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Sample records for e-beam deposition technique

  1. Transparent conducting ZnO-CdO thin films deposited by e-beam evaporation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, H. A.; Ali, H. M.; Mohamed, S. H.; Abd El-Raheem, M. M.

    2006-04-01

    Thin films of Zn{1-x} Cd{x}O with x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 at.% were deposited by electron-beam evaporation technique. It has been found that, for as-deposited films, both the transmittance and electrical resistivity decreased with increasing the Cd content. To improve the optical and electrical properties of these films, the effect of annealing temperature and time were taken into consideration for Zn{1-x} Cd{x}O film with x = 0.2. It was found that, the optical transmittance and the electrical conductivity were improved significantly with increasing the time of annealing. At fixed temperature of 300 °C, the transmittance increased with increasing the time of annealing and reached its maximum values of 81% in the visible region and 94% in the NIR region at annealing time of 120 min. The low electrical resistivity of 3.6 × 10-3 Ω cm was achieved at the same conditions. Other parameters named free carrier concentrations, refractive index, extinction coefficient, plasma frequency, and relaxation time were studied as a function of annealing temperature and time for 20% Cd content.

  2. Review Of E-Beam Electrical Test Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohn, Fritz J.

    1987-09-01

    Electron beams as a viable technique for contactless testing of electrical functions and electrical integrity of different active devices in VLSI-chips has been demonstrated over the past years. This method of testing electronic networks, most widely used in the laboratory environment, is based on an electron probe which is deflected from point to point in the network. A current of secondary electrons emitted in response to the impingement of the electron probe is converted to a signal indicating the presence of a voltage or varying potential at the different points. Voltage contrast, electron beam induced current, dual potential approach, stroboscopic techniques and other methods have been developed and are used to detect different functional failures in devices. Besides the VLSI application, the contactless testing of three dimensional conductor networks of a 10cm x 10cm x .8cm multilayer ceramic module poses a different and new application for the electron beam test technique. A dual potential electron beam test system allows to generate electron beam induced voltage contrast. The same system at a different potential is used to detect this voltage contrast over the large area without moving the substrate and thus test for the electrical integrity of the networks. Less attention in most of the applications has been paid to the electron optical environment, mostly SEM's were upgraded or converted to do the job of a "voltage contrast" machine. This by no means will satisfy all requirements and more thoughts have to be given to aspects such as: low voltage electron guns: thermal emitter, Schottky emitter, field emitter, low voltage electron optics, two lens systems, different means of detection, signal processing - storage and others. This paper will review available E-beam test techniques, specific applications and some critical components.

  3. Comparison of the Al back contact deposited by sputtering, e-beam, or thermal evaporation for inverted perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Tina; Hanisch, Jonas; Ahlswede, Erik

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we present inverted perovskite solar cells with Al top electrodes, which were deposited by three different methods. Besides the widely used thermal evaporation of Al, we also used the industrially important high deposition rate processes sputtering and electron beam evaporation for aluminium electrodes and examined the influence of the deposition method on the solar cell performance. The current-voltage characteristics of as grown solar cells with sputtered and e-beam Al electrode show an s-shape due to damage done to the organic electronic transport layers (ETL) during Al deposition. It can be cured by a short annealing step at a moderate temperature so that fill factors  >60% and power conversion efficiencies of almost 12% with negligible hysteresis can be achieved. While solar cells with thermally evaporated Al electrode do not show an s-shape, they also exhibit a clear improvement after a short annealing step. In addition, we varied the thickness of the ETL consisting of a double layer ([6,6]-Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and bathocuproine) and investigated the influence on the solar cell parameters for the three different Al deposition methods, which showed distinct dependencies on ETL thickness.

  4. Study of nanostructure and ethanol vapor sensing performance of WO3 thin films deposited by e-beam evaporation method under different deposition angles: application in breath analysis devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, E.; Khojier, K.; Zoriasatain, S.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of deposition angle on the crystallographic structure, surface morphology, porosity and subsequently ethanol vapor sensing performance of e-beam-evaporated WO3 thin films. The WO3 thin films were deposited by e-beam evaporation technique on SiO2/Si substrates under different deposition angles (0°, 30°, and 60°) and then post-annealed at 500 °C with a flow of oxygen for 4 h. Crystallographic structure and surface morphology of the samples were checked using X-ray diffraction method and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Physical adsorption isotherm was also used to measure the porosity and effective surface area of the samples. The electrical response of the samples was studied to different concentrations of ethanol vapor (10-50 ppm) at the temperature range of 140-260 °C and relative humidity of 80%. The results reveal that the WO3 thin film deposited under 30° angle shows more sensitivity to ethanol vapor than the other samples prepared in this work due to the more crystallinity, porosity, and effective surface area. The investigations also show that the sample deposited at 30° can be a good candidate as a breath analysis device at the operating temperature of 240 °C because of its high response, low detection limit, and reliability at high relative humidity.

  5. Smooth e-beam-deposited tin-doped indium oxide for III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser intracavity contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, J. T.; Cohen, D. A.; Yonkee, B. P.; Farrell, R. M.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-10-01

    We carried out a series of simulations analyzing the dependence of mirror reflectance, threshold current density, and differential efficiency on the scattering loss caused by the roughness of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts for 405 nm flip-chip III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). From these results, we determined that the ITO root-mean-square (RMS) roughness should be <1 nm to minimize scattering losses in VCSELs. Motivated by this requirement, we investigated the surface morphology and optoelectronic properties of electron-beam (e-beam) evaporated ITO films, as a function of substrate temperature and oxygen flow and pressure. The transparency and conductivity were seen to increase with increasing temperature. Decreasing the oxygen flow and pressure resulted in an increase in the transparency and resistivity. Neither the temperature, nor oxygen flow and pressure series on single-layer ITO films resulted in highly transparent and conductive films with <1 nm RMS roughness. To achieve <1 nm RMS roughness with good optoelectronic properties, a multi-layer ITO film was developed, utilizing a two-step temperature scheme. The optimized multi-layer ITO films had an RMS roughness of <1 nm, along with a high transparency (˜90% at 405 nm) and low resistivity (˜2 × 10-4 Ω-cm). This multi-layer ITO e-beam deposition technique is expected to prevent p-GaN plasma damage, typically observed in sputtered ITO films on p-GaN, while simultaneously reducing the threshold current density and increasing the differential efficiency of III-nitride VCSELs.

  6. Effects of film thickness on the linear and nonlinear refractive index of p-type SnO films deposited by e-beam evaporation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gendy, Y. A.

    2017-12-01

    Tin monoxide (SnO) films of different thickness have been deposited onto glass substrates at vacuum pressure of ∼ 8 × 10-6 mbar using an e-beam evaporation system. A hot probe test revealed that the deposited films showed p-type conduction. The structure characterization and phase purity of the deposited films was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The optical transmission and reflection spectra of the deposited films recorded in the wavelength range 190-2500 nm were used to calculate the optical constants employing the Murmann's exact equations. The refractive index dispersion was adequately described by the well-known effective-single-oscillator model proposed by Wemple-DiDomenico, whereby the dispersion parameters were calculated. The nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear optical susceptibility of the deposited films were successfully evaluated using the Miller empirical relations. The lattice dielectric constant and the carrier concentration to the effective mass ratio were also calculated as a function of film thickness using the Spitzer and Fan model. The variation of the optical band gap of the deposited films as a function of film thickness was also presented.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of binary ZnO-SnO2 (ZTO) thin films by e-beam evaporation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibi, Shagufta; Shah, A.; Mahmood, Arshad; Ali, Zahid; Raza, Qaisar; Aziz, Uzma; Haneef; Waheed, Abdul; Shah, Ziaullah

    2018-04-01

    The binary ZnO-SnO2 (ZTO) thin films with varying SnO2 concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%) were grown on glass substrate by e-beam evaporation technique. The prepared ZTO films were annealed at 400 °C in air. These films were then characterized to investigate their structural, optical, and electrical properties as a function of SnO2 concentration. XRD analysis reveals that the crystallinity of the film decreases with the addition of SnO2 and it transforms to an amorphous structure at a composition of 40% SnO2 and 60% ZnO. Morphology of the films was examined by atomic force microscopy which points out that surface roughness of the films decreases with the increasing of SnO2 in the film. Optical properties such as optical transparency, band-gap energy, and optical constants of these films were examined by spectrophotometer and spectroscopic Ellipsometer. It was observed that the average optical transmission of mixed films improves with incorporation of SnO2. In addition, the band-gap energy of the films was determined to be in the range of 3.37-3.7 eV. Furthermore, it was found that the optical constants (n and k) decrease with the addition of SnO2. Similarly, it is observed that the electrical resistivity increases nonlinearly with the increase in SnO2 in ZnO-SnO2 thin films. However, it is noteworthy that the highest figure of merit (FOM) value, i.e., 55.87 × 10-5 Ω-1, is obtained for ZnO-SnO2 (ZTO) thin film with 40 wt% of SnO2 composition. Here, we suggest that ZnO-SnO2 (ZTO) thin film with composition of 60:40 wt% can be used as an efficient TCO film due to the improved transmission, and reduced RMS value and highest FOM value.

  8. Encryption techniques to the design of e-beam-generated digital pixel hologram for anti-counterfeiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hau P.; Bao, Nai-Keng; Kwok, Wing O.; Wong, Wing H.

    2002-04-01

    The application of Digital Pixel Hologram (DPH) as anti-counterfeiting technology for products such as commercial goods, credit cards, identity cards, paper money banknote etc. is growing important nowadays. It offers many advantages over other anti-counterfeiting tools and this includes high diffraction effect, high resolving power, resistance to photo copying using two-dimensional Xeroxes, potential for mass production of patterns at a very low cost. Recently, we have successfully in fabricating high definition DPH with resolution higher than 2500dpi for the purpose of anti-counterfeiting by applying modern optical diffraction theory to computer pattern generation technique with the assist of electron beam lithography (EBL). In this paper, we introduce five levels of encryption techniques, which can be embedded in the design of such DPHs to further improve its anti-counterfeiting performance with negligible added on cost. The techniques involved, in the ascending order of decryption complexity, are namely Gray-level Encryption, Pattern Encryption, Character Encryption, Image Modification Encryption and Codebook Encryption. A Hong Kong Special Administration Regions (HKSAR) DPH emblem was fabricated at a resolution of 2540dpi using the facilities housed in our Optoelectronics Research Center. This emblem will be used as an illustration to discuss in details about each encryption idea during the conference.

  9. Comparison of Three E-Beam Techniques for Electric Field Imaging and Carrier Diffusion Length Measurement on the Same Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Donatini, F; de Luna Bugallo, Andres; Tchoulfian, Pierre; Chicot, Gauthier; Sartel, Corinne; Sallet, Vincent; Pernot, Julien

    2016-05-11

    Whereas nanowire (NW)-based devices offer numerous advantages compared to bulk ones, their performances are frequently limited by an incomplete understanding of their properties where surface effect should be carefully considered. Here, we demonstrate the ability to spatially map the electric field and determine the exciton diffusion length in NW by using an electron beam as the single excitation source. This approach is performed on numerous single ZnO NW Schottky diodes whose NW radius vary from 42.5 to 175 nm. The dominant impact of the surface on the NW properties is revealed through the comparison of three different physical quantities recorded on the same NW: electron-beam induced current, cathodoluminescence, and secondary electron signal. Indeed, the space charge region near the Schottky contact exhibits an unusual linear variation with reverse bias whatever the NW radius. On the contrary, the exciton diffusion length is shown to be controlled by the NW radius through surface recombination. This systematic comparison performed on a single ZnO NW demonstrates the power of these complementary techniques in understanding NW properties.

  10. Ion plating technique improves thin film deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, D. M.

    1968-01-01

    Ion plating technique keeps the substrate surface clean until the film is deposited, allows extensive diffusion and chemical reaction, and joins insoluble or incompatible materials. The technique involves the deposition of ions on the substrate surface while it is being bombarded with inert gas ions.

  11. Illuminating e-beam processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This month's Processing column will explore electronic beam (e-beam) processing. E-beam processing uses a low energy form of irradiation and has emerged as a highly promising treatment for both food safety and quarantine purposes. It is also used to extend food shelf life. This column will review...

  12. Residual Stresses in Ta, Mo, Al and Pd Thin Films Deposited by E-Beam Evaporation Process on Si and Si/SiO2 Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisbiers, G.; Strehle, S.; Van Overschelde, O.; Wautelet, M.

    2006-02-01

    Residual stresses are commonly generated during the deposition process of thin films and can influence the reliability of the deposited systems e.g. due to fatigue, aging effects or debonding. Therefore, an evaluation of such stresses in thin films is of crucial importance for metallization of microelectronic devices and MEMS. Residual stresses can be determined experimentally by substrate curvature or X-ray diffraction measurements. The modeling of residual stresses generally deals with the calculation of the thermal ones alone. In the present work, a model is proposed, where intrinsic stresses are calculated explicitly based on the Tsui-Clyne model. The aim of this model, called self-consistent model, is to predict residual stresses in thin films independent on measurements. The simulated values are compared with experimental results for the following systems: Ta/Si, Mo/Si, Al/SiO2/Si and Pd/SiO2/Si.

  13. Sputtering. [as deposition technique in mechanical engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1976-01-01

    This paper primarily reviews the potential of using the sputtering process as a deposition technique; however, the manufacturing and sputter etching aspects are also discussed. Since sputtering is not regulated by classical thermodynamics, new multicomponent materials can be developed in any possible chemical composition. The basic mechanism for dc and rf sputtering is described. Sputter-deposition is described in terms of the unique advantageous features it offers such as versatility, momentum transfer, stoichiometry, sputter-etching, target geometry (coating complex surfaces), precise controls, flexibility, ecology, and sputtering rates. Sputtered film characteristics, such as strong adherence and coherence and film morphology, are briefly evaluated in terms of varying the sputtering parameters. Also described are some of the specific industrial areas which are turning to sputter-deposition techniques.

  14. Analysis of e-beam impact on the resist stack in e-beam lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indykeiwicz, K.; Paszkiewicz, B.

    2013-07-01

    Paper presents research on the sub-micron gate, AlGaN /GaN HEMT type transistors, fabrication by e-beam lithography and lift-off technique. The impact of the electron beam on the resists layer and the substrate was analyzed by MC method in Casino v3.2 software. The influence of technological process parameters on the metal structures resolution and quality for paths 100 nm, 300 nm and 500 nm wide and 20 μm long was studied. Qualitative simulation correspondences to the conducted experiments were obtained.

  15. E-beam direct write is free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, Lance A.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we discuss four business concepts that will impact the adoption of e-beam direct write (EbDW). They are: (1) The economically advantageous region for EbDW. At what costs and volumes EbDW is economically advantageous is controlled by a two-sided constraint involving the cost of reticles on one hand and the cost of design on the other. (2) The important role of product derivatives and other markets that can be satisfied by designs with heavy IP reuse. The natural long tail in demand for differentiated products is today chopped off by the high costs of reticles. We show data on the elasticity of the product derivative market with respect to certain costs. (3) That because reticle prices typically decline at a 30% per year for the first few years after a new node is introduced, delaying the fabrication of that first reticle set for a new product can save millions, more than paying for EbDW. The applicability of this technique is, however, limited by the need for product requalifaction. (4) Finally, we introduce the business concept of the virtual reticle as a possible component in EbDW pricing.

  16. E-beam-pumped semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Robert R.; Shanley, James F.; Ruggieri, Neil F.

    1995-04-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union opened many areas of laser technology to the West. E-beam- pumped semiconductor lasers (EBSL) were pursued for 25 years in several Soviet Institutes. Thin single crystal screens of II-VI alloys (ZnxCd1-xSe, CdSxSe1-x) were incorporated in laser CRTs to produce scanned visible laser beams at average powers greater than 10 W. Resolutions of 2500 lines were demonstrated. MDA-W is conducting a program for ARPA/ESTO to assess EBSL technology for high brightness, high resolution RGB laser projection application. Transfer of II-VI crystal growth and screen processing technology is underway, and initial results will be reported. Various techniques (cathodoluminescence, one- and two-photon laser pumping, etc.) have been used to assess material quality and screen processing damage. High voltage (75 kV) video electronics were procured in the U.S. to operate test EBSL tubes. Laser performance was documented as a function of screen temperature, beam voltage and current. The beam divergence, spectrum, efficiency and other characteristics of the laser output are being measured. An evaluation of the effect of laser operating conditions upon the degradation rate is being carried out by a design-of-experiments method. An initial assessment of the projected image quality will be performed.

  17. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 °C. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

  18. Introduction of pre-etch deposition techniques in EUV patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Xun; Beique, Genevieve; Sun, Lei; Labonte, Andre; Labelle, Catherine; Nagabhirava, Bhaskar; Friddle, Phil; Schmitz, Stefan; Goss, Michael; Metzler, Dominik; Arnold, John

    2018-04-01

    The thin nature of EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) resist has posed significant challenges for etch processes. In particular, EUV patterning combined with conventional etch approaches suffers from loss of pattern fidelity in the form of line breaks. A typical conventional etch approach prevents the etch process from having sufficient resist margin to control the trench CD (Critical Dimension), minimize the LWR (Line Width Roughness), LER (Line Edge Roughness) and reduce the T2T (Tip-to-Tip). Pre-etch deposition increases the resist budget by adding additional material to the resist layer, thus enabling the etch process to explore a wider set of process parameters to achieve better pattern fidelity. Preliminary tests with pre-etch deposition resulted in blocked isolated trenches. In order to mitigate these effects, a cyclic deposition and etch technique is proposed. With optimization of deposition and etch cycle time as well as total number of cycles, it is possible to open the underlying layers with a beneficial over etch and simultaneously keep the isolated trenches open. This study compares the impact of no pre-etch deposition, one time deposition and cyclic deposition/etch techniques on 4 aspects: resist budget, isolated trench open, LWR/LER and T2T.

  19. Sub-100-nm trackwidth development by e-beam lithography for advanced magnetic recording heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jei-Wei; Chen, Chao-Peng

    2006-03-01

    Although semiconductor industry ramps the products with 90 nm much quicker than anticipated [1], magnetic recording head manufacturers still have difficulties in producing sub-100 nm read/write trackwidth. Patterning for high-aspectratio writer requires much higher depth of focus (DOF) than most advanced optical lithography, including immersion technique developed recently [2]. Self-aligning reader with its stabilized bias requires a bi-layer lift-off structure where the underlayer is narrower than the top image layer. As the reader's trackwidth is below 100nm, the underlayer becomes very difficult to control. Among available approaches, e-beam lithography remains the most promising one to overcome the challenge of progressive miniaturization. In this communication, the authors discussed several approaches using ebeam lithography to achieve sub-100 nm read/write trackwidth. Our studies indicated the suspended resist bridge design can not only widen the process window for lift-off process but also makes 65 nm trackwidth feasible to manufacture. Necked dog-bone structure seems to be the best design in this application due to less proximity effects from adjacent structures and minimum blockages for ion beam etching. The trackwidth smaller than 65 nm can be fabricated via the combination of e-beam lithography with auxiliary slimming and/or trimming. However, deposit overspray through undercut becomes dominated in such a small dimension. To minimize the overspray, the effects of underlayer thickness need to be further studied.

  20. PREVAIL: IBM's e-beam technology for next generation lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Hans C.

    2000-07-01

    PREVAIL - Projection Reduction Exposure with Variable Axis Immersion Lenses represents the high throughput e-beam projection approach to NGL which IBM is pursuing in cooperation with Nikon Corporation as alliance partner. This paper discusses the challenges and accomplishments of the PREVAIL project. The supreme challenge facing all e-beam lithography approaches has been and still is throughput. Since the throughput of e-beam projection systems is severely limited by the available optical field size, the key to success is the ability to overcome this limitation. The PREVAIL technique overcomes field-limiting off-axis aberrations through the use of variable axis lenses, which electronically shift the optical axis simultaneously with the deflected beam so that the beam effectively remains on axis. The resist images obtained with the Proof-of-Concept (POC) system demonstrate that PREVAIL effectively eliminates off- axis aberrations affecting both resolution and placement accuracy of pixels. As part of the POC system a high emittance gun has been developed to provide uniform illumination of the patterned subfield and to fill the large numerical aperture projection optics designed to significantly reduce beam blur caused by Coulomb interaction.

  1. Lipase biofilm deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronne, Antonio; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Depero, Laura E.; Fanelli, Esther; Federici, Stefania; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2015-05-01

    Lipase is an enzyme that finds application in biodiesel production and for detection of esters and triglycerides in biosensors. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of undamaged biomolecules or polymers, is characterized by the use of a frozen target obtained from a solution/suspension of the guest material (to be deposited) in a volatile matrix (solvent). The presence of the solvent avoids or at least reduces the potential damage of guest molecules by laser radiation but only the guest material reaches the substrate in an essentially solvent-free deposition. MAPLE can be used for enzymes immobilization, essential for industrial application, allowing the development of continuous processes, an easier separation of products, the reuse of the catalyst and, in some cases, enhancing enzyme properties (pH, temperature stability, etc.) and catalytic activity in non-aqueous media. Here we show that MAPLE technique can be used to deposit undamaged lipase and that the complex structure (due to droplets generated during extraction from target) of the deposited material can be controlled by changing the laser beam fluence.

  2. Plasma deposition and surface modification techniques for wear resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1982-01-01

    The ion-assisted or plasma coating technology is discussed as it applies to the deposition of hard, wear resistant refractory compound films. Of the many sputtering and ion plating modes and configurations the reactive magnetron sputtering and the reactive triode ion plating techniques are the preferred ones to deposit wear resistant coatings for tribological applications. Both of these techniques incorporate additional means to enhance the ionization efficiency and chemical reaction to precision tailor desirable tribological characteristics. Interrelationships between film formation, structure, and ribological properties are strictly controlled by the deposition parameters and the substrate condition. The enhanced ionization contributes to the excellent adherence and coherence, reduced internal stresses and improved structural growth to form dense, cohesive, equiaxed grain structure for improved wear resistance and control.

  3. Radiation-free superhydrophilic and antifogging properties of e-beam evaporated TiO2 films on glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlisi, Corrado; Palmisano, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we show the unique wettability properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by e-beam evaporation on glass and treated at 500 °C. The deposited materials exhibited compact non-porous structures and their non-UV activated superwetting behavior was characterized, emphasizing the better performance compared to the bare glass substrate and to a commercial self-cleaning glass (Pilkington Activ™) even in terms of antifogging and optical properties. The results demonstrate how the superhydrophilic character arises from the used deposition technique inducing a large amount of oxygen vacancies further boosted by the annealing treatment, allowing for the fabrication of a pioneering material in the area of multifunctional coatings. The superhydrophilic character was maintained even at an extremely small thickness (20 nm), similarly to the adhesion of the film to the glass substrate, as confirmed by ultrasound stress tests and the cross-cut test performed according to ISO 2409 standard. The photocatalytic activity of the e-beam evaporated film was also assessed by degradation of methanol, 2-propanol and toluene under UV light in a gas phase reactor and the performance was found to be in most cases superior compared to Pilkington Activ™.

  4. Fused Deposition Technique for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Paolo; Alitta, Gianluca; Sala, Giuseppe; Di Landro, Luca

    2017-02-01

    A simple technique for the production of continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic by fused deposition modeling, which involves a common 3D printer with quite limited modifications, is presented. An adequate setting of processing parameters and deposition path allows to obtain components with well-enhanced mechanical characteristics compared to conventional 3D printed items. The most relevant problems related to the simultaneous feeding of fibers and polymer are discussed. The properties of obtained aramid fiber reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) in terms of impregnation quality and of mechanical response are measured.

  5. Metallic nanoparticle deposition techniques for enhanced organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacha, Brian Joseph Gonda

    Energy generation via organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells provide many advantages over alternative processes including flexibility and price. However, more efficient OPVs are required in order to be competitive for applications. One way to enhance efficiency is through manipulation of exciton mechanisms within the OPV, for example by inserting a thin film of bathocuproine (BCP) and gold nanoparticles between the C60/Al and ZnPc/ITO interfaces, respectively. We find that BCP increases efficiencies by 330% due to gains of open circuit voltage (Voc) by 160% and short circuit current (Jsc) by 130%. However, these gains are complicated by the anomalous photovoltaic effect and an internal chemical potential. Exploration in the tuning of metallic nanoparticle deposition on ITO was done through four techniques. Drop casting Ag nanoparticle solution showed arduous control on deposited morphology. Spin-coating deposited very low densities of nanoparticles. Drop casting and spin-coating methods showed arduous control on Ag nanoparticle morphology due to clustering and low deposition density, respectively. Sputtered gold on glass was initially created to aid the adherence of Ag nanoparticles but instead showed a quick way to deposit aggregated gold nanoparticles. Electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) proved a quick method to tune nanoparticle morphology on ITO substrates. Control of deposition parameters affected AuNP size and distribution. AFM images of electrodeposited AuNPs showed sizes ranging from 39 to 58 nm. UV-Vis spectroscopy showed the presence of localized plasmon resonance through absorption peaks ranging from 503 to 614 nm. A linear correlation between electrodeposited AuNP size and peak absorbance was seen with a slope of 3.26 wavelength(nm)/diameter(nm).

  6. Geochemical Exploration Techniques Applicable in the Search for Copper Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, Maurice A.

    1975-01-01

    Geochemical exploration is an important part of copper-resource evaluation. A large number of geochemical exploration techniques, both proved and untried, are available to the geochemist to use in the search for new copper deposits. Analyses of whole-rock samples have been used in both regional and local geochemical exploration surveys in the search for copper. Analyses of mineral separates, such as biotite, magnetite, and sulfides, have also been used. Analyses of soil samples are widely used in geochemical exploration, especially for localized surveys. It is important to distinguish between residual and transported soil types. Orientation studies should always be conducted prior to a geochemical investigation in a given area in order to determine the best soil horizon and the best size of soil material for sampling in that area. Silty frost boils, caliche, and desert varnish are specialized types of soil samples that might be useful sampling media. Soil gas is a new and potentially valuable geochemical sampling medium, especially in exploring for buried mineral deposits in arid regions. Gaseous products in samples of soil may be related to base-metal deposits and include mercury vapor, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon oxysulfide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, the noble gases, the halogens, and many hydrocarbon compounds. Transported materials that have been used in geochemical sampling programs include glacial float boulders, glacial till, esker gravels, stream sediments, stream-sediment concentrates, and lake sediments. Stream-sediment sampling is probably the most widely used and most successful geochemical exploration technique. Hydrogeochemical exploration programs have utilized hot- and cold-spring waters and their precipitates as well as waters from lakes, streams, and wells. Organic gel found in lakes and at stream mouths is an unproved sampling medium. Suspended material and dissolved gases in any type of water may also be useful

  7. Fabrication of nanostructure by physical vapor deposition with glancing angle deposition technique and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horprathum, M.; Eiamchai, P.; Kaewkhao, J.; Chananonnawathorn, C.; Patthanasettakul, V.; Limwichean, S.; Nuntawong, N.; Chindaudom, P.

    2014-09-01

    A nanostructural thin film is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications in sensor, photocatalytic, and solar-cell technologies. In the past two decades, the integration of glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) technique to physical vapor deposition (PVD) process has gained significant attention for well-controlled multidimensional nanomorphologies because of fast, simple, cost-effective, and mass-production capability. The performance and functional properties of the coated thin films generally depend upon their nanostructural compositions, i.e., large aspect ratio, controllable porosity, and shape. Such structural platforms make the fabricated thin films very practical for several realistic applications. We therefore present morphological and nanostructural properties of various deposited materials, which included metals, i.e., silver (Ag), and oxide compounds, i.e., tungsten oxide (WO3), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and indium tin oxide (ITO). Different PVD techniques based on DC magnetron sputtering and electron-beam evaporation, both with the integrated GLAD component, were discussed. We further explore engineered nanostructures which enable controls of optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. These improvements led to several practical applications in surface-enhanced Raman, smart windows, gas sensors, self-cleaning materials and transparent conductive oxides (TCO).

  8. Study of nickel silicide formation by physical vapor deposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancharatnam, Shanti

    Metal silicides are used as contacts to the highly n-doped emitter in photovoltaic devices. Thin films of nickel silicide (NiSi) are of particular interest for Si-based solar cells, as they form at lower temperature and consume less silicon. However, interfacial oxide limits the reduction in sheet resistance. Hence, different diffusion barriers were investigated with regard to optimizing the conductivity and thermal stability. The formation of NiSi, and if it can be doped to have good contact with the n-side of a p-n junction were studied. Reduction of the interfacial oxide by the interfacial Ti layer to allow the formation of NiSi was observed. Silicon was treated in dilute hydrofluoric acid for removing the surface oxide layer. Ni and a Ti diffusion barrier were deposited on Si by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods - electron beam evaporation and sputtering. The annealing temperature and time were varied to observe the stability of the deposited film. The films were then etched to observe the retention of the silicide. Characterization was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS). Sheet resistance was measured using the four-point probe technique. Annealing temperatures from 300°C showed films began to agglomerate indicating some diffusion between Ni and Si in the Ti layer, also supported by the compositional analysis in the Auger spectra. Films obtained by evaporation and sputtering were of high quality in terms of coverage over substrate area and uniformity. Thicknesses of Ni and Ti were optimized to 20 nm and 10 nm respectively. Resistivity was low at these thicknesses, and reduced by about half post annealing at 300°C for 8 hours. Thus a low resistivity contact was obtained at optimized thicknesses of the metal layers. It was also shown that some silicide formation occurs at temperatures starting from 300°C and can thus be used to make good silicide contacts.

  9. Effects of polymer surface energy on morphology and properties of silver nanowire fabricated via nanoimprint and E-beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Hwang, Soon Hyoung; Jeon, Sohee; Jung, Joo-Yun; Lee, Jihye; Choi, Dae-Geun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Park, Sang-Hu; Jeong, Jun-Ho

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that use of different nanoimprint resins as a polymer pattern has a significant effect on the morphology of silver (Ag) nanowires deposited via an E-beam evaporator. RM-311 and Ormo-stamp resins are chosen as a polymer pattern to form a line with dimensions of width (100 nm) × space (100 nm) × height (120 nm) by using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Their contact angles are then measured to evaluate their surface energies. In order to compare the properties of the Ag nanowires deposited on the various polymer patterns with different surface energies, hydrophobic surface treatment of the polymer pattern surface is implemented using self-assembled monolayers. In addition, gold and aluminum nanowires are fabricated for comparison with the Ag nanowires, with the differences in the nanowire morphologies being determined by the different atomic properties. The monocrystalline and polycrystalline structures of the various Ag nanowire formations are observed using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the melting temperatures and optical properties of four kinds of Ag nanowire morphologies deposited on various polymer patterns are evaluated using a hot plate and an ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometer, respectively. The results indicate that the morphology of the Ag nanowire determines the melting temperature and the transmission. We believe that these findings will greatly aid the development of NIL, along with physical evaporation and chemical deposition techniques, and will be widely employed in optics, biology, and surface wettability applications.

  10. Geometrical E-beam proximity correction for raster scan systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belic, Nikola; Eisenmann, Hans; Hartmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas

    1999-04-01

    High pattern fidelity is a basic requirement for the generation of masks containing sub micro structures and for direct writing. Increasing needs mainly emerging from OPC at mask level and x-ray lithography require a correction of the e-beam proximity effect. The most part of e-beam writers are raster scan system. This paper describes a new method for geometrical pattern correction in order to provide a correction solution for e-beam system that are not able to apply variable doses.

  11. Microwave accelerator E-beam pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Stein, William E.; Rockwood, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    A device and method for pumping gaseous lasers by means of a microwave accelerator. The microwave accelerator produces a relativistic electron beam which is applied along the longitudinal axis of the laser through an electron beam window. The incident points of the electron beam on the electron beam window are varied by deflection coils to enhance the cooling characteristics of the foil. A thyratron is used to reliably modulate the microwave accelerator to produce electron beam pulses which excite the laser medium to produce laser pulse repetition frequencies not previously obtainable. An aerodynamic window is also disclosed which eliminates foil heating problems, as well as a magnetic bottle for reducing laser cavity length and pressures while maintaining efficient energy deposition.

  12. Alternate deposition and hydrogen doping technique for ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myong, Seung Yeop; Lim, Koeng Su

    2006-08-01

    We propose an alternate deposition and hydrogen doping (ADHD) technique for polycrystalline hydrogen-doped ZnO thin films, which is a sublayer-by-sublayer deposition based on metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and mercury-sensitized photodecomposition of hydrogen doping gas. Compared to conventional post-deposition hydrogen doping, the ADHD process provides superior electrical conductivity, stability, and surface roughness. Photoluminescence spectra measured at 10 K reveal that the ADHD technique improves ultraviolet and violet emissions by suppressing the green and yellow emissions. Therefore, the ADHD technique is shown to be very promising aid to the manufacture of improved transparent conducting electrodes and light emitting materials.

  13. Comparison of the properties of Pb thin films deposited on Nb substrate using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, A.; Gontad, F.; Lorusso, A.; Di Giulio, M.; Broitman, E.; Ferrario, M.

    2013-11-01

    Pb thin films were prepared at room temperature and in high vacuum by thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques. Films deposited by both the techniques were investigated by scanning electron microscopy to determine their surface topology. The structure of the films was studied by X-ray diffraction in θ-2θ geometry. The photoelectron performances in terms of quantum efficiency were deduced by a high vacuum photodiode cell before and after laser cleaning procedures. Relatively high quantum efficiency (>10-5) was obtained for all the deposited films, comparable to that of corresponding bulk. Finally, film to substrate adhesion was also evaluated using the Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test method. Weak and strong points of these two competitive techniques are illustrated and discussed.

  14. Synthesis of hard magnetic Mn3Ga micro-islands by e-beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdogan, O.

    2018-05-01

    The permanent magnet industry heavily depends on Nd-Fe-B and Sm-Co alloys because of their high-energy product and high room temperature coercivity. Main ingredient for having such superior magnetic properties compared to other known ferromagnetic materials is rare earth elements (Nd, Sm, Dy…). However recent worldwide reserve and export limitation problem of rare earths, shifted researchers' focus to rare earth free permanent magnets. Among many alternatives (FePt, Zr2Co11, FeNi …), Mn-based alloys are the most suitable due to abundance of the forming elements and trivial formation of the necessary hard phases. In this study, Mn3Ga micro islands have been prepared. Mn3Ga owes its hard magnetic properties to tetragonal D022 phase with magnetic anisotropy energy of 2 MJ/m3. Thin films and islands of Cr/MnGa/Cr layers have been deposited on Si/SiO2 wafers using combination of e-beam and thermal evaporation techniques. Cr has been used as buffer and cover layer to protect the sample from the substrate and prevent oxidation during annealing. Annealing under Ar/H2 forming gas has been performed at 350oC for 10 min. Nano thick islands of 25, 50 and 100 μm lateral size have been produced by photolithography technique. Room temperature coercivity of 7.5 kOe has been achieved on 100 μm micro islands of Mn3Ga. Produced micro islands could be a rare earth free alternative for magnetic memory and MEMS applications.

  15. Seasonal atmospheric deposition variations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and comparison of some deposition sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Birgül, Askın; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2011-03-01

    Ambient air and bulk deposition samples were collected between June 2008 and June 2009. Eighty-three polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were targeted in the samples. The average gas and particle PCB concentrations were found as 393 ± 278 and 70 ± 102 pg/m(3), respectively, and 85% of the atmospheric PCBs were in the gas phase. Bulk deposition samples were collected by using a sampler made of stainless steel. The average PCB bulk deposition flux value was determined as 6,020 ± 4,350 pg/m(2) day. The seasonal bulk deposition fluxes were not statistically different from each other, but the summer flux had higher values. Flux values differed depending on the precipitation levels. The average flux value in the rainy periods was 7,480 ± 4,080 pg/m(2) day while the average flux value in dry periods was 5,550 ± 4,420 pg/m(2) day. The obtained deposition values were lower than the reported values given for the urban and industrialized areas, yet close to the ones for the rural sites. The reported deposition values were also influenced by the type of the instruments used. The average dry deposition and total deposition velocity values calculated based on deposition and concentration values were found as 0.23 ± 0.21 and 0.13 ± 0.13 cm/s, respectively.

  16. Differential Deposition Technique for Figure Corrections in Grazing Incidence X-ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Ramsey, Brian D.; Gubarev, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    A differential deposition technique is being developed to correct the low- and mid-spatial-frequency deviations in the axial figure profile of Wolter type grazing incidence X-ray optics. These deviations arise due to various factors in the fabrication process and they degrade the performance of the optics by limiting the achievable angular resolution. In the differential deposition technique, material of varying thickness is selectively deposited along the length of the optic to minimize these deviations, thereby improving the overall figure. High resolution focusing optics being developed at MSFC for small animal radionuclide imaging are being coated to test the differential deposition technique. The required spatial resolution for these optics is 100 m. This base resolution is achievable with the regular electroform-nickel-replication fabrication technique used at MSFC. However, by improving the figure quality of the optics through differential deposition, we aim at significantly improving the resolution beyond this value.

  17. Influence of substrate metal alloy type on the properties of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited using a novel ambient temperature deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Barry, J N; Cowley, A; McNally, P J; Dowling, D P

    2014-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are applied widely to enhance the level of osteointegration onto orthopedic implants. Atmospheric plasma spray (APS) is typically used for the deposition of these coatings; however, HA crystalline changes regularly occur during this high-thermal process. This article reports on the evaluation of a novel low-temperature (<47°C) HA deposition technique, called CoBlast, for the application of crystalline HA coatings. To-date, reports on the CoBlast technique have been limited to titanium alloy substrates. This study addresses the suitability of the CoBlast technique for the deposition of HA coatings on a number of alternative metal alloys utilized in the fabrication of orthopedic devices. In addition to titanium grade 5, both cobalt chromium and stainless steel 316 were investigated. In this study, HA coatings were deposited using both the CoBlast and the plasma sprayed techniques, and the resultant HA coating and substrate properties were evaluated and compared. The CoBlast-deposited HA coatings were found to present similar surface morphologies, interfacial properties, and composition irrespective of the substrate alloy type. Coating thickness however displayed some variation with the substrate alloy, ranging from 2.0 to 3.0 μm. This perhaps is associated with the electronegativity of the metal alloys. The APS-treated samples exhibited evidence of both coating, and significantly, substrate phase alterations for two metal alloys; titanium grade 5 and cobalt chrome. Conversely, the CoBlast-processed samples exhibited no phase changes in the substrates after depositions. The APS alterations were attributed to the brief, but high-intensity temperatures experienced during processing. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A new pulsed laser deposition technique: scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition method.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; de la Fuente, G F; Jansen, M

    2012-04-01

    The scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method realizes uniform depositions of desired coatings by a modified pulsed laser deposition process, preferably with a femto-second laser-system. Multi-component coatings (single or multilayered) are thus deposited onto substrates via laser induced ablation of segmented targets. This is achieved via horizontal line-scanning of a focused laser beam over a uniformly moving target's surface. This process allows to deposit the desired composition of the coating simultaneously, starting from the different segments of the target and adjusting the scan line as a function of target geometry. The sequence and thickness of multilayers can easily be adjusted by target architecture and motion, enabling inter/intra layer concentration gradients and thus functional gradient coatings. This new, simple PLD method enables the achievement of uniform, large-area coatings. Case studies were performed with segmented targets containing aluminum, titanium, and niobium. Under the laser irradiation conditions applied, all three metals were uniformly ablated. The elemental composition within the rough coatings obtained was fixed by the scanned area to Ti-Al-Nb = 1:1:1. Crystalline aluminum, titanium, and niobium were found to coexist side by side at room temperature within the substrate, without alloy formation up to 600 °C. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  19. ZrN coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Purandare, Yashodhan, E-mail: Y.Purandare@shu.ac.uk; Ehiasarian, Arutiun; Hovsepian, Papken

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on 1 μm finish high speed steel and 316L stainless steel test coupons. Cathodic Arc (CA) and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) + Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (UBM) techniques were utilized to deposit coatings. CA plasmas are known to be rich in metal and gas ions of the depositing species as well as macroparticles (droplets) emitted from the arc sports. Combining HIPIMS technique with UBM in the same deposition process facilitated increased ion bombardment on the depositing species during coating growth maintaining high deposition rate. Prior to coating deposition, substrates were pretreated with Zr{sup +}more » rich plasma, for both arc deposited and HIPIMS deposited coatings, which led to a very high scratch adhesion value (L{sub C2}) of 100 N. Characterization results revealed the overall thickness of the coatings in the range of 2.5 μm with hardness in the range of 30–40 GPa depending on the deposition technique. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and tribological experiments such as dry sliding wear tests and corrosion studies have been utilized to study the effects of ion bombardment on the structure and properties of these coatings. In all the cases, HIPIMS assisted UBM deposited coating fared equal or better than the arc deposited coatings, the reasons being discussed in this paper. Thus H+U coatings provide a good alternative to arc deposited where smooth, dense coatings are required and macrodroplets cannot be tolerated.« less

  20. Single Layer Surface-Grafted PMMA as a Negative-Tone e-Beam Resist.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hirotaka; Aydinoglu, Ferhat; Liu, Yaoze; Dey, Ripon K; Cui, Bo

    2017-12-05

    One of the important challenges in electron beam lithography is nanofabrication on nonflat or irregular surfaces. Although spin coating is the most popular technique for resist coating, it is not suitable for nonflat, irregular substrates because a uniform film cannot be achieved on those surfaces. Here, it is demonstrated that single layer surface-grafted PMMA can be used as a negative-tone e-beam resist, and it can be applied to nonflat, irregular surfaces as well as flat, conventional surfaces. Although it is well known that heavily exposed PMMA undergoes cross-linking and works as a negative-tone e-beam resist when developed by solvent, solvent does not work as a developer for negative-tone single-layer surface-grafted PMMA. Instead, thermal treatment at 360 °C for 1 min is used to develop PMMA.

  1. A fluorescent imaging technique for quantifying spray deposits on plant leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because of the unique characteristics of electrostatically-charged sprays, use of traditional methods to quantify deposition from these sprays has been challenging. A new fluorescent imaging technique was developed to quantify spray deposits from electrostatically-charged sprays on natural plant lea...

  2. The e-beam sustained CO2 laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, M. J.; Shaw, S. R.; Evans, M. H.; Smith, I. M.; Holman, W.

    1990-01-01

    The design features of an e-beam sustained CO2 amplifier are described. The amplifier is designed specifically as a catalyst test-bed to study the performance of room temperature precious metal CO-oxidation catalysts under e-beam sustained operation. The amplifier has been designed to provide pulse durations of 30 microseconds in a discharge volume of 2 litres. With a gas flow velocity of 2 metres per second, operation at repetition rates of 10 Hz is accommodated. The system is designed for sealed-off operation and a catalyst bed is housed in the gas circulation system downstream from the discharge region. CO and oxygen monitors are used for diagnosis of gas composition in the amplifier so that catalyst performance can be monitored in situ during sealed lifetests.

  3. Potential of e-beam writing for diffractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Wyrowski, Frank

    1997-05-01

    E-beam lithography (EBL) is a powerful tool in optics. Optician can use the progress in EBL to fabricate optical components and systems with novel functions. However, EBL is dominated by microelectronics. Therefore the demands of optics are not always met by the exiting EBL technology. Some possibilities as well as limits of EBL in optics are discussed at the example of diffractive optics.

  4. Hybrid nanocomposite coatings from metal (Mg alloy)-drug deposited onto medical implant by laser adaptive ablation deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbezov, Valery; Sotirov, Sotir; Serbezov, Svetlin

    2013-03-01

    Drug-eluting medical implants are active implants whose function is to create healing effects. The current requirements for active medical coatings for Drug-eluting medical implants are to be biocompatible, biodegradable, polymer free, mechanically stable and enable a controlled release of one or more drugs and defined degradation. This brings hybrid nanocomposite coatings into focus especially in the field of cardiovascular implants. We studied the properties of Metal (Mg alloy)-Paclitaxel coatings obtained by novel Laser Adaptive Ablation Deposition Technique (LAAD) onto cardiovascular stents from 316 LVM stainless steel material. The morphology and topology of coatings were studied by Bright field / Fluorescence optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Comparative measurements were made of the morphology and topology of hybrid, polymer free nanocomposite coatings deposited by LAAD and polymerdrug coatings deposited by classical spray technique. The coatings obtained by LAAD are homogeneous without damages and cracks. Metal nanoparticles with sizes from 40 nm to 230 nm were obtained in drug matrixes. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) was used for identification of metal nanoparticles presence in hybrid nanocomposites coatings. The new technology opens up possibilities to obtain new hybrid nanocomposite coatings with applications in medicine, pharmacy and biochemistry.

  5. Feasibility study for wax deposition imaging in oil pipelines by PGNAA technique.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Can; Jia, Wenbao; Hei, Daqian; Wei, Zhiyong; Wang, Hongtao

    2017-10-01

    Wax deposition in pipelines is a crucial problem in the oil industry. A method based on the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis technique was applied to reconstruct the image of wax deposition in oil pipelines. The 2.223MeV hydrogen capture gamma rays were used to reconstruct the wax deposition image. To validate the method, both MCNP simulation and experiments were performed for wax deposited with a maximum thickness of 20cm. The performance of the method was simulated using the MCNP code. The experiment was conducted with a 252 Cf neutron source and a LaBr 3 : Ce detector. A good correspondence between the simulations and the experiments was observed. The results obtained indicate that the present approach is efficient for wax deposition imaging in oil pipelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of annealing on physical properties of e-beam evaporated polycrystalline CdO thin films for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Anuradha; Chander, S.; Dhaka, M. S.

    2017-04-01

    An impact of annealing on the physical properties of polycrystalline CdO thin films is carried out in this study. CdO thin films of thickness 650 nm were fabricated on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates employing e-beam evaporation technique. The pristine thin films were annealed in air atmosphere at 250 °C, 400 °C and 550 °C for one hour followed by investigation of structural, optical, electrical and morphological properties along with elemental composition using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, source meter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. XRD patterns confirmed the polycrystalline nature and cubic structure (with space group Fm 3 bar m) of the films. The crystallographic parameters are calculated and found to be influenced by the post-air annealing treatment. The optical study shows that direct band gap is ranging from 1.98 eV to 2.18 eV and found to be decreased with post-annealing. The refractive index and optical conductivity are also increased with annealing temperature. The current-voltage characteristics show ohmic behaviour of the annealed films. The surface morphology is observed to be improved with annealing and grain-size is increased as well as EDS spectrum confirmed the presence of cadmium (Cd) and oxygen (O) in the deposited films.

  7. A technique for estimating dry deposition velocities based on similarity with latent heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleim, Jonathan E.; Finkelstein, Peter L.; Clarke, John F.; Ellestad, Thomas G.

    Field measurements of chemical dry deposition are needed to assess impacts and trends of airborne contaminants on the exposure of crops and unmanaged ecosystems as well as for the development and evaluation of air quality models. However, accurate measurements of dry deposition velocities require expensive eddy correlation measurements and can only be practically made for a few chemical species such as O 3 and CO 2. On the other hand, operational dry deposition measurements such as those used in large area networks involve relatively inexpensive standard meteorological and chemical measurements but rely on less accurate deposition velocity models. This paper describes an intermediate technique which can give accurate estimates of dry deposition velocity for chemical species which are dominated by stomatal uptake such as O 3 and SO 2. This method can give results that are nearly the quality of eddy correlation measurements of trace gas fluxes at much lower cost. The concept is that bulk stomatal conductance can be accurately estimated from measurements of latent heat flux combined with standard meteorological measurements of humidity, temperature, and wind speed. The technique is tested using data from a field experiment where high quality eddy correlation measurements were made over soybeans. Over a four month period, which covered the entire growth cycle, this technique showed very good agreement with eddy correlation measurements for O 3 deposition velocity.

  8. In-situ vacuum deposition technique of lithium on neutron production target for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Imahori, Y.

    2012-10-01

    For the purpose of avoiding the radiation blistering of the lithium target for neutron production in BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) device, trilaminar Li target, of which palladium thin layer was inserted between cupper substrate and Li layer, was newly designed. In-situ vacuum deposition and electrolytic coating techniques were applied to validate the method of fabrication of the Li/Pd/Cu target, and the layered structures of the synthesized target were characterized. In-situ vacuum re-deposition technique was also established for repairing and maintenance for lithium target damaged. Following conclusions were derived; (1) Uniform lithium layers with the thickness from 1.6 nm to a few hundreds nanometer were formed on Pd/Cu multilayer surface by in situ vacuum deposition technique using metallic lithium as a source material. (2) Re-deposition of lithium layer on Li surface can be achieved by in situ vacuum deposition technique. (3) Small amount of water and carbonate was observed on the top surface of Li. But the thickness of the adsorbed layer was less than monolayer, which will not affect the quality of the Li target. (4) The formation of Pd-Li alloy layer was observed at the Pd and Li interface. The alloy layer would contribute to the stability of the Li layer.

  9. Influence of solution deposition rate on properties of V2O5 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Alghafour, N. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hassan, Zai; Mohammad, Sabah M.

    2016-07-01

    Vanadium oxide (V2O5) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using a cost-efficient spray pyrolysis technique. The films were grown at 350° through thermal decomposition of VCl3 in deionized water with different solution spray rates. The high resolution X-ray diffraction results revealed the formation of nanocrystalline films having orthorhombic structures with preferential orientation along (101) direction. The spray rate influenced the surface morphology and crystallite size of the films. The crystallite size was found to increase whereas the micro-strain was decreased by increasing the spray deposition rates. The increase in crystallite size and decrease in the macrostrain resulted in an improvement in the films' crystallinity. The UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis indicated that the average transmittance of all films lies in the range 75-80 %. The band gap of V2O5 film was decreased from 2.65 to 2.46 eV with increase of the spray deposition rate from 5 ml/min to 10 ml/min. first, second, and third level headings (first level heading).

  10. Measurement Techniques for Respiratory Tract Deposition of Airborne Nanoparticles: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Winfried; Pagels, Joakim H.; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Swietlicki, Erik; Schmid, Otmar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Determination of the respiratory tract deposition of airborne particles is critical for risk assessment of air pollution, inhaled drug delivery, and understanding of respiratory disease. With the advent of nanotechnology, there has been an increasing interest in the measurement of pulmonary deposition of nanoparticles because of their unique properties in inhalation toxicology and medicine. Over the last century, around 50 studies have presented experimental data on lung deposition of nanoparticles (typical diameter≤100 nm, but here≤300 nm). These data show a considerable variability, partly due to differences in the applied methodologies. In this study, we review the experimental techniques for measuring respiratory tract deposition of nano-sized particles, analyze critical experimental design aspects causing measurement uncertainties, and suggest methodologies for future studies. It is shown that, although particle detection techniques have developed with time, the overall methodology in respiratory tract deposition experiments has not seen similar progress. Available experience from previous research has often not been incorporated, and some methodological design aspects that were overlooked in 30–70% of all studies may have biased the experimental data. This has contributed to a significant uncertainty on the absolute value of the lung deposition fraction of nanoparticles. We estimate the impact of the design aspects on obtained data, discuss solutions to minimize errors, and highlight gaps in the available experimental set of data. PMID:24151837

  11. Machine-learning techniques for geochemical discrimination of 2011 Tohoku tsunami deposits

    PubMed Central

    Kuwatani, Tatsu; Nagata, Kenji; Okada, Masato; Watanabe, Takahiro; Ogawa, Yasumasa; Komai, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical discrimination has recently been recognised as a potentially useful proxy for identifying tsunami deposits in addition to classical proxies such as sedimentological and micropalaeontological evidence. However, difficulties remain because it is unclear which elements best discriminate between tsunami and non-tsunami deposits. Herein, we propose a mathematical methodology for the geochemical discrimination of tsunami deposits using machine-learning techniques. The proposed method can determine the appropriate combinations of elements and the precise discrimination plane that best discerns tsunami deposits from non-tsunami deposits in high-dimensional compositional space through the use of data sets of bulk composition that have been categorised as tsunami or non-tsunami sediments. We applied this method to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and to background marine sedimentary rocks. After an exhaustive search of all 262,144 (= 218) combinations of the 18 analysed elements, we observed several tens of combinations with discrimination rates higher than 99.0%. The analytical results show that elements such as Ca and several heavy-metal elements are important for discriminating tsunami deposits from marine sedimentary rocks. These elements are considered to reflect the formation mechanism and origin of the tsunami deposits. The proposed methodology has the potential to aid in the identification of past tsunamis by using other tsunami proxies. PMID:25399750

  12. Growth Assisted by Glancing Angle Deposition: A New Technique to Fabricate Highly Porous Anisotropic Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Valencia, Juan Ramon; Longtin, Remi; Rossell, Marta D; Gröning, Pierangelo

    2016-04-06

    We report a new methodology based on glancing angle deposition (GLAD) of an organic molecule in combination with perpendicular growth of a second inorganic material. The resulting thin films retain a very well-defined tilted columnar microstructure characteristic of GLAD with the inorganic material embedded inside the columns. We refer to this new methodology as growth assisted by glancing angle deposition or GAGLAD, since the material of interest (here, the inorganic) grows in the form of tilted columns, though it is deposited under a nonglancing configuration. As a "proof of concept", we have used silver and zinc oxide as the perpendicularly deposited material since they usually form ill-defined columnar microstructures at room temperature by GLAD. By means of our GAGLAD methodology, the typical tilted columnar microstructure can be developed for materials that otherwise do not form ordered structures under conventional GLAD. This simple methodology broadens significantly the range of materials where control of the microstructure can be achieved by tuning the geometrical deposition parameters. The two examples presented here, Ag/Alq3 and ZnO/Alq3, have been deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), respectively: two different vacuum techniques that illustrate the generality of the proposed technique. The two type of hybrid samples present very interesting properties that demonstrate the potentiality of GAGLAD. On one hand, the Ag/Alq3 samples present highly optical anisotropic properties when they are analyzed with linearly polarized light. To our knowledge, these Ag/Alq3 samples present the highest angular selectivity reported in the visible range. On the other hand, ZnO/Alq3 samples are used to develop highly porous ZnO thin films by using Alq3 as sacrificial material. In this way, antireflective ZnO samples with very low refractive index and extinction coefficient have been obtained.

  13. Atomic layer deposition (ALD): A versatile technique for plasmonics and nanobiotechnology.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyungsoon; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Lindquist, Nathan C; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2012-02-28

    While atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been used for many years as an industrial manufacturing method for microprocessors and displays, this versatile technique is finding increased use in the emerging fields of plasmonics and nanobiotechnology. In particular, ALD coatings can modify metallic surfaces to tune their optical and plasmonic properties, to protect them against unwanted oxidation and contamination, or to create biocompatible surfaces. Furthermore, ALD is unique among thin-film deposition techniques in its ability to meet the processing demands for engineering nanoplasmonic devices, offering conformal deposition of dense and ultra-thin films on high-aspect-ratio nanostructures at temperatures below 100 °C. In this review, we present key features of ALD and describe how it could benefit future applications in plasmonics, nanosciences, and biotechnology.

  14. The study of metal sulphide nanomaterials obtained by chemical bath deposition and hot-injection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraeva, E. V.; Alexandrova, O. A.; Forostyanaya, N. A.; Levitskiy, V. S.; Mazing, D. S.; Maskaeva, L. N.; Markov, V. Ph; Moshnikov, V. A.; Shupta, A. A.; Spivak, Yu M.; Tulenin, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this study lead sulphide - cadmium sulphide based layers were obtained through chemical deposition of water solutions and cadmium sulphide quantum dots were formed through hot-injection technique. The article discusses the results of surface investigations with the use of atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements.

  15. Silicon patterning using ion blistering and e-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giguere, A.; Terreault, B.; Beerens, J.; Aimez, V.; Beauvais, J.

    2004-03-01

    We explore the limits of silicon patterning using ion blistering in conjunction with e-beam lithography. In a first approach, we implanted 3.5E16 H/cm**2 at 5 keV through variable width (0.1-10 micron) e-beam written PMMA masks. The resist was then removed and the samples were rapid-thermal-annealed (RTA) up to 650 °C. In the wider trenches, round blisters with 800-900 nm diameter and 15 nm height and a few exfoliations are observed, which are similar to those observed on an unmasked surface. In submicron trenches (500-1000 nm), there is a transition in morphology created by the proximity to the border; the blisters are smaller and they are densely aligned along the trench direction ("pearl-string" pattern). No effect is observed in the lowest dimension trenches. The results are discussed in terms of stress/strain fields, defect configuration, and mask shadowing and charging effects. Ultimate pattern resolution will be limited by lateral straggling of the ions in and by the mechanics of lateral crack propagation.

  16. Comparison of the columnar-thin-film and vacuum-metal-deposition techniques to develop sebaceous fingermarks on nonporous substrates.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephanie F; Pulsifer, Drew P; Shaler, Robert C; Ramotowski, Robert S; Brazelle, Shelly; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    Both the columnar-thin-film (CTF) and the vacuum-metal-deposition (VMD) techniques for visualizing sebaceous fingermarks require the deposition of a material thereon in a vacuum chamber. Despite that similarity, there are many differences between the two techniques. The film deposited with the CTF technique has a columnar morphology, but the film deposited with the VMD technique comprises discrete islands. A split-print methodology on a variety of fingermarked substrates was used to determine that the CTF technique is superior for developing fingermarks on clear sandwich bags and partial bloody fingermarks on stainless steel. Both techniques are similar in their ability to develop fingermarks on glass but the CTF technique yields higher contrast. The VMD technique is superior for developing fingermarks on white grocery bags and the smooth side of Gloss Finish Scotch Multitask(™) tape. Neither technique worked well for fingermarks on black garbage bags. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Development of plasma assisted thermal vapor deposition technique for high-quality thin film.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Il; Choi, Yong Sup; Park, Hyun Jae

    2016-12-01

    The novel technique of Plasma-Assisted Vapor Deposition (PAVD) is developed as a new deposition method for thin metal films. The PAVD technique yields a high-quality thin film without any heating of the substrate because evaporated particles acquire energy from plasma that is confined to the inside of the evaporation source. Experiments of silver thin film deposition have been carried out in conditions of pressure lower than 10 -3 Pa. Pure silver plasma generation is verified by the measurement of the Ag-I peak using optical emission spectroscopy. A four point probe and a UV-VIS spectrophotometer are used to measure the electrical and optical properties of the silver film that is deposited by PAVD. For an ultra-thin silver film with a thickness of 6.5 nm, we obtain the result of high-performance silver film properties, including a sheet resistance <20 Ω sq -1 and a visible-range transmittance >75%. The PAVD-film properties show a low sheet resistance of 30% and the same transmittance with conventional thermal evaporation film. In the PAVD source, highly energetic particles and UV from plasma do not reach the substrate because the plasma is completely shielded by the optimized nozzle of the crucible. This new PAVD technique could be a realistic solution to improve the qualities of transparent electrodes for organic light emission device fabrication without causing damage to the organic layers.

  18. Development of plasma assisted thermal vapor deposition technique for high-quality thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang-Il; Choi, Yong Sup; Park, Hyun Jae

    2016-12-01

    The novel technique of Plasma-Assisted Vapor Deposition (PAVD) is developed as a new deposition method for thin metal films. The PAVD technique yields a high-quality thin film without any heating of the substrate because evaporated particles acquire energy from plasma that is confined to the inside of the evaporation source. Experiments of silver thin film deposition have been carried out in conditions of pressure lower than 10-3 Pa. Pure silver plasma generation is verified by the measurement of the Ag-I peak using optical emission spectroscopy. A four point probe and a UV-VIS spectrophotometer are used to measure the electrical and optical properties of the silver film that is deposited by PAVD. For an ultra-thin silver film with a thickness of 6.5 nm, we obtain the result of high-performance silver film properties, including a sheet resistance <20 Ω sq-1 and a visible-range transmittance >75%. The PAVD-film properties show a low sheet resistance of 30% and the same transmittance with conventional thermal evaporation film. In the PAVD source, highly energetic particles and UV from plasma do not reach the substrate because the plasma is completely shielded by the optimized nozzle of the crucible. This new PAVD technique could be a realistic solution to improve the qualities of transparent electrodes for organic light emission device fabrication without causing damage to the organic layers.

  19. A Novel Catalyst Deposition Technique for the Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Cassell, A.; Stevens, R.; Nguyen, C.; Meyyappan, M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the development of a technique at NASA's Ames Research Center by which carbon nanotubes (NT) can be grown. The project had several goals which included: 1) scaleability, 2) ability to control single wall nanotube (SWNT) and multiwall nanotube (MWNT) formation, 3) ability to control the density of nanotubes as they grow, 4) ability to apply standard masking techniques for NT patterning. Information regarding the growth technique includes its use of a catalyst deposition process. SWNTs of varying thicknesses can be grown by changing the catalyst composition. Demonstrations are given of various methods of masking including the use of transmission electron microscopic (TEM) grids.

