floor retraining by biofeedback therapy (such as dyssynergic defecation).

  6. Disorders of pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Susanna K; Itin, Peter H

    2010-03-01

    Skin color is highly individual and the variations are controlled by numerous genes. The different skin colors result from the size and number of melanosomes and do not mirror the amount of melanocytes. Disorders of pigmentation can result from migration abnormalities of melanocytes from the neural crest to the skin during embryogenesis. In addition, impairment of melanosome transfer to the surrounding keratinocytes, an alteration in melanin synthesis and a defective degradation or removal of melanin may lead to abnormal skin pigmentation. Immunologic or toxic mediated destructions of melanocytes can end in pigmentation disorders. Disorders of pigmentation are classified in hypo- or hyperpigmentation which can occur as a genetic or acquired disease. They can manifest locally or diffuse. Congenital hypopigmentation can be restricted to the skin as in piebaldism or they represent a systemic disease as in Menkes disease or phenylketonuria. Localized hypo- or hyperpigmentation in children may serve as markers for systemic diseases. Ash-leaf hypopigmentation are characteristic for tuberous sclerosis and more than 5 café-au-lait spots suggest neurofibromatosis 1 (von Recklinghausen disease). The most common autoimmune-induced depigmentation is vitiligo. Generalized hyperpigmentation only rarely reflects a primary genetic disorder but is most often from acquired diseases as in Addison disease, secondary hemochromatosis or primary biliary cirrhosis. Treatment of pigmentation disorders are based on a diagnosis which sometimes allow a specific intervention. Cosmetically acceptable results are difficult to obtain.

  7. Bipolar disorder in women

    PubMed Central

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  8. Immunologic Endocrine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Aaron W.; Eisenbarth, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, and many others result from autoimmune mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. While therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. PMID:20176260

  9. Metabolic disorders in menopause.

    PubMed

    Stachowiak, Grzegorz; Pertyński, Tomasz; Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance - IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus - T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women's life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases) in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT). According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy). Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  10. Differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, R M

    2014-12-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder spend approximately half of their lives symptomatic and the majority of that time suffering from symptoms of depression, which complicates the accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Challenges in the differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are reviewed, and the clinical utility of several screening instruments is evaluated. The estimated lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder (i.e., unipolar depression) is over 3 and one-half times that of bipolar spectrum disorders. The clinical presentation of a major depressive episode in a bipolar disorder patient does not differ substantially from that of a patient with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). Therefore, it is not surprising that without proper screening and comprehensive evaluation many patients with bipolar disorder may be misdiagnosed with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). In general, antidepressants have demonstrated little or no efficacy for depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder, and treatment guidelines recommend using antidepressants only as an adjunct to mood stabilizers for patients with bipolar disorder. Thus, correct identification of bipolar disorder among patients who present with depression is critical for providing appropriate treatment and improving patient outcomes. Clinical characteristics indicative of bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder identified in this review are based on group differences and may not apply to each individual patient. The overview of demographic and clinical characteristics provided by this review may help medical professionals distinguish between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Several validated, easily administered screening instruments are available and can greatly improve the recognition of bipolar disorder in patients with depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Browne, Heidi A; Gair, Shannon L; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Grice, Dorothy E

    2014-09-01

    Twin and family studies support a significant genetic contribution to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders, such as chronic tic disorders, trichotillomania, skin-picking disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and hoarding disorder. Recently, population-based studies and novel laboratory-based methods have confirmed substantial heritability in OCD. Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene association studies have provided information on specific gene variations that may be involved in the pathobiology of OCD, though a substantial portion of the genetic risk architecture remains unknown.

  12. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rash, Carla J; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Van Patten, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders” section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed. PMID:27051333

  13. Monogenic human skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Johannes R; Kernland-Lang, Kristin; Hörtnagel, Konstanze; Itin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Human genodermatoses represent a broad and partly confusing spectrum of countless rare diseases with confluent and overlapping phenotypes often impeding a precise diagnosis in an affected individual. High-throughput sequencing techniques have expedited the identification of novel genes and have dramatically simplified the establishment of genetic diagnoses in such heterogeneous disorders. The precise genetic diagnosis of a skin disorder is crucial for the appropriate counselling of patients and their relatives regarding the course of the disease, prognosis and recurrence risks. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology is a prerequisite to understanding the disease and developing specific, targeted or individualized therapeutic approaches. We aimed to create a comprehensive overview of human genodermatoses and their respective genetic aetiology known to date. We hope this may represent a useful tool in guiding dermatologists towards genetic diagnoses, providing patients with individual knowledge on the respective disorder and applying novel research findings to clinical practice.

