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Sample records for e-cadherin disrupts strong

  1. Disruption of basement membrane, extracellular matrix metalloproteinases and E-cadherin in renal-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morell-Quadreny, L; Rubio, Jose; Lopez-Guerrero, Jose Antonio; Casanova, Juan; Ramos, D; Iborra, Inmaculada; Solsona, Eduardo; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine the prognostic value of Basement Membrane (BM) integrity, Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and E-Cadherin expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). An immunohistochemical study on laminin and collagen IV, MMPs 1 and 2, and E-Cadherin was carried out on 71 RCCs. BM fragmentation was considered taking 75% as a cut-off. MMP 1 and MMP2 immunostaining, as well as E-Cadherin was considered taking 25% as a cut-off. An inverse relationship was seen between E-Cadherin with laminin, collagen IV and MMPs. More than 75% loss of laminin, collagen IV and E-Cadherin, as well as higher expression of MMPs, were associated with symptoms, tumoral size and worse grade. Loss of collagen IV and E-Cadherin were of prognostic value. Both BM and E-Cadherin are good prognostic markers. MMPs patterns show a relationship between BM proteins and E-Cadherin, but evaluation is more time-consuming and provide no better prognostication; consequently they are not useful in routine clinical applications.

  2. Molecular basis for disruption of E-cadherin adhesion by botulinum neurotoxin A complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwangkook; Zhong, Xiaofen; Gu, Shenyan; Kruel, Anna Magdalena; Dorner, Martin B; Perry, Kay; Rummel, Andreas; Dong, Min; Jin, Rongsheng

    2014-06-20

    How botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cross the host intestinal epithelial barrier in foodborne botulism is poorly understood. Here, we present the crystal structure of a clostridial hemagglutinin (HA) complex of serotype BoNT/A bound to the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin at 2.4 angstroms. The HA complex recognizes E-cadherin with high specificity involving extensive intermolecular interactions and also binds to carbohydrates on the cell surface. Binding of the HA complex sequesters E-cadherin in the monomeric state, compromising the E-cadherin-mediated intercellular barrier and facilitating paracellular absorption of BoNT/A. We reconstituted the complete 14-subunit BoNT/A complex using recombinantly produced components and demonstrated that abolishing either E-cadherin- or carbohydrate-binding of the HA complex drastically reduces oral toxicity of BoNT/A complex in vivo. Together, these studies establish the molecular mechanism of how HAs contribute to the oral toxicity of BoNT/A. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and nuclear β-catenin induced by conditional intestinal disruption of Cdh1 with Apc is E-cadherin EC1 domain dependent

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Emma J.; Barnes, David; Hoppe, Hans-Jürgen; Hughes, Jennifer; Cobbold, Stephen; Harper, James; Morreau, Hans; Surakhy, Mirvat; Hassan, A. Bassim

    2016-01-01

    Two important protein-protein interactions establish E-cadherin (Cdh1) in the adhesion complex; homophilic binding via the extra-cellular (EC1) domain and cytoplasmic tail binding to β-catenin. Here, we evaluate whether E-cadherin binding can inhibit β-catenin when there is loss of Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) from the β-catenin destruction complex. Combined conditional loss of Cdh1 and Apc were generated in the intestine, intestinal adenoma and adenoma organoids. Combined intestinal disruption (Cdh1fl/flApcfl/flVil-CreERT2) resulted in lethality, breakdown of the intestinal barrier, increased Wnt target gene expression and increased nuclear β-catenin localization, suggesting that E-cadherin inhibits β-catenin. Combination with an intestinal stem cell Cre (Lgr5CreERT2) resulted in ApcΔ/Δ recombination and adenoma, but intact Cdh1fl/fl alleles. Cultured ApcΔ/ΔCdh1fl/fl adenoma cells infected with adenovirus-Cre induced Cdh1fl/fl recombination (Cdh1Δ/Δ), disruption of organoid morphology, nuclear β-catenin localization, and cells with an epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype. Complementation with adenovirus expressing wild-type Cdh1 (Cdh1-WT) rescued adhesion and β-catenin membrane localization, yet an EC1 specific double mutant defective in homophilic adhesion (Cdh1-MutW2A, S78W) did not. These data suggest that E-cadherin inhibits β-catenin in the context of disruption of the APC-destruction complex, and that this function is also EC1 domain dependent. Both binding functions of E-cadherin may be required for its tumour suppressor activity. PMID:27566565

  4. Paradoxical expression of E-cadherin in prostatic bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Bryden, A A; Freemont, A J; Clarke, N W; George, N J

    1999-12-01

    To determine whether the calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is expressed in metastatic deposits of prostate cancer in bone. Ten bone biopsies containing metastatic deposits of untreated prostatic cancer were obtained and immunohistochemically stained for E-cadherin with the monoclonal antibody HECD-1, using the streptavidin-biotin complex technique. Benign prostatic tissue was used as the control. Of the 10 specimens, nine showed positive expression of E-cadherin, graded as strong in four. E-cadherin expression was strongest in well-differentiated metastases and decreased with increasing tumour grade. In some specimens there were mixed patterns of expression. E-cadherin is strongly expressed in prostatic bone metastases and the degree of expression appears to reflect local tumour grade. This suggests that loss of E-cadherin expression may not be critically linked to metastatic potential.

  5. Rab11 in Recycling Endosomes Regulates the Sorting and Basolateral Transport of E-CadherinV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lock, John G.; Stow, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    E-cadherin plays an essential role in cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion; however, the pathway for delivery of E-cadherin to the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells has not been fully characterized. We first traced the post-Golgi, exocytic transport of GFP-tagged E-cadherin (Ecad-GFP) in unpolarized cells. In live cells, Ecad-GFP was found to exit the Golgi complex in pleiomorphic tubulovesicular carriers, which, instead of moving directly to the cell surface, most frequently fused with an intermediate compartment, subsequently identified as a Rab11-positive recycling endosome. In MDCK cells, basolateral targeting of E-cadherin relies on a dileucine motif. Both E-cadherin and a targeting mutant, ΔS1-E-cadherin, colocalized with Rab11 and fused with the recycling endosome before diverging to basolateral or apical membranes, respectively. In polarized and unpolarized cells, coexpression of Rab11 mutants disrupted the cell surface delivery of E-cadherin and caused its mistargeting to the apical membrane, whereas apical ΔS1-E-cadherin was unaffected. We thus demonstrate a novel pathway for Rab11 dependent, dileucine-mediated, μ1B-independent sorting and basolateral trafficking, exemplified by E-cadherin. The recycling endosome is identified as an intermediate compartment for the post-Golgi trafficking and exocytosis of E-cadherin, with a potentially important role in establishing and maintaining cadherin-based adhesion. PMID:15689490

  6. Allosteric Regulation of E-Cadherin Adhesion*

    PubMed Central

    Shashikanth, Nitesh; Petrova, Yuliya I.; Park, Seongjin; Chekan, Jillian; Maiden, Stephanie; Spano, Martha; Ha, Taekjip; Gumbiner, Barry M.; Leckband, Deborah E.

    2015-01-01

    Cadherins are transmembrane adhesion proteins that maintain intercellular cohesion in all tissues, and their rapid regulation is essential for organized tissue remodeling. Despite some evidence that cadherin adhesion might be allosterically regulated, testing of this has been hindered by the difficulty of quantifying altered E-cadherin binding affinity caused by perturbations outside the ectodomain binding site. Here, measured kinetics of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion demonstrated quantitatively that treatment with activating, anti-E-cadherin antibodies or the dephosphorylation of a cytoplasmic binding partner, p120ctn, increased the homophilic binding affinity of E-cadherin. Results obtained with Colo 205 cells, which express inactive E-cadherin and do not aggregate, demonstrated that four treatments, which induced Colo 205 aggregation and p120ctn dephosphorylation, triggered quantitatively similar increases in E-cadherin affinity. Several processes can alter cell aggregation, but these results directly demonstrated the allosteric regulation of cell surface E-cadherin by p120ctn dephosphorylation. PMID:26175155

  7. Human Langerhans cells express E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Blauvelt, A; Katz, S I; Udey, M C

    1995-02-01

    Murine Langerhans cells (LC) synthesize and express E-cadherin, a Ca(++)-dependent homophilic cell adhesion molecule that mediates LC-keratinocyte (KC) binding in vitro. In vivo, E-cadherin expression by LC may promote localization and persistence of LC within the epidermis through LC-KC adhesion. In addition, changes in LC E-cadherin expression or affinity may be an important factor in the egress of LC from the epidermis after exposure to antigen. The aim of the present study was to determine if human LC also express E-cadherin. Suction blister roofs were obtained from normal volunteers and epidermal cell (EC) suspensions were prepared by limited trypsinization in the presence of 1 mM Ca++. EC were then incubated with antibodies to E-cadherin and CD1a or HLA-DR, and examined by two-color analytical flow cytometry or immunofluorescence microscopy. Most (82.9% +/- 7.4% [mean +/- SD], range 67-89%, n = 7) freshly prepared human LC expressed E-cadherin, as did the majority of KC. The amount of E-cadherin (as determined by mean fluorescence intensity) expressed by LC and KC was similar. Trypsin/EDTA treatment of freshly prepared EC abrogated expression of E-cadherin by LC and KC, whereas E-cadherin was not degraded by trypsin in the presence of Ca++. LC expressed lower levels of E-cadherin after 3 d in culture. Thus, human LC, like murine LC, express the homophilic adhesion molecule E-cadherin, which may be important in establishing and maintaining interactions between LC and KC in mammalian epidermis.

  8. Allosteric Regulation of E-Cadherin Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Shashikanth, Nitesh; Petrova, Yuliya I; Park, Seongjin; Chekan, Jillian; Maiden, Stephanie; Spano, Martha; Ha, Taekjip; Gumbiner, Barry M; Leckband, Deborah E

    2015-08-28

    Cadherins are transmembrane adhesion proteins that maintain intercellular cohesion in all tissues, and their rapid regulation is essential for organized tissue remodeling. Despite some evidence that cadherin adhesion might be allosterically regulated, testing of this has been hindered by the difficulty of quantifying altered E-cadherin binding affinity caused by perturbations outside the ectodomain binding site. Here, measured kinetics of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion demonstrated quantitatively that treatment with activating, anti-E-cadherin antibodies or the dephosphorylation of a cytoplasmic binding partner, p120(ctn), increased the homophilic binding affinity of E-cadherin. Results obtained with Colo 205 cells, which express inactive E-cadherin and do not aggregate, demonstrated that four treatments, which induced Colo 205 aggregation and p120(ctn) dephosphorylation, triggered quantitatively similar increases in E-cadherin affinity. Several processes can alter cell aggregation, but these results directly demonstrated the allosteric regulation of cell surface E-cadherin by p120(ctn) dephosphorylation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Cleavage and shedding of E-cadherin after induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Steinhusen, U; Weiske, J; Badock, V; Tauber, R; Bommert, K; Huber, O

    2001-02-16

    Apoptotic cell death induces dramatic molecular changes in cells, becoming apparent on the structural level as membrane blebbing, condensation of the cytoplasm and nucleus, and loss of cell-cell contacts. The activation of caspases is one of the fundamental steps during programmed cell death. Here we report a detailed analysis of the fate of the Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin in apoptotic epithelial cells and show that during apoptosis fragments of E-cadherin with apparent molecular masses of 24, 29, and 84 kDa are generated by two distinct proteolytic activities. In addition to a caspase-3-mediated cleavage releasing the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin, a metalloproteinase sheds the extracellular domain from the cell surface during apoptosis. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that concomitant with the disappearance of E-cadherin staining at the cell surface, the E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain accumulates in the cytosol. In the presence of inhibitors of caspase-3 and/or metalloproteinases, cleavage of E-cadherin was almost completely blocked. The simultaneous cleavage of the intracellular and extracellular domains of E-cadherin may provide a highly efficient mechanism to disrupt cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts in apoptotic cells, a prerequisite for cell rounding and exit from the epithelium.

  10. Antioxidants Maintain E-Cadherin Levels to Limit Drosophila Prohemocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongjuan; Wu, Xiaorong; Simon, LaTonya; Fossett, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate a variety of biological processes by networking with signal transduction pathways to maintain homeostasis and support adaptation to stress. In this capacity, ROS have been shown to promote the differentiation of progenitor cells, including mammalian embryonic and hematopoietic stem cells and Drosophila hematopoietic progenitors (prohemocytes). However, many questions remain about how ROS alter the regulatory machinery to promote progenitor differentiation. Here, we provide evidence for the hypothesis that ROS reduce E-cadherin levels to promote Drosophila prohemocyte differentiation. Specifically, we show that knockdown of the antioxidants, Superoxide dismutatase 2 and Catalase reduce E-cadherin protein levels prior to the loss of Odd-skipped-expressing prohemocytes. Additionally, over-expression of E-cadherin limits prohemocyte differentiation resulting from paraquat-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, two established targets of ROS, Enhancer of Polycomb and FOS, control the level of E-cadherin protein expression. Finally, we show that knockdown of either Superoxide dismutatase 2 or Catalase leads to an increase in the E-cadherin repressor, Serpent. As a result, antioxidants and targets of ROS can control E-cadherin protein levels, and over-expression of E-cadherin can ameliorate the prohemocyte response to oxidative stress. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that ROS promote differentiation by reducing E-cadherin levels. In mammalian systems, ROS promote embryonic stem cell differentiation, whereas E-cadherin blocks differentiation. However, it is not known if elevated ROS reduce E-cadherin to promote embryonic stem cell differentiation. Thus, our findings may have identified an important mechanism by which ROS promote stem/progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:25226030

  11. Drosophila E-Cadherin Functions in Hematopoietic Progenitors to Maintain Multipotency and Block Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongjuan; Wu, Xiaorong; Fossett, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in stem cell biology concerns the regulatory strategies that control the choice between multipotency and differentiation. Drosophila blood progenitors or prohemocytes exhibit key stem cell characteristics, including multipotency, quiescence, and niche dependence. As a result, studies of Drosophila hematopoiesis have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms that control these processes. Here, we show that E-cadherin is an important regulator of prohemocyte fate choice, maintaining prohemocyte multipotency and blocking differentiation. These functions are reminiscent of the role of E-cadherin in mammalian embryonic stem cells. We also show that mis-expression of E-cadherin in differentiating hemocytes disrupts the boundary between these cells and undifferentiated prohemocytes. Additionally, upregulation of E-cadherin in differentiating hemocytes increases the number of intermediate cell types expressing the prohemocyte marker, Patched. Furthermore, our studies indicate that the Drosophila GATA transcriptional co-factor, U-shaped, is required for E-cadherin expression. Consequently, E-cadherin is a downstream target of U-shaped in the maintenance of prohemocyte multipotency. In contrast, we showed that forced expression of the U-shaped GATA-binding partner, Serpent, repressed E-cadherin expression and promoted lamellocyte differentiation. Thus, U-shaped may maintain E-cadherin expression by blocking the inhibitory activity of Serpent. Collectively, these observations suggest that GATA:FOG complex formation regulates E-cadherin levels and, thereby, the choice between multipotency and differentiation. The work presented in this report further defines the molecular basis of prohemocyte cell fate choice, which will provide important insights into the mechanisms that govern stem cell biology. PMID:24040319

  12. E-cadherin suppression accelerates squamous cell carcinoma progression in three-dimensional, human tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Alexander; Zhang, Weitian; Alt-Holland, Addy; Crawford, Howard C; Fusenig, Norbert E; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2005-03-01

    We studied the link between loss of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion and acquisition of malignant properties in three-dimensional, human tissue constructs that mimicked the initial stages of squamous cell cancer progression. Suppression of E-cadherin expression in early-stage, skin-derived tumor cells (HaCaT-II-4) was induced by cytoplasmic sequestration of beta-catenin upon stable expression of a dominant-negative E-cadherin fusion protein (H-2Kd-Ecad). In monolayer cultures, expression of H-2Kd-Ecad resulted in decreased levels of E-cadherin, redistribution of beta-catenin to the cytoplasm, and complete loss of intercellular adhesion when compared with control II-4 cells. This was accompanied by a 7-fold decrease in beta-catenin-mediated transcription and a 12-fold increase in cell migration. In three-dimensional constructs, E-cadherin-deficient tissues showed disruption of architecture, loss of adherens junctional proteins from cell contacts, and focal tumor cell invasion. Invasion was linked to activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated degradation of basement membrane in H-2Kd-Ecad-expressing tissue constructs that was blocked by MMP inhibition (GM6001). Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed a 2.5-fold increase in MMP-2 and an 8-fold increase in MMP-9 in cells expressing the H-2Kd-Ecad fusion protein when compared with controls, and gel zymography showed increased MMP protein levels. Following surface transplantation of three-dimensional tissues, suppression of E-cadherin expression greatly accelerated tumorigenesis in vivo by inducing a switch to high-grade carcinomas that resulted in a 5-fold increase in tumor size after 4 weeks. Suppression of E-cadherin expression and loss of its function fundamentally modified squamous cell carcinoma progression by activating a highly invasive, aggressive tumor phenotype, whereas maintenance of E-cadherin prevented invasion in vitro and limited tumor progression in vivo.

  13. Differences in E-Cadherin and Syndecan-1 Expression in Different Types of Ameloblastomas

    PubMed Central

    López-Verdín, Sandra; Pereira-Prado, Vanesa

    2018-01-01

    Ameloblastomas are a group of benign, locally aggressive, recurrent tumors characterized by their slow and infiltrative growth. E-Cadherin and syndecan-1 are cell adhesion molecules related to the behavior of various tumors, including ameloblastomas. Ninety-nine ameloblastoma samples were studied; the expression of E-cadherin and syndecan-1 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. E-Cadherin and epithelial syndecan-1 were more highly expressed in intraluminal/luminal unicystic ameloblastoma than in mural unicystic ameloblastoma and solid/multicystic ameloblastoma, whereas the stromal expression of syndecan-1 was higher in mural unicystic ameloblastoma and solid/multicystic ameloblastoma. Synchronicity was observed between E-cadherin and epithelial syndecan-1; the expression was correlated with intensity in all cases. There was a strong association between expression and tumor size and recurrence. The evaluation of the expression of E-cadherin and syndecan-1 are important for determining the potential aggressiveness of ameloblastoma variants. Future studies are required to understand how the expression of these markers is related to tumor aggressiveness.

  14. E-cadherin in contact inhibition and cancer.

    PubMed

    Mendonsa, Alisha M; Na, Tae-Young; Gumbiner, Barry M

    2018-05-21

    E-cadherin is a key component of the adherens junctions that are integral in cell adhesion and maintaining epithelial phenotype of cells. Homophilic E-cadherin binding between cells is important in mediating contact inhibition of proliferation when cells reach confluence. Loss of E-cadherin expression results in loss of contact inhibition and is associated with increased cell motility and advanced stages of cancer. In this review we discuss the role of E-cadherin and its downstream signaling in regulation of contact inhibition and the development and progression of cancer.

  15. E-Cadherin and Gastric Cancer: Cause, Consequence, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    E-cadherin (epithelial-cadherin), encoded by the CDH1 gene, is a transmembrane glycoprotein playing a crucial role in maintaining cell-cell adhesion. E-cadherin has been reported to be a tumor suppressor and to be down regulated in gastric cancer. Besides genetic mutations in CDH1 gene to induce hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), epigenetic factors such as DNA hypermethylation also contribute to the reduction of E-cadherin in gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, expression of E-cadherin could be mediated by infectious agents such as H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori). As E-cadherin is vitally involved in signaling pathways modulating cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and migration, dysregulation of E-cadherin leads to dysfunction of gastric epithelial cells and contributes to gastric cancer development. Moreover, changes in its expression could reflect pathological conditions of gastric mucosa, making its role in gastric cancer complicated. In this review, we summarize the functions of E-cadherin and the signaling pathways it regulates. We aim to provide comprehensive perspectives in the molecular mechanism of E-cadherin and its involvement in gastric cancer initiation and progression. We also focus on its applications for early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy in gastric cancer in order to open new avenues in this field. PMID:25184143

  16. Junctional E-cadherin/p120-catenin Is Correlated with the Absence of Supporting Cells to Hair Cells Conversion in Postnatal Mice Cochleae.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen-Wei; Wang, Xin-Wei; Ma, Rui; Chi, Fang-Lu; Chen, Ping; Cong, Ning; Gu, Yu-Yan; Ren, Dong-Dong; Yang, Juan-Mei

    2018-01-01

    Notch inhibition is known to generate supernumerary hair cells (HCs) at the expense of supporting cells (SCs) in the mammalian inner ear. However, inhibition of Notch activity becomes progressively less effective at inducing SC-to-HC conversion in the postnatal cochlea and balance organs as the animal ages. It has been suggested that the SC-to-HC conversion capacity is inversely correlated with E-cadherin accumulation in postnatal mammalian utricles. However, whether E-cadherin localization is linked to the SC-to-HC conversion capacity in the mammalian inner ear is poorly understood. In the present study, we treated cochleae from postnatal day 0 (P0) with the Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT and observed apparent SC-to-HC conversion along with E-cadherin/p120ctn disruption in the sensory region. In addition, the SC-to-HC conversion capacity and E-cadherin/p120ctn disorganization were robust in the apex but decreased toward the base. We further demonstrated that the ability to regenerate HCs and the disruption of E-cadherin/p120ctn concomitantly decreased with age and ceased at P7, even after extended DAPT treatments. This timing is consistent with E-cadherin/p120ctn accumulation in the postnatal cochleae. These results suggest that the decreasing capacity of SCs to transdifferentiate into HCs correlates with E-cadherin/p120ctn localization in the postnatal cochleae, which might account for the absence of SC-to-HC conversion in the mammalian cochlea.

  17. Hypoxia reduces the E-cadherin expression and increases OSCC cell migration regardless of the E-cadherin methylation profile.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Patrícia Luciana Batista; Souza, Marcela Gonçalves; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; Santos, Eliane Sobrinho; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the association between E-cadherin methylation status, hypoxia and OSCC. HaCat and SCC9 cell lines were submitted to hypoxic treatment, followed by methylation profile analysis (MS-PCR) and analysis of the expression of mRNA gene E-cadherin (RT-PCR). Study group samples comprise individuals affected by potentially malignant lesions Potential Malignant Oral Lesion (PMOL, n=18) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, n=28). The control group oral mucosa (OM, n=15) of patients with an oral mucocele. Cell migration ability was evaluated a scratch wound assay in SCC9 and HaCat cell lines RESULTS: E-cadherin mRNA expression in the cell lines SCC9 and HaCat was significantly reduced under hypoxia, regardless of the methylation profile, when compared to the control group. No differences in methylation profile of the E-cadherin were observed among the groups OM, PMOL and OSCC. HaCat and SCC9 presented increases in cell migration rates under hypoxia. The current study demonstrates that hypoxia reduces E-cadherin expression and increase cell migration, regardless of the methylation profile. Additionally, no differences in E-cadherin methylation patterns were observed among OM, PMOL and OSCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Cd{sup 2+} on cis-dimer structure of E-cadherin in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Hiroshi, E-mail: hirotake@sapmed.ac.jp

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • The effects of Cd on the dimer of cadherin in living cells was analyzed. • Cd induced cadherin dimer formation was not detected in living cell with low Ca. • Ca mediated structural cooperativity and allostery in the native cadherin. • Ca concentration-dependent competitive displacement of Cd from cadherin is proposed. - Abstract: E-cadherin, a calcium (Ca{sup 2+})-dependent cell–cell adhesion molecule, plays a key role in the maintenance of tissue integrity. We have previously demonstrated that E-cadherin functions in vivo as a cis-dimer through chemical cross-linking reagents. Ca{sup 2+} plays an important role in the cis-dimer formation ofmore » cadherin. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Ca{sup 2+} interacts with the binding sites that regulate cis-dimer structures have not been completely elucidated. As expected for a Ca{sup 2+} antagonist, cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) disrupts cadherin function by displacing Ca{sup 2+} from its binding sites on the cadherin molecules. We used Cd{sup 2+} as a probe for investigating the role of Ca{sup 2+} in the dynamics of the E-cadherin extracellular region that involve cis-dimer formation and adhesion. While cell–cell adhesion assembly was completely disrupted in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, the amount of cis-dimers of E-cadherin that formed at the cell surface was not affected. In our “Cd{sup 2+}-switch” experiments, we did not find that Cd{sup 2+}-induced E-cadherin cis-dimer formation in EL cells when they were incubated in low-Ca{sup 2+} medium. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time the effects of Cd{sup 2+} on the cis-dimer structure of E-cadherin in living cells using a chemical cross-link analysis.« less

  19. Expression of p27Kip1 and E-cadherin in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Indonesian Patients.

    PubMed

    E I, Auerkari; V, Joewono; D R, Handjari; A T, Sarwono; A W, Suhartono; K, Eto; M A, Ikeda

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit characteristic damage of DNA and its expression. The expression of the tumor suppressors E-cadherin and p27(Kip1) has been tested on 57 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) of Indonesian subjects. HNSCC tumor samples including both primary and (unrelated) nodal cases were obtained from the archives of Indonesian hospitals, in accordance with acknowledged ethical requirements. Only modest correlation was found between reduced expression of E-cadherin or p27(Kip1) with increased malignancy of primary and nodal growth. The observed strong correlation regardless of malignancy between the expressed levels of E-cadherin and p27(Kip1) suggests that also in combination these would not help to better predict the outcome of HNSCC.

  20. Silibinin Synergizes with Histone Deacetylase and DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors in Upregulating E-cadherin Expression Together with Inhibition of Migration and Invasion of Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mateen, Samiha; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Chan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive cancers in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phase are characterized by loss of cell adhesion, repression of E-cadherin, and increased cell mobility. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) differs in basal level of E-cadherin; predominantly exhibiting silenced expression due to epigenetic-related modifications. Accordingly, effective treatments are needed to modulate these epigenetic events that in turn can positively regulate E-cadherin levels. Herein, we investigated silibinin, a natural flavonolignan with anticancer efficacy against lung cancer, either alone or in combination with epigenetic therapies to modulate E-cadherin expression in a panel of NSCLC cell lines. Silibinin combined with HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A [TSA; 7-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-N-hydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-7-oxohepta-2,4-dienamide] or DNMT inhibitor 5′-Aza-deoxycytidine (Aza) significantly restored E-cadherin levels in NSCLC cells harboring epigenetically silenced E-cadherin expression. These combination treatments also strongly decreased the invasion/migration of these cells, which further emphasized the biologic significance of E-cadherin restoration. Treatment of NSCLC cells, with basal E-cadherin levels, by silibinin further increased the E-cadherin expression and inhibited their migratory and invasive potential. Additional studies showed that silibinin alone as well as in combination with TSA or Aza downmodulate the expression of Zeb1, which is a major transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin. Overall these findings demonstrate the potential of combinatorial treatments of silibinin with HDAC or DNMT inhibitor to modulate EMT events in NSCLC cell lines, leading to a significant inhibition in their migratory and invasive potentials. These results are highly significant, since loss of E-cadherin and metastatic spread of the disease via EMT is associated with poor prognosis and high mortalities in NSCLC. PMID:23461975

  1. Changes in E-cadherin rigidity sensing regulate cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Collins, Caitlin; Denisin, Aleksandra K; Pruitt, Beth L; Nelson, W James

    2017-07-18

    Mechanical cues are sensed and transduced by cell adhesion complexes to regulate diverse cell behaviors. Extracellular matrix (ECM) rigidity sensing by integrin adhesions has been well studied, but rigidity sensing by cadherins during cell adhesion is largely unexplored. Using mechanically tunable polyacrylamide (PA) gels functionalized with the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (Ecad-Fc), we showed that E-cadherin-dependent epithelial cell adhesion was sensitive to changes in PA gel elastic modulus that produced striking differences in cell morphology, actin organization, and membrane dynamics. Traction force microscopy (TFM) revealed that cells produced the greatest tractions at the cell periphery, where distinct types of actin-based membrane protrusions formed. Cells responded to substrate rigidity by reorganizing the distribution and size of high-traction-stress regions at the cell periphery. Differences in adhesion and protrusion dynamics were mediated by balancing the activities of specific signaling molecules. Cell adhesion to a 30-kPa Ecad-Fc PA gel required Cdc42- and formin-dependent filopodia formation, whereas adhesion to a 60-kPa Ecad-Fc PA gel induced Arp2/3-dependent lamellipodial protrusions. A quantitative 3D cell-cell adhesion assay and live cell imaging of cell-cell contact formation revealed that inhibition of Cdc42, formin, and Arp2/3 activities blocked the initiation, but not the maintenance of established cell-cell adhesions. These results indicate that the same signaling molecules activated by E-cadherin rigidity sensing on PA gels contribute to actin organization and membrane dynamics during cell-cell adhesion. We hypothesize that a transition in the stiffness of E-cadherin homotypic interactions regulates actin and membrane dynamics during initial stages of cell-cell adhesion.

  2. WNT7a induces E-cadherin in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tatsuo; Gemmill, Robert M; Ferguson, Kevin; Kusy, Sophie; Roche, Joëlle; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Zeng, Chan; Baron, Anna; Bemis, Lynne; Erickson, Paul; Wilder, Elizabeth; Rustgi, Anil; Kitajewski, Jan; Gabrielson, Edward; Bremnes, Roy; Franklin, Wilbur; Drabkin, Harry A

    2003-09-02

    E-cadherin loss in cancer is associated with de-differentiation, invasion, and metastasis. Drosophila DE-cadherin is regulated by Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, although this has not been demonstrated in mammalian cells. We previously reported that expression of WNT7a, encoded on 3p25, was frequently downregulated in lung cancer, and that loss of E-cadherin or beta-catenin was a poor prognostic feature. Here we show that WNT7a both activates E-cadherin expression via a beta-catenin specific mechanism in lung cancer cells and is involved in a positive feedback loop. Li+, a GSK3 beta inhibitor, led to E-cadherin induction in an inositol-independent manner. Similarly, exposure to mWNT7a specifically induced free beta-catenin and E-cadherin. Among known transcriptional suppressors of E-cadherin, ZEB1 was uniquely correlated with E-cadherin loss in lung cancer cell lines, and its inhibition by RNA interference resulted in E-cadherin induction. Pharmacologic reversal of E-cadherin and WNT7a losses was achieved with Li+, histone deacetylase inhibition, or in some cases only with combined inhibitors. Our findings provide support that E-cadherin induction by WNT/beta-catenin signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway operative in lung cancer cells, and that loss of WNT7a expression may be important in lung cancer development or progression by its effects on E-cadherin.

  3. Elevated Src family kinase activity stabilizes E-cadherin-based junctions and collective movement of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Veracini, Laurence; Grall, Dominique; Schaub, Sébastien; Divonne, Stéphanie Beghelli-de la Forest; Etienne-Grimaldi, Marie-Christine; Milano, Gérard; Bozec, Alexandre; Babin, Emmanuel; Sudaka, Anne; Thariat, Juliette; Van Obberghen-Schilling, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    EGF receptor (EGFR) overexpression is thought to drive head and neck carcinogenesis however clinical responses to EGFR-targeting agents have been modest and alternate targets are actively sought to improve results. Src family kinases (SFKs), reported to act downstream of EGFR are among the alternative targets for which increased expression or activity in epithelial tumors is commonly associated to the dissolution of E-cadherin-based junctions and acquisition of a mesenchymal-like phenotype. Robust expression of total and activated Src was observed in advanced stage head and neck tumors (N=60) and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma lines. In cultured cancer cells Src co-localized with E-cadherin in cell-cell junctions and its phosphorylation on Y419 was both constitutive and independent of EGFR activation. Selective inhibition of SFKs with SU6656 delocalized E-cadherin and disrupted cellular junctions without affecting E-cadherin expression and this effect was phenocopied by knockdown of Src or Yes. These findings reveal an EGFR-independent role for SFKs in the maintenance of intercellular junctions, which likely contributes to the cohesive invasion E-cadherin-positive cells in advanced tumors. Further, they highlight the need for a deeper comprehension of molecular pathways that drive collective cell invasion, in absence of mesenchymal transition, in order to combat tumor spread. PMID:25779657

  4. Changes in E-cadherin rigidity sensing regulate cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Caitlin; Pruitt, Beth L.; Nelson, W. James

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical cues are sensed and transduced by cell adhesion complexes to regulate diverse cell behaviors. Extracellular matrix (ECM) rigidity sensing by integrin adhesions has been well studied, but rigidity sensing by cadherins during cell adhesion is largely unexplored. Using mechanically tunable polyacrylamide (PA) gels functionalized with the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (Ecad-Fc), we showed that E-cadherin–dependent epithelial cell adhesion was sensitive to changes in PA gel elastic modulus that produced striking differences in cell morphology, actin organization, and membrane dynamics. Traction force microscopy (TFM) revealed that cells produced the greatest tractions at the cell periphery, where distinct types of actin-based membrane protrusions formed. Cells responded to substrate rigidity by reorganizing the distribution and size of high-traction-stress regions at the cell periphery. Differences in adhesion and protrusion dynamics were mediated by balancing the activities of specific signaling molecules. Cell adhesion to a 30-kPa Ecad-Fc PA gel required Cdc42- and formin-dependent filopodia formation, whereas adhesion to a 60-kPa Ecad-Fc PA gel induced Arp2/3-dependent lamellipodial protrusions. A quantitative 3D cell–cell adhesion assay and live cell imaging of cell–cell contact formation revealed that inhibition of Cdc42, formin, and Arp2/3 activities blocked the initiation, but not the maintenance of established cell–cell adhesions. These results indicate that the same signaling molecules activated by E-cadherin rigidity sensing on PA gels contribute to actin organization and membrane dynamics during cell–cell adhesion. We hypothesize that a transition in the stiffness of E-cadherin homotypic interactions regulates actin and membrane dynamics during initial stages of cell–cell adhesion. PMID:28674019

  5. Mammary-specific inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 impairs functional gland development and leads to pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Derksen, Patrick W B; Braumuller, Tanya M; van der Burg, Eline; Hornsveld, Marten; Mesman, Elly; Wesseling, Jelle; Krimpenfort, Paul; Jonkers, Jos

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women of the Western world. Even though a large percentage of breast cancer patients show pathological complete remission after standard treatment regimes, approximately 30-40% are non-responsive and ultimately develop metastatic disease. To generate a good preclinical model of invasive breast cancer, we have taken a tissue-specific approach to somatically inactivate p53 and E-cadherin, the cardinal cell-cell adhesion receptor that is strongly associated with tumor invasiveness. In breast cancer, E-cadherin is found mutated or otherwise functionally silenced in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), which accounts for 10-15% of all breast cancers. We show that mammary-specific stochastic inactivation of conditional E-cadherin and p53 results in impaired mammary gland function during pregnancy through the induction of anoikis resistance of mammary epithelium, resulting in loss of epithelial organization and a dysfunctional mammary gland. Moreover, combined inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 induced lactation-independent development of invasive and metastatic mammary carcinomas, which showed strong resemblance to human pleomorphic ILC. Dissemination patterns of mouse ILC mimic the human malignancy, showing metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lung, lymph nodes and bone. Our results confirm that loss of E-cadherin contributes to both mammary tumor initiation and metastasis, and establish a preclinical mouse model of human ILC that can be used for the development of novel intervention strategies to treat invasive breast cancer.

  6. E-Cadherin As A Chemotherapy Resistance Mechanism On Metastatic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    chemotherapy. REPORTABLE OUTCOMES Publications 1. Chao Y, Wu Q, Shepard C, and Wells A. “Hepatocyte induced re-expression of E-cadherin in breast...Microenvironment (Appendix 2) 3. Chao Y*, Shepard CR*, Wells A (2010). Breast carcinoma cells re-express E-cadherin during mesenchymal to epithelial...Metastases.” Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists. Redondo Beach, PA. June 2009. 2. Chao Y, Shepard CR, Wells, A. “E-cadherin

  7. There are four dynamically and functionally distinct populations of E-cadherin in cell junctions

    PubMed Central

    Erami, Zahra; Timpson, Paul; Yao, Wu; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Anderson, Kurt I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT E-cadherin is a trans-membrane tumor suppressor responsible for epithelial cell adhesion. E-cadherin forms adhesive clusters through combined extra-cellular cis- and trans-interactions and intracellular interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. Here we identify four populations of E-cadherin within cell junctions based on the molecular interactions which determine their mobility and adhesive properties. Adhesive and non-adhesive populations of E-cadherin each consist of mobile and immobile fractions. Up to half of the E-cadherin immobilized in cell junctions is non-adhesive. Incorporation of E-cadherin into functional adhesions require all three adhesive interactions, with deletion of any one resulting in loss of effective cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, the only interaction which could independently slow the diffusion of E-cadherin was the tail-mediated intra-cellular interaction. The adhesive and non-adhesive mobile fractions of E-cadherin can be distinguished by their sensitivity to chemical cross-linking with adhesive clusters. Our data define the size, mobility, and adhesive properties of four distinct populations of E-cadherin within cell junctions, and support association with the actin cytoskeleton as the first step in adhesion formation. PMID:26471767

  8. Numb controls E-cadherin endocytosis through p120 catenin with aPKC

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Takashi; Wang, Shujie; Kakeno, Mai; Matsuzawa, Kenji; Matsui, Toshinori; Yokoi, Keiko; Murase, Kiyoko; Sugiyama, Ikuko; Ozawa, Masayuki; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    Cadherin trafficking controls tissue morphogenesis and cell polarity. The endocytic adaptor Numb participates in apicobasal polarity by acting on intercellular adhesions in epithelial cells. However, it remains largely unknown how Numb controls cadherin-based adhesion. Here, we found that Numb directly interacted with p120 catenin (p120), which is known to interact with E-cadherin and prevent its internalization. Numb accumulated at intercellular adhesion sites and the apical membrane in epithelial cells. Depletion of Numb impaired E-cadherin internalization, whereas depletion of p120 accelerated internalization. Expression of the Numb-binding fragment of p120 inhibited E-cadherin internalization in a dominant-negative fashion, indicating that Numb interacts with the E-cadherin/p120 complex and promotes E-cadherin endocytosis. Impairment of Numb induced mislocalization of E-cadherin from the lateral membrane to the apical membrane. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a member of the PAR complex, phosphorylated Numb and inhibited its association with p120 and α-adaptin. Depletion or inhibition of aPKC accelerated E-cadherin internalization. Wild-type Numb restored E-cadherin internalization in the Numb-depleted cells, whereas a phosphomimetic mutant or a mutant with defective α-adaptin-binding ability did not restore the internalization. Thus, we propose that aPKC phosphorylates Numb to prevent its binding to p120 and α-adaptin, thereby attenuating E-cadherin endocytosis to maintain apicobasal polarity. PMID:21775625

  9. Expression of E-cadherin and vimentin in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingping; Tao, Detao; Xu, Qing; Gao, Zhenlin; Tang, Daofang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the levels of E-cadherin, vimentin expression in tumor tissues from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and the relationship between the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in order to explore its values for predicting the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma, short survival of patients in many types of cancer. E-cadherin and vimentin expression of 10 benign and 42 OSCC tumor tissues was examined by immunohistochemical staining. E-cadherin is positively expressed in normal oral mucosa epithelium, but vimentin expression is not found in normal oral mucosa epithelia; the E-cadherin and vimentin were expressed in 26 of 42 (61.9%) and 16 of 42 (38.1%), respectively. No statistically difference was found for E-cadherin and vimentin expression in patients with different age, gender and tumor location, E-cadherin and vimentin expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and tissue location (P < 0.05); E-cadherin expression was also significantly associated with tumor stage (P < 0.05); there are significantly difference between infiltrative margin and central area in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma for E-cadherin and vimentin positive expression (P < 0.05). E-cadherin and vimentin positive expression was associated with tumor metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our study preliminarily confirmed that EMT phenomenon is existed during the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Co-evaluation of E-cadherin and vimentin might be a valuable tool for predicting OSCC patient outcome. PMID:26045832

  10. [Immunohistochemical expression of the E-cadherin-catenin complex in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Pablo; Araya, Juan; Villaseca, Miguel; Roa, Iván; Melo, Angélica; Muñoz, Sergio; Roa, Juan

    2006-08-01

    The E-cadherin/catenin complex plays an essential role in the control of epithelial differentiation. Abnormal expression in tumors correlates with histological grade, advanced stage and poor prognosis. To evaluate the expression pattern of E-cadherin/catenin complex in gastric carcinoma and analyze their association with tumor clinicopathological features and patient survival. Inmunohistochemical staining of E-cadherin, alpha and ss-catenin was performed from paraffin specimens of 65 gastric carcinomas. Abnormal expression of E-cadherin, alpha and ss-catenin was demonstrated in 82%, 85% and 88% of gastric carcinomas, respectively. There was a significant correlation between abnormal expression and Lauren pathological classification and depth of infiltration, but not with tumor stage, positive lymph node metastases and survival. Abnormal expression of E-cadherin, alpha and ss-catenin occurs frequently in gastric carcinoma and correlates with histological grade.