  20. Luminescence properties of pure and doped CaSO4 nanorods irradiated by 15 MeV e-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Numan; Alharbi, Najlaa D.; Enani, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium sulfate (CaSO4) doped with proper activators is a highly sensitive phosphor used in different fields mainly for radiation dosimetry, lighting and display applications. In this work pure and doped nanorods of CaSO4 were produced by the co-precipitation technique. Samples from this material doped with Ag, Cu, Dy, Eu and Tb were exposed to different doses of 15 MeV e-beam and studied for their thermoluminesence (TL) and photoluminescence (PL) properties. Color center formation leading to PL emissions were investigated before and after e-beam irradiation. The samples doped with rare earths elements (i.e. Dy, Eu and Tb) were observed to have thinner nanorods than the other samples and have higher absorption in the UV region. The Ag and Tb doped samples have poor TL response to e-beam, while those activated by Cu, Dy and Eu have strong glow peaks at around 123 °C. Quite linear response curves in the whole studied exposures i.e. 0.1-100 Gy were also observed in Cu and Dy doped samples. The PL results show that pure CaSO4 nanorods have active color centers without irradiation, which could be enriched/modified by these impurities mainly rare earths and further enhanced by e-beam irradiation. Eu3+ → Eu2+ conversion is clearly observed in Eu doped sample after e-beam irradiation. These results show that these nanorods might be useful in lighting and display devices development.

  1. A new e-beam application in the pharmaceutical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat, Theo; Malcolm, Fiona

    2005-10-01

    The paper presents a new electron beam application in the pharmaceutical industry: an in-line self-shielded atropic transfer system using electron beam for surface decontamination of products entering a pharmaceutical filling line. The unit was developed by Linac Technologies in response to the specifications of a multi-national pharmaceutical company, to solve the risk of microbial contamination entering a filling line housed inside an isolator. In order to fit the sterilization unit inside the pharmaceutical plant, a "miniature" low-energy (200 keV) electron beam accelerator and e-beam tunnel were designed, all conforming to the pharmaceutical good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations. Process validation using biological indicators is described, with reference to the regulations governing the pharmaceutical industry. Other industrial applications of a small-sized self-shielded electron beam sterilization unit are mentioned.

  2. Surface and biological evaluation of hydroxyapatite-based coatings on titanium deposited by different techniques.

    PubMed

    Massaro, C; Baker, M A; Cosentino, F; Ramires, P A; Klose, S; Milella, E

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings have been deposited on titanium cp by plasma spray, sol-gel, and sputtering techniques for dental implant applications. The latter two techniques are of current interest, as they allow coatings of micrometer dimensions to be deposited. Coating morphology, composition, and structure have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). All coatings were homogeneous and exhibited a rough morphology suitable for implant applications. The sputtered (after annealing), plasma spray, and sol-gel coatings all showed diffraction peaks corresponding to hydroxyapatite. The surface contaminants were observed to be different for the different coating types. The sputtered coatings were found to have a composition most similar to hydroxyapatite; the sol-gel deposits also showed a high concentration of hydroxyl ions. A discrepancy in the Ca/P ratio was observed for the plasma spray coatings, and a small concentration of carbonate ions was found in the sputter-deposited coatings. The in vitro cell-culture studies using MG63 osteoblast-like cells demonstrated the ability of cells to proliferate on the materials tested. The sol-gel coating promotes higher cell growth, greater alkaline phosphatase activity, and greater osteocalcin production compared to the sputtered and plasma-sprayed coatings. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Tailoring properties of lossy-mode resonance optical fiber sensors with atomic layer deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosiel, Kamil; Koba, Marcin; Masiewicz, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz

    2018-06-01

    The paper shows application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique as a tool for tailoring sensorial properties of lossy-mode-resonance (LMR)-based optical fiber sensors. Hafnium dioxide (HfO2), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), and tantalum oxide (TaxOy), as high-refractive-index dielectrics that are particularly convenient for LMR-sensor fabrication, were deposited by low-temperature (100 °C) ALD ensuring safe conditions for thermally vulnerable fibers. Applicability of HfO2 and ZrO2 overlays, deposited with ALD-related atomic level thickness accuracy for fabrication of LMR-sensors with controlled sensorial properties was presented. Additionally, for the first time according to our best knowledge, the double-layer overlay composed of two different materials - silicon nitride (SixNy) and TaxOy - is presented for the LMR fiber sensors. The thin films of such overlay were deposited by two different techniques - PECVD (the SixNy) and ALD (the TaxOy). Such approach ensures fast overlay fabrication and at the same time facility for resonant wavelength tuning, yielding devices with satisfactory sensorial properties.

  4. Lipase immobilization for catalytic applications obtained using fumed silica deposited with MAPLE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloisi, Francesco; Califano, Valeria; Perretta, Giuseppe; Nasti, Libera; Aronne, Antonio; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Auriemma, Finizia; De Rosa, Claudio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2016-06-01

    Lipases are enzymes used for catalyzing reactions of acylglycerides in biodiesel production from lipids, where enzyme immobilization on a substrate is required. Silica nanoparticles in different morphologies and configurations are currently used in conjunction with biological molecules for drug delivery and catalysis applications, but up to date their use for triglycerides has been limited by the large size of long-chain lipid molecules. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), a laser deposition technique using a frozen solution/suspension as a target, is widely used for deposition of biomaterials and other delicate molecules. We have carried out a MAPLE deposition starting from a frozen mixture containing fumed silica and lipase in water. Deposition parameters were chosen in order to increase surface roughness and to promote the formation of complex structures. Both the target (a frozen thickened mixture of nanoparticles/catalyst in water) and the deposition configuration (a small target to substrate distance) are unusual and have been adopted in order to increase surface contact of catalyst and to facilitate access to long-chain molecules. The resulting innovative film morphology (fumed silica/lipase cluster level aggregation) and the lipase functionality (for catalytic biodiesel production) have been studied by FESEM, FTIR and transesterification tests.

  5. Solar Ion Sputter Deposition in the Lunar Regolith: Experimental Simulation Using Focused-Ion Beam Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.; Keller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    As regions of the lunar regolith undergo space weathering, their component grains develop compositionally and microstructurally complex outer coatings or "rims" ranging in thickness from a few 10 s to a few 100's of nm. Rims on grains in the finest size fractions (e.g., <20 m) of mature lunar regoliths contain optically-active concentrations of nm size metallic Fe spherules, or "nanophase Fe(sup o)" that redden and attenuate optical reflectance spectral features important in lunar remote sensing. Understanding the mechanisms for rim formation is therefore a key part of connecting the drivers of mineralogical and chemical changes in the lunar regolith with how lunar terrains are observed to become space weathered from a remotely-sensed point of view. As interpreted based on analytical transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies, rims are produced from varying relative contributions from: 1) direct solar ion irradiation effects that amorphize or otherwise modify the outer surface of the original host grain, and 2) nanoscale, layer-like, deposition of extrinsic material processed from the surrounding soil. This extrinsic/deposited material is the dominant physical host for nanophase Fe(sup o) in the rims. An important lingering uncertainty is whether this deposited material condensed from regolith components locally vaporized in micrometeorite or larger impacts, or whether it formed as solar wind ions sputtered exposed soil and re-deposited the sputtered ions on less exposed areas. Deciding which of these mechanisms is dominant, or possibility exclusive, has been hampered because there is an insufficient library of chemical and microstructural "fingerprints" to distinguish deposits produced by the two processes. Experimental sputter deposition / characterization studies relevant to rim formation have particularly lagged since the early post-Apollo experiments of Hapke and others, especially with regard to application of TEM-based characterization techniques. Here

  6. Nano-yttria dispersed stainless steel composites composed by the 3 dimensional fiber deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhiest, K.; Mullens, S.; De Wispelaere, N.; Claessens, S.; DeBremaecker, A.; Verbeken, K.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) 316L steel samples were manufactured by the 3 dimensional fiber deposition (3DFD) technique. The performance of 3DFD as colloidal consolidation technique to obtain porous green bodies based on yttria (Y2O3) nano-slurries or paste, is discussed within this experimental work. The influence of the sintering temperature and time on sample densification and grain growth was investigated in this study. Hot consolidation was performed to obtain final product quality in terms of residual porosity reduction and final dispersion homogeneity.

  7. Electron-Beam-Induced Deposition as a Technique for Analysis of Precursor Molecule Diffusion Barriers and Prefactors.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Jared; Lobo, Charlene J; Ford, Michael J; Toth, Milos

    2015-09-30

    Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a direct-write chemical vapor deposition technique in which an electron beam is used for precursor dissociation. Here we show that Arrhenius analysis of the deposition rates of nanostructures grown by EBID can be used to deduce the diffusion energies and corresponding preexponential factors of EBID precursor molecules. We explain the limitations of this approach, define growth conditions needed to minimize errors, and explain why the errors increase systematically as EBID parameters diverge from ideal growth conditions. Under suitable deposition conditions, EBID can be used as a localized technique for analysis of adsorption barriers and prefactors.

  8. Effect of spray application technique on spray deposition in greenhouse strawberries and tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Braekman, Pascal; Foque, Dieter; Messens, Winy; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly, Flemish greenhouse growers are using spray booms instead of spray guns to apply plant protection products. Although the advantages of spray booms are well known, growers still have many questions concerning nozzle choice and settings. Spray deposition using a vertical spray boom in tomatoes and strawberries was compared with reference spray equipment. Five different settings of nozzle type, size and pressure were tested with the spray boom. In general, the standard vertical spray boom performed better than the reference spray equipment in strawberries (spray gun) and in tomatoes (air-assisted sprayer). Nozzle type and settings significantly affected spray deposition and crop penetration. Highest overall deposits in strawberries were achieved using air-inclusion or extended-range nozzles. In tomatoes, the extended-range nozzles and the twin air-inclusion nozzles performed best. Using smaller-size extended-range nozzles above the recommended pressure range resulted in lower deposits, especially inside the crop canopy. The use of a vertical spray boom is a promising technique for applying plant protection products in a safe and efficient way in tomatoes and strawberries, and nozzle choice and setting should be carefully considered.

  9. Effect of the spray application technique on the deposition of entomopathogenic nematodes in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Brusselman, Eva; Beck, Bert; Pollet, Sabien; Temmerman, Femke; Spanoghe, Pieter; Moens, Maurice; Nuyttens, David

    2012-03-01

    The present study compared entomopathogenic nematode delivery at the base of savoy cabbage and cauliflower, at the lower side of savoy cabbage and cauliflower leaves and in leek stems and the ground deposition using a five-nozzle spray boom equipped with an ISO 08 flat fan, an air induction flat fan and Twinjet spray nozzles. Additionally, an air support system and a row application system were evaluated. Approximately 40% of the applied nematodes did not reach the foot of the cabbage plants. The use of an air support system or a row application system improved nematode deposition at the savoy cabbage base. Relative nematode deposition on the lower side of savoy cabbage leaves was 27.20%, while only 2.64% of the applied nematodes reached the lower side of cauliflower leaves. After spraying leek with a standard boom, a low relative nematode deposition (26.64%) was measured in the leek stem. Nozzle type affected the distribution of nematodes in droplet spots. Nozzle type has a minor effect on the number of entomopathogenic nematodes delivered on difficult-to-reach targets. The use of modified spray application techniques directing the spray to the target site are necessary to increase the chances of contact of entomopathogenic nematodes with their target. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Novel Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Studying Particle Deposition Upon Large Cylinders in a Sheared Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoda, M.; Bailey, B. C.

    2000-01-01

    On a twelve-month voyage to Mars, one astronaut will require at least two tons of potable water and two tons of pure oxygen. Efficient, reliable fluid reclamation is therefore necessary for manned space exploration. Space habitats require a compact, flexible, and robust apparatus capable of solid-fluid mechanical separation over a wide range of fluid and particle densities and particle sizes. In space, centrifugal filtration, where particles suspended in fluid are captured by rotating fixed-fiber mat filters, is a logical candidate for mechanical separation. Non-colloidal particles are deposited on the fibers due to inertial impaction or direct interception. Since rotation rates are easily adjustable, inertial effects are the most practical way to control separation rates for a wide variety of multiphase mixtures in variable gravity environments. Understanding how fluid inertia and differential fluid-particle inertia, characterized by the Reynolds and Stokes numbers, respectively, affect deposition is critical in optimizing filtration in a microgravity environment. This work will develop non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques for directly visualizing where and when non-colloidal particles deposit upon, or contact, solid surfaces: 'particle proximity sensors'. To model particle deposition upon a single filter fiber, these sensors will be used in ground-based experiments to study particle dynamics as in the vicinity of a large (compared with the particles) cylinder in a simply sheared (i.e., linearly-varying, zero-mean velocity profile) neutrally-buoyant, refractive-index matched solid-liquid suspension.

  11. Large patternable metal nanoparticle sheets by photo/e-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Noboru; Wang, Pangpang; Okamoto, Koichi; Ryuzaki, Sou; Tamada, Kaoru

    2017-10-01

    Techniques for micro/nano-scale patterning of large metal nanoparticle sheets can potentially be used to realize high-performance photoelectronic devices because the sheets provide greatly enhanced electrical fields around the nanoparticles due to localized surface plasmon resonances. However, no single metal nanoparticle sheet currently exists with sufficient durability for conventional lithographical processes. Here, we report large photo and/or e-beam lithographic patternable metal nanoparticle sheets with improved durability by incorporating molecular cross-linked structures between nanoparticles. The cross-linked structures were easily formed by a one-step chemical reaction; immersing a single nanoparticle sheet consisting of core metals, to which capping molecules ionically bond, in a dithiol ethanol solution. The ligand exchange reaction processes were discussed in detail, and we demonstrated 20 μm wide line and space patterns, and a 170 nm wide line of the silver nanoparticle sheets.

  12. Enabling inspection solutions for future mask technologies through the development of massively parallel E-Beam inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Matt; Thiel, Brad; Bunday, Benjamin D.; Wurm, Stefan; Jindal, Vibhu; Mukhtar, Maseeh; Quoi, Kathy; Kemen, Thomas; Zeidler, Dirk; Eberle, Anna Lena; Garbowski, Tomasz; Dellemann, Gregor; Peters, Jan Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    The new device architectures and materials being introduced for sub-10nm manufacturing, combined with the complexity of multiple patterning and the need for improved hotspot detection strategies, have pushed current wafer inspection technologies to their limits. In parallel, gaps in mask inspection capability are growing as new generations of mask technologies are developed to support these sub-10nm wafer manufacturing requirements. In particular, the challenges associated with nanoimprint and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask inspection require new strategies that enable fast inspection at high sensitivity. The tradeoffs between sensitivity and throughput for optical and e-beam inspection are well understood. Optical inspection offers the highest throughput and is the current workhorse of the industry for both wafer and mask inspection. E-beam inspection offers the highest sensitivity but has historically lacked the throughput required for widespread adoption in the manufacturing environment. It is unlikely that continued incremental improvements to either technology will meet tomorrow's requirements, and therefore a new inspection technology approach is required; one that combines the high-throughput performance of optical with the high-sensitivity capabilities of e-beam inspection. To support the industry in meeting these challenges SUNY Poly SEMATECH has evaluated disruptive technologies that can meet the requirements for high volume manufacturing (HVM), for both the wafer fab [1] and the mask shop. Highspeed massively parallel e-beam defect inspection has been identified as the leading candidate for addressing the key gaps limiting today's patterned defect inspection techniques. As of late 2014 SUNY Poly SEMATECH completed a review, system analysis, and proof of concept evaluation of multiple e-beam technologies for defect inspection. A champion approach has been identified based on a multibeam technology from Carl Zeiss. This paper includes a discussion on the

  13. Suppressing Ghost Diffraction in E-Beam-Written Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel; Backlund, Johan

    2009-01-01

    A modified scheme for electron-beam (E-beam) writing used in the fabrication of convex or concave diffraction gratings makes it possible to suppress the ghost diffraction heretofore exhibited by such gratings. Ghost diffraction is a spurious component of diffraction caused by a spurious component of grating periodicity as described below. The ghost diffraction orders appear between the main diffraction orders and are typically more intense than is the diffuse scattering from the grating. At such high intensity, ghost diffraction is the dominant source of degradation of grating performance. The pattern of a convex or concave grating is established by electron-beam writing in a resist material coating a substrate that has the desired convex or concave shape. Unfortunately, as a result of the characteristics of electrostatic deflectors used to control the electron beam, it is possible to expose only a small field - typically between 0.5 and 1.0 mm wide - at a given fixed position of the electron gun relative to the substrate. To make a grating larger than the field size, it is necessary to move the substrate to make it possible to write fields centered at different positions, so that the larger area is synthesized by "stitching" the exposed fields.

  14. Vapour phase techniques for deposition of CZTS thin films: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Sukhpal

    2018-05-01

    With the surge of thin film photovoltaic technologies in recent years, for cost reduction and increased production there is a need for earth abundant and non-toxic raw materials. Existing thin film solar cells comprising CuInS2 (CIS), CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) and CdTe contain elements that are rare in earth's crust and in case of CdTe toxic. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), having Kesterite structure, a direct band gap of 1.4 - 1.5 eV and an absorption coefficient of 104 cm-1 makes a promising candidate for absorber layer in thin film solar cells. So far many physical and chemical techniques have been employed for deposition of CZTS thin films. This review focuses on various vapour phase techniques used for fabrication of films, recent advances in these techniques and their future outlook.

  15. Investigation of failure mechanism of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by EB-PVD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, M. R.; Abbas, Musharaf

    2013-06-01

    Failure mechanism of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) prepared by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) technique owing to formation of micro cracks was investigated. The TBCs were deposited on the Ni-based super alloy IN-100 and the micro cracks were observed within the top ceramic coat of thermally cycled TBCs at 1050°C. It was observed that these cracks propagate in the ceramic coat in the direction normal to interface while no cracks were observed in the bond coat. SEM/EDS studies revealed that some non-uniform oxides were formed on the interface between ceramic top and metallic bond coat just below the cracks. Study proposed that the cracks were initiated due to stress owing to big difference in Pilling-Bed worth ratio of non-uniform oxides as well as thermal stress, which caused the formation of cracks in top ceramic coat leading to failure of TBCs

  16. Physical properties of nanostructured strontium oxide thin film grown by chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Farhan; Belkhedkar, M. R.; Salodkar, R. V.

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructured SrO thin film of thickness 139 nm was deposited by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrates using SrCl2.6H2O and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors without complexing agents. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that, SrO thin film is nanocrystalline in nature with cubic structure. The surface morphology of the SrO film was investigated by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy. The optical studies showed that SrO film exhibits direct as well as indirect optical band gap energy. The electrical resistivity and activation energy of SrO thin film is found to be of the order of 106 Ω cm and 0.58eV respectively.

  17. Detection of Atmospheric Water Deposits in Porous Media Using the TDR Technique

    PubMed Central

    Nakonieczna, Anna; Kafarski, Marcin; Wilczek, Andrzej; Szypłowska, Agnieszka; Janik, Grzegorz; Albert, Małgorzata; Skierucha, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the intensity of atmospheric water deposition and its diurnal distribution is essential from the ecological perspective, especially regarding dry geographic regions. It is also important in the context of monitoring the amount of moisture present within building materials in order to protect them from excessive humidity. The objective of this study was to test a constructed sensor and determine whether it could detect and track changes in the intensity of atmospheric water deposition. An operating principle of the device is based on the time-domain reflectometry technique. Two sensors of different plate volumes were manufactured. They were calibrated at several temperatures and tested during field measurements. The calibration turned out to be temperature independent. The outdoor measurements indicated that the upper limits of the measurement ranges of the sensors depended on the volumes of the plates and were equal to 1.2 and 2.8 mm H2O. The respective sensitivities were equal to 3.2 × 10−3 and 7.5 × 10−3 g·ps−1. The conducted experiments showed that the construction of the designed device and the time-domain reflectometry technique were appropriate for detecting and tracing the dynamics of atmospheric water deposition. The obtained outcomes were also collated with the readings taken in an actual soil sample. For this purpose, an open container sensor, which allows investigating atmospheric water deposition in soil, was manufactured. It turned out that the readings taken by the porous ceramic plate sensor reflected the outcomes of the measurements performed in a soil sample. PMID:25871717

  18. Novel growth techniques for the deposition of high-quality perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Annie; Ren, Zhiwei; Li, Gang; Djurišić, Aleksandra B.; Surya, Charles

    2018-02-01

    We present investigations on the growth of high quality CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI) thin films using both vapor and solution techniques. Recent work on perovskite film growth indicates critical dependencies of the film quality on the nucleation and crystallization steps requiring: i.) uniform distribution of nucleation sites; and ii.) optimal crystallization rate that facilitates the growth of a compact, continuous film with low density of pinholes. Our work shows that the hybrid chemical vapor deposition technique (HCVD) technique is well suited for the deposition of evenly distributed nucleation sites and the optimization of the crystallization rate of the film through detailed monitoring of the thermal profile of the growth process. Signficant reduction in the defect states is recorded by annealing the perovskite films in O2. The results are consistent with theoretical studies by Yin et al. 1 on O and Cl passivation of the shallow states at the grain boundary of MAPI. Their work provides the theoretical basis for our experimental observations on the passivation of shallow states by oxygen annealing. High quality films were achieved through detailed management of the carrier gas composition and the thermal profile of the nucleation and crystallization steps.

  19. Chemical vapor deposition techniques and related methods for manufacturing microminiature thermionic converters

    DOEpatents

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-25

    Methods of manufacturing microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs made using the methods of the invention incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices can be fabricated at modest costs.

  20. The "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner) technique for calcifying tendonitis deposits excision and removal of the calcific debris.

    PubMed

    Ehud, Atoun; Ehud, Rath; Alexander, Van Tongel; Ali, Narvani; Giusseppe, Sforza; Ofer, Levy

    2012-07-01

    A new technical tip for the improvement of the arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic calcifying tendinitis is described. Arthroscopic excision of calcifying tendonitis may result with multiple minute calcific debris in the subacromial bursa, causing severe post operative pain due to chemical irritation of the bursa. We suggest the use of a bladeless shaver barrel as a "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner) for arthroscopic clearance of these miniature calcific debris from the subacromial space after resection of the major deposits. The use of this technique resulted in good clinical outcome with improved post operative pain.

  1. High T(sub c) superconductors fabricated by plasma aerosol mist deposition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, X. W.; Vuong, K. D.; Leone, A.; Shen, C. Q.; Williams, J.; Coy, M.

    1995-01-01

    We report new results on high T(sub c) superconductors fabricated by a plasma aerosol mist deposition technique, in atmospheric environment. Materials fabricated are YBaCuO, BiPbSrCaCuO, BaCaCuO precursor films for TlBaCaCuO, and other buffers such as YSZ. Depending on processing conditions, sizes of crystallites and/or particles are between dozens of nano-meters and several micrometers. Superconductive properties and other material characteristics can also be tailored.

  2. Some studies on TiO2 films deposited by sol-gel technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimha Rao, K.; Vishwas, M.; Kumar Sharma, Sudhir; Arjuna Gowda, K. V.

    2008-08-01

    TiO2 films are extensively used in various applications including optical multi-layers, sensors, photo catalysis, environmental purification, and solar cells etc. These are prepared by both vacuum and non-vacuum methods. In this paper, we present the results on TiO2 thin films prepared by a sol-gel spin coating process in non-aqueous solvent. Titanium isopropoxide is used as TiO2 precursor. The films were annealed at different temperatures up to 3000 C for 5 hours in air. The influence of the various deposition parameters like spinning speed, spinning time and annealing temperature on the thickness of the TiO2 films has been studied. The variation of film thickness with time in ambient atmosphere was also studied. The optical, structural and morphological characteristics were investigated by optical transmittance-reflectance measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of the films were determined by envelope technique and spectroscopic ellipsometry. TiO2 films exhibited high transparency (92%) in the visible region with a refractive index of 2.04 at 650 nm. The extinction coefficient was found to be negligibly small. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the TiO2 film deposited on glass substrate changes from amorphous to crystalline (anatase) phase with annealing temperature above 2500 C. SEM results show that the deposited films are uniform and crack free.

  3. Detecting salt deposition on a wind turbine blade using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiesh Kumar, V.; Vasa, Nilesh J.; Sarathi, R.

    2013-07-01

    The study of pollution performance on a wind turbine blade due to lightning is important, as it can cause major damage to wind turbine blades. In the present work, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique is used to understand the influence of pollutant deposited on a wind turbine blade in an off-shore environment. A methodical experimental study was carried out by adopting IEC 60507 standards, and it was observed that the lightning discharge propagates at the interface between the pollutant and the glass fiber reinforced plastic (Material used in manufacturing of wind turbine blades). In addition, as a diagnostic condition monitoring technique, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is proposed and demonstrated to rank the severity of pollutant on the wind turbine blades from a remote area. Optical emission spectra observed during surface discharge process induced by lightning impulse voltage is in agreement with the spectra observed during LIBS.

  4. Ion-substituted calcium phosphate coatings deposited by plasma-assisted techniques: A review.

    PubMed

    Graziani, Gabriela; Bianchi, Michele; Sassoni, Enrico; Russo, Alessandro; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2017-05-01

    One of the main critical aspects behind the failure or success of an implant resides in its ability to fast bond with the surrounding bone. To boost osseointegration, the ideal implant material should exhibit composition and structure similar to those of biological apatite. To this aim, the most common approach is to coat the implant surface with a coating of hydroxyapatite (HA), resembling the main component of mineralized tissues. However, bone apatite is a non-stoichiometric, multi-substituted poorly-crystalline apatite, containing significant amounts of foreign ions, with high biological relevance. Ion-substituted HAs can be deposited by so called "wet methods", which are however poorly reproducible and hardly industrially feasible; at the same time bioactive coatings realized by plasma assisted method, interesting for industrial applications, are generally made of stoichiometric (i.e. un-substituted) HA. In this work, the literature concerning plasma-assisted deposition methods used to deposit ion-substituted HA was reviewed and the last advances in this field discussed. The ions taken into exam are those present in mineralized tissues and possibly having biological relevance. Notably, literature about this topic is scarce, especially relating to in vivo animal and clinical trials; further on, available studies evaluate the performance of substituted coatings from different points of view (mechanical properties, bone growth, coating dissolution, etc.) which hinders a proper evaluation of the real efficacy of ion-doped HA in promoting bone regeneration, compared to stoichiometric HA. Moreover, results obtained for plasma sprayed coatings (which is the only method currently employed for deposition at the industrial scale) were collected and compared to those of novel plasma-assisted techniques, that are expected to overcome its limitations. Data so far available on the topic were discussed to highlight advantages, limitations and possible perspectives of these

  5. Enhancement of the Electrical Conductivity and Interlaminar Shear Strength of CNT/GFRP Hierarchical Composite Using an Electrophoretic Deposition Technique

    PubMed Central

    Haghbin, Amin; Liaghat, Gholamhossein; Arabi, Amir Masoud; Pol, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In this work, an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique has been used for deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of glass fiber textures (GTs) to increase the volume conductivity and the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of CNT/glass fiber-reinforced polymers (GFRPs) composites. Comprehensive experimental studies have been conducted to establish the influence of electric field strength, CNT concentration in EPD suspension, surface quality of GTs, and process duration on the quality of deposited CNT layers. CNT deposition increased remarkably when the surface of glass fibers was treated with coupling agents. Deposition of CNTs was optimized by measuring CNT’s deposition mass and process current density diagrams. The effect of optimum field strength on CNT deposition mass is around 8.5 times, and the effect of optimum suspension concentration on deposition rate is around 5.5 times. In the optimum experimental setting, the current density values of EPD were bounded between 0.5 and 1 mA/cm2. Based on the cumulative deposition diagram, it was found that the first three minutes of EPD is the effective deposition time. Applying optimized EPD in composite fabrication of treated GTs caused a drastic improvement on the order of 108 times in the volume conductivity of the nanocomposite laminate in comparison with simple GTs specimens. Optimized CNT deposition also enhanced the ILSS of hierarchical nanocomposites by 42%. PMID:28937635

  6. Use of Sacrificial Nanoparticles to Remove the Effects of Shot-noise in Contact Holes Fabricated by E-beam Lithography.

    PubMed

    Rananavare, Shankar B; Morakinyo, Moshood K

    2017-02-12

    Nano-patterns fabricated with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or electron-beam (E-beam) lithography exhibit unexpected variations in size. This variation has been attributed to statistical fluctuations in the number of photons/electrons arriving at a given nano-region arising from shot-noise (SN). The SN varies inversely to the square root of a number of photons/electrons. For a fixed dosage, the SN is larger in EUV and E-beam lithographies than for traditional (193 nm) optical lithography. Bottom-up and top-down patterning approaches are combined to minimize the effects of shot noise in nano-hole patterning. Specifically, an amino-silane surfactant self-assembles on a silicon wafer that is subsequently spin-coated with a 100 nm film of a PMMA-based E-beam photoresist. Exposure to the E-beam and the subsequent development uncover the underlying surfactant film at the bottoms of the holes. Dipping the wafer in a suspension of negatively charged, citrate-capped, 20 nm gold nanoparticles (GNP) deposits one particle per hole. The exposed positively charged surfactant film in the hole electrostatically funnels the negatively charged nanoparticle to the center of an exposed hole, which permanently fixes the positional registry. Next, by heating near the glass transition temperature of the photoresist polymer, the photoresist film reflows and engulfs the nanoparticles. This process erases the holes affected by SN but leaves the deposited GNPs locked in place by strong electrostatic binding. Treatment with oxygen plasma exposes the GNPs by etching a thin layer of the photoresist. Wet-etching the exposed GNPs with a solution of I2/KI yields uniform holes located at the center of indentations patterned by E-beam lithography. The experiments presented show that the approach reduces the variation in the size of the holes caused by SN from 35% to below 10%. The method extends the patterning limits of transistor contact holes to below 20 nm.

  7. Oxide vapor distribution from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, R.; Tassano, P. L.; Tsujimoto, N.

    1995-03-01

    Oxide vapor distributions have been determined as a function of operating parameters of a high frequency sweep e-beam source combined with a programmable sweep controller. We will show which parameters are significant, the parameters that yield the broadest oxide deposition distribution, and the procedure used to arrive at these conclusions. A design-of-experimental strategy was used with five operating parameters: evaporation rate, sweep speed, sweep pattern (pre-programmed), phase speed (azimuthal rotation of the pattern), profile (dwell time as a function of radial position). A design was chosen that would show which of the parameters and parameter pairs have a statistically significant effect on the vapor distribution. Witness flats were placed symmetrically across a 25 inches diameter platen. The stationary platen was centered 24 inches above the e-gun crucible. An oxide material was evaporated under 27 different conditions. Thickness measurements were made with a stylus profilometer. The information will enable users of the high frequency e-gun systems to optimally locate the source in a vacuum system and understand which parameters have a major effect on the vapor distribution.

  8. Quantitative approach for optimizing e-beam condition of photoresist inspection and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Jen; Teng, Chia-Hao; Cheng, Po-Chung; Sato, Yoshishige; Huang, Shang-Chieh; Chen, Chu-En; Maruyama, Kotaro; Yamazaki, Yuichiro

    2018-03-01

    Severe process margin in advanced technology node of semiconductor device is controlled by e-beam metrology system and e-beam inspection system with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image. By using SEM, larger area image with higher image quality is required to collect massive amount of data for metrology and to detect defect in a large area for inspection. Although photoresist is the one of the critical process in semiconductor device manufacturing, observing photoresist pattern by SEM image is crucial and troublesome especially in the case of large image. The charging effect by e-beam irradiation on photoresist pattern causes deterioration of image quality, and it affect CD variation on metrology system and causes difficulties to continue defect inspection in a long time for a large area. In this study, we established a quantitative approach for optimizing e-beam condition with "Die to Database" algorithm of NGR3500 on photoresist pattern to minimize charging effect. And we enhanced the performance of measurement and inspection on photoresist pattern by using optimized e-beam condition. NGR3500 is the geometry verification system based on "Die to Database" algorithm which compares SEM image with design data [1]. By comparing SEM image and design data, key performance indicator (KPI) of SEM image such as "Sharpness", "S/N", "Gray level variation in FOV", "Image shift" can be retrieved. These KPIs were analyzed with different e-beam conditions which consist of "Landing Energy", "Probe Current", "Scanning Speed" and "Scanning Method", and the best e-beam condition could be achieved with maximum image quality, maximum scanning speed and minimum image shift. On this quantitative approach of optimizing e-beam condition, we could observe dependency of SEM condition on photoresist charging. By using optimized e-beam condition, measurement could be continued on photoresist pattern over 24 hours stably. KPIs of SEM image proved image quality during measurement and

  9. Enhanced photo response of mesoporous nanostructured CdS thin film via electrospray aerosol deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logu, T.; Soundarrajan, P.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Sethuraman, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a high crystalline and mesoporous nanostructured cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin film was successfully grown on the FTO substrates using facile Electrospray Aerosol Deposition (ESAD) technique. The structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties of CdS thin film have been systematically examined. CdS thin film exhibits the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with polycrystalline nature. The optical band gap energy of the prepared film was estimated from the Tauc plot and is 2.43 eV. The SEM and AFM images show that the well-interconnected CdS nanoparticles gives mesoporous like morphology. The fine aerosol generated from the ESAD process induces the alteration in the surface morphological structure of deposited CdS film that consequences in enhanced electrical and photo-physical properties. The photoconductivity of the sample has been studied which demonstrates significant photo current. The present study predicts that mesoporous nanostructured CdS thin film would be given a special interest for optoelectronic applications.

  10. Tuning the morphology of metastable MnS films by simple chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhandayuthapani, T.; Girish, M.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2015-10-01

    In the present investigation, we have prepared the spherical particles, almond-like, and cauliflower-like morphological structures of metastable MnS films on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition technique at low temperature without using any complexing or chelating agent. The morphological change of MnS films with molar ratio may be due to the oriented aggregation of adjacent particles. The compositional purity of deposited film was confirmed by the EDAX study. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman studies confirm the sulfur source concentration induced enhancement in the crystallization of films with metastable MnS phase (zinc-blende β-MnS, and wurtzite γ-MnS). The shift in PL emission peak with molar ratio may be due to the change in optical energy band gap of the MnS, which was further confirmed by the optical absorbance study. The paramagnetic behavior of the sample was confirmed by the M-H plot.

  11. Polyethylene-Carbon Nanotube Composite Film Deposited by Cold Spray Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata, Nobuhisa; Ohtake, Naoto; Akasaka, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are high-performance materials because of their superior electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and self-lubrication, and they have been studied for application to polymer composite materials as fillers. However, the methods of fabricating polymer composites with CNTs, such as injection molding, are too complicated for industrial applications. We propose a simple cold spray (CS) technique to obtain a polymer composite of polyethylene (PE) and CNTs. The composite films were deposited by CS on polypropylene and nano-porous structured aluminum substrates. The maximum thickness of the composite film was approximately 1 mm. Peaks at G and D bands were observed in the Raman spectra of the films. Scanning electron microscopy images of the film surface revealed that PE particles were melted by the acceleration gas and CNTs were attached with melted PE. The PE particles solidified after contact with the substrate. These results indicate that PE-CNT composite films were successfully deposited on polypropylene and nano-porous structured aluminum substrates by CS.

  12. New deposition technique for metal films containing inorganic fullerene-like (IF) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Goldbart, Ohad; Yoffe, Alexander; Cohen, Sidney R; Rosentsveig, Rita; Feldman, Yishay; Rapoport, Lev; Tenne, Reshef

    2013-07-22

    This study describes a new method for fabrication of thin composite films using physical vapor deposition (PVD). Titanium (Ti) and hybrid films of titanium containing tungsten disulphide nanoparticles with inorganic fullerene-like structure (Ti/IF-WS2) were fabricated with a modified PVD machine. The evaporation process includes the pulsed deposition of IF-WS2 by a sprayer head. This process results in IF-WS2 nanoparticles embedded in a Ti matrix. The layers were characterized by various techniques, which confirm the composition and structure of the hybrid film. The Ti/IF-WS2 shows better wear resistance and a lower friction coefficient when compared to the Ti layer or Ti substrate. The Ti/IF films show very good antireflective properties in the visible and near-IR region. Such films may find numerous applications, for example, in the aerospace and medical technology. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Error measure comparison of currently employed dose-modulation schemes for e-beam proximity effect control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckerar, Martin C.; Marrian, Christie R.

    1995-05-01

    Standard matrix inversion methods of e-beam proximity correction are compared with a variety of pseudoinverse approaches based on gradient descent. It is shown that the gradient descent methods can be modified using 'regularizers' (terms added to the cost function minimized during gradient descent). This modification solves the 'negative dose' problem in a mathematically sound way. Different techniques are contrasted using a weighted error measure approach. It is shown that the regularization approach leads to the highest quality images. In some cases, ignoring negative doses yields results which are worse than employing an uncorrected dose file.

  14. Diameter Tuning of β-Ga2O3 Nanowires Using Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, R

    2017-12-01

    Diameter tuning of [Formula: see text]-Ga 2 O 3 nanowires using chemical vapor deposition technique have been investigated under various experimental conditions. Diameter of root grown [Formula: see text]-Ga 2 O 3 nanowires having monoclinic crystal structure is tuned by varying separation distance between metal source and substrate. Effect of gas flow rate and mixer ratio on the morphology and diameter of nanowires has been studied. Nanowire diameter depends on growth temperature, and it is independent of catalyst nanoparticle size at higher growth temperature (850-900 °C) as compared to lower growth temperature (800 °C). These nanowires show changes in structural strain value with change in diameter. Band-gap of nanowires increases with decrease in the diameter.

  15. Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film grown by pulse laser deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, Bhaumik V., E-mail: bhaumik-phy@yahoo.co.in; Joshi, U. S.

    Highly electrically conducting and transparent in visible light IGZO thin film were grown on glass substrate at substrate temperature of 400 C by a pulse laser deposition techniques. Structural, surface, electrical, and optical properties of IGZO thin films were investigated at room temperature. Smooth surface morphology and amorphous nature of the film has been confirmed from the AFM and GIXRD analysis. A resistivity down to 7.7×10{sup −3} V cm was reproducibly obtained while maintaining optical transmission exceeding 70% at wavelengths from 340 to 780 nm. The carrier densities of the film was obtain to the value 1.9×10{sup 18} cm{sup 3},more » while the Hall mobility of the IGZO thin film was 16 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1}S{sup −1}.« less

  16. Correlation study of nanocrystalline carbon doped thin films prepared by a thermionic vacuum arc deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinca-Balan, Virginia; Vladoiu, Rodica; Mandes, Aurelia; Prodan, Gabriel

    2017-11-01

    The synthesis of Ag, Mg and Si nanocrystalline, embedded in a hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) matrix, deposited by a high vacuum and free buffer gas technique, were investigated. The films with compact structures and extremely smooth surfaces were prepared using the thermionic vacuum arc method in one electron gun configuration, on glass and silicon substrates. The surface morphology and wettability of the obtained multifunctional thin films were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and free surface energy (FSE) by See System. The results from the TEM measurements show how the Ag, Mg and Si interacted with carbon and the influence these materials have on the thin film structure formation and the grain size distribution. SEM correlated with EDX results reveal a very precise comparative study, regarding the quantity of the elements that morphed into carbides nanostructures. Also, the FSE results prove how different materials in combination with carbon can make changes to the surface properties.

  17. Depositing nanoparticles on a silicon substrate using a freeze drying technique.

    PubMed

    Sigehuzi, Tomoo

    2017-08-28

    For the microscopic observation of nanoparticles, an adequate sample preparation is an essential part of this task. Much research has been performed for usable preparation methods that will yield aggregate-free samples. A freeze drying technique, which only requires a -80  ° C freezer and a freeze dryer, is shown to provide an on-substrate dispersion of mostly isolated nanoparticles. The particle density could be made sufficiently high for efficient observations using atomic force microscopy. Since this sandwich method is purely physical, it could be applied to deposit various nanoparticles independent of their surface chemical properties. Suspension film thickness, or the dimensionality of the suspension film, was shown to be crucial for the isolation of the particles. Silica nanoparticles were dispersed on a silicon substrate using this method and the sample properties were examined using atomic force microscopy.

  18. Direct growth of ZnO tetrapod on glass substrate by Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzil, M. F. M.; Rahman, R. A.; Azhar, N. E. A.; Aziz, T. N. T. A.; Zulkifli, Z.

    2018-03-01

    This research demonstrates the growth of ZnO tetrapod structure on glass substrate for different types of flow gas and at different growth temperatures. The study on the morphological structure and electrical properties of ZnO thin film growth by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) technique showed that the optimum growth temperature was obtained at 750°C with ZnO nanotetrapod morphological structure. Introducing Nitrogen gas flow during the growth process exhibited leg-to-leg linking ZnO tetrapods morphology. The electrical properties of ZnO tetrapods film were measured by using two point probes and it shows that, the sample growth in Ar and O2 atmosphere have better I-V characteristic.

  19. Geophysical techniques for reconnaissance investigations of soils and surficial deposits in mountainous terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, C.G.; Doolittle, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques were assessed for their capabilities in reconnaissance studies of soil characteristics: depth to the water table and depth to bedrock beneath surficial deposits in mountainous terrain. Ground-penetrating radar had the best near-surface resolution in the upper 2 m of the profile and provided continuous interpretable imagery of soil profiles and bedrock surfaces. Where thick colluvium blankets side slopes, the GPR could not consistently define the bedrock interface. In areas with clayey or shaley sediments, the GPR is also more limited in defining depth and is less reliable. Seismic refraction proved useful in determining the elevation of the water table and depth to bedrock, regardless of thickness of overlying material, but could not distinguish soil-profile characteristics.-from Authors

  20. Maskless deposition technique for the physical vapor deposition of thin film and multilayer coatings with subnanometer precision and accuracy

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Stephen P.; Ceglio, Natale M.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is a method for the production of axially symmetric, graded and ungraded thickness thin film and multilayer coatings that avoids the use of apertures or masks to tailor the deposition profile. A motional averaging scheme permits the deposition of uniform thickness coatings independent of the substrate radius. Coating uniformity results from an exact cancellation of substrate radius dependent terms, which occurs when the substrate moves at constant velocity. If the substrate is allowed to accelerate over the source, arbitrary coating profiles can be generated through appropriate selection and control of the substrate center of mass equation of motion. The radial symmetry of the coating profile is an artifact produced by orbiting the substrate about its center of mass; other distributions are obtained by selecting another rotation axis. Consequently there is a direct mapping between the coating thickness and substrate equation of motion which can be used to tailor the coating profile without the use of masks and apertures.

  1. Deposition And Characterization of (Ti,Zr)N Thin Films Grown Through PAPVD By The Pulsed Arc Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Marulanda, D. M.; Trujillo, O.; Devia, A.

    The Plasma Assisted Physic Vapor Deposition (PAPVD) by the pulsed arc technique has been used for deposition of Titanium Zirconium Nitride (Ti,Zr)N coatings, using a segmented target of TiZr. The deposition was performed in a vacuum chamber with two faced electrodes (target and substrate) using nitrogen as working gas, and a power-controlled source used to produce the arc discharges. Films were deposited on stainless steel 304, and they were characterized using the X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) and Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) techniques. The XRD patterns show different planes in which the film grows.more » Through SPM, using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM) modes, a nanotribologic study of the thin film was made, determining hardness and friction coefficient.« less

  2. Optimal properties for coated titanium implants with the hydroxyapatite layer formed by the pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmlova, Lucia; Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinek, Miroslav; Bartova, Jirina; Pesakova, V.; Adam, M.

    1999-02-01

    Pulsed laser deposition technique allow to 'tailor' bioceramic coat for metal implants by the change of deposition conditions. Each attribute is influenced by the several deposition parameters and each parameter change several various properties. Problem caused that many parameters has an opposite function and improvement of one property is followed by deterioration of other attribute. This study monitor influence of each single deposition parameter and evaluate its importance form the point of view of coat properties. For deposition KrF excimer laser in stainless-steel deposition chamber was used. Deposition conditions (ambient composition and pressures, metallic substrate temperature, energy density and target-substrate distance) were changed according to the film properties. A non-coated titanium implant was used as a control. Films with promising mechanical quality underwent an in vitro biological tests -- measurement of proliferation activity, observing cell interactions with macrophages, fibroblasts, testing toxicity of percolates, observing a solubility of hydroxyapatite (HA) coat. Deposition conditions corresponding with the optimal mechanical and biochemical properties are: metal temperature 490 degrees Celsius, ambient-mixture of argon and water vapor, energy density 3 Jcm-2, target-substrate distance 7.5 cm.

  3. Biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by pulse electrodeposition technique on the Nitinol superelastic alloy.

    PubMed

    Marashi-Najafi, F; Khalil-Allafi, J; Etminanfar, M R

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with pulse electrochemical deposition of HA on NiTi alloy and in vitro evaluation of coatings. At first step, a thermo-chemical surface modification process was applied to control the Ni release of the alloy. The electrochemical deposition of CaP coatings was examined at both dilute and concentrated solutions. The morphology and the composition of coatings were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Plate like and needle like morphologies were formed for dilute and concentrated solution respectively and HA phase was formed by increasing the pulse current density for both electrolyte. The thickness of the samples was measured using cross sectioning technique. Fibroblast cell culture test on the coated samples revealed that the HA coating obtained by dilute solution shows the best biocompatibility. Also, MTT assay showed the highest cell density and cell proliferation after 5days for the HA coating of dilute solution. The contact angle of samples was measured and the coated samples showed a hydrophilic surface. Soaking the sample in SBF revealed that the crystallization rate of calcium-phosphate compounds is higher on the plate like HA coating as compared to the needle like morphology. The P release of the HA coated samples was measured in a physiological saline solution and the results show that the ions releasing in the plate like coating are less than the needle like coating. It seems that the stability of the plate like coating in biological environments is responsible for the better biocompatibility of the coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lossless compression algorithm for REBL direct-write e-beam lithography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, George; Liu, Hsin-I.; Zakhor, Avideh

    2010-03-01

    Future lithography systems must produce microchips with smaller feature sizes, while maintaining throughputs comparable to those of today's optical lithography systems. This places stringent constraints on the effective data throughput of any maskless lithography system. In recent years, we have developed a datapath architecture for direct-write lithography systems, and have shown that compression plays a key role in reducing throughput requirements of such systems. Our approach integrates a low complexity hardware-based decoder with the writers, in order to decompress a compressed data layer in real time on the fly. In doing so, we have developed a spectrum of lossless compression algorithms for integrated circuit layout data to provide a tradeoff between compression efficiency and hardware complexity, the latest of which is Block Golomb Context Copy Coding (Block GC3). In this paper, we present a modified version of Block GC3 called Block RGC3, specifically tailored to the REBL direct-write E-beam lithography system. Two characteristic features of the REBL system are a rotary stage resulting in arbitrarily-rotated layout imagery, and E-beam corrections prior to writing the data, both of which present significant challenges to lossless compression algorithms. Together, these effects reduce the effectiveness of both the copy and predict compression methods within Block GC3. Similar to Block GC3, our newly proposed technique Block RGC3, divides the image into a grid of two-dimensional "blocks" of pixels, each of which copies from a specified location in a history buffer of recently-decoded pixels. However, in Block RGC3 the number of possible copy locations is significantly increased, so as to allow repetition to be discovered along any angle of orientation, rather than horizontal or vertical. Also, by copying smaller groups of pixels at a time, repetition in layout patterns is easier to find and take advantage of. As a side effect, this increases the total number

  5. Filament Breakage Monitoring in Fused Deposition Modeling Using Acoustic Emission Technique

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Li; Yan, Youruiling; Mei, Yiming

    2018-01-01

    Polymers are being used in a wide range of Additive Manufacturing (AM) applications and have been shown to have tremendous potential for producing complex, individually customized parts. In order to improve part quality, it is essential to identify and monitor the process malfunctions of polymer-based AM. The present work endeavored to develop an alternative method for filament breakage identification in the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) AM process. The Acoustic Emission (AE) technique was applied due to the fact that it had the capability of detecting bursting and weak signals, especially from complex background noises. The mechanism of filament breakage was depicted thoroughly. The relationship between the process parameters and critical feed rate was obtained. In addition, the framework of filament breakage detection based on the instantaneous skewness and relative similarity of the AE raw waveform was illustrated. Afterwards, we conducted several filament breakage tests to validate their feasibility and effectiveness. Results revealed that the breakage could be successfully identified. Achievements of the present work could be further used to develop a comprehensive in situ FDM monitoring system with moderate cost. PMID:29494559

  6. Improved Understanding of Implosion Symmetry through New Experimental Techniques Connecting Hohlraum Dynamics with Laser Beam Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, Joseph; Salmonson, Jay; Dewald, Eduard; Bachmann, Benjamin; Edwards, John; Graziani, Frank; Hurricane, Omar; Landen, Otto; Ma, Tammy; Masse, Laurent; MacLaren, Stephen; Meezan, Nathan; Moody, John; Parrilla, Nicholas; Pino, Jesse; Sacks, Ryan; Tipton, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Understanding what affects implosion symmetry has been a challenge for scientists designing indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). New experimental techniques and data analysis have been employed aimed at improving our understanding of the relationship between hohlraum dynamics and implosion symmetry. Thin wall imaging data allows for time-resolved imaging of 10 keV Au l-band x-rays providing for the first time on the NIF, a spatially resolved measurement of laser deposition with time. In the work described here, we combine measurements from the thin wall imaging with time resolved views of the interior of the hohlraum. The measurements presented are compared to hydrodynamic simulations as well as simplified physics models. The goal of this work is to form a physical picture that better explains the relationship of the hohlraum dynamics and capsule ablator on laser beam propagation and implosion symmetry. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Deposition of corrosion products from dowels on human dental root surfaces measured with proton microprobe technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, D.; Brunell, G.; Lindh, U.

    1982-06-01

    Distribution of copper, mercury and zinc on human teeth root surfaces adjacent to dowels of gold alloy or brass as well as dowels of brass in conjunction with an amalgam crown has been measured with a proton microprobe using PIXE techniques. Upper limits of the contents of gold and silver on the root surfaces were established. Pronounced concentration profiles of copper and zinc were observed on the root surfaces of teeth prepared with dowels of brass. The dowel of gold alloy revealed only zinc deposition. The major part of copper on the root surfaces is assumed to arise from corrosion of the dowels, and has been transported to the surface by diffusion through the dential tubuli. Zinc in the volume analysed is a constituent of dentin tissue as well as a corrosion product of the brass dowel. Part of the zinc level could also be ascribed to erosion of the zinc phosphate cement matrix. The volumes analysed were (25×25×25)μm 3. The levels of copper, mercury and zinc on the tooth root surfaces attained values up to about 200, 20 and 600 ppm, respectively.

  8. Al₂O₃ Coatings on Magnesium Alloy Deposited by the Fluidized Bed (FB) Technique.

    PubMed

    Baiocco, Gabriele; Rubino, Gianluca; Tagliaferri, Vincenzo; Ucciardello, Nadia

    2018-01-09

    Magnesium alloys are widely employed in several industrial domains for their outstanding properties. They have a high strength-weight ratio, with a density that is lower than aluminum (33% less), and feature good thermal properties, dimensional stability, and damping characteristics. However, they are vulnerable to oxidation and erosion-corrosion phenomena when applied in harsh service conditions. To avoid the degradation of magnesium, several coating methods have been presented in the literature; however, all of them deal with drawbacks that limit their application in an industrial environment, such as environmental pollution, toxicity of the coating materials, and high cost of the necessary machinery. In this work, a plating of Al₂O₃ film on a magnesium alloy realized by the fluidized bed (FB) technique and using alumina powder is proposed. The film growth obtained through this cold deposition process is analyzed, investigating the morphology as well as tribological and mechanical features and corrosion behavior of the plated samples. The resulting Al₂O₃ coatings show consistent improvement of the tribological and anti-corrosive performance of the magnesium alloy.

  9. Al2O3 Coatings on Magnesium Alloy Deposited by the Fluidized Bed (FB) Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rubino, Gianluca; Ucciardello, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are widely employed in several industrial domains for their outstanding properties. They have a high strength-weight ratio, with a density that is lower than aluminum (33% less), and feature good thermal properties, dimensional stability, and damping characteristics. However, they are vulnerable to oxidation and erosion-corrosion phenomena when applied in harsh service conditions. To avoid the degradation of magnesium, several coating methods have been presented in the literature; however, all of them deal with drawbacks that limit their application in an industrial environment, such as environmental pollution, toxicity of the coating materials, and high cost of the necessary machinery. In this work, a plating of Al2O3 film on a magnesium alloy realized by the fluidized bed (FB) technique and using alumina powder is proposed. The film growth obtained through this cold deposition process is analyzed, investigating the morphology as well as tribological and mechanical features and corrosion behavior of the plated samples. The resulting Al2O3 coatings show consistent improvement of the tribological and anti-corrosive performance of the magnesium alloy. PMID:29315222

  10. Synthesis of boron nitride nanostructures from catalyst of iron compounds via thermal chemical vapor deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Wellington M.; Ribeiro, Hélio; Ferreira, Tiago H.; Ladeira, Luiz O.; Sousa, Edésia M. B.

    2017-05-01

    For the first time, patterned growth of boron nitride nanostructures (BNNs) is achieved by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique at 1150 °C using a mixture of FeS/Fe2O3 catalyst supported in alumina nanostructured, boron amorphous and ammonia (NH3) as reagent gas. This innovative catalyst was synthesized in our laboratory and systematically characterized. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The X-ray diffraction profile of the synthesized catalyst indicates the coexistence of three different crystal structures showing the presence of a cubic structure of iron oxide and iron sulfide besides the gamma alumina (γ) phase. The results show that boron nitride bamboo-like nanotubes (BNNTs) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets were successfully synthesized. Furthermore, the important contribution of this work is the manufacture of BNNs from FeS/Fe2O3 mixture.

  11. Uniaxial Magnetization Performance of Textured Fe Nanowire Arrays Electrodeposited by a Pulsed Potential Deposition Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neetzel, C.; Ohgai, T.; Yanai, T.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2017-11-01

    Textured ferromagnetic Fe nanowire arrays were electrodeposited using a rectangular-pulsed potential deposition technique into anodized aluminum oxide nanochannels. During the electrodeposition of Fe nanowire arrays at a cathodic potential of - 1.2 V, the growth rate of the nanowires was ca. 200 nm s-1. The aspect ratio of Fe nanowires with a diameter of 30 ± 5 nm reached ca. 2000. The long axis of Fe nanowires corresponded with the <200> direction when a large overpotential during the on-time pulse was applied, whereas it orientated to the <110> direction under the potentiostatic condition with a small overpotential. By shifting the on-time cathode potential up to - 1.8 V, the texture coefficient for the (200) plane, TC200, reached up to 1.94. Perpendicular magnetization performance was observed in Fe nanowire arrays. With increasing TC200, the squareness of Fe nanowire arrays increased up to 0.95 with the coercivity maintained at 1.4 kOe at room temperature. This research result has opened a novel possibility of Fe nanowire arrays that can be applied for a new permanent magnetic material without rare-earth metals.

  12. Alternative stitching method for massively parallel e-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pieter; Tranquillin, Céline; Wieland, Marco; Bayle, Sébastien; Milléquant, Matthieu; Renault, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    In this study a novel stitching method other than Soft Edge (SE) and Smart Boundary (SB) is introduced and benchmarked against SE. The method is based on locally enhanced Exposure Latitude without cost of throughput, making use of the fact that the two beams that pass through the stitching region can deposit up to 2x the nominal dose. The method requires a complex Proximity Effect Correction that takes a preset stitching dose profile into account. On a Metal clip at minimum half-pitch of 32 nm for MAPPER FLX 1200 tool specifications, the novel stitching method effectively mitigates Beam to Beam (B2B) position errors such that they do not induce increase in CD Uniformity (CDU). In other words, the same CDU can be realized inside the stitching region as outside the stitching region. For the SE method, the CDU inside is 0.3 nm higher than outside the stitching region. 5 nm direct overlay impact from B2B position errors cannot be reduced by a stitching strategy.

  13. Alternative stitching method for massively parallel e-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pieter; Tranquillin, Céline; Wieland, Marco; Bayle, Sébastien; Milléquant, Matthieu; Renault, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a stitching method other than soft edge (SE) and smart boundary (SB) is introduced and benchmarked against SE. The method is based on locally enhanced exposure latitude without throughput cost, making use of the fact that the two beams that pass through the stitching region can deposit up to 2× the nominal dose. The method requires a complex proximity effect correction that takes a preset stitching dose profile into account. Although the principle of the presented stitching method can be multibeam (lithography) systems in general, in this study, the MAPPER FLX 1200 tool is specifically considered. For the latter tool at a metal clip at minimum half-pitch of 32 nm, the stitching method effectively mitigates beam-to-beam (B2B) position errors such that they do not induce an increase in critical dimension uniformity (CDU). In other words, the same CDU can be realized inside the stitching region as outside the stitching region. For the SE method, the CDU inside is 0.3 nm higher than outside the stitching region. A 5-nm direct overlay impact from the B2B position errors cannot be reduced by a stitching strategy.

  14. Deposition of silicon carbide thin films by pulsed excimer laser ablation technique in the 25-700°C deposition temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khakani, My A.; Gat, E.; Beaudoin, Yves; Chaker, Mohamed; Monteil, C.; Guay, Daniel; Letourneau, G.; Pepin, Henri

    1995-04-01

    Laser ablation deposition technique was used to deposit silicon carbide thin films on both Si(100) and quartz substrates. The deposition was accomplished by ablating SiC sintered ceramic targets, using a KrF (248 nm) excimer laser. At a laser intensity of about 1 X 109 W/cm2, substrate temperatures in the (25-700) degree(s)C range were investigated. When the deposition temperature is varied from 27 to 650 degree(s)C, (i) the density of a-SiC films increases from 2.6 to 3.0 g cm-3, while their mean roughness value (for a film thickness of about 1 micrometers ) slightly changes from 0.44 to 0.5 nm; (ii) the optical transmission of a-SiC films is significantly improved (the absorption coefficient at 632.8 nm wavelength was reduced by a factor of about 5); and (iii) their Si-C bond density, as determined by FTIR spectroscopy, increases from (13.1 +/- 1.3) to (23.4 +/- 2.4) 1022 bond cm-3. The increased number of Si-C bonds is correlated to the increase of the optical transmission. Over all the investigated deposition temperature range, the a-SiC films were found to be under high compressive stress around a mean value of about 1.26 GPa. The control of the stress of a-SiC films was achieved by means of post- thermal annealings and the annealed a-SiC films were successfully used to fabricate x-ray membranes.

  15. RARE Grant- Atmospheric Dry Deposition: Quantification of Mercury and Nutrients using Novel Surrogate Surface Collector Techniques

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study will quantify the daily surrogate surface dry deposition of mercury and nutrient species, and evaluate its relative importance to wet deposition at two sites in Florida over a two-year period. It will identify the major sources contributing to the observed mercury and...

  16. An improved continuous compositional-spread technique based on pulsed-laser deposition and applicable to large substrate areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, H. M.; Rouleau, C. M.; Ohkubo, I.; Zhai, H. Y.; Lee, H. N.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Lowndes, D. H.

    2003-09-01

    A method for continuous compositional-spread (CCS) thin-film fabrication based on pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) is introduced. This approach is based on a translation of the substrate heater and the synchronized firing of the excimer laser, with the deposition occurring through a slit-shaped aperture. Alloying is achieved during film growth (possible at elevated temperature) by the repeated sequential deposition of submonolayer amounts. Our approach overcomes serious shortcomings in previous in situ implementation of CCS based on sputtering or PLD, in particular the variation of thickness across the compositional spread and the differing deposition energetics as a function of position. While moving-shutter techniques are appropriate for PLD approaches yielding complete spreads on small substrates (i.e., small as compared to distances over which the deposition parameters in PLD vary, typically ≈1 cm), our method can be used to fabricate samples that are large enough for individual compositions to be analyzed by conventional techniques, including temperature-dependent measurements of resistivity and dielectric and magnetic properties (i.e., superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry). Initial results are shown for spreads of (Sr1-xCax)RuO3.

  17. Characterizations of the TiO2-x films synthesized by e-beam evaporation for endovascular applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zeng; Lee, In-Seop; Choi, Yoon-Jeong; Noh, In-Sup; Chung, Sung-Min

    2009-02-01

    Different chemical states of titanium oxide films were deposited on commercially pure Ti (CP Ti) by electron-beam evaporation at different oxygen flow rates to examine a possibility of their applications to endovascular stents. The surface morphology, chemical composition and crystal structure of the obtained titanium oxide films were analyzed by FE-SEM, XPS and XRD, respectively. As a function of the deposition parameters employed, the obtained titanium oxide films demonstrated different mixtures of anatase phase, Ti2O3 and TiO. By the formation of titanium oxide film on the CP Ti plate, the contact angle was decreased and the cellular activity of porcine aortic smooth muscle cells was increased. Post-deposition annealing was also found to be an important factor to achieve advantageous biocompatibility. When haemocompatibility was investigated by observing adhesion of blood platelets from platelet-rich plasma, less platelet adhesion was observed on titanium oxide films. These results indicated that titanium oxide film synthesized by e-beam evaporation could be applicable to coronary stents.