  14. Key sleep neurologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    St. Louis, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sleep disorders are frequent comorbidities in neurologic patients. This review focuses on clinical aspects and prognosis of 3 neurologic sleep disorders: narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED), and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Narcolepsy causes pervasive, enduring excessive daytime sleepiness, adversely affecting patients' daily functioning. RLS/WED is characterized by an uncomfortable urge to move the legs before sleep, often evolving toward augmentation and resulting in daylong bothersome symptoms. RBD causes potentially injurious dream enactment behaviors that often signify future evolution of overt synucleinopathy neurodegeneration in as many as 81% of patients. Timely recognition, referral for polysomnography, and longitudinal follow-up of narcolepsy, RLS/WED, and RBD patients are imperatives for neurologists in providing quality comprehensive patient care. PMID:24605270

  15. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    PubMed

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  16. Maternal Hartnup disorder.

    PubMed

    Mahon, B E; Levy, H L

    1986-07-01

    We describe childbearing in two unrelated women with Hartnup disorder, an inborn error of neutral amino acid transport. Two living, unaffected offspring born after untreated and uneventful pregnancies, one from each woman, have had normal growth and development. The older one had an IQ of 92 at 4 years while the younger one at 4 months had a Development Quotient of 107 on the Mental Scale and 102 on the Motor Scale. A third offspring had a neural tube defect complicated by hydrocephalus and died at 3 months. This mother had a family history of major congenital anomalies. We think that this experience supports the view that Hartnup disorder in the mother, unlike phenylketonuria, does not have an adverse effect on the fetus. The presence of normal ratios of the amino acid concentrations between maternal and umbilical veins in one mother also suggests that placental transport of free amino acids, unlike renal transport, may not be reduced in maternal Hartnup disorder.

  17. Treatments for delusional disorder.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Mike; Khokhar, Waqqas Ahmad; Thacker, Simon P

    2015-05-22

    Delusional disorder is commonly considered to be difficult to treat. Antipsychotic medications are frequently used and there is growing interest in a potential role for psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in the treatment of delusional disorder. To evaluate the effectiveness of medication (antipsychotic medication, antidepressants, mood stabilisers) and psychotherapy, in comparison with placebo in delusional disorder. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (28 February 2012). Relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating treatments in delusional disorder. All review authors extracted data independently for the one eligible trial. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis with a fixed-effect model. Where possible, we calculated illustrative comparative risks for primary outcomes. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again with a fixed-effect model. We assessed the risk of bias of the included study and used the GRADE approach to rate the quality of the evidence. Only one randomised trial met our inclusion criteria, despite our initial search yielding 141 citations. This was a small study, with 17 people completing a trial comparing CBT to an attention placebo (supportive psychotherapy) for people with delusional disorder. Most participants were already taking medication and this was continued during the trial. We were not able to include any randomised trials on medications of any type due to poor data reporting, which left us with no usable data for these trials. For the included study, usable data were limited, risk of bias varied and the numbers involved were small, making interpretation of data difficult. In particular there were no data on outcomes such as global state and behaviour, nor any information on possible adverse effects.A positive effect for CBT was found for social self esteem

  18. Occupational musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Peate, W F

    1994-06-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders of the workplace include the acute, cumulative and chronic injuries or illnesses of the soft tissues which are caused by mechanical stress, strain, sprain, vibration, inflammation, or irritation. The successful management of occupational musculoskeletal disorders must account for workplace conditions (ergonomics and work practices), psychosocial factors, diagnostic uncertainties, and the need for active modalities (exercises and a progressive increase in activities of daily living), rather than passive (bed rest and traction). Although most occupational musculoskeletal disorders respond to conservative measures such as ice or heat, protective devices such as, neutral splints for carpal tunnel syndrome, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and progressive strengthening, resolution may take months. Prevention is often more important than treatment, and may entail workplace revisions and special worker training. Worker selection programs--strength testing, pre-placement radiographs, and inquiries about prior low back pain--have poor predictive value.