  11. DNA methylation-induced E-cadherin silencing is correlated with the clinicopathological features of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Venza, Mario; Visalli, Maria; Catalano, Teresa; Biondo, Carmelo; Beninati, Concetta; Teti, Diana; Venza, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    E-cadherin, a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule, has an important role in epithelial cell function, maintenance of tissue architecture and cancer suppression. Loss of E-cadherin promotes tumor metastatic dissemination and predicts poor prognosis. The present study investigated the clinicopathological significance of E-cadherin expression in cutaneous, mucosal and uveal melanoma related to epigenetic mechanisms that may contribute to E-cadherin silencing. E-cadherin expression was reduced in 55/130 cutaneous (42.3%), 49/82 mucosal (59.7%) and 36/64 uveal (56.2%) melanoma samples as compared to normal skin controls and was inversely associated with promoter methylation. Of the 10 different CpG sites studied (nt 863, 865, 873, 879, 887, 892, 901, 918, 920 and 940), two sites (nt 892 and 940) were 90-100% methylated in all the melanoma specimens examined and the other ones were partially methylated (range, 53-86%). In contrast, the methylation rate of the E-cadherin gene was low in normal tissues (range, 5-24%). In all the three types of melanoma studied, a significant correlation was found between reduced levels of E-cadherin and reduced survival, high mitotic index and metastasis, accounting for the predilection of lymph nodal localization. In cutaneous and mucosal melanoma, low E-cadherin expression was positively correlated also with head/neck localization and ulceration. A high frequency of reduced E-cadherin levels occurred in choroid melanomas. In vitro experiments showed that E-cadherin transcription was restored following 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment or DNMT1 silencing and was negatively correlated with the invasive potential of melanoma cells. The significant relationship between E-cadherin silencing and several poor prognostic factors indicates that this adhesion molecule may play an important role in melanomagenesis. Therefore, the inverse association of E-cadherin expression with promoter methylation raises the intriguing

  12. Arf6 regulates EGF-induced internalization of E-cadherin in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Zhang, Yujie; Gu, Luo; Zheng, Jianchao; Cui, Jie; Dong, Jing; Du, Jun

    2015-01-01

    E-cadherin internalization facilitates dissolution of adherens junctions and promotes tumor cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration. Our previous results have shown that Arf6 exerts pro-migratory action in breast cancer cells after EGF stimulation. Despite the fact that EGF signaling stimulates EMT of breast cancer cells, the effect of Arf6 on internalization of E-cadherin of breast cancer cells under EGF treatment remains to be determined. Here, we showed that EGF dose-dependently stimulated E-cadherin internalization by MCF-7 cells with the maximal effect at 50 ng/ml. Meanwhile, EGF treatment markedly increased Arf6 activation. Arf6 was involved in complexes of E-cadherin, and more E-cadherin was pulled down with Arf6 when the activity of the latter was increased. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays showed that transfection breast cancer cells with Arf6-T27N or Arf6 siRNA suppressed EGF-induced E-cadherin internalization. Taken together, our study demonstrated that Arf6 activation plays a potential role in EGF-induced E-cadherin internalization, providing new mechanism underlying the effect of Arf6 on promoting breast cancer cell metastasis.

  13. Expression of E-cadherin in canine anal sac gland carcinoma and its association with survival.

    PubMed

    Polton, G A; Brearley, M J; Green, L M; Scase, T J

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether an association could be demonstrated between survival and the expression of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin by the neoplastic cells in a group of dogs with anal sac gland carcinomas (ASGCs). Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded primary tumour specimens were obtained for 36 cases of canine ASGC with known clinical management and survival data. Immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate E-cadherin expression by the neoplastic cells and data were evaluated for an association between E-cadherin expression and survival. On univariate analysis, the median survival time for cases with tumours expressing E-cadherin in more than 75% of cells was significantly greater than that for cases with tumours expressing E-cadherin in fewer than 75% of cells (1168 versus 448 days, P = 0.0246). Both E-cadherin expression and presence or absence of distant metastases were significantly associated with survival on multivariate analysis. This study demonstrates that expression of E-cadherin at the cytoplasmic membrane in canine ASGCs is variable and potentially predictive of survival.

  14. CD8 T-cells and E-cadherin in host responses against oropharyngeal candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Quimby, K.; Lilly, E.A.; Zacharek, M.; McNulty, K.; Leigh, J.E.; Vazquez, J.E.; Fidel, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is the most common oral infection in HIV+ persons. Previous studies suggest a role for CD8+ T-cells against OPC when CD4+ T-cells are lost, but enhanced susceptibility to infection occurs when CD8+ T-cell migration is inhibited by reduced tissue E-cadherin. Objective Conduct a longitudinal study of tissue CD8+ T-cells and E-cadherin expression before, during, and after episodes of OPC. Methods Oral fungal burden was monitored and tissue was evaluated for CD8+ T-cells and E-cadherin over a one-year period in HIV+ persons with a history of, or an acute episode of OPC. Results While longitudinal analyses precluded formal interpretations, point prevalence analyses of the dataset revealed that when patients experiencing OPC were successfully treated, tissue E-cadherin expression was similar to patients who had not experienced OPC, and higher numbers of CD8+ T-cells were distributed throughout OPC− tissue under normal expression of E-cadherin. Conclusion These results suggest that 1) reduction in tissue E-cadherin expression in OPC+ patients is not permanent, and 2) high numbers of CD8+ T-cells can be distributed throughout OPC− tissue under normal E-cadherin expression. Together these results extend our previous studies and continue to support a role for CD8+ T-cells in host defense against OPC. PMID:21958417

  15. E-cadherin and beta-catenin are down-regulated in prostatic bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Bryden, A A G; Hoyland, J A; Freemont, A J; Clarke, N W; Schembri Wismayer, D; George, N J R

    2002-03-01

    To determine the E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression phenotype in untreated primary prostate cancer and corresponding bone metastases. Paired bone metastasis and primary prostate specimens were obtained from 14 men with untreated metastatic prostate carcinoma. The tumours were histologically graded by an independent pathologist. Expression of mRNA for E-cadherin and beta-catenin was detected within the tumour cells using in-situ hybridization with a 35S-labelled cDNA probe. The expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin were graded as uniform, heterogeneous or negative. The mRNA for E-cadherin was expressed in 13 of 14 primary carcinomas and 11 bone metastases; beta-catenin was expressed by 13 and nine, respectively. Of the primary tumours, nine expressed E-cadherin and beta-catenin uniformly; in contrast, all metastases had down-regulated E-cadherin and/or beta-catenin. The down-regulation of E-cadherin and beta-catenin are a feature of the metastatic phenotype, which may be a significant factor in the genesis of bone metastases. However, this does not appear to be reflected in the expression of these molecules in the primary tumours.

  16. Mucinous Colorectal Adenocarcinoma: Influence of EGFR and E-Cadherin Expression on Clinicopathologic Features and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd AlRahman M; AbdelAziz, Azza; El-Hawary, Amira K; Hosni, Ali; Zalata, Khalid R; Gado, Asmaa I

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting results on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E-cadherin expression in colorectal carcinoma and their prognostic significance. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate EGFR and E-cadherin expression, interrelation and relation to clinicopathologic, histologic parameters, and survival in rare colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA). In this study, we studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal MA and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA). High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tips technique, and immunohistochemistry for EGFR and E-cadherin was performed. All relations were analyzed using established statistical methodologies. NMA expressed EGFR and E-cadherin in significantly higher rates with significant heterogenous pattern than MA. EGFR and E-cadherin positivity rates were significantly interrelated in both NMA and MA groups. In the NMA group, high EGFR expression was associated with old age, male sex, multiplicity of tumors, lack of mucinous component, and association with schistosomiasis. However, in the MA group, high EGFR expression was associated only with old age and MA subtype rather than signet ring carcinoma subtype. Conversely, high E-cadherin expression in MA cases was associated with old age, fungating tumor configuration, MA subtype, and negative intratumoral lymphocytic response. However, in the NMA cases, none of these factors was statistically significant. In a univariate analysis, neither EGFR nor E-cadherin expression showed a significant impact on disease-free or overall survival. Targeted therapy against EGFR and E-cadherin may not be useful in patients with MA. Neither EGFR nor E-cadherin is an independent prognostic factor in NMA or MA.

  17. E-cadherin immunohistochemical expression in mammary gland neoplasms in bitches.

    PubMed

    Rodo, A; Malicka, E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate E-cadherin expression in correlation with other neoplasm traits such as: histological type, the differentiation grade and proliferative activity. Material for the investigation comprised mammary gland tumours, collected from dogs, the patients of veterinary clinics, during surgical procedures and archival samples. All together 21 adenomas, 32 complex carcinomas, 35 simple carcinomas and 13 solid carcinomas were qualified for further investigation. E-cadherin expression was higher in adenomas as compared with carcinomas but lower in solid carcinomas as compared with simple and complex carcinomas. More over, the expression of E-cadherin decreased with the increase in the neoplasm malignancy and proliferative activity (value of the mitotic index and number of cells showing Ki67). The study has shown that the expression of E-cadherin can be used as a prognostic factor.

  18. E-cadherin is required for cranial neural crest migration in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chaolie; Kratzer, Marie-Claire; Wedlich, Doris; Kashef, Jubin

    2016-03-15

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a highly motile and multipotent embryonic cell population, which migrates directionally on defined routes throughout the embryo, contributing to facial structures including cartilage, bone and ganglia. Cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion is known to play a crucial role in the directional migration of CNC cells. However, migrating CNC co-express different cadherin subtypes, and their individual roles have yet to be fully explored. In previous studies, the expression of individual cadherin subtypes has been analysed using different methods with varying sensitivities, preventing the direct comparison of expression levels. Here, we provide the first comprehensive and comparative analysis of the expression of six cadherin superfamily members during different phases of CNC cell migration in Xenopus. By applying a quantitative RT-qPCR approach, we can determine the copy number and abundance of each expressed cadherin through different phases of CNC migration. Using this approach, we show for the first time expression of E-cadherin and XB/C-cadherin in CNC cells, adding them as two new members of cadherins co-expressed during CNC migration. Cadherin co-expression during CNC migration in Xenopus, in particular the constant expression of E-cadherin, contradicts the classical epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) model postulating a switch in cadherin expression. Loss-of-function experiments further show that E-cadherin is required for proper CNC cell migration in vivo and also for cell protrusion formation in vitro. Knockdown of E-cadherin is not rescued by co-injection of other classical cadherins, pointing to a specific function of E-cadherin in mediating CNC cell migration. Finally, through reconstitution experiments with different E-cadherin deletion mutants in E-cadherin morphant embryos, we demonstrate that the extracellular domain, but not the cytoplasmic domain, of E-cadherin is sufficient to rescue CNC cell migration in vivo

  19. E-cadherin: A determinant molecule associated with ovarian cancer progression, dissemination and aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Devis, Laura; Lapyckyj, Lara; Besso, María José; Llauradó, Marta; Abascal, María Florencia; Matos, María Laura; Lanau, Lucia; Castellví, Josep; Sánchez, José Luis; Pérez Benavente, Asunción; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Reventós, Jaume; Santamaria Margalef, Anna; Rigau, Marina; Vazquez-Levin, Mónica Hebe

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fifth cancer death cause in women worldwide. The malignant nature of this disease stems from its unique dissemination pattern. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported in OC and downregulation of Epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) is a hallmark of this process. However, findings on the relationship between E-cadherin levels and OC progression, dissemination and aggressiveness are controversial. In this study, the evaluation of E-cadherin expression in an OC tissue microarray revealed its prognostic value to discriminate between advanced- and early-stage tumors, as well as serous tumors from other histologies. Moreover, E-cadherin, Neural cadherin (N-cadherin), cytokeratins and vimentin expression was assessed in TOV-112, SKOV-3, OAW-42 and OV-90 OC cell lines grown in monolayers and under anchorage-independent conditions to mimic ovarian tumor cell dissemination, and results were associated with cell aggressiveness. According to these EMT-related markers, cell lines were classified as mesenchymal (M; TOV-112), intermediate mesenchymal (IM; SKOV-3), intermediate epithelial (IE; OAW-42) and epithelial (E; OV-90). M- and IM-cells depicted the highest migration capacity when grown in monolayers, and aggregates derived from M- and IM-cell lines showed lower cell death, higher adhesion to extracellular matrices and higher invasion capacity than E- and IE-aggregates. The analysis of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, cytokeratin 19 and vimentin mRNA levels in 20 advanced-stage high-grade serous human OC ascites showed an IM phenotype in all cases, characterized by higher proportions of N- to E-cadherin and vimentin to cytokeratin 19. In particular, higher E-cadherin mRNA levels were associated with cancer antigen 125 levels more than 500 U/mL and platinum-free intervals less than 6 months. Altogether, E-cadherin expression levels were found relevant for the assessment of OC progression and aggressiveness. PMID:28934230

  20. E-cadherin and cell adhesion: a role in architecture and function in the pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Gareth J; Hodgkin, Matthew N; Squires, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    The efficient secretion of insulin from beta-cells requires extensive intra-islet communication. The cell surface adhesion protein epithelial (E)-cadherin (ECAD) establishes and maintains epithelial tissues such as the islets of Langerhans. In this study, the role of ECAD in regulating insulin secretion from pseudoislets was investigated. The effect of an immuno-neutralising ECAD on gross morphology, cytosolic calcium signalling, direct cell-to-cell communication and insulin secretion was assessed by fura-2 microfluorimetry, Lucifer Yellow dye injection and insulin ELISA in an insulin-secreting model system. Antibody blockade of ECAD reduces glucose-evoked changes in [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion. Neutralisation of ECAD causes a breakdown in the glucose-stimulated synchronicity of calcium oscillations between discrete regions within the pseudoislet, and the transfer of dye from an individual cell within a cell cluster is attenuated in the absence of ECAD ligation, demonstrating that gap junction communication is disrupted. The functional consequence of neutralising ECAD is a significant reduction in insulin secretion. Cell adhesion via ECAD has distinct roles in the regulation of intercellular communication between beta-cells within islets, with potential repercussions for insulin secretion.

  1. Hyaluronan and Layilin Mediate Loss of Airway Epithelial Barrier Function Induced by Cigarette Smoke by Decreasing E-cadherin*

    PubMed Central

    Forteza, Rosanna Malbran; Casalino-Matsuda, S. Marina; Falcon, Nieves S.; Valencia Gattas, Monica; Monzon, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CigS) exposure is associated with increased bronchial epithelial permeability and impaired barrier function. Primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to CigS exhibit decreased E-cadherin expression and reduced transepithelial electrical resistance. These effects were mediated by hyaluronan (HA) because inhibition of its synthesis with 4-methylumbelliferone prevented these effects, and exposure to HA fragments of <70 kDa mimicked these effects. We show that the HA receptor layilin is expressed apically in human airway epithelium and that cells infected with lentivirus expressing layilin siRNAs were protected against increased permeability triggered by both CigS and HA. We identified RhoA/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) as the signaling effectors downstream layilin. We conclude that HA fragments generated by CigS bind to layilin and signal through Rho/ROCK to inhibit the E-cadherin gene and protein expression, leading to a loss of epithelial cell-cell contact. These studies suggest that HA functions as a master switch protecting or disrupting the epithelial barrier in its high versus low molecular weight form and that its depolymerization is a first and necessary step triggering the inflammatory response to CigS. PMID:23048036

  2. Lacking hypoxia-mediated downregulation of E-cadherin in cancers of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Mayer, A; Höckel, M; Schlischewsky, N; Schmidberger, H; Horn, L-C; Vaupel, P

    2013-02-05

    Experimental studies have established a causal connection between tumour hypoxia, hypoxia-associated proteome changes and downregulation of E-cadherin, the final common pathway of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our study aimed at elucidating the interrelationship of these processes in cancers of the uterine cervix in vivo. Tumour oxygenation was assessed in 48 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix using polarographic needle electrodes. The expression pattern of E-cadherin was investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and was compared with that of the hypoxia-inducible proteins glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX in biopsy specimens of the oxygenation measurement tracks. The majority of cervical cancers (52%) were E-cadherin positive, with a complete absence of the antigen in only 10% of the tumours. No correlation was found between the level of E-cadherin expression and the oxygenation status (mean pO(2), median pO(2) and hypoxic fractions). In patients showing partial expression of E-cadherin (38%), staining was not preferentially diminished in GLUT-1- or CA IX-positive areas, and loss of E-cadherin occurred independently of tumour cell scattering. Our data provide no evidence in favour of a hypoxia-induced EMT as a mechanistic basis of cervical cancer invasiveness.

  3. Lacking hypoxia-mediated downregulation of E-cadherin in cancers of the uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, A; Höckel, M; Schlischewsky, N; Schmidberger, H; Horn, L-C; Vaupel, P

    2013-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies have established a causal connection between tumour hypoxia, hypoxia-associated proteome changes and downregulation of E-cadherin, the final common pathway of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our study aimed at elucidating the interrelationship of these processes in cancers of the uterine cervix in vivo. Methods: Tumour oxygenation was assessed in 48 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix using polarographic needle electrodes. The expression pattern of E-cadherin was investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and was compared with that of the hypoxia-inducible proteins glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX in biopsy specimens of the oxygenation measurement tracks. Results: The majority of cervical cancers (52%) were E-cadherin positive, with a complete absence of the antigen in only 10% of the tumours. No correlation was found between the level of E-cadherin expression and the oxygenation status (mean pO2, median pO2 and hypoxic fractions). In patients showing partial expression of E-cadherin (38%), staining was not preferentially diminished in GLUT-1- or CA IX-positive areas, and loss of E-cadherin occurred independently of tumour cell scattering. Conclusion: Our data provide no evidence in favour of a hypoxia-induced EMT as a mechanistic basis of cervical cancer invasiveness. PMID:23322209

  4. Matrilysin (Matrix Metalloproteinase-7) Mediates E-Cadherin Ectodomain Shedding in Injured Lung Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, John K.; Li, Qinglang; Parks, William C.

    2003-01-01

    Matrilysin (matrix metalloproteinase-7) is highly expressed in lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and other conditions associated with airway and alveolar injury. Although matrilysin is required for closure of epithelial wounds ex vivo, the mechanism of its action in repair is unknown. We demonstrate that matrilysin mediates shedding of E-cadherin ectodomain from injured lung epithelium both in vitro and in vivo. In alveolar-like epithelial cells, transfection of activated matrilysin resulted in shedding of E-cadherin and accelerated cell migration. In vivo, matrilysin co-localized with E-cadherin at the basolateral surfaces of migrating tracheal epithelium, and the reorganization of cell-cell junctions seen in wild-type injured tissue was absent in matrilysin-null samples. E-cadherin ectodomain was shed into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of bleomycin-injured wild-type mice, but was not shed in matrilysin-null mice. These findings identify E-cadherin as a novel substrate for matrilysin and indicate that shedding of E-cadherin ectodomain is required for epithelial repair. PMID:12759241

  5. Hypoxia induced E-cadherin involving regulators of Hippo pathway due to HIF-1α stabilization/nuclear translocation in bone metastasis from breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, Paola; Matteucci, Emanuela; Drago, Lorenzo

    The present study deals with the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of E-cadherin expression under hypoxia, because the adjustment of the amount of E-cadherin due to physical stimuli of the microenvironment might influence the colonization of metastasis to skeleton. We analyzed the effect of 1% oxygen tension, that is similar to that encountered in the bone marrow by metastatic cells spreading from breast carcinoma. The purpose was to evaluate the hypoxia-orchestrated control of E-cadherin transactivation via hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and the involvement of Hippo pathway members, as regulators of transcription factors. Tomore » give a translational significance to the study, we took into consideration human pair-matched ductal breast carcinoma and bone metastasis: E-cadherin and Wwox were expressed in bone metastasis but not in breast carcinoma, while HIF-1α and TAZ seemed localized principally in nuclei of metastasis and were found in all cell compartments of breast carcinoma. A close examination of the regulatory mechanisms underlying E-cadherin expression in bone metastasis was done in 1833 clone derived from MDA-MB231 cells. Hypoxia induced E-cadherin only in 1833 clone, but not in parental cells, through HIF-1 and PPARγ activities, while Wwox decreased. Since Wwox was highly expressed in bone metastasis, the effect of ectopic Wwox was evaluated, and we showed E-cadherin transactivation and enhanced invasiveness in WWOX transfected 1833 cells. Also, hypoxia was additive with ectopic Wwox remarkably enhancing HIF-1α nuclear shuttle and accumulation due to the lengthening of the half-life of HIF-1α protein; under this experimental condition HIF-1α appeared as a slower migrated band compared with control, in agreement with the phosphorylation state. The in vitro data strongly supported the almost exclusive presence of HIF-1α in nuclei of human-bone metastasis. Thus, we

  6. Reevaluating αE-catenin monomer and homodimer functions by characterizing E-cadherin/αE-catenin chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Julie M.; Kitt, Khameeka N.; Gloerich, Martijn; Pokutta, Sabine; Weis, William I.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the E-cadherin–β-catenin–αE-catenin complex (CCC), mammalian αE-catenin binds F-actin weakly in the absence of force, whereas cytosolic αE-catenin forms a homodimer that interacts more strongly with F-actin. It has been concluded that cytosolic αE-catenin homodimer is not important for intercellular adhesion because E-cadherin/αE-catenin chimeras thought to mimic the CCC are sufficient to induce cell–cell adhesion. We show that, unlike αE-catenin in the CCC, these chimeras homodimerize, bind F-actin strongly, and inhibit the Arp2/3 complex, all of which are properties of the αE-catenin homodimer. To more accurately mimic the junctional CCC, we designed a constitutively monomeric chimera, and show that E-cadherin–dependent cell adhesion is weaker in cells expressing this chimera compared with cells in which αE-catenin homodimers are present. Our results demonstrate that E-cadherin/αE-catenin chimeras used previously do not mimic αE-catenin in the native CCC, and imply that both CCC-bound monomer and cytosolic homodimer αE-catenin are required for strong cell–cell adhesion. PMID:26416960

  7. Slug, Twist, and E-Cadherin as Immunohistochemical Biomarkers in Meningeal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nagaishi, Masaya; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Tanaka, Yuko; Ikota, Hayato; Yokoo, Hideaki; Nakazato, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    The overexpression of Twist and Slug and subsequent down-regulation of E-cadherin facilitate the acquirement of invasive growth properties in cancer cells. It is unclear which of these molecules are expressed in mesenchymal tumors in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated 10 cases each of hemangiopericytoma, solitary fibrous tumor, meningothelial, fibrous, angiomatous, and atypical meningiomas, and 5 cases of anaplastic meningioma for Slug, Twist, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin immunoexpression. Nuclear Slug expression was observed in 9/10 (90%) hemangiopericytomas and 5/10 (50%) solitary fibrous tumors, but not in any meningiomas, except for 1 case. Similarly, nuclear Twist expression was more extensive in hemangiopericytomas and solitary fibrous tumors than meningiomas. In contrast to Slug and Twist, the positive expression of E-cadherin was observed in 39/45 (87%) meningiomas, but not in any hemangiopericytomas or solitary fibrous tumors (P<0.0001). The fraction of tumor cells expressing E-cadherin in meningeal tumors was negatively correlated to those of Twist (P = 0.004) and Slug (P<0.0001). The overexpression of Slug and Twist with down-regulation of E-cadherin was characteristic findings in hemangiopericytomas and solitary fibrous tumors, but not in meningiomas. The immunohistochemical profiles of the two tumor groups may be useful as diagnostic markers in cases that present a differential diagnosis challenge. PMID:23029385

  8. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng-han; Harrison, Oliver J.; Song, Hang; Smith, Adam W.; Huang, William Y. C.; Lin, Wan-Chen; Guo, Zhenhuan; Padmanabhan, Anup; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.; Dustin, Michael L.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Groves, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell−cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (E-cad-ECD) in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest that the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role. PMID:26290581

  9. E-cadherin-mediated force transduction signals regulate global cell mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Muhamed, Ismaeel; Wu, Jun; Sehgal, Poonam; Kong, Xinyu; Tajik, Arash; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This report elucidates an E-cadherin-based force-transduction pathway that triggers changes in cell mechanics through a mechanism requiring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and the downstream formation of new integrin adhesions. This mechanism operates in addition to local cytoskeletal remodeling triggered by conformational changes in the E-cadherin-associated protein α-catenin, at sites of mechanical perturbation. Studies using magnetic twisting cytometry (MTC), together with traction force microscopy (TFM) and confocal imaging identified force-activated E-cadherin-specific signals that integrate cadherin force transduction, integrin activation and cell contractility. EGFR is required for the downstream activation of PI3K and myosin-II-dependent cell stiffening. Our findings also demonstrated that α-catenin-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling at perturbed E-cadherin adhesions does not require cell stiffening. These results broaden the repertoire of E-cadherin-based force transduction mechanisms, and define the force-sensitive signaling network underlying the mechano-chemical integration of spatially segregated adhesion receptors. PMID:26966187

  10. E-cadherin determines Caveolin-1 tumor suppression or metastasis enhancing function in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lobos-González, L; Aguilar, L; Diaz, J; Diaz, N; Urra, H; Torres, V; Silva, V; Fitzpatrick, C; Lladser, A; Hoek, K.S.; Leyton, L; Quest, AFG

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The role of caveolin-1 (CAV1) in cancer is highly controversial. CAV1 suppresses genes that favor tumor development, yet also promotes focal adhesion turnover and migration of metastatic cells. How these contrasting observations relate to CAV1 function in vivo is unclear. Our previous studies implicate E-cadherin in CAV1-dependent tumor suppression. Here we use murine melanoma B16F10 cells, with low levels of endogenous CAV1 and E-cadherin, to unravel how CAV1 affects tumor growth and metastasis, and to assess how co-expression of E-cadherin modulates CAV1 function in vivo in C57BL/6 mice. We find that overexpression of CAV1 in B16F10(cav-1) cells reduces subcutaneous tumor formation, but enhances metastasis relative to control cells. Furthermore, E-cadherin expression in B16F10(E-cad) cells reduces subcutaneous tumor formation, and lung metastasis when intravenously injected. Importantly, co-expression of CAV1 and E-cadherin in B16F10(cav1/E-cad) cells abolishes tumor formation, lung metastasis, increased Rac-1 activity and cell migration observed with B16F10(cav-1) cells. Finally, consistent with the notion that CAV1 participates in switching human melanomas to a more malignant phenotype, elevated levels of CAV1 expression correlated with enhanced migration and Rac-1 activation in these cells. PMID:23470013

  11. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    DOE PAGES

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng -han; ...

    2015-08-19

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell–cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest thatmore » the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role.« less

  12. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng -han

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell–cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest thatmore » the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role.« less

  13. Application of APTES-Anti-E-cadherin film for early cancer monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ben Ismail, Manel; Carreiras, Franck; Agniel, Rémy; Mili, Donia; Sboui, Dejla; Zanina, Nahla; Othmane, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Cancer staging is a way to classify cancer according to the extent of the disease in the body. The stage is usually determined by several factors such as the location of the primary tumor, the tumor size, the degree of spread in the surrounding tissues, etc. The study of E-cadherin (EC) expression on cancerous cells of patients has revealed variations in the molecular expression patterns of primary tumors and metastatic tumors. The detection of these cells requires a long procedure involving conventional techniques, thus, the requirement for development of new rapid devices that permit direct and highly sensitive detection stimulates the sensing field progress. Here, we explore if E-cadherin could be used as a biomarker to bind and detect epithelial cancer cells. Hence, the sensitive and specific detection of E-cadherin expressed on epithelial cells is approached by immobilizing anti-E-cadherin antibody (AEC) onto aminosilanized indium-tin oxide (ITO) surface. The immunosensing surfaces have been characterized by electrochemical measurements, wettability and confocal microscopy and their performance has been assessed in the presence of cancer cell lines. Under optimal conditions, the resulting immunosensor displayed a selective detection of E-cadherin expressing cells, which could be detected either by fluorescence or electrochemical techniques. The developed immunosensing surface could provide a simple tool that can be applied to cancer staging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. E-cadherin expression increases cell proliferation by regulating energy metabolism through nuclear factor-κB in AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Song Yi; Shin, Jee-Hye; Kee, Sun-Ho

    2017-09-01

    β-Catenin is a central player in Wnt signaling, and activation of Wnt signaling is associated with cancer development. E-cadherin in complex with β-catenin mediates cell-cell adhesion, which suppresses β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling. Recently, a tumor-suppressive role for E-cadherin has been reconsidered, as re-expression of E-cadherin was reported to enhance the metastatic potential of malignant tumors. To explore the role of E-cadherin, we established an E-cadherin-expressing cell line, EC96, from AGS cells that featured undetectable E-cadherin expression and a high level of Wnt signaling. In EC96 cells, E-cadherin re-expression enhanced cell proliferation, although Wnt signaling activity was reduced. Subsequent analysis revealed that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and consequent c-myc expression might be involved in E-cadherin expression-mediated cell proliferation. To facilitate rapid proliferation, EC96 cells enhance glucose uptake and produce ATP using both mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, whereas AGS cells use these mechanisms less efficiently. These events appeared to be mediated by NF-κB activation. Therefore, E-cadherin re-expression and subsequent induction of NF-κB signaling likely enhance energy production and cell proliferation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. E-cadherin and β-catenin adhesion proteins correlate positively with connexins in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    KANCZUGA-KODA, LUIZA; WINCEWICZ, ANDRZEJ; FUDALA, ANDRZEJ; ABRYCKI, TOMASZ; FAMULSKI, WALDEMAR; BALTAZIAK, MAREK; SULKOWSKI, STANISLAW; KODA, MARIUSZ

    2014-01-01

    The majority of solid cancers present with qualitative and quantitative aberrations of adhesion proteins, including E-cadherin and β-catenin, and connexin (Cx) gap junction proteins, which is consistent with alterations in the expression and location of such proteins in neoplastic cells. Since there are no data on the correlation between adhesion proteins and Cxs in human colorectal cancer (CRC), the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and correlation between these proteins. Tissue specimens were obtained from 151 cases of surgically removed colorectal adenocarcinomas. The samples were examined by immunohistochemistry with the use of antibodies against E-cadherin, β-catenin and the three Cxs: Cx26, Cx32 and Cx43. The aberrant expression of the studied adhesion proteins (primarily cytoplasmic for E-cadherin and cytoplasmic and/or nuclear for β-catenin) was observed, whereas only a minority of cases revealed normal membranous distribution of the labeling. The present study is the first in the literature to reveal a correlation between the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin and the examined Cxs in CRC in humans. The positive correlation between the Cxs, particularly Cx26 and Cx32, and the adhesive proteins occurred in patients without lymph node metastases and in the moderately differentiated tumors (G2). Such a dependency was not observed in the analysis of the correlation between Cx43 and E-cadherin. However, a positive correlation between these proteins was observed in patients with lymph nodes metastases. Additionally, a link between the expression of these adhesion proteins was observed. The present study indicates, for the first time, that the expression of adhesion proteins, E-cadherin and β-catenin, is closely associated with the expression of three studied Cxs in CRC, and that this correlation may improve an understanding of the carcinogenic process in this cancer. PMID:24932249

  16. E-Cadherin as a Chemotherapy Resistance Mechanism on Metastatic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Gold Kit (Zymo, San Diego, CA) per the manufacturer’s specifications. MSP was performed in the way of Corn et al [62] or using the CpG WIZ E-cadherin...Amplification Kit per the manufacturer’s instructions (Millipore, Temecula, CA). Briefly, in the method of Corn , a nested PCR method was used, in...cadherin gene promoter methylation in prostatic adenocarcinomas. Cancer 92(11): 2786-95. 29. Corn , PG, BD Smith, ES Ruckdeschel et al (2000) E-cadherin

  17. E-cadherin roles in animal biology: A perspective on thyroid hormone-influence.

    PubMed

    Izaguirre, María Fernanda; Casco, Victor Hugo

    2016-11-04

    The establishment, remodeling and maintenance of tissular architecture during animal development, and even across juvenile to adult life, are deeply regulated by a delicate interplay of extracellular signals, cell membrane receptors and intracellular signal messengers. It is well known that cell adhesion molecules (cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix) play a critical role in these processes. Particularly, adherens junctions (AJs) mediated by E-cadherin and catenins determine cell-cell contact survival and epithelia function. Consequently, this review seeks to encompass the complex and prolific knowledge about E-cadherin roles during physiological and pathological states, particularly focusing on the influence exerted by the thyroid hormone (TH).

  18. Diffusion and intermembrane distance: case study of avidin and E-cadherin mediated adhesion.

    PubMed

    Fenz, Susanne F; Merkel, Rudolf; Sengupta, Kheya

    2009-01-20

    We present a biomimetic model system for cell-cell adhesion consisting of a giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) adhering via specific ligand-receptor interactions to a supported lipid bilayer (SLB). The modification of in-plane diffusion of tracer lipids and receptors in the SLB membrane due to adhesion to the GUV is reported. Adhesion was mediated by either biotin-neutravidin (an avidin analogue) or the extracellular domains of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin (Ecad). In the strong interaction (biotin-avidin) case, binding of soluble receptors to the SLB alone led to reduced diffusion of tracer lipids. From theoretical considerations, this could be attributed partially to introduction of obstacles and partially to viscous effects. Further specific binding of a GUV membrane caused additional slowing down of tracers (up to 15%) and immobilization of receptors, and led to accumulation of receptors in the adhesion zone until full coverage was achieved. The intermembrane distance was measured to be 7 nm from microinterferometry (RICM). We show that a crowding effect due to the accumulated receptors alone is not sufficient to account for the slowing downan additional friction from the membrane also plays a role. In the weak binding case (Ecad), the intermembrane distance was about 50 nm, corresponding to partial overlap of the Ecad domains. No significant change in diffusion of tracer lipids was observed upon either protein binding or subsequent vesicle binding. The former was probably due to very small effective size of the obstacles introduced into the bilayer by Ecad binding, whereas the latter was due to the fact that, with such high intermembrane distance, the resulting friction is negligible. We conclude that the effect of intermembrane adhesion on diffusion depends strongly on the choice of the receptors.

  19. Expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: are potential prognostic markers?

    PubMed

    Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; Nonogaki, Suely; Nishimoto, Inês Nobuko; de Carli, Marina Lara; Landman, Gilles; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2014-06-03

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma presents with a preference for the head and neck region, and shows a distinct aggressive behavior, with frequent local recurrences, regional and distant metastasis. The alterations in the cadherin-catenin complex are fundamental requirements for the metastasis process, and this is the first study to evaluate the immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin in oral basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Seventeen cases of this tumor located exclusively in the mouth were compared to 26 cases of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and 28 cases of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma matched by stage and tumor site. The immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin were evaluated in the three groups and compared to their clinicopathological features and prognosis. For groups poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, reduction or absence of E-cadherin staining was observed in more than 80.0% of carcinomas, and it was statistically significant compared to well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p = .019). A strong expression of β-catenin was observed in 26.9% and 20.8% of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, respectively, and in 41.2% of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The 5-year and 10-year overall and disease-free survival rates demonstrated no significant differences among all three groups. The clinical and biological behavior of three groups of the oral cavity tumors evaluated are similar. E-cadherin and β-catenin immunostaining showed no prognostic value for basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinomas.

  20. Expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: are potential prognostic markers?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma presents with a preference for the head and neck region, and shows a distinct aggressive behavior, with frequent local recurrences, regional and distant metastasis. The alterations in the cadherin-catenin complex are fundamental requirements for the metastasis process, and this is the first study to evaluate the immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin in oral basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Methods Seventeen cases of this tumor located exclusively in the mouth were compared to 26 cases of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and 28 cases of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma matched by stage and tumor site. The immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin were evaluated in the three groups and compared to their clinicopathological features and prognosis. Results For groups poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, reduction or absence of E-cadherin staining was observed in more than 80.0% of carcinomas, and it was statistically significant compared to well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p = .019). A strong expression of β-catenin was observed in 26.9% and 20.8% of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, respectively, and in 41.2% of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The 5-year and 10-year overall and disease-free survival rates demonstrated no significant differences among all three groups. Conclusions The clinical and biological behavior of three groups of the oral cavity tumors evaluated are similar. E-cadherin and β-catenin immunostaining showed no prognostic value for basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:24893577

  1. E-cadherin can replace N-cadherin during secretory-stage enamel development.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaomu; Bidlack, Felicitas B; Stokes, Nicole; Bartlett, John D

    2014-01-01

    N-cadherin is a cell-cell adhesion molecule and deletion of N-cadherin in mice is embryonic lethal. During the secretory stage of enamel development, E-cadherin is down-regulated and N-cadherin is specifically up-regulated in ameloblasts when groups of ameloblasts slide by one another to form the rodent decussating enamel rod pattern. Since N-cadherin promotes cell migration, we asked if N-cadherin is essential for ameloblast cell movement during enamel development. The enamel organ, including its ameloblasts, is an epithelial tissue and for this study a mouse strain with N-cadherin ablated from epithelium was generated. Enamel from wild-type (WT) and N-cadherin conditional knockout (cKO) mice was analyzed. μCT and scanning electron microscopy showed that thickness, surface structure, and prism pattern of the cKO enamel looked identical to WT. No significant difference in hardness was observed between WT and cKO enamel. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry revealed the WT and N-cadherin cKO secretory stage ameloblasts expressed approximately equal amounts of total cadherins. Strikingly, E-cadherin was not normally down-regulated during the secretory stage in the cKO mice suggesting that E-cadherin can compensate for the loss of N-cadherin. Previously it was demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) induces E- and N-cadherin expression in human calvaria osteoblasts and we show that the N-cadherin cKO enamel organ expressed significantly more BMP2 and significantly less of the BMP antagonist Noggin than did WT enamel organ. The E- to N-cadherin switch at the secretory stage is not essential for enamel development or for forming the decussating enamel rod pattern. E-cadherin can substitute for N-cadherin during these developmental processes. Bmp2 expression may compensate for the loss of N-cadherin by inducing or maintaining E-cadherin expression when E-cadherin is normally down-regulated. Notably, this is the first demonstration of a natural endogenous

  2. Reactive oxygen species promote ovarian cancer progression via the HIF-1α/LOX/E-cadherin pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ma, Jun; Shen, Haoran; Wang, Chengjie; Sun, Yueping; Howell, Stephen B; Lin, Xinjian

    2014-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can drive the de‑differentiation of tumor cells leading to the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to enhance invasion and metastasis. The invasive and metastatic phenotype of malignant cells is often linked to loss of E-cadherin expression, a hallmark of EMT. Recent studies have demonstrated that hypoxic exposure causes HIF-1-dependent repression of E-cadherin. However, the mechanism by which ROS and/or HIF suppresses E-cadherin expression remains less clear. In the present study, we found that ROS accumulation in ovarian carcinoma cells upregulated HIF-1α expression and subsequent transcriptional induction of lysyl oxidase (LOX) which repressed E-cadherin. Loss of E-cadherin facilitated ovarian cancer (OC) cell migration in vitro and promoted tumor growth in vivo. E-cadherin immunoreactivity correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, tumor differentiation and metastasis. Negative E-cadherin expression along with FIGO stage, tumor differentiation and metastasis significantly predicted for a lower 5-year survival rate. These findings suggest that ROS play an important role in the initiation of metastatic growth of OC cells and support a molecular pathway from ROS to aggressive transformation which involves upregulation of HIF-1α and its downstream target LOX to suppress E-cadherin expression leading to an increase in cell motility and invasiveness.