  18. Optimization of the Automated Spray Layer-by-Layer Technique for Thin Film Deposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    pieces. All silicon was cleaned with ethanol and Milli-Q water to hydroxylate the surface. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Si02 coated sensors (Q-sense...was deposited onto a SiO2 coated QCM crystal using the automated dipping process described earlier. Once the film was deposited, it was dried over...night, and then placed in the QCM -D device. An additional layer of PAH was deposited onto the crystal in the QCM -D chamber at a flow rate of 1pL/minute

  19. Influence of solution deposition rate on properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abd–Alghafour, N. M., E-mail: na2013bil@gmail.com; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hassan, Zai

    Vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using a cost-efficient spray pyrolysis technique. The films were grown at 350° through thermal decomposition of VCl{sub 3} in deionized water with different solution spray rates. The high resolution X-ray diffraction results revealed the formation of nanocrystalline films having orthorhombic structures with preferential orientation along (101) direction. The spray rate influenced the surface morphology and crystallite size of the films. The crystallite size was found to increase whereas the micro-strain was decreased by increasing the spray deposition rates. The increase in crystallite size and decrease in themore » macrostrain resulted in an improvement in the films’ crystallinity. The UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis indicated that the average transmittance of all films lies in the range 75-80 %. The band gap of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film was decreased from 2.65 to 2.46 eV with increase of the spray deposition rate from 5 ml/min to 10 ml/min. first, second, and third level headings (first level heading).« less

  20. Atmospheric deposition of particles at a sensitive alpine lake: Size-segregated daily and annual fluxes from passive sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Tai, Anna Y-C; Chen, L-W Antony; Wang, Xiaoliang; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G

    2017-02-01

    Lake Tahoe, a North American alpine lake long appreciated for its clear water and geographic setting, has experienced a trend of declining water clarity due to increasing nutrient and particle inputs. Contributions from atmospheric deposition of particulate matter (PM) could be important, yet they are inadequately quantified. This study established a yearlong deposition monitoring network in the northern Lake Tahoe Basin. Dry deposition was quantified on surrogate surfaces while wet deposition was based on particles suspended in precipitation at 24-hour resolution. The particle size ranges by these passive techniques were 1-64μm and 0.5-20μm in diameter for dry and wet deposition, respectively. Dry deposition of submicrometer (0.5-1μm) particles was also estimated by extrapolation of a lognormal size distribution. Higher daily number deposition fluxes (NDF dry and NDF wet ) were found at a near-shore site, confirming substantial impacts of commercial and tourist activities. The two more isolated sites indicated a uniform regional background. On average, daily NDF dry is about one order of magnitude lower than daily NDF wet . Dry deposition velocities increased rapidly with particle size, as evidenced by collocated measurements of NDF dry and ambient particle number concentrations, though it seems less so for wet deposition due to different scavenging mechanisms. Despite fewer "wet" days than "dry" days during the monitoring period, wet processes dominated seasonal particle deposition, particularly in winter and spring when most precipitation occurred. Adopting sediment (insoluble, inorganic) particle fraction estimates from the literature, this study reports an annual particle flux of 2.9-5.2×10 10 #m -2 yr -1 for sediment particles with 1-20μm diameter and 6.1-11×10 10 #m -2 yr -1 for those with 0.5-20μm diameter. Implications of these findings to the current knowledge of atmospheric deposition in the Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) are discussed

  1. Optical characterization of Mg-doped ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Shweta; Hazra, Purnima

    2016-05-06

    This paper reports the in-depth analysis on optical characteristics of magnesium (Mg) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films grown on p-silicon (Si) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The variable angle ellipsometer is used for the optical characterization of as-deposited thin films. The optical reflectance, transmission spectra and thickness of as-deposited thin films are measured in the spectral range of 300-800 nm with the help of the spectroscopic ellipsometer. The effect of Mg-doping on optical parameters such as optical bandgap, absorption coefficient, absorbance, extinction coefficient, refractive Index and dielectric constant for as-deposited thin films are extracted to show its application inmore » optoelectronic and photonic devices.« less

  2. Assessment of multiple geophysical techniques for the characterization of municipal waste deposit sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaël, Dumont; Tanguy, Robert; Nicolas, Marck; Frédéric, Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we tested the ability of geophysical methods to characterize a large technical landfill installed in a former sand quarry. The geophysical surveys specifically aimed at delimitating the deposit site horizontal extension, at estimating its thickness and at characterizing the waste material composition (the moisture content in the present case). The site delimitation was conducted with electromagnetic (in-phase and out-of-phase) and magnetic (vertical gradient and total field) methods that clearly showed the transition between the waste deposit and the host formation. Regarding waste deposit thickness evaluation, electrical resistivity tomography appeared inefficient on this particularly thick deposit site. Thus, we propose a combination of horizontal to vertical noise spectral ratio (HVNSR) and multichannel analysis of the surface waves (MASW), which successfully determined the approximate waste deposit thickness in our test landfill. However, ERT appeared to be an appropriate tool to characterize the moisture content of the waste, which is of prior information for the organic waste biodegradation process. The global multi-scale and multi-method geophysical survey offers precious information for site rehabilitation studies, water content mitigation processes for enhanced biodegradation or landfill mining operation planning.

  3. The e-Beam Sustained Laser Technology for Space-based Doppler Wind Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, M. J.; Holman, W.; Robinson, R. J.; Schwarzenberger, P. M.; Smith, I. M.; Wallace, S.; Harris, M. R.; Willetts, D. V.; Kurzius, S. C.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of GEC Avionics activities relating to the Spaceborne Doppler Wind Lidar. In particular, the results of design studies into the use of an e-beam sustained CO2 laser for spaceborne applications, and experimental work on a test bed system are discussed.

  4. Experimental Studies on role of pH, potential and concentration of buffer solution for chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresha, B. L.; Sumantha, H. S.; Salman, K. Mohammed; Pramod, N. G.; Abhiram, J.

    2018-04-01

    The ionization potential is usually found to be less in acid and more in base. The experiment proves that the ionization potential increases on dilution of acid to base and reduces from base to acid. The potential can be tailored according to the desired properties based on our choice of acid or base. The experimental study establishes a direct relationship between pH and electric potential. This work provides theoretical insights on the need for a basic media of pH 10 in chemical thin film growth techniques called Chemical Bath Deposition Techniques.

  5. Growth of high quality yttrium iron garnet films using standard pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, Aliaa M.; Blythe, Harry J.; Heald, Steve M.; Fox, A. Mark; Gehring, Gillian A.

    2018-05-01

    Thin films with properties comparable to bulk single crystals were grown by pulsed laser deposition using a substrate temperature of only 500 °C. This was achieved by a careful choice of both the oxygen pressure in the deposition chamber and the temperature of the air anneal. The best films were grown on gadolinium gallium garnet substrates but we also report data for films grown on the diamagnetic substrate yttrium aluminium garnet. The films were analysed using X-ray diffraction, near edge X-ray absorption and magnetometry. Our best films had a magnetisation of 143 emu/cm3 and a coercive field of ∼1 Oe.

  6. Functional Micrococcus lysodeikticus layers deposited by laser technique for the optical sensing of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Dinca, Valentina; Zaharie-Butucel, Diana; Stanica, Luciana; Brajnicov, Simona; Marascu, Valentina; Bonciu, Anca; Cristocea, Andra; Gaman, Laura; Gheorghiu, Mihaela; Astilean, Simion; Vasilescu, Alina

    2018-02-01

    Whole cell optical biosensors, made by immobilizing whole algal, bacterial or mammalian cells on various supports have found applications in several fields, from ecology and ecotoxicity testing to biopharmaceutical production or medical diagnostics. We hereby report the deposition of functional bacterial layers of Micrococcus lysodeikticus (ML) via Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) on poly(diallyldimethylamonium) (PDDA)-coated-glass slides and their application as an optical biosensor for the detection of lysozyme in serum. Lysozyme is an enzyme upregulated in inflammatory diseases and ML is an enzymatic substrate for this enzyme. The MAPLE-deposited bacterial interfaces were characterised by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman and optical microscopy and were compared with control interfaces deposited via layer-by-layer on the same substrate. After MAPLE deposition and coating with graphene oxide (GO), ML-modified interfaces retained their functionality and sensitivity to lysozyme's lytic action. The optical biosensor detected lysozyme in undiluted serum in the clinically relevant range up to 10μgmL -1 , in a fast and simple manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Massive metrology using fast e-beam technology improves OPC model accuracy by >2x at faster turnaround time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qian; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jazer; Wang, ChangAn; Shi, Hong-Fei; Guerrero, James; Feng, Mu; Zhang, Qiang; Liang, Jiao; Guo, Yunbo; Zhang, Chen; Wallow, Tom; Rio, David; Wang, Lester; Wang, Alvin; Wang, Jen-Shiang; Gronlund, Keith; Lang, Jun; Koh, Kar Kit; Zhang, Dong Qing; Zhang, Hongxin; Krishnamurthy, Subramanian; Fei, Ray; Lin, Chiawen; Fang, Wei; Wang, Fei

    2018-03-01

    Classical SEM metrology, CD-SEM, uses low data rate and extensive frame-averaging technique to achieve high-quality SEM imaging for high-precision metrology. The drawbacks include prolonged data collection time and larger photoresist shrinkage due to excess electron dosage. This paper will introduce a novel e-beam metrology system based on a high data rate, large probe current, and ultra-low noise electron optics design. At the same level of metrology precision, this high speed e-beam metrology system could significantly shorten data collection time and reduce electron dosage. In this work, the data collection speed is higher than 7,000 images per hr. Moreover, a novel large field of view (LFOV) capability at high resolution was enabled by an advanced electron deflection system design. The area coverage by LFOV is >100x larger than classical SEM. Superior metrology precision throughout the whole image has been achieved, and high quality metrology data could be extracted from full field. This new capability on metrology will further improve metrology data collection speed to support the need for large volume of metrology data from OPC model calibration of next generation technology. The shrinking EPE (Edge Placement Error) budget places more stringent requirement on OPC model accuracy, which is increasingly limited by metrology errors. In the current practice of metrology data collection and data processing to model calibration flow, CD-SEM throughput becomes a bottleneck that limits the amount of metrology measurements available for OPC model calibration, impacting pattern coverage and model accuracy especially for 2D pattern prediction. To address the trade-off in metrology sampling and model accuracy constrained by the cycle time requirement, this paper employs the high speed e-beam metrology system and a new computational software solution to take full advantage of the large volume data and significantly reduce both systematic and random metrology errors. The

  8. Projection Reduction Exposure with Variable Axis Immersion Lenses (PREVAIL)-A High Throughput E-Beam Projection Approach for Next Generation Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Hans

    1999-12-01

    Projection reduction exposure with variable axis immersion lenses (PREVAIL) represents the high throughput e-beam projection approach to next generation lithography (NGL), which IBM is pursuing in cooperation with Nikon Corporation as an alliance partner. This paper discusses the challenges and accomplishments of the PREVAIL project. The supreme challenge facing all e-beam lithography approaches has been and still is throughput. Since the throughput of e-beam projection systems is severely limited by the available optical field size, the key to success is the ability to overcome this limitation. The PREVAIL technique overcomes field-limiting off-axis aberrations through the use of variable axis lenses, which electronically shift the optical axis simultaneously with the deflected beam, so that the beam effectively remains on axis. The resist images obtained with the proof-of-concept (POC) system demonstrate that PREVAIL effectively eliminates off-axis aberrations affecting both the resolution and placement accuracy of pixels. As part of the POC system a high emittance gun has been developed to provide uniform illumination of the patterned subfield, and to fill the large numerical aperture projection optics designed to significantly reduce beam blur caused by Coulombinteraction.

  9. HF treatment effect for carbon deposition on silicon (111) by DC sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, A. S., E-mail: aji.ravazes70@gmail.com; Darma, Y., E-mail: aji.ravazes70@gmail.com

    Surface modifications of Si (111) substrate by HF solution for thin film carbon deposition have been systematically studied. Thin film carbon on Si (111) has been deposited using DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with carbon pellet doped by 5% Fe as the target. EDAX characterization confirmed that the carbon fraction on Si substrate much higher by dipping a clean Si substrate by HF solution before sputtering process in comparison with carbon fraction on Si substrate just after conventional RCA. Moreover, SEM and AFM images show the uniform thin film carbon on Si with HF treatment, in contrast to the Si withoutmore » HF solution treatment. These experimental results suggest that HF treatment of Si surface provide Si-H bonds on top Si surface that useful to enhance the carbon deposition during sputtering process. Furthermore, we investigate the thermal stability of thin film carbon on Si by thermal annealing process up to 900 °C. Atomic arrangements during annealing process were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra indicate that thin film carbon on Si is remaining unchanged until 600 °C and carbon atoms start to diffuse toward Si substrate after annealing at 900 °C.« less

  10. Wetting behaviour of carbon nitride nanostructures grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad Kamal, Shafarina Azlinda; Ritikos, Richard; Abdul Rahman, Saadah

    2015-02-01

    Tuning the wettability of various coating materials by simply controlling the deposition parameters is essential for various specific applications. In this work, carbon nitride (CNx) films were deposited on silicon (1 1 1) substrates using radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition employing parallel plate electrode configuration. Effects of varying the electrode distance (DE) on the films' structure and bonding properties were investigated using Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The wettability of the films was analyzed using water contact angle measurements. At high DE, the CNx films' surface was smooth and uniform. This changed into fibrous nanostructures when DE was decreased. Surface roughness of the films increased with this morphological transformation. Nitrogen incorporation increased with decrease in DE which manifested the increase in both relative intensities of Cdbnd N to Cdbnd C and Nsbnd H to Osbnd H bonds. sp2-C to sp3-C ratio increased as DE decreased due to greater deformation of sp2 bonded carbon at lower DE. The films' characteristics changed from hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic with the decrease in DE. Roughness ratio, surface porosity and surface energy calculated from contact angle measurements were strongly dependent on the morphology, surface roughness and bonding properties of the films.

  11. Techniques to alleviate nuisance alarms observed by PCMs following 222Rn-progeny deposition on clothing.

    PubMed

    Justus, Alan L

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents technically-based techniques to deal with nuisance personnel contamination monitor (PCM) alarms. The techniques derive from the fundamental physical characteristics of radon progeny. Some PCM alarms, although valid alarms and not actually "false," could be due to nuisance naturally-occurring radionuclides (i.e., radon progeny). Based on certain observed characteristics of the radon progeny, several prompt techniques are discussed that could either remediate or at least mitigate the problem of nuisance alarms. Examples are provided which demonstrate the effective use of the techniques.

  12. Demonstration of lithography patterns using reflective e-beam direct write

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Regina; Sun, Jeff; Brodie, Alan; Petric, Paul; McCord, Mark; Ronse, Kurt; Haspeslagh, Luc; Vereecke, Bart

    2011-04-01

    Traditionally, e-beam direct write lithography has been too slow for most lithography applications. E-beam direct write lithography has been used for mask writing rather than wafer processing since the maximum blur requirements limit column beam current - which drives e-beam throughput. To print small features and a fine pitch with an e-beam tool requires a sacrifice in processing time unless one significantly increases the total number of beams on a single writing tool. Because of the uncertainty with regards to the optical lithography roadmap beyond the 22 nm technology node, the semiconductor equipment industry is in the process of designing and testing e-beam lithography tools with the potential for high volume wafer processing. For this work, we report on the development and current status of a new maskless, direct write e-beam lithography tool which has the potential for high volume lithography at and below the 22 nm technology node. A Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) tool is being developed for high throughput electron beam direct write maskless lithography. The system is targeting critical patterning steps at the 22 nm node and beyond at a capital cost equivalent to conventional lithography. Reflective Electron Beam Lithography incorporates a number of novel technologies to generate and expose lithographic patterns with a throughput and footprint comparable to current 193 nm immersion lithography systems. A patented, reflective electron optic or Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) enables the unique approach. The Digital Pattern Generator is a CMOS ASIC chip with an array of small, independently controllable lens elements (lenslets), which act as an array of electron mirrors. In this way, the REBL system is capable of generating the pattern to be written using massively parallel exposure by ~1 million beams at extremely high data rates (~ 1Tbps). A rotary stage concept using a rotating platen carrying multiple wafers optimizes the writing strategy of

  13. Photodetectors based on carbon nanotubes deposited by using a spray technique on semi-insulating gallium arsenide

    PubMed Central

    Nitti, Maria Angela; Valentini, Marco; Valentini, Antonio; Ligonzo, Teresa; De Pascali, Giuseppe; Ambrico, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Summary In this paper, a spray technique is used to perform low temperature deposition of multi-wall carbon nanotubes on semi-insulating gallium arsenide in order to obtain photodectors. A dispersion of nanotube powder in non-polar 1,2-dichloroethane is used as starting material. The morphological properties of the deposited films has been analysed by means of electron microscopy, in scanning and transmission mode. Detectors with different layouts have been prepared and current–voltage characteristics have been recorded in the dark and under irradiation with light in the range from ultraviolet to near infrared. The device spectral efficiency obtained from the electrical characterization is finally reported and an improvement of the photodetector behavior due to the nanotubes is presented and discussed. PMID:25383309

  14. Effect of sputtering power on MgF2 thin films deposited by sputtering technique under fluorine trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Rajnarayan; Haque, S. Maidul; Tripathi, S.; Prathap, C.; Rao, K. Divakar; Sahoo, N. K.

    2016-05-01

    A non-conventional magnetron sputtering technique was explored to deposit magnesium fluoride thin films using the concept of fluorine gas trapping without the introduction of additional fluorine gas flow inside the chamber. The effect of magnetron power from 50 W to 250 W has been explored on structural, optical and physical properties of the samples. Polycrystalline nature with tetragonal crystallinity of the films has been confirmed by GIXRD measurements along with thickness dependency. Monotonic increase of attenuation coefficient (k) with RF power has been explained in terms of target compound dissociation probability. In conclusion, with fluorine trapping method, the samples deposited at lower RF powers (<100 W) are found to be more suitable for optical applications.

  15. Noninvasive radioisotopic technique for detection of platelet deposition in mitral valve prostheses and quantitation of visceral microembolism in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Fuster, V.; Rao, S.A.

    1983-05-01

    A noninvasive technique has been developed in the dog model for imaging, with a gamma camera, the platelet deposition on Bjoerk-Shiley mitral valve prostheses early postoperatively. At 25 hours after implantation of the prosthesis and 24 hours after intravenous administration of 400 to 500 microCi of platelets labeled with indium-111, the platelet deposition in the sewing ring and perivalvular cardiac tissue can be clearly delineated in a scintiphotograph. An in vitro technique was also developed for quantitation of visceral microemboli in brain, lungs, kidneys, and other tissues. Biodistribution of the labeled platelets was quantitated, and the tissue/blood radioactivity ratio wasmore » determined in 22 dogs in four groups: unoperated normal dogs, sham-operated dogs, prosthesis-implanted dogs, and prosthesis-implanted dogs treated with dipyridamole before and aspirin and dipyridamole immediately after operation. Fifteen to 20% of total platelets were consumed as a consequence of the surgical procedure. On quantitation, we found that platelet deposition on the components of the prostheses was significantly reduced in prosthesis-implanted animals treated with dipyridamole and aspirin when compared with prosthesis-implanted, untreated dogs. All prosthesis-implanted animals considered together had a twofold to fourfold increase in tissue/blood radioactivity ratio in comparison with unoperated and sham-operated animals, an indication that the viscera work as filters and trap platelet microemboli that are presumably produced in the region of the mitral valve prostheses. In the dog model, indium-111-labeled platelets thus provide a sensitive marker for noninvasive imaging of platelet deposition on mechanical mitral valve prostheses, in vitro evaluation of platelet microembolism in viscera, in vitro quantitation of surgical consumption of platelets, and evaluation of platelet-inhibitor drugs.« less

  16. Investigation of e-beam sensitive negative-tone chemically amplified resists for binary mask making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmscher, Mathias; Berger, Lothar; Beyer, Dirk; Butschke, Joerg; Dress, Peter; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hudek, Peter; Koepernik, Corinna; Tschinkl, Martin; Voehringer, Peter

    2003-08-01

    Negative-tone chemically amplified resists MES-EN1G (JSR), FEN-270 (Fujifilm ARCH), EN-024M (TOK) and NEB-22 (Sumitomo) were evaluated for binary mask making. The investigations were performed on an advanced tool set comprising a 50kV e-beam writer Leica SB350, a Steag Hamatech hot/cool plate module APB5000, a Steag Hamatech developer ASP5000, an UNAXIS MASK ETCHER III and a SEM LEO1560 with integrated CD measurement option. We investigated and compared the evaluated resists in terms of resolution, e-beam sensitivity, resist profile, post exposure bake sensitivity, CD-uniformity, line edge roughness, pattern fidelity and etch resistance. Furthermore, the influence of post coating delay and post exposure delay in vacuum and air was determined.

  17. Semi-commercial scale production of carrageenan plant growth promoter by E-beam technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Dean, Giuseppe Filam O.; Magsino, Gil L.; Dela Cruz, Rafael Miguel M.; Tecson, Mariel G.; Abella, Matt Ezekiel S.; Hizon, Mark Gil S.

    2018-02-01

    The plant growth promoter (PGP) effect of different formulations of gamma-irradiated carrageenan solutions were tested on rice by foliar spraying. The best formulation was produced in large quantity for field application. Multilocation trials of around 1600 ha rice field in different regions of the Philippines indicated increase in yield of an average of around 20%. Increased resistance to tungro virus was also noted. Likewise, there was extensive root growth, increase in number of tillers, and development of sturdy stems that prevented lodging of rice plant. E-beam irradiation of carrageenan PGP was also studied to increase its throughput of production. Degradation of carrageenan by e-beam irradiation is inhibited by the formation of crosslinks. Optimisation by addition of hydrogen peroxide to improve degradation is discussed. A continuous flow liquid handling system has been fabricated to increase throughput of the carrageenan PGP. Using the optimized parameters, the system can produce a volume of approximately 1700 L/h.

  18. Near room-temperature direct encapsulation of organic photovoltaics by plasma-based deposition techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Perrotta, Alberto; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Khan, Talha M.; ...

    2016-12-02

    Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) is used for the deposition of environmental barriers directly onto organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) at near room temperature (30 °C). To study the effect of the ALD process on the organic materials forming the device, the precursor diffusion and intermixing at the interface during the growth of different plasma- assisted ALD inorganic barriers (i.e. Al2O3 and TiO2) onto the organic photoactive layer (P3HT:ICBA) was investigated. Depth profile x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the composition of the organic/inorganic interface to investigate the infiltration of the plasma-assisted ALD precursors into the photoactive layer as amore » function of the precursor dimension, the process temperature, and organic layer morphology. The free volume in the photoactive layer accessible to the ALD precursor was characterized by means of ellipsometric porosimetry (EP) and spectroscopic ellipsometry as a function of temperature. The organic layer is shown to exhibit free volume broadening at high temperatures, increasing the infiltration depth of the ALD precursor into the photoactive layer. Furthermore, based on previous investigations, the intrinsic permeation properties of the inorganic layers deposited by plasma-assisted ALD were predicted from the nano-porosity content as measured by EP and found to be in the 10-6 gm-2 d-1 range. Insight from our studies was used to design and fabricate multilayer barriers synthesized at near-room temperature by plasma-assisted ALD in combination with plasma-enhanced CVD onto organic photovoltaic (OPVs) devices. Encapsulated OPVs displayed shelf-lifetimes up to 1400 h at ambient conditions.« less

  19. Investigation of a Complex Technique of Smoke Particle Deposition on Scavengers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Code) 7b. ADDRESS (CiJyjoj~ e and ZIP Co* e ) Rola, O 6401P.O. BoRolla MO 6’~OlResearch Triangle Park, NC 27709 Sa. NAME OF FUNOINGiSPONSO.IING O b. OFFICE...TITLE (Inld~ e Secunty Clew V11111’ non) . IN Investigation of a Co~mplex Tecbnique of Smoke Particle Deposition on Scavengers 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...was authorized under Contract No. DAAK-1l-83-K-0007. This work was started in ’u,; e 1983 and completed in August 1986. The use of trade names or

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Cu3Se2 nanofilms by an underpotential deposition based electrochemical codeposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydın, Zehra Yazar; Abacı, Serdar

    2017-12-01

    The Cu3Se2 nanofilms were synthesized with underpotential deposition based electrochemical codeposition technique for the first time in the literature. The electrochemical behaviors of copper and selenium were investigated in 0.1 M H2SO4 on Au electrode. The effects of concentration and scan rate on the electrochemical behavior of selenium were studied. The electrochemical behaviors in underpotential deposition and bulk regions of the Cu-Se system were investigated in acidic solution by cyclic voltammetry and electrolysis techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy techniques were used for characterization of synthesized films. According to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum, Cu/Se ratio was determined to be approximately 3/2. Copper selenide nanofilms are two phases and polycrystalline according to X-ray diffraction. The films mainly formed tetragonal Cu3Se2 (umangite mineral structure) structure and the particle size was approximately 45.95 nm. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Cu3Se2 nanofilms consisted of uniform, nano-sizes and two-dimensional. It was found through AFM that the surface roughness of the film was 6.173 nm, with a mean particle size of around 50 nm. Depending on the deposition time, the band gaps of the Cu3Se2 films were in the range of 2.86-3.20 eV. Three characteristic vibrational modes belonging to Cu3Se2 nanofilms were recorded in the Raman spectrum.

  1. E-beam-Cure Fabrication of Polymer Fiber/Matrix Composites for Multifunctional Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Jensen, Brian J.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Saether, Erik; Glaessgen, Edward H.; Humes, Donald H.; Chang, Chie K.; Badavi, Francis F.; Kiefer, Rrichard L.; hide

    2004-01-01

    Aliphatic polymers were identified as optimum radiation polymeric shielding materials for building multifunctional structural elements. Conceptual damage-tolerant configurations of polyolefins have been proposed but many issues on the manufacture remain. In the present paper, we will investigate fabrication technologies with e-beam curing for inclusion of high-strength aliphatic polymer fibers into a highly cross-linked polyolefin matrix. A second stage of development is the fabrication methods for applying face sheets to aliphatic polymer closed-cell foams.

  2. Electrically conducting nanopatterns formed by chemical e-beam lithography via gold nanoparticle seeds.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Patrick A; Besmehn, Astrid; Maynicke, Eva; Noyong, Michael; Beschoten, Bernd; Simon, Ulrich

    2012-02-07

    We report the formation of thiol nanopatterns on SAM covered silicon wafers by converting sulfonic acid head groups via e-beam lithography. These thiol groups act as binding sites for gold nanoparticles, which can be enhanced to form electrically conducting nanostructures. This approach serves as a proof-of-concept for the combination of top-down and bottom-up processes for the generation of electrical devices on silicon.

  3. Geometrical correction of the e-beam proximity effect for raster scan systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belic, Nikola; Eisenmann, Hans; Hartmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas

    1999-06-01

    Increasing demands on pattern fidelity and CD accuracy in e- beam lithography require a correction of the e-beam proximity effect. The new needs are mainly coming from OPC at mask level and x-ray lithography. The e-beam proximity limits the achievable resolution and affects neighboring structures causing under- or over-exposion depending on the local pattern densities and process settings. Methods to compensate for this unequilibrated does distribution usually use a dose modulation or multiple passes. In general raster scan systems are not able to apply variable doses in order to compensate for the proximity effect. For system of this kind a geometrical modulation of the original pattern offers a solution for compensation of line edge deviations due to the proximity effect. In this paper a new method for the fast correction of the e-beam proximity effect via geometrical pattern optimization is described. The method consists of two steps. In a first step the pattern dependent dose distribution caused by back scattering is calculated by convolution of the pattern with the long range part of the proximity function. The restriction to the long range part result in a quadratic sped gain in computing time for the transformation. The influence of the short range part coming from forward scattering is not pattern dependent and can therefore be determined separately in a second step. The second calculation yields the dose curve at the border of a written structure. The finite gradient of this curve leads to an edge displacement depending on the amount of underground dosage at the observed position which was previously determined in the pattern dependent step. This unintended edge displacement is corrected by splitting the line into segments and shifting them by multiples of the writers address grid to the opposite direction.

  4. Characterization of ZnO:SnO{sub 2} (50:50) thin film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia, S. R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Ponmudi, S.

    2016-05-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films have attracted significant interest recently for use in optoelectronic application such as solar cells, flat panel displays, photonic devices, laser diodes and gas sensors because of their desirable electrical and optical properties and wide band gap. In the present study, thin films of ZnO:SnO{sub 2} (50:50) were deposited on pre-cleaned microscopic glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The substrate temperature and RF power induced changes in structural, surface morphological, compositional and optical properties of the films have been studied.

  5. E-Beam Capture Aid Drawing Based Modelling on Cell Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, T.; Rahmat, A.; Redjeki, S.; Rahman, T.

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this research are to find out how far Drawing-based Modeling assisted with E-Beam Capture could support student’s scientific reasoning skill using Drawing - based Modeling approach assisted with E-Beam Capture. The research design that is used for this research is the Pre-test and Post-test Design. The data collection of scientific reasoning skills is collected by giving multiple choice questions before and after the lesson. The data analysis of scientific reasoning skills is using scientific reasoning assessment rubric. The results show an improvement of student’s scientific reasoning in every indicator; an improvement in generativity which shows 2 students achieving high scores, 3 students in elaboration reasoning, 4 students in justification, 3 students in explanation, 3 students in logic coherency, 2 students in synthesis. The research result in student’s explanation reasoning has the highest number of students with high scores, which shows 20 students with high scores in the pre-test and 23 students in post-test and synthesis reasoning shows the lowest number, which shows 1 student in the pretest and 3 students in posttest. The research result gives the conclusion that Drawing-based Modeling approach assisted with E-Beam Capture could not yet support student’s scientific reasoning skills comprehensively.

  6. Comparison of DNQ/novolac resists for e-beam exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedynyshyn, Theodore H.; Doran, Scott P.; Lind, Michele L.; Lyszczarz, Theodore M.; DiNatale, William F.; Lennon, Donna; Sauer, Charles A.; Meute, Jeff

    1999-12-01

    We have surveyed the commercial resist market with the dual purpose of identifying diazoquinone/novolac based resists that have potential for use as e-beam mask making resists and baselining these resists for comparison against future mask making resist candidates. For completeness, this survey would require that each resist be compared with an optimized developer and development process. To accomplish this task in an acceptable time period, e-beam lithography modeling was employed to quickly identify the resist and developer combinations that lead to superior resist performance. We describe the verification of a method to quickly screen commercial i-line resists with different developers, by determining modeling parameters for i-line resists from e-beam exposures, modeling the resist performance, and comparing predicted performance versus actual performance. We determined the lithographic performance of several DNQ/novolac resists whose modeled performance suggests that sensitivities of less than 40 (mu) C/cm2 coupled with less than 10-nm CD change per percent change in dose are possible for target 600-nm features. This was accomplished by performing a series of statistically designed experiments on the leading resists candidates to optimize processing variables, followed by comparing experimentally determined resist sensitivities, latitudes, and profiles of the DNQ/novolac resists a their optimized process.

  7. Diagnostic Techniques Used to Study Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2000-01-01

    The advantages and utility of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond as an industrial ceramic can only be realized if the price and quality are right. Until recently, this technology was of interest only to the academic and basic research community. However, interest has grown because of advances made by leading CVD diamond suppliers: 1) Reduction of the cost of CVD polycrystalline diamond deposition below $5/carat ($8/sq cm); 2) Installation of production capacity; 3) Epitaxial growth of CVD single-crystal diamond. Thus, CVD diamond applications and business are an industrial reality. At present, CVD diamond is produced in the form of coatings or wafers. CVD diamond film technology offers a broader technological potential than do natural and high-pressure synthetic diamonds because size, geometry, and eventually cost will not be as limiting. Now that they are cost effective, diamond coatings - with their extreme properties - can be used in a variety of applications. Diamond coatings can improve many of the surface properties of engineering substrate materials, including erosion, corrosion, and wear resistance. Examples of actual and potential applications, from microelectromechanical systems to the wear parts of diamond coatings and related superhard coatings are described. For example, diamond coatings can be used as a chemical and mechanical barrier for the space shuttles check valves, particularly on the guide pins and seat assemblies.

  8. In Situ Synthesis and Characterization of Fe-Based Metallic Glass Coatings by Electrospark Deposition Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, Alexander A.; Pyachin, S. A.; Ermakov, M. A.; Syuy, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    Crystalline FeWMoCrBC electrode materials were prepared by conventional powder metallurgy. Metallic glass (MG) coatings were produced by electrospark deposition onto AISI 1035 steel in argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy verified the amorphous structure of the as-deposited coatings. The coatings have a thickness of about 40 microns and a uniform structure. The results of dry sliding wear tests against high-speed steel demonstrated that Fe-based MG coatings had a lower friction coefficient and more than twice the wear resistance for 20 km sliding distance with respect to AISI 1035 steel. High-temperature oxidation treatment of the metal glass coatings at 1073 K in air for 12 h revealed that the oxidation resistance of the best coating was 36 times higher than that for bare AISI 1035 steel. These findings are expected to broaden the applications of electrospark Fe-based MG as highly protective and anticorrosive coatings for mild steel.

  9. Growth, characterization and post-processing of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic thin films deposited using atomic and molecular layer deposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulagatov, Aziz Ilmutdinovich

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) are advanced thin film coating techniques developed for deposition of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic films respectively. Decreasing device dimensions and increasing aspect ratios in semiconductor processing has motivated developments in ALD. The beginning of this thesis will cover study of new ALD chemistry for high dielectric constant Y 2O3. In addition, the feasibility of conducting low temperature ALD of TiN and TiAlN is explored using highly reactive hydrazine as a new nitrogen source. Developments of these ALD processes are important for the electronics industry. As the search for new materials with more advanced properties continues, attention has shifted toward exploring the synthesis of hierarchically nanostructured thin films. Such complex architectures can provide novel functions important to the development of state of the art devices for the electronics industry, catalysis, energy conversion and memory storage as a few examples. Therefore, the main focus of this thesis is on the growth, characterization, and post-processing of ALD and MLD films for fabrication of novel composite (nanostructured) thin films. Novel composite materials are created by annealing amorphous ALD oxide alloys in air and by heat treatment of hybrid organic-inorganic MLD films in inert atmosphere (pyrolysis). The synthesis of porous TiO2 or Al2O3 supported V2O5 for enhanced surface area catalysis was achieved by the annealing of inorganic TiVxOy and AlV xOy ALD films in air. The interplay between phase separation, surface energy difference, crystallization, and melting temperature of individual oxides were studied for their control of film morphology. In other work, a class of novel metal oxide-graphitic carbon composite thin films was produced by pyrolysis of MLD hybrid organic-inorganic films. For example, annealing in argon of titania based hybrid films enabled fabrication of thin films of intimately

  10. Fabrication and characterisation of ligand-functionalised ultrapure monodispersed metal nanoparticle nanoassemblies employing advanced gas deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geremariam Welearegay, Tesfalem; Cindemir, Umut; Österlund, Lars; Ionescu, Radu

    2018-02-01

    Here, we report for the first time the fabrication of ligand-functionalised ultrapure monodispersed metal nanoparticles (Au, Cu, and Pt) from their pure metal precursors using the advanced gas deposition technique. The experimental conditions during nanoparticle formation were adjusted in order to obtain ultrafine isolated nanoparticles on different substrates. The morphology and surface analysis of the as-deposited metal nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, which demonstrated the formation of highly ordered pure crystalline nanoparticles with a relatively uniform size distribution of ∼10 nm (Au), ∼4 nm (Cu) and ∼3 nm (Pt), respectively. A broad range of organic ligands containing thiol or amine functional groups were attached to the nanoparticles to form continuous networks of nanoparticle-ligand nanoassemblies, which were characterised by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrical resistance of the functional nanoassemblies deposited in the gap spacing of two microfabricated parallel Au electrodes patterned on silicon substrates ranged between tens of kΩ and tens of MΩ, which is suitable for use in many applications including (bio)chemical sensors, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and molecular electronic rectifiers.

  11. Using wire shaping techniques and holographic optics to optimize deposition characteristics in wire-based laser cladding.

    PubMed

    Goffin, N J; Higginson, R L; Tyrer, J R

    2016-12-01

    In laser cladding, the potential benefits of wire feeding are considerable. Typical problems with the use of powder, such as gas entrapment, sub-100% material density and low deposition rate are all avoided with the use of wire. However, the use of a powder-based source material is the industry standard, with wire-based deposition generally regarded as an academic curiosity. This is because, although wire-based methods have been shown to be capable of superior quality results, the wire-based process is more difficult to control. In this work, the potential for wire shaping techniques, combined with existing holographic optical element knowledge, is investigated in order to further improve the processing characteristics. Experiments with pre-placed wire showed the ability of shaped wire to provide uniformity of wire melting compared with standard round wire, giving reduced power density requirements and superior control of clad track dilution. When feeding with flat wire, the resulting clad tracks showed a greater level of quality consistency and became less sensitive to alterations in processing conditions. In addition, a 22% increase in deposition rate was achieved. Stacking of multiple layers demonstrated the ability to create fully dense, three-dimensional structures, with directional metallurgical grain growth and uniform chemical structure.

  12. Using wire shaping techniques and holographic optics to optimize deposition characteristics in wire-based laser cladding

    PubMed Central

    Higginson, R. L.; Tyrer, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    In laser cladding, the potential benefits of wire feeding are considerable. Typical problems with the use of powder, such as gas entrapment, sub-100% material density and low deposition rate are all avoided with the use of wire. However, the use of a powder-based source material is the industry standard, with wire-based deposition generally regarded as an academic curiosity. This is because, although wire-based methods have been shown to be capable of superior quality results, the wire-based process is more difficult to control. In this work, the potential for wire shaping techniques, combined with existing holographic optical element knowledge, is investigated in order to further improve the processing characteristics. Experiments with pre-placed wire showed the ability of shaped wire to provide uniformity of wire melting compared with standard round wire, giving reduced power density requirements and superior control of clad track dilution. When feeding with flat wire, the resulting clad tracks showed a greater level of quality consistency and became less sensitive to alterations in processing conditions. In addition, a 22% increase in deposition rate was achieved. Stacking of multiple layers demonstrated the ability to create fully dense, three-dimensional structures, with directional metallurgical grain growth and uniform chemical structure. PMID:28119550

  13. Optical properties of PVA capped nanocrystalline Cd1-xZnxS thin film synthesized by chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Lipika; Chaliha, Sumbit; Saikia, Prasanta Kumar

    2018-04-01

    A simple cost effective Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique has been employed for the preparation of nanocrystalline Cd1-xZnxS thin films in an alkaline medium at 333K for 120 minutes in polymer matrix. Optical parameters such as transmittance, optical band gap, reflectance, refractive index and extinction coefficient of the films was made using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. UV-spectroscopy study shows a good transmittance of 80-88% in visible wavelength region for the deposited films. The direct band gap energy (Eg) for the deposited films ranged from 3.5 to 3.7 eV depending on attribution of Zn into CdS. It shows a blue shift with respect to bulk value. A increase in transmittance and band gap is found with the increase of volume of Zn content. Cd1-xZnxS thin films exhibit the least reflectance for all the wavelengths in the visible region. The refractive indices (n) of the Cd1-xZnxS films were found in the range 1.38 to 2.94 in the visible region.

  14. Age determination of recent cave deposits using excess Pb-210 - A new technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, M.; Iliffe, Thomas M.

    1993-04-01

    We show that speleothems contain high concentrations of excess Pb-210 and that this Pb-210 excess can be successfully employed to obtain growth rates of speleothems deposited during the last 100 years. Of two specimens analyzed, a tubular 'soda straw' stalactite yielded a longitudinal growth rate of 1.1 mm/yr, while a normal icicle-shaped stalactite had a lateral growth rate of 0.028 mm/yr. The mass growth rates of these two speleothems (149 and 78 mg/yr respectively) are comparable within a factor of two. Studies of fine-scale variations in the isotopic composition of recent speleothems will help to corroborate the validity of palaeoclimate records obtained using longer lived isotopes and extending back into Pleistocene.

  15. Electrospray-deposition of graphene electrodes: a simple technique to build high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huaichao; Yang, Cheng; Lin, Ziyin; Yang, Quanhong; Kang, Feiyu; Wong, Ching Ping

    2015-05-28

    Here we report an electrostatic spray deposition method to prepare three-dimensional porous graphene electrodes for supercapacitor applications. The symmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent specific capacitance (366 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) in 6 M KOH) and long cycle life (108% capacitance retention up to 40 000 cycles). Moreover, the energy densities of the organic and aqueous electrolyte based supercapacitors reach 22.9 and 8.1 Wh kg(-1) when the power densities are 119.2 and 15.4 kW kg(-1), respectively. Compared with the previously reported graphene based supercapacitors, the improved properties could be attributed to the excellent three-dimensional open porous electrode structure, which is favorable for the ion diffusion and electron transport. In addition, this method provides a simple electrode-fabrication route without the involvement of conducting additives and binders. It may find vast applications in thin and miniaturized energy storage scenarios.

  16. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  17. Sequential extraction techniques applied to a porphyry copper deposit in the basin and range province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filipek, L.H.; Theobald, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Samples of minus-80-mesh (<180 ??m) stream sediment, rock containing exposed fracture coatings, and jarosite and chrysocolla were collected from an area surrounding the North Silver Bell porphyry Cu deposit near Tucson, Arizona. The samples were subjected to a series of extractions in a scheme originally designed for use on samples from humid or sub-humid environments, in which the following fractions can effectively be separated: (1) carbonates and exchangeable metals; (2) Mn oxides; (3) organic compounds and sulfides; (4) hydrous Fe oxides; and (5) residual crystalline minerals. Jarosite and chrysocolla, two major minerals of the North Silver Bell area, were found to dissolve over two or more steps of the extraction scheme. The results represent only a limited number of samples from one copper deposit. Nevertheless, they do suggest that in a semiarid to arid environment, where mechanical dispersion of such minerals predominates, uncritical assignment of unique phases, such as Mn oxides or organics to a given extraction would lead to false interpretations of weathering processes. However, the relative proportions of elements dissolved in each step of the jarosite and chrysocolla extractions could be used as a "fingerprint" for recognition of the presence of these two minerals in the stream-sediment and rock samples. The relative abundance of hydrous Fe oxide and jarosite and the alteration zoning could be mapped using data from jarosite and chrysocolla extractions. Manganese oxides were also found to have a greater influence on Zn than on Cu or Pb during supergene alteration. The rapid change in relative importance of the first (1M-acetic acid) extraction for Cu, Zn, and Pb near the mineralized zone suggested the occurrence of minor hydromorphic processes within the stream sediments. Thus, the acetic acid extraction proved the most effective for pinpointing mineralization in sediments. In contrast, the residual fraction had the longest dispersion train, suggesting

  18. Organic-inorganic field effect transistor with SnI-based perovskite channel layer using vapor phase deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Yasuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2003-11-01

    High field-effect hole mobility of (formula available in paper)and threshold voltage is -3.2 V) in organic-inorganic layered perovskite film (formula available in paper)prepared by a vapor phase deposition technique have been demonstrated through the octadecyltrichlorosilane treatment of substrate. Previously, the (formula available in paper)films prepared on the octadecyltrichlorosilane-covered substrates using a vapor evaporation showed not only intense exciton absorption and photoluminescence in the optical spectroscopy but also excellent crystallinity and large grain structure in X-ray and atomic force microscopic studies. Especially, the (formula available in paper)structure in the region below few nm closed to the surface of octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer was drastically improved in comparison with that on the non-covered substrate. Though our initial (formula available in paper)films via a same sequence of preparation of (formula available in paper)and octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer did not show the field-effect properties because of a lack of spectral, structural, and morphological features. The unformation of favorable (formula available in paper)structure in the very thin region, that is very important for the field-effect transistors to transport electrons or holes, closed to the surface of non-covered (formula available in paper)dielectric layer was also one of the problems for no observation of them. By adding further optimization and development, such as deposition rate of perovskite, substrate heating during deposition, and tuning device architecture, with hydrophobic treatment, the vacuum-deposited (formula available in paper)have achieved above-described high performance in organic-inorganic hybrid transistors.

  19. Effect of Coating Thickness on the Properties of TiN Coatings Deposited on Tool Steels Using Cathodic Arc Pvd Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, A.; Akhter, Parvez; Hamzah, Esah; Mohd Toff, Mohd Radzi Hj.; Qazi, Ishtiaq A.

    Titanium nitride (TiN) widely used as hard coating material, was coated on tool steels, namely on high-speed steel (HSS) and D2 tool steel by physical vapor deposition method. The study concentrated on cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CAPVD), a technique used for the deposition of hard coatings for tooling applications, and which has many advantages. The main drawback of this technique, however, is the formation of macrodroplets (MDs) during deposition, resulting in films with rougher morphology. Various standard characterization techniques and equipment, such as electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, hardness testing machine, scratch tester, and pin-on-disc machine, were used to analyze and quantify the following properties and parameters: surface morphology, thickness, hardness, adhesion, and coefficient of friction (COF) of the deposited coatings. Surface morphology revealed that the MDs produced during the etching stage, protruded through the TiN film, resulting in film with deteriorated surface features. Both coating thickness and indentation loads influenced the hardness of the deposited coatings. The coatings deposited on HSS exhibit better adhesion compared to those on D2 tool steel. Standard deviation indicates that the coating deposited with thickness around 6.7 μm showed the most stable trend of COF versus sliding distance.

  20. Membranes produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique for low temperature fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennajdaoui, Aboubakr; Roualdes, Stéphanie; Brault, Pascal; Durand, Jean

    A plasma polymerization process using a continuous glow discharge has been implemented for preparing proton conducting membranes from trifluoromethane sulfonic acid and styrene. The chemical and physical structure of plasma membranes has been investigated using FTIR and SEM. The films are homogeneous with a good adhesion on commercial gas diffusion layer (E-Tek ®). Their deposition rate can be increased with increasing flow rate and input power. The thermogravimetric analysis under air of plasma polymers has showed a thermal stability up to 140 °C. Compared to the pulsed glow discharge studied in a previous paper, the continuous glow discharge has enabled to enhance the proton conductivity of membranes by a factor 3 (up to 1.7 mS cm -1). Moreover, the low methanol permeability (methanol diffusion coefficient down to 5 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1) of membranes has been confirmed by this study. In an industrial context, a reactor prototype has been developed to manufacture by plasma processes all active layers of fuel cell cores to be integrated in original compact PEMFC or DMFC.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Molten Flow in Directed Energy Deposition Using an Iterative Geometry Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Timothy J.; Rumpfkeil, Markus P.; Chaudhary, Anil

    2018-03-01

    The complex, multi-faceted physics of laser-based additive metals processing tends to demand high-fidelity models and costly simulation tools to provide predictions accurate enough to aid in selecting process parameters. Of particular difficulty is the accurate determination of melt pool shape and size, which are useful for predicting lack-of-fusion, as this typically requires an adequate treatment of thermal and fluid flow. In this article we describe a novel numerical simulation tool which aims to achieve a balance between accuracy and cost. This is accomplished by making simplifying assumptions regarding the behavior of the gas-liquid interface for processes with a moderate energy density, such as Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS). The details of the implementation, which is based on the solver simpleFoam of the well-known software suite OpenFOAM, are given here and the tool is verified and validated for a LENS process involving Ti-6Al-4V. The results indicate that the new tool predicts width and height of a deposited track to engineering accuracy levels.

  2. Modeling drain current of indium zinc oxide thin film transistors prepared by solution deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Lei; Liang, Xiaoci; Cai, Guangshuo; Pei, Yanli; Yao, Ruohe; Wang, Gang

    2018-06-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin film transistor (TFT) deposited by solution method is of considerable technological interest as it is a key component for the fabrication of flexible and cheap transparent electronic devices. To obtain a principal understanding of physical properties of solution-processed IZO TFT, a new drain current model that account for the charge transport is proposed. The formulation is developed by incorporating the effect of gate voltage on mobility and threshold voltage with the carrier charges. It is demonstrated that in IZO TFTs the below threshold regime should be divided into two sections: EC - EF > 3kT and EC - EF ≤ 3kT, where kT is the thermal energy, EF and EC represent the Fermi level and the conduction band edge, respectively. Additionally, in order to describe conduction mechanisms more accurately, the extended mobility edge model is conjoined, which can also get rid of the complicated and lengthy computations. The good agreement between measured and calculated results confirms the efficiency of this model for the design of integrated large-area thin film circuits.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Molten Flow in Directed Energy Deposition Using an Iterative Geometry Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Timothy J.; Rumpfkeil, Markus P.; Chaudhary, Anil

    2018-06-01

    The complex, multi-faceted physics of laser-based additive metals processing tends to demand high-fidelity models and costly simulation tools to provide predictions accurate enough to aid in selecting process parameters. Of particular difficulty is the accurate determination of melt pool shape and size, which are useful for predicting lack-of-fusion, as this typically requires an adequate treatment of thermal and fluid flow. In this article we describe a novel numerical simulation tool which aims to achieve a balance between accuracy and cost. This is accomplished by making simplifying assumptions regarding the behavior of the gas-liquid interface for processes with a moderate energy density, such as Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS). The details of the implementation, which is based on the solver simpleFoam of the well-known software suite OpenFOAM, are given here and the tool is verified and validated for a LENS process involving Ti-6Al-4V. The results indicate that the new tool predicts width and height of a deposited track to engineering accuracy levels.

  4. Identification of sources of tar balls deposited along the Goa coast, India, using fingerprinting techniques.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Zakaria, M P; Naik, B G; Prasad, K V S R

    2013-05-15

    Deposition of tar balls along the coast of Goa, India is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon. Representative tar ball samples collected from various beaches of Goa and one Bombay High (BH) crude oil sample were subjected to fingerprint analysis based on diagnostic ratios of n-alkane, biomarkers of pentacyclic tri-terpanes and compound specific stable carbon isotope (δ¹³C) analysis to confirm the source. The results were compared with the published data of Middle East Crude Oil (MECO) and South East Asian Crude Oil (SEACO). The results revealed that the tar balls were from tanker-wash derived spills. The study also confirmed that the source is not the BH, but SEACO. The present study suggests that the biomarkers of alkanes and hopanes coupled with stable carbon isotope analysis act as a powerful tool for tracing the source of tar balls, particularly when the source specific biomarkers fail to distinguish the source. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of Functional Thin Polymer Films Using a Layer-by-Layer Deposition Technique.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Functional thin films containing insulin were prepared using layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of insulin and negatively- or positively-charged polymers on the surface of solid substrates. LbL films composed of insulin and negatively-charged polymers such as poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(vinylsulfate) (PVS), and dextran sulfate (DS) were prepared through electrostatic affinity between the materials. The insulin/PAA, insulin/PVS, and insulin/DS films were stable in acidic solutions, whereas they decomposed under physiological conditions as a result of a change in the net electric charge of insulin from positive to negative. Interestingly, the insulin-containing LbL films were stable even in the presence of a digestive-enzyme (pepcin) at pH 1.4 (stomach pH). In contrast, LbL films consisting of insulin and positively-charged polymers such as poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) decomposed in acidic solutions due to the positive charges of insulin generated in acidic media. The insulin-containing LbL films can be prepared not only on the surface of flat substrates, such as quartz slides, but also on the surface of microparticles, such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microbeads. Thus, insulin-containing LbL film-coated PLA microbeads can be handled as a powder. In addition, insulin-containing microcapsules were prepared by coating LbL films on the surface of insulin-doped calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) microparticles, followed by dissolution of the CaCO 3 core. The release of insulin from the microcapsules was accelerated at pH 7.4, whereas it was suppressed in acidic solutions. These results suggest the potential use of insulin-containing microcapsules in the development of oral formulations of insulin.

  6. Growth and characterization of boron doped graphene by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique (HFCVD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Salar Elahi, A.

    2016-03-01

    Large-area boron doped graphene was synthesized on Cu foil (as a catalyst) by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) using boron oxide powder and ethanol vapor. To investigate the effect of different boron percentages, grow time and the growth mechanism of boron-doped graphene, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied. Also in this experiment, the I-V characteristic carried out for study of electrical property of graphene with keithley 2361 system. Nucleation of graphene domains with an average domain size of ~20 μm was observed when the growth time is 9 min that has full covered on the Cu surface. The Raman spectroscopy show that the frequency of the 2D band down-shifts with B doping, consistent with the increase of the in-plane lattice constant, and a weakening of the B-C in-plane bond strength relative to that of C-C bond. Also the shifts of the G-band frequencies can be interpreted in terms of the size of the C-C ring and the changes in the electronic structure of graphene in the presence of boron atoms. The study of electrical property shows that by increasing the grow time the conductance increases which this result in agree with SEM images and graphene grain boundary. Also by increasing the boron percentage in gas mixer the conductance decreases since doping graphene with boron creates a band-gap in graphene band structure. The XPS results of B doped graphene confirm the existence of boron in doped graphene, which indicates the boron atoms doped in the graphene lattice are mainly in the form of BC3. The results showed that boron-doped graphene can be successfully synthesized using boron oxide powder and ethanol vapor via a HFCVD method and also chemical boron doping can be change the electrical conductivity of the graphene.

  7. Soft x-ray-controlled dose deposition in yeast cells: techniques, model, and biological assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Marziale; Batani, Dimitri; Conti, Aldo; Masini, Alessandra; Costato, Michele; Pozzi, Achille; Turcu, I. C. Edmond

    1996-12-01

    A procedure is presented to release soft x-rays onto yeast cell membrane allegedly damaging the resident enzymatic processes connected with fermentation. The damage is expected to be restricted to regulating fermentation processes without interference with respiration. By this technique fermentation is followed leading to CO2 production, and respiration resulting in global pressure measurements. A solid state pressure sensor system has been developed linked to a data acquisition system. Yeast cells cultures have been investigated at different concentrations and with different nutrients. A non-monotone response in CO2 production as a function of the delivered x-ray dose is observed.

  8. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Northern Vietnam: Hanoi and Thainguyen case study using the moss biomonitoring technique, INAA and AAS.

    PubMed

    Viet, Hung Nguyen; Frontasyeva, Marina Vladimirovna; Thi, Thu My Trinh; Gilbert, Daniel; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-06-01

    The moss technique is widely used to monitor atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in many countries in Europe, whereas this technique is scarcely used in Asia. To implement this international reliable and cheap methodology in the Asian countries, it is necessary to find proper moss types typical for the Asian environment and suitable for the biomonitoring purposes. Such a case study was undertaken in Vietnam for assessing the environmental situation in strongly contaminated areas using local species of moss Barbula indica. The study is focused on two areas characterized by different pollution sources: the Hanoi urban area and the Thainguyen metallurgical zone. Fifty-four moss samples were collected there according to standard sampling procedure adopted in Europe. Two complementary analytical techniques, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), were used for determination of elemental concentrations in moss samples. To characterize the pollution sources, multivariate statistical analysis was applied. A total of 38 metal elements were determined in the moss by the two analytical techniques. The results of descriptive statistics of metal concentration in moss from the city center and periphery of Hanoi determined by AAS are presented. The similar results for moss from Thainguyen province determined by INAA and AAS are given also. A comparison of mean elemental concentrations in moss of this work with those in different environmental conditions of other authors provides reasonable information on heavy metal atmospheric deposition levels. Factor loadings and factor scores were used to identify and apportion contamination sources at the sampling sites. The values of percentage of total of factors show two highly different types of pollution in the two examined areas-the Hanoi pollution composition with high portion of urban-traffic activity and soil dust (62%), and the one of Thainguyen with factors related to industrial

  9. E-Beam Processing of Polymer Matrix Composites for Multifunctional Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Wilson, John W.; Jensen, Brian J.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Chang, Chie K.; Kiefer, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Aliphatic polymers were identified as optimum radiation shielding polymeric materials for building multifunctional structural elements for in-space habitats. Conceptual damage tolerant configurations of polyolefins have been proposed, but many manufacturing issues relied on methods and materials which have sub-optimal radiation shielding characteristics (for example, epoxy matrix and adhesives). In the present approach, we shall investigate e-beam processing technologies for inclusion of high-strength aliphatic polymer reinforcement structures into a highly cross-linked polyolefin matrix. This paper reports the baseline thermo-mechanical properties of low density polyethylene and highly crystallized polyethylene.

  10. A novel process control method for a TT-300 E-Beam/X-Ray system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittendorfer, Josef; Gallnböck-Wagner, Bernhard

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents some aspects of the process control method for a TT-300 E-Beam/X-Ray system at Mediscan, Austria. The novelty of the approach is the seamless integration of routine monitoring dosimetry with process data. This allows to calculate a parametric dose for each production unit and consequently a fine grain and holistic process performance monitoring. Process performance is documented in process control charts for the analysis of individual runs as well as historic trending of runs of specific process categories over a specified time range.

  11. Copper phthalocyanine films deposited by liquid-liquid interface recrystallization technique (LLIRCT).

    PubMed

    Patil, K R; Sathaye, S D; Hawaldar, R; Sathe, B R; Mandale, A B; Mitra, A

    2007-11-15

    The simple recrystallization process is innovatively used to obtain the nanoparticles of copper phthalocyanine by a simple method. Liquid-liquid interface recrystallization technique (LLIRCT) has been employed successfully to produce small sized copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles with diameter between 3-5 nm. The TEM-SAED studies revealed the formation of 3-5 nm sized with beta-phase dominated mixture of alpha and beta copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles. The XRD, SEM, and the UV-vis studies were further carried out to confirm the formation of copper phthalocyanine thin films. The cyclic voltametry (CV) studies conclude that redox reaction is totally reversible one electron transfer process. The process is attributed to Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox reaction.

  12. High Energy Electron Injection (E-Beam) Technology for the 'Ex-Situ' Treatment of MtBE-Contaminated Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venosa, A. D.

    2002-09-01

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation Report documents the results of a demonstration of the high-energy electron injection (E-Beam) technology in application to groundwater contaminated with methyl t-butyl ether (MtBE) and with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). The E-beam technology destroys organic contaminants in groundwater through irradiation with a beam of high-energy electrons. The demonstration was conducted at the Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC) in Port Hueneme, California.

  13. 3D printing of high-resolution PLA-based structures by hybrid electrohydrodynamic and fused deposition modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Seong, Baekhoon; Nguyen, VuDat; Byun, Doyoung

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has received much attention for shape forming and manufacturing. The fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer is one of the various 3D printers available and has become widely used due to its simplicity, low-cost, and easy operation. However, the FDM technique has a limitation whereby its patterning resolution is too low at around 200 μm. In this paper, we first present a hybrid mechanism of electrohydrodynamic jet printing with the FDM technique, which we name E-FDM. We then develop a novel high-resolution 3D printer based on the E-FDM process. To determine the optimal condition for structuring, we also investigated the effect of several printing parameters, such as temperature, applied voltage, working height, printing speed, flow-rate, and acceleration on the patterning results. This method was capable of fabricating both high resolution 2D and 3D structures with the use of polylactic acid (PLA). PLA has been used to fabricate scaffold structures for tissue engineering, which has different hierarchical structure sizes. The fabrication speed was up to 40 mm/s and the pattern resolution could be improved to 10 μm.

  14. REAP (raster e-beam advanced process) using 50-kV raster e-beam system for sub-100-nm node mask technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Ki-Ho; Dean, Robert L.; Mueller, Mark; Lu, Maiying; Lem, Homer Y.; Osborne, Stephen; Abboud, Frank E.

    2002-07-01

    A chemically amplified resist (CAR) process has been recognized as an approach to meet the demanding critical dimension (CD) specifications of 100nm node technology and beyond. Recently, significant effort has been devoted to optimizing CAR materials, which offer the characteristics required for next generation photomask fabrication. In this paper, a process established with a positive-tone CAR from TOK and 50kV MEBES eXara system is discussed. This resist is developed for raster scan 50 kV e-beam systems. It has high contrast, good coating characteristics, good dry etch selectivity, and high environmental stability. The coating process is conducted in an environment with amine concentration less than 2 ppb. A nitrogen environment is provided during plate transfer steps. Resolution using a 60nm writing grid is 90nm line and space patterns. CD linearity is maintained down to 240nm for isolated lines or spaces by applying embedded proximity effect correction (emPEC). Optimizations of post-apply bake (PAB) and post-expose bake (PEB) time, temperature, and uniformity are completed to improve adhesion, coating uniformity, and resolution. A puddle develop process is optimized to improve line edge roughness, edge slope, and resolution. Dry etch process is optimized on a TetraT system to transfer the resist image into the chrome layer with minimum etch bias.