  19. [Puzzling bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Forsthoff, A; Born, C; Grunze, H

    2005-05-17

    Despite many advances in making the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, five to twelve years lie between the first affective episode and the introduction of an effective treatment. However, it is estimated that approximately only one-fourth of the patients with bipolar disorder are recognized as such at all. Clinical experience plays an important role in the diagnosis. Manias are often the cause for the first treatment with drugs, but the daily lives of patients with bipolar depression are often clearly more negatively affected. The acute therapy of bipolar depression is more complicated than that of mania and the difficult long-term treatment is always associated with a high suicide risk. A long-term therapy of bipolar disorders is not only meaningful for the prevention of new disease episodes, but also because it has a positive effect on comorbidities.

  20. Sexual pain disorders.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Santamaría, Francisco; del Río-Olvera, Francisco Javier; Cabello-García, Marina A

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review was to assess recent research (the last 18 months) and its impact on understanding sexual pain disorders relevant to daily clinical practice. It has been highlighted that sexual pain is related to the number of tender points, pressure pain threshold, more deliberate fear and less global positive affective associations with sexual stimuli, episiotomy, attachment styles, drug abuse and the influence of ambivalence over emotional expression in couples.The efficacy of a multidisciplinary vulvodynia programme of treatment, another type of therapy based on the fear-avoidance and pain self-efficacy model and a novel cognitive-behavioral couple therapy has been stated. There is a gradual advance in the knowledge of sexual pain disorder etiology. At the same time different therapeutics strategies have been increasing, but it is necessary to introduce guidelines on the basis of the evidence to approach with efficacy this severe disorder. http://links.lww.com/YCO/A31.

  1. Mental disorders in prisons.

    PubMed

    Abdalla-Filho, Elias; De Souza, Patricia A; Tramontina, Juliana F; Taborda, José G V

    2010-09-01

    The existence of people with mental disorders in prisons is a reality found worldwide. The purpose of this article is not only to review the publications on this subject in 2009 but also to stimulate discussions that could contribute to its further scientific study. Most studies published in 2009 related to drug use among inmates and its consequences made it clear that this kind of disorder has a closer relationship with the crime than with mental illness. The existence of the mentally ill in prisons is a complex issue and the studies attempt to analyze aspects such as the type of disorder, sex of criminals, the opposition between incarceration and treatment, policy, harm reduction and stigma. A further study on the variables raised in this work is required, as well as examining others, to the extent that they are relevant to the various socio-economic and cultural realities.

  2. Psychotherapy for panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Shear, M K; Weiner, K

    1997-01-01

    Although medications and panic-focused cognitive behavior therapy are considered standard treatments for panic disorder, other types of psychotherapy may also be helpful. Many patients with panic disorder have some residual underlying vulnerability, as suggested by the continued occurrence of symptoms. These patients may benefit from a more broad-based psychotherapy, as might those in whom comorbid symptoms occur. Some patients are unable or choose not to participate in a structured prescriptive treatment requiring homework. Our psychotherapeutic approach to treating panic disorder, called emotion-focused treatment, targets identifying and managing negative emotions, especially as they relate to common psychological themes of fear of separation, fear of constriction, and the need for interpersonal control.

  3. Psychopathy, adaptation, and disorder

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, Daniel Brian; Sewall, Lindsay A.; Lalumière, Martin L.; Sheriff, Craig; Harris, Grant T.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent study, we found a negative association between psychopathy and violence against genetic relatives. We interpreted this result as a form of nepotism and argued that it failed to support the hypothesis that psychopathy is a mental disorder, suggesting instead that it supports the hypothesis that psychopathy is an evolved life history strategy. This interpretation and subsequent arguments have been challenged in a number of ways. Here, we identify several misunderstandings regarding the harmful dysfunction definition of mental disorder as it applies to psychopathy and regarding the meaning of nepotism. Furthermore, we examine the evidence provided by our critics that psychopathy is associated with other disorders, and we offer a comment on their alternative model of psychopathy. We conclude that there remains little evidence that psychopathy is the product of dysfunctional mechanisms. PMID:23543424

  4. [Epidemiology of mood disorders].