  3. Identification of E-cadherin signature motifs functioning as cleavage sites for Helicobacter pylori HtrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Thomas P.; Perna, Anna M.; Fugmann, Tim; Böhm, Manja; Jan Hiss; Haller, Sarah; Götz, Camilla; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Hoy, Benjamin; Rau, Tilman T.; Neri, Dario; Backert, Steffen; Schneider, Gisbert; Wessler, Silja

    2016-03-01

    The cell adhesion protein and tumour suppressor E-cadherin exhibits important functions in the prevention of gastric cancer. As a class-I carcinogen, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has developed a unique strategy to interfere with E-cadherin functions. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that H. pylori secretes the protease high temperature requirement A (HtrA) which cleaves off the E-cadherin ectodomain (NTF) on epithelial cells. This opens cell-to-cell junctions, allowing bacterial transmigration across the polarised epithelium. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the HtrA-E-cadherin interaction and identified E-cadherin cleavage sites for HtrA. Mass-spectrometry-based proteomics and Edman degradation revealed three signature motifs containing the [VITA]-[VITA]-x-x-D-[DN] sequence pattern, which were preferentially cleaved by HtrA. Based on these sites, we developed a substrate-derived peptide inhibitor that selectively bound and inhibited HtrA, thereby blocking transmigration of H. pylori. The discovery of HtrA-targeted signature sites might further explain why we detected a stable 90 kDa NTF fragment during H. pylori infection, but also additional E-cadherin fragments ranging from 105 kDa to 48 kDa in in vitro cleavage experiments. In conclusion, HtrA targets E-cadherin signature sites that are accessible in in vitro reactions, but might be partially masked on epithelial cells through functional homophilic E-cadherin interactions.

  4. Correlation between E-cadherin interactions, survivin expression, and apoptosis in MDCK and ts-Src MDCK cell culture models.

    PubMed

    Capra, Janne; Eskelinen, Sinikka

    2017-12-01

    Survivin, a member of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family, is a multifunctional protein expressed in most cancers. In addition to inhibition of apoptosis, it regulates proliferation and promotes migration. Its presence and function in cells is strongly regulated via transcription factors, intracellular localization, and degradation. We analyzed the presence of survivin at protein level in various culture environments and under activation of Src tyrosine kinase in epithelial canine kidney MDCK cells in order to elucidate factors controlling survivin 'lifespan'. We used untransformed and temperature sensitive ts-Src MDCK cells as a model and forced them to grow in suspension (1D), in 2D on hard and soft surfaces and in soft 3D Matrigel environment with or without EGTA. In addition, we tested the effect of stressful conditions by cultivating the cells in the presence of an anti-cancer drug and a generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS), piperlongumine (PL) with or without an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). We could confirm that inhibition of apoptosis and simultaneous downregulation of survivin in MDCK cells required both intact cell-cell junctions, trans-interactions of E-cadherin and soft 3D matrix environment. In ts-Src-transformed MDCK cells, survivin was upregulated as soon as the cell-cell junctions were disintegrated. ROS generation with PL-induced cell death of ts-Src MDCK cells concomitantly with survivin downregulation. NAC rescued the ts-Src MDCK cells from ROS-induced apoptosis without upregulation of survivin resulting in a situation resembling untransformed MDCK cells in 3D environment and E-cadherin delineating the lateral cell walls.

  5. Preventing E-cadherin aberrant N-glycosylation at Asn-554 improves its critical function in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, S; Catarino, TA; Dias, AM; Kato, M; Almeida, A; Hessling, B; Figueiredo, J; Gärtner, F; Sanches, JM; Ruppert, T; Miyoshi, E; Pierce, M; Carneiro, F; Kolarich, D; Seruca, R; Yamaguchi, Y; Taniguchi, N; Reis, CA; Pinho, SS

    2016-01-01

    E-cadherin is a central molecule in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its posttranslational modifications by N-glycosylation have been described to induce a deleterious effect on cell adhesion associated with tumor cell invasion. However, the role that site-specific glycosylation of E-cadherin has in its defective function in gastric cancer cells needs to be determined. Using transgenic mice models and human clinical samples, we demonstrated that N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V)-mediated glycosylation causes an abnormal pattern of E-cadherin expression in the gastric mucosa. In vitro models further indicated that, among the four potential N-glycosylation sites of E-cadherin, Asn-554 is the key site that is selectively modified with β1,6 GlcNAc-branched N-glycans catalyzed by GnT-V. This aberrant glycan modification on this specific asparagine site of E-cadherin was demonstrated to affect its critical functions in gastric cancer cells by affecting E-cadherin cellular localization, cis-dimer formation, molecular assembly and stability of the adherens junctions and cell–cell aggregation, which was further observed in human gastric carcinomas. Interestingly, manipulating this site-specific glycosylation, by preventing Asn-554 from receiving the deleterious branched structures, either by a mutation or by silencing GnT-V, resulted in a protective effect on E-cadherin, precluding its functional dysregulation and contributing to tumor suppression. PMID:26189796

  6. Low-expression of E-cadherin in leukaemia cells causes loss of homophilic adhesion and promotes cell growth.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qing; Wang, Ji-Ying; Meng, Jihong; Tang, Kejing; Wang, Yanzhong; Wang, Min; Xing, Haiyan; Tian, Zheng; Wang, Jianxiang

    2011-09-01

    E-cadherin (epithelial cadherin) belongs to the calcium-dependent adhesion molecule superfamily and is implicated in the interactions of haematopoietic progenitors and bone marrow stromal cells. Adhesion capacity to bone marrow stroma was impaired for leukaemia cells, suggesting that a breakdown of adhesive mechanisms governed by an adhesion molecule may exist in leukaemic microenvironment. We previously found that E-cadherin was low expressed in primary acute leukaemia cells compared with normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. In this study, we investigate the functional importance of low E-cadherin expression in leukaemia cell behaviours and investigate its effects in the abnormal interaction of leukaemic cells with stromal cells. After expression of E-cadherin was restored by a demethylating agent in leukaemia cells, E-cadherin-specific adhesion was enhanced. Additionally, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated silencing of E-cadherin in Raji cells resulted in a reduction of cell homophilic adhesion and enhancement of cell proliferation and colony formation. These results suggest that low expression of E-cadherin contributes to the vigorous growth and transforming ability of leukaemic cells.

  7. E-cadherin Is Critical for Collective Sheet Migration and Is Regulated by the Chemokine CXCL12 Protein During Restitution*

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Soonyean; Zimmerman, Noah P.; Agle, Kimberle A.; Turner, Jerrold R.; Kumar, Suresh N.; Dwinell, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Chemokines and other immune mediators enhance epithelial barrier repair. The intestinal barrier is established by highly regulated cell-cell contacts between epithelial cells. The goal of these studies was to define the role for the chemokine CXCL12 in regulating E-cadherin during collective sheet migration during epithelial restitution. Mechanisms regulating E-cadherin were investigated using Caco2BBE and IEC-6 model epithelia. Genetic knockdown confirmed a critical role for E-cadherin in in vitro restitution and in vivo wound repair. During restitution, both CXCL12 and TGF-β1 tightened the monolayer by decreasing the paracellular space between migrating epithelial cells. However, CXCL12 differed from TGF-β1 by stimulating the significant increase in E-cadherin membrane localization during restitution. Chemokine-stimulated relocalization of E-cadherin was paralleled by an increase in barrier integrity of polarized epithelium during restitution. CXCL12 activation of its cognate receptor CXCR4 stimulated E-cadherin localization and monolayer tightening through Rho-associated protein kinase activation and F-actin reorganization. These data demonstrate a key role for E-cadherin in intestinal epithelial restitution. PMID:22549778

  8. Induction of E-cadherin in lung cancer and interaction with growth suppression by histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Chan, Daniel; Webster, Robin B; Kato, Harubumi; Drabkin, Harry A; Gemmill, Robert M

    2009-12-01

    Loss of E-cadherin confers a poor prognosis in lung cancer patients and is associated with in vitro resistance to endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors. Zinc finger E box-binding homeobox (ZEB)-1, the predominant transcriptional suppressor of E-cadherin in lung tumor lines, recruits histone deacetylases (HDACs) as co-repressors. NSCLC cell lines were treated with HDAC inhibitors and analyzed for E-cadherin induction, growth inhibition and apoptosis. National Cancer Institute-H157 cells expressing ectopic E-cadherin were tested for tumorigenicity in murine xenografts. We found that treatment with MS-275, compared to vorinostat (SAHA), valproic acid or trichostatin A, was most effective in E-cadherin up-regulation and persistence in non-small cell lung cancers. As with other tumor types and HDAC inhibitors, MS-275 inhibited growth and induced apoptosis. Importantly, blocking E-cadherin induction by short hairpin RNA resulted in less inhibition by MS-275, implicating the epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype process as a contributing factor. In contrast to H460 and H661, H157 cells were resistant to E-cadherin up-regulation by HDAC inhibitors. However, E-cadherin was restored, in a synergistic manner, by combined knockdown of ZEB-1 and ZEB-2. In addition, H157 cells stably transfected with E-cadherin were markedly attenuated in their tumor forming ability. Lastly, combining MS-275 with the microtubule stabilizing agent, paclitaxel, or 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, resulted in synergistic growth inhibition. Since MS-275 has no reported activity against HDAC6, which regulates both microtubule and heat shock protein 90 functions, other mechanisms of synergy are anticipated. These results support the role of ZEB proteins and HDAC inhibitors in the pathogenesis and treatment of lung cancer.

  9. Molecular basis for the regulation of islet beta cell mass in mice: the role of E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Wakae-Takada, N.; Xuan, S.; Watanabe, K.; Meda, P.; Leibel, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis In rodents and humans, the rate of beta cell proliferation declines rapidly after birth; formation of the islets of Langerhans begins perinatally and continues after birth. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of E-cadherin during islet formation mediate the decline in beta cell proliferation rate by contributing to a reduction of nuclear β-catenin and D-cyclins. Methods We examined E-cadherin, nuclear β-catenin, and D-cyclin levels, as well as cell proliferation during in vitro and in vivo formation of islet cell aggregates, using β-TC6 cells and transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled beta cells, respectively. We tested the role of E-cadherin using antisense-mediated reductions of E-cadherin in β-TC6 cells, and mice segregating for a beta cell-specific E-cadherin knockout (Ecad [also known as Cdh1] βKO). Results In vitro, pseudo-islets of β-TC6 cells displayed increased E-cadherin but decreased nuclear β-catenin and cyclin D2, and reduced rates of cell proliferation, compared with monolayers. Antisense knockdown of E-cadherin increased cell proliferation and levels of cyclins D1 and D2. After birth, beta cells showed increased levels of E-cadherin, but decreased levels of D-cyclin, whereas islets of Ecad βKO mice showed increased levels of D-cyclins and nuclear β-catenin, as well as increased beta cell proliferation. These islets were significantly larger than those of control mice and displayed reduced levels of connexin 36. These changes correlated with reduced insulin response to ambient glucose, both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions/interpretation The findings support our hypothesis by indicating an important role of E-cadherin in the control of beta cell mass and function. PMID:23354125

  10. Molecular basis for the regulation of islet beta cell mass in mice: the role of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Wakae-Takada, N; Xuan, S; Watanabe, K; Meda, P; Leibel, R L

    2013-04-01

    In rodents and humans, the rate of beta cell proliferation declines rapidly after birth; formation of the islets of Langerhans begins perinatally and continues after birth. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of E-cadherin during islet formation mediate the decline in beta cell proliferation rate by contributing to a reduction of nuclear β-catenin and D-cyclins. We examined E-cadherin, nuclear β-catenin, and D-cyclin levels, as well as cell proliferation during in vitro and in vivo formation of islet cell aggregates, using β-TC6 cells and transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled beta cells, respectively. We tested the role of E-cadherin using antisense-mediated reductions of E-cadherin in β-TC6 cells, and mice segregating for a beta cell-specific E-cadherin knockout (Ecad [also known as Cdh1] βKO). In vitro, pseudo-islets of β-TC6 cells displayed increased E-cadherin but decreased nuclear β-catenin and cyclin D2, and reduced rates of cell proliferation, compared with monolayers. Antisense knockdown of E-cadherin increased cell proliferation and levels of cyclins D1 and D2. After birth, beta cells showed increased levels of E-cadherin, but decreased levels of D-cyclin, whereas islets of Ecad βKO mice showed increased levels of D-cyclins and nuclear β-catenin, as well as increased beta cell proliferation. These islets were significantly larger than those of control mice and displayed reduced levels of connexin 36. These changes correlated with reduced insulin response to ambient glucose, both in vitro and in vivo. The findings support our hypothesis by indicating an important role of E-cadherin in the control of beta cell mass and function.

  11. Modulation of N-glycosylation by mesalamine facilitates membranous E-cadherin expression in colon epithelial cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Vineeta; Lang, Michaela; Dammann, Kyle; Campregher, Christoph; Lyakhovich, Alex; Gasche, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Genome wide association studies have implicated intestinal barrier function genes in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. One of such loci CDH1, encoding E-cadherin, a transmembrane glycoprotein with known tumor suppressor functions, is also linked to the susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Loss of membranous E-cadherin expression is common in both colitis and cancer. We have recently demonstrated that mesalamine (5-ASA); the anti-inflammatory drug used to treat ulcerative colitis, induces membranous expression of E-cadherin and increases intercellular adhesion. Using colorectal cancer epithelial cells with aberrant E-cadherin expression, we investigated the mechanism underlying such an effect of 5-ASA. Post-translational modification of E-cadherin glycosylation was analyzed by biotin/streptavidin detection of sialylated glycoproteins. GnT-III (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III) expression was assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. GnT-III activity was analyzed by reactivity with E-4/L-4-PHA. Expression, localization and interaction of E-cadherin and β-catenin were analyzed by Western blot, immunocytochemistry and RNA interference. 5-ASA activity modulated E-cadherin glycosylation and increased both mRNA and protein levels of GnT-III and its activity as detected by increased E4-lectin reactivity. Intestinal APCMin polyps in mice showed low expression of GnT-III and 5-ASA was effective in increasing its expression. The data demonstrated that remodeling of glycans by GnT-III mediated bisect glycosylation, contributes to the membranous retention of E-cadherin by 5-ASA; facilitating intercellular adhesion. Induction of membranous expression of E-cadherin by 5-ASA is a novel mechanism for mucosal healing in colitis that might impede tumor progression by modulation of GnT-III expression. PMID:24184502

  12. An SPR based immunoassay for the sensitive detection of the soluble epithelial marker E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Daniele; Bianco, Monica; Pagano, Rosanna; Priore, Paola; Lunetti, Paola; Guerra, Flora; Bettini, Simona; Carallo, Sonia; Zizzari, Alessandra; Pitotti, Elena; Giotta, Livia; Capobianco, Loredana; Bucci, Cecilia; Valli, Ludovico; Maffia, Michele; Arima, Valentina; Gaballo, Antonio

    2018-06-11

    Protein biomarkers are important diagnostic tools for cancer and several other diseases. To be validated in a clinical context, a biomarker should satisfy some requirements including the ability to provide reliable information on a pathological state by measuring its expression levels. In parallel, the development of an approach capable of detecting biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity would be ideally suited for clinical applications. Here, we performed an immune-based label free assay using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based detection of the soluble form of E-cadherin, a cell-cell contact protein that is involved in the maintaining of tissue integrity. With this approach, we obtained a specific and quantitative detection of E-cadherin from a few hundred μl of serum of breast cancer patients by obtaining a 10-fold enhancement in the detection limit over a traditional colorimetric ELISA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. E-cadherin genetic variants predict survival outcome in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Memni, Hager; Macherki, Yosra; Klayech, Zahra; Ben-Haj-Ayed, Ahlem; Farhat, Karim; Remadi, Yassmine; Gabbouj, Sallouha; Mahfoudh, Wijden; Bouzid, Nadia; Bouaouina, Noureddine; Chouchane, Lotfi; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Hassen, Elham

    2016-11-16

    E-cadherin is a major component of adherens junctions that regulates cell shape and maintains tissue integrity. A complete loss or any decrease in cell surface expression of E-cadherin will interfere with the cell-to-cell junctions' strength and leads to cell detachment and escape from the primary tumor site. In this prospective study, three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (-347G/GA, rs5030625; -160C/A, rs16260; +54C/T, rs1801026), were found to modulate E-cadherin expression. 577 DNA samples from breast cancer (BC) cases were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). We detected no significant correlations between each polymorphism and the clinical parameters of the patients whereas the GACC haplotype was significantly associated with low SBR grading. Overall survival analysis showed that both -347G/G and +54C/C wild (wt) genotypes had a significantly worse effect compared to the other genotypes (non-wt). Moreover, carrying simultaneously both the -347 and +54 wt genotypes confers a significantly higher risk of death. However, with metastatic recurrence, the death-rate was null in patients carrying the non-wt genotypes, and attained 37% in those carrying the wt genotype. A multivariate analysis showed that these two polymorphisms are independent prognostic factors for overall survival in BC patients. Our results support the fact that E-cadherin genetic variants control disease severity and progression and could be a marker of disease outcome. These findings could be useful in selecting patients that should be monitored differently.

  14. Epithelial self-healing is recapitulated by a 3D biomimetic E-cadherin junction.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Daniel J; Gloerich, Martijn; Nelson, W James

    2016-12-20

    Epithelial monolayers undergo self-healing when wounded. During healing, cells collectively migrate into the wound site, and the converging tissue fronts collide and form a stable interface. To heal, migrating tissues must form cell-cell adhesions and reorganize from the front-rear polarity characteristic of cell migration to the apical-basal polarity of an epithelium. However, identifying the "stop signal" that induces colliding tissues to cease migrating and heal remains an open question. Epithelial cells form integrin-based adhesions to the basal extracellular matrix (ECM) and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesions on the orthogonal, lateral surfaces between cells. Current biological tools have been unable to probe this multicellular 3D interface to determine the stop signal. We addressed this problem by developing a unique biointerface that mimicked the 3D organization of epithelial cell adhesions. This "minimal tissue mimic" (MTM) comprised a basal ECM substrate and a vertical surface coated with purified extracellular domain of E-cadherin, and was designed for collision with the healing edge of an epithelial monolayer. Three-dimensional imaging showed that adhesions formed between cells, and the E-cadherin-coated MTM resembled the morphology and dynamics of native epithelial cell-cell junctions and induced the same polarity transition that occurs during epithelial self-healing. These results indicate that E-cadherin presented in the proper 3D context constitutes a minimum essential stop signal to induce self-healing. That the Ecad:Fc MTM stably integrated into an epithelial tissue and reduced migration at the interface suggests that this biointerface is a complimentary approach to existing tissue-material interfaces.

  15. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 Restores intestinal Barrier Integrity by Regulation of E-cadherin Recycling.

    PubMed

    Terciolo, Chloé; Dobric, Aurélie; Ouaissi, Mehdi; Siret, Carole; Breuzard, Gilles; Silvy, Françoise; Marchiori, Bastien; Germain, Sébastien; Bonier, Renaté; Hama, Adel; Owens, Roisin; Lombardo, Dominique; Rigot, Véronique; André, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Alteration in intestinal permeability is the main factor underlying the pathogenesis of many diseases affecting the gut, such as inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Characterization of molecules targeting the restoration of intestinal barrier integrity is therefore vital for the development of alternative therapies. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 [Sb], used to prevent and treat antibiotic-associated infectious and functional diarrhea, may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of IBD. We analyzed the impact of Sb supernatant on tissue integrity and components of adherens junctions using cultured explants of colon from both IBD and healthy patients. To evaluate the pathways by which Sb regulates the expression of E-cadherin at the cell surface, we developed in vitro assays using human colonic cell lines, including cell aggregation, a calcium switch assay, real-time measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance [TEER] and pulse-chase experiments. We showed that Sb supernatant treatment of colonic explants protects the epithelial morphology and maintains E-cadherin expression at the cell surface. In vitro experiments revealed that Sb supernatant enhances E-cadherin delivery to the cell surface by re-routing endocytosed E-cadherin back to the plasma membrane. This process, involving Rab11A-dependent recycling endosome, leads to restoration of enterocyte adherens junctions, in addition to the overall restoration and strengthening of intestinal barrier function. These findings open new possibilities of discovering novel options for prevention and therapy of diseases that affect intestinal permeability. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Correlation between E-cadherin-regulated cell adhesion and human osteosarcoma MG-63 cell anoikis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ding-Sheng; Cai, Le-Yi; Ding, Jian; Gao, Wei-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cell adhesion and anoikis evasion among human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63), and to further study the molecular mechanisms. Human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63) were assessed for apoptosis, and caspase-3, E-cadherin and β-catenin expression in EDTA and control non-EDTA groups. MG-63 cells were predominantly aggregated when in suspension, and the suspended cells were more dispersed in the EDTA group. Following culture in suspension for 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h, the rates of apoptosis were 34.88%±3.64%, 59.3%±7.22% and 78.5%±5.21% in the experimental group and 7.34%±2.13%, 14.7%±3.69%, and 21.4%±3.60% in the control group, respectively. Caspase-3 expression progressively increased and E-cadherin and β-catenin were decreased in the experimental group, whereas there was no change in the control group. MG-63 cells could avoid anoikis through cell adhesion, and E-cadherin might play a role in this process.

  17. E-cadherin Mediates the Preventive Effect of Vitamin D3 in Colitis-associated Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yu; He, Longmei; Luan, Zijian; Lv, Hong; Yang, Hong; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Xinhua; Zhou, Weixun; Yu, Songlin; Tan, Bei; Wang, Hongying; Qian, Jiaming

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin D3 is beneficial in ameliorating or preventing inflammation and carcinogenesis. Here, we evaluated if vitamin D3 has a preventive effect on colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Administration of azoxymethane (AOM), followed with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), was used to simulate colitis-associated colon cancer in mice. The supplement of vitamin D3 at different dosages (15, 30, 60 IU·g·w), started before AOM or immediately after DSS treatment (post 60), was sustained to the end of the experiment. Dietary vitamin D3 significantly reduced the number of tumors and tumor burden in a dose-dependent manner. Of note, vitamin D3 in high doses showed significant preventive effects on carcinogenesis regardless of administration before or after AOM-DSS treatment. Cell proliferation decreased in vitamin D3 groups compared with the control group after inhibition of expression of β-catenin and its downstream target gene cyclin D1 in the colon. In vitro, vitamin D3 reduced the transcriptional activity and nuclear level of β-catenin, and it also increased E-cadherin expression and its binding affinity for β-catenin. Moreover, repression of E-cadherin was rescued by supplemental vitamin D3 in mouse colons. Taken together, our results indicate that vitamin D3 effectively suppressed colonic carcinogenesis in the AOM-DSS mouse model. Our findings further suggest that upregulation of E-cadherin contributes to the preventive effect of vitamin D3 on β-catenin activity.

  18. Effects of CD44 and E-cadherin overexpression on the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Meiya; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Jin, Bohong; Zhang, Fubin; Zhu, Linyan; Cui, Lining

    2017-12-01

    CD44 is a prognostic indicator of shorter survival time in ovarian cancer. E-cadherin fragmentation promotes the progression of ovarian cancer. However, the effects of CD44 and E-cadherin overexpression on ovarian cancer cells have remained elusive. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin on cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin was achieved by transfecting SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells with viruses carrying the CD44 or E-cadherin gene, respectively. Expression of CD44 and E-cadherin was detected by western blot analysis. The proliferation of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was measured by a Cell Counting Kit-8 at 0, 24 and 48 h after viral transfection. The adhesion ability of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells to the endothelial layer was detected. A Transwell invasion assay was utilized to assess the invasion ability of the cells. Overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was confirmed by western blot. Compared with the blank or negative control groups, the CD44 overexpression groups of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells exhibited an increased cell proliferation rate at 24 and 48 h, whereas overexpression of E-cadherin did not alter the proliferation of these cells. Furthermore, compared with the blank and negative control groups, the cell adhesion and invasion ability in the CD44 overexpression groups of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was markedly higher. There were no significant differences in adhesion ability between the E-cadherin overexpression group and the blank/negative control group. Of note, overexpression of E-cadherin decreased the invasive ability of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. In conclusion, Overexpression of CD44 increased the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, while overexpression of E-cadherin decreased the invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

  19. Betacellulin induces Slug-mediated down-regulation of E-cadherin and cell migration in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianfang; Klausen, Christian; Qiu, Xin; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological cancers. Previous studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands can induce ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin. Betacellulin is a unique member of the EGF family. It is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and is associated with reduced survival. However, the biological functions and clinical significance of betacellulin in ovarian cancer remain unknown. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that betacellulin induces ovarian cancer cell migration by suppressing E-cadherin expression. Treatment of SKOV3 and OVCAR5 ovarian cancer cell lines with betacellulin down-regulated E-cadherin, but not N-cadherin. In addition, betacellulin treatment increased the expression of Snail and Slug, and these effects were completely blocked by pre-treatment with EGFR inhibitor AG1478. Interestingly, only knockdown of Slug reversed the down-regulation of E-cadherin by betacellulin. Betacellulin treatment induced the activation of both the MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways, and it also significantly increased ovarian cancer cell migration. Importantly, the effects of betacellulin on E-cadherin, Slug and cell migration were attenuated by pre-treatment with either U0126 or LY294002. Our results suggest that betacellulin induces ovarian cancer migration and Slug-dependent E-cadherin down-regulation via EGFR-mediated MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling. PMID:27129169

  20. Le(x) glycan mediates homotypic adhesion of embryonal cells independently from E-cadherin: a preliminary note.

    PubMed

    Handa, Kazuko; Takatani-Nakase, Tomoka; Larue, Lionel; Stemmler, Marc P; Kemler, Rolf; Hakomori, Sen-itiroh

    2007-06-22

    Le(x) glycan and E-cadherin (Ecad) are co-expressed at embryonal stem (ES) cells and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. While the structure and function of Ecad mediating homotypic adhesion of these cells have been well established, evidence that Le(x) glycan also mediates such adhesion is weak, despite the fact that Le(x) oligosaccharide inhibits the compaction process. To provide stronger evidence, we knocked out Ecad gene in EC and ES cells to establish F9 Ecad (-/-) and D3M Ecad (-/-) cells, which highly express Le(x) glycan but do not express Ecad at all. Both F9 Ecad (-/-) and D3M Ecad (-/-) cells displayed strong autoaggregation in the presence of Ca(2+), while PYS-2 cells, which express trace amount of Ecad and undetectable level of Le(x) glycan, did not display autoaggregation. In addition, F9 Ecad (-/-) and D3M Ecad (-/-) cells displayed strong adhesion to plates coated with Le(x) glycosphingolipid (III(3)FucnLc4Cer), in dose-dependent manner, in the presence of Ca(2+). Thus, ES or EC cells display autoaggregation and strong adhesion to Le(x)-coated plates in the absence of Ecad, further supporting the notion of Le(x) self-recognition (i.e., Le(x)-to-Le(x) interaction) in cell adhesion.

  1. Epithelial self-healing is recapitulated by a 3D biomimetic E-cadherin junction

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel J.; Gloerich, Martijn; Nelson, W. James

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial monolayers undergo self-healing when wounded. During healing, cells collectively migrate into the wound site, and the converging tissue fronts collide and form a stable interface. To heal, migrating tissues must form cell–cell adhesions and reorganize from the front-rear polarity characteristic of cell migration to the apical-basal polarity of an epithelium. However, identifying the "stop signal" that induces colliding tissues to cease migrating and heal remains an open question. Epithelial cells form integrin-based adhesions to the basal extracellular matrix (ECM) and E-cadherin–mediated cell–cell adhesions on the orthogonal, lateral surfaces between cells. Current biological tools have been unable to probe this multicellular 3D interface to determine the stop signal. We addressed this problem by developing a unique biointerface that mimicked the 3D organization of epithelial cell adhesions. This "minimal tissue mimic" (MTM) comprised a basal ECM substrate and a vertical surface coated with purified extracellular domain of E-cadherin, and was designed for collision with the healing edge of an epithelial monolayer. Three-dimensional imaging showed that adhesions formed between cells, and the E-cadherin-coated MTM resembled the morphology and dynamics of native epithelial cell–cell junctions and induced the same polarity transition that occurs during epithelial self-healing. These results indicate that E-cadherin presented in the proper 3D context constitutes a minimum essential stop signal to induce self-healing. That the Ecad:Fc MTM stably integrated into an epithelial tissue and reduced migration at the interface suggests that this biointerface is a complimentary approach to existing tissue–material interfaces. PMID:27930308

  2. Fragments of e-Cadherin as Biomarkers of Non-erosive Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Jovov, Biljana; Reed, Craig C; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Pruitt, Amy; Ferrell, Kathleen; Orlando, Geraldine S; Djukic, Zorka; Orlando, Roy C

    2018-03-01

    Approximately, 20% of patients with heartburn and normal endoscopic findings do not symptomatically improve on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy making diagnosis and treatment uncertain. A biomarker distinguishing PPI-responsive from PPI-refractory heartburn is desirable. We performed a pilot study assessing whether carboxy(C)-terminal fragments (CTFs) of e-cadherin in esophageal biopsies or amino(N)-terminal fragments (NTFs) of e-cadherin in serum could serve this purpose. Twenty-nine patients with endoscopy-negative heartburn had esophageal biopsies for CTFs on Western blot and blood for serum NTFs on ELISA. All patients received dexlansoprazole 30 mg daily for 4 weeks, and heartburn was assessed by daily diary entry. Post-treatment blood samples were obtained for serum NTFs. A control group without GERD symptoms (n = 6) had biopsies for CTFs and a second control group (n = 20) blood serum for serum NTFs. Twenty-seven of 29 patients (93.1%) with endoscopy-negative heartburn, but 0 of 6 controls, were positive for CTFs. All patients and controls had measureable serum NTFs, but mean NTFs were significantly higher in those with PPI-responsive heartburn compared to those with PPI-refractory heartburn and controls. Following treatment, 24 of 29 (82.8) patients had relief of heartburn, which associated with a decline in mean NTFs compared to controls. NTFs in PPI-refractory patients (n = 5) were similar to controls before and after PPI therapy. When heartburn responds to PPI, elevated serum NTFs decline to normal. These data suggest that cleaved products of e-cadherin may serve as biomarkers of NERD. Further data are needed to assess and confirm this concept.

  3. Zebrafish E-cadherin: expression during early embryogenesis and regulation during brain development.

    PubMed

    Babb, S G; Barnett, J; Doedens, A L; Cobb, N; Liu, Q; Sorkin, B C; Yelick, P C; Raymond, P A; Marrs, J A

    2001-06-01

    Zebrafish E-cadherin (cdh1) cell adhesion molecule cDNAs were cloned. We investigated spatial and temporal expression of cdh1 during early embryogenesis. Expression was observed in blastomeres, the anterior mesoderm during gastrulation, and developing epithelial structures. In the developing nervous system, cdh1 was detected at the pharyngula stage (24 hpf) in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB). Developmental regulation of MHB formation involves wnt1 and pax2.1. wnt1 expression preceded cdh1 expression during MHB formation, and cdh1 expression in the MHB was dependent on normal development of this structure. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. [The expression and clinical significance of EphA2 and E-cadherin in papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Miao, Yuhua; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the expression and clinical significance of EphA2 and E cadherin proteins in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues, and to explore the relationship between them. Using immunohistochemical SP/PV method, we detected the expression of EphA2 and E cadherin in tumors of 43 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 11 thyroid adenoma and 10 normal thyroid tissues, then studied their relationships with clinic pathological factors. The total positive rates of EphA2 and E cadherin expression were 58. 14% and 32. 56% in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues, 18. 18% and 81. 81% in thyroid adenoma.tissues and they were 10. 00% and 100. 00% in normal thyroid tissues respectively. The positive expression of EphA2 in carcinoma tissues was higher than in the thyroid adenoma tissues and normal thyroid tissues (P<0. 05) and the positive expression of E cadherin in carcinoma tissues was lower than that in the thyroid adenoma tissues and normal thyroid tissues (P<0. 05). The positive expression of EphA2 and E cadherin was associated with lymph node metastasis and histological grade (P<0. 05), but it was not associated with all the clinic-pathological factors including age, sex and the tumor size (P>0. 05). In papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues, the expression of EphA2 was negatively correlated with the expression of E cadherin protein (r= -0. 416, P<0. 01). EphA2 and E cadherin may be involved in carcinogenesis and development of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  5. Alterations induced by E-cadherin and beta-catenin antibodies during the development of Bufo arenarum (Anura-Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Izaguirre, M F; Adur, J F; Soler, A P; Casco, V H

    2001-10-01

    E(epithelial)-cadherin is a member of a calcium-dependent family of cell surface glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and morphogenesis. Catenins are a large family of proteins that connect the cadherins to the cytoskeleton. They are important for cadherin function and for transducing signals involved in specification of cell fate during embryogenesis. The best characterized catenins include alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and p120-catenin. Using specific antibodies, we studied the expression and distribution of E-cadherin, and alpha- and beta-catenin in developmental stages of Bufo arenarum toad. The three proteins were found co-localized in stages 19 to 41 of development. Surprisingly, E-cadherin was the only of these three proteins found earlier than stage 19. To test whether E-cadherin and beta-catenin have a functional role in Bufo arenarum embryogenesis, stage 17 whole embryos were incubated with anti-E-cadherin and beta-catenin antibodies. Both anti-E-cadherin and anti-beta-catenin antibodies induced severe morphological alterations. However, while alterations produced by the anti-beta-catenin antibody, showed some variability from the most severe (neural tube and notochord duplication) to a simple delay in development, the alterations with anti-E-cadherin were homogeneous. These observations suggest a critical role for E-cadherin and beta-catenin in the early embryonic development of the Bufo arenarum toad. Our results are consistent with the developmental role of these proteins in other species. One of the most surprising findings was the blockage with the anti-beta-catenin antibodies on later embryo stages, and we hypothesize that the partial axes duplication could be mediated by the notochord induction.

  6. Soluble E-cadherin is an independent pretherapeutic factor for long-term survival in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Annie On-On; Chu, Kent-Man; Lam, Shiu-Kum; Wong, Benjamin Chun-Yu; Kwok, Ka-Fai; Law, Simon; Ko, Samuel; Hui, Wai-Mo; Yueng, Yui-Hung; Wong, John

    2003-06-15

    To evaluate whether pretherapeutic serum soluble E-cadherin is an independent factor predicting long-term survival in gastric cancer. Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, but a satisfactory tumor marker is currently unavailable for gastric cancer. Soluble E-cadherin has recently been found to have prognostic value in gastric cancer. One hundred sixteen patients with histologically proven gastric adenocarcinoma were included in the trial. Pretherapeutic serum was collected, and soluble E-cadherin was assayed using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The patients were followed up prospectively at the outpatient clinic. There were 75 men and 41 women, with a mean (+/- SD) age of 66 +/- 14 years. Forty-eight percent of tumors were located in the gastric antrum. The median survival time was 11 months. The mean pretherapeutic value of soluble E-cadherin was 9,159 ng/mL (range, 6,002 to 10,025 ng/mL), and the mean pretherapeutic level of carcinoembryonic antigen was 11 ng/mL (range, 0.3 to 4,895 ng/mL). On multivariate analysis, soluble E-cadherin is an independent factor predicting long-term survival. Ninety percent of patients with a serum level of E-cadherin greater than 10,000 ng/mL had a survival time of less than 3 years (P =.009). Soluble E-cadherin is a potentially valuable pretherapeutic prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer.

  7. Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology: a prognostic marker for tumor progression in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zacapala-Gómez, Ana E; Navarro-Tito, Napoleón; Alarcón-Romero, Luz Del C; Ortuño-Pineda, Carlos; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Ortiz-Ortiz, Julio; Garibay-Cerdenares, Olga L; Jiménez-López, Marco A; Mendoza-Catalán, Miguel A

    2018-03-27

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth cause of mortality by neoplasia in women worldwide. The use of immunomarkers is an alternative tool to complement currently used algorithms for detection of cancer, and to improve selection of therapeutic schemes. Aberrant expression of Ezrin and E-cadherin play an important role in tumor invasion. In this study we analyzed Ezrin and E-cadherin expression in liquid-based cervical cytology samples, and evaluated their potential use as prognostic immunomarkers. Immunocytochemical staining of Ezrin and E-cadherin was performed in cervical samples of 125 patients. The cytological or histological diagnostic was performed by Papanicolaou staining or H&E staining, respectively. HPV genotyping was determined using INNO-LIPA Genotyping Extra kit and the HPV physical status by in situ hybridization. Ezrin expression in HaCaT, HeLa and SiHa cell lines was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blot. High Ezrin expression was observed in cervical cancer samples (70%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV (43%), and samples with integrated viral genome (47%). High Ezrin expression was associated with degree of SIL, viral genotype and physical status. In contrast, low E-cadherin expression was found in cervical cancer samples (95%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV/LR-HPV (87%) and integrated viral genome (72%). Low E-cadherin expression was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. Interestingly, Ezrin nuclear staining was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. High Ezrin expression, high percent of nuclear Ezrin and low E-cadherin expression behaved as risk factors for progression to HSIL and cervical cancer. Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology samples could be a potential prognostic marker, useful for identifying cervical lesions with a high-risk of progression to cervical cancer.

  8. E-cadherin germline mutation carriers: clinical management and genetic implications.

    PubMed

    Corso, Giovanni; Figueiredo, Joana; Biffi, Roberto; Trentin, Chiara; Bonanni, Bernardo; Feroce, Irene; Serrano, Davide; Cassano, Enrico; Annibale, Bruno; Melo, Soraia; Seruca, Raquel; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Ferrara, Francesco; Piagnerelli, Riccardo; Roviello, Franco; Galimberti, Viviana

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is an autosomic dominant syndrome associated with E-cadherin protein (CDH1) gene germline mutations. Clinical criteria for genetic screening were revised in 2010 by the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium at the Cambridge meeting. About 40 % of families fulfilling clinical criteria for this inherited disease present deleterious CDH1 germline mutations. Lobular breast cancer is a neoplastic condition associated with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome. E-cadherin constitutional mutations have been described in both settings, in gastric and breast cancers. The management of CDH1 asymptomatic mutation carriers requires a multidisciplinary approach; the only life-saving procedure is the prophylactic total gastrectomy after thorough genetic counselling. Several prophylactic gastrectomies have been performed to date; conversely, no prophylactic mastectomies have been described in CDH1 mutant carriers. However, the recent discovery of novel germline alterations in pedigree clustering only for lobular breast cancer opens up a new debate in the management of these individuals. In this critical review, we describe the clinical management of CDH1 germline mutant carriers providing specific recommendations for genetic counselling, clinical criteria, surveillance and/ or prophylactic surgery.

  9. Restoring E-cadherin expression increases sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Witta, Samir E; Gemmill, Robert M; Hirsch, Fred R; Coldren, Christopher D; Hedman, Karla; Ravdel, Larisa; Helfrich, Barbara; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Chan, Daniel C; Sugita, Michio; Chan, Zeng; Baron, Anna; Franklin, Wilbur; Drabkin, Harry A; Girard, Luc; Gazdar, Adi F; Minna, John D; Bunn, Paul A

    2006-01-15

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in the majority of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, produce 9% to 27% response rates in NSCLC patients. E-Cadherin, a calcium-dependent adhesion molecule, plays an important role in NSCLC prognosis and progression, and interacts with EGFR. The zinc finger transcriptional repressor, ZEB1, inhibits E-cadherin expression by recruiting histone deacetylases (HDAC). We identified a significant correlation between sensitivity to gefitinib and expression of E-cadherin, and ZEB1, suggesting their predictive value for responsiveness to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. E-Cadherin transfection into a gefitinib-resistant line increased its sensitivity to gefitinib. Pretreating resistant cell lines with the HDAC inhibitor, MS-275, induced E-cadherin along with EGFR and led to a growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effect of gefitinib similar to that in gefitinib-sensitive NSCLC cell lines including those harboring EGFR mutations. Thus, combined HDAC inhibitor and gefitinib treatment represents a novel pharmacologic strategy for overcoming resistance to EGFR inhibitors in patients with lung cancer.