  15. Modification of the morphology and optical properties of SnS films using glancing angle deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazideh, M. R.; Dizaji, H. Rezagholipour; Ehsani, M. H.; Moghadam, R. Zarei

    2017-05-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS) films were prepared by thermal evaporation method using Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique at zero and different oblique incident flux angles (α = 45°, 55°, 65°, 75° and 85°). The physical properties of prepared films were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the film deposited at α = 0° formed as single phase with an orthorhombic structure. However, the layers became amorphous at α = 45°, 55°, 65°, 75° and 85°. Beside the appearance of amorphous feature in the film prepared at α higher than zero, Sn2S3 phase was also observed. The top and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images of the samples showed noticeable changes in the structure and morphology of individual nano-plates as a function of incident angle. The band gap and refractive index values of the films were calculated by optical transmission measurements. The optical band-gap values were observed to increase with increasing the incident flux angle. This can be due to presence of Sn2S3 phase observed in the samples produced at α values other than zero. The effective refractive index and porosity exhibit an opposite evolution as the incident angle α rises. At α = 85° the layers show a considerable change in effective refractive index (Δn = 1.7) at near-IR spectral range.

  16. Enhancement of the optical and electrical properties of ITO thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. M.; Mohamed, H. A.; Mohamed, S. H.

    2005-08-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely utilized in numerous industrial applications due to its unique combined properties of transparency to visible light and electrical conductivity. ITO films were deposited on glass substrates by an electron beam evaporation technique at room temperature from bulk samples, with different thicknesses. The film with 1500 Å thick was selected to perform annealing in the temperature range of 200 400 °C and annealing for varying times from 15 to 120 min at 400 °C. The X-ray diffraction of the films was analyzed in order to investigate its dependence on thickness, and annealing. Electrical and optical measurements were also carried out. Transmittance, optical energy gap, refractive index, carrier concentration, thermal emissivity and resistivity were investigated. It was found that the as-deposited films with different thicknesses were highly absorbing and have relatively poor electrical properties. The films become opaque with increasing the film thickness. After thermal annealing, the resistance decreases and a simultaneous variation in the optical transmission occurs. A transmittance value of 85.5% in the IR region and 82% in the visible region of the spectrum and a resistivity of 2.8 × 10-4 Ω Cm were obtained at annealing temperature of 400 °C for 120 min.

  17. Optimization of cathodic arc deposition and pulsed plasma melting techniques for growing smooth superconducting Pb photoemissive films for SRF injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nietubyć, Robert; Lorkiewicz, Jerzy; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Smedley, John; Kosińska, Anna

    2018-05-01

    Superconducting photoinjectors have a potential to be the optimal solution for moderate and high current cw operating free electron lasers. For this application, a superconducting lead (Pb) cathode has been proposed to simplify the cathode integration into a 1.3 GHz, TESLA-type, 1.6-cell long purely superconducting gun cavity. In the proposed design, a lead film several micrometres thick is deposited onto a niobium plug attached to the cavity back wall. Traditional lead deposition techniques usually produce very non-uniform emission surfaces and often result in a poor adhesion of the layer. A pulsed plasma melting procedure reducing the non-uniformity of the lead photocathodes is presented. In order to determine the parameters optimal for this procedure, heat transfer from plasma to the film was first modelled to evaluate melting front penetration range and liquid state duration. The obtained results were verified by surface inspection of witness samples. The optimal procedure was used to prepare a photocathode plug, which was then tested in an electron gun. The quantum efficiency and the value of cavity quality factor have been found to satisfy the requirements for an injector of the European-XFEL facility.

  18. Microstructural, nanomechanical, and microtribological properties of Pb thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Broitman, Esteban, E-mail: esbro@ifm.liu.se; Flores-Ruiz, Francisco J.; Di Giulio, Massimo

    2016-03-15

    In this work, the authors compare the morphological, structural, nanomechanical, and microtribological properties of Pb films deposited by thermal evaporation (TE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques onto Si (111) substrates. Films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, surface probe microscopy, and x-ray diffraction in θ-2θ geometry to determine their morphology, root-mean-square (RMS) roughness, and microstructure, respectively. TE films showed a percolated morphology with densely packed fibrous grains while PLD films had a granular morphology with a columnar and tightly packed structure in accordance with the zone growth model of Thornton. Moreover, PLD films presented a more polycrystalline structure withmore » respect to TE films, with RMS roughness of 14 and 10 nm, respectively. Hardness and elastic modulus vary from 2.1 to 0.8 GPa and from 14 to 10 GPa for PLD and TE films, respectively. A reciprocal friction test has shown that PLD films have lower friction coefficient and wear rate than TE films. Our study has demonstrated for first time that, at the microscale, Pb films do not show the same simple lubricious properties measured at the macroscale.« less

  19. Effect of power on growth of nanocrystalline silicon films deposited by VHF PECVD technique for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneja, Sucheta; Verma, Payal; Savelyev, Dmitry A.; Khonina, Svetlana N.; Sudhakar, S.; Kumar, Sushil

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of the effect of power on the deposition of nanocrystalline silicon thin films were carried out using a gaseous mixture of silane and hydrogen in the 60MHz assisted VHF plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique. The power was varied from 10 to 50 watt maintaining all other parameters constant. Corresponding layer properties w.r.t. material microstructure, optical, hydrogen content and electrical transport are studied in detail. The structural properties have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The presence of nano-sized crystals and their morphology have been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The role of bonded hydrogen content in the films have been studied from the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was observed from the results that with increase in power, crystalline volume fraction increases and crystallite size changes from 4 to 9 nm. The optical band gap varies from 1.7 to 2.1eV due to quantum confinement effect and which further can be explained with reduced hydrogen content. These striking features of nc-Si films can be used to fabricate stable thin film solar cells.

  20. Optimization of cathodic arc deposition and pulsed plasma melting techniques for growing smooth superconducting Pb photoemissive films for SRF injectors

    DOE PAGES

    Nietubyc, Robert; Lorkiewicz, Jerzy; Sekutowicz, Jacek; ...

    2018-02-14

    Superconducting photoinjectors have a potential to be the optimal solution for moderate and high current cw operating free electron lasers. For this application, a superconducting lead (Pb) cathode has been proposed to simplify the cathode integration into a 1.3 GHz, TESLA-type, 1.6-cell long purely superconducting gun cavity. In the proposed design, a lead film several micrometres thick is deposited onto a niobium plug attached to the cavity back wall. Traditional lead deposition techniques usually produce very non-uniform emission surfaces and often result in a poor adhesion of the layer. A pulsed plasma melting procedure reducing the non-uniformity of the leadmore » photocathodes is presented. In order to determine the parameters optimal for this procedure, heat transfer from plasma to the film was first modelled to evaluate melting front penetration range and liquid state duration. The obtained results were verified by surface inspection of witness samples. The optimal procedure was used to prepare a photocathode plug, which was then tested in an electron gun. In conclusion, the quantum efficiency and the value of cavity quality factor have been found to satisfy the requirements for an injector of the European-XFEL facility.« less

  1. Optimization of cathodic arc deposition and pulsed plasma melting techniques for growing smooth superconducting Pb photoemissive films for SRF injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nietubyc, Robert; Lorkiewicz, Jerzy; Sekutowicz, Jacek

    Superconducting photoinjectors have a potential to be the optimal solution for moderate and high current cw operating free electron lasers. For this application, a superconducting lead (Pb) cathode has been proposed to simplify the cathode integration into a 1.3 GHz, TESLA-type, 1.6-cell long purely superconducting gun cavity. In the proposed design, a lead film several micrometres thick is deposited onto a niobium plug attached to the cavity back wall. Traditional lead deposition techniques usually produce very non-uniform emission surfaces and often result in a poor adhesion of the layer. A pulsed plasma melting procedure reducing the non-uniformity of the leadmore » photocathodes is presented. In order to determine the parameters optimal for this procedure, heat transfer from plasma to the film was first modelled to evaluate melting front penetration range and liquid state duration. The obtained results were verified by surface inspection of witness samples. The optimal procedure was used to prepare a photocathode plug, which was then tested in an electron gun. In conclusion, the quantum efficiency and the value of cavity quality factor have been found to satisfy the requirements for an injector of the European-XFEL facility.« less

  2. The Characteristics of an Antibacterial TiAgN Thin Film Coated by Physical Vapor Deposition Technique.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byeong-Mo; Jeong, Woon-Jo; Park, Gye-Choon; Yoon, Dong-Joo; Ahn, Ho-Geun; Lim, Yeong-Seog

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we found the characteristics of an antibacterial TiAgN thin film coated on the pure titanium specimen via the physical vapor deposition process (PVD). TiAgN thin films were coated using TiAg alloy targets by arc ion plating method. Changing the process parameters, the surface analysis of TiAgN thin film was observed by FE-SEM and the force of adhesion was measured with Scratch Tester. The proliferation of human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells was examined by XTT test assay and the antibacterial properties were investigated by culturing Streptococus Mutans (KCTC 3065) using paper disk techniques. At the result of experiment, cytotoxic effects were not found and the antibacterial effects against Streptococus Mutans were appeared over 5 wt% TiAgN specimens.

  3. Controlled tuning of thin film deposition of IrO{sub 2} on Si using pulsed laser ablation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Koshy, Abraham M., E-mail: abraham@ug.iisc.in; Bhat, Shwetha G., E-mail: shwethabhat@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Kumar, P. S. Anil, E-mail: anil@physics.iisc.ernet.in

    2016-05-06

    We have successfully grown a stable phase of polycrystalline IrO{sub 2} on Si (100) substrate. We have found that the phase of IrO{sub 2} can be controllably tuned to obtain either Ir or IrO{sub 2} using pulsed laser ablation technique. O{sub 2} conditions during the deposition influences the phase directly and drastically whereas annealing conditions do not show any variation in the phase of thin film. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoemission experiments confirm both Ir and IrO{sub 2} can be successively grown on Si using IrO{sub 2} target. Also, the morphology is found to be influenced by the O{sub 2}more » conditions.« less

  4. Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon at high deposition rates with increased stability using the hot wire filament technique

    DOEpatents

    Molenbroek, Edith C.; Mahan, Archie Harvin; Gallagher, Alan C.

    2000-09-26

    A method or producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate, comprising the steps of: positioning the substrate in a deposition chamber at a distance of about 0.5 to 3.0 cm from a heatable filament in the deposition chamber; maintaining a pressure in said deposition chamber in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr and pressure times substrate-filament spacing in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr-cm, heating the filament to a temperature in the range of about 1,500 to 2,000.degree. C., and heating the substrate to a surface temperature in the range of about 280 to 475.degree. C.; and flowing silicohydride gas into the deposition chamber with said heated filament, decomposing said silicohydride gas into silicon and hydrogen atomic species and allowing products of gas reactions between said atomic species and the silicohydride gas to migrate to and deposit on said substrate while adjusting and maintaining said pressure times substrate-filament spacing in said deposition chamber at a value in said 10 to 100 millitorr range to produce statistically about 3 to 50 atomic collisions between the silicon and hydrogen atomic species migrating to said substrate and undecomposed molecules of the silane or other silicohydride gas in the deposition chamber.

  5. Multi-element atmospheric deposition in Macedonia studied by the moss biomonitoring technique.

    PubMed

    Barandovski, Lambe; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Ostrovnaya, Tatyana M

    2015-10-01

    Moss biomonitoring technique using moss species Homolothecium lutescens (Hedw.) Robins and Hypnum cupressiforme (Hedw.) was applied to air pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia. The study was performed in the framework of the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). The presence of 47 elements was determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Normality of the datasets of elements was investigated, and Box-Cox transformation was used in order to achieve normal distributions of the data. Different pollution sources were identified and characterized using principal component analysis (PCA). Distribution maps were prepared to point out the regions most affected by pollution and to relate this to the known sources of contamination. The cities of Veles, Skopje, Tetovo, Radoviš and Kavadarci were determined to experience particular environmental stress. Moreover, three reactivated lead-zinc mines were also shown to contribute to a high content of lead and zinc in the eastern part of the country. However, a comparison with the previous moss survey conducted in 2005 showed a decreasing trend of pollution elements that are usually associated with emission from industrial activities.

  6. SRF test facility for the superconducting LINAC ``RAON'' — RRR property and e-beam welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yoochul; Hyun, Myungook; Joo, Jongdae; Joung, Mijoung

    2015-02-01

    Equipment, such as a vacuum furnace, high pressure rinse (HPR), eddy current test (ECT) and buffered chemical polishing (BCP), are installed in the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) test facility. Three different sizes of cryostats (diameters of 600 mm for a quarter wave resonator (QWR), 900 mm for a half wave resonator (HWR), and 1200 mm for single spoke resonator 1&2 (SSR 1&2)) for vertical RF tests are installed for testing cavities. We confirmed that as-received niobium sheets (ASTM B393, RRR300) good electrical properties because they showed average residual resistance ratio (RRR) values higher than 300. However, serious RRR degradation occurred after joining two pieces of Nb by e-beam welding because the average RRR values of the samples were ˜179, which was only ˜60% of as-received RRR value. From various e-beam welding experiments in which the welding current and a speed at a fixed welding voltage were changed, we confirmed that good welding results were obtained at a 53 mA welding current and a 20-mm/s welding speed at a fixed welding voltage of 150 kV.

  7. Hybrid Physical Vapor Deposition Instrument for Advanced Functional Multilayers and Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-27

    Hybrid Physical Vapor Deposition Instrument for Advanced Functional Multilayers and Materials PI Maria received support to construct a physical... vapor deposition (PVD) system that combines electron beam (e- beam) evaporation, magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser ablation, and ion-assisted deposition ...peer-reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Hybrid Physical Vapor Deposition Instrument for Advanced

  8. Hybrid Physical Vapor Deposition Instrument for Advanced Functional Multilayers and Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-27

    Hybrid Physical Vapor Deposition Instrument for Advanced Functional Multilayers and Materials PI Maria received support to construct a physical...vapor deposition (PVD) system that combines electron beam (e- beam) evaporation, magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser ablation, and ion-assisted deposition ...The instrumentation enables clean, uniform, and rapid deposition of a wide variety of metallic, semiconducting, and ceramic thin films with

  9. Trends of atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Macedonia studied by the moss biomonitoring technique.

    PubMed

    Barandovski, Lambe; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Stafilov, Trajče; Sajn, Robert; Pavlov, Sergey; Enimiteva, Vangelica

    2012-01-01

    In 2002 and 2005 the moss biomonitoring technique was applied to air pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia in the framework of the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE-ICP Vegetation) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). In August 2005 samples of the terrestrial mosses Homolothecium lutescens and Hypnum cupressiforme were collected at 72 sites evenly distributed over the territory of the country, in accordance with the sampling strategy of the European moss survey programme. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Principal component analysis was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources. Distributional maps were prepared to point out the regions most affected by pollution and to relate this to known sources of contamination. A few areas, as in 2002, are experiencing particular environmental stress: Veles, Skopje, Tetovo, Radoviš and Kavadarci-Negotino, whereas the agricultural regions in the south, south-west, and south-east show median European values for most elements of mainly pollution origin. A significant increase in the content of Ni is noticed in the 2005 moss survey compared with 2002, due to the increased production of the ferro-nickel smelter in Kavadarci. A higher content of Cd, Hg, and Pb in 2005 relative to 2002 can be explained by pollution from the lead-zinc smelter in Veles, as well as the pollution that comes from the open slag waste dump of this smelter. Protection activities on the dump of slag from the former ferrochromium smelter located near Tetovo resulted in a lower content of Cr in the 2005 moss

  10. Structural and Optical Properties of Cd 1- x Se x Thin Films Deposited by Electron Beam Evaporation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ravishankar Nath; Verma, Aneet Kumar; Rahul, Vishwakarma, S. R.

    2011-10-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films deposited by means of electron beam evaporation technique under high vacuum ˜10 -5 torr on ultrasonically cleaned glass substrate. Using stating materials of various compositions of cadmium and selenium using formula Cd 1- x Se x where x is orbitory constant having value 0.20≤ x ≤0.40 here we take less value of x for the creation of anion vacancy in thin films. In present work the structural properties have been studies using XRD technique and found that starting materials and thin films both are polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal structure. Here we study the effect of composition ratio Cd/Se in starting material and its prepared thin films on its grain size and lattice parameter. From the analysis of X-Ray diffractogram found that lattice parameter and grain size both are decreases with increasing Cd/Se ratio in thin films as well as in starting material the preferred orientation in thin films along (100) plane. The surface morphology was studied using SEM characterization and found that films are smooth and homogeneous. The films have been analysed for optical band gap and absorbed a direct band gap.

  11. Verification of E-Beam direct write integration into 28nm BEOL SRAM technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohle, Christoph; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Gutsch, Manuela; Hanisch, Norbert; Seidel, Robert; Steidel, Katja; Thrun, Xaver; Werner, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Electron beam direct write lithography (EBDW) potentially offers advantages for low-volume semiconductor manufacturing, rapid prototyping or design verification due to its high flexibility without the need of costly masks. However, the integration of this advanced patterning technology into complex CMOS manufacturing processes remains challenging. The low throughput of today's single e-Beam tools limits high volume manufacturing applications and maturity of parallel (multi) beam systems is still insufficient [1,2]. Additional concerns like transistor or material damage of underlying layers during exposure at high electron density or acceleration voltage have to be addressed for advanced technology nodes. In the past we successfully proved that potential degradation effects of high-k materials or ULK shrink can be neglected and were excluded by demonstrating integrated electrical results of 28nm node transistor and BEOL performance following 50kV electron beam dry exposure [3]. Here we will give an update on the integration of EBDW in the 300mm CMOS manufacturing processes of advanced integrated circuits at the 28nm SRAM node of GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden. The work is an update to what has been previously published [4]. E-beam patterning results of BEOL full chip metal and via layers with a dual damascene integration scheme using a 50kV VISTEC SB3050DW variable shaped electron beam direct writer at Fraunhofer IPMSCNT are demonstrated. For the patterning of the Metal layer a Mix & Match concept based on the sequence litho - etch -litho -etch (LELE) was developed and evaluated wherein several exposure fields were blanked out during the optical exposure. Etch results are shown and compared to the POR. Results are also shown on overlay performance and optimized e-Beam exposure time using most advanced data prep solutions and resist processes. The patterning results have been verified using fully integrated electrical measurement of metal lines and vias on wafer level. In

  12. Prototyping of radially oriented piezoelectric ceramic-polymer tube composites using fused deposition and lost mold processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, Thomas Francis

    Piezoelectric tube composite hydrophones of 3-1, 3-2, and 2-2 connectivity were developed using Fused Deposition (FD) and lost mold processing (LMP). In this work, a new series of thermoplastic binder formulations, named the ECG series, were developed for the FD process. The ECG-9 formulation exhibits mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties suitable for the Fused Deposition of functional lead zirconate titanate ceramic devices. This binder consists of 100 parts (by weight) Vestoplast 408, 20 parts Escorez 2520, 15 parts Vestowax A-227, and 5 parts Indopol H-1500. Oleic acid, oleyl alcohol, stearic acid, and stearyl alcohol (in toluene) were tested for use as a dispersant in the PZT/ECG-9 system. It was found that stearic acid adsorbs the most onto PZT powder, adsorbing 8.1 mg/m2. Using stearic acid, solutions of increasing concentration (5.0--50.0 g/l) were measured for adsorption. It was found that 30.0 g/l is the minimum concentration necessary for optimum surface coverage. The surfactant-coated powder was compounded with ECG-9 binder to create a 54 vol.% mix. The mix was extruded using a single screw extrusion apparatus into continuous lengths (>30 m) of 1.78 mm diameter filament. Fused Deposition was used to create composite designs of 3-1, 3-2, and 2-2 connectivity. After sintering, samples exhibit a sintered density greater than 97%. Sanders Prototyping (SPI) was used to manufacture molds for use with LMP techniques. Molds of 3-1, 3-2, and 2-2 connectivity were developed. The molds were infiltrated with a 55 vol.% aqueous based PZT slurry. The parts were subjected to a binder decomposition cycle, followed by sintering. Resultant samples were highly variable due to random macro-pores present in the samples after sintering. The resultant preforms were embedded in epoxy, and polished to dimensions of 8.0 mm inside diameter (ID), 14.0 mm outside diameter (OD), and 10.0 mm length (l) the OD and l dimensions are accurate to +/--2%, while the ID is accurate

  13. Mass-spring matching layers for high-frequency ultrasound transducers: a new technique using vacuum deposition.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeremy; Sharma, Srikanta; Leadbetter, Jeff; Cochran, Sandy; Adamson, Rob

    2014-11-01

    We have developed a technique of applying multiple matching layers to high-frequency (>30 MHz) imaging transducers, by using carefully controlled vacuum deposition alone. This technique uses a thin mass-spring matching layer approach that was previously described in a low-frequency (1 to 10 MHz) transducer design with epoxied layers. This mass- spring approach is more suitable to vacuum deposition in highfrequency transducers over the conventional quarter-wavelength resonant cavity approach, because thinner layers and more versatile material selection can be used, the difficulty in precisely lapping quarter-wavelength matching layers is avoided, the layers are less attenuating, and the layers can be applied to a curved surface. Two different 3-mm-diameter 45-MHz planar lithium niobate transducers and one geometrically curved 3-mm lithium niobate transducer were designed and fabricated using this matching layer approach with copper as the mass layer and parylene as the spring layer. The first planar lithium niobate transducer used a single mass-spring matching network, and the second planar lithium niobate transducer used a single mass-spring network to approximate the first layer in a dual quarter-wavelength matching layer system in addition to a conventional quarter-wavelength layer as the second matching layer. The curved lithium niobate transducer was press focused and used a similar mass-spring plus quarter-wavelength matching layer network. These transducers were then compared with identical transducers with no matching layers and the performance improvement was quantified. The bandwidth of the lithium niobate transducer with the single mass-spring layer was measured to be 46% and the insertion loss was measured to be -21.9 dB. The bandwidth and insertion loss of the lithium niobate transducer with the mass-spring network plus quarter-wavelength matching were measured to be 59% and -18.2 dB, respectively. These values were compared with the unmatched

  14. E-beam generated holographic masks for optical vector-matrix multiplication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Case, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    An optical vector matrix multiplication scheme that encodes the matrix elements as a holographic mask consisting of linear diffraction gratings is proposed. The binary, chrome on glass masks are fabricated by e-beam lithography. This approach results in a fairly simple optical system that promises both large numerical range and high accuracy. A partitioned computer generated hologram mask was fabricated and tested. This hologram was diagonally separated outputs, compact facets and symmetry about the axis. The resultant diffraction pattern at the output plane is shown. Since the grating fringes are written at 45 deg relative to the facet boundaries, the many on-axis sidelobes from each output are seen to be diagonally separated from the adjacent output signals.

  15. Comparative evaluation of e-beam sensitive chemically amplified resists for mask making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmscher, Mathias; Beyer, Dirk; Butschke, Joerg; Constantine, Chris; Hoffmann, Thomas; Koepernik, Corinna; Krauss, Christian; Leibold, Bernd; Letzkus, Florian; Mueller, Dietmar; Springer, Reinhard; Voehringer, Peter

    2002-07-01

    Positive tone chemically amplified resists CAP209, EP012M (TOK), KRS-XE (JSR) and FEP171 (Fuji) were evaluated for mask making. The investigations were performed on an advanced tool set comprising of a Steag coater ASR5000, Steag developer ASP5000, 50kV e-beam writer Leica SB350, UNAXIS MASK ETCHER III , STS ICP silicon etcher and a CD-SEM KLA8100. We investigated and compared resolution, sensitivity, resist slope, dark field loss, CD-uniformity, line edge roughness, and etch resistance of the evaluated resists. Furthermore, the influence of post coating delay, post exposure delay and other process parameters on the resist performance was determined.

  16. Use of E-beam radiation to eliminate Listeria monocytogenes from surface mould cheese.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Raquel; Ordóñez, Juan A; Cambero, M Isabel; Cabeza, M Concepción

    2015-03-01

    Camembert and Brie soft cheese varieties were subjected to E-beam irradiation as a sanitation treatment. The effects of treatments on microbiota and selected physicochemical properties were also studied. The absorbed doses required to meet the food safety objective (FSO) according to EU and USDA criteria for Listeria monocytogenes were 1.27 and 2.59 kGy, respectively. The bacterial load, mainly lactic acid bacteria, was reduced by the treatment but injured cells were recovered during storage at 14°C. The radiation treatment gave rise to negligible changes in the pH and water activity at doses required to achieve microbial safety. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  17. Benchmarking the minimum Electron Beam (eBeam) dose required for the sterilization of space foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Sohini S.; Wall, Kayley R.; Kerth, Chris R.; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2018-02-01

    As manned space missions extend in length, the safety, nutrition, acceptability, and shelf life of space foods are of paramount importance to NASA. Since food and mealtimes play a key role in reducing stress and boredom of prolonged missions, the quality of food in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, and aroma can have significant psychological ramifications on astronaut performance. The FDA, which oversees space foods, currently requires a minimum dose of 44 kGy for irradiated space foods. The underlying hypothesis was that commercial sterility of space foods could be achieved at a significantly lower dose, and this lowered dose would positively affect the shelf life of the product. Electron beam processed beef fajitas were used as an example NASA space food to benchmark the minimum eBeam dose required for sterility. A 15 kGy dose was able to achieve an approximately 10 log reduction in Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli bacteria, and a 5 log reduction in Clostridium sporogenes spores. Furthermore, accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) to determine sensory and quality characteristics under various conditions was conducted. Using Multidimensional gas-chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (MDGC-O-MS), numerous volatiles were shown to be dependent on the dose applied to the product. Furthermore, concentrations of off -flavor aroma compounds such as dimethyl sulfide were decreased at the reduced 15 kGy dose. The results suggest that the combination of conventional cooking combined with eBeam processing (15 kGy) can achieve the safety and shelf-life objectives needed for long duration space-foods.

  18. Improving optical properties of silicon nitride films to be applied in the middle infrared optics by a combined high-power impulse/unbalanced magnetron sputtering deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bo-Huei; Hsiao, Chien-Nan

    2014-02-01

    Silicon nitride films are prepared by a combined high-power impulse/unbalanced magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS/UBMS) deposition technique. Different unbalance coefficients and pulse on/off ratios are applied to improve the optical properties of the silicon nitride films. The refractive indices of the Si3N4 films vary from 2.17 to 2.02 in the wavelength ranges of 400-700 nm, and all the extinction coefficients are smaller than 1×10(-4). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometry measurements reveal the amorphous structure of the Si3N4 films with extremely low hydrogen content and very low absorption between the near IR and middle IR ranges. Compared to other deposition techniques, Si3N4 films deposited by the combined HIPIMS/UBMS deposition technique possess the highest refractive index, the lowest extinction coefficient, and excellent structural properties. Finally a four-layer coating is deposited on both sides of a silicon substrate. The average transmittance from 3200 to 4800 nm is 99.0%, and the highest transmittance is 99.97% around 4200 nm.

  19. Consequence of oxidant to monomer ratio on optical and structural properties of Polypyrrole thin film deposited by oxidation polymerization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatratkar, Aviraj A.; Yadav, Jyotiprakash B.; Kamat, Sandip V.; Patil, Vaishali S.; Mahadik, D. B.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Puri, Vijaya; Puri, R. K.

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports the effect of oxidant to monomer (O/M) ratio on optical and structural properties of Polypyrrole (PPy) thin film deposited by chemical oxidation polymerization technique. Noticeable changes have observed in the properties of PPy thin films with O/M ratio. Cauliflower structure have been observed in FE-SEM images, wherein grain size is observed to decrease with increase in O/M ratio. AFM results are in good agreement with FE-SEM results. From FTIR spectra it is found that, PPy is in highly oxidized form at low O/M ratio but oxidation decreased with increase in O/M ratio. Also C-C stretching vibrations of PPy ring is decreased whereas C=C stretching is increased with ratio. Absorption peak around 450 nm corresponds to π-π* transition and around 800 nm for polarons and bipolarons. The intensity of such peaks confirms the conductivity of PPy, which is observed maximum at low O/M ratio and found to decrease with increase in ratio. Optical band gap (BG) is found to increase from 2.07 eV to 2.11 eV with increase in the O/M ratio.

  20. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of TiO2 thin films synthesized by the electro phoretic deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Ghrairi, Najla; Bouaicha, Mongi

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we report the structural, morphological, and optical properties of TiO2 thin films synthesized by the electro phoretic deposition technique. The TiO2 film was formed on a doped fluorine tin oxide (SnO2:F, i.e., FTO) layer and used as a photo electrode in a dye solar cell (DSC). Using spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements in the 200 to 800 nm wavelengths domain, we obtain a thickness of the TiO2 film in the range of 70 to 80 nm. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) show a polycrystalline film. In addition, AFM investigation shows no cracks in the formed layer. Using an ultraviolet-visible near-infrared spectrophotometer, we found that the transmittance of the TiO2 film in the visible domain reaches 75%. From the measured current-voltage or I-V characteristic under AM1.5 illumination of the formed DSC, we obtain an open circuit voltage Voc = 628 mV and a short circuit current Isc = 22.6 μA, where the surface of the formed cell is 3.14 cm2.

  1. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of TiO2 thin films synthesized by the electro phoretic deposition technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we report the structural, morphological, and optical properties of TiO2 thin films synthesized by the electro phoretic deposition technique. The TiO2 film was formed on a doped fluorine tin oxide (SnO2:F, i.e., FTO) layer and used as a photo electrode in a dye solar cell (DSC). Using spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements in the 200 to 800 nm wavelengths domain, we obtain a thickness of the TiO2 film in the range of 70 to 80 nm. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) show a polycrystalline film. In addition, AFM investigation shows no cracks in the formed layer. Using an ultraviolet–visible near-infrared spectrophotometer, we found that the transmittance of the TiO2 film in the visible domain reaches 75%. From the measured current–voltage or I-V characteristic under AM1.5 illumination of the formed DSC, we obtain an open circuit voltage Voc = 628 mV and a short circuit current Isc = 22.6 μA, where the surface of the formed cell is 3.14 cm2. PMID:22747886

  2. Method and apparatus for fabricating a thin-film solar cell utilizing a hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Qi; Iwaniczko, Eugene

    2006-10-17

    A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.

  3. Demonstration of electronic design automation flow for massively parallel e-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pieter; Belledent, Jérôme; Tranquillin, Céline; Figueiro, Thiago; Meunier, Stéfanie; Bayle, Sébastien; Fay, Aurélien; Milléquant, Matthieu; Icard, Beatrice; Wieland, Marco

    2014-07-01

    For proximity effect correction in 5 keV e-beam lithography, three elementary building blocks exist: dose modulation, geometry (size) modulation, and background dose addition. Combinations of these three methods are quantitatively compared in terms of throughput impact and process window (PW). In addition, overexposure in combination with negative bias results in PW enhancement at the cost of throughput. In proximity effect correction by over exposure (PEC-OE), the entire layout is set to fixed dose and geometry sizes are adjusted. In PEC-dose to size (DTS) both dose and geometry sizes are locally optimized. In PEC-background (BG), a background is added to correct the long-range part of the point spread function. In single e-beam tools (Gaussian or Shaped-beam), throughput heavily depends on the number of shots. In raster scan tools such as MAPPER Lithography's FLX 1200 (MATRIX platform) this is not the case and instead of pattern density, the maximum local dose on the wafer is limiting throughput. The smallest considered half-pitch is 28 nm, which may be considered the 14-nm node for Metal-1 and the 10-nm node for the Via-1 layer, achieved in a single exposure with e-beam lithography. For typical 28-nm-hp Metal-1 layouts, it was shown that dose latitudes (size of process window) of around 10% are realizable with available PEC methods. For 28-nm-hp Via-1 layouts this is even higher at 14% and up. When the layouts do not reach the highest densities (up to 10∶1 in this study), PEC-BG and PEC-OE provide the capability to trade throughput for dose latitude. At the highest densities, PEC-DTS is required for proximity correction, as this method adjusts both geometry edges and doses and will reduce the dose at the densest areas. For 28-nm-hp lines critical dimension (CD), hole&dot (CD) and line ends (edge placement error), the data path errors are typically 0.9, 1.0 and 0.7 nm (3σ) and below, respectively. There is not a clear data path performance difference between

  4. Sensitivity enhancement of OD- and OD-CNT-based humidity sensors by high gravity thin film deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimov, Kh. S.; Fatima, Noshin; Sulaiman, Khaulah; Mahroof Tahir, M.; Ahmad, Zubair; Mateen, A.

    2015-03-01

    The humidity sensing properties of the thin films of an organic semiconductor material orange dye (OD) and its composite with CNTs deposited at high gravity conditions have been reported. Impedance, phase angle, capacitance and dissipation of the samples were measured at 1 kHz and room temperature conditions. The impedance decreases and capacitance increases with an increase in the humidity level. It was found that the sensitivity of the OD-based thin film samples deposited at high gravity condition is higher than the samples deposited at low gravity condition. The impedances and capacitance sensitivities of the of the samples deposited under high gravity condition are 6.1 times and 1.6 times higher than the films deposited under low gravity condition.

  5. Adhesion Strength of TiN Coatings at Various Ion Etching Deposited on Tool Steels Using Cathodic Arc Pvd Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mubarak; Hamzah, Esah; Ali, Nouman

    Titanium nitride (TiN) widely used as hard coating material was coated on tool steels, namely on high-speed steel (HSS) and D2 tool steel by physical vapor deposition method. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of ion etching with and without titanium (Ti) and chromium (Cr) on the adhesion strength of TiN coatings deposited on tool steels. From the scratch tester, it was observed that by increasing Ti ion etching showed an increase in adhesion strength of the deposited coatings. The coatings deposited with Cr ion etching showed poor adhesion compared with the coatings deposited with Ti ion etching. Scratch test measurements showed that the coating deposited with titanium ion etching for 16 min is the most stable coating and maintained even at the critical load of 66 N. The curve obtained via penetration depth along the scratch trace is linear in the case of HSS, whereas is slightly flexible in the case of D2 tool steel. The coatings deposited on HSS exhibit better adhesion compared with those on D2 tool steel.

  6. Preparation of p-type GaN-doped SnO2 thin films by e-beam evaporation and their applications in p-n junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Shuliang; Zhou, Yawei; Xu, Wenwu; Mao, Wenfeng; Wang, Lingtao; Liu, Yong; He, Chunqing

    2018-01-01

    Various transparent GaN-doped SnO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by e-beam evaporation using GaN:SnO2 targets of different GaN weight ratios. It is interesting to find that carrier polarity of the thin films was converted from n-type to p-type with increasing GaN ratio higher than 15 wt.%. The n-p transition in GaN-doped SnO2 thin films was explained for the formation of GaSn and NO with increasing GaN doping level in the films, which was identified by Hall measurement and XPS analysis. A transparent thin film p-n junction was successfully fabricated by depositing p-type GaN:SnO2 thin film on SnO2 thin film, and a low leakage current (6.2 × 10-5 A at -4 V) and a low turn-on voltage of 1.69 V were obtained for the p-n junction.

  7. Detection of irradiated fresh fruits treated by e-beam or gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Huachaca, Nélida Simona; Lamy-Freund, Maria Tereza; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2002-03-01

    Since about 1990, the amount of commercially irradiated food products available worldwide has increased. Commercial irradiation of foods has been allowed in Brazil since 1973 and now more than 20 different food products are approved. Among these products are a number of fresh fruits which may be irradiated for insect disinfestation, to delay ripening and to extend shelf-life. Today, there is a growing interest to apply radiation for the treatment of fruits instead of using fumigation or e.g. vapour-heat treatments, and an increased international trade in irradiated fruits is expected. To ensure free consumer choice, methods to identify irradiated foods are highly desirable. In this work, three detection methods for irradiated fruits have been employed: DNA Comet Assay, the half-embryo test and ESR. Both electron-beam (e-beam) and gamma rays were applied in order to compare the response with these two different kinds of radiation. Fresh fruits such as oranges, lemons, apples, watermelons and tomatoes were irradiated with doses in the range 0, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0kGy. For analysis, the seeds of the fruits were utilized. Both DNA Comet Assay and the half-embryo test enabled an easy identification of the radiation treatment. However, under our conditions, ESR measurements were not satisfactory.

  8. Structural and kinetic studies of metal hydride hydrogen storage materials using thin film deposition and characterization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Stephen Thomas

    Hydrogen makes an attractive energy carrier for many reasons. It is an abundant chemical fuel that can be produced from a wide variety of sources and stored for very long periods of time. When used in a fuel cell, hydrogen emits only water at the point of use, making it very attractive for mobile applications such as in an automobile. Metal hydrides are promising candidates for on-board reversible hydrogen storage in mobile applications due to their very high volumetric storage capacities---in most cases exceeding even that of liquid hydrogen. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has set fuel system targets for an automotive hydrogen storage system, but as of yet no single material meets all the requirements. In particular, slow reaction kinetics and/or inappropriate thermodynamics plague many metal hydride hydrogen storage materials. In order to engineer a practical material that meets the DOE targets, we need a detailed understanding of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of these materials during the phase change. In this work I employed sputter deposited thin films as a platform to study materials with highly controlled chemistry, microstructure and catalyst placement using thin film characterization techniques such as in situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron reflectivity. I observed kinetic limitations in the destabilized Mg2Si system due to the slow diffusion of the host Mg and Si atoms while forming separate MgH2 and Si phases. Conversely, I observed that the presence of Al in the Mg/Al system inhibits hydrogen diffusion while the host Mg and Al atoms interdiffuse readily, allowing the material to fall into a kinetic and/or thermodynamic trap by forming intermetallic compounds such as Mg17Al 12. By using in situ XRD to analyze epitaxial Mg films grown on (001) oriented Al2O3 substrates I observed hydride growth consistent with a model of a planar hydride layer growing into an existing metal layer. Subsequent film cycling changes the hydrogen

  9. Monte Carlo Techniques for Calculations of Charge Deposition and Displacement Damage from Protons in Visible and Infrared Sensor Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Paul; Reed, Robert; Fodness, Bryan; Jordan, Tom; Pickel, Jim; Xapsos, Michael; Burke, Ed

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation examines motivation for Monte Carlo methods, charge deposition in sensor arrays, displacement damage calculations, and future work. The discussion of charge deposition sensor arrays includes Si active pixel sensor APS arrays and LWIR HgCdTe FPAs. The discussion of displacement damage calculations includes nonionizing energy loss (NIEL), HgCdTe NIEL calculation results including variance, and implications for damage in HgCdTe detector arrays.

  10. Atomic force microscopy and Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer technique to assess contact lens deposits and human meibum extracts.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Sarah; Drolle, Elizabeth; Lorentz, Holly; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Leonenko, Zoya; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the differences in meibomian gland secretions, contact lens (CL) lipid extracts, and CL surface topography between participants with and without meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Meibum study: Meibum was collected from all participants and studied via Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition with subsequent Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) visualization and surface roughness analysis. CL Study: Participants with and without MGD wore both etafilcon A and balafilcon A CLs in two different phases. CL lipid deposits were extracted and analyzed using pressure-area isotherms with the LB trough and CL surface topographies and roughness values were visualized using AFM. Meibum study: Non-MGD participant meibum samples showed larger, circular aggregates with lower surface roughness, whereas meibum samples from participants with MGD showed more lipid aggregates, greater size variability and higher surface roughness. CL Study: Worn CLs from participants with MGD had a few large tear film deposits with lower surface roughness, whereas non-MGD participant-worn lenses had many small lens deposits with higher surface roughness. Balafilcon A pore depths were shallower in MGD participant worn lenses when compared to non-MGD participant lenses. Isotherms of CL lipid extracts from MGD and non-MGD participants showed a seamless rise in surface pressure as area decreased; however, extracts from the two different lens materials produced different isotherms. MGD and non-MGD participant-worn CL deposition were found to differ in type, amount, and pattern of lens deposits. Lipids from MGD participants deposited irregularly whereas lipids from non-MGD participants showed more uniformity. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Atomic force microscopy and Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer technique to assess contact lens deposits and human meibum extracts☆

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Sarah; Drolle, Elizabeth; Lorentz, Holly; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Leonenko, Zoya; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the differences in meibomian gland secretions, contact lens (CL) lipid extracts, and CL surface topography between participants with and without meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Methods Meibum study: Meibum was collected from all participants and studied via Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) deposition with subsequent Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) visualization and surface roughness analysis. CL Study: Participants with and without MGD wore both etafilcon A and balafilcon A CLs in two different phases. CL lipid deposits were extracted and analyzed using pressure-area isotherms with the LB trough and CL surface topographies and roughness values were visualized using AFM. Results Meibum study: Non-MGD participant meibum samples showed larger, circular aggregates with lower surface roughness, whereas meibum samples from participants with MGD showed more lipid aggregates, greater size variability and higher surface roughness. CL Study: Worn CLs from participants with MGD had a few large tear film deposits with lower surface roughness, whereas non-MGD participant-worn lenses had many small lens deposits with higher surface roughness. Balafilcon A pore depths were shallower in MGD participant worn lenses when compared to non-MGD participant lenses. Isotherms of CL lipid extracts from MGD and non-MGD participants showed a seamless rise in surface pressure as area decreased; however, extracts from the two different lens materials produced different isotherms. Conclusions MGD and non-MGD participant-worn CL deposition were found to differ in type, amount, and pattern of lens deposits. Lipids from MGD participants deposited irregularly whereas lipids from non-MGD participants showed more uniformity. PMID:25620317

  12. High Intensity e-beam Diode Development for Flash X-ray Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Bryan

    2007-11-01

    A variety of electron beam diodes are being used and developed for the purpose of creating high-brightness, flash x-ray radiography sources. In these diodes, high energy (multi MeV), high current (multi kA), small spot (multi mm) electron beams are generated and stopped in high atomic number anode-targets (typically Ta or W). Beam stopping in the target creates copious amounts of bremsstrahlung radiation. In addition, beam heating of the target liberates material, either in the form of low density (˜10^12-10^14 cm-3) ion emission or higher density (> 10^15 cm-3) plasma. In all cases, beam/target collective effects dominate the diode and beam characteristics, affecting the radiation properties (dose and spot-size). Recent experiments at Sandia National Laboratories have demonstrated diodes capable of producing > 350 rad@m with 1.7mm FWHM x-ray source distributions. A review of our present theoretical understanding of the diode (s) operation and our experimental and simulation methods to investigate them will be presented. Emphasis will be given to e- beam sources used on state-of-the-art Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA) pulsed-power accelerators. In particular, the physics of magnetically pinched diodes (e.g. the rod-pinch [1,2]), gas-cell focusing diodes [3] and the magnetically immersed [4] diode will be discussed. Various proposed methods to optimize the x-ray intensity and the direction of future diode research will be discussed. [1] G. Cooperstein, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 4618 (2001).[2] B.V. Oliver et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 3976 (2004)[3] B.V. Oliver, et al., IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science 33, 704 (2005).[4] M.G. Mazarakis, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 832 (1997)

  13. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S.

    2013-12-01

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.

  14. Structural and optical studied of nano structured lead sulfide thin films prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Al Din, Nasser Saad, E-mail: nsaadaldin@yahoo.com; Hussain, Nabiha, E-mail: nabihahssin@yahoo.com; Jandow, Nidhal, E-mail: nidhaljandow@yahoo.com

    2016-07-25

    Lead (II) Sulfide PbS thin films were deposited on glass substrates at 25°C by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The structural properties of the films were studied as a function of the concentration of Thiourea (CS (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}) as Source of Sulfide and deposition time. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM. The obtained results showed that the as-deposited films Polycrystalline had cubic crystalline phase that belong to S.G: Fm3m. We found that they have preferred orientation [200]. Also the thickness of thin films decrease with deposition time after certain value and, itmore » observed free sulfide had orthorhombic phase. Optical properties showed that the thin films have high transmission at visible range and low transmission at UV, IR range. The films of PbS have direct band gap (I.68 - 2.32 ev) at 300 K the values of band energy decreases with increases thickness of the Lead (II) Sulfide films.« less

  15. Techniques for assessing sand and gravel resources in glaciofluvial deposits; an example using the surficial geologic map of the Loudon Quadrangle, Merrimack and Belknap counties, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutphin, David M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Fowler, Brian K.; Goldsmith, Richard

    2002-01-01

    A method for estimating the sand and gravel resources in glaciofluvial systems has been developed based on surficial mapping techniques that use the morphosequence concept and geographic information systems (GIS). Two different strategies are used to estimate gravel resources. One strategy estimates the sand and gravel resources contained in esker deposits; the other, which is more dependent on GIS, estimates resources in non-esker deposits. An attempt has been made to determine which deposits are sterilized; that is, those beneath the water table, adjacent to streams or roads, or encroached on by urbanization. Preliminary estimates using these methods indicate that about 158,000,000 m3 (206,000,000 yd3) of sand and gravel are present in the Soucook River valley part of the Loudon, N.H., 7.5-minute quadrangle. About 64,500,000 m3 (84,400,000 yd3) of these materials are in deposits above the water table. About 26 percent of the sand and gravel resources above the water table are unlikely to be mined because they have been sterilized. Of the remaining resources, 479,000 m3 (627,000 yd3) of gravel and 1,120,000 m3 (1,460,000 yd3) of sand are in esker deposits, and 9,400,000 m3 (12,300,000 yd3) of gravel and 38,300,000 m3 (50,100,000 yd3) of sand are in stratified non-esker deposits. With the addition of new well data, newer and more accurate estimates are possible.

  16. DIRECT MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE FOR THE DETERMINING VENTILATION RATE IN THE DEPOSIT FEEDING CLAM, MACOMA NASUTA (BIVALVIA, TELLINACEAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An exposure chamber, the "clambox", was developed to measure ventilation rate, sediment processing rate, and efficiency of pollutant uptake byMacoma nasuta Conrad, a surface surface deposit-feeding clams. Clams, collected from Yaquina, Bay, Oregon, USA, were cemented into a hole ...

  17. Potential of a New Technique for Remote Sensing of Hydrocarbon Accumulations and Blind Uranium Deposits: Buried Lif Thermoluminescence Dosimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, F. R.; Vaz, J. E.; Lindholm, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Buried thermoluminescence dosimeters may be useful in remote sensing of petroleum and natural gas accumulations and blind uranium deposits. They act as integrating detectors that smooth out the effects of environmental variations that affect other measuring systems and result in irregularities and poor repeatability in measurements made during gas and radiometric surveys.

  18. Massively parallel E-beam inspection: enabling next-generation patterned defect inspection for wafer and mask manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Matt; Thiel, Brad; Bunday, Benjamin D.; Wurm, Stefan; Mukhtar, Maseeh; Quoi, Kathy; Kemen, Thomas; Zeidler, Dirk; Eberle, Anna Lena; Garbowski, Tomasz; Dellemann, Gregor; Peters, Jan Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    SEMATECH aims to identify and enable disruptive technologies to meet the ever-increasing demands of semiconductor high volume manufacturing (HVM). As such, a program was initiated in 2012 focused on high-speed e-beam defect inspection as a complement, and eventual successor, to bright field optical patterned defect inspection [1]. The primary goal is to enable a new technology to overcome the key gaps that are limiting modern day inspection in the fab; primarily, throughput and sensitivity to detect ultra-small critical defects. The program specifically targets revolutionary solutions based on massively parallel e-beam technologies, as opposed to incremental improvements to existing e-beam and optical inspection platforms. Wafer inspection is the primary target, but attention is also being paid to next generation mask inspection. During the first phase of the multi-year program multiple technologies were reviewed, a down-selection was made to the top candidates, and evaluations began on proof of concept systems. A champion technology has been selected and as of late 2014 the program has begun to move into the core technology maturation phase in order to enable eventual commercialization of an HVM system. Performance data from early proof of concept systems will be shown along with roadmaps to achieving HVM performance. SEMATECH's vision for moving from early-stage development to commercialization will be shown, including plans for development with industry leading technology providers.

  19. High Performance Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cells with E-beam-Processed TiOx Electron Extraction Layer.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tianyu; Liu, Chang; Wang, Kai; He, Tianda; Zhu, Yu; Al-Enizi, Abdullah; Elzatahry, Ahmed; Gong, Xiong

    2016-01-27

    Perovskite hybrid solar cells (pero-HSCs) have drawn great attention in the last 5 years. The efficiencies of pero-HSCs have been boosted from 3.8% to over 20%. However, one of the bottlenecks for commercialization of pero-HSCs is to make a high electrical conductive TiOx electron extraction layer (EEL). In this study, we report high performance pero-HSCs with TiOx EEL, where the TiOx EEL is fabricated by electron beam (e-beam) evaporation, which has been proved to be a well-developed manufacturing process. The resistance of the e-beam evaporated TiOx EEL is smaller than that of sol-gel processed TiOx EEL. Moreover, the dark current densities and interfacial charge carrier recombination of pero-HSCs incorporated with e-beam processed TiOx EEL is also smaller than that of pero-HSCs incorporated with sol-gel processed TiOx EEL. All these result in efficient pero-HSCs with high reproducibility. These results demonstrate that our method provides a simple and facile way to approach high performance pero-HSCs.

  20. Integration of e-beam direct write in BEOL processes of 28nm SRAM technology node using mix and match

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsch, Manuela; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Hanisch, Norbert; Hohle, Christoph; Seidel, Robert; Steidel, Katja; Thrun, Xaver; Werner, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Many efforts were spent in the development of EUV technologies, but from a customer point of view EUV is still behind expectations. In parallel since years maskless lithography is included in the ITRS roadmap wherein multi electron beam direct patterning is considered as an alternative or complementary approach for patterning of advanced technology nodes. The process of multi beam exposures can be emulated by single beam technologies available in the field. While variable shape-beam direct writers are already used for niche applications, the integration capability of e-beam direct write at advanced nodes has not been proven, yet. In this study the e-beam lithography was implemented in the BEoL processes of the 28nm SRAM technology. Integrated 300mm wafers with a 28nm back-end of line (BEoL) stack from GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Dresden, were used for the experiments. For the patterning of the Metal layer a Mix and Match concept based on the sequence litho - etch - litho - etch (LELE) was developed and evaluated wherein several exposure fields were blanked out during the optical exposure. E-beam patterning results of BEoL Metal and Via layers are presented using a 50kV VISTEC SB3050DW variable shaped electron beam direct writer at Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT. Etch results are shown and compared to the POR. In summary we demonstrate the integration capability of EBDW into a productive CMOS process flow at the example of the 28nm SRAM technology node.

  1. Evidence of room temperature ferromagnetism in argon/oxygen annealed TiO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, P.; Kabiraj, D.; Mandal, R. K.; Kulriya, P. K.; Sinha, A. S. K.; Rath, Chandana

    2014-04-01

    TiO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation technique annealed in either O2 or Ar atmosphere showed ferromagnetism at room temperature. The pristine amorphous film demonstrates anatase phase after annealing under Ar/O2 atmosphere. While the pristine film shows a super-paramagnetic behavior, both O2 and Ar annealed films display hysteresis at 300 K. X-ray photo emission spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford's backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to refute the possible role of impurities/contaminants in magnetic properties of the films. The saturation magnetization of the O2 annealed film is found to be higher than the Ar annealed one. It is revealed from shifting of O 1s and Ti 2p core level spectra as well as from the enhancement of high binding energy component of O 1s spectra that the higher magnetic moment is associated with higher oxygen vacancies. In addition, O2 annealed film demonstrates better crystallinity, uniform deposition and smoother surface than that of the Ar annealed one from glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We conclude that although ferromagnetism is due to oxygen vacancies, the higher magnetization in O2 annealed film could be due to crystallinity, which has been observed earlier in Co doped TiO2 film deposited by pulsed laser deposition (Mohanty et al., 2012 [10]).

  2. Combining a multi deposition multi annealing technique with a scavenging (Ti) to improve the high-k/metal gate stack performance for a gate-last process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ShuXiang, Zhang; Hong, Yang; Bo, Tang; Zhaoyun, Tang; Yefeng, Xu; Jing, Xu; Jiang, Yan

    2014-10-01

    ALD HfO2 films fabricated by a novel multi deposition multi annealing (MDMA) technique are investigated, we have included samples both with and without a Ti scavenging layer. As compared to the reference gate stack treated by conventional one-time deposition and annealing (D&A), devices receiving MDMA show a significant reduction in leakage current. Meanwhile, EOT growth is effectively controlled by the Ti scavenging layer. This improvement strongly correlates with the cycle number of D&A (while keeping the total annealing time and total dielectrics thickness the same). Transmission electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis suggests that oxygen incorporation into both the high-k film and the interfacial layer is likely to be responsible for the improvement of the device. This novel MDMA is promising for the development of gate stack technology in a gate last integration scheme.

  3. Effect of solvent volume on the physical properties of aluminium doped nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films deposited using a simplified spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabena Begum, N.; Mohan, R.; Ravichandran, K.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited by employing a low cost and simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer from starting solutions having different volumes (10, 20, … , 50 mL) of solvent. The effect of solvent volume on the structural, electrical, optical, photoluminescence (PL) and surface morphological properties was studied. The electrical resistivity of the AZO films is remarkably influenced by the variation in the solvent volume. The X-ray diffraction profiles clearly showed that all the films have preferential orientation along the (0 0 2) plane irrespective of the solvent volume. The crystallite size was found to be in the nano range of 35-46 nm. The optical transmittance in the visible region is desirably high (>85%). The AFM images show columnar morphology with varying grain size. The PL studies revealed that the AZO film deposited from 50 mL of solvent volume has good quality with lesser defect density.

  4. Investigations on alluvial deposits through borehole stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating and passive seismic technique (Carnic Alps, NE Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, Alessia; Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Crema, Stefano; Fontana, Alessandro; Mozzi, Paolo; Venturini, Corrado

    2016-04-01

    Alluvial sediment investigations provide fundamental tools to infer the processes that control geomorphological evolution of mountain environments. By analyzing sediment stratigraphy in depth, it is possible to retrieve the source, the geology, the time of deposition, the relative distance travelled by material as well as to distinguish among different type of transport (i.e., gravitational, fluvial or glacial). In this work, we present a combination of log stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating and geophysical surveys carried out on the valley floor of the But River (Carnic Alps, North East Italy). The But River basin drains an area of 326 km2 with a range in elevation from 2769 to 323 m a.s.l.; the bedrock mainly consists of carbonates and quartz arenites with minor inclusions of effusive rocks. After Pleistocene the gravitational deposits from mountain slopes have impounded the But River several times. In particular, we analyzed a sector of the upper portion of the But valley close to the confluence of the Moscardo Torrent, frequently affected by debris flows. A borehole was drilled in the But River floodplain, at the intersection with the Moscardo Torrent alluvial fan, down to a depth of 80 m. The analysis of the core samples allowed discerning three sedimentary levels rich in clay and organic materials, which testify the presence of small dam lakes, originated from the Moscardo debris-flow deposits. Three samples of wood and plant debris were collected from 13, 14 and 23 m of depth, respectively. They were analyzed through radiocarbon dating in order to determine the age of the lakes and, thus, to infer the activity of the debris flows building the Moscardo cone. The calibrated ages of the 3 samples are close to the younger limit of the radiocarbon method indicating a fast aggradation of the valley floor, starting from a period ranging between 1450 - 1632 AD. Historical maps and documents confirm the presence of the lakes until 19th century and they permit to assess

  5. Investigation of the refractive index repeatability for tantalum pentoxide coatings, prepared by physical vapor film deposition techniques.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, O; Wilbrandt, S; Wolf, J; Schürmann, M; Kaiser, N; Ristau, D; Ehlers, H; Carstens, F; Schippel, S; Mechold, L; Rauhut, R; Kennedy, M; Bischoff, M; Nowitzki, T; Zöller, A; Hagedorn, H; Reus, H; Hegemann, T; Starke, K; Harhausen, J; Foest, R; Schumacher, J

    2017-02-01

    Random effects in the repeatability of refractive index and absorption edge position of tantalum pentoxide layers prepared by plasma-ion-assisted electron-beam evaporation, ion beam sputtering, and magnetron sputtering are investigated and quantified. Standard deviations in refractive index between 4*10-4 and 4*10-3 have been obtained. Here, lowest standard deviations in refractive index close to our detection threshold could be achieved by both ion beam sputtering and plasma-ion-assisted deposition. In relation to the corresponding mean values, the standard deviations in band-edge position and refractive index are of similar order.

  6. A Comparative Study of Three Different Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Techniques of Carbon Nanotube Growth on Diamond Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    FCT-CVD) with xylene and ferrocene liquid mixture without any prior catalyst deposition. T-CVD is a low cost system that can easily be set up to grow...iron catalysts, respectively. For the FCT-CVD approach, ferrocene is used as an iron source to promote CNT growth. Based on these repeatable results...kept at 250 ° C while the high temperature furnace is ramped up to the growth temperature of 750 ° C. Ferrocene was dissolved into xylene solvent in

  7. A Comparative Study of Three Different Chemical Vapor Deposition Techniques of Carbon Nanotube Growth on Diamond Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    catalyst thermal CVD (FCT-CVD) with xylene and ferrocene liquid mixture without any prior catalyst deposition. T-CVD is a low-cost system that can... ferrocene is used as an iron source to promoteCNT growth. Based on these repeatable results, the CNT growth parameters were used to grow CNTs on the...temperature furnace is ramped up to the growth temperature of 750∘C. Ferrocene was dissolved into a xylene solvent in a 0.008 : 1molar volume ratio.The xylene

  8. Current transport and capacitance-voltage characteristics of an n-PbTe/p-GaP heterojunction prepared using the electron beam deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, Mahmoud; El Radaf, I. M.; Mansour, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a crystalline n-PbTe/p-GaP heterojunction was fabricated using the electron beam deposition technique. The structural properties of the prepared heterojunction were examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The dark current-voltage characteristics of the heterojunction were investigated at different temperatures ranging from 298 to 398 K. The rectification factor, series resistance, shunt resistance, diode ideality factor, and effective barrier height (ϕb) were determined. The photovoltaic parameters were identified based on the current density-voltage characteristics under illumination. The capacitance-voltage characteristics showed that the junction was abrupt in nature.

  9. Evaporation-Driven Deposition of ITO Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions with Low-Speed Dip-Coating Technique.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Kozuka, Hiromitsu

    2017-05-30

    We suggest a novel wet coating process for preparing indium tin oxide (ITO) films from simple solutions containing only metal salts and water via evaporation-driven film deposition during low-speed dip coating. Homogeneous ITO precursor films were deposited on silica glass substrates from the aqueous solutions containing In(NO 3 ) 3 ·3H 2 O and SnCl 4 ·5H 2 O by dip coating at substrate withdrawal speeds of 0.20-0.50 cm min -1 and then crystallized by the heat treatment at 500-800 °C for 10-60 min under N 2 gas flow of 0.5 L min -1 . The ITO films heated at 600 °C for 30 min had a high optical transparency in the visible range and a good electrical conductivity. Multiple-coating ITO films obtained with five-times dip coating exhibited the lowest sheet (ρ S ) and volume (ρ V ) resistivities of 188 Ω sq -1 and 4.23 × 10 -3 Ω cm, respectively.

  10. One-step synthesis of hybrid inorganic-organic nanocomposite coatings by novel laser adaptive ablation deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbezov, Valery; Sotirov, Sotir

    2013-03-01

    A novel approach for one-step synthesis of hybrid inorganic-organic nanocomposite coatings by new modification of Pulsed Laser Deposition technology called Laser Adaptive Ablation Deposition (LAAD) is presented. Hybrid nanocomposite coatings including Mg- Rapamycin and Mg- Desoximetasone were produced by UV TEA N2 laser under low vacuum (0.1 Pa) and room temperature onto substrates from SS 316L, KCl and NaCl. The laser fluence for Mg alloy was 1, 8 J/cm2 and for Desoximetasone 0,176 J/cm2 and for Rapamycin 0,118 J/cm2 were respectively. The threedimensional two-segmented single target was used to adapt the interaction of focused laser beam with inorganic and organic material. Magnesium alloy nanoparticles with sizes from 50 nm to 250 nm were obtained in organic matrices. The morphology of nanocomposites films were studied by Bright field / Fluorescence optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements were applied in order to study the functional properties of organic component before and after the LAAD process. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) was used for identification of Mg alloy presence in hybrid nanocomposites coatings. The precise control of process parameters and particularly of the laser fluence adjustment enables transfer on materials with different physical chemical properties and one-step synthesis of complex inorganic- organic nanocomposites coatings.

  11. Analysis of morphological, structural and electrical properties of annealed TiO2 nanowires deposited by GLAD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shougaijam, B.; Swain, R.; Ngangbam, C.; Lenka, T. R.