    PubMed

    Rouillon, Frédéric

    2008-02-29

    The 12 months and lifetime prevalence of is respectively 5 and 9% in the general population; moreover 10 to 20% of general practice patients are depressed. Depression is involved in about 40 to 80% of suicide and induces one of the greatest social burden. Mood disorders are more frequent in women, individual living alone and people with low socio-economic level. Risk factors are stressfull life events, biological vulnerability (genetic factors), somatic diseases, psychiatric comorbidity including personality disorders and addictions. Depressive disorders are underdiagnosed and undertreated despite efficacious pharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies in their treatment. It's the reason why public health programs to prevent depression have been promoted by many countries like European Alliance against Depression. Their efficacy must be evaluated as their cost-efficiency.

  5. Motor stereotypy disorders.

    PubMed

    Muthugovindan, Deivasumathy; Singer, Harvey

    2009-04-01

    This review highlights recent advances in understanding the clinical features, prevalence, and outcomes of motor stereotypy disorders in typically developing children. Longitudinal data indicate that stereotypies in children with normal intelligence show an early age of onset, chronicity, and high prevalence of comorbid difficulties, including tics, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The underlying abnormality remains unknown, but there is increasing evidence for Mendelian inheritance and a neurobiological mechanism. Primary motor stereotypies are relatively common in childhood and can be subdivided into three groups (common, head nodding, and complex motor). Movements are similar to those seen in children with autistic spectrum disorders, mental retardation, and sensory deprivation. The role of pharmacotherapy is not established and behavioral therapy can be beneficial.

  6. Treatment of Gambling Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Sarah W.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement Preclinical and clinical research implicate several neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of gambling disorder (GD). In particular, neurobiological research suggests alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic, glutamatergic and opioidergic functioning. The relative efficacy of medications targeting these systems remains a topic of ongoing research, and there is currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medication with an indication for GD. Considering co-occurring disorders may be particularly important when devising a treatment plan for GD: extant data suggest that the opioid antagonist naltrexone may by the most effective form of current pharmacotherapy for GD, particularly for individuals with a co-occurring substance-use disorder (SUD) or with a family history of alcoholism. In contrast, lithium or other mood stabilizers may be most effective for GD for patients presenting with a co-occurring bipolar-spectrum disorder (BSD). Further, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) may be efficacious in reducing GD symptoms for individuals also presenting with a (non-BSD) mood or anxiety disorder. Finally, elevated rates of GD (and other Impulse Control Disorders; ICDs) have been noted among individuals with Parkinson’s Disease (PD), and clinicians should assess for vulnerability to GD when considering treatment options for PD. Reducing levodopa or dopamine agonist (DA) dosages may partially reduce GD symptoms among patients with co-occurring PD. For GD patients not willing to consider drug treatment, n-acetyl cysteine or behavioral therapies may be effective. Ongoing research into the effectiveness of combined behavioral and pharmacotherapies is being conducted; thus combined treatments should also be considered. PMID:24904757

  7. Cognitive style in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lisa; Scott, Jan; Haque, Sayeed; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Heron, Jessica; Caesar, Sian; Cooper, Caroline; Forty, Liz; Hyde, Sally; Lyon, Louisa; Greening, Jayne; Sham, Pak; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Jones, Ian; Craddock, Nick

    2005-11-01

    Abnormalities of cognitive style in bipolar disorder are of both clinical and theoretical importance. To compare cognitive style in people with affective disorders and in healthy controls. Self-rated questionnaires were administered to 118 individuals with bipolar I disorder, 265 with unipolar major recurrent depression and 268 healthy controls. Those with affective disorder were also interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and case notes were reviewed. Those with bipolar disorder and those with unipolar depression demonstrated different patterns of cognitive style from controls; negative self-esteem best discriminated between those with affective disorders and controls; measures of cognitive style were substantially affected by current levels of depressive symptomatology; patterns of cognitive style were similar in bipolar and unipolar disorder when current mental state was taken into account. Those with affective disorder significantly differed from controls on measures of cognitive style but there were no differences between unipolar and bipolar disorders when current mental state was taken into account.