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor and integrins control force-dependent vinculin recruitment to E-cadherin junctions.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Poonam; Kong, Xinyu; Wu, Jun; Sunyer, Raimon; Trepat, Xavier; Leckband, Deborah

    2018-03-20

    This study reports novel findings that link E-cadherin (also known as CDH1)-mediated force-transduction signaling to vinculin targeting to intercellular junctions via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrins. These results build on previous findings that demonstrated that mechanically perturbed E-cadherin receptors activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase and downstream integrins in an EGFR-dependent manner. Results of this study show that this EGFR-mediated kinase cascade controls the force-dependent recruitment of vinculin to stressed E-cadherin complexes - a key early signature of cadherin-based mechanotransduction. Vinculin targeting requires its phosphorylation at tyrosine 822 by Abl family kinases (hereafter Abl), but the origin of force-dependent Abl activation had not been identified. We now present evidence that integrin activation, which is downstream of EGFR signaling, controls Abl activation, thus linking E-cadherin to Abl through a mechanosensitive signaling network. These findings place EGFR and integrins at the center of a positive-feedback loop, through which force-activated E-cadherin signals regulate vinculin recruitment to cadherin complexes in response to increased intercellular tension.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component: relation of MMP-13, EGFR, and E-cadherin expressions to clinicopathological features and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal; Aziz, Azza Abdel

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, ordinary adenocarcinoma (OA) and mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) regarding clinicopathological parameters, survival, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 28 patients with adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, 47 with OA, and 56 with MA, who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012 at the Gastroenterology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt. High density manual tissue microarrays were constructed and immunohistochemistry for EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin was done. Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component (AWMC) was significantly associated with more perineural invasion, lower EGFR, and MMP-13 expressions than OA, with no difference in E-cadherin expression. Conversely, only microscopic abscess formation was significantly more with colorectal AWMC than MC with no difference in EGFR, MMP-13 and E-cadherin expression between both groups. Colorectal AWMC showed a better survival than MA with no difference with OA. In a univariate analysis, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin expressions did not show a significant impact on disease-free or overall survival in patients with colorectal AWMC. Colorectal AWMC remains a vague entity that resembles OA in some clinicopathological and molecular respects as well as MA. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Homeoprotein Six2 promotes breast cancer metastasis via transcriptional and epigenetic control of E-cadherin expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chu-An; Drasin, David; Pham, Catherine; Jedlicka, Paul; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Guney, Michelle; Li, Howard; Nemenoff, Raphael; Costello, James C.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Ford, Heide L.

    2014-01-01

    Misexpression of developmental transcription factors occurs often in human cancers, where embryonic programs may be reinstated in a context that promotes or sustains malignant development. In this study, we report the involvement of the kidney development transcription factor Six2 in the metastatic progression of human breast cancer. We found that Six2 promoted breast cancer metastasis by a novel mechanism involving both transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin. Downregulation of E-cadherin by Six2 was necessary for its ability to increase soft agar growth and in vivo metastasis in an immune competent mouse model of breast cancer. Mechanistic investigations showed that Six2 represses E-cadherin expression by upregulating Zeb2, in part through a microRNA-mediated mechanism, and by stimulating promoter methylation of the E-cadherin gene (Cdh1). Clinically, SIX2 expression correlated inversely with CDH1 expression in human breast cancer specimens, corroborating the disease relevance of their interaction. Our findings establish Six2 as a regulator of metastasis in human breast cancers and demonstrate an epigenetic function for SIX family transcription factors in metastatic progression through the regulation of E-cadherin. PMID:25348955

  13. Synthetic Lethal Screens Identify Vulnerabilities in GPCR Signaling and Cytoskeletal Organization in E-Cadherin-Deficient Cells.

    PubMed

    Telford, Bryony J; Chen, Augustine; Beetham, Henry; Frick, James; Brew, Tom P; Gould, Cathryn M; Single, Andrew; Godwin, Tanis; Simpson, Kaylene J; Guilford, Parry

    2015-05-01

    The CDH1 gene, which encodes the cell-to-cell adhesion protein E-cadherin, is frequently mutated in lobular breast cancer (LBC) and diffuse gastric cancer (DGC). However, because E-cadherin is a tumor suppressor protein and lost from the cancer cell, it is not a conventional drug target. To overcome this, we have taken a synthetic lethal approach to determine whether the loss of E-cadherin creates druggable vulnerabilities. We first conducted a genome-wide siRNA screen of isogenic MCF10A cells with and without CDH1 expression. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated that G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling proteins were highly enriched among the synthetic lethal candidates. Diverse families of cytoskeletal proteins were also frequently represented. These broad classes of E-cadherin synthetic lethal hits were validated using both lentiviral-mediated shRNA knockdown and specific antagonists, including the JAK inhibitor LY2784544, Pertussis toxin, and the aurora kinase inhibitors alisertib and danusertib. Next, we conducted a 4,057 known drug screen and time course studies on the CDH1 isogenic MCF10A cell lines and identified additional drug classes with linkages to GPCR signaling and cytoskeletal function that showed evidence of E-cadherin synthetic lethality. These included multiple histone deacetylase inhibitors, including vorinostat and entinostat, PI3K inhibitors, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitors crizotinib and saracatinib. Together, these results demonstrate that E-cadherin loss creates druggable vulnerabilities that have the potential to improve the management of both sporadic and familial LBC and DGC. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Cooperativity of E-cadherin and Smad4 loss to promote diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Won; Jang, Seok Hoon; Park, Dong Min; Lim, Na Jung; Deng, Chuxia; Kim, Dae Yong; Green, Jeffrey E; Kim, Hark Kyun

    2014-08-01

    Loss of E-cadherin (CDH1), Smad4, and p53 has been shown to play an integral role in gastric, intestinal, and breast cancer formation. Compound conditional knockout mice for Smad4, p53, and E-cadherin were generated to define and compare the roles of these genes in gastric, intestinal, and breast cancer development by crossing with Pdx-1-Cre, Villin-Cre, and MMTV-Cre transgenic mice. Interestingly, gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly more frequent in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice than in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(+/+) mice, demonstrating that Cdh1 heterozygosity accelerates the development and progression of gastric adenocarcinoma, in combination with loss of Smad4 and p53. Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice developed gastric adenocarcinomas without E-cadherin expression. However, intestinal and mammary adenocarcinomas with the same genetic background retained E-cadherin expression and were phenotypically similar to mice with both wild-type Cdh1 alleles. Lung metastases were identified in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice, but not in the other genotypes. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation was identified at the invasive tumor front of gastric adenocarcinomas arising in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice. This phenotype was less prominent in mice with intact E-cadherin or Smad4, indicating that the inhibition of β-catenin signaling by E-cadherin or Smad4 downregulates signaling pathways involved in metastases in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice. Knockdown of β-catenin significantly inhibited the migratory activity of Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) cell lines. Thus, loss of E-cadherin and Smad4 cooperates with p53 loss to promote the development and metastatic progression of gastric adenocarcinomas, with similarities to human gastric adenocarcinoma. This study demonstrates that inhibition of β-catenin is a converging node for the antimetastatic signaling

  15. Serum soluble E-cadherin is a potential prognostic marker in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y; Law, S; Kwong, D L W; Luk, J M

    2011-01-01

    E-cadherin is a well-documented tumor suppressor with downregulated expression in many cancer types. Upon proteolytic cleavage, a soluble form of 80-kDa degradation fragment, known as soluble E-cadherin (s-Ecad), is present in circulation; its level in sera of cancer patients is significantly associated with metastasis, recurrence, and prognosis in some malignancies. The present study investigated the association of s-Ecad with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its prognostic significance. A cohort of 97 patients who underwent surgery alone (n= 56) or neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and surgery (CRT) (n= 41) was recruited for this study. Serum samples were collected at operation (surgery group) and pre- and post-CRT treatment (CRT group) for measurement of s-Ecad protein by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Serum s-Ecad levels were correlated with clinicopathological parameters as well as survival. Univariate analysis showed no significant relationship between serum s-Ecad level and clinicopathological parameters for all sets of samples. Survival analysis showed that in patients who had surgical resection only, those with s-Ecad levels equal to or below the median value survived significantly longer than those with levels above the median (median survival 25.6 vs. 14.1 months, P= 0.012). Multivariate analysis showed that pathological N stage, M stage, R category, and serum s-Ecad level were significant independent prognostic factors for ESCC patients who underwent surgery only. The hazard ratio for s-Ecad was 1.104 (95% CI: 1.026-1.187) and P= 0.008. Serum s-Ecad was detected in ESCC patients and its potential as an independent prognostic marker requires further investigation. © 2010 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  16. E-cadherin regulators are differentially expressed in the epithelium and stroma of keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Porto, Lia Pontes Arruda; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Carneiro Júnior, Bráulio; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Paiva, Katiúcia Batista Silva; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino

    2016-04-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process where cells lose their epithelial features and acquire properties of typical mesenchymal cells. The dissociation of tumor cells due to changes in cell-cell adhesion is one of the key principles of tumor invasion and EMT. Thus, the knowledge of the molecular features of EMT in keratocyst odontogenic tumor (KOT) can provide useful markers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis and perhaps contribute to an alternative therapeutic approach as it shows an aggressive clinical behavior and high recurrence rates. This study aimed to evaluate the EMT in KOT by the immunoexpression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, and Slug and comparing to radicular cysts and dental follicles. Thirty-two KOTs, 15 radicular cysts, and 08 dental follicles were used for immunohistochemistry, evaluating the extent, intensity, labeling pattern, cellular compartment in the epithelium and stroma, and the presence of inflammation. E-cadherin was preserved in most cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. N-cadherin was increased in the tumor epithelium, a result that was positively correlated with the heterogeneous and nuclear immunoexpression of Slug in the epithelium; Slug also correlated with high Snail immunoexpression. N-cadherin was positively correlated with Slug in the stroma of keratocystic odontogenic tumors. The high immunoexpression of Snail and nuclear Slug in keratocystic odontogenic tumors suggests these proteins as transcription factors without necessarily participating in 'cadherin switching'. However, the knowledge of their induction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in odontogenic tumors is still limited. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Down-regulation of E-cadherin and catenins in human pituitary growth hormone-producing adenomas.

    PubMed

    Sano, Toshiaki; Rong, Qian Zhi; Kagawa, Noriko; Yamada, Shozo

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenomas can be ultrastructurally divided into two major types: densely granulated and sparsely granulated. The latter type of adenoma characteristically exhibits globular accumulations of cytokeratin filaments known as fibrous bodies, which are immunohistochemically identifiable as juxtanuclear dot-like immunoreactivity. We hypothesize that the formation of fibrous body might be related to dysfunction of adhesion molecules, because of the functional relationship between intermediate filaments and the cadherin-catenin complex and frequent observation of loss of cohesiveness of the adenoma cells. Our recent immunohistochemical study showed that expression of E-cadherin and its undercoat proteins, alpha-, beta- and gamma-catenin, in GH cell adenomas with prominent fibrous bodies was significantly reduced compared with GH cell adenomas without fibrous bodies and the normal adenohypophysial cells. Although no mutation of exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene was found in any GH cell adenomas with fibrous bodies, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the E-cadherin promoter region was methylated in 37.5% of these adenomas, two of which displayed total methylation, but not in GH cell adenomas without fibrous bodies. We conclude that the decreased expression of the E-cadherin-catenin complex and methylation of the E-cadherin gene promoter region are events associated with the formation of fibrous bodies in GH cell adenomas. It remains to be clarified to explain the mechanism by which down-regulation of adhesion molecules is involved in the abnormal assembly of intermediate filaments.

  18. E-Cadherin/β-Catenin Complex: A Target for Anticancer and Antimetastasis Plants/Plant-derived Compounds.

    PubMed

    Tafrihi, Majid; Nakhaei Sistani, Roohollah

    2017-07-01

    Plants reputed to have cancer-inhibiting potential and putative active components derived from those plants have emerged as an exciting new field in cancer study. Some of these compounds have cancer-inhibiting potential in different clinical staging levels, especially metastasis. A few of them which stabilize cell-cell adhesions are controversial topics. This review article introduces some effective herbal compounds that target E-cadherin/β-catenin protein complex. In this article, at first, we briefly review the structure and function of E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins, Wnt signaling pathway, and its target genes. Then, effective compounds of the Teucrium persicum, Teucrium polium, Allium sativum (garlic), Glycine max (soy), and Brassica oleracea (broccoli) plants, which influence stability and cellular localization of E-cadherin/β-catenin complex, were studied. Based on literature review, there are some compounds in these plants, including genistein of soy, sulforaphane of broccoli, organosulfur compounds of garlic, and the total extract of Teucrium genus that change the expression of variety of Wnt target genes such as MMPs, E-cadherin, p21, p53, c-myc, and cyclin D1. So they may induce cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis and/or inhibition of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and metastasis.

  19. Insulin/IGF-I Signaling Pathways Enhances Tumor Cell Invasion through Bisecting GlcNAc N-glycans Modulation. An Interplay with E-Cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Ana M.; Oliveira, Patrícia; Cabral, Joana; Seruca, Raquel; Oliveira, Carla; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Reis, Celso A.; Pinho, Salomé S.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in glycosylation are considered a hallmark of cancer, and one of the key targets of glycosylation modifications is E-cadherin. We and others have previously demonstrated that E-cadherin has a role in the regulation of bisecting GlcNAc N-glycans expression, remaining to be determined the E-cadherin-dependent signaling pathway involved in this N-glycans expression regulation. In this study, we analysed the impact of E-cadherin expression in the activation profile of receptor tyrosine kinases such as insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR). We demonstrated that exogenous E-cadherin expression inhibits IR, IGF-IR and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Stimulation with insulin and IGF-I in MDA-MD-435 cancer cells overexpressing E-cadherin induces a decrease of bisecting GlcNAc N-glycans that was accompanied with alterations on E-cadherin cellular localization. Concomitantly, IR/IGF-IR signaling activation induced a mesenchymal-like phenotype of cancer cells together with an increased tumor cell invasion capability. Altogether, these results demonstrate an interplay between E-cadherin and IR/IGF-IR signaling as major networking players in the regulation of bisecting N-glycans expression, with important effects in the modulation of epithelial characteristics and tumor cell invasion. Here we provide new insights into the role that Insulin/IGF-I signaling play during cancer progression through glycosylation modifications. PMID:24282611

  20. E-cadherin transport from the trans-Golgi network in tubulovesicular carriers is selectively regulated by golgin-97.

    PubMed

    Lock, John G; Hammond, Luke A; Houghton, Fiona; Gleeson, Paul A; Stow, Jennifer L

    2005-12-01

    E-cadherin is a cell-cell adhesion protein that is trafficked and delivered to the basolateral cell surface. Membrane-bound carriers for the post-Golgi exocytosis of E-cadherin have not been characterized. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged E-cadherin (Ecad-GFP) is transported from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the recycling endosome on its way to the cell surface in tubulovesicular carriers that resemble TGN tubules labeled by members of the golgin family of tethering proteins. Here, we examine the association of golgins with tubular carriers containing E-cadherin as cargo. Fluorescent GRIP domains from golgin proteins replicate the membrane binding of the full-length proteins and were coexpressed with Ecad-GFP. The GRIP domains of p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97 had overlapping but nonidentical distributions on the TGN; both domains were on TGN-derived tubules but only the golgin-97 GRIP domain coincided with Ecad-GFP tubules in live cells. When the Arl1-binding endogenous golgins, p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97 were displaced from Golgi membranes by overexpression of the p230 GRIP domain, trafficking of Ecad-GFP was inhibited. siRNA knockdown of golgin-97 also inhibited trafficking of Ecad-GFP. Thus, the GRIP domains of p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97 bind discriminately to distinct membrane subdomains of the TGN. Golgin-97 is identified as a selective and essential component of the tubulovesicular carriers transporting E-cadherin out of the TGN.

  1. Nickel-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and E-cadherin Promoter Hypermethylation*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Hsien; Tang, Sheau-Chung; Wang, Po-Hui; Lee, Huei; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered a critical event in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and tumor metastasis. During EMT, the expression of differentiation markers switches from cell-cell junction proteins such as E-cadherin to mesenchymal markers such as fibronectin. Although nickel-containing compounds have been shown to be associated with lung carcinogenesis, the role of nickel in the EMT process in bronchial epithelial cells is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine whether nickel contributes to EMT in human bronchial epithelial cells. We also attempted to clarify the mechanisms involved in NiCl2-induced EMT. Our results showed that NiCl2 induced EMT phenotype marker alterations such as up-regulation of fibronectin and down-regulation of E-cadherin. In addition, the potent antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked EMT and expression of HIF-1α induced by NiCl2, whereas the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored the down-regulation of E-cadherin induced by NiCl2. Promoter hypermethylation of E-cadherin, determined by quantitative real time methyl-specific PCR and bisulfate sequencing, was also induced by NiCl2. These results shed new light on the contribution of NiCl2 to carcinogenesis. Specifically, NiCl2 induces down-regulation of E-cadherin by reactive oxygen species generation and promoter hypermethylation. This study demonstrates for the first time that nickel induces EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:22648416

  2. Drosophila E-cadherin is required for the maintenance of ring canals anchoring to mechanically withstand tissue growth.

    PubMed

    Loyer, Nicolas; Kolotuev, Irina; Pinot, Mathieu; Le Borgne, Roland

    2015-10-13

    Intercellular bridges called "ring canals" (RCs) resulting from incomplete cytokinesis play an essential role in intercellular communication in somatic and germinal tissues. During Drosophila oogenesis, RCs connect the maturing oocyte to nurse cells supporting its growth. Despite numerous genetic screens aimed at identifying genes involved in RC biogenesis and maturation, how RCs anchor to the plasma membrane (PM) throughout development remains unexplained. In this study, we report that the clathrin adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) complex, although dispensable for the biogenesis of RCs, is required for the maintenance of the anchorage of RCs to the PM to withstand the increased membrane tension associated with the exponential tissue growth at the onset of vitellogenesis. Here we unravel the mechanisms by which AP-1 enables the maintenance of RCs' anchoring to the PM during size expansion. We show that AP-1 regulates the localization of the intercellular adhesion molecule E-cadherin and that loss of AP-1 causes the disappearance of the E-cadherin-containing adhesive clusters surrounding the RCs. E-cadherin itself is shown to be required for the maintenance of the RCs' anchorage, a function previously unrecognized because of functional compensation by N-cadherin. Scanning block-face EM combined with transmission EM analyses reveals the presence of interdigitated, actin- and Moesin-positive, microvilli-like structures wrapping the RCs. Thus, by modulating E-cadherin trafficking, we show that the sustained E-cadherin-dependent adhesion organizes the microvilli meshwork and ensures the proper attachment of RCs to the PM, thereby counteracting the increasing membrane tension induced by exponential tissue growth.

  3. Relation of glypican-3 and E-cadherin expressions to clinicopathological features and prognosis of mucinous and non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; Mohammad, Mie Ali; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal

    2015-06-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a member of the membrane-bound heparin sulfate proteoglycans. E-cadherin is an adhesive receptor that is believed to act as a tumor suppressor gene. Many studies had investigated E-cadherin expressions in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) while only one study had investigated GPC3 expression in CRC. This study aims to investigate expression of GCP3 and E-cadherin in colorectal mucinous carcinoma (MA) and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) using manual tissue microarray technique. Tumor tissue specimens are collected from 75 cases of MC and 75 cases of NMA who underwent radical surgery from Jan 2007 to Jan 2012 at the Gastroenterology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt. Their clinicopathological parameters and survival data were revised and analyzed using established statistical methodologies. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tip technique and immunohistochemistry for GPC3 and E-cadherin was done. NMA showed higher expression of GPC3 than MA with no statistically significant relation. NMA showed a significantly higher E-cadherin expression than MA. GPC3 and E-cadherin positivity rates were significantly interrelated in NMA, but not in MA, group. In NMA group, there was no significant relation between either GPC3 or E-cadherin expression and the clinicopathological features. In a univariate analysis, neither GPC3 nor E-cadherin expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival (OS). GPC3 and E-cadherin expressions are not independent prognostic factors in CRC. However, expressions of both are significantly interrelated in NMA patients, suggesting an excellent interplay between both, in contrast to MA. Further molecular studies are needed to further explore the relationship between GCP3 and E-cadherin in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  4. Normal Fibroblasts Induce E-Cadherin Loss and Increase Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen; Hu, Xinlei; Chen, Zhongting; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chenjing; Wang, Gang; Chen, Yu; Zhou, Xinglu; Tang, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Laisheng; Xu, Xiang; Pan, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Background A tumor is considered a heterogeneous complex in a three-dimensional environment that is flush with pathophysiological and biomechanical signals. Cell-stroma interactions guide the development and generation of tumors. Here, we evaluate the contributions of normal fibroblasts to gastric cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings By coculturing normal fibroblasts in monolayers of BGC-823 gastric cancer cells, tumor cells sporadically developed short, spindle-like morphological characteristics and demonstrated enhanced proliferation and invasive potential. Furthermore, the transformed tumor cells demonstrated decreased tumor formation and increased lymphomatic and intestinal metastatic potential. Non-transformed BGC-823 cells, in contrast, demonstrated primary tumor formation and delayed intestinal and lymph node invasion. We also observed E-cadherin loss and the upregulation of vimentin expression in the transformed tumor cells, which suggested that the increase in metastasis was induced by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Conclusion Collectively, our data indicated that normal fibroblasts sufficiently induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells, thereby leading to metastasis. PMID:24845259

  5. Tre1 GPCR initiates germ cell transepithelial migration by regulating Drosophila melanogaster E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Prabhat S.; Sano, Hiroko; Renault, Andrew D.; Barbosa, Vitor; Fuse, Naoyuki; Lehmann, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant progress in identifying the guidance pathways that control cell migration, how a cell starts to move within an intact organism, acquires motility, and loses contact with its neighbors is poorly understood. We show that activation of the G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) trapped in endoderm 1 (Tre1) directs the redistribution of the G protein Gβ as well as adherens junction proteins and Rho guanosine triphosphatase from the cell periphery to the lagging tail of germ cells at the onset of Drosophila melanogaster germ cell migration. Subsequently, Tre1 activity triggers germ cell dispersal and orients them toward the midgut for directed transepithelial migration. A transition toward invasive migration is also a prerequisite for metastasis formation, which often correlates with down-regulation of adhesion proteins. We show that uniform down-regulation of E-cadherin causes germ cell dispersal but is not sufficient for transepithelial migration in the absence of Tre1. Our findings therefore suggest a new mechanism for GPCR function that links cell polarity, modulation of cell adhesion, and invasion. PMID:18824569

  6. Correlation of E-cadherin expression with differentiation grade and histological type in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gamallo, C.; Palacios, J.; Suarez, A.; Pizarro, A.; Navarro, P.; Quintanilla, M.; Cano, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a correlation has been suggested between a loss of E-cadherin (E-CD) and increased invasiveness of neoplastic cells. In this study, E-CD expression in breast cancer was investigated using an affinity-purified antibody (ECCD-2) in an immunoenzymatic (avidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase) test. Intensity and extension of E-CD immunoreactivity were evaluated in 61 breast carcinomas and correlated with their histological type and grade, nodal involvement, and hormonal receptor status. Histological types were infiltrating ductal carcinoma of no special type (n = 54) and infiltrating lobular carcinoma (n = 7). All infiltrating ductal carcinomas of no special type except two grade 3 carcinomas showed positive immunoreactivity that was variable among different cases. Grade 1 breast carcinomas (n = 10) showed greater immunoreactivity than grade 2 (n = 25) and grade 3 (n = 19) carcinomas. E-CD immunoreactivity correlated positively with the degree of tubular formation and inversely with the mitoses number. None of the infiltrating lobular carcinomas expressed E-CD in their infiltrating cells, whereas they showed only weak immunostains in areas of atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. These results indicate that E-CD expression correlates with histological type and grade in breast carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7682767

  7. Of mice and men: Dissecting the interaction between Listeria monocytogenes Internalin A and E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A

    2013-01-01

    We report a study of the interaction between internalin A (inlA) and human or murine E-cadherin (Ecad). inlA is used by Listeria monocytogenes to internalize itself into host cell, but the bacterium is unable to invade murine cells, which has been attributed to the difference in sequence between hEcad and mEcad. Using molecular dynamics simulations, MM/GBSA free energy calculations, hydrogen bond analysis, water characterization and umbrella sampling, we provide a complete atomistic picture of the binding between inlA and Ecad. We dissect key residues in the protein–protein interface and analyze the energetics using MM/GBSA. From this analysis it is clear that the binding of inlA–mEcad is weaker than inlA–hEcad, on par with the experimentally observed inability of inlA to bind to mEcad. However, extended MD simulations of 200 ns in length show no destabilization of the inlA–mEcad complex and the estimation of the potential of mean force (PMF) using umbrella sampling corroborates this conclusion. The binding strength computed from the PMFs show no significant difference between the two protein complexes. Hence, our study suggests that the inability of L. monocytogenes to invade murine cells cannot be explained by processes at the nanosecond to sub-microsecond time scale probed by the simulations performed here. PMID:24688730

  8. Role of E-cadherin in membrane-cortex interaction probed by nanotube extrusion.

    PubMed

    Tabdanov, Erdem; Borghi, Nicolas; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Dufour, Sylvie; Thiery, Jean-Paul

    2009-03-18

    This study aims to define the role of E-cadherin (Ecad) engagement in cell-cell contact during membrane-cortex interaction. As a tool, we used a hydrodynamic membrane tube extrusion technique to characterize the mechanical interaction between the plasma membrane and the underlying cortical cytoskeleton. Cells were anchored on 4.5 microm beads coated with polylysine (PL) to obtain nonspecific cell adhesion or with an antibody against Ecad to mimic specific Ecad-mediated cell adhesion. We investigated tube length dynamics L(t) over time and through successive extrusions applied to the cell at regular time intervals. A constant slow velocity was observed for the first extrusion, for PL-attached cells. Subsequent extrusions had two phases: an initial high-velocity regime followed by a low-velocity regime. Successive extrusions gradually weakened the binding of the membrane around the tube neck to the underlying cortical cytoskeleton. Cells specifically attached via Ecad first exhibited a very low extrusion velocity regime followed by a faster extrusion regime similar to nonspecific extrusion. This indicates that Ecad strengthens the membrane-cortical cytoskeleton interaction, but only in a restricted area corresponding to the site of contact between the cell and the bead. Occasional giant "cortex" tubes were extruded with specifically anchored cells, demonstrating that the cortex remained tightly bound to the membrane through Ecad-mediated adhesion at the contact site.

  9. E-cadherin interactions regulate beta-cell proliferation in islet-like structures.

    PubMed

    Carvell, Melanie J; Marsh, Phil J; Persaud, Shanta J; Jones, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Islet function is dependent on cells within the islet interacting with each other. E-cadherin (ECAD) mediates Ca(2+)-dependent homophilic cell adhesion between b-cells within islets and has been identified as a tumour suppressor. We generated clones of the MIN6 beta-cell line that stably over- (S) and under-express (alphaS) ECAD. Modified expression of ECAD was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Preproinsulin mRNA, insulin content and basal rates of insulin secretion were higher in S cells compared to aS and control (V) cells. However, stimulated insulin secretory responses were unaffected by ECAD expression levels. ECAD expression did affect proliferation, with enhanced ECAD expression being associated with reduced proliferation and vice versa. Formation of islet-like structures was associated with a significant reduction in proliferation of V and S cells but not alphaS cells. These data suggest that ECAD expression levels do not modulate insulin secretory function but are consistent with a role for ECAD in the regulation of beta-cell proliferation. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Altered E-Cadherin Levels and Distribution in Melanocytes Precede Clinical Manifestations of Vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Roselyne Y; Luciani, Flavie; Cario-André, Muriel; Rubod, Alain; Petit, Valérie; Benzekri, Laila; Ezzedine, Khaled; Lepreux, Sébastien; Steingrimsson, Eirikur; Taieb, A; Gauthier, Yvon; Larue, Lionel; Delmas, Véronique

    2015-07-01

    Vitiligo is the most common depigmenting disorder resulting from the loss of melanocytes from the basal epidermal layer. The pathogenesis of the disease is likely multifactorial and involves autoimmune causes, as well as oxidative and mechanical stress. It is important to identify early events in vitiligo to clarify pathogenesis, improve diagnosis, and inform therapy. Here, we show that E-cadherin (Ecad), which mediates the adhesion between melanocytes and keratinocytes in the epidermis, is absent from or discontinuously distributed across melanocyte membranes of vitiligo patients long before clinical lesions appear. This abnormality is associated with the detachment of the melanocytes from the basal to the suprabasal layers in the epidermis. Using human epidermal reconstructed skin and mouse models with normal or defective Ecad expression in melanocytes, we demonstrated that Ecad is required for melanocyte adhesiveness to the basal layer under oxidative and mechanical stress, establishing a link between silent/preclinical, cell-autonomous defects in vitiligo melanocytes and known environmental stressors accelerating disease expression. Our results implicate a primary predisposing skin defect affecting melanocyte adhesiveness that, under stress conditions, leads to disappearance of melanocytes and clinical vitiligo. Melanocyte adhesiveness is thus a potential target for therapy aiming at disease stabilization.

  11. Sip1 mediates an E-cadherin-to-N-cadherin switch during cranial neural crest EMT

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Crystal D.; Saxena, Ankur

    2013-01-01

    The neural crest, an embryonic stem cell population, initially resides within the dorsal neural tube but subsequently undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to commence migration. Although neural crest and cancer EMTs are morphologically similar, little is known regarding conservation of their underlying molecular mechanisms. We report that Sip1, which is involved in cancer EMT, plays a critical role in promoting the neural crest cell transition to a mesenchymal state. Sip1 transcripts are expressed in premigratory/migrating crest cells. After Sip1 loss, the neural crest specifier gene FoxD3 was abnormally retained in the dorsal neuroepithelium, whereas Sox10, which is normally required for emigration, was diminished. Subsequently, clumps of adherent neural crest cells remained adjacent to the neural tube and aberrantly expressed E-cadherin while lacking N-cadherin. These findings demonstrate two distinct phases of neural crest EMT, detachment and mesenchymalization, with the latter involving a novel requirement for Sip1 in regulation of cadherin expression during completion of neural crest EMT. PMID:24297751

  12. Of mice and men: Dissecting the interaction between Listeria monocytogenes Internalin A and E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A

    2013-01-01

    We report a study of the interaction between internalin A (inlA) and human or murine E-cadherin (Ecad). inlA is used by Listeria monocytogenes to internalize itself into host cell, but the bacterium is unable to invade murine cells, which has been attributed to the difference in sequence between hEcad and mEcad. Using molecular dynamics simulations, MM/GBSA free energy calculations, hydrogen bond analysis, water characterization and umbrella sampling, we provide a complete atomistic picture of the binding between inlA and Ecad. We dissect key residues in the protein-protein interface and analyze the energetics using MM/GBSA. From this analysis it is clear that the binding of inlA-mEcad is weaker than inlA-hEcad, on par with the experimentally observed inability of inlA to bind to mEcad. However, extended MD simulations of 200 ns in length show no destabilization of the inlA-mEcad complex and the estimation of the potential of mean force (PMF) using umbrella sampling corroborates this conclusion. The binding strength computed from the PMFs show no significant difference between the two protein complexes. Hence, our study suggests that the inability of L. monocytogenes to invade murine cells cannot be explained by processes at the nanosecond to sub-microsecond time scale probed by the simulations performed here.

  13. Role of E-Cadherin in Membrane-Cortex Interaction Probed by Nanotube Extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Tabdanov, Erdem; Borghi, Nicolas; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Dufour, Sylvie; Thiery, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to define the role of E-cadherin (Ecad) engagement in cell-cell contact during membrane-cortex interaction. As a tool, we used a hydrodynamic membrane tube extrusion technique to characterize the mechanical interaction between the plasma membrane and the underlying cortical cytoskeleton. Cells were anchored on 4.5 μm beads coated with polylysine (PL) to obtain nonspecific cell adhesion or with an antibody against Ecad to mimic specific Ecad-mediated cell adhesion. We investigated tube length dynamics L(t) over time and through successive extrusions applied to the cell at regular time intervals. A constant slow velocity was observed for the first extrusion, for PL-attached cells. Subsequent extrusions had two phases: an initial high-velocity regime followed by a low-velocity regime. Successive extrusions gradually weakened the binding of the membrane around the tube neck to the underlying cortical cytoskeleton. Cells specifically attached via Ecad first exhibited a very low extrusion velocity regime followed by a faster extrusion regime similar to nonspecific extrusion. This indicates that Ecad strengthens the membrane-cortical cytoskeleton interaction, but only in a restricted area corresponding to the site of contact between the cell and the bead. Occasional giant “cortex” tubes were extruded with specifically anchored cells, demonstrating that the cortex remained tightly bound to the membrane through Ecad-mediated adhesion at the contact site. PMID:19289070

  14. Pax-5 is a potent regulator of E-cadherin and breast cancer malignant processes

    PubMed Central

    Benzina, Sami; Beauregard, Annie-Pier; Guerrette, Roxann; Jean, Stéphanie; Faye, Mame Daro; Laflamme, Mark; Maïcas, Emmanuel; Crapoulet, Nicolas; Ouellette, Rodney J.; Robichaud, Gilles A.

    2017-01-01

    Pax-5, an essential transcription factor for B lymphocyte development, has been linked with the development and progression of lymphoid cancers and carcinoma. In contrast to B-cell cancer lesions, the specific expression signatures and roles of Pax-5 in breast cancer progression are relatively unknown. In the present study, we set out to profile Pax-5 expression in mammary tissues and elucidate the cellular and molecular roles of Pax-5 in breast cancer processes. Using immunohistology on mammary tissue arrays, Pax-5 was detected in a total of 298/306 (97.6%) samples tested. Interestingly, our studies reveal that Pax-5 inhibits aggressive features and confers anti-proliferative effects in breast carcinoma cells in contrast to its oncogenic properties in B cell cancers. More precisely, Pax-5 suppressed breast cancer cell migration, invasion and tumor spheroid formation while concomitantly promoting cell adhesion properties. We also observed that Pax-5 inhibited and reversed breast cancer epithelial to mesenchymal phenotypic transitioning. Mechanistically, we found that the Pax-5 transcription factor binds and induces gene expression of E-cadherin, a pivotal regulator of epithelialisation. Globally, we demonstrate that Pax-5 is predominant expressed factor in mammary epithelial cells. We also present an important role for Pax-5 in the phenotypic transitioning processes and aggressive features associated with breast cancer malignancy and disease progression. PMID:28076843

  15. Differential expression of E-cadherin at the surface of rat beta-cells as a marker of functional heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Domenico; Rouiller, Dominique G; Halban, Philippe A

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the expression of E-cadherin at the surface of rat beta-cells is regulated by insulin secretagogues and correlates with insulin secretion. When cultured under standard conditions, virtually all beta-cells expressed E-cadherin observed by immunofluorescence, but heterogeneous staining was observed. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), two beta-cell sub-populations were sorted: one that was poorly labeled ('ECad-low') and another that was highly labeled ('ECad-high'). After 1-h stimulation with 16.7 mM glucose, insulin secretion (reverse hemolytic plaque assay) from individual ECad-high beta-cells was higher than that from ECad-low beta-cells. Ca2+-dependent beta-cell aggregation was increased at 16.7 mM glucose when compared with 2.8 mM glucose. E-cadherin at the surface of beta-cells was increased after 18 h at 11.1 and 22.2 mM glucose when compared with 2.8 mM glucose, with the greatest increase at 22.2 mM glucose + 0.5 mM isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX). While no labeling was detected on freshly trypsinized cells, the proportion of stained cells increased in a time-dependent manner during culture for 1, 3, and 24 h. This recovery was faster when cells were incubated at 16.7 vs 2.8 mM glucose. Cycloheximide inhibited expression of E-cadherin at 2.8 mM glucose, but not at 16.7 mM, while depolymerization of actin by either cytochalasin B or latrunculin B increased surface E-cadherin at low glucose. In conclusion, these results show that expression of E-cadherin at the surface of islet beta-cells is controlled by secretagogues including glucose, correlates with insulin secretion, and can serve as a surface marker of beta-cell function.

  16. Down regulation of E-Cadherin (ECAD) - a predictor for occult metastatic disease in sentinel node biopsy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Huber, Gerhard F; Züllig, Lena; Soltermann, Alex; Roessle, Matthias; Graf, Nicole; Haerle, Stephan K; Studer, Gabriela; Jochum, Wolfram; Moch, Holger; Stoeckli, Sandro J

    2011-06-03

    Prognostic factors in predicting occult lymph node metastasis in patients with head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are necessary to improve the results of the sentinel lymph node procedure in this tumour type. The E-Cadherin glycoprotein is an intercellular adhesion molecule in epithelial cells, which plays an important role in establishing and maintaining intercellular connections. To determine the value of the molecular marker E-Cadherin in predicting regional metastatic disease. E-Cadherin expression in tumour tissue of 120 patients with HNSCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were evaluated using the tissue microarray technique. 110 tumours were located in the oral cavity (91.7%; mostly tongue), 10 tumours in the oropharynx (8.3%). Intensity of E-Cadherin expression was quantified by the Intensity Reactivity Score (IRS). These results were correlated with the lymph node status of biopsied sentinel lymph nodes. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine statistical significance. pT-stage, gender, tumour side and location did not correlate with lymph node metastasis. Differentiation grade (p = 0.018) and down regulation of E-Cadherin expression significantly correlate with positive lymph node status (p = 0.005) in univariate and multivariate analysis. These data suggest that loss of E-cadherin expression is associated with increased lymhogeneous metastasis of HNSCC. E-cadherin immunohistochemistry may be used as a predictor for lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. 2b.