    2017-06-01

    The effect of annealing on vertically aligned TiO2 NWs deposited by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method on Si substrate using pressed and sintered TiO2 pellets as source material is studied. The FE-SEM images reveal the retention of vertically aligned NWs on Si substrate after annealing process. The EDS analysis of TiO2 NWs sample annealed at 600 °C in air for 1 h shows the higher weight percentage ratio of ˜2.6 (i.e., 72.27% oxygen and 27.73% titanium). The XRD pattern reveals that the polycrystalline nature of anatase TiO2 dominates the annealed NWs sample. The electrical characteristics of Al/TiO2-NWs/TiO2-TF/p-Si (NW device) and Al/TiO2-TF/p-Si (TF device) based on annealed samples are compared. It is riveting to observe a lower leakage current of ˜1.32 × 10-7 A/cm2 at +1 V with interface trap density of ˜6.71 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 in NW device compared to ˜2.23 × 10-7 A/cm2 in TF device. The dominant leakage mechanism is investigated to be generally Schottky emission; however Poole-Frenkel emission also takes place during high reverse bias beyond 4 V for NWs and 3 V for TF device.

  12. Structural and electrical characterization of microcrystalline silicon films prepared by a layer-by-layer technique with a plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, J. P.; Kim, C. O.; Nahm, T. U.; Kim, C. M.

    2000-02-01

    Microcrystalline silicon films have been prepared on indium-coated glass utilizing a layer-by-layer technique with a plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition system. The microcrystalline films were fabricated by varying the number of cycles from 10 to 60 under a fixed H2 time (t2) of 120 s, where the corresponding deposition time (t1) of amorphous silicon thin film was 60 s. Structural properties, such as the crystalline volume fraction (Xc) and grain sizes were analyzed by using Raman spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscopy. The carrier transport was characterized by the temperature dependence of dark conductivity, giving rise to the calculation of activation energy (Ea). Optical energy gaps (Eg) were also investigated using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. In addition, the process under different hydrogen plasma time (t2) at a fixed number of 20 cycles was extensively carried out to study the dominant role of hydrogen atoms in layer-by-layer deposition. Finally, the correlation between structural and electrical properties has been discussed on the basis of experimental results.

  13. Fabrication of p-type CuO thin films using chemical bath deposition technique and their solar cell applications with Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Funda Aksoy; Akgul, Guvenc

    2017-02-01

    Recently, CuO has attracted much interest owing to its suitable material properties, inexpensive fabrication cost and potential applications for optoelectronic devices. In this study, CuO thin films were deposited on glass substrates using chemical bath deposition technique and post-deposition annealing effect on the properties of the prepared samples were investigated. p-n heterojunction solar cells were then constructed by coating of p-type CuO films onto the vertically well-aligned n-type Si nanowires synthesized through MACE method. Photovoltaic performance of the fabricated devices were determined with current-voltage (I-V) measurements under AM 1.5 G illumination. The optimal short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power conversion efficiency were found to be 3.2 mA/cm-2, 337 mV, 37.9 and 0.45%, respectively. The observed performance clearly indicates that the investigated device structure could be a promising candidate for high-performance low-cost new-generation photovoltaic diodes.

  14. Thin film silicon by a microwave plasma deposition technique: Growth and devices, and, interface effects in amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannathan, Basanth

    Thin film silicon (Si) was deposited by a microwave plasma CVD technique, employing double dilution of silane, for the growth of low hydrogen content Si films with a controllable microstructure on amorphous substrates at low temperatures (<400sp°C). The double dilution was achieved by using a Ar (He) carrier for silane and its subsequent dilution by Hsb2. Structural and electrical properties of the films have been investigated over a wide growth space (temperature, power, pressure and dilution). Amorphous Si films deposited by silane diluted in He showed a compact nature and a hydrogen content of ˜8 at.% with a photo/dark conductivity ratio of 10sp4. Thin film transistors (W/L = 500/25) fabricated on these films, showed an on/off ratio of ˜10sp6 and a low threshold voltage of 2.92 volts. Microcrystalline Si films with a high crystalline content (˜80%) were also prepared by this technique. Such films showed a dark conductivity ˜10sp{-6} S/cm, with a conduction activation energy of 0.49 eV. Film growth and properties have been compared for deposition in Ar and He carrier systems and growth models have been proposed. Low temperature junction formation by undoped thin film silicon was examined through a thin film silicon/p-type crystalline silicon heterojunctions. The thin film silicon layers were deposited by rf glow discharge, dc magnetron sputtering and microwave plasma CVD. The hetero-interface was identified by current transport analysis and high frequency capacitance methods as the key parameter controlling the photovoltaic (PV) response. The effect of the interface on the device properties (PV, junction, and carrier transport) was examined with respect to modifications created by chemical treatment, type of plasma species, their energy and film microstructure interacting with the substrate. Thermally stimulated capacitance was used to determine the interfacial trap parameters. Plasma deposition of thin film silicon on chemically clean c-Si created electron

  15. Bi-layer Channel AZO/ZnO Thin Film Transistors Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Huijin; Han, Dedong; Liu, Liqiao; Dong, Junchen; Cui, Guodong; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    This letter demonstrates bi-layer channel Al-doped ZnO/ZnO thin film transistors (AZO/ZnO TFTs) via atomic layer deposition process at a relatively low temperature. The effects of annealing in oxygen atmosphere at different temperatures have also been investigated. The ALD bi-layer channel AZO/ZnO TFTs annealed in dry O 2 at 300 °C exhibit a low leakage current of 2.5 × 10 -13 A, I on /I off ratio of 1.4 × 10 7 , subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.23 V/decade, and high transmittance. The enhanced performance obtained from the bi-layer channel AZO/ZnO TFT devices is explained by the inserted AZO front channel layer playing the role of the mobility booster.

  16. Bi-layer Channel AZO/ZnO Thin Film Transistors Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huijin; Han, Dedong; Liu, Liqiao; Dong, Junchen; Cui, Guodong; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    This letter demonstrates bi-layer channel Al-doped ZnO/ZnO thin film transistors (AZO/ZnO TFTs) via atomic layer deposition process at a relatively low temperature. The effects of annealing in oxygen atmosphere at different temperatures have also been investigated. The ALD bi-layer channel AZO/ZnO TFTs annealed in dry O2 at 300 °C exhibit a low leakage current of 2.5 × 10-13A, I on/ I off ratio of 1.4 × 107, subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.23 V/decade, and high transmittance. The enhanced performance obtained from the bi-layer channel AZO/ZnO TFT devices is explained by the inserted AZO front channel layer playing the role of the mobility booster.

  17. Designing optical metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion based on Al:ZnO/ZnO nano-layered structure using Atomic Layer Deposition technique

    DOE PAGES

    Kelly, Priscilla; Liu, Mingzhao; Kuznetsova, Lyuba

    2016-04-07

    In this study, nano-layered Al:ZnO/ZnO hyperbolic dispersion metamaterial with a large number of layers was fabricated using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Experimental dielectric functions for Al:ZnO/ZnO structures are obtained by an ellipsometry technique in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. The theoretical modeling of the Al:ZnO/ZnO dielectric permittivity is done using effective medium approximation. A method for analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometry data is demonstrated to extract the optical permittivity for this highly anisotropic nano-layered metamaterial. The results of the ellipsometry analysis show that Al:ZnO/ZnO structures with a 1:9 ALD cycle ratio exhibit hyperbolic dispersion transition change near 1.8more » μm wavelength.« less

  18. Effects of solution pH and electrical parameters on hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by a plasma-assisted electrophoresis technique.

    PubMed

    Nie, X; Leyland, A; Matthews, A; Jiang, J C; Meletis, E I

    2001-12-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings can be deposited using a hybrid process of plasma electrolysis and electrophoresis, called plasma-assisted electrophoretic deposition (PEPD). HA aqueous suspensions with various pH values were prepared using a modified ultrasonic cleaning bath as an agitator/stirrer. Both DC and unbalanced AC power supplies were used to bias the titanium alloy substrate materials employed in this work. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to observe and analyze coating morphology and microstructure. It was shown that the morphology and composition of the calcium phosphate coatings were significantly influenced by solution pH values; the level of "pure" HA in the coatings' composition corresponded to both solution pH and the type of power supply employed. Loss of hydroxyl radials (i.e., dehydroxylation), which degrades the performance of the hydroxyapatite coating in terms of long-term chemical and mechanical stability, can be virtually eliminated by a combination of high pH and unbalanced AC plasma power. In addition, the underlying TiO2 coatings used to support the HA layer (preproduced by plasma electrolysis process) have a nanoscaled (10-20 nm) polycrystalline structure. TEM studies also revealed a dense, continuous amorphous titania layer (10 nm in thickness) at the interface between the Ti alloy substrate and the TiO2 layer, which may play a role in improving the corrosion resistance of the substrate. Such a nanophase TiO2 layer (if used as a coating alone) may also provide a further improvement in osteoinductive properties, compared to a conventional TiO2 coating on the Ti alloy substrate. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 57: 612-618, 2001

  19. Final product analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of aqueous solutions of metoprolol tartrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slegers, Catherine; Tilquin, Bernard

    2006-09-01

    The radiostability of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions and the influence of the absorbed dose (0-50 kGy), dose rate (e-beam (EB) vs. gamma ( γ)) and radioprotectors (pharmaceutical excipients) are investigated by HPLC-UV analyses and through computer simulations. The use of radioprotecting excipients is more promising than an increase in the dose rate to lower the degradation of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions for applications such as radiosterilization. The decontamination of metoprolol tartrate from waste waters by EB processing appears highly feasible.

  20. Study of thin film production of ceramic ZrO2 on silicon wafer using second harmonic Nd-Yag laser with pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliyanti, Maria M.; Hidayah, Affi Nur; Kurniawan, K. H.

    2012-06-01

    Study about thin film production using technique pulsed laser deposition have been done. The Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) method has been used for growing thin film of ZrO2 on silicon wafer substrate (111 single crystal, thickness 400μm and diameter 7.5 cm). The target made from Zirconia oxide powder mixing with PVA and press using pressure 100kgN. The laser beam was focused by a lens (f = 100mm) through a quartz window onto the sample surface and the substrate was placed in parallel line with target. The distance between the target and the substrate is about 1 cm. The early results of this synthesis using 75 mJ Nd-YAG second harmonic laser pulse (532 nm Nd-YAG) and low pressure chamber surrounding gas 5 Torr. The irradiation of laser take around 6000 shoots or 10 minutes using frequencies laser 10 Hz. The micro thickness of film can be produced on silicon wafer using this technique. The results of ZrO2 thin film on substrate about 26.92%.

  1. Structural properties of perovskite films on zinc oxide nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide (ZnO-NPs/rGO) prepared by electrophoretic deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahtiar, Ayi; Nurazizah, Euis Siti; Latiffah, Efa; Risdiana, Furukawa, Yukio

    2018-02-01

    Perovskite solar cells highly believed as next generation solar cells to replace currently available inorganic silicon solar cells due to their high power conversion efficiency and easy processing to thin films using solution processing techniques. Performance and stability, however still need to be improved for mass production and widely used for public electricity generation. Perovskite solar cells are commonly deposited on Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) film as an effective electron transport layer (ETL). We used Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) as ETL in perovskite solar cells due to the low temperature required for crystallization and can be formed into different shapes of nanostructures. However, perovskite film can easily degrade into insulating lead iodide due to deprotonation of the methylammoniumcation at the surface of ZnO-NPs, in particular when it stored in ambient air with high relative humidity. The degradation of perovskite layer is therefore needed to be overcome. Here, we capped ZnO-NPs with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to overcome the degradation of perovskite film where ZnO-NPs is synthesized by sol-gel method. The average nanoparticle size of ZnO is 15 nm. ZnO-NPs and ZnO-NPs-rGO films are prepared using electrophoretic deposition technique, which can produce large area with good homogeneity and high reproducibility. The stability of perovskite layer can significantly be improved by capping ZnO with rGO, which is indicated by absence of color change of perovskite after storage for 5 (five) days in ambient air with relative humidity above 95%. Moreover, the X-Ray Diffaction peaks of perovskite film are more preserved when deposited on ZnO/rGO film than using only ZnO film. We strongly believe, by capping ZnO film with rGO, both the performance and stability of perovskite solar cells can be improved significantly.

  2. LC MS analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of metoprolol tartrate in aqueous solution: Structure elucidation and formation mechanism of radiolytic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slegers, Catherine; Maquille, Aubert; Deridder, Véronique; Sonveaux, Etienne; Habib Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Tilquin, Bernard

    2006-09-01

    E-beam and gamma products from the radiolysis of aqueous solutions of (±)-metoprolol tartrate, saturated in nitrogen, are analyzed by HPLC with on-line mass and UV detectors. The structures of 10 radiolytic products common to e-beam and gamma irradiations are elucidated by comparing their fragmentation pattern to that of (±)-metoprolol. Two of the radiolytic products are also metabolites. Different routes for the formation of the radiolytic products are proposed.

  3. 3D granular deposits on rock avalanches: can the application of different operators and filtering techniques improve our understanding of the phenomena?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longchamp, Celine; Abellan, Antonio; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Rock avalanches are catastrophic events involving a great volume of material (>106 m3). The flowing mass can reach velocities up to ten meters per second and travel long distances on the order of kilometres, covering an area over 0.1 km2. These extremely destructive and uncontrollable events are very unusual in nature and the use of analogue modelling is of great importance in the understanding of the behaviour of such events. The main objective of this research is to analyse rock avalanche dynamics by means of a detailed structural analysis of the features observed in the avalanche. Data used for this research consist on 3D measurements of mass movements of different magnitudes, from decimetre level scale laboratory experiments to well-studied rock avalanches of several square kilometres magnitude, as follows: (1) Laboratory experiments are performed on a tilting plane in which a well-defined granular material is released, chute down a slope, propagate and finally stop on a horizontal surface. The deposits are then scanned by a 3D digitizer (Konica Minolta vivid 9i micro-LiDAR) in order to get a 3D geometrical model of the mass. Different grainsize (115, 545 and 2605 μm) and substratum roughness (simulate by aluminium and sandpapers with grainsize from 16 to 425 μm) were used in order to understand their influence on the motion of a granular mass; (2) A well know rock avalanche deposit, the Frank slide (Alberta, Canada), was also analysed from the available 3D LiDAR dataset. This deposit consists in a 30× 106 m3 rockslide-avalanche of Palaeozoic limestone that was widely studied by several authors before (e.g. Cruden and Hungr, 1986, Cruden and Krahn, 1973, etc). In order to better understand the fault and folding structures presented in the rock avalanche deposits, we applied a series of linear and non-linear Matlab operators and filtering techniques to the 3D datasets, including differences derivatives ('diff'), numerical gradient ('gradient'), discrete

  4. Optimization of Process Parameters of Pulsed Electro Deposition Technique for Nanocrystalline Nickel Coating Using Gray Relational Analysis (GRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, C.; Sundara Moorthy, N.; Venkatesan, R.; Aswinprasad, V.

    The moving parts of any mechanism and machine parts are always subjected to a significant wear due to the development of friction. It is an utmost important aspect to address the wear problems in present environment. But the complexity goes on increasing to replace the worn out parts if they are very precise. Technology advancement in surface engineering ensures the minimum surface wear with the introduction of polycrystalline nano nickel coating. The enhanced tribological property of the nano nickel coating was achieved by the development of grain size and hardness of the surface. In this study, it has been decided to focus on the optimized parameters of the pulsed electro deposition to develop such a coating. Taguchi’s method coupled gray relational analysis was employed by considering the pulse frequency, average current density and duty cycle as the chief process parameters. The grain size and hardness were considered as responses. Totally, nine experiments were conducted as per L9 design of experiment. Additionally, response graph method has been applied to determine the most significant parameter to influence both the responses. In order to improve the degree of validation, confirmation test and predicted gray grade were carried out with the optimized parameters. It has been observed that there was significant improvement in gray grade for the optimal parameters.

  5. Determination of fracture toughness of calcium phosphate coatings deposited onto Ti6Al4V substrate by using indentation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Cetinel, Hakan; Pasinli, Ahmet

    2012-09-01

    In this study, fracture toughness values of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings deposited onto Ti6Al4V substrate were determined by using Vickers indentation method. In this new patent holding method, the activation processes were performed with NaOH and NaOH+H2O2 on the Ti6Al4V material surface. Thicknesses of CaP coatings were measured from cross-sections of the samples by using optical microscopy. Vickers indentation tests were performed by using microhardness tester. Young's modulus values of the coatings were determined by using ultra microhardness tester. As a result, fracture toughness (K1C) values of the CaP coatings produced by using two different activation processes, were calculated by using experimental study results. These were found to be 0.43 MPa m1/2 and 0.39 MPa m1/2, respectively. It was determined that the CaP coating on Ti6Al4V activated by NaOH+H2O2 had higher fracture toughness than the CaP coating on Ti6Al4V activated by NaOH.

  6. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology.

    PubMed

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation.

  7. Coupling spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques for evaluation of the depositional history of hydrocarbons in a subtropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Martins, César C; Doumer, Marta E; Gallice, Wellington C; Dauner, Ana Lúcia L; Cabral, Ana Caroline; Cardoso, Fernanda D; Dolci, Natiely N; Camargo, Luana M; Ferreira, Paulo A L; Figueira, Rubens C L; Mangrich, Antonio S

    2015-10-01

    Spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques can be used together to evaluate hydrocarbon inputs to coastal environments such as the Paranaguá estuarine system (PES), located in the SW Atlantic, Brazil. Historical inputs of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using two sediment cores from the PES. The AHs were related to the presence of biogenic organic matter and degraded oil residues. The PAHs were associated with mixed sources. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations were related to oil spills, while relatively low levels could be attributed to the decrease in oil usage during the global oil crisis. The results of electron paramagnetic resonance were in agreement with the absolute AHs and PAHs concentrations measured by chromatographic techniques, while near-infrared spectroscopy results were consistent with unresolved complex mixture (UCM)/total n-alkanes ratios. These findings suggest that the use of a combination of techniques can increase the accuracy of assessment of contamination in sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-energy electron beam proximity projection lithography (LEEPL): the world's first e-beam production tool, LEEPL 3000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behringer, Uwe F. W.

    2004-06-01

    In June 2000 ago the company Accretech and LEEPL corporation decided to develop an E-beam lithography tool for high throughput wafer exposure, called LEEPL. In an amazing short time the alpha tool was built. In 2002 the beta tool was installed at Accretech. Today the first production tool the LEEPL 3000 is ready to be shipped. The 2keV E-beam tool will be used in the first lithography strategy to expose (in mix and match mode with optical exposure tools) critical levels like gate structures, contact holes (CH), and via pattern of the 90 nm and 65 nm node. At the SEMATECH EPL workshop on September 22nd in Cambridge, England it was mentioned that the amount of these levels will increase very rapidly (8 in 2007; 13 in 2010 and 17 in 2013). The schedule of the production tool for 45 nm node is mid 2005 and for the 32 nm node 2008. The Figure 1 shows from left to right α-tool, the β-tool and the production tool LEEPL 3000. Figure 1 also shows the timetable of the 4 LEEPL forum all held in Japan.

  9. Effects on electron scattering and resist characteristics using assisting underlayers for e-beam direct write lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrun, Xaver; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Hanisch, Norbert; Hohle, Christoph; Steidel, Katja; Guerrero, Douglas; Figueiro, Thiago; Bartha, Johann W.

    2013-03-01

    Resist processing for future technology nodes becomes more and more complex. The resist film thickness is getting thinner and hardmask concepts (trilayer) are needed for reproducible etch transfer into the stack. Additional layers between resist and substrate are influencing the electron scattering in e-beam lithography and may also improve sensitivity and resolution. In this study, bare silicon wafers with different assisting underlayers were processed in a 300 mm CMOS manufacturing environment and were exposed on a 50 keV VISTEC SB3050DW variable-shaped electron beam direct writer at Fraunhofer CNT. The underlayers are organic-inorganic hybrid coatings with different metal additives. The negative-tone resist was evaluated in terms of contrast, sensitivity, resolution and LWR/LER as a function of the stack. The interactions between resist and different assisting underlayers on e-beam direct writing will be investigated. These layers could be used to optimize the trade-off among resolution, LWR and sensitivity in future applications.

  10. Structural and optical properties of glancing angle deposited TiO2 nanowires array.

    PubMed

    Chinnamuthu, P; Mondal, A; Singh, N K; Dhar, J C; Das, S K; Chattopadhyay, K K

    2012-08-01

    TiO2 nanowires (NWs) have been synthesized by glancing angle deposition technique using e-beam evaporator. The average length 490 nm and diameter 80 nm of NWs were examined by field emission-scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy emphasized that the NWs were widely dispersed at the top. X-ray diffraction has been carried out on the TiO2 thin film (TF) and NW array. A small blue shift of 0.03 eV was observed in Photoluminescence (PL) main band emission for TiO2 NW as compared to TiO2 TF. The high temperature annealing at 980 degrees C partially removed the oxygen vacancy from the sample, which was investigated by PL and optical absorption measurements.

  11. Prospects of e-beam evaporated molybdenum oxide as a hole transport layer for perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, F.; Khoshsirat, N.; Duffin, J. L.; Wang, H.; Ostrikov, K.; Bell, J. M.; Tesfamichael, T.

    2017-09-01

    Perovskite solar cells have emerged as one of the most efficient and low cost technologies for delivering of solar electricity due to their exceptional optical and electrical properties. Commercialization of the perovskite solar cells is, however, limited because of the higher cost and environmentally sensitive organic hole transport materials such as spiro-OMETAD and PEDOT:PSS. In this study, an empirical simulation was performed using the Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator software to explore the MoOx thin film as an alternative hole transport material for perovskite solar cells. In the simulation, properties of MoOx thin films deposited by the electron beam evaporation technique from high purity (99.99%) MoO3 pellets at different substrate temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C) were used as input parameters. The films were highly transparent (>80%) and have low surface roughness (≤2 nm) with bandgap energy ranging between 3.75 eV and 3.45 eV. Device simulation has shown that the MoOx deposited at room temperature can work in both the regular and inverted structures of the perovskite solar cell with a promising efficiency of 18.25%. Manufacturing of the full device is planned in order to utilize the MoOx as an alternative hole transport material for improved performance, good stability, and low cost of the perovskite solar cell.

  12. The effect of reconditioning techniques by welding on the quality of deposits on crankshafts, case study SMAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivu, O. R.; Cicic, D. T.; Rontescu, C.; Vasile, I. M.; Petriceanu, C.

    2015-11-01

    Currently, we are searching for a range of solutions for repairing the crankshafts that had snapped during operation. The paper deals with the extension of the two methods for reconditioning by welding in the energy industry in the field of repairing the crankshafts in the automotive industry. The results obtained through the application of methods for reconditioning Weld Toe Tempering Technique and filling layers of sidings, which was used as a welding procedure SMAW. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons between the results of the two methods based on the criterion of rigidity are carried out.

  13. Strategies for alignment and e-beam contact to buried atomic-precision devices in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrick, Jonathan; Namboodiri, Pradeep; Wang, Xiqiao; Murray, Roy; Hagmann, Joseph; Li, Kai; Stewart, Michael; Richter, Curt; Silver, Richard

    STM based hydrogen lithography has proven to be a viable route to fabrication of atomic-precision electronic devices. The strength of this technique is the ability to control the lateral placement of phosphorus atoms in a single atomic layer of Si with sub-nanometer resolution. However, because of limitations in the rate at which a scanning probe can pattern a device, as well as the ultimate size of contacts that can be fabricated (on the order of a micron in length), making electrical contact to STM fabricated devices encased in Si is nontrivial. One commonly implemented solution to this challenge is to choose the exact location on a Si surface where a device is to be patterned by STM and to design fiducials to aid in navigating the probe to that predetermined location. We present results from an alternate strategy for contacting buried devices based on performing the STM lithography fabrication first, and determination of the buried structure location after the fact using topographically identifiable STM fabricated fiducials. AFM, scanning capacitance, and peak force Kelvin microscopy as well as optical microscopy techniques are evaluated as a means for device relocation and to quantify the comparative accuracy of these techniques.

  14. An investigation of localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezgin, Serap Yiǧit; Kepceoǧlu, Abdullah; Kılıç, Hamdi Şükür

    2017-02-01

    Noble metal nano-structures such as Ag, Cu, Au are used commonly to increase power conversion efficiency of the solar cell by using their surface plasmons. The plasmonic metal nanoparticles of Ag among others that have strong LSPR in near UV range. They increase photon absorbance via embedding in the active semiconductor of the solar cell. Thin films of Ag are grown in the desired particle size and interparticle distance easily and at low cost by PLD technique. Ag nanoparticle thin films were grown on micro slide glass at 25-36 mJ laser pulse energies under by PLD using ns-Nd:YAG laser. The result of this work have been presented by carrying out UV-VIS and AFM analysis. It was concluded that a laser energy increases, the density and size of Ag-NPs arriving on the substrate increases, and the interparticle distance was decreases. Therefore, LSPR wavelength shifts towards to longer wavelength region.

  15. Development of graded Ni-YSZ composite coating on Alloy 690 by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique to reduce hazardous metallic nuclear waste inventory.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Pranesh; Rogalla, Detlef; Becker, Hans Werner; Dey, Gautam Kumar; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2011-08-15

    Alloy 690 based 'nuclear waste vitrification furnace' components degrade prematurely due to molten glass-alloy interactions at high temperatures and thereby increase the volume of metallic nuclear waste. In order to reduce the waste inventory, compositionally graded Ni-YSZ (Y(2)O(3) stabilized ZrO(2)) composite coating has been developed on Alloy 690 using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Five different thin-films starting with Ni80YSZ20 (Ni 80 wt%+YSZ 20 wt%), through Ni60YSZ40 (Ni 60 wt%+YSZ 40 wt%), Ni40YSZ60 (Ni 40 wt%+YSZ 60 wt%), Ni20YSZ80 (Ni 20 wt%+YSZ 80 wt%) and Ni0YSZ100 (Ni 0 wt%+YSZ 100 wt%), were deposited successively on Alloy 690 coupons. Detailed analyses of the thin-films identify them as homogeneous, uniform, pore free and crystalline in nature. A comparative study of coated and uncoated Alloy 690 coupons, exposed to sodium borosilicate melt at 1000°C for 1-6h suggests that the graded composite coating could substantially reduced the chemical interactions between Alloy 690 and borosilicate melt. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-frequency dielectric properties of intrinsic and Al-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} thin films grown by the atomic layer deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kassmi, M.; LMOP, El Manar University, Tunis 2092; Pointet, J.

    2016-06-28

    Dielectric spectroscopy is carried out for intrinsic and aluminum-doped TiO{sub 2} rutile films which are deposited on RuO{sub 2} by the atomic layer deposition technique. Capacitance and conductance are measured in the 0.1 Hz–100 kHz range, for ac electric fields up to 1 MV{sub rms}/cm. Intrinsic films have a much lower dielectric constant than rutile crystals. This is ascribed to the presence of oxygen vacancies which depress polarizability. When Al is substituted for Ti, the dielectric constant further decreases. By considering Al-induced modification of polarizability, a theoretical relationship between the dielectric constant and the Al concentration is proposed. Al doping drastically decreasesmore » the loss in the very low frequency part of the spectrum. However, Al doping has almost no effect on the loss at high frequencies. The effect of Al doping on loss is discussed through models of hopping transport implying intrinsic oxygen vacancies and Al related centers. When increasing the ac electric field in the MV{sub rms}/cm range, strong voltage non-linearities are evidenced in undoped films. The conductance increases exponentially with the ac field and the capacitance displays negative values (inductive behavior). Hopping barrier lowering is proposed to explain high-field effects. Finally, it is shown that Al doping strongly improves the high-field dielectric behavior.« less

  17. Anti-microbial surfaces: An approach for deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on PVA-Gelatin composite film by screen printing technique.

    PubMed

    Meshram, J V; Koli, V B; Phadatare, M R; Pawar, S H

    2017-04-01

    Initially micro-organisms get exposed to the surfaces, this demands development of anti-microbial surfaces to inhibit their proliferation. Therefore, herein, we attempt screen printing technique for development of PVA-GE/ZnO nanocomposite (PG/ZnO) films. The synthesis of PG/ZnO nanocomposite includes two steps as: (i) Coating of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) by poly ethylene glycol in order to be compatible with organic counterparts. (ii) Deposition of coated nanoparticles on the PG film surface. The results suggest the enhancement in anti-microbial activity of PG/ZnO nanocomposite over pure ZnO NPs against both Gram positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative Escherichia coli from zone of inhibition. The uniformity in deposition is further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The phase identification of ZnO NPs and formation of PG/ZnO nanocomposite has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis). The Attenuated total reflection Spectroscopy (ATR) analysis indicates the ester bond between PVA and gelatin molecules. The thermal stability of nanocomposite is studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealing increase in crystallinity due to ZnO NPs which could be utilized to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms. The tensile strength is found to be higher and percent elongation is double of PG/ZnO nanocomposite than PG composite film. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Highly Sensitive H2S Sensor Based on the Metal-Catalyzed SnO2 Nanocolumns Fabricated by Glancing Angle Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kwang Soo; Han, Soo Deok; Moon, Hi Gyu; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    As highly sensitive H2S gas sensors, Au- and Ag-catalyzed SnO2 thin films with morphology-controlled nanostructures were fabricated by using e-beam evaporation in combination with the glancing angle deposition (GAD) technique. After annealing at 500 °C for 40 h, the sensors showed a polycrystalline phase with a porous, tilted columnar nanostructure. The gas sensitivities (S = Rgas/Rair) of Au and Ag-catalyzed SnO2 sensors fabricated by the GAD process were 0.009 and 0.015, respectively, under 5 ppm H2S at 300 °C, and the 90% response time was approximately 5 s. These sensors showed excellent sensitivities compared with the SnO2 thin film sensors that were deposited normally (glancing angle = 0°, S = 0.48). PMID:26134105

  19. Hydrogen-related defects in Al2O3 layers grown on n-type Si by the atomic layer deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkovsky, Vl.; Stübner, R.

    2018-04-01

    The electrical properties of alumina films with thicknesses varying from 15 nm to 150 nm, grown by the atomic layer deposition technique on n-type Si, were investigated. We demonstrated that the annealing of the alumina layers in argon (Ar) or hydrogen (H) atmosphere at about 700 K resulted in the introduction of negatively charged defects irrespective of the type of the substrate. These defects were also observed in samples subjected to a dc H plasma treatment at temperatures below 400 K, whereas they were not detected in as-grown samples and in samples annealed in Ar atmosphere at temperatures below 400 K. The concentration of these defects increased with a higher H content in the alumina films. In good agreement with theory we assigned these defects to interstitial H-related defects.

  20. Characterization of ion beam sputtered deposited W/Si multilayers by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity technique

    SciTech Connect

    Dhawan, Rajnish, E-mail: rajnish@rrcat.gov.in; Rai, Sanjay

    2016-05-23

    W/Si multilayers four samples have been deposited on silicon substrate using ion beam sputtering system. Thickness of tungsten (W) varies from around 10 Å to 40 Å while the silicon (Si) thickness remains constant at around 30 Å in multilayers [W-Si]{sub x4}. The samples have been characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and X-ray reflectivity technique (XRR). GIXRD study shows the crystalline behaviour of W/Si multilayer by varying W thickness and it is found that above 20 Å the W film transform from amorphous to crystalline phase and X-ray reflectivity data shows that the roughnesses of W increases onmore » increasing the W thicknesses in W/Si multilayers.« less

  1. Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticle multilayers deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique for gas sensors application.

    PubMed

    Capone, S; Manera, M G; Taurino, A; Siciliano, P; Rella, R; Luby, S; Benkovicova, M; Siffalovic, P; Majkova, E

    2014-02-04

    Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) based thin films were used as active layers in solid state resistive chemical sensors. NPs were synthesized by high temperature solution phase reaction. Sensing NP monolayers (ML) were deposited by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) techniques onto chemoresistive transduction platforms. The sensing ML were UV treated to remove NP insulating capping. Sensors surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Systematic gas sensing tests in controlled atmosphere were carried out toward NO2, CO, and acetone at different concentrations and working temperatures of the sensing layers. The best sensing performance results were obtained for sensors with higher NPs coverage (10 ML), mainly for NO2 gas showing interesting selectivity toward nitrogen oxides. Electrical properties and conduction mechanisms are discussed.

  2. Assessment of local variability by high-throughput e-beam metrology for prediction of patterning defect probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuming; Hunsche, Stefan; Anunciado, Roy; Corradi, Antonio; Tien, Hung Yu; Tang, Peng; Wei, Junwei; Wang, Yongjun; Fang, Wei; Wong, Patrick; van Oosten, Anton; van Ingen Schenau, Koen; Slachter, Bram

    2018-03-01

    We present an experimental study of pattern variability and defectivity, based on a large data set with more than 112 million SEM measurements from an HMI high-throughput e-beam tool. The test case is a 10nm node SRAM via array patterned with a DUV immersion LELE process, where we see a variation in mean size and litho sensitivities between different unique via patterns that leads to a seemingly qualitative differences in defectivity. The large available data volume enables further analysis to reliably distinguish global and local CDU variations, including a breakdown into local systematics and stochastics. A closer inspection of the tail end of the distributions and estimation of defect probabilities concludes that there is a common defect mechanism and defect threshold despite the observed differences of specific pattern characteristics. We expect that the analysis methodology can be applied for defect probability modeling as well as general process qualification in the future.

  3. Investigation of chemical vapour deposition diamond detectors by X-ray micro-beam induced current and X-ray micro-beam induced luminescence techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivero, P.; Manfredotti, C.; Vittone, E.; Fizzotti, F.; Paolini, C.; Lo Giudice, A.; Barrett, R.; Tucoulou, R.

    2004-10-01

    Tracking detectors have become an important ingredient in high-energy physics experiments. In order to survive the harsh detection environment of the large hadron collider (LHC), trackers need to have special properties. They must be radiation hard, provide fast collection of charge, be as thin as possible and remove heat from readout electronics. The unique properties of diamond allow it to fulfill these requirements. In this work we present an investigation of the charge transport and luminescence properties of "detector grade" artificial chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond devices developed within the CERN RD42 collaboration, performed by means of X-ray micro-beam induced current collection (XBICC) and X-ray micro-beam induced luminescence (XBIL) techniques. XBICC technique allows quantitative estimates of the transport parameters of the material to be evaluated and mapped with micrometric spatial resolution. In particular, the high resolution and sensitivity of the technique has allowed a quantitative study of the inhomogeneity of the charge transport parameter defined as the product of mobility and lifetime for both electron and holes. XBIL represents a technique complementary to ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL), which has already been used by our group, since X-ray energy loss profile in the material is different from that of MeV ions. X-ray induced luminescence maps have been performed simultaneously with induced photocurrent maps, to correlate charge transport and induced luminescence properties of diamond. Simultaneous XBICC and XBIL maps exhibit features of partial complementarity that have been interpreted on the basis of considerations on radiative and non-radiative recombination processes which compete with charge transport efficiency.

  4. Resist heating effect on e-beam mask writing at 75 kV and 60 A/cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benes, Zdenek; Deverich, Christina; Huang, Chester; Lawliss, Mark

    2003-12-01

    Resist heating has been known to be one of the main contributors to local CD variation in mask patterning using variable shape e-beam tools. Increasingly complex mask patterns require increased number of shapes which drives the need for higher electron beam current densities to maintain reasonable write times. As beam current density is increased, CD error resulting from resist heating may become a dominating contributor to local CD variations. In this experimental study, the IBM EL4+ mask writer with high voltage and high current density has been used to quantitatively investigate the effect of resist heating on the local CD uniformity. ZEP 7000 and several chemically amplified resists have been evaluated under various exposure conditions (single-pass, multi-pass, variable spot size) and pattern densities. Patterns were designed specifically to allow easy measurement of local CD variations with write strategies designed to maximize the effect of resist heating. Local CD variations as high as 15 nm in 18.75 × 18.75 μm sub-field size have been observed for ZEP 7000 in a single-pass writing with full 1000 nm spots at 50% pattern density. This number can be reduced by increasing the number of passes or by decreasing the maximum spot size. The local CD variation has been reduced to as low as 2 nm for ZEP 7000 for the same pattern under modified exposure conditions. The effectiveness of various writing strategies is discussed as well as their possible deficiencies. Minimal or no resist heating effects have been observed for the chemically amplified resists studied. The results suggest that the resist heating effect can be well controlled by careful selection of the resist/process system and/or writing strategy and that resist heating does not have to pose a problem for high throughput e-beam mask making that requires high voltage and high current densities.

  5. A study on the structural and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline CuS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Nillohit; Sinha, Arijit; Khan, Gobinda Gopal

    2011-01-15

    We report a chemical route for the deposition of nanocrystalline thin films of CuS, using aqueous solutions of Cu(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}, SC(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} and N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH){sub 3} [triethanolamine, i.e. TEA] in proper concentrations and ratios. The films were structurally characterized using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and optical analysis [both photo luminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis)]. Optical studies showed a large blue shift in the band gap energy of the films due to quantum confinement effect exerted by the nanocrystals. From both XRD and FESEM analyses, formation of CuS nanocrystals with sizes withinmore » 10-15 nm was evident. A study on the mechanical properties was carried out using nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques, which showed good mechanical stability and high adherence of the films with the bottom substrate. Such study on the mechanical properties of the CuS thin films is being reported here for the first time. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were also carried out for the films, which showed p-type conductivity.« less

  6. Vapor-phase deposition of polymers as a simple and versatile technique to generate paper-based microfluidic platforms for bioassay applications.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Gokhan; Babur, Esra

    2014-05-21

    Given their simplicity and functionality, paper-based microfluidic systems are considered to be ideal and promising bioassay platforms for use in less developed countries or in point-of-care services. Although a series of innovative techniques have recently been demonstrated for the fabrication of such platforms, development of simple, inexpensive and versatile new strategies are still needed in order to reach their full potential. In this communication, we describe a simple yet facile approach to fabricate paper-based sensor platforms with a desired design through a vapor-phase polymer deposition technique. We also show that the fabricated platforms could be readily employed for the detection of various biological target molecules including glucose, protein, ALP, ALT, and uric acid. The limit of detection for each target molecule was calculated to be 25 mg dL(-1) for glucose, 1.04 g L(-1) for protein, 7.81 unit per L for ALP, 1.6 nmol L(-1) for ALT, and 0.13 mmol L(-1) for uric acid.

  7. Performance evaluation of nonchemically amplified negative tone photoresists for e-beam and EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vikram; Satyanarayana, Vardhineedi Sri Venkata; Batina, Nikola; Reyes, Israel Morales; Sharma, Satinder K.; Kessler, Felipe; Scheffer, Francine R.; Weibel, Daniel E.; Ghosh, Subrata; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.

    2014-10-01

    Although extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is being considered as one of the most promising next-generation lithography techniques for patterning sub-20 nm features, the development of suitable EUV resists remains one of the main challenges confronting the semiconductor industry. The goal is to achieve sub-20 nm line patterns having low line edge roughness (LER) of <1.8 nm and a sensitivity of 5 to 20 mJ/cm2. The present work demonstrates the lithographic performance of two nonchemically amplified (n-CARs) negative photoresists, MAPDST homopolymer and MAPDST-MMA copolymer, prepared from suitable monomers containing the radiation sensitive sulfonium functionality. Investigations into the effect of several process parameters are reported. These include spinning conditions to obtain film thicknesses <50 nm, baking regimes, exposure conditions, and the resulting surface topographies. The effect of these protocols on sensitivity, contrast, and resolution has been assessed for the optimization of 20 nm features and the corresponding LER/line width roughness. These n-CARs have also been found to possess high etch resistance. The etch durability of MAPDST homopolymer and MAPDST-MMA copolymer (under SF6 plasma chemistry) with respect to the silicon substrate are 7.2∶1 and 8.3∶1, respectively. This methodical investigation will provide guidance in designing new resist materials with improved efficiency for EUVL through polymer microstructure engineering.

  8. Direct comparison of the performance of commonly used e-beam resists during nano-scale plasma etching of Si, SiO2, and Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodyear, Andy; Boettcher, Monika; Stolberg, Ines; Cooke, Mike

    2015-03-01

    Electron beam writing remains one of the reference pattern generation techniques, and plasma etching continues to underpin pattern transfer. We report a systematic study of the plasma etch resistance of several e-beam resists, both negative and positive as well as classical and Chemically Amplified Resists: HSQ[1,2] (Dow Corning), PMMA[3] (Allresist GmbH), AR-P6200 (Allresist GmbH), ZEP520 (Zeon Corporation), CAN028 (TOK), CAP164 (TOK), and an additional pCAR (non-disclosed provider). Their behaviour under plasma exposure to various nano-scale plasma etch chemistries was examined (SF6/C4F8 ICP silicon etch, CHF3/Ar RIE SiO2 etch, Cl2/O2 RIE and ICP chrome etch, and HBr ICP silicon etch). Samples of each resist type were etched simultaneously to provide a direct comparison of their etch resistance. Resist thicknesses (and hence resist erosion rates) were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometer in order to provide the highest accuracy for the resist comparison. Etch selectivities (substrate:mask etch rate ratio) are given, with recommendations for the optimum resist choice for each type of etch chemistry. Silicon etch profiles are also presented, along with the exposure and etch conditions to obtain the most vertical nano-scale pattern transfer. We identify one resist that gave an unusually high selectivity for chlorinated and brominated etches which could enable pattern transfer below 10nm without an additional hard mask. In this case the resist itself acts as a hard mask. We also highlight the differing effects of fluorine and bromine-based Silicon etch chemistries on resist profile evolution and hence etch fidelity.

  9. MEASUREMENT OF NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES AND EXTERNAL RADIATION EXPOSURE DUE TO FLY ASH FROM A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT (SPAIN) DEPOSITED ON SOILS. COMPARISON USING TWO DIFFERENT MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES.

    PubMed

    Corbacho, J A; Baeza, A

    2018-05-17

    The evaluation of the radiological impact in soils due to the fly-ash ponds using both in situ techniques and laboratory based measurements is presented. In order to check the in situ techniques capabilities for monitoring this type of industries, a comparison between both techniques was performed. A characterization of external radiation exposure in the fly-ash pond and in its surrounding soils was made. The associated external radiological hazard due to the fly-ash pond has been evaluated. In situ techniques could be used to determine the radiological impact on soils due to fly-ash deposition, but its use could be limited due to the associated uncertainties.

  10. Effect of solvent volume on the physical properties of undoped and fluorine doped tin oxide films deposited using a low-cost spray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muruganantham, G.; Ravichandran, K.; Saravanakumar, K.; Ravichandran, A. T.; Sakthivel, B.

    2011-12-01

    Undoped and fluorine doped tin oxide films were deposited from starting solutions having different values of solvent volume (10-50 ml) by employing a low cost and simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer. X-ray diffraction studies showed that there was a change in the preferential orientation from (2 1 1) plane to (1 1 0) plane as the volume of the solvent was increased. The sheet resistance ( Rsh) of undoped SnO 2 film was found to be minimum (13.58 KΩ/□) when the solvent volume was lesser (10 ml) and there was a sharp increase in Rsh for higher values of solvent volume. Interestingly, it was observed that while the Rsh increases sharply with the increase in solvent volume for undoped SnO 2 films, it decreases gradually in the case of fluorine doped SnO 2 films. The quantitative analysis of EDAX confirmed that the electrical resistivity of the sprayed tin oxide film was mainly governed by the number of oxygen vacancies and the interstitial incorporation of Sn atoms which in turn was governed by the impinging flux on the hot substrate. The films were found to have good optical characteristics suitable for opto-electronic devices.

  11. Direct growth of nano-crystalline graphite films using pulsed laser deposition with in-situ monitoring based on reflection high-energy electron diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Jeong Hun; Lee, Sung Su; Lee, Hyeon Jun

    2016-03-21

    We report an experimental method to overcome the long processing time required for fabricating graphite films by a transfer process from a catalytic layer to a substrate, as well as our study of the growth process of graphite films using a pulsed laser deposition combined with in-situ monitoring based on reflection high-energy electron diffraction technique. We monitored the structural evolution of nano-crystalline graphite films directly grown on AlN-coated Si substrates without any catalytic layer. We found that the carbon films grown for less than 600 s cannot manifest the graphite structure due to a high defect density arising from grain boundaries;more » however, the carbon film can gradually become a nano-crystalline graphite film with a thickness of approximately up to 5 nm. The Raman spectra and electrical properties of carbon films indicate that the nano-crystalline graphite films can be fabricated, even at the growth temperature as low as 850 °C within 600 s.« less

  12. Composition-Property Correlation in B2O3-SiO2 Preform Rods Produced Using Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Saleem, Muhammad Rizwan

    2012-02-01

    Due to unique optical properties of high birefringent (Hi-Bi) fibers for sensing and coherent optical communications, there is a strong interest in process optimization at preform fabrication and fiber drawing stages. Boron-doped silica cladding acts as stress-applying part resulting in polarization properties of Hi-Bi fibers that are strongly dependent on chemical composition. Using modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) technique, B2O3-doped silica preform rods were synthesized under different precursor gas flow conditions. Qualitative information about B2O3-SiO2 system composition was derived from etching behavior in nonbuffered HF solution and subsequent microstructural examination using scanning electron microscope. Significant degree of B2O3 incorporation was seen in case of high BCl3:SiCl4 ratio and mild oxygen-deficient processing conditions. Increasing the B2O3 content to ~26 mol% led to a corresponding increase in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to a maximum value of 2.35 ppm/K. The value of refractive index (RI), on the other hand, was found to decrease with increased B2O3 incorporation. A qualitative correlation between B2O3 and SiO2 system composition and physical properties such as CTE and RI was established.

  13. HIGH ENERGY ELECTRON INJECTION (E-BEAM) TECHNOLOGY FOR THE EX-SITU TREATMENT OF MTBE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation Report documents the results of a demonstration of the high-energy electron injection (E-Beam) technology in application to groundwater contaminated with methyl t-butyl ether (MtBE) and with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)....

  14. Factors that determine the optimum dose for sub-20nm resist systems: DUV, EUV, and e-beam options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preil, Moshe

    2012-03-01

    As EUV and e-beam direct write (EBDW) technologies move closer to insertion into pilot production, questions regarding cost effectiveness take on increasing importance. One of the most critical questions is determining the optimum dose which balances the requirements for cost-effective throughput vs. imaging performance. To date most of the dose requirements have been dictated by the hardware side of the industry. The exposure tool manufacturers have a vested interest in specifying the fastest resists possible in order to maximize the throughput even if it comes at the expense of optimum resist performance. This is especially true for both EUV and EBDW where source power is severely limited. We will explore the cost-benefit tradeoffs which drive the equipment side of the industry, and show how these considerations lead to the current throughput and dose requirements for volume production tools. We will then show how the resulting low doses may lead to shot noise problems and a resulting penalty in resist performance. By comparison to the history of 248 nm DUV resist development we will illustrate how setting unrealistic initial targets for resist dose may lead to unacceptable tradeoffs in resist performance and subsequently long delays in the development of production worthy resists.

  15. Non-CAR resists and advanced materials for Massively Parallel E-Beam Direct Write process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourteau, Marie-Line; Servin, Isabelle; Lepinay, Kévin; Essomba, Cyrille; Dal'Zotto, Bernard; Pradelles, Jonathan; Lattard, Ludovic; Brandt, Pieter; Wieland, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The emerging Massively Parallel-Electron Beam Direct Write (MP-EBDW) is an attractive high resolution high throughput lithography technology. As previously shown, Chemically Amplified Resists (CARs) meet process/integration specifications in terms of dose-to-size, resolution, contrast, and energy latitude. However, they are still limited by their line width roughness. To overcome this issue, we tested an alternative advanced non-CAR and showed it brings a substantial gain in sensitivity compared to CAR. We also implemented and assessed in-line post-lithographic treatments for roughness mitigation. For outgassing-reduction purpose, a top-coat layer is added to the total process stack. A new generation top-coat was tested and showed improved printing performances compared to the previous product, especially avoiding dark erosion: SEM cross-section showed a straight pattern profile. A spin-coatable charge dissipation layer based on conductive polyaniline has also been tested for conductivity and lithographic performances, and compatibility experiments revealed that the underlying resist type has to be carefully chosen when using this product. Finally, the Process Of Reference (POR) trilayer stack defined for 5 kV multi-e-beam lithography was successfully etched with well opened and straight patterns, and no lithography-etch bias.

  16. Looking into the crystal ball: future device learning using hybrid e-beam and optical lithography (Keynote Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, S. E.; McNab, S. J.; Sekaric, L.; Babich, I.; Patel, J.; Bucchignano, J.; Rooks, M.; Fried, D. M.; Topol, A. W.; Brancaccio, J. R.; Yu, R.; Hergenrother, J. M.; Doyle, J. P.; Nunes, R.; Viswanathan, R. G.; Purushothaman, S.; Rothwell, M. B.

    2005-05-01

    Semiconductor process development teams are faced with increasing process and integration complexity while the time between lithographic capability and volume production has remained more or less constant over the last decade. Lithography tools have often gated the volume checkpoint of a new device node on the ITRS roadmap. The processes have to be redeveloped after the tooling capability for the new groundrule is obtained since straight scaling is no longer sufficient. In certain cases the time window that the process development teams have is actually decreasing. In the extreme, some forecasts are showing that by the time the 45nm technology node is scheduled for volume production, the tooling vendors will just begin shipping the tools required for this technology node. To address this time pressure, IBM has implemented a hybrid-lithography strategy that marries the advantages of optical lithography (high throughput) with electron beam direct write lithography (high resolution and alignment capability). This hybrid-lithography scheme allows for the timely development of semiconductor processes for the 32nm node, and beyond. In this paper we will describe how hybrid lithography has enabled early process integration and device learning and how IBM applied e-beam & optical hybrid lithography to create the world's smallest working SRAM cell.

  17. Radio frequency and microwave plasma for optical thin-film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Juergen; Paquet, Volker; Kersten, Ralf T.; Etzkorn, Heinz-Werner; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Britten, Jerald A.; Campbell, Jack H.; Thorsness, J. B.

    1990-12-01

    For the next generation of fusion lasers reflecting mirrors with laser damage thresholds of at least 40 J/cm2 for 1 0 ns laser pulses at 1 .064 pm are needed. Up to now, no deposition technique has been developed to produce such mirrors. Best R&D-values realized today are around 30 J/cm2 for e-beam evaporated mirrors. R&D on conventional e-beam coating processes over the last 1 0 years has come up with marginal improvements in laser damage thresholds only. However, new technologies, like PICVD (Plasma-Impulse CVD) developed for the fabrication of ultra-low loss fiber preforms, seem to offer the potential to solve this problem. First results have been reported already [1-3]. It is well known that fused silica produced by CVD processes can have laser damage thresholds as high as 80 J/cm2. However, the thickness of a single deposited film is in the pm-range for most of the CVD-processes used for preform manufacturing; since interference optics need films in the ; /4n range (where n is the refractive index of the dielectric material) the use of preform-fabrication processes for the purpose of interference mirror fabrication is limited to a few plasma based CVD technologies, namely PCVD (Plasma-CVD, Philips [4]; PICVD, SCHOTT [5]). Especially PICVD is a very powerful technology to fabricate thin film multilayers for interference mirrors, because this technique is able to produce films down to monolayer thickness with nearly perfect stoichiometry and morphology. In first and preliminary experiments the usual deposition in a circular tube at high temperatures has been used for simplicity. However, to produce large area high quality laser mirrors this principle know-how has to be transfered from circular to planar geometry. Experiments showed, that there may be some limitations with respect to the homogeneity of a planar deposition using microwave excitation for the plasma. Therefore experiments have been performed in parallel with both RF and microwave excitation for

  18. An assessment of sediment-transport processes in the Lower Mekong River based on deposit grain sizes, the CM technique and flow-energy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravard, Jean-Paul; Goichot, Marc; Tronchère, Hervé

    2014-02-01

    The Lower Mekong River has been an important research topic for at least 15 years, notably in the fields of hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and the impact of dams. Recent papers refer mostly to the impact of the Lancang chain of hydroelectric dams constructed on the Chinese section of the river. Among the pending scientific questions are (1) the upstream-downstream variations in the concentration and yield of suspended sediment and (2) the relative importance of sand in the total yield. The general consensus among the scientific community is that the relative importance of sand in suspended load is not the main scientific concern despite its extensive presence in the Mekong River channel, as noted by geomorphologists, and despite its extreme importance for the stability of the delta shoreline in Viet Nam. This paper contradicts the general consensus. Its objective is to present new information on the processes of sand transport in the Lower Mekong channel. Imagery, field observations, sampling on the river banks, and grain size analysis of sand deposits have been carried out between Chiang Sean (downstream of the Chinese border) and the delta. The C-M image technique served to discriminate between the various transport processes (bedload and different types of suspension). This technique helps in understanding the changing processes responsible for downstream sediment transfer in river channels. The results of this study are the following.technique indicates that grain size and the quantity of sand transiting in suspension vs. bedload vary from upstream to downstream. These upstream-downstream differences may be related to the energy of floods. Energy helps to explain longitudinal variations in the relative importance of the different modes of transport and serves to distinguish between bedload

  19. Ionized cluster beam deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Ionized Cluster Beam (ICB) deposition, a new technique originated by Takagi of Kyoto University in Japan, offers a number of unique capabilities for thin film metallization as well as for deposition of active semiconductor materials. ICB allows average energy per deposited atom to be controlled and involves impact kinetics which result in high diffusion energies of atoms on the growth surface. To a greater degree than in other techniques, ICB involves quantitative process parameters which can be utilized to strongly control the characteristics of films being deposited. In the ICB deposition process, material to be deposited is vaporized into a vacuum chamber from a confinement crucible at high temperature. Crucible nozzle configuration and operating temperature are such that emerging vapor undergoes supercondensation following adiabatic expansion through the nozzle.

  20. Combinatorial synthesis and hydrogenation of Mg/Al libraries prepared by electron beam physical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Gemma; Doménech-Ferrer, Roger; Pi, Francesc; Santiso, Josep; Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier

    2007-01-01

    We have grown thin film libraries of the Mg-Al system using a high-throughput synthesis methodology that combines the sequential deposition of pure elements (Mg and Al) by an electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation technique and the use of a special set of moving shadow masks. This novel mask has been designed to simultaneously prepare four identical arrays of different compositions that will permit the characterization of the same library after several treatments. Wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) and micro-X-ray diffraction have been used as high-throughput screening techniques for the determination of the composition and structure of every member of the library in the as-deposited state and after hydrogenation at 1 atm of H2 during 24 h at three different temperatures: 60, 80, and 110 degrees C. We have analyzed the influence of the Mg-Al ratio on the hydrogenation of magnesium, as well as on the appearance of complex hydride phases. We have also found that aluminum can act as a catalyzer for the hydrogenation reaction of magnesium.

  1. E-beam deposited Ag-nanoparticles plasmonic organic solar cell and its absorption enhancement analysis using FDTD-based cylindrical nano-particle optical model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Richard S; Zhu, Jinfeng; Park, Jeung Hun; Li, Lu; Yu, Zhibin; Shen, Huajun; Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L; Park, Gyechoon; Anderson, Timothy J; Pei, Qibing

    2012-06-04

    We report the plasmon-assisted photocurrent enhancement in Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) embedded PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells, and systematically investigate the causes of the improved optical absorption based on a cylindrical Ag-NPs optical model which is simulated with a 3-Dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed cylindrical Ag-NPs optical model is able to explain the optical absorption enhancement by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes, and to provide a further understanding of Ag-NPs shape parameters which play an important role to determine the broadband absorption phenomena in plasmonic organic solar cells. A significant increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the plasmonic solar cell was experimentally observed and compared with that of the solar cells without Ag-NPs. Finally, our conclusion was made after briefly discussing the electrical effects of the fabricated plasmonic organic solar cells.

  2. Geophysical and geochemical data from the area of the Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, southwestern Alaska: Contributions to assessment techniques for concealed mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, E.D.; Smith, S.M.; Giles, S.A.; Granitto, Matthew; Eppinger, R.G.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Shah, A.K.; Kelley, K.D.; Fey, D.L.; Minsley, B.J.; Brown, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey began a multidisciplinary study in southwest Alaska to investigate the setting and detectability of mineral deposits in concealed volcanic and glacial terranes. The study area hosts the world-class Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, and through collaboration with the Pebble Limited Partnership, a range of geophysical and geochemical investigations was carried out in proximity to the deposit. The deposit is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-mineralization volcanic rocks. The discovery of mineral resources beneath cover is becoming more important because most of the mineral resources at the surface have already been discovered. Research is needed to identify ways in which to assess for concealed mineral resources. This report presents the uninterpreted geophysical measurements and geochemical and mineralogical analytical data from samples collected during the summer field seasons from 2007 to 2010, and makes the data available in a single Geographic Information System (GIS) database.

  3. Performance enhancement in Sb doped Cu(InGa)Se2 thin film solar cell by e-beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jieyi; Shen, Honglie; Zhai, Zihao; Li, Yufang; Yi, Yunge

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effects of Sb doping on the structural and electrical properties of Cu(InGa)Se2 (CIGS) thin films and solar cells, CIGS thin films, prepared by e-beam evaporation on soda-lime glass, were doped with lower and upper Sb layers in the precursor stacks respectively. Change of structure and introduction of stress were observed in the CIGS thin films with upper Sb layer in stack through XRD and Raman measurement. Both crystalline quality and compactness of CIGS thin films were improved by the doping of upper Sb layer in stack and the CIGS thin film showed an optimal structural property with 20 nm Sb layer. Movement of Fermi level of the surface of CIGS thin film after doping of upper Sb layer in stack and electrons transfer between Cu/Cu+ redox couple and CIGS thin films, which provided probability for the substitution of Sb for Cu sites at the surface of CIGS thin films, were proposed to explain the migration of Cu from the surface to the bulk of CIGS thin films. The larger barrier at the CIGS/CdS interface after doping of upper Sb layer in stack made contribution to the increase of VOC of CIGS solar cells. The efficiency of CIGS solar cell was improved from 3.3% to 7.2% after doping with 20 nm upper Sb. Compared to the CIGS solar cell with lower Sb layer in stack, in which an additional Cu2-xSe phase was found, the CIGS solar cell with upper Sb layer in stack possessed a higher efficiency.

  4. Late-kinematic timing of orogenic gold deposits and significance for computer-based exploration techniques with emphasis on the Yilgarn Block, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Knox-Robinson, C. M.; Ojala, J.; Gardoll, S.; Yun, G.Y.; Holyland, P.

    2000-01-01

    Orogenic gold deposits are a widespread coherent group of epigenetic ore deposits that are sited in accretionary or collisional orogens. They formed over a large crustal-depth range from deep-seated low-salinity H2O-CO2 + CH4 + N2 ore fluids and with Au transported as thio-complexes. Regional structures provide the main control on deposit distribution. In many terranes, first-order faults or shear zones appear to have controlled regional fluid flow, with greatest ore-fluid fluxes in, and adjacent to, lower-order faults, shear zones and/or large folds. Highly competent and/or chemically reactive rocks are the most common hosts to the larger deposits. Focusing of supralithostatic ore fluids into dilatant zones appears to occur late during the evolutionary history of the host terranes, normally within D3 or D4 in a D1-D4 deformation sequence. Reactivation of suitably oriented pre-existing structures during a change in far-field stress orientation is a factor common to many deposits, and repeated reactivation may account for multiple mineralization episodes in some larger deposits. Absolute robust ages of mineralization support their late-kinematic timing, and, in general, suggest that deposits formed diachronously towards the end of the 100 to 200 m.y. long evolutionary history of hosting orogens. For example, in the Yilgarn Block, a region specifically emphasised in this study, orogenic gold deposits formed in the time interval between 40 and 90 m.y., with most about 60 to 70 m.y., after the youngest widespread basic-ultrabasic volcanism and towards the end of felsic magmatism. The late timing of orogenic gold deposits is pivotal to geologically-based exploration methodologies. This is because the present structural geometries of: (i) the deposits, (ii) the hosting goldfields, and (iii) the enclosing terranes are all essentially similar to those during gold mineralization, at least in their relative position to each other. Thus, interpretation of geological maps and

  5. Gold and trace element zonation in pyrite using a laser imaging technique: Implications for the timing of gold in orogenic and carlin-style sediment-hosted deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Large, R.R.; Danyushevsky, L.; Hollit, C.; Maslennikov, V.; Meffre, S.; Gilbert, S.; Bull, S.; Scott, R.; Emsbo, P.; Thomas, H.; Singh, B.; Foster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Laser ablation ICP-MS imaging of gold and other trace elements in pyrite from four different sediment- hosted gold-arsenic deposits has revealed two distinct episodes of gold enrichment in each deposit: an early synsedimentary stage where invisible gold is concentrated in arsenian diagenetic pyrite along with other trace elements, in particular, As, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ag, Mo, Te, V, and Se; and a later hydrothermal stage where gold forms as either free gold grains in cracks in overgrowth metamorphic and/or hydrothermal pyrite or as narrow gold- arsenic rims on the outermost parts of the overgrowth hydrothermal pyrite. Compared to the diagenetic pyrites, the hydrothermal pyrites are commonly depleted in Ni, V, Zn, Pb, and Ag with cyclic zones of Co, Ni, and As concentration. The outermost hydrothermal pyrite rims are either As-Au rich, as in moderate- to high- grade deposits such as Carlin and Bendigo, or Co-Ni rich and As-Au poor as in moderate- to low-grade deposits such as Sukhoi Log and Spanish Mountain. The early enrichment of gold in arsenic-bearing syngenetic to diagenetic pyrite, within black shale facies of sedimentary basins, is proposed as a critical requirement for the later development of Carlin-style and orogenic gold deposits in sedimentary environments. The best grade sediment-hosted deposits appear to have the gold climax event, toward the final stages of deformation-related hydrothermal pyrite growth and fluid flow. ?? 2009 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  6. Comparative study between REAP 200 and FEP171 CAR with 50-kV raster e-beam system for sub-100-nm technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Ki-Ho; Lem, Homer Y.; Dean, Robert L.; Osborne, Stephen; Mueller, Mark; Abboud, Frank E.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, a process established with a positive-tone chemically amplified resist (CAR) from TOK REAP200 and Fujifilm Arch FEP171 and 50kV MEBES system is discussed. This TOK resist is developed for raster scan 50 kV e-beam systems. It has high contrast, good coating characteristics, good dry etch selectivity, and high environmental stability. In the mask industries, the most popular positive tone CAR is FEP171, which is a high activation energy type CAR. REAP (Raster E-beam Advanced Process) 200 is low activation energy type and new acetal protecting polymer. In this study, we compared to these different type resists in terms of contrast, PAB and PEB latitude, resist profile, footing, T-topping, PED stability, LER, Global CDU (Critical Dimension Uniformity) and resolution. The REAP200 Resist obtained 75nm isolated lines and spaces, 90nm dense patterns with vertical profile, and a good stability of delay time.