  8. Plasma Cell Disorders.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jorge J

    2016-12-01

    Plasma cell disorders are benign, premalignant, and malignant conditions characterized by the presence of a monoclonal paraprotein detected in serum or urine. These conditions are biologically, pathologically, and clinically heterogeneous. There have been major advances in the understanding of the biology of these diseases, which are promoting the development of therapies with novel mechanisms of action. Novel agents such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and monoclonal antibodies have gained approval in the United States and Europe for the treatment of plasma cell disorders. Such therapies are translating into higher rates of response and survival and better toxicity profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phosphate homeostasis and disorders.

    PubMed

    Manghat, P; Sodi, R; Swaminathan, R

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies of inherited disorders of phosphate metabolism have shed new light on the understanding of phosphate metabolism. Phosphate has important functions in the body and several mechanisms have evolved to regulate phosphate balance including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and phosphatonins such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). Disorders of phosphate homeostasis leading to hypo- and hyperphosphataemia are common and have clinical and biochemical consequences. Notably, recent studies have linked hyperphosphataemia with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This review outlines the recent advances in the understanding of phosphate homeostasis and describes the causes, investigation and management of hypo- and hyperphosphataemia.

  10. HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Saksena, Nitin K.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is associated with the development of neurocognitive disorders in many infected individuals, including a broad spectrum of motor impairments and cognitive deficits. Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is still not clear. This review provides a comprehensive view of HAND, including HIV neuroinvasion, HAND diagnosis and different level of disturbances, influence of highly-active antiretroviral therapy to HIV-associated dementia (HAD), possible pathogenesis of HAD, etc. Together, this review will give a thorough and clear understanding of HAND, especially HAD, which will be vital for future research, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24470972

  11. Factitious posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Sparr, L; Pankratz, L D

    1983-08-01

    A growing number of young men have reported an array of symptoms that suggest a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Five such men, all claiming to be Viet Nam veterans, were treated at a VA medical center; three said they were former prisoners of war. In fact, none had been prisoners of war, four had never been in Viet Nam, and two had never even been in the military. Instead, all five suffered factitious disorders. The authors describe the five patients and discuss differential diagnoses; the value of verifying military histories is stressed.

  12. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rohan, Kelly J.

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), characterized by fall/winter major depression with spring/summer remission, is a prevalent mental health problem. SAD etiology is not certain, but available models focus on neurotransmitters, hormones, circadian rhythm dysregulation, genetic polymorphisms, and psychological factors. Light therapy is established as the best available treatment for SAD. Alternative and/or supplementary approaches involving medications, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and exercise are currently being developed and evaluated. Given the complexity of the disorder, interdisciplinary research stands to make a significant contribution to advancing our understanding of SAD conceptualization and treatment. PMID:21179639

  13. Achilles tendon disorders.

    PubMed

    Weinfeld, Steven B

    2014-03-01

    Achilles tendon disorders include tendinosis, paratenonitis, insertional tendinitis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, and frank rupture. Patients present with pain and swelling in the posterior aspect of the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound are helpful in confirming the diagnosis and guiding treatment. Nonsurgical management of Achilles tendon disorders includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, bracing, and footwear modification. Surgical treatment includes debridement of the diseased area of the tendon with direct repair. Tendon transfer may be necessary to augment the strength of the Achilles tendon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Narcissistic personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Lammers, C-H; Vater, A; Roepke, S

    2013-07-01

    Narcissism is a multifaceted term which encompasses traits of normal personality as well as a specific personality disorder. While much research has been concerned with narcissism as a trait there are only few empirical studies available on narcissistic personality disorder (NPS). The current diagnostic of NPS according to DSM-IV-TR focuses on grandiose type narcissism whereas vulnerable narcissism, which has been described by clinicians and researchers has not yet been recognised. Psychotherapy of narcissistic patients through different psychotherapeutic schools focuses mainly on processes in the therapeutic relationship, the analysis and change of grandiose and vulnerable schemas, emotion regulation techniques and correction of narcissistic behavior in favor of prosocial interactions.