  17. Involvement of microRNAs-MMPs-E-cadherin in the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongmei; Li, Xiaohui; Du, Jie; Yin, Youcong; Li, Yuanjian

    2018-06-15

    It has been found that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)is not only the main cause of gastric cancer, but also closely related to its metastasis. E-cadherin cleavage induced by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays an important role in the tumor metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the role of microRNAs-MMPs-E-cadherin in migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells treated with H. pylori. The results showed that H. pylori induced migration and invasion of SGC-7901 cells with a down-regulation of E-cadherin expression, which were abolished by MMPs knock down, E-cadherin overexpression, mimics of miR128 and miR148a. MiR128/miR148a inhibitors restored MMP-3/MMP-7 expression, down-regulated E-cadherin level, and accelerated cellular migration and invasion. This study suggests that H. pylori induces migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells through reduction of E-cadherin function by activation of MMP-3, - 7. The present results also suggest that the activated MMPs/E-cadherin pathway is related with down-regulation of miR128/miR148a in the human gastric cancer cells infected with H. pylori. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. O-mannosylation and N-glycosylation: two coordinated mechanisms regulating the tumour suppressor functions of E-cadherin in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Markus F.; Miyoshi, Eiji; Pierce, Michael; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Carneiro, Fátima; Seruca, Raquel; Reis, Celso A.; Strahl, Sabine; Pinho, Salomé S.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of tumor suppressor protein E-cadherin is an early molecular event in cancer. O-mannosylation profile of E-cadherin is a newly-described post-translational modification crucial for its adhesive functions in homeostasis. However, the role of O-mannosyl glycans in E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion in cancer and their interplay with N-glycans remains largely unknown. We herein demonstrated that human gastric carcinomas exhibiting a non-functional E-cadherin display a reduced expression of O-mannosyl glycans concomitantly with increased modification with branched complex N-glycans. Accordingly, overexpression of MGAT5-mediated branched N-glycans both in gastric cancer cells and transgenic mice models led to a significant decrease of O-mannosyl glycans attached to E-cadherin that was associated with impairment of its tumour suppressive functions. Importantly, overexpression of protein O-mannosyltransferase 2 (POMT2) induced a reduced expression of branched N-glycans which led to a protective effect of E-cadherin biological functions. Overall, our results reveal a newly identified mechanism of (dys)regulation of E-cadherin that occur through the interplay between O-mannosylation and N-glycosylation pathway. PMID:27533452

  19. E-cadherin breast tumor expression, risk factors and survival: Pooled analysis of 5,933 cases from 12 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Horne, Hisani N; Oh, Hannah; Sherman, Mark E; Palakal, Maya; Hewitt, Stephen M; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Milne, Roger L; Hardisson, David; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bolla, Manjeet K; Brenner, Hermann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cora, Renata; Couch, Fergus J; Cuk, Katarina; Devilee, Peter; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Eilber, Ursula; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Heikkilä, Päivi; Holleczek, Bernd; Hooning, Maartje J; Jones, Michael; Keeman, Renske; Mannermaa, Arto; Martens, John W M; Muranen, Taru A; Nevanlinna, Heli; Olson, Janet E; Orr, Nick; Perez, Jose I A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Seynaeve, Caroline; Sironen, Reijo; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Tengström, Maria; Thomas, Abigail S; Timmermans, A Mieke; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Troester, Melissa A; van Asperen, Christi J; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Van Leeuwen, Flora F; Van't Veer, Laura J; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2018-04-26

    E-cadherin (CDH1) is a putative tumor suppressor gene implicated in breast carcinogenesis. Yet, whether risk factors or survival differ by E-cadherin tumor expression is unclear. We evaluated E-cadherin tumor immunohistochemistry expression using tissue microarrays of 5,933 female invasive breast cancers from 12 studies from the Breast Cancer Consortium. H-scores were calculated and case-case odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models. All analyses were stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic subtype. E-cadherin low cases (N = 1191, 20%) were more frequently of lobular histology, low grade, >2 cm, and HER2-negative. Loss of E-cadherin expression (score < 100) was associated with menopausal hormone use among ER-positive tumors (ever compared to never users, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.97-1.59), which was stronger when we evaluated complete loss of E-cadherin (i.e. H-score = 0), OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.06-2.33. Breast cancer specific mortality was unrelated to E-cadherin expression in multivariable models. E-cadherin low expression is associated with lobular histology, tumor characteristics and menopausal hormone use, with no evidence of an association with breast cancer specific survival. These data support loss of E-cadherin expression as an important marker of tumor subtypes.

  20. Hepatitis C virus depends on E-cadherin as an entry factor and regulates its expression in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Li, Qisheng; Sodroski, Catherine; Lowey, Brianna; Schweitzer, Cameron J; Cha, Helen; Zhang, Fang; Liang, T Jake

    2016-07-05

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters the host cell through interactions with a cascade of cellular factors. Although significant progress has been made in understanding HCV entry, the precise mechanisms by which HCV exploits the receptor complex and host machinery to enter the cell remain unclear. This intricate process of viral entry likely depends on additional yet-to-be-defined cellular molecules. Recently, by applying integrative functional genomics approaches, we identified and interrogated distinct sets of host dependencies in the complete HCV life cycle. Viral entry assays using HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpps) of various genotypes uncovered multiple previously unappreciated host factors, including E-cadherin, that mediate HCV entry. E-cadherin silencing significantly inhibited HCV infection in Huh7.5.1 cells, HepG2/miR122/CD81 cells, and primary human hepatocytes at a postbinding entry step. Knockdown of E-cadherin, however, had no effect on HCV RNA replication or internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation. In addition, an E-cadherin monoclonal antibody effectively blocked HCV entry and infection in hepatocytes. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that E-cadherin is closely associated with claudin-1 (CLDN1) and occludin (OCLN) on the cell membrane. Depletion of E-cadherin drastically diminished the cell-surface distribution of these two tight junction proteins in various hepatic cell lines, indicating that E-cadherin plays an important regulatory role in CLDN1/OCLN localization on the cell surface. Furthermore, loss of E-cadherin expression in hepatocytes is associated with HCV-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), providing an important link between HCV infection and liver cancer. Our data indicate that a dynamic interplay among E-cadherin, tight junctions, and EMT exists and mediates an important function in HCV entry.

  1. A Pathway for the Control of Anoikis Sensitivity by E-Cadherin and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition▿‡

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Park, Sun Hee; Cieply, Benjamin; Schupp, Jane; Killiam, Elizabeth; Zhang, Fan; Rimm, David L.; Frisch, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Detachment of epithelial cells from matrix or attachment to an inappropriate matrix engages an apoptotic response known as anoikis, which prevents metastasis. Cellular sensitivity to anoikis is compromised during the oncogenic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), through unknown mechanisms. We report here a pathway through which EMT confers anoikis resistance. NRAGE (neurotrophin receptor-interacting melanoma antigen) interacted with a component of the E-cadherin complex, ankyrin-G, maintaining NRAGE in the cytoplasm. Oncogenic EMT downregulated ankyrin-G, enhancing the nuclear localization of NRAGE. The oncogenic transcriptional repressor protein TBX2 interacted with NRAGE, repressing the tumor suppressor gene p14ARF. P14ARF sensitized cells to anoikis; conversely, the TBX2/NRAGE complex protected cells against anoikis by downregulating this gene. This represents a novel pathway for the regulation of anoikis by EMT and E-cadherin. PMID:21746881

  2. Targeting and crossing of the human maternofetal barrier by Listeria monocytogenes: role of internalin interaction with trophoblast E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Lecuit, Marc; Nelson, D Michael; Smith, Steve D; Khun, Huot; Huerre, Michel; Vacher-Lavenu, Marie-Cécile; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Cossart, Pascale

    2004-04-20

    Listeria monocytogenes produces severe fetoplacental infections in humans. How it targets and crosses the maternofetal barrier is unknown. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the location of L. monocytogenes in placental and amniotic tissue samples obtained from women with fetoplacental listeriosis. The results raised the possibility that L. monocytogenes crosses the maternofetal barrier through the villous syncytiotrophoblast, with secondary infection occurring via the amniotic epithelium. Because epidemiological studies indicate that the bacterial surface protein, internalin (InlA), may play a role in human fetoplacental listeriosis, we investigated the cellular patterns of expression of its host receptor, E-cadherin, at the maternofetal interface. E-cadherin was found on the basal and apical plasma membranes of syncytiotrophoblasts and in villous cytotrophoblasts. Established trophoblastic cell lines, primary trophoblast cultures, and placental villous explants were each exposed to isogenic InlA+ or InlA- strains of L. monocytogenes, and to L. innocua expressing or not InlA. Quantitative assays of cellular invasion demonstrated that bacterial entry into syncytiotrophoblasts occurs via the apical membrane in an InlA-E-cadherin dependent manner. In human placental villous explants, bacterial invasion of the syncytiotrophoblast barrier and underlying villous tissue and subsequent replication produces histopathological lesions that mimic those seen in placentas of women with listeriosis. Thus, the InlA-E-cadherin interaction that plays a key role in the crossing of the intestinal barrier in humans is also exploited by L. monocytogenes to target and cross the placental barrier. Such a ligand-receptor interaction allowing a pathogen to specifically cross the placental villous trophoblast barrier has not been reported previously.

  3. Targeting and crossing of the human maternofetal barrier by Listeria monocytogenes: Role of internalin interaction with trophoblast E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Lecuit, Marc; Nelson, D. Michael; Smith, Steve D.; Khun, Huot; Huerre, Michel; Vacher-Lavenu, Marie-Cécile; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Cossart, Pascale

    2004-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes produces severe fetoplacental infections in humans. How it targets and crosses the maternofetal barrier is unknown. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the location of L. monocytogenes in placental and amniotic tissue samples obtained from women with fetoplacental listeriosis. The results raised the possibility that L. monocytogenes crosses the maternofetal barrier through the villous syncytiotrophoblast, with secondary infection occurring via the amniotic epithelium. Because epidemiological studies indicate that the bacterial surface protein, internalin (InlA), may play a role in human fetoplacental listeriosis, we investigated the cellular patterns of expression of its host receptor, E-cadherin, at the maternofetal interface. E-cadherin was found on the basal and apical plasma membranes of syncytiotrophoblasts and in villous cytotrophoblasts. Established trophoblastic cell lines, primary trophoblast cultures, and placental villous explants were each exposed to isogenic InlA+ or InlA- strains of L. monocytogenes, and to L. innocua expressing or not InlA. Quantitative assays of cellular invasion demonstrated that bacterial entry into syncytiotrophoblasts occurs via the apical membrane in an InlA–E-cadherin dependent manner. In human placental villous explants, bacterial invasion of the syncytiotrophoblast barrier and underlying villous tissue and subsequent replication produces histopathological lesions that mimic those seen in placentas of women with listeriosis. Thus, the InlA–E-cadherin interaction that plays a key role in the crossing of the intestinal barrier in humans is also exploited by L. monocytogenes to target and cross the placental barrier. Such a ligand–receptor interaction allowing a pathogen to specifically cross the placental villous trophoblast barrier has not been reported previously. PMID:15073336

  4. ZEB1 overexpression associated with E-cadherin and microRNA-200 downregulation is characteristic of undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pérez, Laura; López-García, M Ángeles; Díaz-Martín, Juan; Biscuola, Michele; Castilla, M Ángeles; Tafe, Laura J; Garg, Karuna; Oliva, Esther; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Soslow, Robert A; Palacios, José

    2013-11-01

    Undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are very aggressive high-grade endometrial carcinomas that are frequently under-recognized. This study aimed to analyze the molecular alterations underlying the development of these endometrial carcinomas, focusing on those related to dedifferentiation. We assessed a series of 120 tumors: 57 grade 1 and 2 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, 15 grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, 27 endometrial serous carcinomas, and 21 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas. We found a high frequency of DNA mismatch repair deficiency (38%) and moderate rate of p53 overexpression (∼33%) in undifferentiated carcinomas. In contrast to the characteristic endometrioid phenotype, there was a dramatic downregulation of E-cadherin expression in the undifferentiated subtype. Quantitative methylation studies dismissed CDH1 promoter hypermethylation as the mechanism responsible for this change in gene expression, while immunohistochemistry revealed that the E-cadherin repressor ZEB1 was frequently overexpressed (62%) in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas. This finding was accompanied by a sharp downregulation in the expression of the miR-200 family of microRNAs, well-known targets of ZEB1. Furthermore, there was enhanced expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, such as N-cadherin, cytoplasmic p120, and osteonectin. In addition, HMGA2, a regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that is expressed in aggressive endometrial tumors, such as endometrial serous carcinomas and carcinosarcomas, was expressed in >20% of undifferentiated carcinomas. These results suggest that ZEB1 overexpression, associated with E-cadherin and miR-200s downregulation, and the expression of mesenchymal markers might enhance the metastatic potential of undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, leading to a poor prognosis. In addition, our observations suggest that the immnohistochemical analysis

  5. Homophilic and heterophilic polycystin 1 interactions regulate E-cadherin recruitment and junction assembly in MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    Streets, Andrew J.; Wagner, Bart E.; Harris, Peter C.; Ward, Christopher J.; Ong, Albert C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited human renal disease and is caused by mutations in two genes, PKD1 (85%) and PKD2 (15%). Cyst epithelial cells are characterised by a complex cellular phenotype including changes in proliferation, apoptosis, basement membrane composition and apicobasal polarity. Since polycystin 1 (PC1), the PKD1 protein, has been located in the basolateral membrane of kidney epithelial cells, we hypothesised that it might have a key role in mediating or stabilising cell-cell interactions. In non-ciliated L929 cells, stable or transient surface expression of the PC1 extracellular domain was sufficient to confer an adhesive phenotype and stimulate junction formation. In MDCK cells, we found that PC1 was recruited to the lateral membranes coincident with E-cadherin within 30 minutes after a `calcium switch'. Recruitment of both proteins was significantly delayed when cells were treated with a PC1 blocking antibody raised to the PKD domains. Finally, PC1 and E-cadherin could be coimmunoprecipitated together from MDCK cells. We conclude that PC1 has a key role in initiating junction formation via initial homophilic interactions and facilitates junction assembly and the establishment of apicobasal polarity by E-cadherin recruitment. PMID:19351715

  6. The prognostic role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers E-cadherin and Slug in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cappellesso, Rocco; Marioni, Gino; Crescenzi, Marika; Giacomelli, Luciano; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Mussato, Alessio; Staffieri, Alberto; Martini, Alessandro; Blandamura, Stella; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2015-10-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) prognosis is definitely related to lymph node metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows neoplastic cells to gain the plasticity and motility required for tumour progression and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of EMT in the prognosis of LSCC. Immunohistochemical analysis of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, ZEB1, and ZEB2 was performed in 37 consecutive LSCC cases. Low E-cadherin levels and high Slug levels correlated with both disease recurrence (P = 0.02 and P =0.01, respectively) and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). Relative expression levels of CDH1, SNAI2, miR-1 and the miR-200 family were also evaluated. CDH1, miR-200a and miR-200c down-regulation and SNAI2 overexpression were significantly associated with disease recurrence (P = 0.03, P = 0.02, P = 0.04, and P = 0.04, respectively). EMT increases tumour recurrence risk and shortens DFS in LSCC. E-cadherin and Slug immunohistochemical analysis could be useful for identifying patients requiring more aggressive treatment after surgery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Influence of E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion on mouse embryonic stem cells derivation from isolated blastomeres.

    PubMed

    González, Sheyla; Ibáñez, Elena; Santaló, Josep

    2011-09-01

    Efforts to efficiently derive embryonic stem cells (ESC) from isolated blastomeres have been done to minimize ethical concerns about human embryo destruction. Previous studies in our laboratory indicated a poor derivation efficiency of mouse ESC lines from isolated blastomeres at the 8-cell stage (1/8 blastomeres) due, in part, to a low division rate of the single blastomeres in comparison to their counterparts with a higher number of blastomeres (2/8, 3/8 and 4/8 blastomeres). Communication and adhesion between blastomeres from which the derivation process begins could be important aspects to efficiently derive ESC lines. In the present study, an approach consisting in the adhesion of a chimeric E-cadherin (E-cad-Fc) to the blastomere surface was devised to recreate the signaling produced by native E-cadherin between neighboring blastomeres inside the embryo. By this approach, the division rate of 1/8 blastomeres increased from 44.6% to 88.8% and a short exposure of 24 h to the E-cad-Fc produced an ESC derivation efficiency of 33.6%, significantly higher than the 2.2% obtained from the control group without E-cad-Fc. By contrast, a longer exposure to the same chimeric protein resulted in higher proportions of trophoblastic vesicles. Thus, we establish an important role of E-cadherin-mediated adherens junctions in promoting both the division of single 1/8 blastomeres and the efficiency of the ESC derivation process.

  8. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) influences epithelial barrier function by regulating Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Severson, Eric A.; Kwon, Mike; Hilgarth, Roland S.

    2010-07-02

    The Apical Junctional Complex (AJC) encompassing the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) plays a pivotal role in regulating epithelial barrier function and epithelial cell proliferative processes through signaling events that remain poorly characterized. A potential regulator of AJC protein expression is Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 is a constitutively active kinase that is repressed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we report that GSK-3 activity regulates the structure and function of the AJC in polarized model intestinal (SK-CO15) and kidney (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)) epithelial cells. Reduction of GSK-3 activity, either by small molecule inhibitors ormore » siRNA targeting GSK-3 alpha and beta mRNA, resulted in increased permeability to both ions and bulk solutes. Immunofluorescence labeling and immunoblot analyses revealed that the barrier defects correlated with decreased protein expression of AJC transmembrane proteins Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin without influencing other TJ proteins, Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (JAM-A). The decrease in Occludin and E-cadherin protein expression correlated with downregulation of the corresponding mRNA levels for these respective proteins following GSK-3 inhibition. These observations implicate an important role of GSK-3 in the regulation of the structure and function of the AJC that is mediated by differential modulation of mRNA transcription of key AJC proteins, Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin.« less

  9. Enhanced Biological Functions of Human Mesenchymal Stem-Cell Aggregates Incorporating E-Cadherin-Modified PLGA Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Mao, Hongli; Gao, Chao; Li, Suhua; Shuai, Qizhi; Xu, Jianbin; Xu, Ke; Cao, Lei; Lang, Ren; Gu, Zhongwei; Akaike, Toshihiro; Yang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising source of multipotent cells for various cell-based therapies due to their unique properties, and formation of 3D MSC aggregates has been explored as a potential strategy to enhance therapeutic efficacy. In this study, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles modified with human E-cadherin fusion protein (hE-cad-PLGA microparticles) have been fabricated and integrated with human MSCs to form 3D cell aggregates. The results show that, compared with the plain PLGA, the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles distribute within the aggregates more evenly and further result in a more significant improvement of cellular proliferation and secretion of a series of bioactive factors due to the synergistic effects from the bioactive E-cadherin fragments and the PLGA microparticles. Meanwhile, the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles incorporated in the aggregates upregulate the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activate the AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the MSCs. Additionally, the E-cadherin/β-catenin cellular membrane complex in the MSCs is markedly stimulated by the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles. Therefore, engineering 3D cell aggregates with hE-cad-PLGA microparticles can be a promising method for ex vivo multipotent stem-cell expansion with enhanced biological functions and may offer a novel route to expand multipotent stem-cell-based clinical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The juxtamembrane domain of the E-cadherin cytoplasmic tail contributes to its interaction with Myosin VI

    PubMed Central

    Mangold, Sabine; Norwood, Suzanne J.; Yap, Alpha S.; Collins, Brett M.

    2012-01-01

    We recently identified the atypical myosin, Myosin VI, as a component of epithelial cell-cell junctions that interacts with E-cadherin. Recombinant proteins bearing the cargo-binding domain of Myosin VI (Myo VI-CBD) or the cytoplasmic tail of E-cadherin can interact directly with one another. In this report we further investigate the molecular requirements of the interaction between Myo VI-CBD and E-cadherin combining truncation mutation analysis with in vitro binding assays. We report that a short (28 amino acid) juxtamembrane region of the cadherin cytoplasmic tail is sufficient to bind Myo VI-CBD. However, central regions of the cadherin tail adjacent to the juxtamembrane sequence also display binding activity for Myo VI-CBD. It is therefore possible that the cadherin tail bears two binding sites for Myosin VI, or an extended binding site that includes the juxtamembrane region. Nevertheless, our biochemical data highlight the capacity for the juxtamembrane region to interact with functionally-significant cytoplasmic proteins. PMID:23007415

  11. The invasive phenotype of placenta accreta extravillous trophoblasts associates with loss of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Duzyj, C M; Buhimschi, I A; Motawea, H; Laky, C A; Cozzini, G; Zhao, G; Funai, E F; Buhimschi, C S

    2015-06-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process of molecular and phenotypic epithelial cell alteration promoting invasiveness. Loss of E-cadherin (E-CAD), a transmembrane protein involved in cell adhesion, is a marker of EMT. Proteolysis into N- and C-terminus fragments by ADAM10 and presenilin-1 (PSEN-1) generates soluble (sE-CAD) and transcriptionally active forms. We studied the protein expression patterns of E-CAD in the serum and placenta of women with histologically-confirmed over-invasive placentation. The patterns of expression and levels of sE-CAD were analyzed by Western blot, immunoassay, and immunoprecipitation. Tissue immunostaining for E-CAD, cytokeratin-7 (epithelial marker), vimentin (mesenchymal marker), ADAM10, PSEN-1 and β-catenin expression were investigated in parallel. N-terminus cleaved 80 kDa sE-CAD fragments were present in serum of pregnant women with gestational age regulation of the circulatory levels. Women with advanced trophoblast invasion did not display circulatory levels of sE-CAD different from those of women with normal placentation. Histologically, extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) closer to the placental-myometrial interface demonstrated less E-CAD staining than those found deeper in the myometrium. These cells expressed both vimentin and cytokeratin, an additional feature of EMT. EVT of placentas with advanced invasion displayed intracellular E-CAD C-terminus immunoreactivity predominating over that of the extracellular N-terminus, a pattern consistent with preferential PSEN-1 processing. Local processing of E-CAD may be an important molecular mechanism controlling the invasive phenotype of accreta EVT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced E-cadherin expression is associated with abdominal pain and symptom duration in a study of alternating and diarrhea predominant IBS.

    PubMed

    Wilcz-Villega, E; McClean, S; O'Sullivan, M

    2014-03-01

    Increased intestinal permeability and altered expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins may be implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to investigate the expression of adherens junction (AJ) protein E-cadherin and TJ proteins zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and claudin (CLD)-1 and associations with IBS symptoms. Junctional proteins were immunostained in cecal biopsy tissue of Rome II IBS patients (n = 34) comprising both alternating (IBS-A) and diarrhea predominant (IBS-D) subtypes, and controls (n = 12). IBS symptom duration, abdominal pain severity and stool frequency were assessed for IBS patients. Protein expression was determined by immunofluorescence. E-cadherin and ZO-1 protein expression was significantly lower (p = 0.03 and p = 0.016, respectively) in the cecal surface epithelium of the IBS group comprising both IBS-A and IBS-D subtypes. CLD-1 expression was not significantly altered compared with controls. On subtype analysis, ZO-1 expression was significantly reduced in both IBS-A and IBS-D compared with controls, whereas E-cadherin was reduced only in IBS-A. Lower E-cadherin expression was associated with longer symptoms duration specifically in IBS-A patients (rs = -0.76, p = 0.004). Reduced E-cadherin associated with abdominal pain severity in the overall IBS group (rs = -0.36, p = 0.041), but this association was unrelated to IBS subtype. E-cadherin protein expression in the cecum was significantly lower in IBS-A compared with controls and associated with longstanding symptoms. E-cadherin was further associated with abdominal pain severity in the IBS group overall, but unrelated to IBS subtype. Altered E-cadherin expression may provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying intestinal barrier dysfunction in IBS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Effect of forced E-cadherin expression on adhesion and proliferation of human breast carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Juan; Liu, Yu-Qin; Gu, Bei; Bian, Xiao-Cui; Feng, Hai-Liang; Yang, Zhen-Li; Liu, Yan-Yan

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the role that E-cadherin (E-cad) plays on cell adhesion and proliferation of human breast carcinoma. E-cad expression vector was transfected into an E-cad-negative human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. G418 was used to screen positive clones. E-cad, β-catenin (β-cat) and cyclin D1 expressions of these clones were confirmed by Western blot. Their cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion abilities were detected. E-cad/β-catenin interaction was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Direct two-step immunocytochemistry was used to detect the localization of β-cat. E-cad(+) cell strains Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9 were established. When cultured in ultra-low-binding dishes Ecad-231 cells grow in suspension while Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9 cells grow in large clamps. When co-cultured with HCT116 cells, the average adhesion rates at 30 min are 39.0%, 60.0% and 59.5% for MDA-MB-231, Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9 respectively. The average detachment rates by EDTA for 5 min are 37.4%, 4.2% and 7.4% respectively. So E-cad expression enhanced hemotypic and heterotypic cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix adhesion. Forced exogenously expressed E-cad could combine with endogenous β-cat, whereas down stream cyclin D1 expression was significantly decreased, as evidenced by Western blot. The rates of cell apoptosis of MDA-MB-231, Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9 were 1.8%, 2.0% and 2.1%. Expression of E-cad had no obvious effect on the apoptosis of tumor cells with regular culture. β-cat increased in the cytoplasma. Two monoclonal tumor cell strains (Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9) stably expressing E-cad were successfully established. E-cad could enhance adhesion and inhibit proliferation of human breast carcinoma cells through a pathway involving β-cat and cyclin D1.

  14. E-cadherin and, in its absence, N-cadherin promotes Nanog expression in mouse embryonic stem cells via STAT3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Kate; Mohamet, Lisa; Ritson, Sarah; Merry, Catherine L R; Ward, Christopher M

    2012-09-01

    We have recently shown that loss of E-cadherin in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) results in significant alterations to both the transcriptome and hierarchy of pluripotency-associated signaling pathways. Here, we show that E-cadherin promotes kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) and Nanog transcript and protein expression in mESCs via STAT3 phosphorylation and that β-catenin, and its binding region in E-cadherin, is required for this function. To further investigate the role of E-cadherin in leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-dependent pluripotency, E-cadherin null (Ecad(-/-)) mESCs were cultured in LIF/bone morphogenetic protein supplemented medium. Under these conditions, Ecad(-/-) mESCs exhibited partial restoration of cell-cell contact and STAT3 phosphorylation and upregulated Klf4, Nanog, and N-cadherin transcripts and protein. Abrogation of N-cadherin using an inhibitory peptide caused loss of phospho STAT3, Klf4, and Nanog in these cells, demonstrating that N-cadherin supports LIF-dependent pluripotency in this context. We therefore identify a novel molecular mechanism linking E- and N-cadherin to the core circuitry of pluripotency in mESCs. This mechanism may explain the recently documented role of E-cadherin in efficient induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Suppression of E-cadherin function drives the early stages of Ras-induced squamous cell carcinoma through up-regulation of FAK and Src

    PubMed Central

    Alt-Holland, Addy; Sowalsky, Adam; Szwec-Levin, Yonit; Shamis, Yulia; Hatch, Harold; Feig, Larry A.; Garlick, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced stages of epithelial carcinogenesis involve the loss of intercellular adhesion, but it remains unclear how proteins that regulate alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are deregulated to promote the early stages of cancer development. To address this, a three-dimensional human tissue model that mimics the incipient stages of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) was used to study how E-cadherin suppression promotes tumor progression in Ras-expressing human keratinocytes. We found that E-cadherin suppression triggered elevated mRNA and protein expression levels of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), and increased FAK and Src activities above the level seen in Ras-expressing E-cadherin-competent keratinocytes. sh-RNA-mediated depletion of FAK and Src restored E-cadherin expression levels by increasing its stability in the membrane, and blocked tumor cell invasion in tissues. Surface transplantation of these tissues to mice resulted in reversion of the tumor phenotype to low-grade tumor islands in contrast to control tissues that manifested an aggressive, high-grade SCC. These findings suggest that the tumor-promoting effect of E-cadherin suppression, a common event in SCC development, is exacerbated by enhanced E-cadherin degradation induced by elevated FAK and Src activities. Furthermore, they imply that targeting FAK or Src in human epithelial cells with neoplastic potential may inhibit the early stages of SCC. PMID:21716326

  16. ERβ1 inhibits the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells through upregulation of E-cadherin in a Id1-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yan; Ming, Jia; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • Expression of ERβ1 was positively correlated with E-cadherin in breast cancer cell. • ERβ1 upregulates E-cadherin expression in breast cancer cell lines. • ERβ1 upregulates E-cadherin expression in a Id1-dependent manner. - Abstract: ERβ1 is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-regulated transcription factors. It plays an important role in regulating the progression of breast cancer. However, the mechanisms of ERβ1 in tumorigenesis, metastasis and prognosis are still not fully clear. In this study, we showed that the expression of ERβ1 was positively correlated with E-cadherin expression in breast cancer cell lines. In addition, we foundmore » that ERβ1 upregulates E-cadherin expression in breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we also found that ERβ1 inhibits the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and upregulated E-cadherin expression in a Id1-dependent manner. Taken together, our study provides further understanding of the molecular mechanism of ERβ1 in tumor metastasis and suggests the feasibility of developing novel therapeutic approaches to target Id1 to inhibit breast cancer metastasis.« less

  17. Dimethoxy Curcumin Induces Apoptosis by Suppressing Survivin and Inhibits Invasion by Enhancing E-Cadherin in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Dai, Fang; Chen, Zhehang; Wang, Saisai; Cheng, Xiaobin; Sheng, Qinsong; Lin, Jianjiang; Chen, Wenbin

    2016-09-11

    BACKGROUND Dimethoxy curcumin (DMC) is a kind of lipophilic analog of curcumin with great improvement in chemical and metabolic stability. DMC has been studied in breast and renal cancer, but no research in colon cancer has been found yet. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two colon cancer cells (HT-29 and SW480) and one normal human colon mucosal epithelial cell (NCM460) were used in this study. We studied the effect of DMC on the proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Transwell migration assay was used to estimate the inhibition of DMC on invasion. Moreover, the expressions of PARP, caspase-3, survivin and E-cadherin were detected to uncover the related signaling pathways by western blotting assay both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS DMC significantly inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells in dose-dependent manner; IC50 for DMC was calculated to be 43.4, 28.2 and 454.8µM on HT-29, SW480 and NCM460. DMC significantly increased the apoptosis in both HT-29 (p=0.0051) and SW480 (p=0.0013) cells in vitro, and significantly suppressed the growth of both cell lines in vivo. Moreover, DMC reduced the number of migrated cells in both HT-29 (p=0.007) and SW480 (p=0.004) cells. By western blotting analysis, the cleavage of pro-caspases-3 and PARP were clearly induced by DMC to their active form, while the expression of survivin was reduced and E-cadherin was enhanced in both cells in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS DMC may exert an effective anti-tumor effect in colon cancer cells by down-regulating survivin and upregulating E-cadherin.

  18. Dragon (Repulsive Guidance Molecule RGMb) Inhibits E-cadherin Expression and Induces Apoptosis in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yueshui; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Chao; Yang, Baoxue; Lan, Hui-Yao; Lin, Herbert Y.; Xia, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Dragon is one of the three members of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, i.e. RGMa, RGMb (Dragon), and RGMc (hemojuvelin). We previously identified the RGM members as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptors that enhance BMP signaling. Our previous studies found that Dragon is highly expressed in the tubular epithelial cells of mouse kidneys. However, the roles of Dragon in renal epithelial cells are yet to be defined. We now show that overexpression of Dragon increased cell death induced by hypoxia in association with increased cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase-3 levels in mouse inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD3) cells. Dragon also inhibited E-cadherin expression but did not affect epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β in IMCD3 cells. Previous studies suggest that the three RGM members can function as ligands for the receptor neogenin. Interestingly, our present study demonstrates that the Dragon actions on apoptosis and E-cadherin expression in IMCD3 cells were mediated by the neogenin receptor but not through the BMP pathway. Dragon expression in the kidney was up-regulated by unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous Dragon knock-out mice exhibited 45–66% reduction in Dragon mRNA expression, decreased epithelial apoptosis, and increased tubular E-cadherin expression and had attenuated tubular injury after unilateral ureteral obstruction. Our results suggest that Dragon may impair tubular epithelial integrity and induce epithelial apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24052264

  19. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule RGMb) inhibits E-cadherin expression and induces apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yueshui; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Chao; Yang, Baoxue; Lan, Hui-Yao; Lin, Herbert Y; Xia, Yin

    2013-11-01

    Dragon is one of the three members of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, i.e. RGMa, RGMb (Dragon), and RGMc (hemojuvelin). We previously identified the RGM members as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptors that enhance BMP signaling. Our previous studies found that Dragon is highly expressed in the tubular epithelial cells of mouse kidneys. However, the roles of Dragon in renal epithelial cells are yet to be defined. We now show that overexpression of Dragon increased cell death induced by hypoxia in association with increased cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase-3 levels in mouse inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD3) cells. Dragon also inhibited E-cadherin expression but did not affect epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β in IMCD3 cells. Previous studies suggest that the three RGM members can function as ligands for the receptor neogenin. Interestingly, our present study demonstrates that the Dragon actions on apoptosis and E-cadherin expression in IMCD3 cells were mediated by the neogenin receptor but not through the BMP pathway. Dragon expression in the kidney was up-regulated by unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous Dragon knock-out mice exhibited 45-66% reduction in Dragon mRNA expression, decreased epithelial apoptosis, and increased tubular E-cadherin expression and had attenuated tubular injury after unilateral ureteral obstruction. Our results suggest that Dragon may impair tubular epithelial integrity and induce epithelial apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. EGF promotes the shedding of soluble E-cadherin in an ADAM10-dependent manner in prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Magdalena M; Sandhu, Brindar; Day, Mark L

    2012-02-01

    During the progression of prostate cancer, the epithelial adhesion molecule E-cadherin is cleaved from the cell surface by ADAM15 proteolytic processing, generating an extracellular 80kDa fragment referred to as soluble E-cadherin (sE-cad). Contrary to observations in cancer, the generation of sE-cad appears to correlate with ADAM10 activity in benign prostatic epithelium. The ADAM10-specific inhibitor INCB8765 and the ADAM10 prodomain inhibit the generation of sE-cad, as well as downstream signaling and cell proliferation. Addition of EGF or amphiregulin (AREG) to these untransformed cell lines increases the amount of sE-cad shed into the conditioned media, as well as sE-cad bound to EGFR. EGF-associated shedding appears to be mediated by ADAM10 as shRNA knockdown of ADAM10 results in reduced shedding of sE-cad. To examine the physiologic role of sE-cad on benign prostatic epithelium, we treated BPH-1 and large T immortalized prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) with an sE-cad chimera comprised of the human Fc domain of IgG(1), fused to the extracellular domains of E-cadherin (Fc-Ecad). The treatment of untransformed prostate epithelial cells with Fc-Ecad resulted in phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream signaling through ERK and increased cell proliferation. Pre-treating BPH-1 and PrEC cells with cetuximab, a therapeutic monoclonal antibody against EGFR, decreased the ability of Fc-Ecad to induce EGFR phosphorylation, downstream signaling, and proliferation. These data suggest that ADAM10-generated sE-cad may have a role in EGFR signaling independent of traditional EGFR ligands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Drosophila E-cadherin is required for the maintenance of ring canals anchoring to mechanically withstand tissue growth

    PubMed Central

    Loyer, Nicolas; Kolotuev, Irina; Pinot, Mathieu; Le Borgne, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Intercellular bridges called “ring canals” (RCs) resulting from incomplete cytokinesis play an essential role in intercellular communication in somatic and germinal tissues. During Drosophila oogenesis, RCs connect the maturing oocyte to nurse cells supporting its growth. Despite numerous genetic screens aimed at identifying genes involved in RC biogenesis and maturation, how RCs anchor to the plasma membrane (PM) throughout development remains unexplained. In this study, we report that the clathrin adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) complex, although dispensable for the biogenesis of RCs, is required for the maintenance of the anchorage of RCs to the PM to withstand the increased membrane tension associated with the exponential tissue growth at the onset of vitellogenesis. Here we unravel the mechanisms by which AP-1 enables the maintenance of RCs’ anchoring to the PM during size expansion. We show that AP-1 regulates the localization of the intercellular adhesion molecule E-cadherin and that loss of AP-1 causes the disappearance of the E-cadherin–containing adhesive clusters surrounding the RCs. E-cadherin itself is shown to be required for the maintenance of the RCs’ anchorage, a function previously unrecognized because of functional compensation by N-cadherin. Scanning block-face EM combined with transmission EM analyses reveals the presence of interdigitated, actin- and Moesin-positive, microvilli-like structures wrapping the RCs. Thus, by modulating E-cadherin trafficking, we show that the sustained E-cadherin–dependent adhesion organizes the microvilli meshwork and ensures the proper attachment of RCs to the PM, thereby counteracting the increasing membrane tension induced by exponential tissue growth. PMID:26424451

  2. O-GlcNAcylation affects β-catenin and E-cadherin expression, cell motility and tumorigenicity of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Harosh-Davidovich, Shani Ben; Khalaila, Isam

    2018-03-01

    O-GlcNAcylation, the addition of β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety to Ser/Thr residues, is a sensor of the cell metabolic state. Cancer diseases such as colon, lung and breast cancer, possess deregulated O-GlcNAcylation. Studies during the last decade revealed that O-GlcNAcylation is implicated in cancer tumorigenesis and proliferation. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and cadherin-mediated adhesion are also implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key cellular process in invasion and cancer metastasis. Often, deregulation of the Wnt pathway is caused by altered phosphorylation of its components. Specifically, phosphorylation of Ser or Thr residues of β-catenin affects its location and interaction with E-cadherin, thus facilitating cell-cell adhesion. Consistent with previous studies, the current study indicates that β-catenin is O-GlcNAcylated. To test the effect of O-GlcNAcylation on cell motility and how O-GlcNAcylation might affect β-catenin and E-cadherin functions, the enzyme machinery of O-GlcNAcylation was modulated either with chemical inhibitors or by gene silencing. When O-GlcNAcase (OGA) was inhibited, a global elevation of protein O-GlcNAcylation and increase in the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin were noted. Concomitantly with enhanced O-GlcNAcylation, β-catenin transcriptional activity were elevated. Additionally, fibroblast cell motility was enhanced. Stable silenced cell lines with adenoviral OGA or adenoviral O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) were established. Consistent with the results obtained by OGA chemical inhibition by TMG, OGT-silencing led to a significant reduction in β-catenin level. In vivo, murine orthotropic colorectal cancer model indicates that elevated O-GlcNAcylation leads to increased mortality rate, tumor and metastasis development. However, reduction in O-GlcNAcylation promoted survival that could be attributed to attenuated tumor and metastasis development. The results described herein provide

  3. The Integrated Role of Wnt/β-Catenin, N-Glycosylation, and E-Cadherin-Mediated Adhesion in Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Diego A.; Sun, Meng; Sadykov, Khikmet; Kukuruzinska, Maria A.; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2016-01-01

    The cellular network composed of the evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathways of protein N-glycosylation, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion plays pivotal roles in determining the balance between cell proliferation and intercellular adhesion during development and in maintaining homeostasis in differentiated tissues. These pathways share a highly conserved regulatory molecule, β-catenin, which functions as both a structural component of E-cadherin junctions and as a co-transcriptional activator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, whose target is the N-glycosylation-regulating gene, DPAGT1. Whereas these pathways have been studied independently, little is known about the dynamics of their interaction. Here we present the first numerical model of this network in MDCK cells. Since the network comprises a large number of molecules with varying cell context and time-dependent levels of expression, it can give rise to a wide range of plausible cellular states that are difficult to track. Using known kinetic parameters for individual reactions in the component pathways, we have developed a theoretical framework and gained new insights into cellular regulation of the network. Specifically, we developed a mathematical model to quantify the fold-change in concentration of any molecule included in the mathematical representation of the network in response to a simulated activation of the Wnt/ β-catenin pathway with Wnt3a under different conditions. We quantified the importance of protein N-glycosylation and synthesis of the DPAGT1 encoded enzyme, GPT, in determining the abundance of cytoplasmic β-catenin. We confirmed the role of axin in β-catenin degradation. Finally, our data suggest that cell-cell adhesion is insensitive to E-cadherin recycling in the cell. We validate the model by inhibiting β-catenin-mediated activation of DPAGT1 expression and predicting changes in cytoplasmic β-catenin concentration and stability

  4. Down regulation of E-Cadherin (ECAD) - a predictor for occult metastatic disease in sentinel node biopsy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prognostic factors in predicting occult lymph node metastasis in patients with head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are necessary to improve the results of the sentinel lymph node procedure in this tumour type. The E-Cadherin glycoprotein is an intercellular adhesion molecule in epithelial cells, which plays an important role in establishing and maintaining intercellular connections. Objectives To determine the value of the molecular marker E-Cadherin in predicting regional metastatic disease. Methods E-Cadherin expression in tumour tissue of 120 patients with HNSCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were evaluated using the tissue microarray technique. 110 tumours were located in the oral cavity (91.7%; mostly tongue), 10 tumours in the oropharynx (8.3%). Intensity of E-Cadherin expression was quantified by the Intensity Reactivity Score (IRS). These results were correlated with the lymph node status of biopsied sentinel lymph nodes. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine statistical significance. Results pT-stage, gender, tumour side and location did not correlate with lymph node metastasis. Differentiation grade (p = 0.018) and down regulation of E-Cadherin expression significantly correlate with positive lymph node status (p = 0.005) in univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusion These data suggest that loss of E-cadherin expression is associated with increased lymhogeneous metastasis of HNSCC. E-cadherin immunohistochemistry may be used as a predictor for lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Level of evidence: 2b PMID:21639893

  5. Abrogation of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contact in mouse embryonic stem cells results in reversible LIF-independent self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Soncin, Francesca; Mohamet, Lisa; Eckardt, Dominik; Ritson, Sarah; Eastham, Angela M; Bobola, Nicoletta; Russell, Angela; Davies, Steve; Kemler, Rolf; Merry, Catherine L R; Ward, Christopher M

    2009-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells is associated with downregulation of cell surface E-cadherin. In this study, we assessed the function of E-cadherin in mouse ES cell pluripotency and differentiation. We show that inhibition of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contact in ES cells using gene knockout (Ecad(-/-)), RNA interference (EcadRNAi), or a transhomodimerization-inhibiting peptide (CHAVC) results in cellular proliferation and maintenance of an undifferentiated phenotype in fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Re-expression of E-cadherin in Ecad(-/-), EcadRNAi, and CHAVC-treated ES cells restores cellular dependence to LIF supplementation. Although reversal of the LIF-independent phenotype in Ecad(-/-) ES cells is dependent on the beta-catenin binding domain of E-cadherin, we show that beta-catenin null (betacat(-/-)) ES cells also remain undifferentiated in the absence of LIF. This suggests that LIF-independent self-renewal of Ecad(-/-) ES cells is unlikely to be via beta-catenin signaling. Exposure of Ecad(-/-), EcadRNAi, and CHAVC-treated ES cells to the activin receptor-like kinase inhibitor SB431542 led to differentiation of the cells, which could be prevented by re-expression of E-cadherin. To confirm the role of transforming growth factor beta family signaling in the self-renewal of Ecad(-/-) ES cells, we show that these cells maintain an undifferentiated phenotype when cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with Activin A and Nodal, with fibroblast growth factor 2 required for cellular proliferation. We conclude that transhomodimerization of E-cadherin protein is required for LIF-dependent ES cell self-renewal and that multiple self-renewal signaling networks subsist in ES cells, with activity dependent upon the cellular context.