  7. Effect of e-beam irradiation and microwave heating on the fatty acid composition and volatile compound profile of grass carp surimi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Haiyan; Ye, Qingfu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of e-beam irradiation(1-7 kGy) and irradiation coupled to microwave heating (e-I-MC, 70 °C internal temperature) on the fatty acid composition and volatile compound profile of grass carp surimi. Compared to control samples, e-beam irradiation generated three novel volatile compounds (heptane, 2,6-dimethyl-nonane, and dimethyl disulfide) and increased the relative proportions of alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Meanwhile, e-I-MC significantly increased aldehyde levels and generated five heterocyclic compounds along with these three novel compounds. No significant difference in volatile compounds were detected in e-I-MC samples with increasing irradiation dose (p>0.05), comparing to the control group. E-beam irradiation at 5 and 7 kGy increased the levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and decreased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids (p≤0.05), but did not affect the content of trans fatty acid levels (p>0.05). Irradiation, which had no significant effects on (Eicosapentaenoic acid) EPA, decreased (Docose Hexaenoie Acid) DHA levels. In the e-I-MC group, SFA levels increased and PUFA levels decreased. Additionally, MUFA levels were unaffected and trans fatty acid levels increased slightly following e-I-MC.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF LiCo0.90Mg0.05Al0.05O2 THIN FILMS BY PULSED LASER DEPOSITION TECHNIQUE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanthi, R.; Ruthmangani, I.; Manoravi, P.; Joseph, M.; Kesavamoorthy, R.; Sundar, C.; Selladurai, S.

    LiCo0.90Mg0.05Al0.05O2 bulk powders are synthesized using combustion process and made into a thin film by depositing on silicon wafer using a pulsed laser ablation technique. A comparative study by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) XRD (X-ray diffraction), Infrared spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopy is performed on both bulk and PLD thin films.

  9. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, A. P.; Arima, V.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P. D.; Martino, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.; Scarfiello, R.; Tunno, T.; Zacheo, A.

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  10. Security Deposits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    security deposit action is described in the regulation as follows: h. Security Deposits (DACF and DACA ). (1) Issue. PCS moves create financial hardships...General Wickham, The Army Chief of Staff, specified a philosophy toward the family in the Army Family White Paper. General Wickham’s action was in...security deposits arose. 1 The Army’s action to the issue of security deposits will be thoroughly discussed in this paper. The Army’s action comes now

  11. Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristau, Detlev; Gunster, Stefan; Bosch, Salvador; Duparre, Angela; Masetti, Enrico; Ferre-Borrull, Josep; Kiriakidis, George; Peiro, Francesca; Quesnel, Etienne; Tikhonravov, Alexander

    2002-06-01

    Single layers of MgF2 and LaF3 were deposited upon superpolished fused-silica and CaF2 substrates by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) as well as by boat and electron beam (e-beam) evaporation and were characterized by a variety of complementary analytical techniques. Besides undergoing photometric and ellipsometric inspection, the samples were investigated at 193 and 633 nm by an optical scatter measurement facility. The structural properties were assessed with atomic-force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, TEM techniques that involved conventional thinning methods for the layers. For measurement of mechanical stress in the coatings, special silicon substrates were coated and analyzed. The dispersion behavior of both deposition materials, which was determined on the basis of various independent photometric measurements and data reduction techniques, is in good agreement with that published in the literature and with the bulk properties of the materials. The refractive indices of the MgF2 coatings ranged from 1.415 to 1.440 for the wavelength of the ArF excimer laser (193 nm) and from 1.435 to 1.465 for the wavelength of the F2 excimer laser (157 nm). For single layers of LaF3 the refractive indices extended from 1.67 to 1.70 at 193 nm to approx1.80 at 157 nm. The IBS process achieves the best homogeneity and the lowest surface roughness values (close to 1 nmrms) of the processes compared in the joint experiment. In contrast to MgF2 boat and e-beam evaporated coatings, which exhibit tensile mechanical stress ranging from 300 to 400 MPa, IBS coatings exhibit high compressive stress of as much as 910 MPa. A similar tendency was found for coating stress in LaF3 single layers. Experimental results are discussed with respect to the microstructural and compositional properties as well as to the surface topography of the coatings.

  12. Effect of concentration and irradiation on the optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeoye Victor, Babalola

    2017-12-01

    This study involves the preparation of ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis and to investigate the effect of concentration of the film and irradiation on ZnO thin film deposited by spray pyrolysis method deposited at 350 ± 5 °C. The precursor for zinc oxide was produced from zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO))2. The samples were annealed at 500 °C for 6 h and irradiated using 137Cs 90.998 mCi radiation. They were then characterised using ultra violet-visible spectrophotometry, X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) with Cu-Kα radiation to determine the structure of the film, Four-point probe for electrical properties and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) were used for the composition of the film. XRD diffraction peaks observed for 0.05 M ZnO were (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1) and (1 1 0) planes for the annealed and irradiated annealed ZnO films with no preferential orientation. The as-deposited films have low peaks belonging to (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1), (1 1 0) plane and other peaks such as (1 1 2), (2 0 0) and (2 0 1). The results are explained with regard to the irradiation damage introduced to the samples. The as-deposited, annealed and irradiated-annealed films are highly transparent in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average percent transmittance values of 85% and present a sharp ultraviolet cut-off at approximately 380 nm for the ZnO thin film.

  13. Use of Composite Fingerprinting Technique to Determine Contribution of Paria River Sediments to Dam-Release Flood Deposits in Marble Canyon, Grand Canyon, Az

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, K.; Parnell, R. A.; Smith, M. E.; Grams, P. E.; Mueller, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    The 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam drastically reduced the downstream sediment supply and altered daily flow regimes of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon, resulting in significant sandbar erosion downstream of the dam. Dam-release floods, known as High Flow Experiments (HFEs), have occurred six times since 1996 and are intended to rebuild Grand Canyon sandbars using tributary-supplied sediment. In Marble Canyon (first 100 km of Grand Canyon) the targeted tributary is the Paria River which supplies approximately 90% of the annual suspended sediment flux through Marble Canyon; the same input contributed less than 6% prior to the dam. Annual topographic surveys have established that HFEs are effective at rebuilding sandbars. However, the long-term viability of using HFEs for sandbar maintenance is dependent on a sustainable source of sediments comprising HFE deposits. Significant use of non-tributary, main-stem sediments (i.e. pre-dam sand stored in eddies or the channel bed) in HFE deposits would indicate reliance on a limited resource, and diminishing returns in the ability of HFEs to rebuild sandbars. In this study, we sampled vertically throughout 12 bars in Marble Canyon to document temporal and downstream changes in the proportion of sediment sourced from the Paria River during the 2013 and 2014 HFEs. Preliminary data suggest that heavy mineral compositions and concentrations of Ti, S, Cr and Rb, all of which are influenced by grainsize, could be sufficiently capable of differentiating Paria-derived and main-stem sediments when combined into a composite fingerprint (CF). A multivariate mixing model using these CFs quantitatively determines the contribution of Paria-derived sediment in each HFE deposit sample. Mixing model endmembers for non-Paria sand include pre-dam flood deposits in Glen and Marble Canyons, and Marble Canyon dredge samples. These results elucidate the role of contemporary versus legacy sediment in long-term sandbar maintenance.

  14. Effect of oxygen partial pressure and VO2 content on hexagonal WO3 thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Ajay; Kaur, Davinder

    2011-06-01

    We report on the effect of oxygen partial pressure and vacuum annealing on structural and optical properties of pulsed laser-deposited nanocrystalline WO3 thin films. XRD results show the hexagonal phase of deposited WO3 thin films. The crystallite size was observed to increase with increase in oxygen partial pressure. Vacuum annealing changed the transparent as-deposited WO3 thin film to deep shade of blue color which increases the optical absorption of the film. The origin of this blue color could be due to the presence of oxygen vacancies associated with tungsten ions in lower oxidation states. In addition, the effects of VO2 content on structural, electrochemical, and optical properties of (WO3)1- x (VO2) x nanocomposite thin films have also been systematically investigated. Cyclic voltammogram exhibits a modification with the appearance of an extra cathodic peak for VO2-WO3 thin film electrode with higher VO2 content ( x ≥ 0.2). Increase of VO2 content in (WO3)1- x (VO2) x films leads to red shift in optical band gap.

  15. Growth and structure of Bi 0.5(Na 0.7K 0.2Li 0.1) 0.5TiO 3 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lei; Xiao, Dingquan; Lin, Dunmin; Zhang, Yongbin; Zhu, Jianguo

    2009-02-01

    Bi 0.5(Na 0.7K 0.2Li 0.1) 0.5TiO 3 (BNKLT) thin films were prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO 2/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The films prepared were examined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effects of the processing parameters, such as oxygen pressure, substrate temperature and laser power, on the crystal structure, surface morphology, roughness and deposition rates of the thin films were investigated. It was found that the substrate temperature of 600 °C and oxygen pressure of 30 Pa are the optimized technical parameters for the growth of textured film, and all the thin films prepared have granular structure, homogeneous grain size and smooth surfaces.

  16. 3_D modeling using TLS and GPR techniques to characterize above and below-ground wood distribution in pyroclastic deposits along the Blanco River (Chilean Patagonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdebenito, Galo; Tonon, Alessia; Iroume, Andrés; Alvarado, David; Fuentes, Carlos; Picco, Lorenzo; Lenzi, Mario

    2016-04-01

    To date, the study of in-stream wood in rivers has been focused mainly on quantifying wood pieces deposited above the ground. However, in some particular river systems, the presence of buried dead wood can also represent an important component of wood recruitment and budgeting dynamics. This is the case of the Blanco River (Southern Chile) severely affected by the eruption of Chaitén Volcano occurred between 2008 and 2009. The high pyroclastic sediment deposition and transport affected the channel and the adjacent forest, burying wood logs and standing trees. The aim of this contribution is to assess the presence and distribution of wood in two study areas (483 m2 and 1989 m2, respectively) located along the lower streambank of the Blanco River, and covered by thick pyroclastic deposition up to 5 m. The study areas were surveyed using two different devices, a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The first was used to scan the above surface achieving a high point cloud density (≈ 2000 points m-2) which allowed us to identify and measure the wood volume. The second, was used to characterize the internal morphology of the volcanic deposits and to detect the presence and spatial distribution of buried wood up to a depth of 4 m. Preliminary results have demonstrated differences in the numerousness and volume of above wood between the two study areas. In the first one, there were 43 wood elements, 33 standing trees and 10 logs, with a total volume of 2.96 m3 (109.47 m3 km-1), whereas the second one was characterized by the presence of just 7 standing trees and 11 wood pieces, for a total amount of 0.77 m3 (7.73 m3 km-1). The dimensions of the wood elements vary greatly according to the typology, standing trees show the higher median values in diameter and length (0.15 m and 2.91 m, respectively), whereas the wood logs were smaller (0.06 m and 1.12 m, respectively). The low dimensions of deposited wood can be probably connected to their

  17. Laser assisted deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of laser-based processing techniques to solar cell metallization are discussed. Laser-assisted thermal or photolytic maskless deposition from organometallic vapors or solutions may provide a viable alternative to photovoltaic metallization systems currently in use. High power, defocused excimer lasers may be used in conjunction with masks as an alternative to direct laser writing to provide higher throughput. Repeated pulsing with excimer lasers may eliminate the need for secondary plating techniques for metal film buildup. A comparison between the thermal and photochemical deposition processes is made.

  18. Fabrication of copper decorated tungsten oxide-titanium oxide nanotubes by photochemical deposition technique and their photocatalytic application under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Mohamad Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    Copper decorated WO3-TiO2 nanotubes (Cu/WTNs) with a high photocatalytic activity were prepared by anodizing and photochemical deposition. Highly ordered WO3-TiO2 nanotubes (WTNs) on pure titanium foils were successfully fabricated by electrochemical anodizing and copper deposited on these nanotubes (Cu/WTNs) by photoreduction method. The resulting samples were characterized by various methods. Only the anatase phase was detected by X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of copper in the structure of thin films was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The extension of optical absorption into the visible region of as-prepared films was indicated by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The degradation of methylene blue was used as a model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the obtained samples. Results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Cu/WTNs samples is higher than bare WTNs sample. Kinetic research showed that the reaction rate constant of Cu/WTNs is approximately 2.5 times higher than the apparent reaction rate constant of bare WTNs. These results not only offer an economical method for constructing Cu/WTNs photocatalysts, but also shed new insight on the rational design of a low cost and high-efficiency photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  19. Effect of gamma and e-beam radiation on the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris thymoliferum, Eucalyptus radiata, and Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Mohamed; Herent, Marie-France; Tilquin, Bernard; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2007-07-25

    The microbiological contamination of raw plant materials is common and may be adequately reduced by radiation processing. This study evaluated the effects of gamma- and e-beam ionizing radiations (25 kGy) on three plants used as food or as medicinal products (Thymus vulgaris L., Eucalyptus radiata D.C., and Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) as well as their effects on extracted or commercial essential oils and pure standard samples. Comparison between irradiated and nonirradiated samples was performed by GC/FID and GC/MS. At the studied doses, gamma and e-beam ionizing radiation did not induce any detectable qualitative or quantitative significant changes in the contents and yields of essential oils immediately after ionizing radiation of plants or commercial essential oils and standards. As the maximum dose tested (25 kGy) is a sterilizing dose (much higher than doses used for decontamination of vegetable drugs), it is likely that even decontamination with lower doses will not modify yields or composition of essential oils of these three plants.

  20. Effects of the precursor concentration and different annealing ambients on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of nanostructured V2O5 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irani, Rowshanak; Rozati, Seyed Mohammad; Beke, Szabolcs

    2018-04-01

    V2O5 thin films were deposited with different precursor concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 M on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique, then the optimized films were annealed in different ambients (air, oxygen, and vacuum). The results showed that by increasing the concentration, the films grew along the (001) direction with an orthorhombic structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that nanorods were formed when depositing 0.05 molar of VCl3. We conclude that with the precursor concentration, the surface nanostructure can be well-controlled. Annealing improved the crystallinity under all ambients, but the best crystallinity was achieved in vacuum. It was revealed that the as-deposited films had the highest transmission, whereas the films annealed in air had the lowest. When annealed in air, the optical band gap decreased from 2.45 to 2.32 eV. The sheet resistance, resistivity, mobility, conductivity, and carrier concentration were measured for all the prepared V2O5 films.

  1. Twin-cuvette measurement technique for investigation of dry deposition of O3 and PAN to plant leaves under controlled humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shang; Moravek, Alexander; von der Heyden, Lisa; Held, Andreas; Sörgel, Matthias; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    We present a dynamic twin-cuvette system for quantifying the trace-gas exchange fluxes between plants and the atmosphere under controlled temperature, light, and humidity conditions. Compared with a single-cuvette system, the twin-cuvette system is insensitive to disturbing background effects such as wall deposition. In combination with a climate chamber, we can perform flux measurements under constant and controllable environmental conditions. With an Automatic Temperature Regulated Air Humidification System (ATRAHS), we are able to regulate the relative humidity inside both cuvettes between 40 and 90 % with a high precision of 0.3 %. Thus, we could demonstrate that for a cuvette system operated with a high flow rate (> 20 L min-1), a temperature-regulated humidification system such as ATRAHS is an accurate method for air humidification of the flushing air. Furthermore, the fully automatic progressive fill-up of ATRAHS based on a floating valve improved the performance of the entire measurement system and prevented data gaps. Two reactive gas species, ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), were used to demonstrate the quality and performance of the twin-cuvette system. O3 and PAN exchange with Quercus ilex was investigated over a 14 day measurement period under controlled climate chamber conditions. By using O3 mixing ratios between 32 and 105 ppb and PAN mixing ratios between 100 and 350 ppt, a linear dependency of the O3 flux as well as the PAN flux in relation to its ambient mixing ratio could be observed. At relative humidity (RH) of 40 %, the deposition velocity ratio of O3 and PAN was determined to be 0.45. At that humidity, the deposition of O3 to the plant leaves was found to be only controlled by the leaf stomata. For PAN, an additional resistance inhibited the uptake of PAN by the leaves. Furthermore, the formation of water films on the leaf surface of plants inside the chamber could be continuously tracked with our custom built leaf wetness sensors

  2. Twin-cuvette measurement technique for investigation of dry deposition of O3 and PAN to plant leaves under controlled humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.; Moravek, A.; von der Heyden, L.; Held, A.; Sörgel, M.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2015-11-01

    We present a dynamic twin-cuvette system for quantifying the trace gas exchange fluxes between plants and the atmosphere under controlled temperature, light and humidity conditions. Compared with a single cuvette system, the twin-cuvette system is insensitive for disturbing background effects such as wall deposition. In combination with a climate chamber we can perform flux measurements under constant and controllable environmental conditions. With an Automatic Temperature Regulated Air Humidification System (ATRAHS) we are able to regulate the relative humidity inside both cuvettes between 40 to 90 % with a high precision of 0.3 %. Thus, we could demonstrate that for a cuvette system operated with a high flow rate (> 20 L min-1) such a temperature regulated humidification system as ATRAHS is an accurate method for air humidification of the flushing air. Furthermore, the fully automatic progressive fill-up of ATRAHS based on a floating valve improved the performance of the entire measurement system and prevented data gaps. Two reactive gas species, ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), were used to demonstrate the quality and performance of the twin-cuvette system. O3 and PAN exchange with Quercus ilex was investigated over a 14 day measurement period under controlled climate chamber conditions. By using O3 mixing ratios between 32-105 ppb and PAN mixing ratios between 100-350 ppt a linear dependency of the O3 flux as well as the PAN flux in relation to its ambient mixing ratio could be observed. At relative humidity (RH) of 40 %, the deposition velocity ratio of O3 and PAN was determined to be 0.45. At that humidity, the deposition of O3 to the plant leaves was found to be only controlled by the leaf stomata. For PAN an additional resistance inhibited the uptake of PAN by the leaves. Furthermore, the formation of water films on the leaf surface of plants inside the chamber could be continuously tracked with our custom built leaf wetness sensors. Using this

  3. Chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor system with a vertical deposition chamber was used for the growth of Si films on glass, glass-ceramic, and polycrystalline ceramic substrates. Silicon vapor was produced by pyrolysis of SiH4 in a H2 or He carrier gas. Preliminary deposition experiments with two of the available glasses were not encouraging. Moderately encouraging results, however, were obtained with fired polycrystalline alumina substrates, which were used for Si deposition at temperatures above 1,000 C. The surfaces of both the substrates and the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, reflection electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy optical microscopy, and surface profilometric techniques. Several experiments were conducted to establish baseline performance data for the reactor system, including temperature distributions on the sample pedestal, effects of carrier gas flow rate on temperature and film thickness, and Si film growth rate as a function of temperature.

  4. Tuning the exchange bias in NiFe/Fe-oxide bilayers by way of different Fe-oxide based mixtures made with an ion-beam deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Lin, K W; Kol, P H; Guo, Z Y; Ouyang, H; van Lierop, J

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the structural and magnetic properties of ion-beam deposited polycrystalline NiFe (25 nm)/Fe-oxide (35 nm) bilayers. A film prepared with an assist beam O2 to Ar gas ratio of 0% during deposition had a bottom layer that consisted of pure b.c.c. Fe (a = 2.87 A) whereas films prepared with 19%O2/Ar and 35%O2/Ar had either Fe3O4 (a = 8.47 angstroms) or alpha-Fe2O3 (a = 5.04 angstroms, c = 13.86 angstroms) bottom layers, respectively. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a smooth interface between the top nano-columnar NiFe and bottom nano-columnar Fe-oxide layer for all films. At room temperature, the observed coercivity (Hc approximately 25 Oe) for a film prepared with 19% O2/Ar indicates the existence of a magnetically hard ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 phase that is enhancing the plain NiFe (Hc approximately 2 Oe) by way of exchange coupling. A significant amount of exchange bias is observed below 50 K, and at 10 K the size of exchange bias hysteresis loops shift increases with increasing oxygen in the films. Furthermore, the strongest exchange coupling (H(ex) approximately 135 Oe at 10 K) is with alpha-Fe2O3 (35% O2/Ar) as the bottom film layer. This indicates that the pure antiferromagnetic phases work better than ferrimagnetic phases when in contact with ferromagnetic NiFe. H(ex) (T) is well described by an effective AF domain wall energy that creates an exchange field with a (1 - T/T(crit)) temperature dependence. Hc (T) exhibits three distinct regimes of constant temperature that may indicate the existence of different AF spin populations that couple to the FM layer at different temperatures.

  5. Effects of low energy E-beam irradiation on graphene and graphene field effect transistors and raman metrology of graphene on split gate test structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Gayathri S.

    2011-12-01

    Apart from its compelling performance in conventional nanoelectronic device geometries, graphene is an appropriate candidate to study certain interesting phenomenon (e.g. the Veselago lens effect) predicted on the basis of its linear electron dispersion relation. A key requirement for the observation of such phenomenon in graphene and for its use in conventional field-effect transistor (FET) devices is the need to minimize defects such as consisting of -- or resulting from -- adsorbates and lattice non-uniformities, and reduce deleterious substrate effects. Consequently the investigation of the origin and interaction of defects in the graphene lattice is essential to improve and tailor graphene-based device performance. In this thesis, optical spectroscopic studies on the influence of low-energy electron irradiation on adsorbate-induced defectivity and doping for substrate supported and suspended graphene were carried out along with spectroscopic and transport measurements on graphene FETs. A comparative investigation of the effects of single-step versus multi-step, low-energy electron irradiation (500 eV) on suspended, substrate supported graphene and on graphene FETs is reported. E-beam irradiation (single-step and multi-step) of substrate-supported graphene resulted in an increase in the Raman ID/IG ratio largely from hydrogenation due to radiolysis of the interfacial water layer between the graphene and the SiO2 substrate and from irradiated surface adsorbates. GFETs subjected to single and multi-step irradiation showed n-doping from CNP (charge neutrality point) shift of ˜ -8 and ˜ -16 V respectively. Correlation of this data with Raman analysis of suspended and supported graphene samples implied a strong role of the substrate and irradiation sequence in determining the level of doping. A correspondingly higher reduction in mobility per incident electron was also observed for GFETs subjected to multi-step irradiation compared to single step, in line with

  6. Simultaneous ion sputter polishing and deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, S.; Banks, B.; Brdar, M.

    1981-01-01

    Results of experiments to study ion beam sputter polishing in conjunction with simultaneous deposition as a mean of polishing copper surfaces are presented. Two types of simultaneous ion sputter polishing and deposition were used in these experiments. The first type utilized sputter polishing simultaneous with vapor deposition, and the second type utilized sputter polishing simultaneous with sputter deposition. The etch and deposition rates of both techniques were studied, as well as the surface morphology and surface roughness.

  7. Electrical and structural properties of Nb-doped TiO2 at different Nb concentrations deposited by spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurdi, I.; Shafura, A. K.; Mamat, M. H.; Ishak, A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the Nb-doped TiO2 films were deposited on glass substrate and their electrical and structural properties were investigated. The results revealed that the resistivity of Nb-doped TiO2 films of 0 at.%, 1 at.%, 3 at.%, 5 at.% and 7 at.% were 2.78 × 105, 1.35 × 105 Ω.cm, 5.89 × 104 Ω.cm, 9.20 × 102 Ω.cm and 9.56 × 103 Ω.cm, respectively. Where, the lowest resistivity of 9.20 × 102 Ω.cm was obtained at 5at.% Nb-doped TiO2 films. The resistivity of Nb-doped TiO2 films decreases as the Nb concentration increased from 0 at.% to 5 at.%. However, the resistivity decrease at 7 at.% Nb-doped TiO2 films. Meanwhile, from the FESEM images the Nb-doped TiO2 films with 0 at.%, 1 at.%, 3 at.% and 5 at.% Nb had a rough and porous structures were observed. However, the Nb-doped TiO2 at 7 at.% has a agglomerated and denser structures.

  8. Assessment of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements in Belgrade using the moss biomonitoring technique and neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Anicić, Mira; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Tomasević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements using the moss genera Brachythecium sp. (B. rutabulum and B. salebrosum) and Eurhynchium sp. (E. hians and E. striatum) collected in autumn 2004 in the urban area of Belgrade. The concentrations of 36 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Dy, Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Th, U) were determined in moss and local topsoil samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of elements in moss positively correlated to those obtained for topsoil. High enrichment factors for As, Zn, Mo, Br, Sb, Se, Hg and Cl, calculated to continental crust composition, gave an evidence for anthropogenic impact on urban area, mainly due to intensive vehicular traffic and fossil fuel combustion. The concentration of elements in moss, characteristic for fossil fuel combustion, obtained in this study were substantially lower than in the previous investigation (2000) conducted in the area of Belgrade. The level of concentrations for V, Cr, Ni, and As in moss from this study correlated to those measured for neighboring countries, and were several times higher than the base-level data from low polluted areas. The level of accumulated elements in both investigated moss genera were similar and all studied species could be combined for biomonitoring purposes in urban areas.

  9. E-beam and UV induced fabrication of CeO2, Eu2O3 and their mixed oxides with UO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelková, Tereza; Vaněček, Vojtěch; Jakubec, Ivo; Čuba, Václav

    2016-07-01

    CeO2, Eu2O3 and mixed oxides of CeO2-UO2, Eu2O3-UO2 were fabricated. The preparative method was based on the irradiation of aqueous solutions containing cerium/europium (and uranyl) nitrates and ammonium formate. In the course of irradiation, the solid phase (precursor) was precipitated. The composition of irradiated solutions significantly affected the properties of precursor formed in the course of the irradiation. However, subsequent heat treatment of (amorphous) precursors at temperatures ≤650 °C invariably resulted in the formation of powder oxides with well-developed nanocrystals with linear crystallite size 13-27 nm and specific surface area 10-46 m2 g-1. The applicability of both ionizing (e-beam) and non-ionizing (UV) radiation was studied.

  10. Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-Sn codoped ZnO transparent conducting layer deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedia, A.; Bedia, F. Z.; Aillerie, M.; Maloufi, N.

    2017-11-01

    Low cost Al-Sn codoped ZnO (ATZO) Transparent Conductive Oxide films were deposited by spray pyrolysis on glass substrate. The influence of Al-Sn codoping on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films was studied by comparing the same properties obtained in undoped ZnO, Al doped ZnO (AZO) and Sn doped ZnO (TZO) thin films. The so-obtained films crystallized in hexagonal wurtzite structure. The morphology and structural defects have been investigated by both High resolution Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Raman spectroscopy at 532 nm excitation source. In the visible region, the undoped and doped films show an average transmittance of the order of 85%, while for ATZO thin film, it is of the order of 72%, which points out a degradation of the optical properties due to the co-doping. The optical band gap of ATZO thin film achieves 3.31eV and this shift, compared to the referred samples is attributed to the Burstein-Moss (BM) and band gap narrowing (BGN) opposite effects which is due to the increase of the carrier concentration in degenerate semiconductors. Within all the samples, the ATZO thin film exhibits the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.56 × 10-3 Ωcm with a Hall mobility equal to 2.13 cm2 V-1s-1, and the highest carrier concentration of 6.41 × 1020 cm-3. The performance of ATZO transparent conductive oxide film are determined by its figure of merit (φTC), found equal to 1.69 10-4 Ω-1, which is a suitable value for potentially high-performance solar cell applications.

  11. Influence of Y doping concentration on the properties of nanostructured MxZn1-xO (M=Y) thin film deposited by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, R.; Ponnuswamy, V.; Chandra Bose, A.; Suresh, R.; Ragavendar, M.

    2014-09-01

    Yttrium doped Zinc Oxide (YxZn1-xO) thin films deposited at a substrate temperature 400 °C. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, surface morphology, compositional, optical and electrical properties of YxZn1-xO thin films was studied. X-ray diffraction studies show that all films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure having highly textured (002) plane parallel to the surface of the substrate. The structural parameters, such as lattice constants (a and c), crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ), microstrain (σ) and texture coefficient were calculated for different yttrium doping concentrations (x). High resolution scanning electron microscopy measurements reveal that the surface morphology of the films change from platelet like grains to hexagonal structure with grain size increase due to the yttrium doping. Energy dispersive spectroscopy confirms the presence of Y, Zn and O elements in the films prepared. Optical studies showed that all samples have a strong optical transmittance higher than 70% in the visible range. A slight shift of the absorption edge towards the large wavelengths was observed as the Y doping concentration increased. This result shows that the band gap is slightly decreased from 3.10 to 2.05 eV with increase of the yttrium doping concentrations (up to 7.5%) and then slightly increased. Room temperature PL measurements were done and the band-to-band emission energies of films were determined and reported. The complex impedance of the 10%Y doped ZnO film shows two distinguished semicircles and the diameter of the arcs got decreased in diameter as the temperature increases from 70 to 175 °C.

  12. A new technique for identification of minerals in hyperspectral images. Application to robust characterization of phyllosilicate deposits at Mawrth Vallis using CRISM images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bishop, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Mapping of Mars by MRO has revealed the presence of numerous small phyllosilicate outcrops. These are typically identified in CRISM images using "summary products" (Pelkey, 2007) that consist of band ratios, depths and spectral slopes around diagnostic wavelengths. The summary products are designed to capture spectral features related to both surface mineralogy and atmospheric gases and aerosols. Such products, as an analysis tool to characterize composition as well as a targeting tool to identify areas of mineralogical interest, have been successful in capturing the known diversity of the Martian surface, and in highlighting locations with strong spectral signatures. Here we present alternative mineral mapping technique that 1) aims to increase the robustness of mineral detections with respect to the specific CRISM artifacts, 2) takes advantage of the spatial context of each pixel and 3) develops new parameters for the discrimination of species in the phyllosilicates family. We include spatial context by evaluating spectral shapes, band depths and spectral slopes for the current pixel based on its spatial neighbors within the same geological unit. Furthermore, the parameters are based on estimates that are more robust to CRISM speckling noise that might alter the parameters and potentially the mineral interpretation. As an effort to distinguish between phyllosilicates species, we are augmenting the suite of existent parameters with a set of mineral parameters that involve the position, number and shapes of diagnostic phyllosilicate absorptions. We are comparing the effectiveness of this new approach to the summary product procedure. The study shows that homogeneous mineral maps and diagnostic spectral identifications are possible as a result of the application of such new parameters. We applied the technique to the discrimination of kaolinite in Mawrth Vallis. The experiments show several small kaolinite outcrops dispersed within the more extensive Al

  13. Improvement in the luminous efficiency of MEH-PPV based light emitting diodes using zinc oxide nanorods grown by the electrochemical deposition technique on ITO substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rohini B.; Kumar, Jitender; Madhwal, Devinder; Singh, Inderpreet; Kaur, I.; Bhardwaj, L. M.; Nagpal, S.; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C.

    2011-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown by the electrochemical technique have been used to enhance the luminance of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV)-based polymer light-emitting diodes. The luminance of the device with ZnO nanorods is found to increase by more than two times as compared with the device without ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods used in device fabrication was ~145 nm. The size of the nanorods was estimated from field emission scanning electron microscope images. Optical and structural characterizations of the nanorods were also performed by using absorption, photoluminescence and x-ray diffraction, confirming the formation of ZnO nanorods.

  14. Synthesis, structure, vapour pressure and deposition of ZnO thin film by plasma assisted MOCVD technique using a novel precursor bis[(pentylnitrilomethylidine) (pentylnitrilomethylidine-μ-phenalato)]dizinc(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrakala, C.; Sravanthi, P.; Raj Bharath, S.; Arockiasamy, S.; George Johnson, M.; Nagaraja, K. S.; Jeyaraj, B.

    2017-02-01

    A novel binuclear zinc schiff's base complex bis[(pentylnitrilomethylidine)(pentylnitrilomethylidine-μ-phenalato)]dizinc(II) (hereafter referred as ZSP) was prepared and used as a precursor for the deposition of ZnO thin film by MOCVD. The dynamic TG run of ZSP showed sufficient volatility and good thermal stability. The temperature dependence of vapour pressure measured by transpiration technique yielded a value of 55.8 ± 2.3 kJ mol-1 for the enthalpy of sublimation (ΔH°sub) in the temperature range of 423-503 K. The crystal structure of ZSP was solved by single crystal XRD which exhibits triclinic crystal system with the space group of Pī. The molecular mass of ZSP was determined by mass spectrometry which yielded the m/z value of 891 and 445 Da corresponding to its dimeric as well as monomeric form. The complex ZSP was further characterized by FT-IR and NMR. The demonstration of ZnO thin film deposition was carried out by using plasma assisted MOCVD. The thin film XRD confirmed the highly oriented (002) ZnO thin films on Si(100) substrate. The uniformity and composition of the thin film were analyzed by SEM/EDX. The band gap of ZnO thin film measurement indicated the blue shift with the value of 3.79 eV.

  15. Comparative Study on Graded-Barrier AlxGa1‑xN/AlN/GaN/Si Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistor by Using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Deposition Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Sung; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Huang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Han-Yin; Yang, Wen-Luh; Yang, Shen-Tin

    2018-06-01

    Comparative study on a novel Al2O3-dielectric graded-barrier (GB) AlxGa1‑xN/AlN/GaN/Si (x = 0.22 ∼ 0.3) metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistor (MOS-HFET) formed by using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) technique has been made with respect to a conventional-barrier (CB) Al0.26Ga0.74N/AlN/GaN/Si MOS-HFET and the reference Schottky-gate HFET devices. The GB AlxGa1‑xN was devised to improve the interfacial quality and enhance the Schottky barrier height at the same time. A cost-effective ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) method was used to form the high-k Al2O3 gate dielectric and surface passivation on the AlGaN barrier of the present MOS-HFETs. Comprehensive device performances, including maximum extrinsic transconductance (g m,max), maximum drain-source current density (I DS,max), gate-voltage swing (GVS) linearity, breakdown voltages, subthreshold swing (SS), on/off current ratio (I on /I off ), high frequencies, and power performance are investigated.

  16. Thickness dependent optical properties of PEMA and (PEMA){sub 0.85}/(ZnO){sub 0.15} nanocomposite films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique on ITO substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Anjna, E-mail: anjna56@gmail.com; Thakur, Priya; Yadav, Kamlesh, E-mail: kamlesh.yadav001@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, poly (ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) and (PEMA){sub 0.85}/(ZnO){sub 0.15} nanocomposite films for 2, 3, 4 and 5 minutes have been deposited by spray pyrolysis technique on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated substrate. The effect of thickness of the film on the morphological and optical properties of PEMA and (PEMA){sub 0.85}/(ZnO){sub 0.15} nanocomposite films are studied. The morphological and optical properties of pure PEMA and (PEMA){sub 0.85}/(ZnO){sub 0.15} nanocomposite films are compared. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) shows that as the thickness of film increases, uniformity of films increases. It is found from UV-Visible spectra that themore » energy band gap decreases with increasing the deposition time and refractive index increases with increasing the thickness of the film. The band gap of the nanocomposites is found less than the pure polymer film and opposite trend is observed for refractive index. The optical absorption of PEMA/ZnO nanocomposite films is higher than pure PEMA film. The thickness of the nanocomposite film plays a significant role in the tunability of the optical properties.« less

  17. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  18. Using KrF ELA to Improve Gate-Stacked LaAlO₃/ZrO₂ Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Novel Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Hung; Chang, Kow-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Xin; Wang, Shui-Jinn

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) technique and KrF excimer laser annealing (ELA) were employed for the fabrication of indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO-TFTs). Device with a 150 mJ/cm2 laser annealing densities demonstrated excellent electrical characteristics with improved on/off current ratio of 4.7×107, high channel mobility of 10 cm2/V-s, and low subthreshold swing of 0.15 V/dec. The improvements are attributed to the adjustment of oxygen vacancies in the IGZO channel to an appropriate range of around 28.3% and the reduction of traps at the high-k/IGZO interface.

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of the E-Beam Induced Polymerization of Maleimide and Norbornene End-capped Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmese, Giuseppe R.; Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    network to the BMI/AMP second network and thus form linked sequential IPNs (LIPNs). Consequently, Tg as high as 370 C was achieved and a fracture toughness of 120 Joules per square meters was obtained for resin systems that possess adequately low viscosity for processing using liquid molding techniques at low temperature.

  20. Complete data preparation flow for Massively Parallel E-Beam lithography on 28nm node full-field design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, Aurélien; Browning, Clyde; Brandt, Pieter; Chartoire, Jacky; Bérard-Bergery, Sébastien; Hazart, Jérôme; Chagoya, Alexandre; Postnikov, Sergei; Saib, Mohamed; Lattard, Ludovic; Schavione, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Massively parallel mask-less electron beam lithography (MP-EBL) offers a large intrinsic flexibility at a low cost of ownership in comparison to conventional optical lithography tools. This attractive direct-write technique needs a dedicated data preparation flow to correct both electronic and resist processes. Moreover, Data Prep has to be completed in a short enough time to preserve the flexibility advantage of MP-EBL. While the MP-EBL tools have currently entered an advanced stage of development, this paper will focus on the data preparation side of the work for specifically the MAPPER Lithography FLX-1200 tool [1]-[4], using the ASELTA Nanographics Inscale software. The complete flow as well as the methodology used to achieve a full-field layout data preparation, within an acceptable cycle time, will be presented. Layout used for Data Prep evaluation was one of a 28 nm technology node Metal1 chip with a field size of 26x33mm2, compatible with typical stepper/scanner field sizes and wafer stepping plans. Proximity Effect Correction (PEC) was applied to the entire field, which was then exported as a single file to MAPPER Lithography's machine format, containing fractured shapes and dose assignments. The Soft Edge beam to beam stitching method was employed in the specific overlap regions defined by the machine format as well. In addition to PEC, verification of the correction was included as part of the overall data preparation cycle time. This verification step was executed on the machine file format to ensure pattern fidelity and accuracy as late in the flow as possible. Verification over the full chip, involving billions of evaluation points, is performed both at nominal conditions and at Process Window corners in order to ensure proper exposure and process latitude. The complete MP-EBL data preparation flow was demonstrated for a 28 nm node Metal1 layout in 37 hours. The final verification step shows that the Edge Placement Error (EPE) is kept below 2.25 nm

  1. Network of vertically c-oriented prismatic InN nanowalls grown on c-GaN/sapphire template by chemical vapor deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barick, B. K.; Saroj, Rajendra Kumar; Prasad, Nivedita; Sutar, D. S.; Dhar, S.

    2018-05-01

    Networks of vertically c-oriented prism shaped InN nanowalls, are grown on c-GaN/sapphire templates using a CVD technique, where pure indium and ammonia are used as metal and nitrogen precursors. A systematic study of the growth, structural and electronic properties of these samples shows a preferential growth of the islands along [ 1 1 2 bar 0 ] and [0 0 0 1] directions leading to the formation of such a network structure, where the vertically [0 0 0 1] oriented tapered walls are laterally align along one of the three [ 1 1 2 bar 0 ] directions. Inclined facets of these walls are identified as semipolar (1 1 2 bar 2) -planes of wurtzite InN. Onset of absorption for these samples is observed to be higher than the band gap of InN suggesting a high background carrier concentration in this material. Study of the valence band edge through XPS indicates the formation of positive depletion regions below the surface of the side facets [(1 1 2 bar 2) -planes] of the walls. This is in contrast with the observation for c-plane InN epilayers, where electron accumulation is often reported below the top surface.

  2. Electrolytic treatment of colorectal liver tumour deposits in a rat model: a technique with potential for patients with unresectable liver tumours.

    PubMed

    Wemyss-Holden, S A; Robertson, G S; Hall, P D; Dennison, A R; Maddern, G J

    2000-01-01

    Patients with unresectable malignant liver tumours have a poor prognosis. A technique is needed which improves long-term survival. Previous studies in the rat have shown that electrolysis is a safe, predictable and reproducible method for creating areas of necrosis in the normal rat liver. This study examined the effects of electrolysis on colorectal liver 'metastases' in the rat. Tumours of colorectal origin were implanted into the livers of Wistar-WAG rats. Two weeks after implantation the tumours were treated with electrolysis. A direct current generator, connected to 2 platinum intrahepatic electrodes was used to examine the effects of various electrode configurations on the extent of tumour necrosis. Significant (p<0.001) tumour ablation was achieved with all electrode configurations. Tumour necrosis was more complete (p<0.05) with the electrodes positioned on either side of the tumour than with both electrodes placed in the centre of the tumour. Liver enzymes (AST and ALT) were significantly (p<0.001) elevated after treatment, but returned towards normal by 2 days. This study has shown that colorectal liver 'metastasis' can be ablated by electrolysis in a rat model. Two separate mechanisms of tumour ablation were observed: With the electrodes directly in or adjacent to the tumour, necrosis resulted from the action of cytotoxic electrode products, whereas by positioning the electrodes proximal to the tumour, necrosis was induced by a 'secondary' ischaemic effect. The findings confirm the view that electrolysis has great potential for treating patients with unresectable malignant liver tumours.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO:TiO2 nano composites thin films deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spray coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanto, Heri; Nurhasanah, Iis; Hidayanto, Eko; Wibowo, Singgih; Hadiyanto

    2015-12-01

    In this work, (ZnO)x:(TiO2)1-x nano composites thin films, with x = 1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25, and 0, have been prepared by sol-gel spray coating technique onto glass substrate. Pure TiO2 and ZnO thin films were synthesized from titanium isopropoxide-based and zinc acetate-based precursor solutions, respectively, whereas the composite films were obtained from the mixture of these solutions at the specific % vol ratios. The properties and performance of nano composite ZnO, TiO2 and ZnO:TiO2 thin films at different composition have been investigated. Ultraviolet - Visible (UV-Vis) Spectrophotometer and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were employed in order to get morphology and transmittance of thin films. Testing the ability of photocatalytic activity of obtained films was conducted on photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye and organic pollutants of wastewater under a 30 watt UV light irradiation, then testing BOD, COD and TPC were conducted. Using the Tauc model, the band-gap energy decreased from 3.12 eV to 3.02 eV for the sample with x = 1 and 0, respectively. This decrease occured along with the replacement of percentage of ZnO by TiO2 on the films. This decrease also reduced the minimum energy that required for electron excitation. Obtained thin films had nanoscale roughness level with range 3.64 to 17.30 nm. The film with x= 0 has the biggest removal percentage on BOD, COD and TPC mesurements with percentage 54.82%, 62.73% and 99.88%, respectively.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO:TiO{sub 2} nano composites thin films deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spray coating technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sutanto, Heri, E-mail: herisutanto@undip.ac.id; Nurhasanah, Iis; Hidayanto, Eko

    In this work, (ZnO){sub x}:(TiO{sub 2}){sub 1-x} nano composites thin films, with x = 1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25, and 0, have been prepared by sol–gel spray coating technique onto glass substrate. Pure TiO{sub 2} and ZnO thin films were synthesized from titanium isopropoxide-based and zinc acetate-based precursor solutions, respectively, whereas the composite films were obtained from the mixture of these solutions at the specific % vol ratios. The properties and performance of nano composite ZnO, TiO{sub 2} and ZnO:TiO{sub 2} thin films at different composition have been investigated. Ultraviolet – Visible (UV-Vis) Spectrophotometer and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were employedmore » in order to get morphology and transmittance of thin films. Testing the ability of photocatalytic activity of obtained films was conducted on photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye and organic pollutants of wastewater under a 30 watt UV light irradiation, then testing BOD, COD and TPC were conducted. Using the Tauc model, the band-gap energy decreased from 3.12 eV to 3.02 eV for the sample with x = 1 and 0, respectively. This decrease occured along with the replacement of percentage of ZnO by TiO{sub 2} on the films. This decrease also reduced the minimum energy that required for electron excitation. Obtained thin films had nanoscale roughness level with range 3.64 to 17.30 nm. The film with x= 0 has the biggest removal percentage on BOD, COD and TPC mesurements with percentage 54.82%, 62.73% and 99.88%, respectively.« less

  5. Measurements of radon and thoron progeny concentrations in dwellings of Tehri Garhwal, India, using LR-115 deposition-based DTPS/DRPS technique.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Mukesh; Rawat, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Yadav, Manjulata; Gusain, G S; Mishra, Rosaline; Ramola, R C

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the values of radon and thoron progeny concentrations for different seasons in the dwellings of Tehri Garhwal, India. The measurements have been carried out using LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detector-based passive time-integrated direct thoron progeny sensor/direct radon progeny sensor technique. In summer, the radon and thoron progeny have been found to vary from 5.7±0.8 to 153.2±4.3 Bq m(-3) with an average of 37.6 Bq m(-3) and 0.3±0.06 to 3.2±0.19 Bq m(-3) with an average of 1.3 Bq m(-3), respectively. In the rainy season, the radon and thoron progeny have been found to vary from 3.2±0.6 to 120±3.7 Bq m(-3) with an average of 58.2 Bq m(-3) and 0.2±0.05 to 11.3±0.37 Bq m(-3) with an average of 3.4 Bq m(-3), respectively. In autumn, the radon and thoron progeny have been found to vary from 4.1±0.7 to 374.4±6.7 Bq m(-3) with an average of 95.6 Bq m(-3) and from 0.3±0.06 to 30.5±0.60 Bq m(-3) with an average of 6.6 Bq m(-3), respectively. In winter, the radon and thoron progeny have been found to vary from 9.8±1.1 to 188.9±4.8 Bq m(-3) with an average of 70.7 Bq m(-3) and 0.1±0.03 to 7.5±0.30 Bq m(-3) with an average of 2.3 Bq m(-3), respectively. It has been observed that the average value of radon and thoron progeny concentrations is maximum for autumn and minimum for summer seasons. The seasonal variations in radon and thoron progeny concentrations in different houses are discussed in detail. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  7. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  8. An electron-beam dose deposition experiment: TIGER 1-D simulation code versus thermoluminescent dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrill, Steven R.; Tipton, Charles W.; Self, Charles T.

    1991-03-01

    The dose absorbed in an integrated circuit (IC) die exposed to a pulse of low-energy electrons is a strong function of both electron energy and surrounding packaging materials. This report describes an experiment designed to measure how well the Integrated TIGER Series one-dimensional (1-D) electron transport simulation program predicts dose correction factors for a state-of-the-art IC package and package/printed circuit board (PCB) combination. These derived factors are compared with data obtained experimentally using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) and the FX-45 flash x-ray machine (operated in electron-beam (e-beam) mode). The results of this experiment show that the TIGER 1-D simulation code can be used to accurately predict FX-45 e-beam dose deposition correction factors for reasonably complex IC packaging configurations.

  9. Modeling and optimization of sensory changes and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged cooked ham treated by E-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedito, J.; Cambero, M. I.; Ortuño, C.; Cabeza, M. C.; Ordoñez, J. A.; de la Hoz, L.

    2011-03-01

    The E-beam irradiation of vacuum-packaged RTE cooked ham was carried out to establish the dose required to achieve the food safety objective (FSO) and to minimize changes in selected sensory attributes. Cooked ham was irradiated with doses ranging 1-4 kGy. After the treatment, the microbial inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, the shelf-life of the product and some sensory attributes (appearance, odor, and flavor) were determined. The inactivation of L. monocytogenes was satisfactorily described by a first-order kinetics equation ( R2=0.99). The influence of the irradiation dose on appearance, odor, and flavor was modeled through Gompertz ( R2=0.99, for appearance) and Activation/Inactivation ( R2=0.99, for odor and flavor) equations. A model was also developed to determine the shelf-life of irradiated cooked ham depending on the irradiation dose ( R2>0.91). The dose that maximized the scores of the sensory attributes was 0.96 kGy resulting in an acceptable sensory quality for 80 days. It is possible to apply up to 2 kGy to ensure microbial safety, while provoking no significant changes in the above mentioned sensory attributes.

  10. Production data from a Leica ZBA31H+ shaped e-beam mask writer located at the Photronics facility, Manchester, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Stephen; Loughran, Dominic; Osborne, Peter; Sixt, Pierre; Doering, Hans-Joachim

    1999-06-01

    The ZBA31H+) is a variable shaped spot, vector scan e- beam lithography system operating at 20 keV. The specified performance is designed to produce reticles to 250 nanometer design rules, and beyond. In November 98 the acceptance results of a newly installed Leica ZBA31H+), at Photonic Manchester, were presented in a paper at the VDE/VDI 15th European Conference on Mask Technology. This paper is a continuation of that work and presents data from a capability study carried out, on 4000 angstrom EBR9 HS31 resist. Analysis of: mean to target, uniformity, X/Y bias, isolated vs. dense linewidths, linearity, and registration performance of the tool is presented, and the effects of re- iterative develop on process capability compared. Theoretically, a shaped beam system has advantages over raster scan in terms of write time and edge definition capabilities. In this paper, comparative write times against an Etec Mebes 4500 system are included. The ZBA31H+) has to write very small polygons in order to image non-axial or non-45 degree features. The resulting effect on image quality and write time is investigated. In order to improve the fidelity of small OPC structures, Leica have investigated alternative writing strategies, and their results to data are presented here.

  11. Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Tara P.; Maes, Ashley M.; Sarode, Himanshu N.

    We demonstrate that the true hydroxide conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) [ETFE] anion exchange membrane (AEM) is as high as 132 mS cm -1 at 80 °C and 95% RH, comparable to a proton exchange membrane, but with very much less water present in the film. To understand this behaviour we studied ion transport of hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride, as well as water uptake and distribution. Water uptake of the AEM in water vapor is an order of magnitude lower than when submerged in liquid water. In addition 19F pulse field gradient spin echo NMR indicates that theremore » is little tortuosity in the ionic pathways through the film. A complete analysis of the IR spectrum of the AEM and the analyses of water absorption using FT-IR led to conclusion that the fluorinated backbone chains do not interact with water and that two types of water domains exist within the membrane. The reduction in conductivity was measured during exposure of the OH - form of the AEM to air at 95% RH and was seen to be much slower than the reaction of CO 2 with OH - as the amount of water in the film determines its ionic conductivity and at relative wet RHs its re-organization is slow.« less

  12. Direct chiral determination of free amino acid enantiomers by two-dimensional liquid chromatography: application to control transformations in E-beam irradiated foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Guillén-Casla, Vanesa; León-González, María Eugenia; Pérez-Arribas, Luis Vicente; Polo-Díez, Luis María

    2010-05-01

    Changes in free amino acids content and its potential racemization in ready-to-eat foods treated with E-beam irradiation between 1 and 8 kGy for sanitation purposes were studied. A simple heart cut two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatographic method (LC-LC) for the simultaneous enantiomeric determination of three pairs of amino acids used as markers (tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan) is presented. The proposed method involves the use of two chromatographs in an LC-LC achiral-chiral coupling. Amino acids and their decomposition products were firstly separated in a primary column (C(18)) using a mixture of ammonium acetate buffer (20 mM, pH 6) (94%) and methanol (6%) as the mobile phase. Then, a portion of each peak was transferred by heart cutting through a switching valve to a teicoplanin-chiral column. Methanol (90%)/water (10%) was used as the mobile phase. Ultraviolet detection was at 260 nm. Detection limits were between 0.16 and 3 mg L(-1) for each enantiomer. Recoveries were in the range 79-98%. The LC-LC method combined with the proposed sample extraction procedure is suitable for complex samples; it involves an online cleanup, and it prevents degradation of protein, racemization of L-enantiomers, and degradation of tryptophan. Under these conditions, D-amino acids were not found in any of the analyzed samples at detection levels of the proposed method.

  13. Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Tara P; Maes, Ashley M; Sarode, Himanshu N; Peters, Bethanne D; Lavina, Sandra; Vezzù, Keti; Yang, Yuan; Poynton, Simon D; Varcoe, John R; Seifert, Soenke; Liberatore, Matthew W; Di Noto, Vito; Herring, Andrew M

    2015-02-14

    We demonstrate that the true hydroxide conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) [ETFE] anion exchange membrane (AEM) is as high as 132 mS cm(-1) at 80 °C and 95% RH, comparable to a proton exchange membrane, but with very much less water present in the film. To understand this behaviour we studied ion transport of hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride, as well as water uptake and distribution. Water uptake of the AEM in water vapor is an order of magnitude lower than when submerged in liquid water. In addition (19)F pulse field gradient spin echo NMR indicates that there is little tortuosity in the ionic pathways through the film. A complete analysis of the IR spectrum of the AEM and the analyses of water absorption using FT-IR led to conclusion that the fluorinated backbone chains do not interact with water and that two types of water domains exist within the membrane. The reduction in conductivity was measured during exposure of the OH(-) form of the AEM to air at 95% RH and was seen to be much slower than the reaction of CO2 with OH(-) as the amount of water in the film determines its ionic conductivity and at relative wet RHs its re-organization is slow.

  14. Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane

    DOE PAGES

    Pandey, Tara P.; Maes, Ashley M.; Sarode, Himanshu N.; ...

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate that the true hydroxide conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) [ETFE] anion exchange membrane (AEM) is as high as 132 mS cm -1 at 80 °C and 95% RH, comparable to a proton exchange membrane, but with very much less water present in the film. To understand this behaviour we studied ion transport of hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride, as well as water uptake and distribution. Water uptake of the AEM in water vapor is an order of magnitude lower than when submerged in liquid water. In addition 19F pulse field gradient spin echo NMR indicates that theremore » is little tortuosity in the ionic pathways through the film. A complete analysis of the IR spectrum of the AEM and the analyses of water absorption using FT-IR led to conclusion that the fluorinated backbone chains do not interact with water and that two types of water domains exist within the membrane. The reduction in conductivity was measured during exposure of the OH - form of the AEM to air at 95% RH and was seen to be much slower than the reaction of CO 2 with OH - as the amount of water in the film determines its ionic conductivity and at relative wet RHs its re-organization is slow.« less

  15. Experimental, theoretical, and device application development of nanoscale focused electron-beam-induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph, Steven Jeffrey

    Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a highly versatile nanofabrication technique that allows for growth of a variety of materials with nanoscale precision and resolution. While several applications and studies of EBID have been reported and published, there is still a significant lack of understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in the process. Consequently, EBID process control is, in general, limited and certain common experimental results regarding nanofiber growth have yet to be fully explained. Such anomalous results have been addressed in this work both experimentally and by computer simulation. Specifically, a correlation between SiOx nanofiber deposition observations and the phenomenon of electron beam heating (EBH) was shown by comparison of thermal computer models and experimental results. Depending on the beam energy, beam current, and nanostructure geometry, the heat generated can be substantial and may influence the deposition rate. Temperature dependent EBID growth experiments qualitatively verified the results of the EBH model. Additionally, EBID was used to produce surface image layers for maskless, direct-write lithography (MDL). A single layer process used directly written SiOx features as a masking layer for amorphous silicon thin films. A bilayer process implemented a secondary masking layer consisting of standard photoresist into which a pattern---directly written by EBID tungsten---was transferred. The single layer process was found to be extremely sensitive to the etch selectivity of the plasma etch. In the bilayer process, EBID tungsten was written onto photoresist and the pattern transferred by means of oxygen plasma dry development following a brief refractory descum. Conditions were developed to reduce the spatial spread of electrons in the photoresist layer and obtain ˜ 35 nm lines. Finally, an EBID-based technique for field emitter repair was applied to the Digital Electrostatically focused e-beam Array Lithography (DEAL

  16. Comparative analysis of electrophysical properties of ceramic tantalum pentoxide coatings, deposited by electron beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkov, N.; Mateev, E.; Safonov, V.; Zykova, A.; Yakovin, S.; Kolesnikov, D.; Sudzhanskaya, I.; Goncharov, I.; Georgieva, V.

    2014-12-01

    Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have been deposited on glass substrates by e-beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering methods. For the magnetron sputtering process Ta target was used. X-ray diffraction measurements show that these coatings are amorphous. XPS survey spectra of the ceramic Ta2O5 coatings were obtained. All spectra consist of well-defined XPS lines of Ta 4f, 4d, 4p and 4s; O 1s; C 1s. Ta 4f doublets are typical for Ta2O5 coatings with two main peaks. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images of the e-beam evaporated and magnetron sputtered Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have revealed a relatively flat surface with no cracks. The dielectric properties of the tantalum pentoxide coatings have been investigated in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The electrical behaviour of e-beam evaporated and magnetron sputtered Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have also been compared. The deposition process conditions principally effect the structure parameters and electrical properties of Ta2O5 ceramic coatings. The coatings deposited by different methods demonstrate the range of dielectric parameters due to the structural and stoichiometric composition changes

  17. Relationship between dislocation and the visible luminescence band observed in ZnO epitaxial layers grown on c-plane p-GaN templates by chemical vapor deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saroj, Rajendra K.; Dhar, S.

    2016-08-01

    ZnO epitaxial layers are grown on c-plane GaN (p-type)/sapphire substrates using a chemical vapor deposition technique. Structural and luminescence properties of these layers have been studied systematically as a function of various growth parameters. It has been found that high quality ZnO epitaxial layers can indeed be grown on GaN films at certain optimum conditions. It has also been observed that the growth temperature and growth time have distinctly different influences on the screw and edge dislocation densities. While the growth temperature affects the density of edge dislocations more strongly than that of screw dislocations, an increase of growth duration leads to a rapid drop in the density of screw dislocation, whereas the density of edge dislocation hardly changes. Densities of both edge and screw dislocations are found to be minimum at a growth temperature of 500 °C. Interestingly, the defect related visible luminescence intensity also shows a minimum at the same temperature. Our study indeed suggests that the luminescence feature is related to threading edge dislocation. A continuum percolation model, where the defects responsible for visible luminescence are considered to be formed under the influence of the strain field surrounding the threading edge dislocations, is proposed. The theory explains the observed variation of the visible luminescence intensity as a function of the concentration of the dislocations.

  18. Influence of Annealing Temperature on Some Optical and Structural Properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 Deposited by CZT Co-Electrodeposition Coupled with Chemical Bath Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoth, Obila Jorim; Domtau, Dinfa Luka; Marina, Mukabi; John, Onyatta; Awuor, Ogacho Alex

    Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) is currently most efficient thin film solar technology in use but it is faced with problems of material scarcity and toxicity. An alternative earth abundant and non-toxic materials consisting of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) have been investigated as a replacement for CIGS. In this work, CZTS thin films deposited by low cost co-electrodeposition, at a potential of -1.2V, coupled with chemical bath techniques at room temperature and then annealed under sulphur rich atmosphere were investigated. CZTS thin film quality determination was carried out using Raman spectroscopy which confirmed formation of quality CZTS film, main Raman peaks at 288cm-1 and 338cm-1 were observed. Electrical characterization was carried out using four-point probe instrument and the resistivity was in the order of ˜10-4Ω-cm. The optical characterization was done using UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The bandgaps of the annealed CZTS film ranged from 1.45 to 1.94eV with absorption coefficient of order ˜104cm-1 in the visible and near infrared range of the solar spectrum were observed.

  19. Alloy vapor deposition using ion plating and flash evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1971-01-01

    Method extends scope of ion plating technique to include deposition of alloy films without changing composition of plating alloy. Coatings flow with specimen material without chipping or peeling. Technique is most effective vacuum deposition method for depositing alloys for strong and lasting adherence.