  15. Blistering Disorders in Children.

    PubMed

    Yun, Duri; Stein, Sarah L

    2015-08-01

    Bullous disorders in children are challenging as they encompass a wide range of entities. The etiologies range from inherited to acquired disorders. Some of the more common acquired forms include allergic reactions, infections, autoimmune-mediated conditions, and toxin-mediated conditions. Some eruptions are self-limited, whereas others can be life-threatening. Obtaining a careful history, performing a detailed morphologic examination, recognizing when a skin scraping, biopsy, or culture is indicated, and having an understanding of the associated pathophysiology allows one to narrow the differential and ultimately arrive at the correct diagnosis. This review discusses the more commonly acquired bullous eruptions and how to differentiate them.

  16. [Coagulation disorders in cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Téllez-Avila, Felix I; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Torre-Delgadillo, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in the clotting process. In this organ are sintetizated the major part of the coagulation factors. Historically, was considered that alteration in liver function causes important bleeding disorders. However, actual evidence is not in agreement with this asseveration. Decreased synthesis of clotting and inhibitor factors, decrease clearance of activated factors, quantitative and qualitative platelet defects, hyperfibrinolysis and intravascular coagulation are some of the defects observed in liver diseases. Thrombotic events, even if rare in cirrhotic patients, occur manly in the portal and mesenteric veins. The aim of the present work is to review the present evidence in coagulation disorders and liver disease.

  17. Disorders of Human Hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Arthur; Mears, J. Gregory; Ramirez, Francesco

    1980-02-01

    Studies of the human hemoglobin system have provided new insights into the regulation of expression of a group of linked human genes, the γ -δ -β globin gene complex in man. In particular, the thalassemia syndromes and related disorders of man are inherited anemias that provide mutations for the study of the regulation of globin gene expression. New methods, including restriction enzyme analysis and cloning of cellular DNA, have made it feasible to define more precisely the structure and organization of the globin genes in cellular DNA. Deletions of specific globin gene fragments have already been found in certain of these disorders and have been applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  18. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Disorder in large- N theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharony, Ofer; Komargodski, Zohar; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2016-04-01

    We consider Euclidean Conformal Field Theories perturbed by quenched disorder, namely by random fluctuations in their couplings. Such theories are relevant for second-order phase transitions in the presence of impurities or other forms of disorder. Theories with quenched disorder often flow to new fixed points of the renormalization group. We begin with disorder in free field theories. Imry and Ma showed that disordered free fields can only exist for d > 4. For d > 4 we show that disorder leads to new fixed points which are not scale-invariant. We then move on to large- N theories (vector models or gauge theories in the `t Hooft limit). We compute exactly the beta function for the disorder, and the correlation functions of the disordered theory. We generalize the results of Imry and Ma by showing that such disordered theories exist only when disorder couples to operators of dimension Δ > d/4. Sometimes the disordered fixed points are not scale-invariant, and in other cases they have unconventional dependence on the disorder, including non-trivial effects due to irrelevant operators. Holography maps disorder in conformal theories to stochastic differential equations in a higher dimensional space. We use this dictionary to reproduce our field theory results. We also study the leading 1 /N corrections, both by field theory methods and by holography. These corrections are particularly important when disorder scales with the number of degrees of freedom.

  20. Neuropsychopathological comorbidities in learning disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Learning Disorders (LD) are complex diseases that affect about 2-10% of the school-age population. We performed neuropsychological and psychopathological evaluation, in order to investigate comorbidity in children with LD. Methods Our sample consisted of 448 patients from 7 to 16 years of age with a diagnosis of LD, divided in two subgroups: Specific Learning Disorders (SLD), including reading, writing, mathematics disorders, and Learning Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (LD NOS). Results Comorbidity with neuropsychopathologies was found in 62.2% of the total sample. In the LSD subgroup, ADHD was present in 33%, Anxiety Disorder in 28.8%, Developmental Coordination Disorder in 17.8%, Language Disorder in 11% and Mood Disorder in 9.4% of patients. In LD NOS subgroup, Language Disorder was present in 28.6%, Developmental Coordination Disorder in 27.5%, ADHD in 25.4%, Anxiety Disorder in 16.4%, Mood Disorder in 2.1% of patients. A statistically significant presence was respectively found for Language and Developmental Coordination Disorder comorbidity in LD NOS and for ADHD, mood and anxiety disorder comorbidity in SLD subgroup. Conclusions The different findings emerging in this study suggested to promote further investigations to better define the difference between SLD and LD NOS, in order to improve specific interventions to reduce the long range consequences. PMID:24330722