  6. Association of extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin mediated by MMP-7 with HGF-induced in vitro invasion in human stomach cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Choi, E Y; Hyun, M S; Jang, B I; Kim, T N; Kim, S W; Song, S K; Kim, J H; Kim, J-R

    2007-01-01

    Proteolytic shedding of the ectodomain of a variety of transmembrane proteins, including cell-to-cell adhesion molecules, has been observed in solid cancers. We have investigated whether extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is involved in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced in vitro invasion in stomach cancer cells. The effects of HGF on the expression of E-cadherin/beta-catenin and MMP-7 at both the protein and mRNA levels were assessed in stomach cancer cells, NUGC-3 and MKN-28, and in cells in which the expression of MMP-7 was downregulated by transfection with a MMP-7 short hairpin RNA plasmid. Treatment with HGF increased the extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin and the release of MMP-7 and reduced the level of E-cadherin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HGF treatment repressed the phosphorylation of beta-catenin in a Triton-soluble fraction, but enhanced this phosphorylation in a Triton-insoluble fraction. The association of E-cadherin with beta-catenin was decreased by HGF treatment in the Triton-soluble fraction. In addition, treatment of MMP-7 short hairpin RNA transfected NUGC-3 cells with HGF resulted in no extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin and also decreased the in vitro cell invasion. These results suggest that incubation with HGF mediated the release of MMP-7, resulting in extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin from stomach cancer cells. This might be a key mechanism in HGF-induced in vitro invasion and metastasis. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Estrogen Deficiency Promotes Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture by Upregulation of Th17 Cells and Interleukin-17A Which Downregulates E-Cadherin.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Brian L; Rojas, Kelley; Lin, Li; Fazal, Hanain Z; Hourani, Siham; Nowicki, Kamil W; Schneider, Matheus B; Hosaka, Koji

    2018-04-13

    Estrogen deficiency is associated with the development of cerebral aneurysms; however, the mechanism remains unknown. We explored the pathway of cerebral aneurysm development by investigating the potential link between estrogen deficiency and inflammatory factors. First, we established the role of interleukin-17 (IL-17)A. We performed a cytokine screen demonstrating that IL-17A is significantly expressed in mouse and human aneurysms ( P =0.03). Likewise, IL-17A inhibition was shown to prevent aneurysm formation by 42% ( P =0.02) and rupture by 34% ( P <0.05). Second, we found that estrogen deficiency upregulates T helper 17 cells and IL-17A and promotes aneurysm rupture. Estrogen-deficient mice had more ruptures than control mice (47% versus 7%; P =0.04). Estradiol supplementation or IL-17A inhibition decreased the number of ruptures in estrogen-deficient mice (estradiol 6% versus 37%; P =0.04; IL-17A inhibition 18% versus 47%; P =0.018). Third, we found that IL-17A-blockade protects against aneurysm formation and rupture by increased E-cadherin expression. IL-17-inhibited mice had increased E-cadherin expression ( P =0.003). E-cadherin inhibition reversed the protective effect of IL-17A inhibition and increased the rate of aneurysm formation (65% versus 28%; P =0.04) and rupture (12% versus 0%; P =0.22). However, E-cadherin inhibition alone does not significantly increase aneurysm formation in normal mice or in estrogen-deficient mice. In cell migration assays, E-cadherin inhibition promoted macrophage infiltration across endothelial cells ( P <0.05), which may be the mechanism for the estrogen deficiency/IL-17/E-cadherin aneurysm pathway. Our data suggest that estrogen deficiency promotes cerebral aneurysm rupture by upregulating IL-17A, which downregulates E-cadherin, encouraging macrophage infiltration in the aneurysm vessel wall. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. Long-term Spectral Evolution of Tidal Disruption Candidates Selected by Strong Coronal Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen-Wei; Wang, Ting-Gui; Ferland, Gary; Yuan, Weimin; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    We present results of follow-up optical spectroscopic Multi-Mirror Telescope (MMT) observations of seven rare, extreme coronal line-emitting galaxies reported by Wang et al. Large variations in coronal lines are found in four objects, making them strong candidates for tidal disruption events (TDEs). For the four TDE candidates, all the coronal lines with ionization states higher than [Fe VII] disappear within 5-9 yr. The [Fe VII] line faded by a factor of about five in one object (J0952+2143) within 4 yr, whereas the line emerged in another two objects that previously did not show the line. A strong increment in the [O III] flux is observed, shifting the line ratios toward the loci of active galactic nuclei on the BPT diagram. Surprisingly, we detect a non-canonical [O III] λ5007/[O III] λ4959 ratio of ~= 2 in two objects, indicating a large column density of O2 + and thus probably optically thick gas. This result also requires a very large ionization parameter and a relatively soft ionizing spectral energy distribution (e.g., a blackbody with T < 5 × 104 K). Our observations can be explained as the echoing of a strong ultraviolet to soft X-ray flare caused by TDEs on molecular clouds in the inner parsecs of the galactic nuclei. Reanalyzing the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra reveals double-peaked or strongly blue-shouldered broad lines in three of the objects, which disappeared in the MMT spectra of two objects and faded by a factor of 10 in 8 yr in the remaining object with a decrease in both the line width and centroid offset. We interpret these broad lines as arising from decelerating biconical outflows. Our results demonstrate that the signatures of echoing can persist for as long as 10 yr and can be used to probe the gas environment in quiescent galactic nuclei.

  9. Immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin does not distinguish canine cutaneous histiocytoma from other canine round cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Vara, J A; Miller, M A

    2011-05-01

    Immunohistochemistry for E-cadherin (ECAD) has been used to distinguish canine cutaneous histiocytoma from other leukocytic neoplasms ("round cell tumors"). To determine the specificity of this test, 5 types of canine cutaneous round cell tumors were evaluated for immunohistochemical expression of ECAD. Tumors of all 5 types had variable cytoplasmic, plasma membrane, and/or paranuclear ECAD expression: All 13 cutaneous histiocytomas were ECAD+; all but 1 of 14 mast cell tumors expressed ECAD; 10 of 12 epitheliotropic lymphomas reacted with E-cadherin antibody; of 72 plasmacytomas, 54 were ECAD+; and 5 of 5 histiocytic sarcomas were positive. Conclusions based on these results include the following: First, immunoreactivity for ECAD is not limited to leukocytes of cutaneous histiocytoma; second, antibody to ECAD also labels neoplastic cells in most mast cell tumors, plasmacytomas, cutaneous histiocytic sarcomas, and epitheliotropic lymphomas; third, although most histiocytomas have membranous ECAD expression, the immunoreactivity varies among round cell tumors and is frequently concurrent in different cellular compartments; fourth, the distinctively paranuclear ECAD expression pattern in epitheliotropic lymphomas might distinguish them from other round cell tumors; and, fifth, ECAD should be used with other markers (eg, MUM1 for plasmacytomas, KIT for mast cell tumors, CD3 and CD79a for lymphomas) to distinguish among canine round cell tumors.

  10. P21, COX-2, and E-cadherin are potential prognostic factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yao; Shen, Lu-Yan; Fu, Hao; Dong, Bin; Yang, He-Li; Yan, Wan-Pu; Kang, Xiao-Zheng; Dai, Liang; Zhou, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yong-Bo; Liang, Zhen; Chen, Ke-Neng

    2017-02-01

    Much research effort has been devoted to identifying prognostic factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by immunohistochemistry; however, no conclusive findings have been reached thus far. We hypothesized that certain molecules identified in previous studies might serve as useful prognostic markers for ESCC. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to validate the most relevant markers showing potential for ESCC prognosis in our prospective esophageal cancer database. A literature search was performed using the PubMed database for papers published between 1980 and 2015 using the following key words: 'esophageal cancer,' 'prognosis,' and 'immunohistochemistry.' Literature selection criteria were established to identify the most widely studied markers, and we further validated the selected markers in a cohort from our single-surgeon team, including 153 esophageal cancer patients treated from 2000 to 2010. A total of 1799 articles were identified, 82 of which met the selection criteria. Twelve markers were found to be the most widely studied, and the validation results indicated that only P21, COX-2, and E-cadherin were independent prognostic factors for ESCC patients in this series. The systemic review and cohort validation suggest that P21, COX-2, and E-cadherin are potential prognostic factors for ESCC, paving the way for more targeted prospective validation in the future. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  11. The soluble extracellular domain of E-cadherin interferes with EPEC adherence via interaction with the Tir:intimin complex.

    PubMed

    Login, Frédéric H; Jensen, Helene H; Pedersen, Gitte A; Amieva, Manuel R; Nejsum, Lene N

    2018-06-19

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) causes watery diarrhea when colonizing the surface of enterocytes. The translocated intimin receptor (Tir):intimin receptor complex facilitates tight adherence to epithelial cells and formation of actin pedestals beneath EPEC. We found that the host cell adherens junction protein E-cadherin (Ecad) was recruited to EPEC microcolonies. Live-cell and confocal imaging revealed that Ecad recruitment depends on, and occurs after, formation of the Tir:intimin complex. Combinatorial binding experiments using wild-type EPEC, isogenic mutants lacking Tir or intimin, and E. coli expressing intimin showed that the extracellular domain of Ecad binds the bacterial surface in a Tir:intimin-dependent manner. Finally, addition of the soluble extracellular domain of Ecad to the infection medium or depletion of Ecad extracellular domain from the cell surface reduced EPEC adhesion to host cells. Thus, the soluble extracellular domain of Ecad may be used in the design of intervention strategies targeting EPEC adherence to host cells.-Login, F. H., Jensen, H. H., Pedersen, G. A., Amieva, M. R., Nejsum, L. N. The soluble extracellular domain of E-cadherin interferes with EPEC adherence via interaction with the Tir:intimin complex.

  12. Epidermal E-Cadherin Dependent β-Catenin Pathway Is Phytochemical Inducible and Accelerates Anagen Hair Cycling.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Noha S; Ghatak, Subhadip; El Masry, Mohamed S; Gnyawali, Surya C; Roy, Sashwati; Amer, Mohamed; Everts, Helen; Sen, Chandan K; Khanna, Savita

    2017-11-01

    Unlike the epidermis, which regenerates continually, hair follicles anchored in the subcutis periodically regenerate by spontaneous repetitive cycles of growth (anagen), degeneration (catagen), and rest (telogen). The loss of hair follicles in response to injuries or pathologies such as alopecia endangers certain inherent functions of the skin. Thus, it is of interest to understand mechanisms underlying follicular regeneration in adults. In this work, a phytochemical rich in the natural vitamin E tocotrienol (TRF) served as a productive tool to unveil a novel epidermal pathway of hair follicular regeneration. Topical TRF application markedly induced epidermal hair follicle development akin to that during fetal skin development. This was observed in the skin of healthy as well as diabetic mice, which are known to be resistant to anagen hair cycling. TRF suppressed epidermal E-cadherin followed by 4-fold induction of β-catenin and its nuclear translocation. Nuclear β-catenin interacted with Tcf3. Such sequestration of Tcf3 from its otherwise known function to repress pluripotent factors induced the plasticity factors Oct4, Sox9, Klf4, c-Myc, and Nanog. Pharmacological inhibition of β-catenin arrested anagen hair cycling by TRF. This work reports epidermal E-cadherin/β-catenin as a novel pathway capable of inducing developmental folliculogenesis in the adult skin. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Zonula occludens-1, occludin and E-cadherin expression and organization in salivary glands with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mellas, Rachel E; Leigh, Noel J; Nelson, Joel W; McCall, Andrew D; Baker, Olga J

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes secretory dysfunction of the salivary glands leading to dry mouth. Previous studies reported that tight junction (TJ) proteins are down-regulated and lose polarity in human minor salivary glands with SS, suggesting that TJ structure is compromised in SS patients. In this paper, we utilized the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse with the main goal of evaluating this model for future TJ research. We found that the organization of apical proteins in areas proximal and distal to lymphocytic infiltration remained intact in mouse and human salivary glands with SS. These areas looked comparable to control glands (i.e., with no lymphocytic infiltration). TJ staining was absent in areas of lymphocytic infiltration coinciding with the loss of salivary epithelium. Gene expression studies show that most TJs are not significantly altered in 20-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Protein expression studies revealed that the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-12, as well as E-cadherin, do not significantly change in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Our results suggest that ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin are not altered in areas without lymphocytic infiltration. However, future studies will be necessary to test the functional aspect of these results. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. CDH4 suppresses the progression of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma via E-cadherin co-expression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jian; Feng, Yan; Lin, Ting; Huang, Xiao-Yu; Gan, Rui-Huan; Zhao, Yong; Su, Bo-Hua; Ding, Lin-Can; She, Lin; Chen, Jiang; Lin, Li-Song; Lin, Xu; Zheng, Da-Li; Lu, You-Guang

    2016-12-13

    The cadherin-4 gene (CDH4) of the cadherin family encodes non-epithelial R-cadherin (R-cad); however, the function of this gene in different types of cancer remains controversial. In this study, we found higher expression of CDH4 mRNA in a salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) cell line with low metastatic potential (SACC-83) than in a cell line with high metastatic potential (SACC-LM). By analyzing 67 samples of SACC tissues and 40 samples of paraneoplastic normal tissues, we found R-cad highly expressed in 100% of normal paraneoplastic tissue but only expressed in 64% of SACC tumor tissues (P<0.001). Knockdown of CDH4 expression in vitro promoted the growth, mobility and invasion of SACC cells, and in vivo experiments showed that decreased CDH4 expression enhanced SACC tumorigenicity. Furthermore, CDH4 suppression resulted in down-regulation of E-cadherin (E-cad), which is encoded by CDH1 gene and is a well-known tumor suppressor gene by inhibition of cell proliferation and migration. These results indicate that CDH4 may play a negative role in the growth and metastasis of SACC via co-expression with E-cadherin.

  15. Single molecule imaging of green fluorescent proteins in living cells: E-cadherin forms oligomers on the free cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Iino, R; Koyama, I; Kusumi, A

    2001-01-01

    Single green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules were successfully imaged for the first time in living cells. GFP linked to the cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus of E-cadherin (E-cad-GFP) was expressed in mouse fibroblast L cells, and observed using an objective-type total internal reflection fluorescence microscope. Based on the fluorescence intensity of individual fluorescent spots, the majority of E-cad-GFP molecules on the free cell surface were found to be oligomers of various sizes, many of them greater than dimers, suggesting that oligomerization of E-cadherin takes place before its assembly at cell-cell adhesion sites. The translational diffusion coefficient of E-cad-GFP is reduced by a factor of 10 to 40 upon oligomerization. Because such large decreases in translational mobility cannot be explained solely by increases in radius upon oligomerization, an oligomerization-induced trapping model is proposed in which, when oligomers are formed, they are trapped in place due to greatly enhanced tethering and corralling effects of the membrane skeleton on oligomers (compared with monomers). The presence of many oligomers greater than dimers on the free surface suggests that these greater oligomers are the basic building blocks for the two-dimensional cell adhesion structures (adherens junctions). PMID:11371443

  16. The Anoikis Effector Bit1 Inhibits EMT through Attenuation of TLE1-Mediated Repression of E-Cadherin in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xin; Pham, Tri; Temple, Brandi; Gray, Selena; Cannon, Cornita; Chen, Renwei; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Biliran, Hector

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial Bcl-2 inhibitor of transcription 1 (Bit1) protein is part of an anoikis-regulating pathway that is selectively dependent on integrins. We previously demonstrated that the caspase-independent apoptotic effector Bit1 exerts tumor suppressive function in lung cancer in part by inhibiting anoikis resistance and anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Herein we show a novel function of Bit1 as an inhibitor cell migration and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line. Suppression of endogenous Bit1 expression via siRNA and shRNA strategies promoted mesenchymal phenotypes, including enhanced fibroblastoid morphology and cell migratory potential with concomitant downregulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin expression. Conversely, ectopic Bit1 expression in A549 cells promoted epithelial transition characterized by cuboidal-like epithelial cell phenotype, reduced cell motility, and upregulated E-cadherin expression. Specific downregulation of E-cadherin in Bit1-transfected cells was sufficient to block Bit1-mediated inhibition of cell motility while forced expression of E-cadherin alone attenuated the enhanced migration of Bit1 knockdown cells, indicating that E-cadherin is a downstream target of Bit1 in regulating cell motility. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR and reporter analyses revealed that Bit1 upregulates E-cadherin expression at the transcriptional level through the transcriptional regulator Amino-terminal Enhancer of Split (AES) protein. Importantly, the Bit1/AES pathway induction of E-cadherin expression involves inhibition of the TLE1-mediated repression of E-cadherin, by decreasing TLE1 corepressor occupancy at the E-cadherin promoter as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Consistent with its EMT inhibitory function, exogenous Bit1 expression significantly suppressed the formation of lung metastases of A549 cells in an in vivo experimental

  17. Comparative study of the Ar and He atmospheric pressure plasmas on E-cadherin protein regulation for plasma-mediated transdermal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Young; Hae Choi, Jeong; Hong, Jin Woo; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Lee, Hae June

    2018-05-01

    The effects of argon plasma (ArP) and helium plasma (HeP) jets on E-cadherin protein function have been tested in order to choose the working gas for a better plasma-mediated transdermal drug delivery. The plasma-mediated changes of the E-cadherin function and the skin penetration efficacies of epidermal growth factor (EGF) were monitored in vitro using HaCaT human keratinocytes and in vivo using hairless mice. The ArP showed higher efficacy for E-cadherin regulation and EGF absorption than HeP under the same applied voltage and the same gas flow rate. The ArP generates higher volume power density, higher discharge current peak, and more reactive species than HeP, especially for OH with the same operating parameters. Moreover, the effect of ArP on E-cadherin function was blocked by the use of a grounded metal mesh. Taken together, this study presents the possibility that the synergetic effect of negative charges with radicals plays an important role in plasma-mediated E-cadherin regulation, which leads to enhanced transdermal drug delivery.

  18. Dual pulse-chase microscopy reveals early divergence in the biosynthetic trafficking of the Na,K-ATPase and E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Glen A.; Hull, Michael; Stoops, Emily H.; Bateson, Rosalie; Caplan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that newly synthesized membrane proteins that share the same distributions in the plasma membranes of polarized epithelial cells can pursue a variety of distinct trafficking routes as they travel from the Golgi complex to their common destination at the cell surface. In most polarized epithelial cells, both the Na,K-ATPase and E-cadherin are localized to the basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. To examine the itineraries pursued by newly synthesized Na,K-ATPase and E-cadherin in polarized MDCK epithelial cells, we used the SNAP and CLIP labeling systems to fluorescently tag temporally defined cohorts of these proteins and observe their behaviors simultaneously as they traverse the secretory pathway. These experiments reveal that E-cadherin is delivered to the cell surface substantially faster than is the Na,K-ATPase. Furthermore, the surface delivery of newly synthesized E-cadherin to the plasma membrane was not prevented by the 19°C temperature block that inhibits the trafficking of most proteins, including the Na,K-ATPase, out of the trans-Golgi network. Consistent with these distinct behaviors, populations of newly synthesized E-cadherin and Na,K-ATPase become separated from one another within the trans-Golgi network, suggesting that they are sorted into different carrier vesicles that mediate their post-Golgi trafficking. PMID:26424804

  19. Detachment-induced E-cadherin expression promotes 3D tumor spheroid formation but inhibits tumor formation and metastasis of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Powan, Phattrakorn; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; He, Xiaoqing; Rojanasakul, Yon; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2017-11-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is proposed to be a key mechanism responsible for metastasis-related deaths. Similarly, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been proposed to be a key driver of tumor metastasis. However, the link between the two events and their control mechanisms is unclear. We used a three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid assay and other CSC-indicating assays to investigate the role of E-cadherin in CSC regulation and its association to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cells. Ectopic overexpression and knockdown of E-cadherin were found to promote and retard, respectively, the formation of tumor spheroids in vitro but had opposite effects on tumor formation and metastasis in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. We explored the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo results and demonstrated, for the first time, that E-cadherin is required as a component of a major survival pathway under detachment conditions. Downregulation of E-cadherin increased the stemness of lung cancer cells but had an adverse effect on their survival, particularly on non-CSCs. Such downregulation also promoted anoikis resistance and invasiveness of lung cancer cells. These results suggest that anoikis assay could be used as an alternative method for in vitro assessment of CSCs that involves dysregulated adhesion proteins. Our data also suggest that agents that restore E-cadherin expression may be used as therapeutic agents for metastatic cancers. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Control of E-cadherin apical localisation and morphogenesis by a SOAP-1/AP-1/clathrin pathway in C. elegans epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Ghislain; Shafaq-Zadah, Massiullah; Nicolle, Ophélie; Damaj, Raghida; Pécréaux, Jacques; Michaux, Grégoire

    2015-05-01

    E-cadherin (E-cad) is the main component of epithelial junctions in multicellular organisms, where it is essential for cell-cell adhesion. The localisation of E-cad is often strongly polarised in the apico-basal axis. However, the mechanisms required for its polarised distribution are still largely unknown. We performed a systematic RNAi screen in vivo to identify genes required for the strict E-cad apical localisation in C. elegans epithelial epidermal cells. We found that the loss of clathrin, its adaptor AP-1 and the AP-1 interactor SOAP-1 induced a basolateral localisation of E-cad without affecting the apico-basal diffusion barrier. We further found that SOAP-1 controls AP-1 localisation, and that AP-1 is required for clathrin recruitment. Finally, we also show that AP-1 controls E-cad apical delivery and actin organisation during embryonic elongation, the final morphogenetic step of embryogenesis. We therefore propose that a molecular pathway, containing SOAP-1, AP-1 and clathrin, controls the apical delivery of E-cad and morphogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. E-cadherin expression in sporadic gastric cancer from Mexico: exon 8 and 9 deletions are infrequent events associated with poor survival.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Dominguez-Fonseca, Claudia; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; Vargas, Roberto; Reyes-Gutierrez, Edgardo; Green, Dan; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Luber, Birgit; Busch, Raymonde; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Becker, Ingrid; Höfler, Heinz; Fend, Falko

    2005-01-01

    Aberrant expression and mutation of E-cadherin is frequent in gastric carcinoma (GC) especially of the diffuse type. The frequency of CDH1 (gene encoding E-cadherin) mutation in populations with high incidence of diffuse GC and its prognostic significance is unknown. One hundred seventy-seven gastrectomies from Mexican mestizo patients with intestinal (53), mixed (55), or diffuse (69) GC were included. In addition, 101 endoscopic biopsies from patients with GC not subjected to surgery were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry against wild-type E-cadherin (clone 36) and against 2 mutation-specific antibodies (MSA) recognizing mutant CDH1 lacking exon-8 (del 8) or exon-9 (del 9) were performed. Staining was correlated with histotype, tumor node metastasis stage, and follow-up. Abnormal or absent E-cadherin expression (clone 36) was identified in 84% GC, predominantly in diffuse or mixed tumors (P = 0.004) in advanced stages (P = 0.003). No survival differences at 1 and 2 years were observed among patients showing normal, abnormal, or absent wild type E-cadherin expression. Overall reactivity with the MSA was observed in 10 (5.6%) patients who were treated with surgery. In 140 patients, dead from the disease or alive with the disease, the survival at 1 and 2 years was 37% versus 17% and 14% versus 0 for patients without and with del 8/9 positivity, respectively (log rank P = 0.01). Biopsies from patients with inoperable-GC (101) rendered 5 (4.95%) with del 8 or 9 immunoreactivity. Abnormal E-cadherin expression is frequent in GC. However, exon 8 or 9 deletions were observed in only 5.3% tumors in this series from Mexico, at a lower rate than previously published, but associated with a worse prognosis.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta is required for vitamin D receptor-dependent E-cadherin expression in SW480 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kouchi, Zen, E-mail: zkouchi@toyaku.ac.jp; Fujiwara, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Hideki

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} We analyzed Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate kinase II{beta} (PIPKII{beta}) function in cancer. {yields} PIPKII{beta} is required for vitamin D receptor-mediated E-cadherin upregulation in SW480. {yields} PIPKII{beta} suppresses cellular motility through E-cadherin induction in SW480 cells. {yields} Nuclear PIP{sub 2} but not plasma membrane-localized PIP{sub 2} mediates E-cadherin upregulation. -- Abstract: Numerous epidemiological data indicate that vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling induced by its ligand or active metabolite 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) has anti-cancer activity in several colon cancers. 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} induces the epithelial differentiation of SW480 colon cancer cells expressing VDR (SW480-ADH) by upregulating E-cadherin expression; however,more » its precise mechanism remains unknown. We found that phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta (PIPKII{beta}) but not PIPKII{alpha} is required for VDR-mediated E-cadherin induction in SW480-ADH cells. The syntenin-2 postsynaptic density protein/disc large/zona occludens (PDZ) domain and pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-delta1 (PLC{delta}1 PHD) possess high affinity for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P{sub 2}) mainly localized to the nucleus and plasma membrane, respectively. The expression of syntenin-2 PDZ but not PLC{delta}1 PHD inhibited 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}-induced E-cadherin upregulation, suggesting that nuclear PI(4,5)P{sub 2} production mediates E-cadherin expression through PIPKII{beta} in a VDR-dependent manner. PIPKII{beta} is also involved in the suppression of the cell motility induced by 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. These results indicate that PIPKII{beta}-mediated PI(4,5)P{sub 2} signaling is important for E-cadherin upregulation and inhibition of cellular motility induced by VDR activation.« less

  3. Maintenance and induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation using E-cadherin-Fc substrata without colony formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-Yuan; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2013-03-01

    Induced embryonic stem (ES) cells are expected to be promising cell resources for the observation of the cell behaviors in developmental biology as well as the implantation in cell treatments in human diseases. A recombinant E-cadherin substratum was developed as a cell recognizable substratum to maintain the ES cells' self-renewal and pluripotency at single cell level. Furthermore, the generation of various cell lineages in different germ layers, including hepatic or neural cells, was achieved on the chimeric protein layer precisely and effectively. The induction and isolation of specific cell population was carried out with the enhancing effect of other artificial extracellular matrices (ECMs) in enzyme-free process. The murine ES cell-derived cells showed highly morphological similarities and functional expressions to matured hepatocytes or neural progenitor cells.

  4. E-Cadherin Acts as a Regulator of Transcripts Associated with a Wide Range of Cellular Processes in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Soncin, Francesca; Mohamet, Lisa; Ritson, Sarah; Hawkins, Kate; Bobola, Nicoletta; Zeef, Leo; Merry, Catherine L. R.; Ward, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Background We have recently shown that expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is required for LIF-dependent pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Methodology In this study, we have assessed global transcript expression in E-cadherin null (Ecad-/-) ES cells cultured in either the presence or absence of LIF and compared these to the parental cell line wtD3. Results We show that LIF has little effect on the transcript profile of Ecad-/- ES cells, with statistically significant transcript alterations observed only for Sp8 and Stat3. Comparison of Ecad-/- and wtD3 ES cells cultured in LIF demonstrated significant alterations in the transcript profile, with effects not only confined to cell adhesion and motility but also affecting, for example, primary metabolic processes, catabolism and genes associated with apoptosis. Ecad-/- ES cells share similar, although not identical, gene expression profiles to epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that E-cadherin expression may inhibit inner cell mass to epiblast transition. We further show that Ecad-/- ES cells maintain a functional β-catenin pool that is able to induce β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation but, contrary to previous findings, do not display endogenous β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation. We conclude that loss of E-cadherin in mouse ES cells leads to significant transcript alterations independently of β-catenin/TCF transactivation. PMID:21779327

  5. E-cadherin acts as a regulator of transcripts associated with a wide range of cellular processes in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Soncin, Francesca; Mohamet, Lisa; Ritson, Sarah; Hawkins, Kate; Bobola, Nicoletta; Zeef, Leo; Merry, Catherine L R; Ward, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is required for LIF-dependent pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. In this study, we have assessed global transcript expression in E-cadherin null (Ecad-/-) ES cells cultured in either the presence or absence of LIF and compared these to the parental cell line wtD3. We show that LIF has little effect on the transcript profile of Ecad-/- ES cells, with statistically significant transcript alterations observed only for Sp8 and Stat3. Comparison of Ecad-/- and wtD3 ES cells cultured in LIF demonstrated significant alterations in the transcript profile, with effects not only confined to cell adhesion and motility but also affecting, for example, primary metabolic processes, catabolism and genes associated with apoptosis. Ecad-/- ES cells share similar, although not identical, gene expression profiles to epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that E-cadherin expression may inhibit inner cell mass to epiblast transition. We further show that Ecad-/- ES cells maintain a functional β-catenin pool that is able to induce β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation but, contrary to previous findings, do not display endogenous β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation. We conclude that loss of E-cadherin in mouse ES cells leads to significant transcript alterations independently of β-catenin/TCF transactivation.

  6. Novel metastatic models of esophageal adenocarcinoma derived from FLO-1 cells highlight the importance of E-cadherin in cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liu, David S; Hoefnagel, Sanne J M; Fisher, Oliver M; Krishnadath, Kausilia K; Montgomery, Karen G; Busuttil, Rita A; Colebatch, Andrew J; Read, Matthew; Duong, Cuong P; Phillips, Wayne A; Clemons, Nicholas J

    2016-12-13

    There is currently a paucity of preclinical models available to study the metastatic process in esophageal cancer. Here we report FLO-1, and its isogenic derivative FLO-1LM, as two spontaneously metastatic cell line models of human esophageal adenocarcinoma. We show that FLO-1 has undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasizes following subcutaneous injection in mice. FLO-1LM, derived from a FLO-1 liver metastasis, has markedly enhanced proliferative, clonogenic, anti-apoptotic, invasive, immune-tolerant and metastatic potential. Genome-wide RNAseq profiling revealed a significant enrichment of metastasis-related pathways in FLO-1LM cells. Moreover, CDH1, which encodes the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, was the most significantly downregulated gene in FLO-1LM compared to FLO-1. Consistent with this, repression of E-cadherin expression in FLO-1 cells resulted in increased metastatic activity. Importantly, reduced E-cadherin expression is commonly reported in esophageal adenocarcinoma and independently predicts poor patient survival. Collectively, these findings highlight the biological importance of E-cadherin activity in the pathogenesis of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma and validate the utility of FLO-1 parental and FLO-1LM cells as preclinical models of metastasis in this disease.

  7. Expression of P-aPKC-iota, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin related to invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Du, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Ming; Lu, Jin-Xi; Li, Qiang; Ma, Chao-Qun; Du, Ji-Tao; Zou, Sheng-Quan

    2009-06-01

    Atypical protein kinase C iota (aPKC-iota) and its associated intracellular molecules, E-cadherin and beta-catenin, are important for cell polarization in tumorigenesis and progression. Expression of aPKC-iota, P-aPKC-iota (activated aPKC-iota), E-cadherin, and beta-catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was measured, and correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of HCC was analyzed. Paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was obtained from patients with HCC after resection without preoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Gene expression was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Expressions of aPKC-iota, P-aPKC-iota, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin were analyzed with relation to the clinicopathological data. The gene and protein expression of aPKC-iota are obviously higher in HCC tissues than that in peritumoral tissues and normal tissues by semiquantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry methods. Accumulation of aPKC-iota in HCC cytoplasm and nucleolus inhibited the later formation of belt-like adherens junctions (AJs) and/or tight junctions (TJs) in cell-cell contact. E-cadherin was reduced and accumulation of cytoplasm beta-catenin was increased in HCC. The expression of aPKC-iota was closely related to pathological differentiation, tumor size, invasion, and metastasis of HCC. Accumulation of cytoplasm aPKC-iota may reflect pathological differentiation, invasion, and metastasis potential of HCC. In this regard, our study on HCC revealed the potential usefulness of aPKC-iota, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin as a prognostic marker, closely related to pathological differentiation, invasion, metastasis, and prognosis of HCC.

  8. Colorectal laterally spreading tumors show characteristic expression of cell polarity factors, including atypical protein kinase C λ/ι, E-cadherin, β-catenin and basement membrane component.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Yasushi; Nagashima, Yoji; Morioka, Kaori; Akimoto, Kazunori; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Goto, Ayumu; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Fujii, Shoichi; Kawamata, Mayumi; Takagawa, Ryo; Kunizaki, Chikara; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin; Shimada, Hiroshi; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Ohno, Shigeo; Endo, Itaru

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal flat-type tumors include laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) and flat depressed-type tumors. The former of which shows a predominant lateral spreading growth rather than an invasive growth. The present study examined the morphological characteristics of LSTs, in comparison with polypoid- or flat depressed-type tumors, along with the expression of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) λ/ι, a pivotal cell polarity regulator, and the hallmarks of cell polarity, as well as with type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. In total, 37 flat-type (24 LSTs and 13 flat depressed-type tumors) and 20 polypoid-type colorectal tumors were examined. The LSTs were classified as 15 LST adenoma (LST-A) and nine LST cancer in adenoma (LST-CA). An immunohistochemical examination was performed on aPKC λ/ι, type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. The LST-A and -CA showed a superficial replacing growth pattern, with expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin in the basolateral membrane and type IV collagen along the basement membrane. In addition, 86.6% of LST-A and 55.6% of LST-CA showed aPKC λ/ι expression of 1+ (weak to normal intensity staining in the cytoplasm compared with the normal epithelium). Furthermore, ~45% of the polypoid-type adenomas showed 2+ (moderate intensity staining in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus) and 66.7% of the polypoid-type cancer in adenoma were 3+ (strong intensity staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus). A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the expression of aPKC λ/ι and β-catenin (r=0.842; P<0.001), or type IV collagen (r=0.823; P<0.001). The LSTs showed a unique growth pattern, different from the expanding growth pattern presented by a polypoid tumor and invasive cancer. The growth characteristics of LST appear to be caused by adequate coexpression of β-catenin, type IV collagen and aPKC λ/ι.

  9. Spectral shifting strongly constrains molecular cloud disruption by radiation pressure on dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reissl, Stefan; Klessen, Ralf S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Pellegrini, Eric W.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. We aim to test the hypothesis that radiation pressure from young star clusters acting on dust is the dominant feedback agent disrupting the largest star-forming molecular clouds and thus regulating the star-formation process. Methods: We performed multi-frequency, 3D, radiative transfer calculations including both scattering and absorption and re-emission to longer wavelengths for model clouds with masses of 104-107 M⊙, containing embedded clusters with star formation efficiencies of 0.009-91%, and varying maximum grain sizes up to 200 μm. We calculated the ratio between radiative and gravitational forces to determine whether radiation pressure can disrupt clouds. Results: We find that radiation pressure acting on dust almost never disrupts star-forming clouds. Ultraviolet and optical photons from young stars to which the cloud is optically thick do not scatter much. Instead, they quickly get absorbed and re-emitted by the dust at thermal wavelengths. As the cloud is typically optically thin to far-infrared radiation, it promptly escapes, depositing little momentum in the cloud. The resulting spectrum is more narrowly peaked than the corresponding Planck function, and exhibits an extended tail at longer wavelengths. As the opacity drops significantly across the sub-mm and mm wavelength regime, the resulting radiative force is even smaller than for the corresponding single-temperature blackbody. We find that the force from radiation pressure falls below the strength of gravitational attraction by an order of magnitude or more for either Milky Way or moderate starbust conditions. Only for unrealistically large maximum grain sizes, and star formation efficiencies far exceeding 50% do we find that the strength of radiation pressure can exceed gravity. Conclusions: We conclude that radiation pressure acting on dust does not disrupt star-forming molecular clouds in any Local Group galaxies. Radiation pressure thus appears unlikely to regulate the star

  10. EVALUATION OF P53, E-CADHERIN, COX-2, AND EGFR PROTEIN IMUNNOEXPRESSION ON PROGNOSTIC OF RESECTED GALLBLADDER CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    PAIS-COSTA, Sergio Renato; FARAH, José Francisco de Matos; ARTIGIANI-NETO, Ricardo; MARTINS, Sandro José; GOLDENBERG, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Gallbladder carcinoma presents a dismal prognosis. Choice treatment is surgical resection that is associated a high levels of both morbidity and mortality. Best knowledgement of prognostic factors may result a better selection of patients either for surgical or multimodal treatment. Aim To evaluate tecidual immunoexpression of P53, E-cadherin, Cox-2, and EGFR proteins and to correlate these findings with resected gallbladder adenocarcinoma survival. Methods Clinical, laboratorial, surgical, and anatomopathological reports of a series of gallbladder adenocarcinoma patients were collected by individualized questionary. Total sample was 42 patients. Median of age was 72 years (35-87). There were seven men and 35 women. Lesion distribuition in according TNM state was the following: T1 (n=2), T2 (n=5), T3 (n=31), T4 (n=4). Twenty-three patients underwent radical resection (R0), while 19 palliative surgery (R1-R2). A block of tissue microarray with neoplasic tissue of each patient was confected. It was performed evaluation of P53, E-Caderine, COX-2, and EGFR proteins imunoexpression. These findings were correlated with overall survival. Results Five-year survival was 28%. The median of global survival was eight months. Only immunoexpression of EGFR protein was considered independent variable at multivariated analysis. Conclusion Final prognosis was influenced by over-expression of EGFR protein in tumoral tissue. PMID:25004291

  11. Direct regulation of E-cadherin by targeted histone methylation of TALE-SET fusion protein in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Soo; Kang, Jeong Gu; Lee, Jae-Hye; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Jeon, Seong Kook; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Dae-Soo; Park, Kun-Hyang; Kim, Yong-Sam; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2015-09-15

    TALE-nuclease chimeras (TALENs) can bind to and cleave specific genomic loci and, are used to engineer gene knockouts and additions. Recently, instead of using the FokI domain, epigenetically active domains, such as TET1 and LSD1, have been combined with TAL effector domains to regulate targeted gene expression via DNA and histone demethylation. However, studies of histone methylation in the TALE system have not been performed. Therefore, in this study, we established a novel targeted regulation system with a TAL effector domain and a histone methylation domain. To construct a TALE-methylation fusion protein, we combined a TAL effector domain containing an E-Box region to act as a Snail binding site and the SET domain of EHMT 2 to allow for histone methylation. The constructed TALE-SET module (TSET) repressed the expression of E-cadherin via by increasing H3K9 dimethylation. Moreover, the cells that overexpressed TSET showed increased cell migration and invasion. This is the first phenotype-based study of targeted histone methylation by the TALE module, and this new system can be applied in new cancer therapies to reduce side effects.