  20. Monolithic microcircuit techniques and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Brief discussions of the techniques used to make dielectric and metal thin film depositions for monolithic circuits are presented. Silicon nitride deposition and the properties of silicon nitride films are discussed. Deposition of dichlorosilane and thermally grown silicon dioxide are reported. The deposition and thermal densification of borosilicate, aluminosilicate, and phosphosilicate glasses are discussed. Metallization for monolithic circuits and the characteristics of thin films are also included.

  1. Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation.

    PubMed

    Ristau, Detlev; Günster, Stefan; Bosch, Salvador; Duparré, Angela; Masetti, Enrico; Ferré-Borrull, Josep; Kiriakidis, George; Peiró, Francesca; Quesnel, Etienne; Tikhonravov, Alexander

    2002-06-01

    Single layers of MgF2 and LaF3 were deposited upon superpolished fused-silica and CaF2 substrates by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) as well as by boat and electron beam (e-beam) evaporation and were characterized by a variety of complementary analytical techniques. Besides undergoing photometric and ellipsometric inspection, the samples were investigated at 193 and 633 nm by an optical scatter measurement facility. The structural properties were assessed with atomic-force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, TEM techniques that involved conventional thinning methods for the layers. For measurement of mechanical stress in the coatings, special silicon substrates were coated and analyzed. The dispersion behavior of both deposition materials, which was determined on the basis of various independent photometric measurements and data reduction techniques, is in good agreement with that published in the literature and with the bulk properties of the materials. The refractive indices of the MgF2 coatings ranged from 1.415 to 1.440 for the wavelength of the ArF excimer laser (193 nm) and from 1.435 to 1.465 for the wavelength of the F2 excimer laser (157 nm). For single layers of LaF3 the refractive indices extended from 1.67 to 1.70 at 193 nm to approximately 1.80 at 157 nm. The IBS process achieves the best homogeneity and the lowest surface roughness values (close to 1 nm(rms)) of the processes compared in the joint experiment. In contrast to MgF2 boat and e-beam evaporated coatings, which exhibit tensile mechanical stress ranging from 300 to 400 MPa, IBS coatings exhibit high compressive stress of as much as 910 MPa. A similar tendency was found for coating stress in LaF3 single layers. Experimental results are discussed with respect to the microstructural and compositional properties as well as to the surface topography of the coatings.

  2. Chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the growth of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials is investigated. The objective is to develop CVD techniques for producing large areas of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials, with sheet properties suitable for fabricating solar cells meeting the technical goals of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Specific areas covered include: (1) modification and test of existing CVD reactor system; (2) identification and/or development of suitable inexpensive substrate materials; (3) experimental investigation of CVD process parameters using various candidate substrate materials; (4) preparation of Si sheet samples for various special studies, including solar cell fabrication; (5) evaluation of the properties of the Si sheet material produced by the CVD process; and (6) fabrication and evaluation of experimental solar cell structures, using standard and near-standard processing techniques.

  3. Electron Beam Lithography Double Step Exposure Technique for Fabrication of Mushroom-Like Profile in Bilayer Resist System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornelia, Indykiewicz; Bogdan, Paszkiewicz; Tomasz, Szymański; Regina, Paszkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    The Hi/Lo bilayer resist system exposure in e-beam lithography (EBL) process, intended for mushroom-like profile fabrication, was studied. Different exposure parameters and theirs influence on the resist layers were simulated in CASINO software and the obtained results were compared with the experimental data. The AFM technique was used for the estimation of the e-beam penetration depth in the resist stack. Performed numerical and experimental results allow us to establish the useful ranges of the exposure parameters.

  4. Improvements in Ionized Cluster-Beam Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.; Compton, L. E.; Pawlik, E. V.

    1986-01-01

    Lower temperatures result in higher purity and fewer equipment problems. In cluster-beam deposition, clusters of atoms formed by adiabatic expansion nozzle and with proper nozzle design, expanding vapor cools sufficiently to become supersaturated and form clusters of material deposited. Clusters are ionized and accelerated in electric field and then impacted on substrate where films form. Improved cluster-beam technique useful for deposition of refractory metals.

  5. Vapor deposition routes to conformal polymer thin films

    PubMed Central

    Moni, Priya; Al-Obeidi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Vapor phase syntheses, including parylene chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and initiated CVD, enable the deposition of conformal polymer thin films to benefit a diverse array of applications. This short review for nanotechnologists, including those new to vapor deposition methods, covers the basic theory in designing a conformal polymer film vapor deposition, sample preparation and imaging techniques to assess film conformality, and several applications that have benefited from vapor deposited, conformal polymer thin films. PMID:28487816

  6. Test of a new stable isotopic fingerprinting technique (i.e. Compound Specific Stable Isotope) in an Austrian sub-catchment to establish agricultural soil source contribution to deposited sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaye, Modou; Mabit, Lionel; Gibbs, Max; Meusburger, Katrin; Toloza, Arsenio; Resch, Christian; Klik, Andreas; Swales, Andrew; Alewell, Christine

    2017-04-01

    In order to test and refine the use of compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) as a fingerprinting technique, an innovative study was conducted in a sub-catchment dominated by C3 plants located 60 km north of Vienna. This experimental site consists of 4 different contributing sources (i.e. 3 agricultural fields and one grassed waterway) and one sediment mixture in which the δ13C values of the bulk soil carbon and of various fatty acids (FAs) were analysed after a cost effective sampling strategy. Bi-scatterplots of all possible combinations of δ13C FAs including the bulk soil carbon δ13C showed that bulk soil carbon δ13C is a strong discriminant among the other FAs. Moreover, bulk soil carbon δ13C values highlighted the highest difference between the four sources and the δ13C values of C24 indicated significant differences for all sources while δ13C of C22 did not exhibit a significant difference between the two first sources. An additional correlation analysis revealed that the highest significant linear dependencies are between δ13C16 & δ13C18 > δ13C18 & δ13C24 > δ13C16 & δ13C24. Among the variables, the bulk soil carbon δ13C was found to be the least correlated parameter, confirming that it is the most reliable discriminator to determine the sediment origins in the mixture. To summarize, only the long chain FAs (i.e. C22 and C24) as well as the bulk soil carbon δ13C succeeded in fulfilling our multivariate statistical tests. These findings were confirmed by the mixing polygon tests and Principal Component Analysis. Using three different mixing models (i.e. Iso-source, CSSIAR v1.0 and MIXSIAR), the contribution of the different sources to the mixture were evaluated. All models highlighted that the third source (field having C3 and C4 plants in rotation) and the grassed waterway were the main contributing agricultural area representing 25-31% and 50-57% of the deposited sediment constituting the mixture, respectively.

  7. Investigating the chemical mist deposition technique for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) on textured crystalline-silicon for organic/crystalline-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Jaker; Ohki, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Koki; Fujiyama, Kazuhiko; Ueno, Keiji; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Shirai, Hajime

    2016-03-01

    Chemical mist deposition (CMD) of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was investigated in terms of cavitation frequency f, solvent, flow rate of nitrogen, substrate temperature Ts, and substrate dc bias Vs as variables for efficient PEDOT:PSS/crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunction solar cells. The high-speed-camera and differential mobility analysis characterizations revealed that the average size and flux of PEDOT:PSS mist depend on f, type of solvent, and Vs. Film deposition occurred when positive Vs was applied to the c-Si substrate at Ts of 30-40 °C, whereas no deposition of films occurred with negative Vs, implying that the film is deposited mainly from negatively charged mist. The uniform deposition of PEDOT:PSS films occurred on textured c-Si(100) substrates by adjusting Ts and Vs. The adhesion of CMD PEDOT:PSS film to c-Si was greatly enhanced by applying substrate dc bias Vs compared with that of spin-coated film. The CMD PEDOT:PSS/c-Si heterojunction solar cell devices on textured c-Si(100) in 2 × 2 cm2 exhibited a power conversion efficiency η of 11.0% with better uniformity of the solar cell parameters. Furthermore, η was increased to 12.5% by adding an AR coating layer of molybdenum oxide MoOx formed by CMD. These findings suggest that CMD with negatively charged mist has great potential for the uniform deposition of organic and inorganic materials on textured c-Si substrates by suitably adjusting Ts and Vs.

  8. Photobiomolecular deposition of metallic particles and films

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2005-02-08

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  9. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's tabulation of volcanogenic uranium deposits lists 100 deposits in 20 countries, with major deposits in Russia, Mongolia, and China. Collectively these deposits are estimated to contain uranium resources of approximately 500,000 tons of uranium, which amounts to 6 percent of the known global resources. Prior to the 1990s, these deposits were considered to be small (less than 10,000 tons of uranium) with relatively low to moderate grades (0.05 to 0.2 weight percent of uranium). Recent availability of information on volcanogenic uranium deposits in Asia highlighted the large resource potential of this deposit type. For example, the Streltsovskoye district in eastern Russia produced more than 100,000 tons of uranium as of 2005; with equivalent resources remaining. Known volcanogenic uranium deposits within the United States are located in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. These deposits produced an estimated total of 800 tons of uranium during mining from the 1950s through the 1970s and have known resources of 30,000 tons of uranium. The most recent estimate of speculative resources proposed an endowment of 200,000 tons of uranium.

  10. Aerosol Deposition in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The success of inhalation therapy is not only dependent upon the pharmacology of the drugs being inhaled but also upon the site and extent of deposition in the respiratory tract. This article reviews the main mechanisms affecting the transport and deposition of inhaled aerosol in the human lung. Aerosol deposition in both the healthy and diseased lung is described mainly based on the results of human studies using nonimaging techniques. This is followed by a discussion of the effect of flow regime on aerosol deposition. Finally, the link between therapeutic effects of inhaled drugs and their deposition pattern is briefly addressed. Data show that total lung deposition is a poor predictor of clinical outcome, and that regional deposition needs to be assessed to predict therapeutic effectiveness. Indeed, spatial distribution of deposited particles and, as a consequence, drug efficiency is strongly affected by particle size. Large particles (>6 μm) tend to mainly deposit in the upper airway, limiting the amount of drugs that can be delivered to the lung. Small particles (<2 μm) deposit mainly in the alveolar region and are probably the most apt to act systemically, whereas the particle in the size range 2–6 μm are be best suited to treat the central and small airways. PMID:22686623

  11. Porphyry copper deposit density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.; Berger, Vladimir; Menzie, W. David; Berger, Byron R.

    2005-01-01

    Estimating numbers of undiscovered mineral deposits has been a source of unease among economic geologists yet is a fundamental task in considering future supplies of resources. Estimates can be based on frequencies of deposits per unit of permissive area in control areas around the world in the same way that grade and tonnage frequencies are models of sizes and qualities of undiscovered deposits. To prevent biased estimates it is critical that, for a particular deposit type, these deposit density models be internally consistent with descriptive and grade and tonnage models of the same type. In this analysis only deposits and prospects that are likely to be included in future grade and tonnage models are employed, and deposits that have mineralization or alteration separated by less than an arbitrary but consistent distance—2 km for porphyry copper deposits—are combined into one deposit. Only 286 deposits and prospects that have more than half of the deposit not covered by postmineral rocks, sediments, or ice were counted.Nineteen control areas were selected and outlined along borders of hosting magmatic arc terranes based on three main features: (1) extensive exploration for porphyry copper deposits, (2) definable geologic settings of the porphyry copper deposits in island and continental volcanic-arc subduction-boundary zones, and (3) diversity of epochs of porphyry copper deposit formation.Porphyry copper deposit densities vary from 2 to 128 deposits per 100,000 km2 of exposed permissive rock, and the density histogram is skewed to high values. Ninety percent of the control areas have densities of four or more deposits, 50 percent have densities of 15 or more deposits, and 10 percent have densities of 35 or more deposits per 100,000 km2. Deposit density is not related to age or depth of emplacement. Porphyry copper deposit density is inversely related to the exposed area of permissive rock. The linear regression line and confidence limits constructed with

  12. Use of low dose e-beam irradiation to reduce E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 (VTEC) E. coli and Salmonella viability on meat surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Devapriya; Gill, Alexander; Lui, Chenyuan; Goswami, Namita; Holley, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the extent that irradiation of fresh beef surfaces with an absorbed dose of 1 kGy electron (e-) beam irradiation might reduce the viability of mixtures of O157 and non-O157 verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Salmonella. These were grouped together based on similar resistances to irradiation and inoculated on beef surfaces (outside flat and inside round, top and bottom muscle cuts), and then e-beam irradiated. Salmonella serovars were most resistant to 1 kGy treatment, showing a reduction of ≤1.9 log CFU/g. This treatment reduced the viability of two groups of non-O157 E. coli mixtures by ≤4.5 and ≤3.9 log CFU/g. Log reductions of ≤4.0 log CFU/g were observed for E. coli O157:H7 cocktails. Since under normal processing conditions the levels of these pathogens on beef carcasses would be lower than the lethality caused by the treatment used, irradiation at 1 kGy would be expected to eliminate the hazard represented by VTEC E. coli. © 2013.

  13. Fabrication of Ta2O5/GeNx gate insulator stack for Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor structures by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation and sputtering deposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, Yohei; Itayama, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Takuo; Fukuda, Yukio; Toyota, Hiroshi; Ono, Toshiro; Mitsui, Minoru; Nakagawa, Kiyokazu

    2007-04-01

    The authors have fabricated germanium (Ge) metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures with a 7-nm-thick tantalum pentaoxide (Ta2O5)/2-nm-thick germanium nitride (GeNx) gate insulator stack by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation and sputtering deposition. They found that pure GeNx ultrathin layers can be formed by the direct plasma nitridation of the Ge surface without substrate heating. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed no oxidation of the GeNx layer after the Ta2O5 sputtering deposition. The fabricated MIS capacitor with a capacitance equivalent thickness of 4.3nm showed excellent leakage current characteristics. The interface trap density obtained by the modified conductance method was 4×1011cm-2eV-1 at the midgap.

  14. Chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Campbell, A. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Shaw, G. L.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The objective was to investigate and develop chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the growth of large areas of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials, with resulting sheet properties suitable for fabricating solar cells that would meet the technical goals of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. The program involved six main technical tasks: (1) modification and test of an existing vertical-chamber CVD reactor system; (2) identification and/or development of suitable inexpensive substrate materials; (3) experimental investigation of CVD process parameters using various candidate substrate materials; (4) preparation of Si sheet samples for various special studies, including solar cell fabrication; (5) evaluation of the properties of the Si sheet material produced by the CVD process; and (6) fabrication and evaluation of experimental solar cell structures, using impurity diffusion and other standard and near-standard processing techniques supplemented late in the program by the in situ CVD growth of n(+)/p/p(+) sheet structures subsequently processed into experimental cells.

  15. Structure and mechanical properties of a two-layered material produced by the E-beam surfacing of Ta and Nb on the titanium base after multiple rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataev, V. A.; Golkovski, M. G.; Samoylenko, V. V.; Ruktuev, A. A.; Polyakov, I. A.; Kuksanov, N. K.

    2018-04-01

    The study has been conducted in line with the current approach to investigation of materials obtained by considerably deep surface alloying of the titanium substrate with Ta, Nb, and Zr. The thickness of the resulting alloyed layer was equal to 2 mm. The coating was formed through weld deposition of a powder with the use of a high-voltage electron beam in the air. It has been lately demonstrated that manufactured such a way alloyed layers possess corrosion resistance which is significantly higher than the resistance of titanium substrates. It has already been shown that such two-layered materials are weldable. The study objective is to investigate the feasibility of rolling for necking the sheets with the Ti-Ta-Nb anticorrosion coating with further fourfold decrease in their thickness. The research is also aimed at investigation of the material properties after rolling. Anticorrosion layers were formed both on CP-titanium and on VT14 (Ti-4Al-3Mo-1 V) durable titanium alloy. The results of chemical composition determination, structure examination, X-ray phase analysis and mechanical properties observations (including bending properties of the alloyed layers) are presented in the paper. The combination of welding, rolling, and bending enables the manufacture of corrosion-resistant vessels and process pipes which are made from the developed material and find technological application.

  16. Advanced deposition model for thermal activated chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Dang

    Thermal Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition (TACVD) is defined as the formation of a stable solid product on a heated substrate surface from chemical reactions and/or dissociation of gaseous reactants in an activated environment. It has become an essential process for producing solid film, bulk material, coating, fibers, powders and monolithic components. Global market of CVD products has reached multi billions dollars for each year. In the recent years CVD process has been extensively used to manufacture semiconductors and other electronic components such as polysilicon, AlN and GaN. Extensive research effort has been directed to improve deposition quality and throughput. To obtain fast and high quality deposition, operational conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluid velocity and species concentration and geometry conditions such as source-substrate distance need to be well controlled in a CVD system. This thesis will focus on design of CVD processes through understanding the transport and reaction phenomena in the growth reactor. Since the in situ monitor is almost impossible for CVD reactor, many industrial resources have been expended to determine the optimum design by semi-empirical methods and trial-and-error procedures. This approach has allowed the achievement of improvements in the deposition sequence, but begins to show its limitations, as this method cannot always fulfill the more and more stringent specifications of the industry. To resolve this problem, numerical simulation is widely used in studying the growth techniques. The difficulty of numerical simulation of TACVD crystal growth process lies in the simulation of gas phase and surface reactions, especially the latter one, due to the fact that very limited kinetic information is available in the open literature. In this thesis, an advanced deposition model was developed to study the multi-component fluid flow, homogeneous gas phase reactions inside the reactor chamber, heterogeneous surface

  17. Low leakage current gate dielectrics prepared by ion beam assisted deposition for organic thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Su; Jo, Sung Jin; Kim, Jong Bok; Ryu, Seung Yoon; Noh, Joo Hyon; Baik, Hong Koo; Lee, Se Jong; Kim, Youn Sang

    2007-12-01

    This communication reports on the fabrication of low operating voltage pentacene thin-film transistors with high-k gate dielectrics by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). These densely packed dielectric layers by IBAD show a much lower level of leakage current than those created by e-beam evaporation. These results, from the fact that those thin films deposited with low adatom mobility, have an open structure, consisting of spherical grains with pores in between, that acts as a significant path for leakage current. By contrast, our results demonstrate the potential to limit this leakage. The field effect mobility, on/off current ratio, and subthreshold slope obtained from pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) were 1.14 cm2/V s, 105, and 0.41 V/dec, respectively. Thus, the high-k gate dielectrics obtained by IBAD show promise in realizing low leakage current, low voltage, and high mobility pentacene TFTs.

  18. Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film.

    PubMed

    Mostako, A T T; Rao, C V S; Khare, Alika

    2011-01-01

    Mirrorlike tungsten thin films on stainless steel substrate deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique in vacuum (10(-5) Torr) is reported, which may find direct application as first mirror in fusion devices. The crystal structure of tungsten film is analyzed using x-ray diffraction pattern, surface morphology of the tungsten films is studied with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The film composition is identified using energy dispersive x-ray. The specular and diffuse reflectivities with respect to stainless steel substrate of the tungsten films are recorded with FTIR spectra. The thickness and the optical quality of pulsed laser deposition deposited films are tested via interferometric technique. The reflectivity is approaching about that of the bulk for the tungsten film of thickness ∼782 nm.

  19. Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Diamond Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This chapter describes the nature of clean and contaminated diamond surfaces, Chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond film deposition technology, analytical techniques and the results of research on CVD diamond films, and the general properties of CVD diamond films. Further, it describes the friction and wear properties of CVD diamond films in the atmosphere, in a controlled nitrogen environment, and in an ultra-high-vacuum environment.

  20. Epitaxial Deposition Of Germanium Doped With Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium made by chemical vapor deposition. Method involves combination of techniques and materials used in chemical vapor deposition with GeH4 or GeCl4 as source of germanium and GaCl3 as source of gallium. Resulting epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium expected to be highly pure, with high crystalline quality. High-quality material useful in infrared sensors.

  1. Microfabrication Techniques for Plastic Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    micromachining techniques were investigated. Surface micromachining techniques include deposition of thin and thick polymer films using vacuum and spin ...1 2.0 Introduction ...100 4.3.1 Nozzle-diffuser pumps theory

  2. A novel passivation process of silicon nanowires by a low-cost PECVD technique for deposition of hydrogenated silicon nitride using SiH4 and N2 as precursor gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouaziz, Lamia; Dridi, Donia; Karyaoui, Mokhtar; Angelova, Todora; Sanchez Plaza, Guillermo; Chtourou, Radhouane

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a different SiNx passivation process of silicon nanowires has been opted for the deposition of a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiNx:H) by a low-cost plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using silane ( SiH4 and nitrogen ( N2 as reactive gases. This study is focused on the effect of the gas flow ratio on chemical composition, morphological, optical and optoelectronic properties of silicon nanowires. The existence of Si-N and Si-H bonds was proven by the Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) spectrum. Morphological structures were shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the roughness was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A low reflectivity less than 6% in the wavelength range 250-1200nm has been shown by UV-visible spectroscopy. Furthermore, the thickness and the refractive index of the passivation layer is determined by ellipsometry measurements. As a result, an improvement in minority carrier lifetime has been obtained by reducing surface recombination of silicon nanowires.

  3. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as governed principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of approximations of the respiratory tract to predict fractional deposition caused by fundamental physical processes of particle impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with early and recent experimental studies. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior in the respiratory tract of very fine (less than 0.1 micron) particles requires further investigation. Properties of particle shape, charge and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns; definitive experimental work is needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of differing ventilation techniques with selected inhaled particle sizes holds promise in diagnosis of respiratory tract diseases. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving the pulmonary macrophage, mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic vessels are discussed. PMID:6376108

  4. Airfoil deposition model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology to predict deposit evolution (deposition rate and subsequent flow of liquid deposits) as a function of fuel and air impurity content and relevant aerodynamic parameters for turbine airfoils is developed in this research. The spectrum of deposition conditions encountered in gas turbine operations includes the mechanisms of vapor deposition, small particle deposition with thermophoresis, and larger particle deposition with inertial effects. The focus is on using a simplified version of the comprehensive multicomponent vapor diffusion formalism to make deposition predictions for: (1) simple geometry collectors; and (2) gas turbine blade shapes, including both developing laminar and turbulent boundary layers. For the gas turbine blade the insights developed in previous programs are being combined with heat and mass transfer coefficient calculations using the STAN 5 boundary layer code to predict vapor deposition rates and corresponding liquid layer thicknesses on turbine blades. A computer program is being written which utilizes the local values of the calculated deposition rate and skin friction to calculate the increment in liquid condensate layer growth along a collector surface.

  5. Programmed LWR metrology by multi-techniques approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reche, Jérôme; Besacier, Maxime; Gergaud, Patrice; Blancquaert, Yoann; Freychet, Guillaume; Labbaye, Thibault

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, roughness control presents a huge challenge for the lithography step. For advanced nodes, this morphological aspect reaches the same order of magnitude than the Critical Dimension. Hence, the control of roughness needs an adapted metrology. In this study, specific samples with designed roughness have been manufactured using e-beam lithography. These samples have been characterized with three different methodologies: CD-SEM, OCD and SAXS. The main goal of the project is to compare the capability of each of these techniques in terms of reliability, type of information obtained, time to obtain the measurements and level of maturity for the industry.

  6. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOEpatents

    Wickboldt, Paul; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Ellingboe, Albert R.

    2008-01-01

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

  7. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOEpatents

    Wickboldt, Paul; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Ellingboe, Albert R.

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

  8. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOEpatents

    Wickboldt, P.; Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Ellingboe, A.R.

    1999-06-29

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique is disclosed. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques. 2 figs.

  9. Perioperative ultrasound-guided wire marking of calcific deposits in calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Sigg, Andreas; Draws, Detlev; Stamm, Axel; Pfeiffer, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The identification of a calcific deposit in the rotator cuff can often cause difficulties. A new technique is described to identify the calcific deposit perioperatively with a ultrasound-guided wire. The technique allows a safe direct marking of calcific deposits making the procedure faster especially in difficult cases.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of electron doped La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} thin film grown on LaAlO{sub 3} substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Irshad, E-mail: bhat.amu85@gmail.com; Husain, Shahid; Patil, S. I.

    2015-06-24

    We report the structural, morphological and magneto-transport properties of electron doped La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} (LTMO) thin film grown on (001) LaAlO{sub 3} single crystal substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm that the film has good crystalline quality, single phase, and c-axis orientation. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) results have revealed that the film consists of grains with the average size in a range of 20–30 nm and root-mean square (rms) roughness of 0.27nm. The resistivity versus temperature measurement exhibits an insulator to metal transition (MIT). We have noticed a huge value of magnetoresistance (∼93%)more » close to MIT in presence of 8T field. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy confirms the electron doping and suggests that Te ions could be in the Te{sup 4+} state, while the Mn ions stay in the Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} valence state.« less

  11. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  12. Domestic phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.; Cathcart, J.B.; Altschuler, Z.S.; Swanson, R.W.; Lutz, Katherine

    1953-01-01

    Most of the worlds phosphate deposits can be grouped into six types: 1) igneous apatite deposits; 2) marine phosphorites; 3) residual phosphorites; 4) river pebble deposits; 5) phosphatized rock; and 6) guano. The igneous apatites and marine phosphorites form deposits measurable in millions or billions of tons; the residual deposits are measurable in thousands or millions; and the other types generally only in thousands of tons. Igneous apatite deposits have been mined on a small scale in New York, New Jersey, and Virginia. Marine phosphorites have been mined in Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Residual phosphorites have been mined in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Florida. River pebble has been produced in South Carolina and Florida; phosphatized rock in Tennessee and Florida; and guano in New Mexico and Texas. Present production is limited almost entirely to Florida, Tennessee, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Incomplete but recently partly revised estimates indicate the presence of about 5 billion tons of phosphate deposits in the United States that is minable under present economic conditions. Deposits too lean in quality or thickness to compete with those in the western and southeastern fields probably contain tens of billions of tons.

  13. Deposition, Chapter 3

    Treesearch

    K.C. Weathers; J.A. Lynch

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effects of air pollution on ecological systems using the critical load approach, accurate estimates of total nitrogen (N) deposition are essential. Empirical critical loads are set by relating observed ecosystem responses to N deposition (measured, experimentally manipulated, or modeled).

  14. Automatic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Report reviews chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for processing integrated circuits and describes fully automatic machine for CVD. CVD proceeds at relatively low temperature, allows wide choice of film compositions (including graded or abruptly changing compositions), and deposits uniform films of controllable thickness at fairly high growth rate. Report gives overview of hardware, reactants, and temperature ranges used with CVD machine.

  15. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronne, Antonio; Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Fanelli, Esther; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2014-11-01

    Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  16. Solution deposition assembly

    DOEpatents

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  17. Stratiform chromite deposit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Stratiform chromite deposits are of great economic importance, yet their origin and evolution remain highly debated. Layered igneous intrusions such as the Bushveld, Great Dyke, Kemi, and Stillwater Complexes, provide opportunities for studying magmatic differentiation processes and assimilation within the crust, as well as related ore-deposit formation. Chromite-rich seams within layered intrusions host the majority of the world's chromium reserves and may contain significant platinum-group-element (PGE) mineralization. This model of stratiform chromite deposits is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. The model focuses on features that may be common to all stratiform chromite deposits as a way to gain insight into the processes that gave rise to their emplacement and to the significant economic resources contained in them.

  18. Trouvelot Crater Deposit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-04

    Like many of the craters in the Oxia Palus region of Mars, Trouvelot Crater, shown in this NASA Mars Odyssey image, hosts an eroded, light-toned, sedimentary deposit on its floor. Compared with the much larger example in Becquerel Crater to the NE, the Trouvelot deposit has been so eroded by the scouring action of dark, wind-blown sand that very little of it remains. Tiny outliers of bright material separated from the main mass attest to the once, more really extensive coverage by the deposit. A similar observation can be made for White Rock, the best known example of a bright, crater interior deposit. The origin of the sediments in these deposits remains enigmatic but they are likely the result of fallout from ash or dust carried by the thin martian atmosphere. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04017

  19. An Introduction to Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwivedi, Vivek H.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition has been instrumental in providing a deposition method for multiple space flight applications. It is well known that ALD is a cost effective nanoadditive-manufacturing technique that allows for the conformal coating of substrates with atomic control in a benign temperature and pressure environment. Through the introduction of paired precursor gases, thin films can be deposited on a myriad of substrates from flat surfaces to those with significant topography. By providing atomic layer control, where single layers of atoms can be deposited, the fabrication of metal transparent films, precise nano-laminates, and coatings of nano-channels, pores and particles is achievable. The feasibility of this technology for NASA line of business applications range from thermal systems, optics, sensors, to environmental protection. An overview of this technology will be presented.

  20. Tuning the Kondo effect in thin Au films by depositing a thin layer of Au on molecular spin-dopants.

    PubMed

    Ataç, D; Gang, T; Yilmaz, M D; Bose, S K; Lenferink, A T M; Otto, C; de Jong, M P; Huskens, J; van der Wiel, W G

    2013-09-20

    We report on the tuning of the Kondo effect in thin Au films containing a monolayer of cobalt(II) terpyridine complexes by altering the ligand structure around the Co(2+) ions by depositing a thin Au capping layer on top of the monolayer on Au by magnetron sputtering (more energetic) and e-beam evaporation (softer). We show that the Kondo effect is slightly enhanced with respect to that of the uncapped film when the cap is deposited by evaporation, and significantly enhanced when magnetron sputtering is used. The Kondo temperature (TK) increases from 3 to 4.2/6.2 K for the evaporated/sputtered caps. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy investigation showed that the organic ligands remain intact upon Au e-beam evaporation; however, sputtering inflicts significant change in the Co(2+) electronic environment. The location of the monolayer-on the surface or embedded in the film-has a small effect. However, the damage of Co-N bonds induced by sputtering has a drastic effect on the increase of the impurity-electron interaction. This opens up the way for tuning of the magnetic impurity states, e.g. spin quantum number, binding energy with respect to the host Fermi energy, and overlap via the ligand structure around the ions.

  1. Preventing kinetic roughening in physical vapor-phase-deposited films.

    PubMed

    Vasco, E; Polop, C; Sacedón, J L

    2008-01-11

    The growth kinetics of the mostly used physical vapor-phase deposition techniques -molecular beam epitaxy, sputtering, flash evaporation, and pulsed laser deposition-is investigated by rate equations with the aim of testing their suitability for the preparation of ultraflat ultrathin films. The techniques are studied in regard to the roughness and morphology during early stages of growth. We demonstrate that pulsed laser deposition is the best technique for preparing the flattest films due to two key features [use of (i) a supersaturated pulsed flux of (ii) hyperthermal species] that promote a kinetically limited Ostwald ripening mechanism.

  2. Silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon nitride deposition was studied as a method of passivation for silicon solar cell surfaces. The following three objectives were the thrust of the research: (1) the use of pecvd silicon nitride for passivation of silicon surfaces; (2) measurement techniques for surface recombination velocity; and (3) the importance of surface passivation to high efficiency solar cells.

  3. Deposition of tantalum carbide coatings on graphite by laser interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veligdan, James; Branch, D.; Vanier, P. E.; Barietta, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    Graphite surfaces can be hardened and protected from erosion by hydrogen at high temperatures by refractory metal carbide coatings, which are usually prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or chemical vapor reaction (CVR) methods. These techniques rely on heating the substrate to a temperature where a volatile metal halide decomposes and reacts with either a hydrocarbon gas or with carbon from the substrate. For CVR techniques, deposition temperatures must be in excess of 2000 C in order to achieve favorable deposition kinetics. In an effort to lower the bulk substrate deposition temperature, the use of laser interactions with both the substrate and the metal halide deposition gas has been employed. Initial testing involved the use of a CO2 laser to heat the surface of a graphite substrate and a KrF excimer laser to accomplish a photodecomposition of TaCl5 gas near the substrate. The results of preliminary experiments using these techniques are described.

  4. Fabrication of cross-shaped Cu-nanowire resistive memory devices using a rapid, scalable, and designable inorganic-nanowire-digital-alignment technique (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wentao; Lee, Yeongjun; Min, Sung-Yong; Park, Cheolmin; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Resistive random-access memory (RRAM) is a candidate next generation nonvolatile memory due to its high access speed, high density and ease of fabrication. Especially, cross-point-access allows cross-bar arrays that lead to high-density cells in a two-dimensional planar structure. Use of such designs could be compatible with the aggressive scaling down of memory devices, but existing methods such as optical or e-beam lithographic approaches are too complicated. One-dimensional inorganic nanowires (i-NWs) are regarded as ideal components of nanoelectronics to circumvent the limitations of conventional lithographic approaches. However, post-growth alignment of these i-NWs precisely on a large area with individual control is still a difficult challenge. Here, we report a simple, inexpensive, and rapid method to fabricate two-dimensional arrays of perpendicularly-aligned, individually-conductive Cu-NWs with a nanometer-scale CuxO layer sandwiched at each cross point, by using an inorganic-nanowire-digital-alignment technique (INDAT) and a one-step reduction process. In this approach, the oxide layer is self-formed and patterned, so conventional deposition and lithography are not necessary. INDAT eliminates the difficulties of alignment and scalable fabrication that are encountered when using currently-available techniques that use inorganic nanowires. This simple process facilitates fabrication of cross-point nonvolatile memristor arrays. Fabricated arrays had reproducible resistive switching behavior, high on/off current ratio (Ion/Ioff) 10 6 and extensive cycling endurance. This is the first report of memristors with the resistive switching oxide layer self-formed, self-patterned and self-positioned; we envision that the new features of the technique will provide great opportunities for future nano-electronic circuits.

  5. Ion beam sputter etching and deposition of fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Sovey, J. S.; Miller, T. B.; Crandall, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    Fluoropolymer etching and deposition techniques including thermal evaporation, RF sputtering, plasma polymerization, and ion beam sputtering are reviewed. Etching and deposition mechanism and material characteristics are discussed. Ion beam sputter etch rates for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were determined as a function of ion energy, current density and ion beam power density. Peel strengths were measured for epoxy bonds to various ion beam sputtered fluoropolymers. Coefficients of static and dynamic friction were measured for fluoropolymers deposited from ion bombarded PTFE.

  6. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  7. EDITORIAL: Atomic layer deposition Atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Marek

    2012-07-01

    The growth method of atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced in Finland by Suntola under the name of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). The method was originally used for deposition of thin films of sulphides (ZnS, CaS, SrS) activated with manganese or rare-earth ions. Such films were grown for applications in thin-film electroluminescence (TFEL) displays. The ALE mode of growth was also tested in the case of molecular beam epitaxy. Films grown by ALD are commonly polycrystalline or even amorphous. Thus, the name ALE has been replaced by ALD. In the 80s ALD was developed mostly in Finland and neighboring Baltic countries. Deposition of a range of different materials was demonstrated at that time, including II-VI semiconductors (e.g. CdTe, CdS) and III-V (e.g. GaAs, GaN), with possible applications in e.g. photovoltaics. The number of publications on ALD was slowly increasing, approaching about 100 each year. A real boom in interest came with the development of deposition methods of thin films of high-k dielectrics. This research was motivated by a high leakage current in field-effect transistors with SiO2-based gate dielectrics. In 2007 Intel introduced a new generation of integrated circuits (ICs) with thin films of HfO2 used as gate isolating layers. In these and subsequent ICs, films of HfO2 are deposited by the ALD method. This is due to their unique properties. The introduction of ALD to the electronics industry led to a booming interest in the ALD growth method, with the number of publications increasing rapidly to well above 1000 each year. A number of new applications were proposed, as reflected in this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology. The included articles cover a wide range of possible applications—in microelectronics, transparent electronics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics and spintronics. Research papers and reviews on the basics of ALD growth are also included, reflecting a growing interest in precursor chemistry and growth

  8. Regional deposition of mometasone furoate nasal spray suspension in humans.

    PubMed

    Shah, Samir A; Berger, Robert L; McDermott, John; Gupta, Pranav; Monteith, David; Connor, Alyson; Lin, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Nasal deposition studies can demonstrate whether nasal sprays treating allergic rhinitis and polyposis reach the ciliated posterior nasal cavity, where turbinate inflammation and other pathology occurs. However, quantifying nasal deposition is challenging, because in vitro tests do not correlate to human nasal deposition; gamma scintigraphy studies are thus used. For valid data, the radiolabel must distribute, as the drug, into different-sized droplets, remain associated with the drug in the formulation after administration, and not alter its deposition. Some nasal deposition studies have demonstrated this using homogenous solutions. However, most commercial nasal sprays are heterogeneous suspensions. Using mometasone furoate nasal suspension (MFS), we developed a technique to validate radiolabel deposition as a surrogate for nasal cavity drug deposition and characterized regional deposition and nasal clearance in humans. Mometasone furoate (MF) formulation was spiked with diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid. Both unlabeled and radiolabeled formulations (n = 3) were sprayed into a regionally divided nasal cast. Drug deposition was quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography within each region; radiolabel deposition was determined by gamma camera. Healthy subjects (n = 12) were dosed and imaged for six hours. Scintigraphic images were coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans to quantify anterior and posterior nasal cavity deposition and mucociliary clearance. The ratio of radiolabel to unlabeled drug was 1.05 in the nasal cast and regionally appeared to match, indicating that in vivo radiolabel deposition could represent drug deposition. In humans, MFS delivered 86% (9.2) of metered dose to the nasal cavity, approximately 60% (9.1) of metered dose to the posterior nasal cavity. After 15 minutes, mucociliary clearance removed 59% of the initial radiolabel in the nasal cavity, consistent with clearance rates from the ciliated posterior surface. MFS

  9. Regional deposition of mometasone furoate nasal spray suspension in humans.

    PubMed

    Shah, S A; Berger, R L; McDermott, J; Gupta, P; Monteith, D; Connor, A; Lin, W

    2014-11-21

    Nasal deposition studies can demonstrate whether nasal sprays treating allergic rhinitis and polyposis reach the ciliated posterior nasal cavity, where turbinate inflammation and other pathology occurs. However, quantifying nasal deposition is challenging, because in vitro tests do not correlate to human nasal deposition; gamma scintigraphy studies are thus used. For valid data, the radiolabel must distribute, as the drug, into different-sized droplets, remain associated with the drug in the formulation after administration, and not alter its deposition. Some nasal deposition studies have demonstrated this using homogenous solutions. However, most commercial nasal sprays are heterogeneous suspensions. Using mometasone furoate nasal suspension (MFS), we developed a technique to validate radiolabel deposition as a surrogate for nasal cavity drug deposition and characterized regional deposition and nasal clearance in humans. Mometasone furoate (MF) formulation was spiked with diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid. Both unlabeled and radiolabeled formulations (n = 3) were sprayed into a regionally divided nasal cast. Drug deposition was quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography within each region; radiolabel deposition was determined by gamma camera. Healthy subjects (n = 12) were dosed and imaged for six hours. Scintigraphic images were coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans to quantify anterior and posterior nasal cavity deposition and mucociliary clearance. The ratio of radiolabel to unlabeled drug was 1.05 in the nasal cast and regionally appeared to match, indicating that in vivo radiolabel deposition could represent drug deposition. In humans, MFS delivered 86% (9.2) of metered dose to the nasal cavity, approximately 60% (9.1) of metered dose to the posterior nasal cavity. After 15 minutes, mucociliary clearance removed 59% of the initial radiolabel in the nasal cavity, consistent with clearance rates from the ciliated posterior surface. MFS

  10. 75 FR 20041 - Deposits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... transmission to (202) 906- 6518; or send an e-mail to [email protected] . OTS will post... DD implements the Truth in Savings Act, part of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement...

  11. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  12. Colorful Polar Layered Deposits

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-23

    The North Polar layered deposits provide a record of recent climate changes on Mars as seen by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. Color variations between layers are due to differences in composition of the dust.

  13. Vapor Deposition Rig

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-27

    The Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) Rig at NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig helps develop coatings for next-generation aircraft turbine components and create more efficient engines.

  14. E-Beam Written Computer Generated Holograms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    the V2 parabola is tested without aid of the computer generated hologram, and the interferogram of Figure 3-5a results. It shows about 40 waves of...bymricl crain Atso, whee PCGH ae • " in ihe lowret Thae vroush considerations wih respect t he degnos Thi mCHaeanis. cussed in the folowing siectionsuo.e...spacing of 0.5 has proven to be a greater challenge than achieving the correct milling depth, particularly for higher spatial frequency pat- terns

  15. Hydroxyapatite Deposition Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    site of HADD is the hip, where calcifications are usually found in the gluteus medius tendon or along the femur at various sites of tendinous ...characterized by deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in periarticular tissues. The deposits frequently occur in tendons near their osseous...attachments, most commonly involving the supraspinatus tendon . The etiology of HADD is unclear, but may be related to repetitive trauma or metabolic

  16. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  17. Precambrian Sulphide Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    1984-04-01

    This book is dedicated to Howard S. Robinson, who was born and educated in the United States, but who spent his professional career in Canada with McIntyre Porcupine Mines, concentrating on Precambrian mineral deposits. Although his career in mineral exploration was distinguished, his major contribution to earth science was probably as one of the founders of the Geological Association of Canada, an institution to which he made a bequest in his will. With this background, the strong emphasis on Canadian Precambrian mineral deposits should come as no surprise; of the 23 papers in this book, 21 are solely or primarily devoted to Canadian deposits. The two exceptions—those describing the Balmat, N.Y., zinc mines (at times the largest zinc producer in the United States) and the Crandon, Wisconsin, volcanogenic zinc-copper massive-sulfide deposit (the largest deposit of its kind found in the 1970s)—are each within a couple of hundred kilometers of the Canadian border. Although the title of the book is more expansive than the actual topics discussed, Canada is rich in Precambrian rocks and ore bodies, and Canadian scientists have been especially alert to tectonic influences in the formation of mineral deposits. These features, plus the fact that the country contains a very well exposed expanse of Archean rocks which is the largest in the world, facilitate the study of early crustal evolution and make the book of particular interest to geophysicists.

  18. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  19. IS NITROGEN DEPOSITION ALTERING THE NITROGEN STATUS OF NORTHEASTERN FORESTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews literature and compiles existing data to address the question "Is N deposition altering the N status in Northeastern forests?" Using correlational techniques and large sample size, three different categories of indicators appear to give different results. The...

  20. Palaeoclimate determination from cave calcite deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascoyne, M.

    Calcite deposits formed in limestone caves have been found to be an excellent repository of palaeoclimatic data for terrestrial environments. The very presence of a relict deposit indicates non-glacial conditions at the time of formation, and both 14C and uranium-series methods can be used to date the deposit and, hence, the age of these climatic conditions. Variations in 13C and 18O content of the calcite, in 2H and 18O content of fluid inclusions, in trace element concentrations and, more recently, in pollen assemblages trapped in the calcite, are all potentially available as synchronous palaeoclimatic indicators. Previous work has tended to concentrate mainly on abundance of deposits as a palaeoclimatic indicator for the last 300,000 years. This literature is briefly reviewed here, together with the theory and methods of analysis of the U-series and stable isotopic techniques. The combined use of U-series ages and 13C and 18O variations in cave calcites illustrates the potential for palaeoclimate determination. Previously unpublished results of stable isotopic variations in dated calcites from caves in northern England indicate the level of detail of stable isotopic variations and time resolution that can be obtained, and the complexity of interpretation that may arise. Tentative palaeoclimatic signals for the periods 90-125 ka and 170-300 ka are presented. More comprehensive studies are needed in future work, especially in view of the difficulty in obtaining suitable deposits and the ethics of cave deposits conservation.

  1. Chemical bath deposited and dip coating deposited CuS thin films - Structure, Raman spectroscopy and surface study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailor, Jiten P.; Khimani, Ankurkumar J.; Chaki, Sunil H.

    2018-05-01

    The crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy and surface microtopography study on as-deposited CuS thin films were carried out. Thin films deposited by two techniques of solution growth were studied. The thin films used in the present study were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and dip coating deposition techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of both the as-deposited thin films showed that both the films possess covellite phase of CuS and hexagonal unit cell structure. The determined lattice parameters of both the films are in agreement with the standard JCPDS as well as reported data. The crystallite size determined by Scherrer's equation and Hall-Williamsons relation using XRD data for both the as-deposited thin films showed that the respective values were in agreement with each other. The ambient Raman spectroscopy of both the as-deposited thin films showed major emission peaks at 474 cm-1 and a minor emmision peaks at 265 cm-1. The observed Raman peaks matched with the covellite phase of CuS. The atomic force microscopy of both the as-deposited thin films surfaces showed dip coating thin film to be less rough compared to CBD deposited thin film. All the obtained results are presented and deliberated in details.

  2. New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.

    SciTech Connect

    Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.

    2012-03-13

    resolution better than 25 nm. Limiting factors for Stardust STXM analyses were self-imposed limits of photon dose due to radiation damage concerns, and significant attenuation of <1500 eV X-rays by {approx}80{micro}m thick, {approx}25 mg/cm{sup 3} density silica aerogel capture medium. In practice, the ISPE team characterized the major, light elements using STXM (O, Mg, Al, Si) and the heavier minor and trace elements using SXRF. The two data sets overlapped only with minor Fe and Ni ({approx}1% mass abundance), providing few quantitative cross-checks. New improved standards for cross calibration are essential for consortium-based analyses of Stardust interstellar and cometary particles, IDPs. Indeed, they have far reaching application across the whole synchrotron-based analytical community. We have synthesized three ALD multilayers simultaneously on silicon nitride membranes and silicon and characterized them using RBS (on Si), XRF (on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and STXM/XAS (holey Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). The systems we have started to work with are Al-Zn-Fe and Y-Mg-Er. We have found these ALD multi-layers to be uniform at {micro}m- to nm scales, and have found excellent consistency between four analytical techniques so far. The ALD films can also be used as a standard for e-beam instruments, eg., TEM EELS or EDX. After some early issues with the consistency of coatings to the back-side of the membrane windows, we are confident to be able to show multi-analytical agreement to within 10%. As the precision improves, we can use the new standards to verify or improve the tabulated cross-sections.« less

  3. Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Desorption of Molecular Contaminants Deposited on Quartz Crystal Microbalances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albyn, Keith; Burns, Dewitt

    2006-01-01

    Recent quartz crystal microbalance measurements made in the Marshall Space Flight Center, Photo-Deposition Facility, for several materials, recorded a significant loss of deposited contaminants when the deposition surface of the microbalance was illuminated by a deuterium lamp. These measurements differ from observations made by other investigators in which the rate of deposition increased significantly when the deposition surface was illuminated with vacuum ultraviolet radiation. These observations suggest that the accelerated deposition of molecular contaminants on optically sensitive surfaces is dependant upon the contaminant being deposited and must be addressed during the materials selection process by common material screening techniques.

  4. Heavy metals in atmospheric surrogate dry deposition

    PubMed

    Morselli; Cecchini; Grandi; Iannuccilli; Barilli; Olivieri

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a methodological approach for the assessment of the amount of surrogate dry deposition of several toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) associated with atmospheric particulate matter at ground level. The objectives of the study were twofold: i) the evaluation of several techniques for the digestion of dry deposition samples for trace metal analysis; ii) the comparison of the results from two samplers with different collecting surfaces. A dry solid surface sampler (DRY sampler, Andersen--USA) and a water layer surface sampler (DAS sampler--MTX Italy) were employed. The samples were collected over a one-year period in an urban site of Bologna (northern Italy). A description is given of the complete procedure, from sampling to data elaboration, including sample storage, digestion and analytical methods. According to the results obtained with three different digestion techniques (Teflon bomb, microwave digester and Teflon flask with vapour cooling system), the highest recovery rate was achieved by the Teflon bomb procedure employing an NBS 1648 Standard Reference Material; 90-95% of the elements considered were recovered by dissolution in a pressurized Teflon bomb with an HNO3-HF mixture. Given these results, the technique was adopted for dry deposition sample digestion. On the basis of the amount of heavy metals measured as monthly deposition fluxes (microg/m2), the collecting efficiency of the DAS sampler for a number of elements was found to be as much as two to three times greater than that of the DRY sampler.

  5. Becquerel Crater Deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 28 May 2002) The finely layered deposit in Becquerel crater, seen in the center of this THEMIS image, is slowly being eroded away by the action of windblown sand. Dark sand from a source north of the bright deposit is collecting along its northern edge, forming impressive barchan style dunes. These vaguely boomerang-shaped dunes form with their two points extending in the downwind direction, demonstrating that the winds capable of moving sand grains come from the north. Grains that leave the dunes climb the eroding stair-stepped layers, collecting along the cliff faces before reaching the crest of the deposit. Once there, the sand grains are unimpeded and continue down the south side of the deposit without any significant accumulation until they fall off the steep cliffs of the southern margin. The boat-hull shaped mounds and ridges of bright material called yardangs form in response to the scouring action of the migrating sand. To the west, the deposit has thinned enough that the barchan dunes extend well into the deeply eroded north-south trending canyons. Sand that reaches the south side collects and reforms barchan dunes with the same orientation as those on the north side of the deposit. Note the abrupt transition between the bright material and the dark crater floor on the southern margin. Steep cliffs are present with no indication of rubble from the obvious erosion that produced them. The lack of debris at the base of the cliffs is evidence that the bright material is readily broken up into particles that can be transported away by the wind. The geological processes that are destroying the Becquerel crater deposit appear active today. But it is also possible that they are dormant, awaiting a particular set of climatic conditions that produces the right winds and perhaps even temperatures to allow the erosion to continue.

  6. Improving X-Ray Optics via Differential Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Ramsey, Brian D.; Atkins, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Differential deposition, a post-fabrication figure correction technique, has the potential to significantly improve the imaging quality of grazing-incidence X-ray optics. DC magnetron sputtering is used to selectively coat the mirror in order to minimize the figure deviations. Custom vacuum chambers have been developed at NASA MSFC that will enable the implementation of the deposition on X-ray optics. A factor of two improvement has been achieved in the angular resolution of the full-shell X-ray optics with first stage correction of differential deposition. Current efforts are focused on achieving higher improvements through efficient implementation of differential deposition.

  7. Studies of mist deposition for the formation of quantum dot CdSe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, S. C.; Shanmugasundaram, K.; Ramani, S.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, F.; Xu, J.; Mohney, S. E.; Zhang, Q.; Kshirsagar, A.; Ruzyllo, J.

    2009-10-01

    Films of CdSe(ZnS) colloidal nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) were deposited on bare silicon, glass and polymer coated silicon using mist deposition. This effort is a part of an exploratory investigation in which this deposition technique is studied for the first time as a method to form semiconductor NQD films. The process parameters, including deposition time, solution concentration and electric field, were varied to change the thickness of the deposited film. Blanket films and films deposited through a shadow mask were created to investigate the method's ability to pattern films during the deposition process. The differences between these deposition modes in terms of film morphology were observed. Overall, the results show that mist deposition of quantum dots is a viable method for creating thin, patterned quantum dot films using colloidal solution as the precursor. It is concluded that this technique shows very good promise for quantum dot (light emitting diode, LED) fabrication.

  8. Breakthrough to Non-Vacuum Deposition of Single-Crystal, Ultra-Thin, Homogeneous Nanoparticle Layers: A Better Alternative to Chemical Bath Deposition and Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yu-Kuang; Liu, Yung-Tsung; Hsieh, Dan-Hua; Shen, Tien-Lin; Hsieh, Ming-Yang; Tzou, An-Jye; Chen, Shih-Chen; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Chan, Sheng-Wen; Shen, Yen-Ping; Cheng, Shun-Jen; Chen, Chyong-Hua; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung; Chen, Hao-Ming; Kuo, Shou-Yi; Charlton, Martin D. B.; Hsieh, Tung-Po; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Most thin-film techniques require a multiple vacuum process, and cannot produce high-coverage continuous thin films with the thickness of a few nanometers on rough surfaces. We present a new ”paradigm shift” non-vacuum process to deposit high-quality, ultra-thin, single-crystal layers of coalesced sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) with controllable thickness down to a few nanometers, based on thermal decomposition. This provides high-coverage, homogeneous thickness, and large-area deposition over a rough surface, with little material loss or liquid chemical waste, and deposition rates of 10 nm/min. This technique can potentially replace conventional thin-film deposition methods, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) as used by the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cell industry for decades. We demonstrate 32% improvement of CIGS thin-film solar cell efficiency in comparison to reference devices prepared by conventional CBD deposition method by depositing the ZnS NPs buffer layer using the new process. The new ZnS NPs layer allows reduction of an intrinsic ZnO layer, which can lead to severe shunt leakage in case of a CBD buffer layer. This leads to a 65% relative efficiency increase. PMID:28383488

  9. Mechanical characteristics of a tool steel layer deposited by using direct energy deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Gyeong Yun; Shin, Gwang Yong; Lee, Eun Mi; Shim, Do Sik; Lee, Ki Yong; Yoon, Hi-Seak; Kim, Myoung Ho

    2017-07-01

    This study focuses on the mechanical characteristics of layered tool steel deposited using direct energy deposition (DED) technology. In the DED technique, a laser beam bonds injected metal powder and a thin layer of substrate via melting. In this study, AISI D2 substrate was hardfaced with AISI H13 and M2 metal powders for mechanical testing. The mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of each specimen were investigated via microstructure observation and hardness, wear, and impact tests. The obtained characteristics were compared with those of heat-treated tool steel. The microstructures of the H13- and M2-deposited specimens show fine cellular-dendrite solidification structures due to melting and subsequent rapid cooling. Moreover, the cellular grains of the deposited M2 layer were smaller than those of the H13 structure. The hardness and wear resistance were most improved in the M2-deposited specimen, yet the H13-deposited specimen had higher fracture toughness than the M2-deposited specimen and heat-treated D2.

  10. Characterization of electrochemically deposited polypyrrole using magnetoelastic material transduction elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ersoz, Arzu; Ball, J. Christopher; Grimes, Craig A.; Bachas, Leonidas G.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetoelastic alloy films have been used as a working electrode in an electrochemical cell. This material allows magnetic interrogation of electrochemical deposition. This technique was used to monitor the electrochemical deposition of polypyrrole by multisweep (CV) and potentiostatic methods. Since the determination of the mass-sensitive magnetoelastic film's resonance frequency is based on magnetic transduction, an inherent advantage of this method is that it requires no electrical connections other than the working lead of the potentiostat. Increases in pyrrole deposition correlated with a decrease in the peak resonance frequency of the magnetoelastic alloy. This technique provides a novel approach by which one can monitor electrochemical processes.

  11. Venus - Landslide Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft has observed remnant landslide deposits apparently resulting from the collapse of volcanic structures. This image, centered at 45.2 degrees south latitude, 201.4 degrees east longitude, shows a collapse deposit 70 kilometers (43 miles) across. The bright, highly textured deposit near the center of the image probably consists of huge blocks of fractured volcanic rock, many as large as several hundred meters across. A remnant of the volcano itself, about 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) across, is seen at the center of the image. The distorted radar appearance of the volcano is a result of extremely steep slopes on the 'scars' from which the landslide material originated. A field of numerous small volcanic domes can be seen in the northern half of the image. The bright irregular lineaments trending to the north-northwest are ridges caused by regional tectonic deformation of the upper layers of the Venusian crust.

  12. Microgravity Manufacturing Via Fused Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. G.; Griffin, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing polymer hardware during space flight is currently outside the state of the art. A process called fused deposition modeling (FDM) can make this approach a reality by producing net-shaped components of polymer materials directly from a CAE model. FDM is a rapid prototyping process developed by Stratasys, Inc.. which deposits a fine line of semi-molten polymer onto a substrate while moving via computer control to form the cross-sectional shape of the part it is building. The build platen is then lowered and the process is repeated, building a component directly layer by layer. This method enables direct net-shaped production of polymer components directly from a computer file. The layered manufacturing process allows for the manufacture of complex shapes and internal cavities otherwise impossible to machine. This task demonstrated the benefits of the FDM technique to quickly and inexpensively produce replacement components or repair broken hardware in a Space Shuttle or Space Station environment. The intent of the task was to develop and fabricate an FDM system that was lightweight, compact, and required minimum power consumption to fabricate ABS plastic hardware in microgravity. The final product of the shortened task turned out to be a ground-based breadboard device, demonstrating miniaturization capability of the system.

  13. Forming aspheric optics by controlled deposition

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, A.M.

    1998-04-28

    An aspheric optical element is disclosed formed by depositing material onto a spherical surface of an optical element by controlled deposition to form an aspheric surface of desired shape. A reflecting surface, single or multi-layer, can then be formed on the aspheric surface by evaporative or sputtering techniques. Aspheric optical elements are suitable for deep ultra-violet (UV) and x-ray wavelengths. The reflecting surface may, for example, be a thin ({approx}100 nm) layer of aluminum, or in some cases the deposited modifying layer may function as the reflecting surface. For certain applications, multi-layer reflective surfaces may be utilized, such as chromium-carbon or tungsten-carbon multi-layer, with the number of layers and thickness being determined by the intended application. 4 figs.

  14. Forming aspheric optics by controlled deposition

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.

    1998-01-01

    An aspheric optical element formed by depositing material onto a spherical surface of an optical element by controlled deposition to form an aspheric surface of desired shape. A reflecting surface, single or multi-layer, can then be formed on the aspheric surface by evaporative or sputtering techniques. Aspheric optical elements are suitable for deep ultra-violet (UV) and x-ray wavelengths. The reflecting surface may, for example, be a thin (.about.100 nm) layer of aluminum, or in some cases the deposited modifying layer may function as the reflecting surface. For certain applications, multi-layer reflective surfaces may be utilized, such as chromium-carbon or tungsten-carbon multi-layer, with the number of layers and thickness being determined by the intended application.

  15. Gold in placer deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeend, Warren; Shawe, Daniel R.; Wier, Kenneth L.

    1989-01-01

    Man most likely first obtained gold from placer deposits, more than 6,000 years ago. Placers account for more than two-thirds of the total world gold supply, and roughly half of that mined in the States of California, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho.Placer deposits result from weathering and release of gold from lode deposits, transportation of the gold, and concentration of the gold dominantly in stream gravels. Unless preserved by burial, a placer subsequently may be eroded, and either dispersed or reconcentrated.California has produced more than 40 million troy ounces of gold from placers, both modern and fossil (Tertiary). The source of the great bulk of the gold is numerous quartz veins and mineralized zones of the Mother Lode and related systems in the western Sierra Nevada region. The gold-bearing lodes were emplaced in Carboniferous and Jurassic metamorphic rocks intruded by small bodies of Jurassic and Cretaceous igneous rocks. Mineralization occurred probably in Late Cretaceous time. Significant amounts of placer gold also were mined along the Salmon and Trinity Rivers in northern California. Source of the gold is lode deposits in Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamorphic rocks that were intruded by Mesozoic igneous rocks.Alaska has produced roughly 21 million ounces of gold from placer deposits. Most (about 13 million ounces) has come from the interior region, including 7,600,000 ounces from the Fairbanks district and 1,300,000 ounces from the Iditarod district. Lode sources are believed to be mostly quartz veins in Precambrian or Paleozoic metamorphic rocks intruded by small igneous bodies near Fairbanks, and shear zones in Tertiary(?) quartz monzonite stocks at Iditarod. The Seward Peninsula has produced more than 6 million ounces of placer gold, including about 4,000,000 ounces from the Nome district. Most of the gold was derived from raised beach deposits. Source of the gold probably is Tertiary-mineralized faults and joints in metamorphic rocks of late

  16. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  17. The influence of spray properties on intranasal deposition.

    PubMed

    Foo, Mow Yee; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Su, Wei-Chung; Donovan, Maureen D

    2007-01-01

    While numerous devices, formulations, and spray characteristics have been shown to influence nasal deposition efficiency, few studies have attempted to identify which of these interacting factors plays the greatest role in nasal spray deposition. The deposition patterns of solutions with a wide range of surface tensions and viscosities were measured using an MRI-derived nasal cavity replica. The resulting spray plumes had angles between 29 degrees and 80 degrees and contained droplet sizes (D(v50)) from 37-157 microm. Each formulation contained rhodamine 590 as a fluorescent marker for detection. Administration angles of 30 degrees , 40 degrees , or 50 degrees above horizontal were tested to investigate the role of user technique on nasal deposition. The amount of spray deposited within specific regions of the nasal cavity was determined by disassembling the replica and measuring the amount of rhodamine retained in each section. Most of the spray droplets were deposited onto the anterior region of the model, but sprays with small plume angles were capable of reaching the turbinate region with deposition efficiencies approaching 90%. Minimal dependence on droplet size, viscosity, or device was observed. Changes in inspiratory flow rate (0-60 L/min) had no significant effect on turbinate deposition efficiency. Both plume angle and administration angle were found to be important factors in determining deposition efficiency. For administration angles of 40 degrees or 50 degrees , maximal turbinate deposition efficiency (30-50%) occurred with plume angles of 55-65 degrees , whereas a 30 degrees administration angle gave an approximately 75% deposition efficiency for similar plume angles. Deposition efficiencies of approximately 90% could be achieved with plume angles <30 degrees using 30 degrees administration angles. Both the plume angle and administration angle are critical factors in determining deposition efficiency, while many other spray parameters, including

  18. Exploring and Monitoring of Methane Hydrate Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudac, D.; Obhođaš, J.; Nađ, K.; Valković, V.