  12. Loss of CDH1 (E-cadherin) expression is associated with infiltrative tumour growth and lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun A; Inamura, Kentaro; Yamauchi, Mai; Nishihara, Reiko; Mima, Kosuke; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Li, Tingting; Yasunari, Mika; Morikawa, Teppei; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Fuchs, Charles S; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Zhang, Xuehong; Ogino, Shuji; Qian, Zhi Rong

    2016-01-19

    Loss of CDH1 (E-cadherin) expression in cancer cells may promote cell migration and invasion. Therefore, we hypothesised that loss of CDH1 expression in colorectal carcinoma might be associated with aggressive features and clinical outcome. Utilising molecular pathological epidemiology database of 689 rectal and colon cancer cases in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we assessed tumour CDH1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess association of CDH1 loss with tumour growth pattern (expansile-intermediate vs infiltrative) and lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis, controlling for potential confounders including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation, and PIK3CA, BRAF and KRAS mutations. Mortality according to CDH1 status was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Loss of tumour CDH1 expression was observed in 356 cases (52%), and associated with infiltrative tumour growth pattern (odds ratio (OR), 2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-3.34; P=0.006) and higher pN stage (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.23-2.43; P=0.001). Tumour CDH1 expression was not significantly associated with distant metastasis or prognosis. Loss of CDH1 expression in colorectal cancer is associated with infiltrative tumour growth pattern and lymph node metastasis.

  13. Transcytosis of Listeria monocytogenes across the intestinal barrier upon specific targeting of goblet cell accessible E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Nikitas, Georgios; Deschamps, Chantal; Disson, Olivier; Niault, Théodora; Cossart, Pascale; Lecuit, Marc

    2011-10-24

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier upon interaction between its surface protein InlA and its species-specific host receptor E-cadherin (Ecad). Ecad, the key constituent of adherens junctions, is typically situated below tight junctions and therefore considered inaccessible from the intestinal lumen. In this study, we investigated how Lm specifically targets its receptor on intestinal villi and crosses the intestinal epithelium to disseminate systemically. We demonstrate that Ecad is luminally accessible around mucus-expelling goblet cells (GCs), around extruding enterocytes at the tip and lateral sides of villi, and in villus epithelial folds. We show that upon preferential adherence to accessible Ecad on GCs, Lm is internalized, rapidly transcytosed across the intestinal epithelium, and released in the lamina propria by exocytosis from where it disseminates systemically. Together, these results show that Lm exploits intrinsic tissue heterogeneity to access its receptor and reveal transcytosis as a novel and unanticipated pathway that is hijacked by Lm to breach the intestinal epithelium and cause systemic infection.

  14. Detecting methylation patterns of p16, MGMT, DAPK and E-cadherin genes in multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Yuregir, O Ozalp; Yurtcu, E; Kizilkilic, E; Kocer, N E; Ozdogu, H; Sahin, F I

    2010-04-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell neoplasia characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. Besides known genetic abnormalities, epigenetic changes are also known to effect MM pathogenesis. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that silences genes by adding methyl groups to cytosine-guanine dinucleotides at the promoter regions. In this study, the methylation status of four genes; p16, O6-methyl guanine DNA methyl transferase (MGMT), death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and E-cadherin (ECAD); at the time of diagnosis was investigated using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR). In the 20 cases studied; methylation of the promoter regions of p16, MGMT, DAPK and ECAD genes was detected in 10%, 40%, 10% and 45% of the cases, respectively. In 65% (13/20) of cases, at least one of the genes studied had promoter methylation; while 35% of cases (7/20) had methylated promoters of more than one gene. There was a significant correlation between promoter hypermethylation of MGMT and the presence of extramedullary involvement; but for the other genes no correlation was found regarding disease properties like age, disease stage, clinical course and the presence of lytic bone lesions. Determining the methylation profiles of genes in MM, could lead to a new understanding of the disease pathogenesis and guide the assessment of treatment options.

  15. E-Cadherin-Dependent Stimulation of Traction Force at Focal Adhesions via the Src and PI3K Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jasaitis, Audrius; Estevez, Maruxa; Heysch, Julie; Ladoux, Benoit; Dufour, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between cadherin- and integrin-dependent signals controls cell behavior, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the strength of adhesion to the extracellular matrix remains poorly understood. We deposited cells expressing a defined repertoire of cadherins and integrins on fibronectin (FN)-coated polyacrylamide gels (FN-PAG) and on FN-coated pillars used as a micro-force sensor array (μFSA), and analyzed the functional relationship between these adhesion receptors to determine how it regulates cell traction force. We found that cadherin-mediated adhesion stimulated cell spreading on FN-PAG, and this was modulated by the substrate stiffness. We compared S180 cells with cells stably expressing different cadherins on μFSA and found that traction forces were stronger in cells expressing cadherins than in parental cells. E-cadherin-mediated contact and mechanical coupling between cells are required for this increase in cell-FN traction force, which was not observed in isolated cells, and required Src and PI3K activities. Traction forces were stronger in cells expressing type I cadherins than in cells expressing type II cadherins, which correlates with our previous observation of a higher intercellular adhesion strength developed by type I compared with type II cadherins. Our results reveal one of the mechanisms whereby molecular cross talk between cadherins and integrins upregulates traction forces at cell-FN adhesion sites, and thus provide additional insight into the molecular control of cell behavior. PMID:22853894

  16. Transcytosis of Listeria monocytogenes across the intestinal barrier upon specific targeting of goblet cell accessible E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Nikitas, Georgios; Deschamps, Chantal; Disson, Olivier; Niault, Théodora; Cossart, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier upon interaction between its surface protein InlA and its species-specific host receptor E-cadherin (Ecad). Ecad, the key constituent of adherens junctions, is typically situated below tight junctions and therefore considered inaccessible from the intestinal lumen. In this study, we investigated how Lm specifically targets its receptor on intestinal villi and crosses the intestinal epithelium to disseminate systemically. We demonstrate that Ecad is luminally accessible around mucus-expelling goblet cells (GCs), around extruding enterocytes at the tip and lateral sides of villi, and in villus epithelial folds. We show that upon preferential adherence to accessible Ecad on GCs, Lm is internalized, rapidly transcytosed across the intestinal epithelium, and released in the lamina propria by exocytosis from where it disseminates systemically. Together, these results show that Lm exploits intrinsic tissue heterogeneity to access its receptor and reveal transcytosis as a novel and unanticipated pathway that is hijacked by Lm to breach the intestinal epithelium and cause systemic infection. PMID:21967767

  17. Detecting cell-in-cell structures in human tumor samples by E-cadherin/CD68/CD45 triple staining

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manna; Ning, Xiangkai; He, Meifang; Hu, Yazhuo; Yuan, Long; Li, Shichong; Wang, Qiwei; Liu, Hong; Chen, Zhaolie; Ren, Jun; Sun, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Although Cell-in-cell structures (CICs) had been documented in human tumors for decades, it is unclear what types of CICs were formed largely due to low resolution of traditional way such as H&E staining. In this work, we employed immunofluorescent method to stain a panel of human tumor samples simultaneously with antibodies against E-cadherin for Epithelium, CD68 for Macrophage and CD45 for Leukocytes, which we termed as “EML method” based on the cells detected. Detail analysis revealed four types of CICs, with tumor cells or macrophage engulfing tumor cells or leukocytes respectively. Interestingly, tumor cells seem to be dominant over macrophage (93% vs 7%) as the engulfer cells in all CICs detected, whereas the overall amount of internalized tumor cells is comparable to that of internalized CD45+ leukocytes (57% vs 43%). The CICs profiles vary from tumor to tumor, which may indicate different malignant stages and/or inflammatory conditions. Given the potential impacts different types of CICs might have on tumor growth, we therefore recommend EML analysis of tumor samples to clarify the correlation of CICs subtypes with clinical prognosis in future researches. PMID:26109430

  18. Detecting cell-in-cell structures in human tumor samples by E-cadherin/CD68/CD45 triple staining.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongyan; Chen, Ang; Wang, Ting; Wang, Manna; Ning, Xiangkai; He, Meifang; Hu, Yazhuo; Yuan, Long; Li, Shichong; Wang, Qiwei; Liu, Hong; Chen, Zhaolie; Ren, Jun; Sun, Qiang

    2015-08-21

    Although Cell-in-cell structures (CICs) had been documented in human tumors for decades, it is unclear what types of CICs were formed largely due to low resolution of traditional way such as H&E staining. In this work, we employed immunofluorescent method to stain a panel of human tumor samples simultaneously with antibodies against E-cadherin for Epithelium, CD68 for Macrophage and CD45 for Leukocytes, which we termed as "EML method" based on the cells detected. Detail analysis revealed four types of CICs, with tumor cells or macrophage engulfing tumor cells or leukocytes respectively. Interestingly, tumor cells seem to be dominant over macrophage (93% vs 7%) as the engulfer cells in all CICs detected, whereas the overall amount of internalized tumor cells is comparable to that of internalized CD45+ leukocytes (57% vs 43%). The CICs profiles vary from tumor to tumor, which may indicate different malignant stages and/or inflammatory conditions. Given the potential impacts different types of CICs might have on tumor growth, we therefore recommend EML analysis of tumor samples to clarify the correlation of CICs subtypes with clinical prognosis in future researches.

  19. Prognostic value of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, CD44v6, and HER2/neu in metastatic cutaneous adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakova, Olga; Hoang, Mai M P; Dresser, Karen A; Mahalingam, Meera

    2009-08-01

    Our recent experience with a patient developing cutaneous metastases within 3 months of diagnosis of esophageal adenocarcinoma suggests that altered expression of the cellular adhesion molecules, E-cadherin and CD44v6, may have had a role to play in the rapid onset of metastases. To corroborate these findings, we designed a cross-sectional study to investigate the expression of select molecules involved in the metastatic cascade. E-cadherin, beta-catenin, CD44v6, and HER2/neu immunohistochemical stains were performed on archival materials of metastatic adenocarcinoma to the skin from 27 patients and the available corresponding primary tumors in 10 patients. The primary sites included breast (n = 10; 37%), gastrointestinal tract (n = 10; 37%), ovary (n = 1; 4%), thyroid (n = 2; 7%), lung (n = 1; 4%), and unknown primary (n = 3; 11%). Expression of all markers was noted with the most significant increases observed in beta-catenin (26 of 27 cases; 96%), followed by CD44v6 (24 of 27 cases; 89%), E-cadherin (22 of 27 cases; 82%), and HER2/neu (11 of 27 cases; 41%). Contrasting expression of these molecules in the primary versus the metastatic tumors, enhanced expression of CD44v6 was observed in the cutaneous metastases relative to the primary in 6 of 10 (60%) cases. Of interest, 2 of these 6 cases (33%) also showed reduction in E-cadherin--a member of the cadherin family functioning as an invasion suppressor molecule. These findings reinforce the complexities of the metastatic cascade and imply that the variation in adhesive properties of tumor cells is, perhaps, a consequence of the difference in density of the molecules mediating this process.

  20. High expression of SALL4 and fascin, and loss of E-cadherin expression in undifferentiated/dedifferentiated carcinomas of the endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Onder, Semen; Taskin, Orhun Cig; Sen, Fatma; Topuz, Samet; Kucucuk, Seden; Sozen, Hamdullah; Ilhan, Ridvan; Tuzlali, Sitki; Yavuz, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Undifferentiated/dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas (UCE/DCEs) of the endometrium are rare tumors with poor prognosis. There are few clinicopathologic studies with detailed immunohistochemical analysis regarding UCE/DCEs. We evaluated the diagnostic value of a selected tumor stem-cell marker and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, in addition to previously studied markers in identifying UCE/DCEs from other types of high-grade endometrial carcinomas. Eleven cases of UCE/DCEs with complete clinical follow-up that were diagnosed between 2006 and 2015 were included in the study. For immunohistochemical comparison, 11 clinically matched cases for each type of other high-grade endometrial carcinomas (high-grade endometrioid (F3-EC), serous [SC], and clear cell carcinoma [CCC]) were used as a control group. An immunohistochemical analysis including fascin, SALL4, E-cadherin, and β-catenin, in addition to epithelial and neuroendocrine markers was performed in each case. The majority of UCE/DCEs displayed diffuse expression of fascin (81.9%) and loss of E-cadherin expression (54.5%). SALL4 expression was detected in 36.3% of the UCE/DCE cases. SALL4 expression was significantly more frequent in UCE/DCEs than all other high-grade carcinomas (P < 0.001). Loss of E-cadherin and fascin expression was significantly more frequent in UCE/DCEs than high-grade endometrioid and clear cell adenocarcinomas (P = 0.012, 0.014 and P = 0.01, 0.003, respectively). We suggest that loss of E-cadherin expression together with fascin and SALL4 immunopositivity in addition to morphologic features have an impact in differential diagnosis of UCE/DCEs from other high-grade endometrial carcinomas. PMID:28272224

  1. Therapeutic potential of Dickkopf-1 in wild-type BRAF papillary thyroid cancer via regulation of β-catenin/E-cadherin signaling.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Young A; Sun, Hyun Jin; Ahn, Hwa Young; Lee, Eun Kyung; Yi, Ka Hee; Oh, Byung-Chul; Park, Do Joon; Cho, Bo Youn; Park, Young Joo

    2014-09-01

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a common pathogenesis of various human cancers. We investigated the role of the Wnt inhibitor, Dkk-1, in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Immunohistochemical β-catenin staining was performed in tissue microarray containing 148 PTCs and five normal thyroid tissues. In vivo effects of Dkk-1 were explored using ectopic tumors with BHP10-3SC cells. In 27 PTC patients, 60% of patients showed β-catenin up-regulation and Dkk-1 down-regulation in tumor vs normal tissues. Tissue microarray analysis showed that 14 of 148 PTC samples exhibited cytoplasmic-dominant β-catenin expression compared to membranous-dominant expression in normal tissues. Aberrant β-catenin expression was significantly correlated with higher rates of the loss of membranous E-cadherin expression and poor disease-free survival than that in the normal membranous expression group over a median follow-up period of 14 years. Implantation of Dkk-1-overexpressing BHP10-3SC cells revealed delayed tumor growth, resulting from the rescue of membranous β-catenin and E-cadherin expressions. Furthermore, tissue microarray analysis demonstrated that BRAF(WT) patients had higher rates of aberrant expressions of β-catenin and E-cadherin than BRAF(V600E) patients. Indeed, the inhibitory effects of Dkk-1 on cell survival were more sensitive in BRAF(WT) (BHP10-3SC and TPC-1) than in BRAF(V600E) (SNU-790 and BCPAP) cells. Overexpression of BRAF(V600E) in normal thyroid epithelial (H tori) cells also reduced the effects of Dkk-1 on cell survival. A subset of PTC patients showed aberrant expression of β-catenin/E-cadherin signaling and poor disease-free survival. Dkk-1 might have a therapeutic role, particularly in BRAF(WT) patients.

  2. Downregulation of Bit1 expression promotes growth, anoikis resistance, and transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells via Erk activation-dependent suppression of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Gray, Selena; Pham, Tri; Delgardo, Mychael; Nguyen, An; Do, Stephen; Ireland, Shubha Kale; Chen, Renwei; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Biliran, Hector

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondrial Bit1 protein exerts tumor-suppressive function in NSCLC through induction of anoikis and inhibition of EMT. Having this dual tumor suppressive effect, its downregulation in the established human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line resulted in potentiation of tumorigenicity and metastasis in vivo. However, the exact role of Bit1 in regulating malignant growth and transformation of human lung epithelial cells, which are origin of most forms of human lung cancers, has not been examined. To this end, we have downregulated the endogenous Bit1 expression in the immortalized non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Knockdown of Bit1 enhanced the growth and anoikis insensitivity of BEAS-2B cells. In line with their acquired anoikis resistance, the Bit1 knockdown BEAS-2B cells exhibited enhanced anchorage-independent growth in vitro but failed to form tumors in vivo. The loss of Bit1-induced transformed phenotypes was in part attributable to the repression of E-cadherin expression since forced exogenous E-cadherin expression attenuated the malignant phenotypes of the Bit1 knockdown cells. Importantly, we show that the loss of Bit1 expression in BEAS-2B cells resulted in increased Erk activation, which functions upstream to promote TLE1-mediated transcriptional repression of E-cadherin. These collective findings indicate that loss of Bit1 expression contributes to the acquisition of malignant phenotype of human lung epithelial cells via Erk activation-induced suppression of E-cadherin expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear translocation of Acinetobacter baumannii transposase induces DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin gene.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong Chan; Choi, Chul Hee; Lee, Su Man; Lee, Jung Hwa; Kim, Seung Il; Kim, Dong Sun; Lee, Je Chul

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins has emerged as a pathogenic mechanism whereby bacterial proteins induce host cell pathology. In this study, we examined nuclear targeting of Acinetobacter baumannii transposase (Tnp) and subsequent epigenetic changes in host cells. Tnp of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 possesses nuclear localization signals (NLSs), (225)RKRKRK(230). Transient expression of A. baumannii Tnp fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) resulted in the nuclear localization of these proteins in COS-7 cells, whereas the truncated Tnp without NLSs fused with GFP were exclusively localized in the cytoplasm. A. baumannii Tnp was found in outer membrane vesicles, which delivered this protein to the nucleus of host cells. Nuclear expression of A. baumannii Tnp fused with GFP in A549 cells induced DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin (CDH1) gene, whereas the cytoplasmic localization of the truncated Tnp without NLSs fused with GFP did not induce DNA methylation. DNA methylation in the promoters of E-cadherin gene induced by nuclear targeting of A. baumannii Tnp resulted in down-regulation of gene expression. In conclusion, our data show that nuclear traffic of A. baumannii Tnp induces DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin gene, which subsequently down-regulates gene expression. This study provides a new insight into the epigenetic control of host genes by bacterial proteins.

  4. A complex of α6 integrin and E-cadherin drives liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells through hepatic angiopoietin-like 6.

    PubMed

    Marchiò, Serena; Soster, Marco; Cardaci, Sabrina; Muratore, Andrea; Bartolini, Alice; Barone, Vanessa; Ribero, Dario; Monti, Maria; Bovino, Paola; Sun, Jessica; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Asioli, Sofia; Cassoni, Paola; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Pucci, Piero; Bugatti, Antonella; Rusnati, Marco; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Bussolino, Federico

    2012-11-01

    Homing of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to the liver is a non-random process driven by a crosstalk between tumour cells and components of the host tissue. Here we report the isolation of a liver metastasis-specific peptide ligand (CGIYRLRSC) that binds a complex of E-cadherin and α(6) integrin on the surface of CRC cells. We identify angiopoietin-like 6 protein as a peptide-mimicked natural ligand enriched in hepatic blood vessels of CRC patients. We demonstrate that an interaction between hepatic angiopoietin-like 6 and tumoural α(6) integrin/E-cadherin drives liver homing and colonization by CRC cells, and that CGIYRLRSC inhibits liver metastasis through interference with this ligand/receptor system. Our results indicate a mechanism for metastasis whereby a soluble factor accumulated in normal vessels functions as a specific ligand for circulating cancer cells. Consistently, we show that high amounts of coexpressed α(6) integrin and E-cadherin in primary tumours represent a poor prognostic factor for patients with advanced CRC. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  5. A complex of α6 integrin and E-cadherin drives liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells through hepatic angiopoietin-like 6

    PubMed Central

    Marchiò, Serena; Soster, Marco; Cardaci, Sabrina; Muratore, Andrea; Bartolini, Alice; Barone, Vanessa; Ribero, Dario; Monti, Maria; Bovino, Paola; Sun, Jessica; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Asioli, Sofia; Cassoni, Paola; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Pucci, Piero; Bugatti, Antonella; Rusnati, Marco; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Bussolino, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Homing of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to the liver is a non-random process driven by a crosstalk between tumour cells and components of the host tissue. Here we report the isolation of a liver metastasis-specific peptide ligand (CGIYRLRSC) that binds a complex of E-cadherin and α6 integrin on the surface of CRC cells. We identify angiopoietin-like 6 protein as a peptide-mimicked natural ligand enriched in hepatic blood vessels of CRC patients. We demonstrate that an interaction between hepatic angiopoietin-like 6 and tumoural α6 integrin/E-cadherin drives liver homing and colonization by CRC cells, and that CGIYRLRSC inhibits liver metastasis through interference with this ligand/receptor system. Our results indicate a mechanism for metastasis whereby a soluble factor accumulated in normal vessels functions as a specific ligand for circulating cancer cells. Consistently, we show that high amounts of coexpressed α6 integrin and E-cadherin in primary tumours represent a poor prognostic factor for patients with advanced CRC. PMID:23070965

  6. Deregulation of E-cadherin, β-catenin, APC and Caveolin-1 expression occurs in canine prostate cancer and metastatic processes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Priscila E; Fonseca-Alves, Carlos E; Rivera-Calderón, Luis G; Carvalho, Márcio; Kuasne, Hellen; Rogatto, Silvia R; Laufer-Amorim, Renée

    2018-06-01

    Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease with high levels of clinical and gene heterogeneity, consequently offering several targets for therapy. Dogs with naturally occurring prostate cancer are useful models for molecular investigations and studying new treatment efficacy. Three genes and proteins associated with the WNT pathway (β-catenin, APC and E-cadherin) and Caveolin-1 (CAV-1) were evaluated in canine pre-neoplastic proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA), prostate cancer and metastatic disease. The APC gene methylation status was also investigated. As in human prostate cancer, cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin, which are fundamental for activating the canonical WNT pathway, were found in canine prostate cancer and metastasis. Membranous E-cadherin was also lost in these lesions, allowing cellular migration to the stroma and nuclear localization of β-catenin. In contrast to human prostate tumours, no APC downregulation or hypermethylation was found in canine prostate cancer. The CAV-1 gene and protein overexpression were found in canine prostate cancer, and as in humans, the highest levels were found in Gleason scores ≥8. In conclusion, as with human prostate cancer, β-catenin and E-cadherin in the WNT pathway, as well as Caveolin-1, are molecular drivers in canine prostate cancer. These findings provide additional evidence that dogs are useful models for studying new therapeutic targets in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DNAJB4 molecular chaperone distinguishes WT from mutant E-cadherin, determining their fate in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Simões-Correia, Joana; Silva, Diana I; Melo, Soraia; Figueiredo, Joana; Caldeira, Joana; Pinto, Marta T; Girão, Henrique; Pereira, Paulo; Seruca, Raquel

    2014-04-15

    E-cadherin (Ecad) is a well-known invasion suppressor and its loss of expression is common in invasive carcinomas. Germline Ecad mutations are the only known genetic cause of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), demonstrating the causative role of Ecad impairment in gastric cancer. HDGC-associated Ecad missense mutations can lead to folding defects and premature proteasome-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), but the molecular determinants for this fate were unidentified. Using a Drosophila-based genetic screen, we found that Drosophila DnaJ-1 interacts with wild type (WT) and mutant human Ecad in vivo. DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 4 (DNAJB4), the human homolog of DnaJ-1, influences Ecad localization and stability even in the absence of Ecad endogenous promoter, suggesting a post-transcriptional level of regulation. Increased expression of DNAJB4 leads to stabilization of WT Ecad in the plasma membrane, while it induces premature degradation of unfolded HDGC mutants in the proteasome. The interaction between DNAJB4 and Ecad is direct, and is increased in the context of the unfolded mutant E757K, especially when proteasome degradation is inhibited, suggesting that DNAJB4 is a molecular mediator of ERAD. Post-translational regulation of native Ecad by DNAJB4 molecular chaperone is sufficient to influence cell adhesion in vitro. Using a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay with gastric cancer derived cells, we demonstrate that DNAJB4 stimulates the anti-invasive function of WT Ecad in vivo. Additionally, the expression of DNAJB4 and Ecad is concomitantly decreased in human gastric carcinomas. Altogether, we demonstrate that DNAJB4 is a sensor of Ecad structural features that might contribute to gastric cancer progression.

  8. Differential membranous E-cadherin expression, cell proliferation and O-GlcNAcylation between primary and metastatic nodal lesion in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae Jung

    2016-02-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is an O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety linked to the side chain hydroxyl of a serine or threonine residue. The E-cadherin/β-catenin system, an integral component of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)/mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET), is affected through O-GlcNAcylation. The current study examined the status of EMT/MET in both the tumor center and invasive front of the primary colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and metastatic nodal lesions, which were compared to O-GlcNAcylation expression levels in those areas. In addition, the cliniopathological significance of O-GlcNAcylation was studied Immunohistochemical staining for E-cadherin, β-catenin, Snail, O-GlcNAc and Ki67 was performed in 40 primary CRC tissues, 40 nonneoplastic colons, and 17 nodal metastatic lesions. Western blot was also conducted in primary CRC tissue Membranous E-cadherin expression was lowest in the invasive front, but showed greater increases in metastatic nodal lesions. Moreover, its expression level was negatively correlated with that of nuclear β-catenin and Snail. The Ki67 labeling index (LI) was lowest in the invasive front, and increased in metastatic nodal lesions. Primary CRC showed higher expression of O-GlcNAcylation and O-GlcNAc-transferase (OGT) than nonneoplastic colons. O-GlcNAcylation expression decreased in metastatic nodal lesions compared to the invasive front and tumor center, and was inversely correlated with Ki67 LI. However, O-GlcNAcylation expression was only slightly changed between tumor center and invasive front. In addition, there was no correlation between its expression and the level of nuclear β-catenin, membranous E-cadherin and Snail. No significant relationship was observed between O-GlcNAcylation level and cliniopathological parameters. Differential membranous E-cadherin expression, cell proliferation and O-GlcNAcylation in metastatic nodal lesion compared to primary CRC may play role in establishing its lesions

  9. Abrogation of E-cadherin-mediated cellular aggregation allows proliferation of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells in shake flask bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mohamet, Lisa; Lea, Michelle L; Ward, Christopher M

    2010-09-23

    A fundamental requirement for the exploitation of embryonic stem (ES) cells in regenerative medicine is the ability to reproducibly derive sufficient numbers of cells of a consistent quality in a cost-effective manner. However, undifferentiated ES cells are not ideally suited to suspension culture due to the formation of cellular aggregates, ultimately limiting scalability. Significant advances have been made in recent years in the culture of ES cells, including automated adherent culture and suspension microcarrier or embryoid body bioreactor culture. However, each of these methods exhibits specific disadvantages, such as high cost, additional downstream processes or reduced cell doubling times. Here we show that abrogation of the cell surface protein E-cadherin, using either gene knockout (Ecad-/-) or the neutralising antibody DECMA-1 (EcadAb), allows culture of mouse ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in scalable shake flask culture over prolonged periods without additional media supplements. Both Ecad-/- and EcadAb ES cells exhibited adaptation phases in suspension culture, with optimal doubling times of 7.3 h±0.9 and 15.6 h±4.7 respectively and mean-fold increase in viable cell number of 95.1±2.0 and 16±0.9-fold over 48 h. EcadAb ES cells propagated as a dispersed cell suspension for 15 d maintained expression of pluripotent markers, exhibited a normal karyotype and high viability. Subsequent differentiation of EcadAb ES cells resulted in expression of transcripts and proteins associated with the three primary germ layers. This is the first demonstration of the culture of pluripotent ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in a manual fed-batch shake flask bioreactor and represents a significant improvement on current ES cell culture techniques. Whilst this proof-of-principle method would be useful for the culture of human ES and iPS cells, further steps are necessary to increase cell viability of hES cells in suspension.

  10. Prognostic role of integrin β1, E-cadherin, and rac1 expression in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Myung Hee; Lee, Kyungji; Lee, Kyo-Young; Kim, Yeon Sil; Kim, Young Kyoon; Kang, Jin-Hyoung

    2012-01-01

    Integrin β(1) mediates cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and is correlated with highly invasive and metastatic behavior in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). E-cadherin (ECAD) is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion receptor that restricts invasion of cells and reduces metastasis. Rac1 is involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, adhesion, migration, invasion, and tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine integrin β(1) , ECAD and rac1 expression in SCLC and to analyze the prognostic value of these markers in patients with SCLC. We analyzed integrin β(1) , ECAD, and rac1 expression in 112 SCLC tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Correlative analyses between integrin β(1) , ECAD, and rac1 expression and cliniopathological factors were performed. A total of 65 patients had extensive disease (ED) (58%), and 47 had limited disease (LD) (42%). The median follow-up duration was 61 months (range: 14-117 months), and the median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 6.1 months (range: 4.8-7.4 months) and 9.7 months (range: 8.1-11.3 months), respectively. The expression of integrin β(1) , ECAD, and rac1 protein was observed in 64, 73, and 99 of SCLC tissues, respectively. The correlative analyses between integrin β(1) , ECAD, or rac1 expression and various clinical parameters did not show any statistical significance. However, the ECAD expression was associated with OS in the entire cohort. In contrast, the expression of integrin β(1) and rac1 was not associated with PFS or OS. In a subgroup analysis, patients with less than two metastasis had significantly longer OS (p = 0.047) if their tumors expressed integrin β(1) compared to those without integrin β(1) expression. In addition, OS was longer for patients with ECAD positive tumors compared to those whose tumors did not express ECAD in males (p = 0.032) and patients who never smoked (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that LD (p = 0

  11. Mating System Evolution under Strong Pollen Limitation: Evidence of Disruptive Selection through Male and Female Fitness in Clarkia xantiana.

    PubMed

    Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D; Geber, Monica A; Pickett-Leonard, Michael; Moeller, David A

    2017-05-01

    Selection on floral traits in hermaphroditic plants is determined by both male and female reproductive success. However, predictions regarding floral trait and mating system evolution are often based solely on female fitness. Selection via male fitness has the potential to affect the outcomes of floral evolution. In this study, we used paternity analysis to assess individual selfing rates and selection on floral traits via male and female fitness in an experimental population of Clarkia xantiana where pollen limitation of seed set was strong. We detected selection through both female and male fitness with reinforcing or noninterfering patterns of selection through the two sex functions. For female fitness, selection favored reduced herkogamy and protandry, traits that promote increased autonomous selfing. For male fitness, selection on petal area was disruptive, with higher trait values conferring greater pollinator attraction and outcross siring success and smaller trait values leading to higher selfed siring success. Combining both female and male fitness, selection on petal area and protandry was disruptive because intermediate phenotypes were less successful as both males and females. Finally, functional relationships among male and female fertility components indicated that selfing resulted in seed discounting and pollen discounting. Under these functional relationships, the evolutionarily stable selfing rate can be intermediate or predominantly selfing or outcrossing, depending on the segregating load of deleterious mutations.

  12. High Glucose-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Stimulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration Through Snail and EZH2-Dependent E-Cadherin Repression.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Young; Choi, Gee Euhn; Lee, Hyun Jik; Jung, Young Hyun; Ko, So Hee; Chae, Chang Woo; Kim, Jun Sung; Kim, Seo Yihl; Lim, Jae Ryong; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Han, Ho Jae

    2018-01-01

    Glucose plays an important role in stem cell fate determination and behaviors. However, it is still not known how glucose contributes to the precise molecular mechanisms responsible for stem cell migration. Thus, we investigate the effect of glucose on the regulation of the human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hUCB-MSC) migration, and analyze the mechanism accompanied by this effect. Western blot analysis, wound healing migration assays, immunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were performed to investigate the effect of high glucose on hUCB-MSC migration. Additionally, hUCB-MSC transplantation was performed in the mouse excisional wound splinting model. High concentration glucose (25 mM) elicits hUCB-MSC migration compared to normal glucose and high glucose-pretreated hUCB-MSC transplantation into the wound sites in mice also accelerates skin wound repair. We therefore elucidated the detailed mechanisms how high glucose induces hUCB-MSC migration. We showed that high glucose regulates E-cadherin repression through increased Snail and EZH2 expressions. And, we found high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes two signaling; JNK which regulates γ-secretase leading to the cleavage of Notch proteins and PI3K/Akt signaling which enhances GSK-3β phosphorylation. High glucose-mediated JNK/Notch pathway regulates the expression of EZH2, and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway stimulates Snail stabilization, respectively. High glucose enhances the formation of EZH2/Snail/HDAC1 complex in the nucleus, which in turn causes E-cadherin repression. This study reveals that high glucose-induced ROS stimulates the migration of hUCB-MSC through E-cadherin repression via Snail and EZH2 signaling pathways. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Reggies/flotillins interact with Rab11a and SNX4 at the tubulovesicular recycling compartment and function in transferrin receptor and E-cadherin trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Gonzalo P.; Hülsbusch, Nikola; Radon, Yvonne; Katanaev, Vladimir L.; Plattner, Helmut; Stuermer, Claudia A. O.

    2013-01-01

    The lipid raft proteins reggie-1 and -2 (flotillins) are implicated in membrane protein trafficking but exactly how has been elusive. We find that reggie-1 and -2 associate with the Rab11a, SNX4, and EHD1–decorated tubulovesicular recycling compartment in HeLa cells and that reggie-1 directly interacts with Rab11a and SNX4. Short hairpin RNA–mediated down-regulation of reggie-1 (and -2) in HeLa cells reduces association of Rab11a with tubular structures and impairs recycling of the transferrin–transferrin receptor (TfR) complex to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of constitutively active Rab11a rescues TfR recycling in reggie-deficient HeLa cells. Similarly, in a Ca2+ switch assay in reggie-depleted A431 cells, internalized E-cadherin is not efficiently recycled to the plasma membrane upon Ca2+ repletion. E-cadherin recycling is rescued, however, by overexpression of constitutively active Rab11a or SNX4 in reggie-deficient A431 cells. This suggests that the function of reggie-1 in sorting and recycling occurs in association with Rab11a and SNX4. Of interest, impaired recycling in reggie-deficient cells leads to de novo E-cadherin biosynthesis and cell contact reformation, showing that cells have ways to compensate the loss of reggies. Together our results identify reggie-1 as a regulator of the Rab11a/SNX4-controlled sorting and recycling pathway, which is, like reggies, evolutionarily conserved. PMID:23825023

  14. Influence of intra-tumoral heterogeneity on the evaluation of BCL2, E-cadherin, EGFR, EMMPRIN, and Ki-67 expression in tissue microarrays from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tramm, Trine; Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming B; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The influence of intra-tumoral heterogeneity on the evaluation of immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarker expression may affect the analytical validity of new biomarkers substantially and hence compromise the clinical utility. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of intra-tumoral heterogeneity as well as inter-observer variability on the evaluation of various IHC markers with potential prognostic impact in breast cancer (BCL2, E-cadherin, EGFR, EMMPRIN and Ki-67). From each of 27 breast cancer patients, two tumor-containing paraffin blocks were chosen. Intra-tumoral heterogeneity was evaluated (1) within a single tumor-containing paraffin block ('intra-block agreement') by comparing information from a central, a peripheral tissue microarray (TMA) core and a whole slide section (WS), (2) between two different tumor-containing blocks from the same primary tumor ('inter-block agreement') by comparing information from TMA cores (central/peripheral) and WS. IHC markers on WS and TMA cores were evaluated by two observers independently, and agreements were estimated by Kappa statistics. For BCL2, E-cadherin and EGFR, an almost perfect intra- and inter-block agreement was found. EMMPRIN and Ki-67 showed a more heterogeneous expression with moderate to substantial intra-block agreements. For both stainings, there was a moderate inter-block agreement that improved slightly for EMMPRIN, when using WS instead of TMA cores. Inter-observer agreements were found to be almost perfect for BCL2, E-cadherin and EGFR (WS: κ > 0.82, TMAs: κ > 0.90), substantial for EMMPRIN (κ > 0.63), but only fair to moderate for Ki-67 (WS: κ = 0.54, TMAs: κ = 0.33). BCL2, E-cadherin and EGFR were found to be homogeneously expressed, whereas EMMPRIN and Ki-67 showed a more pronounced degree of intra-tumoral heterogeneity. The results emphasize the importance of securing the analytical validity of new biomarkers by examining the intra-tumoral heterogeneity of

  15. Localized surface disruptions observed by InSAR during strong earthquakes in Java and Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, M.

    2010-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data spanning strong earthquakes on the islands of Java and Hawai‘i in 2006 reveal patches of subsidence and incoherence indicative of localized ground failure. Interferograms spanning the 26 May 2006 Java earthquake suggest an area of about 7.5 km2 of subsidence (~2 cm) and incoherence south of the city of Yogyakarta that correlates with significant damage to housing, high modeled peak ground accelerations, and poorly consolidated geologic deposits. The subsidence and incoherence is inferred to be a result of intense shaking and/or damage. At least five subsidence patches on the west side of the Island of Hawai‘i, ranging 0.3–2.2 km2 in area and 3–8 cm in magnitude, occurred as a result of a pair of strong earthquakes on 15 October 2006. Although no felt reports or seismic data are available from the areas in Hawai‘i, the Java example suggests that the subsidence patches indicate areas of amplified earthquake shaking. Surprisingly, all subsidence areas in Hawai‘i were limited to recent, and supposedly stable, lava flows and may reflect geological conditions not detectable at the surface. In addition, two ‘a‘ā lava flows in Hawai‘i were partially incoherent in interferograms spanning the earthquakes, indicating surface disruption as a result of the earthquake shaking. Coearthquake incoherence of rubbly deposits, like ‘a‘ā flows, should be explored as a potential indicator of earthquake intensity and past strong seismic activity.

  16. Thermo-chemotherapy Induced miR-218 upregulation inhibits the invasion of gastric cancer via targeting Gli2 and E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Qiang; Fang, Zhi-Yuan; Cui, Shu-Zhong; Zhang, Xiang-Liang; Wu, Yin-Bing; Tang, Hong-Sheng; Tu, Yi-Nuo; Ding, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Thermo-chemotherapy has been proven to reduce the invasion capability of cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this anti-invasion effect is still unclear. In this study, the role of thermo-chemotherapy in the inhibition of tumor invasion was studied. The results demonstrated that expression of miR-218 was downregulated in gastric cancer tissues, which had a positive correlation with tumor invasion and metastasis. In vitro thermo-chemotherapy increased miR-218 expression in SGC7901 cells and inhibited both proliferation and invasion of cancer cells. Gli2 was identified as a downstream target of miR-218, and its expression was negatively regulated by miR-218. The thermo-chemotherapy induced miR-218 upregulation was also accompanied by increasing of E-cadherin expression. In conclusion, the present study indicates that thermo-chemotherapy can effectively decrease the invasion capability of cancer cells and increase cell-cell adhesion. miR-218 and its downstream target Gli2, as well as E-cadherin, participate in the anti-invasion process.

  17. The effects of artificial E-cadherin matrix-induced embryonic stem cell scattering on paxillin and RhoA activation via α-catenin.

    PubMed

    Mattias, Leino; Haque, Amranul; Adnan, Nihad; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2014-02-01

    Mechanical forces have been shown to affect stem cell behavior in a large array of ways. However, our understanding of how these mechanical cues may regulate the behavior of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains in its infancy. Here, we aim to clarify the effect of cell scattering on the regulation of Rho family GTPases Rac1 and RhoA as well as paxillin. Allowing ESCs to spread and scatter on a synthetically designed E-cadherin substratum causes phosphorylation of paxillin on consensus phosphorylation sites leading to activation of Rac1 and inactivation of RhoA. By culturing cells in presence of RhoA activator or growing cells to a highly confluent state reverses the effect of cell scattering phenotype. Knockdown of E-cadherin-adapter protein α-catenin revealed that it negatively affects paxillin phosphorylation and up-regulates RhoA activity in compact cellular aggregates. Collectively these results indicate that cell scattering might cause a conformational change of α-catenin limiting its capacity to inhibit paxillin phosphorylation that causes an increase in Rac1 activation and RhoA deactivation. Understanding how synthetically designed extracellular matrix affect ESC signaling through mechanical cues brings a new aspect for stem cell engineers to develop technologies for controlling cell function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The N-Myc down regulated Gene1 (NDRG1) Is a Rab4a effector involved in vesicular recycling of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Kachhap, Sushant K; Faith, Dennis; Qian, David Z; Shabbeer, Shabana; Galloway, Nathan L; Pili, Roberto; Denmeade, Samuel R; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Carducci, Michael A

    2007-09-05

    Cell to cell adhesion is mediated by adhesion molecules present on the cell surface. Downregulation of molecules that form the adhesion complex is a characteristic of metastatic cancer cells. Downregulation of the N-myc down regulated gene1 (NDRG1) increases prostate and breast metastasis. The exact function of NDRG1 is not known. Here by using live cell confocal microscopy and in vitro reconstitution, we report that NDRG1 is involved in recycling the adhesion molecule E-cadherin thereby stabilizing it. Evidence is provided that NDRG1 recruits on recycling endosomes in the Trans Golgi network by binding to phosphotidylinositol 4-phosphate and interacts with membrane bound Rab4aGTPase. NDRG1 specifically interacts with constitutively active Rab4aQ67L mutant protein and not with GDP-bound Rab4aS22N mutant proving NDRG1 as a novel Rab4a effector. Transferrin recycling experiments reveals NDRG1 colocalizes with transferrin during the recycling phase. NDRG1 alters the kinetics of transferrin recycling in cells. NDRG1 knockdown cells show a delay in recycling transferrin, conversely NDRG1 overexpressing cells reveal an increase in rate of transferrin recycling. This novel finding of NDRG1 as a recycling protein involved with recycling of E-cadherin will aid in understanding NDRG1 role as a metastasis suppressor protein.