    2018-01-01

    Relatively recently, in the last 20 years, it was discovered that methane hydrate (MH) deposits are globally distributed in the permafrost and oceans. Before 1965 when first deposits were discovered in nature, it was believed that MH can occur only in laboratory conditions or in vast parts of the Universe. Presently it is presumed that this solid crystalline compounds in which CH4 molecules occupies the water ice lattices (nominal chemical formula of MH is C4H62O23) can serve as an energy source favorably to the all of the world remaining conventional hydrocarbon sources. The worldwide estimates of MH deposits range from 2x1014 m3 to 3.053x1018 cubic meters. This uncertainty partly results from our limitations in geological understanding of the MH deposits, which is due to the relatively bad quality of data obtained by presently available seismic and electromagnetic techniques. Moreover, MH deposits can become vulnerable to climate changes, which were already occurring in geological past whit tremendous consequences for the global life on Earth. Thus, further development of advanced techniques is needed to enhance our abilities to better characterize, quantify and monitor the MH deposits. In the work presented 14 MeV neutrons and associated alpha particle imaging (API) where used to quantify the amount of MH in the sample. Samples were prepared from sea sediment, quartz sand and MH simulant. MH simulant with chemical formula C4H46O23 was made from sucrose (25 % by mass) and water. MH quantity was measured by measuring the carbon content in the sample [1-8].

  19. 75 FR 34533 - Deposits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... collection request (ICR) described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for..., Attention: Desk Officer for OTS, U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 725 17th Street, NW., Room 10235... statement the institution sends to the consumer. Regulation DD contains rules for advertisements of deposit...

  20. Chapter 5: Acid deposition

    Treesearch

    Cliff F. Hunt; Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides information about the atmospheric conditions in and near the national forest in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark and St. Francis in Arkansas. This report includes information about particulate matter, visibility, ozone concentrations, and acid deposition in the Ozark...

  1. Melas Chasma Deposits

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-09

    Erosion of the interior layered deposits of Melas Chasma, part of the huge Valles Marineris canyon system, has produced cliffs with examples of spur and gulley morphology and exposures of finely layered sediments, as seen in this NASA Mars Odyssey image.

  2. "Total Deposition (TDEP) Maps"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an update on the use of a hybrid methodology that relies on measured values from national monitoring networks and modeled values from CMAQ to produce of maps of total deposition for use in critical loads and other ecological assessments. Additionally, c...

  3. APS deposition facility upgrades and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Ray; Shi, Bing; Erdmann, Mark; Izzo, Scott; Assoufid, Lahsen; Goetze, Kurt; Mooney, Tim; Lauer, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has recently invested resources to upgrade or replace aging deposition systems with modern equipment. Of the three existing deposition systems, one will receive an upgrade, while two are being replaced. A design which adds a three-substrate planetary for the APS rotary deposition system is almost complete. The replacement for the APS large deposition system, dubbed the "Modular Deposition System", has been conceptually designed and is in the procurement process. Eight cathodes will sputter horizontally on mirrors up to 1.5 meters in length. This new instrument is designed to interface with ion-milling instruments and various metrology equipment for ion-beam figuring. A third linear machine, called the APS Profile Coating System, has two cathodes and is designed to accept substrates up to 200mm in length. While this machine is primarily intended for fabrication of figured KB mirrors using the profile-coating technique, it has also been used to produce multilayer monochromators for beamline use.

  4. Background and survey of bioreplication techniques.

    PubMed

    Pulsifer, Drew Patrick; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2011-09-01

    Bioreplication is the direct reproduction of a biological structure in order to realize at least one specific functionality. Current bioreplication techniques include the sol-gel technique, atomic layer deposition, physical vapor deposition, and imprint lithography and casting. The combined use of a focused ion beam and a scanning electron microscope could develop into a bioreplication technique as well. Some of these techniques are more suitable for reproducing surface features, others for bulk three-dimensional structures. Industrial upscaling appears possible only for imprint lithography and casting (which can be replaced by stamping).

  5. Low-Damage Sputter Deposition on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ching-Tzu; Casu, Emanuele; Gajek, Marcin; Raoux, Simone

    2013-03-01

    Despite its versatility and prevalence in the microelectronics industry, sputter deposition has seen very limited applications for graphene-based electronics. We have systematically investigated the sputtering induced graphene defects and identified the reflected high-energy neutrals of the sputtering gas as the primary cause of damage. In this talk, we introduce a novel sputtering technique that is shown to dramatically reduce bombardment of the fast neutrals and improve the structural integrity of the underlying graphene layer. We also demonstrate that sputter deposition and in-situ oxidation of 1 nm Al film at elevated temperatures yields homogeneous, fully covered oxide films with r.m.s. roughness much less than 1 monolayer, which shows the potential of using such technique for gate oxides, tunnel barriers, and multilayer fabrication in a wide range of graphene devices.

  6. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Improved CVD Techniques for Depositing Passivation Layers of ICs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    Calculations .......................... 228 4. Precision ........... ....... ........................ 229 5. Optional Measurements of Dense Oxide and Aluminum 4...47. Typical measurements of phosphorus K. net radiation intensity as a function of the calculated phosphorus concentrations • * • 124 48. Effect of... calculated by measuring the de- formation of a substrate, usually in the form of a beam, or a circular disc. "In the beam bending method, stress is

  8. Deposition and post-processing techniques for transparent conductive films

    SciTech Connect

    Christoforo, Mark Greyson; Mehra, Saahil; Salleo, Alberto

    2017-07-04

    In one embodiment, a method is provided for fabrication of a semitransparent conductive mesh. A first solution having conductive nanowires suspended therein and a second solution having nanoparticles suspended therein are sprayed toward a substrate, the spraying forming a mist. The mist is processed, while on the substrate, to provide a semitransparent conductive material in the form of a mesh having the conductive nanowires and nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are configured and arranged to direct light passing through the mesh. Connections between the nanowires provide conductivity through the mesh.

  9. CARS technique for geological exploration of hydrocarbons deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhevlakov, A. P.; Bespalov, Victor; Elizarov, V. V.; Grishkanich, A. S.; Kascheev, S. V.; Makarov, E. A.; Bogoslovsky, S. A.; Il'inskiy, A. A.

    2014-10-01

    We developed a Raman lidar with ultraspectral resolution for automatic airborne monitoring of pipeline leaks and for oil and gas exploration. Experiments were carried out under the CARS circuit. Minimal concentrations of 200 ppb of heavy hydrocarbon gas have been remotely measured in laboratory tests. Test flights indicate that a sensitivity of 6 ppm for methane and 2 ppm for hydrogen sulfide has been reached for leakage detection. As estimations have shown the reliability of heavy hydrocarbon gas detection by the integration method of seismic prospecting and remote laser sensing in CARS circuit can exceed 80%.

  10. Nanolaminates with Novel Properties Fabricated Using Atomic Layer Deposition Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Enhance X-Ray Reflectivity of Polysilicon Micro-Mirrors at 1.54 A Wavelength", Proceedings of SPIE 5720, 241-251 (2005). 20. D.C. Miller, C.F...diodes ( OLEDs ). This project has demonstrated that the A120 3 ALD gas diffusion barrier helps to prevent H20 and 02 gases from diffusing through the

  11. Electrical Resistivity Technique for Groundwater Exploration in Quaternary Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziman, M.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Fahmy, K. A.; Faizal, T. B. M.; Sabariah, M.; Ambak, K.; Ismail, M. A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The water security for University Tun Hussein Onn (UTHM) campus was initiated to find alternative sources of water supply. This research began with finding the soil profiles using the geophysical electrical resistivity method across UTHM campus. The resistivity results were calibrated with previous borehole data as well as via groundwater drilling. The drilling work was discovered the groundwater aquifer characterized by the fractured fresh igneous rock at a depth between 43 meter and 55 meter. Further drilling was continued until 100 meter in depth. However, due to not encounter a new rock fractured zone causes the groundwater quantity did not improve even was drilled up to 100 meter depth. In the perspective of water resources, it showed a good potential for water resources for local usages at 104 m3 per day. In addition, the groundwater quality showed the water treatment was required to fulfil the criterion of the national drinking water standards. This study concluded that the first layer of fractured bedrock at UTHM was able to produce significant amounts of groundwater for local consumption usage.

  12. Comparison of stochastic lung deposition fractions with experimental data.

    PubMed

    Majid, Hussain; Hofmann, Werner; Winkler-Heil, Renate

    2012-04-01

    Deposition fractions of inhaled particles predicted by different computational models vary with respect to physical and biological factors and mathematical modeling techniques. These models must be validated by comparison with available experimental data. Experimental data supplied by different deposition studies with surrogate airway models or lung casts were used in this study to evaluate the stochastic deposition model Inhalation, Deposition and Exhalation of Aerosols in the Lung at the airway generation level. Furthermore, different analytical equations derived for the three major deposition mechanisms, diffusion, impaction, and sedimentation, were applied to different cast or airway models to quantify their effect on calculated particle deposition fractions. The experimental results for ultrafine particles (0.00175 and 0.01) were found to be in close agreement with the stochastic model predictions; however, for coarse particles (3 and 8 μm), experimental deposition fractions became higher with increasing flow rate. An overall fair agreement among the calculated deposition fractions for the different cast geometries was found. However, alternative deposition equations resulted in up to 300% variation in predicted deposition fractions, although all equations predicted the same trends as functions of particle diameter and breathing conditions. From this comparative study, it can be concluded that structural differences in lung morphologies among different individuals are responsible for the apparent variability in particle deposition in each generation. The use of different deposition equations yields varying deposition results caused primarily by (i) different lung morphometries employed in their derivation and the choice of the central bifurcation zone geometry, (ii) the assumption of specific flow profiles, and (iii) different methods used in the derivation of these equations.

  13. Thermal Stability of Jet Fuels: Kinetics of Forming Deposit Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naegeli, David W.

    1997-01-01

    The focus of this study was on the autoxidation kinetics of deposit precursor formation in jet fuels. The objectives were: (1) to demonstrate that laser-induced fluorescence is a viable kinetic tool for measuring rates of deposit precursor formation in jet fuels; (2) to determine global rate expressions for the formation of thermal deposit precursors in jet fuels; and (3) to better understand the chemical mechanism of thermal stability. The fuels were isothermally stressed in small glass ampules in the 120 to 180 C range. Concentrations of deposit precursor, hydroperoxide and oxygen consumption were measured over time in the thermally stressed fuels. Deposit precursors were measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), hydroperoxides using a spectrophotometric technique, and oxygen consumption by the pressure loss in the ampule. The expressions, I.P. = 1.278 x 10(exp -11)exp(28,517.9/RT) and R(sub dp) = 2.382 x 10(exp 17)exp(-34,369.2/RT) for the induction period, I.P. and rate of deposit precursor formation R(sub dp), were determined for Jet A fuel. The results of the study support a new theory of deposit formation in jet fuels, which suggest that acid catalyzed ionic reactions compete with free radical reactions to form deposit precursors. The results indicate that deposit precursors form only when aromatics are present in the fuel. Traces of sulfur reduce the rate of autoxidation but increase the yield of deposit precursor. Free radical chemistry is responsible for hydroperoxide formation and the oxidation of sulfur compounds to sulfonic acids. Phenols are then formed by the acid catalyzed decomposition of benzylic hydroperoxides, and deposit precursors are produced by the reaction of phenols with aldehydes, which forms a polymer similar to Bakelite. Deposit precursors appear to have a phenolic resin-like structure because the LIF spectra of the deposit precursors were similar to that of phenolic resin dissolved in TAM.

  14. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... as a potential global deposit insurer, preserve confidence in the FDIC deposit insurance system, and... the United States.\\2\\ The FDIC generally pays out deposit insurance on the next business day after a... since 2001 and total approximately $1 trillion today. In many cases, these branches do not engage in...

  15. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced itmore » has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.« less

  16. Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Peterson, E.K.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves was investigated by a labelling technique using protein-bound iodine125 and food dye. Wolves deposited secretions on some but not all scats. Adult males, especially the alpha male, deposited anal-sac secretions more frequently while defecating than did females or juveniles. Secretions sometimes also were deposited independently of defecation, suggesting a dual role in communication by these substances.

  17. Short review on chemical bath deposition of thin film and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Mugle, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjayforu@gmail.com; Jadhav, Ghanshyam, E-mail: ghjadhav@rediffmail.com

    2016-05-06

    This reviews the theory of early growth of the thin film using chemical deposition methods. In particular, it critically reviews the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for preparation of thin films. The different techniques used for characterizations of the chemically films such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Electrical conductivity and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are discussed. Survey shows the physical and chemical properties solely depend upon the time of deposition, temperature of deposition.

  18. Sedimentary Deposits within Ius Chasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-15

    Sedimentary deposits are common within Valles Marineris. Most larger chasmata contain kilometer-thick light-toned layered deposits composed of sulfates. However, some of the chasmata, like Ius Chasma shown in this image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, lack these deposits or have much thinner deposits. The light-toned deposits in Ius Chasma are observed both along the floor and inner wallrock materials. Some of the light-toned deposits appear to post-date formation of the chasma floor, whereas other deposits appear to lie beneath wallrock materials, indicating they are older. By examining the stratigraphy using digital terrain models and 3D images, it should be possible to decipher the relative ages of the different geologic units. CRISM data may also provide insight into the mineralogy, which will tell scientists about the aqueous conditions that emplaced the light-toned deposits. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19855

  19. Pulsed laser deposition of plasmonic nanostructured gold on flexible transparent polymers at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Ronán; Hughes, Cian; Bagga, Komal; Stalcup, Apryll; Vázquez, Mercedes; Brabazon, Dermot

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we outline a novel technique for the deposition of nanostructured thin films utilizing a modified form of pulsed laser deposition (PLD). We demonstrate confined atmospheric PLD (CAP) for the deposition of gold on cyclic olefin polymer substrates. The deposition process is a simplified form of conventional PLD, with deposition conducted under atmospheric conditions and the substrate and target in close proximity. It was found that this confinement results in the deposition of nanostructured thin films on the substrate. Infrared spectroscopy showed no significant change of polymer surface chemistry as a result of the deposition process, and optical spectroscopy revealed plasmonic behavior of the resulting thin film. The effect of laser fluence on the deposition process was also examined with more uniform films deposited at higher fluences.

  20. Aerosol deposition on plant leaves

    Treesearch

    James B. Wedding; Roger W. Carlson; James J. Stukel; Fakhri A. Bazzaz

    1976-01-01

    An aerosol generator and wind tunnel system designed for use in aerosol deposition is described. Gross deposition on rough pubescent leaves was nearly 7 times greater than on smooth, waxy leaves. Results suggest that aerosol deposition, on a per unit area basis, for single horizontal streamlining leaves is similar to that for arrays of leaves under similar flow...

  1. Mechanism of deposit formation on fuel-wetted metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Stavinoha, L.L.; Westbrook, S.R.; McInnis, L.A.

    1995-05-01

    Experiments were performed in a Single-Tube Heat Exchanger (STHE) apparatus and a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) configured and operated to meet Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT) ASTM D 3241 requirements. The HLPS-JFTOT heater tubes used were 1018 mild steel, 316 stainless steel (SS), 304 stainless steel (SS), and 304 SS tubes coated with aluminum, magnesium, gold, and copper. A low-sulfur Jet A fuel with a breakpoint temperature of 254{degrees}C was used to create deposits on the heater tubes at temperatures of 300{degrees}C, 340{degrees}C, and 380{degrees}C. Deposit thickness was measured by dielectric breakdown voltage and Auger ion milling. Pronouncedmore » differences between the deposit thickness measuring techniques suggested that both the Auger milling rate and the dielectric strength of the deposit may be affected by deposit morphology/composition (such as metal ions that may have become included in the bulk of the deposit). Carbon burnoff data were obtained as a means of judging the validity of DMD-derived deposit evaluations. ESCA data suggest that the thinnest deposit was on the magnesium-coated test tube. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photographs showed marked variations in the deposit morphology and the results suggested that surface composition has a significant effect on the mechanism of deposition. The most dramatic effect observed was that the bulk of deposits moved to tube locations of lower temperature as the maximum temperature of the tube was increased from 300{degrees} to 380{degrees}C, also verified in a single-tube heat exchanger. The results indicate that the deposition rate and quantity at elevated temperatures is not completely temperature dependent, but is limited by the concentration of dissolved oxygen and/or reactive components in the fuel over a temperature range.« less

  2. Gigantic landslides versus glacial deposits: on origin of large hummock deposits in Alai Valley, Northern Pamir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznichenko, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    deposits. Here are presented a new data on: parameters, extent and probable source for Lenin rock avalanche, travelled 24 km from the back wall of the Lenin Glacier over the glacial Achiktash hummock deposit covering more than 35 km2; updated data on Koman rock avalanche deposit, such as its extend and source; the first reconstruction of the Achiktash glacial material deposition with proposed landscape evolution during recent Quaternary in respect to the large landslide in the catchment. Hewitt, K., 1999. Quaternary moraines vs. catastrophic rock avalanches in the Karakoram Himalaya, Northern Pakistan. Quaternary Research, v. 51, p. 220-237. Reznichenko, N.V., Davies, T.R.H., Shulmeister, J. and Larsen S.H, 2012. A new technique for identifying rock-avalanche-sourced sediment in moraines and some paleoclimatic implications. Geology, v. 40, p. 319-322.

  3. Deposition of zinc sulfide thin films by chemical bath process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladeji, Isaiah O.; Chow, Lee

    1996-11-01

    Deposition of high quality zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film over a large area is required if it is to be effectively used in electroluminescent devices, solar cells, and other optoelectronic devices. Of all deposition techniques, chemical bath deposition (CBD) is the least costly technique that meets the above requirements. Recently it is found that the growth of ZnS film, of thickness less than 100 nm in a single dip, by CBD is facilitated by the use of ammonia and hydrazine as complexing agents. Here we report that the thickness of the deposited ZnS film can be increased if ammonium salt is used as a buffer. We also present an analytical study to explain our results and to further understand the ZnS growth process in CBD.

  4. A combined scanning tunneling microscope-atomic layer deposition tool.

    PubMed

    Mack, James F; Van Stockum, Philip B; Iwadate, Hitoshi; Prinz, Fritz B

    2011-12-01

    We have built a combined scanning tunneling microscope-atomic layer deposition (STM-ALD) tool that performs in situ imaging of deposition. It operates from room temperature up to 200 °C, and at pressures from 1 × 10(-6) Torr to 1 × 10(-2) Torr. The STM-ALD system has a complete passive vibration isolation system that counteracts both seismic and acoustic excitations. The instrument can be used as an observation tool to monitor the initial growth phases of ALD in situ, as well as a nanofabrication tool by applying an electric field with the tip to laterally pattern deposition. In this paper, we describe the design of the tool and demonstrate its capability for atomic resolution STM imaging, atomic layer deposition, and the combination of the two techniques for in situ characterization of deposition.

  5. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Richard L.; Jeffrey, Frank R.; Westerberg, Roger K.

    1989-10-17

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  6. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Richard L.; Jeffrey, Frank R.; Westerberg, Roger K.

    1989-06-27

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  7. Fluidized Crater Ejecta Deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft continued to obtain high resolution images of the red planet into August 1998. At this time, each ground track (the portion of Mars available for MOC imaging on a given orbit) covers areas from about 40oN on the late afternoon side of the planet, up over the sunlit north polar cap, and down the early morning side of Mars to about 20oN latitude. Early morning and late afternoon views provide good shadowing to reveal subtle details on the martian surface. Views of Mars with such excellent lighting conditions will not be seen by MOC once MGS's Science Phasing Orbits end in mid-September 1998.

    The image shown here, MOC image 47903, was targeted on Friday afternoon (PDT), August 7, 1998. This picture of ejecta from a nameless 9.1 kilometer (5.7 mile)-diameter crater was designed to take full advantage of the present lighting conditions. When the image was taken (around 5:38 p.m. (PDT) on Saturday, August 8, 1998), the Sun had just risen and was only about 6o above the eastern horizon. With the Sun so low in the local sky, the contrast between sunlit and shadowed surfaces allowed new, subtle details to be revealed on the surface of the crater ejecta deposit.

    The crater shown here has ejecta of a type that was first identified in Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter images as 'fluidized' ejecta. Ejecta is the material that is thrown out from the crater during the explosion that results when a meteor--piece of a comet or asteroid--collides with the planet. Fluidized ejecta is characterized by its lobate appearance, and sometimes by the presence of a ridge along the margin of the ejecta deposit. In the case of the crater shown here, there are two ridges that encircle the crater ejecta--this type of ejecta deposit is sometimes called a double-lobe rampart deposit. The MOC image shows that this particular crater also has 'normal' ejecta that occurs out on the plains, beyond the outermost ridge of

  8. Stapedectomy technique.

    PubMed

    House, J W

    1993-06-01

    This article reviews the evolution of the author's stapedectomy technique from total footplate removal with single loop wire prosthesis and Gelfoam seal to small fenestra stapedectomy with platinum ribbon piston prosthesis and blood seal. The author concludes that the microdrill is effective, safe, and cost effective for performing this procedure. Since using this technique, the author has had no cases of sensorineural hearing loss and few complaints of dizziness or vertigo.

  9. Deposition dynamics of multi-solvent bioinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneelil, Paul; Pack, Min; Cui, Chunxiao; Han, Li-Hsin; Sun, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Inkjet printing cellular scaffolds using bioinks is gaining popularity due to the advancement of printing technology as well as the growing demands of regenerative medicine. Numerous studies have been conducted on printing scaffolds of biomimetic structures that support the cell production of human tissues. However, the underlying physics of the deposition dynamics of bioinks remains elusive. Of particular interest is the unclear deposition dynamics of multi-solvent bioinks, which is often used to tune the micro-architecture formation. Here we systematically studied the effects of jetting frequency, solvent properties, substrate wettability, and temperature on the three-dimensional deposition patterns of bioinks made of Methacrylated Gelatin and Carboxylated Gelatin. The microflows inside the inkjet-printed picolitre drops were visualized using fluorescence tracer particles to decipher the complex processes of multi-solvent evaporation and solute self-assembly. The evolution of droplet shape was observed using interferometry. With the integrated techniques, the interplay of solvent evaporation, biopolymer deposition, and multi-drop interactions were directly observed for various ink and substrate properties, and printing conditions. Such knowledge enables the design and fabrication of a variety of tissue engineering scaffolds for potential use in regenerative medicine.

  10. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R. J.; Adiga, S. P.; Pellin, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.more » Nanoporous alumina, also known as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), is a nanomaterial that exhibits several unusual properties, including high pore densities, straight pores, small pore sizes, and uniform pore sizes. In 1953, Keller et al. showed that anodizing aluminum in acid electrolytes results in a thick layer of nearly cylindrical pores, which are arranged in a close-packed hexagonal cell structure. More recently, Matsuda & Fukuda demonstrated preparation of highly ordered platinum and gold nanohole arrays using a replication process. In this study, a negative structure of nanoporous alumina was initially fabricated and a positive structure of a nanoporous metal was subsequently fabricated. Over the past fifteen years, nanoporous alumina membranes have been used as templates for growth of a variety of nanostructured materials, including nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, and nanoporous membranes.« less

  11. Hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures with atomic layer deposition/molecular layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi

    2014-01-15

    A combination of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques is successfully employed to fabricate thin films incorporating superlattice structures that consist of single layers of organic molecules between thicker layers of ZnO. Diethyl zinc and water are used as precursors for the deposition of ZnO by ALD, while three different organic precursors are investigated for the MLD part: hydroquinone, 4-aminophenol and 4,4′-oxydianiline. The successful superlattice formation with all the organic precursors is verified through x-ray reflectivity studies. The effects of the interspersed organic layers/superlattice structure on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of ZnO are investigatedmore » through resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements at room temperature. The results suggest an increase in carrier concentration for small concentrations of organic layers, while higher concentrations seem to lead to rather large reductions in carrier concentration.« less

  12. An Introduction to Atomic Layer Deposition with Thermal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwivedi, Vivek H.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a cost effective nano-manufacturing technique that allows for the conformal coating of substrates with atomic control in a benign temperature and pressure environment. Through the introduction of paired precursor gases thin films can be deposited on a myriad of substrates ranging from glass, polymers, aerogels, and metals to high aspect ratio geometries. This talk will focus on the utilization of ALD for engineering applications.

  13. Atomic layer deposition of a MoS₂ film.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee Kheng; Liu, Bo; Teng, Jing Hua; Guo, Shifeng; Low, Hong Yee; Tan, Hui Ru; Chong, Christy Yuen Tung; Yang, Ren Bin; Loh, Kian Ping

    2014-09-21

    A mono- to multilayer thick MoS₂ film has been grown by using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique at 300 °C on a sapphire wafer. ALD provides precise control of the MoS₂ film thickness due to pulsed introduction of the reactants and self-limiting reactions of MoCl₅ and H₂S. A post-deposition annealing of the ALD-deposited monolayer film improves the crystallinity of the film, which is evident from the presence of triangle-shaped crystals that exhibit strong photoluminescence in the visible range.

  14. Nickel-cobalt laterites: a deposit model: Chapter H in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric J.; Gray, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are supergene enrichments of Ni±Co that form from intense chemical and mechanical weathering of ultramafic parent rocks. These regolith deposits typically form within 26 degrees of the equator, although there are a few exceptions. They form in active continental margins and stable cratonic settings. It takes as little as one million years for a laterite profile to develop. Three subtypes of Ni-Co laterite deposits are classified according to the dominant Ni-bearing mineralogy, which include hydrous magnesium (Mg)-silicate, smectite, and oxide. These minerals form in weathering horizons that begin with the unweathered protolith at the base, saprolite next, a smectite transition zone only in profiles where drainage is very poor, followed by limonite, and then capped with ferricrete at the top. The saprolite contains Ni-rich hydrous Mg-silicates, the Ni-rich clays occur in the transition horizon, and Ni-rich goethite occurs in the limonite. Although these subtypes of deposits are the more widely used terms for classification of Ni-Co laterite deposits, most deposits have economic concentrations of Ni in more than one horizon. Because of their complex mineralogy and heterogeneous concentrations, mining of these metallurgically complex deposits can be challenging. Deposits range in size from 2.5 to about 400 million tonnes, with Ni and Co grades of 0.66–2.4 percent (median 1.3) and 0.01–0.15 percent (median 0.08), respectively. Modern techniques of ore delineation and mineralogical identification are being developed to aid in streamlining the Ni-Co laterite mining process, and low-temperature and low-pressure ore processing techniques are being tested that will treat the entire weathered profile. There is evidence that the production of Ni and Co from laterites is more energy intensive than that of sulfide ores, reflecting the environmental impact of producing a Ni-Co laterite deposit. Tailings may include high levels of

  15. Atomic Layer Deposition of Rhenium Disulfide.

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, Jani; Mattinen, Miika; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Meinander, Kristoffer; Vehkamäki, Marko; Räisänen, Jyrki; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku

    2018-06-01

    2D materials research is advancing rapidly as various new "beyond graphene" materials are fabricated, their properties studied, and materials tested in various applications. Rhenium disulfide is one of the 2D transition metal dichalcogenides that has recently shown to possess extraordinary properties such as that it is not limited by the strict monolayer thickness requirements. The unique inherent decoupling of monolayers in ReS 2 combined with a direct bandgap and highly anisotropic properties makes ReS 2 one of the most interesting 2D materials for a plethora of applications. Here, a highly controllable and precise atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique is applied to deposit ReS 2 thin films. Film growth is demonstrated on large area (5 cm × 5 cm) substrates at moderate deposition temperatures between 120 and 500 °C, and the films are extensively characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry using grazing incidence, atomic force microscopy, focused ion beam/transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis techniques. The developed ReS 2 ALD process highlights the potential of the material for applications beyond planar structure architectures. The ALD process also offers a route to an upgrade to an industrial scale. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Decomposition techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  17. Magnetic hierarchical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posazhennikova, Anna I.; Indekeu, Joseph O.

    2014-11-01

    We consider random deposition of debris or blocks on a line, with block sizes following a rigorous hierarchy: the linear size equals 1/λn in generation n, in terms of a rescaling factor λ. Without interactions between the blocks, this model is described by a logarithmic fractal, studied previously, which is characterized by a constant increment of the length, area or volume upon proliferation. We study to what extent the logarithmic fractality survives, if each block is equipped with an Ising (pseudo-)spin s=±1 and the interactions between those spins are switched on (ranging from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic). It turns out that the dependence of the surface topology on the interaction sign and strength is not trivial. For instance, deep in the ferromagnetic regime, our numerical experiments and analytical results reveal a sharp crossover from a Euclidean transient, consisting of aggregated domains of aligned spins, to an asymptotic logarithmic fractal growth. In contrast, deep into the antiferromagnetic regime the surface roughness is important and is shown analytically to be controlled by vacancies induced by frustrated spins. Finally, in the weak interaction regime, we demonstrate that the non-interacting model is extremal in the sense that the effect of the introduction of interactions is only quadratic in the magnetic coupling strength. In all regimes, we demonstrate the adequacy of a mean-field approximation whenever vacancies are rare. In sum, the logarithmic fractal character is robust with respect to the introduction of spatial correlations in the hierarchical deposition process.

  18. Progress in the Study of Coastal Storm Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Haixian; Huang, Guangqing; Fu, Shuqing; Qian, Peng

    2018-05-01

    Numerous studies have been carried out to identify storm deposits and decipher storm-induced sedimentary processes in coastal and shallow-marine areas. This study aims to provide an in-depth review on the study of coastal storm deposits from the following five aspects. 1) The formation of storm deposits is a function of hydrodynamic and sedimentary processes under the constraints of local geological and ecological factors. Many questions remain to demonstrate the genetic links between storm-related processes and a variety of resulting deposits such as overwash deposits, underwater deposits and hummocky cross-stratification (HCS). Future research into the formation of storm deposits should combine flume experiments, field observations and numerical simulations, and make full use of sediment source tracing methods. 2) Recently there has been rapid growth in the number of studies utilizing sediment provenance analysis to investigate the source of storm deposits. The development of source tracing techniques, such as mineral composition, magnetic susceptibility, microfossil and geochemical property, has allowed for better understanding of the depositional processes and environmental changes associated with coastal storms. 3) The role of extreme storms in the sedimentation of low-lying coastal wetlands with diverse ecosystem services has also drawn a great deal of attention. Many investigations have attempted to quantify widespread land loss, vertical marsh sediment accumulation and wetland elevation change induced by major hurricanes. 4) Paleostorm reconstructions based on storm sedimentary proxies have shown many advantages over the instrumental records and historic documents as they allow for the reconstruction of storm activities on millennial or longer time scales. Storm deposits having been used to establish proxies mainly include beach ridges and shelly cheniers, coral reefs, estuary-deltaic storm sequences and overwash deposits. Particularly over the past few

  19. Radioactive deposits in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  20. Atomic layer deposition of copper thin film and feasibility of deposition on inner walls of waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuqing, XIONG; Hengjiao, GAO; Ni, REN; Zhongwei, LIU

    2018-03-01

    Copper thin films were deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition at low temperature, using copper(I)-N,N‧-di-sec-butylacetamidinate as a precursor and hydrogen as a reductive gas. The influence of temperature, plasma power, mode of plasma, and pulse time, on the deposition rate of copper thin film, the purity of the film and the step coverage were studied. The feasibility of copper film deposition on the inner wall of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic waveguide with high aspect ratio was also studied. The morphology and composition of the thin film were studied by atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The square resistance of the thin film was also tested by a four-probe technique. On the basis of on-line diagnosis, a growth mechanism of copper thin film was put forward, and it was considered that surface functional group played an important role in the process of nucleation and in determining the properties of thin films. A high density of plasma and high free-radical content were helpful for the deposition of copper thin films.

  1. Thallium Bromide Deposited Using Spray Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, E. S.; Mulato, M.

    2012-08-01

    Spray coating was used to produce thallium bromide samples on glass substrates. The influence of several fabrication parameters on the final structural properties of the samples was investigated. Substrate position, substrate temperature, solution concentration, carrying gas, and solution flow were varied systematically, the physical deposition mechanism involved in each case being discussed. Total deposition time of about 3.5 h can lead to 62-μm-thick films, comprising completely packed micrometer-sized crystalline grains. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the samples. On the basis of the experimental data, the optimum fabrication conditions were identified. The technique offers an alternative method for fast, cheap fabrication of large-area devices for the detection of high-energy radiation, i.e., X-rays and γ-rays, in medical imaging.

  2. Loop technique.

    PubMed

    Seeburger, Joerg; Noack, Thilo; Winkfein, Michael; Ender, Joerg; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The loop technique facilitates mitral valve repair for leaflet prolapse by implantation of Gore-Tex neo-chordae. The key feature of the technique is a premade bundle of four loops made out of one suture. The loops are available in different lengths ranging from 10 to 26 mm. After assessment of the ideal length of neo-chordae with a caliper the loops are then secured to the body of the papillary muscle over an additional felt pledget. In the following step, the free ends of the loops are distributed along the free margin of the prolapsing segment using one additional suture for each loop.

  3. Differentiation of debris-flow and flash-flood deposits: implications for paleoflood investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Jarrett, Robert D.; ,

    1993-01-01

    Debris flows and flash floods are common geomorphic processes in the Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range and foothills. Usually, debris flows and flash floods are associated with excess summer rainfall or snowmelt, in areas were unconsolidated surficial deposits are relatively thick and slopes are steep. In the Front Range and foothills, flash flooding is limited to areas below about 2300m whereas, debris flow activity is common throughout the foothill and alpine zones and is not necessarily elevation limited. Because flash floods and debris flows transport large quantities of bouldery sediment, the resulting deposits appear somewhat similar even though such deposits were produced by different processes. Discharge estimates based on debris-flow deposits interpreted as flash-flood deposits have large errors because techniques for discharge retrodiction were developed for water floods with negligible sediment concentrations. Criteria for differentiating between debris-flow and flash-flood deposits are most useful for deposits that are fresh and well-exposed. However, with the passage of time, both debris-flow and flash-flood deposits become modified by the combined effects of weathering, colluviation, changes in surface morphology, and in some instances removal of interstitial sediment. As a result, some of the physical characteristics of the deposits become more alike. Criteria especially applicable to older deposits are needed. We differentiate flash-flood from debris-flow and other deposits using clast fabric measurements and other morphologic and sedimentologic techniques (e.g., deposit morphology, clast lithology, particle size and shape, geomorphic setting).

  4. Ballistic Deposition of Nanoclusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbrandt, Jeffrey; Li, Yang; Headrick, Randall

    Nanoporous thin-films are an important class of materials, possessing a large surface area to volume ratio, with applications ranging from thermoelectric and photovoltaic materials to supercapacitors. In-Situ X-ray Reflectivity and Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (GISAXS) were used to monitor thin-films grown from Tungsten Silicide (WSi2) and Copper (Cu) nanoclusters. The nanoclusters ranged in size from 2 nm to 6 nm diameter and were made by high-pressure magnetron sputtering via plasma gas condensation (PGC). X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurements of the films at various stages of growth reveal that the resulting films exhibit very low density, approaching 15% of bulk density. This is consistent with a simple off-lattice ballistic deposition model where particles stick at the point of first contact without further restructuring. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences under contract DE-FG02-07ER46380.

  5. Volcanology and mineral deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    In contrast, old volcanic regions, which host many of the world's major hydrothermal-vein, porphyry, and massive-sulfide ore deposits, have been studied mainly by economic geologists, regional stratigraphers, and structural geologists who have limited familiarity with the complexities of volcanic processes. Such "dead" volcanoes, ranging in age from a few million million years (tertiary) to a few billion years (Precambrian), are commonly incompletely and discontinuously preserved due to rapid erosion of originally high-standing volcanic edifices. They can be difficult to date reliably, especially in terms of the time scales of individual volcanic events, and are variably hydrothermally altered-impeding high-resolution petrologic and geochemical studies. Many volcanologists, geochemists, and geophysicists who work on active volcanoes accordingly have been reluctant to become involved in studies of such less tractable rocks. 

  6. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    PubMed

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diverse Deposits in Melas Chasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-29

    This scene captured by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter includes chaotic deposits with a wide range of colors. The deposits are distinctive with both unique colors and small-scale textures such as fracture patterns. These are probably sedimentary rocks, transported and deposited in water or air. The original layers may have been jumbled in a landslide. Dark or reddish sand dunes cover some of the bedrock. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19860

  8. Titration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Houston Jetzer, Kelly; Patani, Néha; Zimmerman, John; Zweerink, Gerald

    1995-07-01

    Significant attention is paid to the proper technique for reading a meniscus. Video shows meniscus-viewing techniques for colorless and dark liquids and the consequences of not reading a meniscus at eye level. Lessons are provided on approaching the end point, focusing on end point colors produced via different commonly used indicators. The concept of a titration curve is illustrated by means of a pH meter. Carefully recorded images of the entire range of meniscus values in a buret, pipet, and graduated cylinder are included so that you can show your students, in lecture or pre-lab discussion, any meniscus and discuss how to read the buret properly. These buret meniscus values are very carefully recorded at the rate of one video frame per hundredth of a milliliter, so that an image showing any given meniscus value can be obtained. These images can be easily incorporated into a computer-based multimedia environment for testing or meniscus-reading exercises. Two of the authors have used this technique and found the exercise to be very well received by their students. Video on side two shows nearly 100 "bloopers", demonstrating both the right way and wrong ways to do tasks associated with titration. This material can be used in a variety of situations: to show students the correct way to do something; to test students by asking them "What is this person doing wrong?"; or to develop multimedia, computer-based lessons. The contents of Titration Techniques are listed below: Side 1 Titration: what it is. A simple titration; Acid-base titration animation; A brief redox titration; Redox titration animation; A complete acid-base titration. Titration techniques. Hand technique variations; Stopcock; Using a buret to measure liquid volumes; Wait before reading meniscus; Dirty and clean burets; Read meniscus at eye level (see Fig. 1); Meniscus viewing techniques--light colored liquids; Meniscus viewing techniques--dark liquids; Using a magnetic stirrer; Rough titration

  9. Relaxation Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Colonel Robert Fowler for sponsoring this project, Major Richard Hartson for diligently editing each draft and the men of ACSC Seminar A-li ( Mix 1...and AWC Seminar 15 ( Mix 1) for encouraging the author to introduce relaxation techniques to other military officers through this videotape. Special...anytime and without having to stop what you’re doing. The individuals were usually surprised at how easily deep breathing initiated a feeling of

  10. Ti-doped hydrogenated diamond like carbon coating deposited by hybrid physical vapor deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Na Rae; Sle Jun, Yee; Moon, Kyoung Il; Sunyong Lee, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon films containing titanium and hydrogen (Ti-doped DLC:H) were synthesized using a hybrid technique based on physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The film was deposited under a mixture of argon (Ar) and acetylene gas (C2H2). The amount of Ti in the Ti-doped DLC:H film was controlled by varying the DC power of the Ti sputtering target ranging from 0 to 240 W. The composition, microstructure, mechanical and chemical properties of Ti-doped DLC:H films with varying Ti concentrations, were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nano indentation, a ball-on-disk tribometer, a four-point probe system and dynamic anodic testing. As a result, the optimum composition of Ti in Ti-doped DLC:H film using our hybrid method was found to be a Ti content of 18 at. %, having superior electrical conductivity and high corrosion resistance, suitable for bipolar plates. Its hardness value was measured to be 25.6 GPa with a low friction factor.

  11. Inert gas enhanced laser-assisted purification of platinum electron-beam-induced deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, Michael G.; Lewis, Brett B.; Noh, Joo Hyon

    Electron-beam-induced deposition patterns, with composition of PtC 5, were purified using a pulsed laser-induced purification reaction to erode the amorphous carbon matrix and form pure platinum deposits. Enhanced mobility of residual H 2O molecules via a localized injection of inert Ar–H 2 (4%) is attributed to be the reactive gas species for purification of the deposits. Surface purification of deposits was realized at laser exposure times as low as 0.1 s. The ex situ purification reaction in the deposit interior was shown to be rate-limited by reactive gas diffusion into the deposit, and deposit contraction associated with the purification processmore » caused some loss of shape retention. To circumvent the intrinsic flaws of the ex situ anneal process, in situ deposition and purification techniques were explored that resemble a direct write atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. First, we explored a laser-assisted electron-beam-induced deposition (LAEBID) process augmented with reactive gas that resulted in a 75% carbon reduction compared to standard EBID. Lastly, a sequential deposition plus purification process was also developed and resulted in deposition of pure platinum deposits with high fidelity and shape retention.« less

  12. Inert gas enhanced laser-assisted purification of platinum electron-beam-induced deposits

    DOE PAGES

    Stanford, Michael G.; Lewis, Brett B.; Noh, Joo Hyon; ...

    2015-06-30

    Electron-beam-induced deposition patterns, with composition of PtC 5, were purified using a pulsed laser-induced purification reaction to erode the amorphous carbon matrix and form pure platinum deposits. Enhanced mobility of residual H 2O molecules via a localized injection of inert Ar–H 2 (4%) is attributed to be the reactive gas species for purification of the deposits. Surface purification of deposits was realized at laser exposure times as low as 0.1 s. The ex situ purification reaction in the deposit interior was shown to be rate-limited by reactive gas diffusion into the deposit, and deposit contraction associated with the purification processmore » caused some loss of shape retention. To circumvent the intrinsic flaws of the ex situ anneal process, in situ deposition and purification techniques were explored that resemble a direct write atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. First, we explored a laser-assisted electron-beam-induced deposition (LAEBID) process augmented with reactive gas that resulted in a 75% carbon reduction compared to standard EBID. Lastly, a sequential deposition plus purification process was also developed and resulted in deposition of pure platinum deposits with high fidelity and shape retention.« less

  13. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  14. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  15. Deposited films with improved microstructures

    DOEpatents

    Patten, James W.; Moss, Ronald W.; McClanahan, Edwin D.

    1984-01-01

    Methods for improving microstructures of line-of-sight deposited films are described. Columnar growth defects ordinarily produced by geometrical shadowing during deposition of such films are eliminated without resorting to post-deposition thermal or mechanical treatments. The native, as-deposited coating qualities, including homogeneity, fine grain size, and high coating-to-substrate adherence, can thus be retained. The preferred method includes the steps of emitting material from a source toward a substrate to deposit a coating non-uniformly on the substrate surface, removing a portion of the coating uniformly over the surface, again depositing material onto the surface, but from a different direction, and repeating the foregoing steps. The quality of line-of-sight deposited films such as those produced by sputtering, progressively deteriorates as the angle of incidence between the flux and the surface becomes increasingly acute. Depositing non-uniformly, so that the coating becomes progressively thinner as quality deteriorates, followed by uniformly removing some of the coating, such as by resputtering, eliminates the poor quality portions, leaving only high quality portions of the coating. Subsequently sputtering from a different direction applies a high quality coating to other regions of the surface. Such steps can be performed either simultaneously or sequentially to apply coatings of a uniformly high quality, closed microstructure to three-dimensional or large planar surfaces.

  16. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  17. Dense Deposit Disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard J.H; Harris, Claire L.; Pickering, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    Dense deposit disease (DDD) is an orphan disease that primarily affects children and young adults without sexual predilection. Studies of its pathophysiology have shown conclusively that it is caused by fluid-phase dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement, however the role played by genetics and autoantibodies like C3 nephritic factors must be more thoroughly defined if we are to make an impact in the clinical management of this disease. There are currently no mechanism-directed therapies to offer affected patients, half of whom progress to end stage renal failure disease within 10 years of diagnosis. Transplant recipients face the dim prospect of disease recurrence in their allografts, half of which ultimately fail. More detailed genetic and complement studies of DDD patients may make it possible to identify protective factors prognostic for naïve kidney and transplant survival, or conversely risk factors associated with progression to renal failure and allograft loss. The pathophysiology of DDD suggests that a number of different treatments warrant consideration. As advances are made in these areas, there will be a need to increase healthcare provider awareness of DDD by making resources available to clinicians to optimize care for DDD patients. PMID:21601923

  18. Chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Johnson, R. E.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory type CVD reactor system with a vertical deposition chamber and sample pedestal heated by an external RF coil has been extensively modified by installation of mass flow controllers, automatic process sequence timers, and special bellows-sealed air-operated valves for overall improved performance. Various film characterization procedures, including classical metallography, SEM analyses, X ray diffraction analyses, surface profilometry, and electrical measurements (resistivity, carrier concentration, mobility, spreading resistance profiles, and minority-carrier lifetime by the C-V-t method) area used to correlate Si sheet properties with CVD parameters and substrate properties. Evaluation procedures and measurements are given. Experimental solar cell structures were made both in epitaxial Si sheet (on sapphire substrates) and in polycrystalline material on alumina substrates, the former to provide an indication of what might be an upper limit on performance of the latter. Preliminary results are given, as obtained in cell structures not specially designed to allow for the unique properties of the sheet material, and fabricated in material known to be far from optimum for photovoltaic performance. Low power conversion efficiencies have been obtained in the epitaxial as well as the polycrystalline Si sheet.

  19. Vacuum vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, Richard M. (Inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

  20. Deposit Structure for Particle-laden Droplets Targeted by Electrospray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafouri, Aref; Singler, Timothy; Yong, Xin; Chiarot, Paul

    2017-11-01

    A hybrid printing technique that combines electrospray atomization with inkjet printing provides unique capabilities for exploring transport creating nanoparticle deposits with controlled structures. In this research, we use electrospray to deliver dry nanoparticles to the interface of particle-laden sessile droplets. Upon evaporation of the target sessile droplet, the particles at the interface are mapped to the underlying substrate. Particle locations in the final deposit were observed separately by tagging the particles dispersed inside the droplet and at its interface with different fluorophores. As expected, surfactant-free particles inside the target droplet were transported to its (pinned) contact line, creating a ``coffee ring'' morphology in the final deposit. The transport and final location of the interfacial particles was highly dependent on the presence of surfactant in the electrosprayed solution. If surfactant was present, the interfacial particles were transported to the apex of the target droplet, forming a dense region at the center of the final deposit. If the electrosprayed solution was surfactant-free, the transport of the interfacial particles was arrested and they were distributed uniformly across the final deposit. Similar deposit morphologies were found when experimenting with various surfactants, including Tween and sodium dodecyl sulfate. These results highlight the important of Marangoni flow in governing the final deposit structure for hybrid printing. This research supported by the National Science Foundation (Award 1538090).

  1. Fabrication of Conductive Paths on a Fused Deposition Modeling Substrate using Inkjet Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Wenchao; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E.; ...

    2015-01-15

    Inkjet deposition is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques for producing cost efficient and lightweight electronic devices on various substrates with low environmental impact. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the most used and reliable additive manufacturing processes by extrusion of wire-shaped thermoplastic materials, which provides an opportunity for embedding printed electronics into mechanical structures during the building process and enables the design of compact smart structures that can sense and adapt to their own state and the environment. This paper represents one of the first explorations of integrating inkjet deposition of silver nanoparticle inks with the FDMmore » process for making compact electro-mechanical structures. Three challenges have been identified and investigated, including the discontinuity of the printed lines resulting from the irregular surface of the FDM substrate, the non-conductivity of the printed lines due to the particle segregation during the droplet drying process, and the slow drying process caused by the skinning effect . Two different techniques are developed in this paper to address the issue of continuity of the printed lines, including surface ironing and a novel thermal plow technique that plows a channel in the FDM substrate to seal off the pores in the substrate and contain the deposited inks. Two solutions are also found for obtaining conductivity from the continuous printed lines, including porous surface coating and using a more viscous ink with larger nanoparticle size. Then the effects of the printing and post-processing parameters on the conductivity are examined. It is found that post-processing is a dominant factor in determining the conductivity of the printed lines.« less

  2. Ni-Co laterite deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, Erin E.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are an important source of nickel (Ni). Currently, there is a decline in magmatic Ni-bearing sulfide lode deposit resources. New efforts to develop an alternative source of Ni, particularly with improved metallurgy processes, make the Ni-Co laterites an important exploration target in anticipation of the future demand for Ni. This deposit model provides a general description of the geology and mineralogy of Ni-Co laterite deposits, and contains discussion of the influences of climate, geomorphology (relief), drainage, tectonism, structure, and protolith on the development of favorable weathering profiles. This model of Ni-Co laterite deposits represents part of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program's effort to update the existing models to be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment.

  3. Chemical vapor deposition of Mo tubes for fuel cladding applications

    SciTech Connect

    Beaux, Miles F.; Vodnik, Douglas R.; Peterson, Reuben J.

    In this study, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have been evaluated for fabrication of free-standing 0.25 mm thick molybdenum tubes with the end goal of nuclear fuel cladding applications. In order to produce tubes with the wall thickness and microstructures desirable for this application, long deposition durations on the order of 50 h with slow deposition rates were employed. A standard CVD method, involving molybdenum pentachloride reduction by hydrogen, as well as a fluidized-bed CVD (FBCVD) method was applied towards these objectives. Characterization of the tubes produced in this manner revealed regions of material with fine grain microstructure and wallmore » thickness suitable for fuel cladding applications, but lacking necessary uniformity across the length of the tubes. Finally, a path forward for the production of freestanding molybdenum tubes that possess the desired properties across their entire length has been identified and can be accomplished by future optimization of the deposition system.« less

  4. SnS2 Thin Film Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Abdallah Yahia; Alamri, Saleh Noaiman; Aida, Mohammed Salah

    2012-06-01

    Tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films have been synthesized using a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using a perfume atomizer. The films were deposited using two different solutions prepared by the dilution of SnCl2 and thiourea in distilled water and in methanol. The obtained films have a microcrystalline structure. The film deposited using methanol as the solvent is nearly stochiometric SnS2 with a spinel phase having a (001) preferential orientation. The film prepared with an aqueous solution is Sn-rich. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images reveal that the film deposited with the aqueous solution is rough and is formed with large wires. However, the film deposited with methanol is dense and smooth. Conductivity measurements indicate that the aqueous solution leads to an n-type semiconductor, while methanol leads to a p-type semiconductor.

  5. Chemical vapor deposition of Mo tubes for fuel cladding applications

    DOE PAGES

    Beaux, Miles F.; Vodnik, Douglas R.; Peterson, Reuben J.; ...

    2018-01-31

    In this study, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have been evaluated for fabrication of free-standing 0.25 mm thick molybdenum tubes with the end goal of nuclear fuel cladding applications. In order to produce tubes with the wall thickness and microstructures desirable for this application, long deposition durations on the order of 50 h with slow deposition rates were employed. A standard CVD method, involving molybdenum pentachloride reduction by hydrogen, as well as a fluidized-bed CVD (FBCVD) method was applied towards these objectives. Characterization of the tubes produced in this manner revealed regions of material with fine grain microstructure and wallmore » thickness suitable for fuel cladding applications, but lacking necessary uniformity across the length of the tubes. Finally, a path forward for the production of freestanding molybdenum tubes that possess the desired properties across their entire length has been identified and can be accomplished by future optimization of the deposition system.« less

  6. Topography and stratigraphy of Martian polar layered deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasius, K. R.; Cutts, J. A.; Howard, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    The first samples of high resolution Viking Orbiter topographic and stratigraphic data for the layered polar deposits of Mars are presented, showing that these deposits are with respect to both slopes and angular relief similar to those in the south. It is also demonstrated that, in conjunction with stereophotogrammetry, photoclinometry holds promise as a tool for detailed layered deposit studies. The spring season photography, which lends itself to photoclinometric analysis, covers the entire area of the north polar deposits. Detailed tests of layered terrain evolution hypotheses will be made, upon refinement of the data by comparison with stereo data. A more promising refining technique will make use of averaging perpendicular to selected sections to enhance SNR. Local reliefs of 200-800 m, and slopes of 1-8 deg, lead to initial calculations of average layer thickness which yields results of 14-46 m, linearly correlated with slope.

  7. Deposition and characterization of ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temel, Sinan; Gökmen, F. Özge; Yaman, Elif; Nebi, Murat

    2018-02-01

    ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films were deposited at different deposition times by using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. Effects of deposition time on structural, morphological and optical properties of the obtained thin films were characterized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to study the structural properties of ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films. It was found that ZnSe thin films have a cubic structure with a preferentially orientation of (111). The calculated average grain size value was about 28-30 nm. The surface morphology of these films was studied by the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The surfaces of the thin films were occurred from small stacks and nano-sized particles. The band gap values of the ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films were determined by UV-Visible absorption spectrum and the band gap values were found to be between 2.65-2.86 eV.

  8. 20 CFR 703.207 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any negotiable securities... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.207 Section 703.207 Employees' Benefits... AND RELATED STATUTES INSURANCE REGULATIONS Insurance Carrier Security Deposit Requirements § 703.207...

  9. In Situ Electrochemical Deposition of Microscopic Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee; Myung, Nosang; Vasquez, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A method of fabrication of wires having micron and submicron dimensions is built around electrochemical deposition of the wires in their final positions between electrodes in integrated circuits or other devices in which the wires are to be used. Heretofore, nanowires have been fabricated by a variety of techniques characterized by low degrees of controllability and low throughput rates, and it has been necessary to align and electrically connect the wires in their final positions by use of sophisticated equipment in expensive and tedious post-growth assembly processes. The present method is more economical, offers higher yields, enables control of wire widths, and eliminates the need for post-growth assembly. The wires fabricated by this method could be used as simple electrical conductors or as transducers in sensors. Depending upon electrodeposition conditions and the compositions of the electroplating solutions in specific applications, the wires could be made of metals, alloys, metal oxides, semiconductors, or electrically conductive polymers. In this method, one uses fabrication processes that are standard in the semiconductor industry. These include cleaning, dry etching, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, lithography, dielectric deposition, electron-beam lithography, and metallization processes as well as the electrochemical deposition process used to form the wires. In a typical case of fabrication of a circuit that includes electrodes between which microscopic wires are to be formed on a silicon substrate, the fabrication processes follow a standard sequence until just before the fabrication of the microscopic wires. Then, by use of a thermal SiO-deposition technique, the electrodes and the substrate surface areas in the gaps between them are covered with SiO. Next, the SiO is electron-beam patterned, then reactive-ion etched to form channels having specified widths (typically about 1 m or less) that define the widths of the wires to be formed. Drops

  10. Development and study of chemical vapor deposited tantalum base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, G. H.; Bryant, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    A technique for the chemical vapor deposition of alloys was developed. The process, termed pulsing, involves the periodic injection of reactant gases into a previously-evacuated reaction chamber where they blanket the substrate almost instantaneously. Formation of alternating layers of the alloy components and subsequent homogenization allows the formation of an alloy of uniform composition with the composition being determined by the duration and relative numbers of the various cycles. The technique has been utilized to produce dense alloys of uniform thickness and composition (Ta- 10 wt % W) by depositing alternating layers of Ta and W by the hydrogen reduction of TaCl5 and WCl6. A similar attempt to deposit a Ta - 8 wt % W - 2 wt% Hf alloy was unsuccessful because of the difficulty in reducing HfCl4 at temperatures below those at which gas phase nucleation of Ta and W occurred.

  11. In situ monitoring of electrical resistance during deposition of Ag and Al thin films by pulsed laser deposition: Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellaoui, N.; Pereira, A.; Novotny, M.; Bulir, J.; Fitl, P.; Lancok, J.; Moine, B.; Pillonnet, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the growth by pulsed laser deposition of thin films of nanometer thickness as well as clusters is presented. Two kinds of metals, namely Ag and Al, are investigated because of their different growth processes on SiO2. We show that by tuning the deposition rate and the background atmosphere, it is easily possible to obtain Ag clusters that exhibit plasmonic resonances at wavelengths shorter than 500 nm. It is further demonstrated that Al tends to perfectly wet the substrate when deposited under vacuum or gas pressure. In situ electrical resistance measurements are used to follow the growth during deposition, and conventional analysis techniques (AFM, SEM, absorption and ellipsometry spectroscopy) are used to control their properties.

  12. Flowslide Early Warning System in pyroclastic deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, Lucio; Damiano, Emila; De Cristofaro, Martina; Roberto, Greco; Mollo, Luigi; Netti, Nadia; Capparelli, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Most of the mountains of Campania are covered by airfall pyroclastic deposits in primary deposition generally in unsaturated conditions. These deposits are periodically subjected to rainfall induced landslides that may evolve into catastrophic flowslides. To protect towns EWS can be implemented in order to correctly and promptly predict the trigger. In the paper we detect some 'essential ingredients' for effective EWSs which are new with respect to those already employed and essentially based on pluviometric thresholds (Greco et. Al., 2013) and extremely simplified models not able to correctly follow the physical phenomena which are responsible of flowslides generation (Olivares et Al. 2009). Complex models, able to correctly simulate those physical phenomena such as infiltration processes and the effects of partial saturated conditions on shear strength contain the 'essential ingredients' that we discuss in the paper. A particular attention is devoted to define the relation between suction and shear strength and the water retention curve obtained from different techniques to assess a reliable hydro-geotechnical model to analyze the slope response of loose unsaturated pyroclastic deposits. An EWS that contains these elements can provide many advantages. In fact, catastrophic flowslides but even false alarms about such events, produce negative technological and productive shocks that strongly reduce the actual and prospective value added of investment in the areas at risk suggesting the opportunity of their shrinking and postponement. Of course this severely compromises the economic development of those areas. In the paper we propose to examine this subject in the Dixit e Pindyck framework of the Real Option Valuation Approach in order to explain the socio-economic value of effective EWS. In fact, such EWSs will embed valuable new real options in the investment opportunities in the areas at risk increasing their actual and prospective values. Keywords: slope

  13. Physical vapor deposition and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, David Y.

    Two vapor deposition techniques, dual magnetron oblique sputtering (DMOS) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), have been developed to produce yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films with unique microstructures. In particular, biaxially textured thin films on amorphous substrates and dense thin films on porous substrates have been fabricated by DMOS and MOCVD, respectively. DMOS YSZ thin films were deposited by reactive sputtering onto Si (native oxide surface) substrates positioned equidistant between two magnetron sources such that the fluxes arrived at oblique angles with respect to the substrate normal. Incident fluxes from two complimentary oblique directions were necessary for the development of biaxial texture. The films displayed a strong [001] out-of-plane orientation with the <110> direction in the film aligned with the incident flux. Biaxial texture improved with increasing oblique angle and film thickness, and was stronger for films deposited with Ne than with Ar. The films displayed a columnar microstructure with grain bundling perpendicular to the projected flux direction, the degree of which increased with oblique angle and thickness. The texture decreased by sputtering at pressures at which the flux of sputtered atoms was thermalized. These results suggested that grain alignment is due to directed impingement of both sputtered atoms and reflected energetic neutrals. The best texture, a {111} phi FWHM of 23°, was obtained in a 4.8 mum thick film deposited at an oblique angle of 56°. MOCVD YSZ thin films were deposited in a vertical cold-wall reactor using Zr(tmhd)4 and Y(tmhd)3 precursors. Fully stabilized YSZ films with 9 mol% could be deposited by controlling the bubbler temperatures. YSZ films on Si substrates displayed a transition at 525°C from surface kinetic limited growth, with an activation energy of 5.5 kJ/mole, to mass transport limited growth. Modifying the reactor by lowering the inlet height and introducing an Ar baffle

  14. Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures

    DOEpatents

    Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Hembree, Wylie C.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

  15. EVALUATION OF ACID DEPOSITION MODELS USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT SPACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical technique involving principal components analysis is proposed for use in the evaluation of acid deposition models. elationships among model predictions are compared to those among measured data, rather than the more common one-to-one comparison of predictions to mea...

  16. 29 CFR 2200.56 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... deposition shall be taken in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, particularly Federal Rule... dismiss. (c) Notice of taking. Any depositions allowed by the Commission or Judge may be taken after 10... borne by the party at whose instance the deposition is taken. (e) Use of depositions. Depositions taken...

  17. 29 CFR 2200.56 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... deposition shall be taken in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, particularly Federal Rule... dismiss. (c) Notice of taking. Any depositions allowed by the Commission or Judge may be taken after 10... borne by the party at whose instance the deposition is taken. (e) Use of depositions. Depositions taken...

  18. 24 CFR 26.20 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Depositions. 26.20 Section 26.20... PROCEDURES Hearings Before Hearing Officers Discovery § 26.20 Depositions. (a) Taking oral deposition. A party may take the oral deposition of any person. Reasonable written notice of deposition shall be...

  19. 49 CFR 386.46 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Depositions. 386.46 Section 386.46 Transportation... and Hearings § 386.46 Depositions. (a) When, how, and by whom taken. (1) The deposition of any witness... accordance with § 386.37, for leave to conduct a deposition based on good cause shown. (2) Depositions may be...

  20. 24 CFR 26.20 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depositions. 26.20 Section 26.20... PROCEDURES Hearings Before Hearing Officers Discovery § 26.20 Depositions. (a) Taking oral deposition. A party may take the oral deposition of any person. Reasonable written notice of deposition shall be...