  19. Thrombomodulin reduces tumorigenic and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells by up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of N-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nana; Huo, Zihe; Zhang, Bin; Meng, Mei; Cao, Zhifei; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Quansheng

    2016-08-05

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell membrane protein and plays critical roles in anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammation, vascular endothelial protection, and is traditionally regarded as a "vascular protection god". In recent years, although TM has been reported to be down-regulated in a variety of malignant tumors including lung cancer, the role and mechanism of TM in lung cancer are enigmatic. In this study, we found that induction of TM overexpression by cholesterol-reducing drug atorvastatin significantly diminished the tumorigenic capability of the lung cancer cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that TM overexpression caused G0/G1 phase arrest and markedly reduced the colony forming capability of the cells. Furthermore, overexpression of TM inhibited cell migration and invasion. Consistently, depletion of TM promoted cell growth, reduced the cell population at the G0/G1 phase, and enhanced cell migratory ability. Mechanistic study revealed that TM up-regulated E-cadherin but down-regulated N-cadherin expression, resulting in reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the lung cancer cells. Moreover, silencing TM expression led to decreased E-cadherin and increased N-cadherin. Taken together, our study suggests that TM functions as a tumor suppressive protein, providing a conceptual framework for inducing TM overexpression as a sensible strategy and approach for novel anti-lung cancer drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. SASH1 regulates melanocyte transepithelial migration through a novel Gαs-SASH1-IQGAP1-E-Cadherin dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ding'an; Wei, Zhiyun; Deng, Shanshan; Wang, Teng; Zai, Meiqing; Wang, Honglian; Guo, Luo; Zhang, Junyu; Zhong, Hailei; He, Lin; Xing, Qinghe

    2013-06-01

    One important function of melanocytes (MCs) is to produce and transfer melanin to neighbouring keratinocytes (KCs) to protect epithelial cells from UV radiation. The mechanisms regulating the specific migration and localisation of the MC lineage remain unknown. We have found three heterozygous mutations that cause amino acid substitutions in the SASH1 gene in individuals with a kind of dyschromatosis. In epidermal tissues from an affected individual, we observed the increased transepithelial migration of melanocytes. Functional analyses indicate that these SASH1 mutations not only cause the increased migration of A375 cells and but also induce intensive bindings with two novel cell adhesion partners IQGAP1 and Gαs. Further, SASH1 mutations induce uniform loss of E-Cadherin in human A375 cells. Our findings suggest a new scaffold protein SASH1 to regulate IQGAP1-E-Cadherin signalling and demonstrate a novel crosstalking between GPCR signalling, calmodulin signalling for the modulation of MCs invasion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Zonula Occludens-1, Occludin and E-cadherin Expression and Organization in Salivary Glands with Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mellas, Rachel E.; Leigh, Noel J.; Nelson, Joel W.; McCall, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes secretory dysfunction of the salivary glands leading to dry mouth. Previous studies reported that tight junction (TJ) proteins are down-regulated and lose polarity in human minor salivary glands with SS, suggesting that TJ structure is compromised in SS patients. In this paper, we utilized the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse with the main goal of evaluating this model for future TJ research. We found that the organization of apical proteins in areas proximal and distal to lymphocytic infiltration remained intact in mouse and human salivary glands with SS. These areas looked comparable to control glands (i.e., with no lymphocytic infiltration). TJ staining was absent in areas of lymphocytic infiltration coinciding with the loss of salivary epithelium. Gene expression studies show that most TJs are not significantly altered in 20-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Protein expression studies revealed that the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-12, as well as E-cadherin, do not significantly change in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Our results suggest that ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin are not altered in areas without lymphocytic infiltration. However, future studies will be necessary to test the functional aspect of these results. PMID:25248927

  2. CpG site hypermethylation of E-cadherin and Connexin26 genes in hepatocellular carcinomas induced by a choline-deficient L-Amino Acid-defined diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Shimizu, Kyoko; Itsuzaki, Yumi; Onishi, Mariko; Sugata, Eriko; Fujii, Hiromasa; Honoki, Kanya

    2007-04-01

    We investigated DNA methylation patterns of E-cadherin and Connexin26 (Cx26) genes in rat hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) induced by a choline-deficient L-Amino Acid-defined (CDAA) diet. Six-wks-old F344 male rats were continuously fed with a CDAA diet for 75 wks, and were then killed. A total of five HCCs were obtained, and genomic DNA was extracted from each HCC for assessment of methylation status in the 5' upstream regions of E-cadherin and Cx26 genes by bisulfite sequencing, comparing to two normal liver tissues. The five HCCs showed highly methylated E-cadherin and Cx26 genes, while these genes in two normal liver tissues were all unmethylated. For analysis of gene expression, real-time quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. Expressions of E-cadherin and Cx26 genes were significantly reduced in the five HCCs (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively) compared to normal liver tissues, correlating with their methylation statuses. These results suggested that hypermethylation of E-cadherin and Cx26 genes may be involved in the development of HCCs induced by a CDAA diet in rats.

  3. A Regulatory Network Involving β-Catenin, e-Cadherin, PI3k/Akt, and Slug Balances Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells In Response to Wnt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tyng-Shyan; Li, Li; Moalim-Nour, Lilian; Jia, Deyong; Bai, Jian; Yao, Zemin; Bennett, Steffany A L; Figeys, Daniel; Wang, Lisheng

    2015-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying disparate roles of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in maintaining self-renewal or inducing differentiation and lineage specification in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are not clear. In this study, we provide the first demonstration that self-renewal versus differentiation of human ESCs (hESCs) in response to Wnt signaling is predominantly determined by a two-layer regulatory circuit involving β-catenin, E-cadherin, PI3K/Akt, and Slug in a time-dependent manner. Short-term upregulation of β-catenin does not lead to the activation of T-cell factor (TCF)-eGFP Wnt reporter in hESCs. Instead, it enhances E-cadherin expression on the cell membrane, thereby enhancing hESC self-renewal through E-cadherin-associated PI3K/Akt signaling. Conversely, long-term Wnt activation or loss of E-cadherin intracellular β-catenin binding domain induces TCF-eGFP activity and promotes hESC differentiation through β-catenin-induced upregulation of Slug. Enhanced expression of Slug leads to a further reduction of E-cadherin that serves as a β-catenin "sink" sequestering free cytoplasmic β-catenin. The formation of such a framework reinforces hESCs to switch from a state of temporal self-renewal associated with short-term Wnt/β-catenin activation to definitive differentiation. Stem Cells 2015;33:1419-1433. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Thiazolidinedione, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand, modulates the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system in a human pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tetsuo; Elnemr, Ayman; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Nishimura, Gen-Ichi; Fujimura, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Kayahara, Masato; Shimizu, Koichi; Yi, Shuangqin; Miwa, Koichi

    2002-07-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma induces terminal differentiation and growth inhibition associated with G1 cell cycle arrest in some cancer cells. The multifunctional molecule beta-catenin performs important roles in intercellular adhesion and signal transduction. However, no report has focused on actions of PPAR-gamma in regulating the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system. We examined whether thiazolidinedione (TZD), a potent PPAR-gamma ligand, could modulate the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system in a human pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3, that has been found to express PPAR-gamma. According to Western blotting, TZD markedly increased differentiation markers including E-cadherin and carcinoembryonic antigen, while beta-catenin did not change significantly. In untreated cells, fluorescence immunostaining demonstrated beta-catenin predominantly in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus; in TZD-treated cells, beta-catenin localization had dramatically shifted to the plasma membrane, in association with increased E-cadherin at this site. Thus, a PPAR-gamma ligand appears to participate not only in induction of differentiation in pancreatic cancer cells, but also in the regulation of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system. Such ligands may prove clinically useful as cytostatic anticancer agents.

  5. Reduced expression of E-cadherin and p120-catenin and elevated expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE are associated with aggressiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Liao, Liyan; Shrestha, Chandrama; Ji, Shangli; Chen, Ying; Peng, Jian; Wang, Larry; Liao, Eryuan; Xie, Zhongjian

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most lethal malignant tumors. The cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion complex plays a major role in cancer development and progression. p120-catenin (p120) is a cytoplasmic molecule closely associated with E-cadherin which activates phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1). Our previous studies indicate that activation of PLC-γ1 plays a critical role in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration and proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) is highly expressed in SCC cells and mediates EGFR-dependent SCC cell proliferation. Our current study was to determine whether the expression of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE, is associated with OSCC. To address this issue, we assessed levels and localization of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE in specimen of 92 patients with OSCC by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of E-cadherin, and p120 negatively correlated with the tumor differentiation and the expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE positively correlated with the tumor differentiation. The expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC stage T3 + T4 or in OSCC with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that in OSCC stage T1 + T2 or in OSCC without lymph node metastasis. The expression of p120 positively correlated with levels of E-cadherin but negatively correlated with levels of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC. These data indicate that increased expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE and decreased expression of E-cadherin and p120 are associated with the aggressiveness of OSCC. PMID:26464646

  6. Relevance of MET activation and genetic alterations of KRAS and E-cadherin for cetuximab sensitivity of gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Heindl, Stefan; Eggenstein, Evelyn; Keller, Simone; Kneissl, Julia; Keller, Gisela; Mutze, Kathrin; Rauser, Sandra; Gasteiger, Georg; Drexler, Ingo; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Höfler, Heinz; Luber, Birgit

    2012-05-01

    The therapeutic activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-directed monoclonal antibody cetuximab in gastric cancer is currently being investigated. Reliable biomarkers for the identification of patients who are likely to benefit from the treatment are not available. The aim of the study was to examine the drug sensitivity of five gastric cancer cell lines towards cetuximab as a single agent and to establish predictive markers for chemosensitivity in this cell culture model. The effect of a combination of cetuximab with chemotherapy was compared between a sensitive and a nonsensitive cell line. EGFR expression, activation and localisation, the presence and subcellular localisation of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin as well as MET activation were examined by Western blot analysis, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining. Cells were treated with varying concentrations of cetuximab and cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in tumour-relevant concentrations. The biological endpoint was cell viability, which was measured by XTT cell proliferation assay. Response to treatment was evaluated using statistical methods. We assessed the activity of cetuximab in five gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, KATOIII, MKN1, MKN28 and MKN45). The viability of two cell lines, MKN1 and MKN28, was significantly reduced by cetuximab treatment. High EGFR expression and low levels of receptor activation were associated with cetuximab responsiveness. MET activation as well as mutations of KRAS and CDH1 (gene encoding E-cadherin) was associated with cetuximab resistance. These data indicate that our examinations may be clinically relevant, and the candidate markers should therefore be tested in clinical studies.

  7. MicroRNA-9 up-regulates E-cadherin through inhibition of NF-κB1-Snail1 pathway in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujing; Kumar, Suresh M; Lu, Hezhe; Liu, Aihua; Yang, Ruifeng; Pushparajan, Anitha; Guo, Wei; Xu, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Hsa-miR-9 has been shown to have opposite functions in different tumour types; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we show that hsa-miR-9 is down-regulated in metastatic melanomas compared to primary melanomas. Overexpression of miR-9 in melanoma cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation and migratory capacity with decreased F-actin polymerization and down-regulation of multiple GTPases involved in cytoskeleton remodelling. miR-9 overexpression induced significant down-regulation of Snail1 with a concomitant increase in E-cadherin expression. In contrast, knockdown of miR-9 increased Snail1 expression as well as melanoma cell proliferation and migration capacity. Mechanistically, miR-9 expression down-regulated NF-κB1 in melanoma and the effect was abolished by mutations in the putative miR-9 binding sites within the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of NF-κB1. Anti-miR-9 miRNA inhibitor also increased the expression of NF-κB1. The effects of miR-9 on Snail1 expression and melanoma cell proliferation and migration were rescued by overexpression of NF-κB1 in these cells. Furthermore, miR-9 overexpression resulted in significantly decreased melanoma growth and metastasis in vivo. In summary, miR-9 inhibits melanoma proliferation and metastasis through down-regulation of the NF-κB1-Snail1 pathway. This study finds a new mechanism that miR-9 utilizes to decrease E-cadherin expression and inhibit melanoma progression. The results suggest that function of microRNAs is context and tumour type-specific. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Low PIP4K2B expression in human breast tumors correlates with reduced patient survival: A role for PIP4K2B in the regulation of E-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    Keune, Willem-Jan; Sims, Andrew H; Jones, David R; Bultsma, Yvette; Lynch, James T; Jirström, Karin; Landberg, Goran; Divecha, Nullin

    2013-12-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PtdIns5P) 4-kinase β (PIP4K2B) directly regulates the levels of two important phosphoinositide second messengers, PtdIns5P and phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. PIP4K2B has been linked to the regulation of gene transcription, to TP53 and AKT activation, and to the regulation of cellular reactive oxygen accumulation. However, its role in human tumor development and on patient survival is not known. Here, we have interrogated the expression of PIP4K2B in a cohort (489) of patients with breast tumor using immunohistochemical staining and by a meta-analysis of gene expression profiles from 2,999 breast tumors, both with associated clinical outcome data. Low PIP4K2B expression was associated with increased tumor size, high Nottingham histological grade, Ki67 expression, and distant metastasis, whereas high PIP4K2B expression strongly associated with ERBB2 expression. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that both high and low PIP4K2B expression correlated with poorer patient survival compared with intermediate expression. In normal (MCF10A) and tumor (MCF7) breast epithelial cell lines, mimicking low PIP4K2B expression, using short hairpin RNA interference-mediated knockdown, led to a decrease in the transcription and expression of the tumor suppressor protein E-cadherin (CDH1). In MCF10A cells, knockdown of PIP4K2B enhanced TGF-β-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process required during the development of metastasis. Analysis of gene expression datasets confirmed the association between low PIP4K2B and low CDH1expression. Decreased CDH1 expression and enhancement of TGF-β-induced EMT by reduced PIP4K2B expression might, in part, explain the association between low PIP4K2B expression and poor patient survival.

  9. The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) variants T340A and L599V in gastric and colorectal cancer patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H; Wheeler, J; Kim, J; Ilyas, M; Beck, N; Kim, B; Park, K; Bodmer, W

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION—Germline mutations in E-cadherin (CDH1) have been reported in families with early onset, diffuse gastric cancer. More recently, mutations in CDH1 have been described in colorectal cancer cell lines.
AIMS—We have investigated if germline mutations in CDH1 occur among different groups of Korean gastric and colorectal cancer patients, with and without a positive family history.
METHODS—We studied 131 patients and 168 normal controls (88 Korean and 80 non-Korean). Patients were divided into five groups: group I, 20 gastric cancer patients with a family history; group II, 26 colorectal cancer patients with a family history of gastric cancer (those from familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindred were excluded); group III, 16 HNPCC patients without identified germline mutations in hMLH1 and hMSH2; group IV, 35 gastric cancer patients without a family history; and group V, 34 colorectal cancer patients without a family history. Polymerase chain reaction, single strand conformational polymorphism analysis, direct sequencing, and genotyping for identified variants were performed.
RESULTS—Several germline changes in CDH1 were found. In addition to previously described polymorphisms, we found three novel changes, two of which were missense changes (T340A and L599V). T340A was present in one patient in group III and one in group V. L599V was present in one patient in group II, in two in group III, and in one in group IV. T340A was not found in normal controls while L599V was present in two of 88 Korean controls. Patients with these variants may appear to have a tendency to early onset cancer with a positive family history, although differences in frequencies did not reach statistical significance. Genotyping results suggest that these variants might have a common origin, particularly T340A.
CONCLUSION—We have described two new missense germline variants in CDH1 in various groups

  10. From the Cover: Exposure to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants Decreased p-β-Cateninser675 Expression and Its Interaction With E-Cadherin in the Mammary Glands of Lactating Rats.

    PubMed

    Dianati, Elham; Wade, Michael G; Hales, Barbara F; Robaire, Bernard; Plante, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Proper mammary gland development and function require precise hormonal regulation and bidirectional cross talk between cells provided by means of paracrine factors as well as intercellular junctions; exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can disturb these processes. Exposure to one such family of chemicals, the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is ubiquitous. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BFR exposures disrupt signaling pathways and intercellular junctions that control mammary gland development. Before mating, during pregnancy and throughout lactation, female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing that BFR mixture based on house dust, delivering nominal exposures of BFR of 0 (control), 0.06, 20, or 60 mg/kg/d. Dams were euthanized and mammary glands collected on postnatal day 21. BFR exposure had no significant effects on mammary gland/body weight ratios or the levels of proteins involved in milk synthesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell-cell interactions, or hormone signalling. However, BFR exposure (0.06 mg/kg/d) down-regulated phospho-ser675 β-catenin (p-β-catSer675) levels in the absence of any effect on total β-catenin levels. Levels of p-CREB were also down-regulated, suggesting that PKA inhibition plays a role. p-β-catSer675 co-localized with β-catenin at the mammary epithelial cell membrane, and its expression was decreased in animals from the 0.06 and 20 mg/kg/d BFR treatment groups. Although β-Catenin signaling was not affected by BFR exposure, the interaction between p-β-catSer675 and E-cadherin was significantly reduced. Together, our results demonstrate that exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of BFR during pregnancy and lactation decreases p-β-catser675 at cell adhesion sites, likely in a PKA-dependant manner, altering mammary gland signaling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  11. EXPRESSION OF E-CADHERIN AND WNT PATHWAY PROTEINS BETACATENIN, APC, TCF-4 AND SURVIVIN IN GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA: CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL IMPLICATION.

    PubMed

    Lins, Rodrigo Rego; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Oliveira, Levindo Alves de; Silva, Marcelo Souza; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antonio; Waisberg, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.It has been reported that Wnt/ betacatenin pathway is activated in 30-50% of these tumors. However,the deregulation of this pathway has not been fully elucidated. To determine the expression of E-cadherin, betacatenin, APC, TCF-4 and survivin proteins in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and correlate with clinical and pathological parameters. Seventy-one patients with gastric adenocarcinoma undergoing gastrectomy were enrolled. The expression of E-cadherin, betacatenin, APC, TCF-4 and survivin proteins was detected by immunohistochemistryand related to the clinical and pathological parameters. The expression rates of E-cadherin in the membrane was 3%; betacatenin in the cytoplasm and nucleus were 23,4% and 3,1% respectively; APC in the cytoplasm was 94,6%; TCF-4 in the nucleus was 19,4%; and survivin in the nucleus 93,9%. The expression rate of E-cadherin was correlated with older patients (p=0,007), while betacatenin with tumors <5 cm (p=0,041) and APC with proximal tumors (p=0,047). Moreover, the expression of TCF-4 was significantly higher in the diffuse type (p=0,017) and T4 tumors (p=0,002). The Wnt/betacatenin is not involved in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the high frequency of survivin allows to suggest that other signaling pathways must be involved in the transformation of gastric tissue. O câncer gástrico encontra-se entre as principais neoplasias malignas do mundo sendo o quinto mais incidente e o terceiro em relação ao índice de mortalidade. Acredita-se que a via Wnt/betacatenina esteja ativada em 30-50% desses tumores, porém a desregulação dela ainda não está completamente esclarecida. Avaliar a imunoexpressão das proteínas E-caderina, betacatenina, APC, TCF-4 e survivina em tecidos de adenocarcinoma gástrico e correlacioná-las com as variáveis clínicas dos doentes e anatomopatológicas do tumor. Foram coletados os dados

  12. Probing the interaction between cHAVc3 peptide and the EC1 domain of E-cadherin using NMR and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Alaofi, Ahmed; Farokhi, Elinaz; Prasasty, Vivitri D; Anbanandam, Asokan; Kuczera, Krzysztof; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to probe the interaction between cyclic cHAVc3 peptide and the EC1 domain of human E-cadherin protein. Cyclic cHAVc3 peptide (cyclo(1,6)Ac-CSHAVC-NH 2 ) binds to the EC1 domain as shown by chemical shift perturbations in the 2D 1 H,- 15 N-HSQC NMR spectrum. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the EC1 domain showed folding of the C-terminal tail region into the main head region of the EC1 domain. For cHAVc3 peptide, replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations generated five structural clusters of cHAVc3 peptide. Representative structures of cHAVc3 and the EC1 structure from MD simulations were used in molecular docking experiments with NMR constraints to determine the binding site of the peptide on EC1. The results suggest that cHAVc3 binds to EC1 around residues Y36, S37, I38, I53, F77, S78, H79, and I94. The dissociation constants (K d values) of cHAVc3 peptide to EC1 were estimated using the NMR chemical shifts data and the estimated K d s are in the range of .5 × 10 -5 -7.0 × 10 -5  M.

  13. Connective tissue growth factor enhances the migration of gastric cancer through downregulation of E-cadherin via the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhengfa; Ma, Xiaoyan; Rong, Yefei; Cui, Lei; Wang, Xuqing; Wu, Wenchuan; Zhang, Jianxin; Jin, Dayong

    2011-01-01

    Local invasion and distant metastasis are difficult problems for surgical intervention and treatment in gastric cancer. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) was considered to have an important role in this process. In this study, we demonstrated that expression of CTGF was significantly upregulated in clinical tissue samples of gastric carcinoma (GC) samples. Forced expression of CTGF in AGS GC cells promoted their migration in culture and significantly increased tumor metastasis in nude mice, whereas RNA interference-mediated knockdown of CTGF in GC cells significantly inhibited cell migration in vitro. We disclose that CTGF downregulated the expression of E-cadherin through activation of the nuclear factor-κappa B (NF-κB) pathway. The effects of CTGF in GC cells were abolished by dominant negative IκappaB. Collectively, these data reported here demonstrate CTGF could modulate the NF-κappaB pathway and perhaps be a promising therapeutic target for gastric cancer invasion and metastasis. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. Soluble fragments of e-cadherin cell-adhesion molecule increase in urinary-excretion of cancer-patients, potentially indicating its shedding from epithelial tumor-cells.

    PubMed

    Katayama, M; Hirai, S; Yasumoto, M; Nishikawa, K; Nagata, S; Otsuka, M; Kamihagi, K; Kato, I

    1994-11-01

    E-cadherin (Ecad) is well known to be a calcium-ion-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule expressed mostly in epithelial tissues. Previous immunohistochemical studies suggested that this cell adhesion molecule acts as an invasion suppressor and is negligibly detected in cancer metastatic regions. Soluble Ecad fragments derived from the proteolysed membrane-associated form were detected in culture supernatants of two cell lines, COLO 205 and A-431, with normal distribution of cell surface Ecad. Soluble Ecad levels released into culture of COLO 205 exhibiting reduced cell-cell adhesion were apparently elevated above those of A-431 with tight cell-cell adhesion. Furthermore, human circulation and urine continuously contain soluble Ecad which consists mainly of homogeneous 75-85 kDa extracellular domains. Soluble Ecad urinary level per urinary creatinine level was found to be significantly elevated in 53% of patients suffering from various types of cancers including lung, liver, stomach, colon and rectal cancers, as compared with those in the age-matched healthy subjects. These results suggest that dysfunction of cell surface Ecad is responsible for its enhanced proteolytic shedding in tumorigenesis, which may lead to the decrease of cell surface Ecads. Furthermore, excretion of high levels of soluble Ecad fragments potentially indicates the progression of epithelial tumors excessively degrading cell surface Ecad in clinical subjects.

  15. Probing the Interaction between Cyclic ADTC1 Ac-CADTPPVC-NH2) Peptide with EC1-EC2 domain of E-cadherin using Molecular Docking Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, P.; Wuning, S.; Manna, A.; Prasasty, V. D.; Hudiyanti, D.

    2018-04-01

    Deeply understanding that intermolecular interaction between molecules on the paracellular pathway has given insight to its microscopic and macroscopic properties. In the paracellular pathway, synthetic cyclic ADTC1 (Ac-CADTPPVC-NH2) peptide has been studied to modulate EC1-EC2 domain, computationally using molecular docking method. The aim of this research is to probe the effect of amino acid alanine (A) of ADTC1 on its interaction properties. The study carried out in two steps: 1. the optimization using GROMACS v4.6.5 program and; 2. Determination of the interaction properties using AutoDock 4.2 program. The interaction was done for A-J box, and the best position of the binding site and binding energy on the OC and CC ADTC1 peptides against the EC1-EC2 domain of E-cadherin was selected. The result showed that the CC of the F box ADTC1 has the best interaction with binding energy of - 26.36 kJ/mol and its energy was lower than ADTC5 without alanine amino acid. ADTC1 interacted with EC1 of EC1-EC2 on Asp1, Trp2, Val3, Ile4, Ile24, Lys25, Ser26, Asn27, and Met92 residues.

  16. Relationship among mismatch repair deficiency, CDX2 loss, p53 and E-cadherin in colon carcinoma and suitability of using a double panel of mismatch repair proteins by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Ilyas; Akbas, Emin Murat; Isik, Arda; Gokce, Aysun; Peker, Kemal; Demirtas, Levent; Gürbüzel, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Biomarkers such as mismatch repair proteins, CDX2, p53, and E-cadherin are blamed for colon cancers, but the relationships of these biomarkers with each other and with pathological risk factors in colon carcinoma are still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of these biomarkers with each other by using immunohistochemical staining and to compare their expression with pathological risk factors for colonic adenocarcinoma. We also aimed to study the usability of a double panel of mismatch repair proteins. One hundred and eleven cases with colonic adenocarcinoma were examined. There was a statistically significant relationship between tumor histological differentiation and perineural invasion, vascular invasion, mismatch repair deficiency, p53, CDX2, and E-cadherin (p < 0.05). PMS2 and MSH6 loss covered 100% of cases with mismatch repair deficiency. Mismatch repair deficiency was correlated with CDX2 loss and E-cadherin expression (p < 0.05). It was also observed that cases with PMS2 loss covered all the cases with CDX2 loss. In conclusion, this double panel may be used instead of a quadruple panel for detecting mismatch repair deficiency. Association of CDX2 and PMS2 in the present study is necessary to conduct further genetic and pathological studies focusing on these two markers together.

  17. Weak Broadband Electromagnetic Fields are More Disruptive to Magnetic Compass Orientation in a Night-Migratory Songbird (Erithacus rubecula) than Strong Narrow-Band Fields

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze, Susanne; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Reichl, Thomas; Dreyer, David; Lefeldt, Nele; Engels, Svenja; Baker, Neville; Hore, P. J.; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in night-migratory songbirds is embedded in the visual system and seems to be based on a light-dependent radical pair mechanism. Recent findings suggest that both broadband electromagnetic fields ranging from ~2 kHz to ~9 MHz and narrow-band fields at the so-called Larmor frequency for a free electron in the Earth’s magnetic field can disrupt this mechanism. However, due to local magnetic fields generated by nuclear spins, effects specific to the Larmor frequency are difficult to understand considering that the primary sensory molecule should be organic and probably a protein. We therefore constructed a purpose-built laboratory and tested the orientation capabilities of European robins in an electromagnetically silent environment, under the specific influence of four different oscillating narrow-band electromagnetic fields, at the Larmor frequency, double the Larmor frequency, 1.315 MHz or 50 Hz, and in the presence of broadband electromagnetic noise covering the range from ~2 kHz to ~9 MHz. Our results indicated that the magnetic compass orientation of European robins could not be disrupted by any of the relatively strong narrow-band electromagnetic fields employed here, but that the weak broadband field very efficiently disrupted their orientation. PMID:27047356

  18. SPHK1 (sphingosine kinase 1) induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by promoting the autophagy-linked lysosomal degradation of CDH1/E-cadherin in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Ma, Yan; He, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Wu-Li; Shao, Rong-Guang

    2017-05-04

    SPHK1 (sphingosine kinase 1), a regulator of sphingolipid metabolites, plays a causal role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through augmenting HCC invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which SPHK1 signaling promotes invasion and metastasis in HCC remains to be clarified. Here, we reported that SPHK1 induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by accelerating CDH1/E-cadherin lysosomal degradation and facilitating the invasion and metastasis of HepG2 cells. Initially, we found that SPHK1 promoted cell migration and invasion and induced the EMT process through decreasing the expression of CDH1, which is an epithelial marker. Furthermore, SPHK1 accelerated the lysosomal degradation of CDH1 to induce EMT, which depended on TRAF2 (TNF receptor associated factor 2)-mediated macroautophagy/autophagy activation. In addition, the inhibition of autophagy recovered CDH1 expression and reduced cell migration and invasion through delaying the degradation of CDH1 in SPHK1-overexpressing cells. Moreover, the overexpression of SPHK1 produced intracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). In response to S1P stimulation, TRAF2 bound to BECN1/Beclin 1 and catalyzed the lysine 63-linked ubiquitination of BECN1 for triggering autophagy. The deletion of the RING domain of TRAF2 inhibited autophagy and the interaction of BECN1 and TRAF2. Our findings define a novel mechanism responsible for the regulation of the EMT via SPHK1-TRAF2-BECN1-CDH1 signal cascades in HCC cells. Our work indicates that the blockage of SPHK1 activity to attenuate autophagy may be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of HCC.

  19. E-Cadherin Antagonizes Transforming Growth Factor β1 Gene Induction in Hepatic Stellate Cells by Inhibiting RhoA–Dependent Smad3 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Il Je; Kim, Young Woo; Han, Chang Yeob; Kim, Eun Hyun; Anderson, Richard A.; Lee, Young Sok; Lee, Chang Ho; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Geon

    2011-01-01

    Cadherins mediate cell-cell adhesion and catenin (ctn)-related signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis is accompanied by the loss of E-cadherin (ECAD), which promotes the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Currently, no information is available about the inhibitory role of ECAD in hepatic stellate cell activation. Because of ECAD’s potential for inhibiting the induction of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), we investigated whether ECAD overexpression prevents TGFβ1 gene induction; we also examined what the molecular basis could be. Forced expression of ECAD decreased α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin levels and caused decreases in the constitutive and inducible expression of the TGFβ1 gene and its downstream genes. ECAD overexpression decreased Smad3 phosphorylation, weakly decreased Smad2 phosphorylation, and thus inhibited Smad reporter activity induced by either treatment with TGFβ1 or Smad3 overexpression. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of ras homolog gene family A (RhoA) diminished the ability of TGFβ1 to elicit its own gene induction. Consistently, transfection with a constitutively active mutant of RhoA reversed the inhibition of TGFβ1-inducible or Smad3-inducible reporter activity by ECAD. Studies using the mutant constructs of ECAD revealed that the p120-ctn binding domain of ECAD was responsible for TGFβ1 repression. Consistently, ECAD was capable of binding p120-ctn, which recruited RhoA; this prevented TGFβ1 from increasing RhoA-mediated Smad3 phosphorylation. In the liver samples of patients with mild or severe fibrosis, ECAD expression reciprocally correlated with the severity of fibrosis. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ECAD inhibits Smad3/2 phosphorylation by recruiting RhoA to p120-ctn at the p120-ctn binding domain, whereas the loss of ECAD due to cadherin switching promotes the up-regulation of TGFβ1 and its target genes, and facilitates liver fibrosis. PMID:20890948

  20. DNA-methylation analysis identifies the E-cadherin gene as a potential marker of disease progression in patients with monoclonal gammopathies.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Sonja; Ackermann, Jutta; Kaufmann, Hannes; Keck, Andrea; Nösslinger, Thomas; Zielinski, Christoph C; Drach, Johannes; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine

    2004-06-15

    Silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) by aberrant methylation (referred to as methylation) contributes to the pathogenesis of various human malignancies. However, little is known about the methylation of known and putative TSGs in monoclonal gammopathies. Thus, the authors investigated the methylation frequencies of 10 genes in patients with monoclonal gammopathies. The methylation patterns of the genes p16(INK4a) (p16), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), p15(INK4b) (p15), E-cadherin (ECAD), death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), p73, RAS-association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), p14, O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), and retinoid acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta) were determined in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; n = 29), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM; n = 5), multiple myeloma (MM; n = 113), or plasma cell leukemia (PCL; n = 7) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. Methylation frequencies for p16, TIMP3, p15, ECAD, DAPK, p73, RASSF1A, p14, MGMT, and RARbeta were as follows: 28%, 35%, 10%, 0%, 17%, 21%, 14%, 14%, 7%, and 0%, respectively, in patients with MGUS and 36%, 29%, 27%, 27%, 22%, 15%, 15%, 9%, 4%, and 0%, respectively, in patients with MM. Methylation of at least 1 of these genes was detected in 79% of patients with MGUS and in 80% of patients with MM. Although methylation of ECAD was not detected in patients with MGUS, it was observed frequently in patients with MM and with even greater frequency in patients with PCL. It is noteworthy that an association was found between ECAD methylation and poor prognostic markers in patients with MM. Methylation of certain genes can be detected frequently in patients with monoclonal gammopathies. The current data suggest that methylation of ECAD is a marker of disease progression in patients with MM and PCL. Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.

  1. E-cadherin antagonizes transforming growth factor β1 gene induction in hepatic stellate cells by inhibiting RhoA-dependent Smad3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il Je; Kim, Young Woo; Han, Chang Yeob; Kim, Eun Hyun; Anderson, Richard A; Lee, Young Sok; Lee, Chang Ho; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Geon

    2010-12-01

    Cadherins mediate cell-cell adhesion and catenin (ctn)-related signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis is accompanied by the loss of E-cadherin (ECAD), which promotes the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Currently, no information is available about the inhibitory role of ECAD in hepatic stellate cell activation. Because of ECAD's potential for inhibiting the induction of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), we investigated whether ECAD overexpression prevents TGFβ1 gene induction; we also examined what the molecular basis could be. Forced expression of ECAD decreased α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin levels and caused decreases in the constitutive and inducible expression of the TGFβ1 gene and its downstream genes. ECAD overexpression decreased Smad3 phosphorylation, weakly decreased Smad2 phosphorylation, and thus inhibited Smad reporter activity induced by either treatment with TGFβ1 or Smad3 overexpression. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of ras homolog gene family A (RhoA) diminished the ability of TGFβ1 to elicit its own gene induction. Consistently, transfection with a constitutively active mutant of RhoA reversed the inhibition of TGFβ1-inducible or Smad3-inducible reporter activity by ECAD. Studies using the mutant constructs of ECAD revealed that the p120-ctn binding domain of ECAD was responsible for TGFβ1 repression. Consistently, ECAD was capable of binding p120-ctn, which recruited RhoA; this prevented TGFβ1 from increasing RhoA-mediated Smad3 phosphorylation. In the liver samples of patients with mild or severe fibrosis, ECAD expression reciprocally correlated with the severity of fibrosis. Our results demonstrate that ECAD inhibits Smad3/2 phosphorylation by recruiting RhoA to p120-ctn at the p120-ctn binding domain, whereas the loss of ECAD due to cadherin switching promotes the up-regulation of TGFβ1 and its target genes, and facilitates liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver

  2. CD147 Induces Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition by Disassembling Cellular Apoptosis Susceptibility Protein/E-Cadherin/β-Catenin Complex in Human Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoqun; Zhang, Jieting; Fok, Kin Lam; Tsang, Lai Ling; Ye, Mei; Liu, Jianni; Li, Fanghong; Zhao, Allan Zijian; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Chen, Hao

    2018-04-06

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is postulated to be a prerequisite for the establishment of endometriosis (EMS), a common reproductive disorder in women. Our previous studies have demonstrated the elevated expression of transmembrane glycoprotein CD147 and its prosurvival effect on abnormal cells in endometriosis. Intriguingly, CD147 is known to promote EMT in cancers. However, the involvement of CD147 in EMT during the establishment of endometriosis remains incompletely understood. We found that CD147 promotes EMT in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. We identified a novel CD147-interacting partner, cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS), which stabilized the interaction between E-cadherin (E-cad) and β-catenin (β-cat) by forming the CAS/E-cad/β-cat complex. Down-regulation of CAS led to the release and nuclear translocation of β-cat from E-cad, resulting in the overexpression of the EMT-promoting gene SNAIL. Interestingly, overexpression of CD147 impaired the interaction between CAS and E-cad and triggered the release of β-cat from the CAS/E-cad/β-cat complex, which in turn led to EMT. Furthermore, CAS was down-regulated in EMS, with elevated levels of CD147 and nuclear β-cat. These findings suggest a previously undefined role of CAS in regulating EMT and reveal the involvement of a CD147-induced EMT signaling pathway in pathogenic progression of EMS. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Purification of fetal mouse hepatoblasts by magnetic beads coated with monoclonal anti-e-cadherin antibodies and their in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Nitou, Miho; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Katsutoshi; Shiojiri, Nobuyoshi

    2002-10-01

    A simple, rapid, and reproducible method of fetal hepatoblast purification was established to investigate mechanisms controlling interactions between hepatoblasts and nonparenchymal cells during liver development. Because E-cadherin is exclusively expressed on the cell membrane of hepatoblasts, magnetic beads coated with monoclonal antibodies to an extracellular epitope of its molecule were used to purify hepatoblasts from a cell suspension prepared from 12.5-day fetal mouse livers. The purity and yield in the hepatoblast fraction prepared in our protocol were more than 90% and approximately 30%, respectively. The nonparenchymal fraction rarely contained hepatoblasts; the rate of hepatoblast contamination in this fraction was less than 1%. Separate cultures of these two fractions were compared with cocultures of both fractions. In culture of the hepatoblast fraction, hepatoblasts formed aggregates similar to a bunch of grapes via their loose adhesion, floating in the medium after 24 h, and dissociated into single cells from the aggregates after 120 h of culture. By contrast, in the mixed culture, the majority of hepatoblasts formed multicellular spheroids after 24 h, and these spheroids changed into monolayer cell sheets after 120 h of culture. The cells comprising these monolayer sheets abundantly expressed albumin and carbamoylphosphate synthase I. In the mixed culture, fibroblastic cells also proliferated extensively with spreading on glass slides and surrounded the hepatoblast or hepatocyte colonies. On the other hand, fibroblastic cells spreading on glass slides decreased gradually in cultures of the nonparenchymal cell fraction alone. These findings indicated that the coexistence of hepatoblasts and nonparenchymal cells may be essential for their mutual survival, proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis. The conditioned medium of fetal liver cell cultures could partially replace the effects of the nonparenchymal cells on hepatoblasts in vitro. Our

  4. Hydroquinone Strongly Alleviates Focal Ischemic Brain Injury via Blockage of Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ha Park, Joon; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hye Kim, In; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Lee, Jae-Chul; Hyeon Ahn, Ji; Jin Tae, Hyun; Chun Yan, Bing; Won Kim, Dae; Kyu Park, Ok; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Her, Song; Su Kim, Jin; Hoon Choi, Jung; Hyun Lee, Choong; Koo Hwang, In; Youl Cho, Jae; Hwi Cho, Jun; Kwon, Young-Guen; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Jun Kang, Il

    2016-12-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ), a major benzene metabolite, occurs naturally in various plants and is manufactured for commercial use. Although HQ displays various biological effects, its neuroprotective effects following ischemic insults have not been investigated. In this study, we first examined neuroprotective effects of HQ in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Animals were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 120 min. HQ (50 or 100 mg/kg) or vehicle was intraperitoneally administered once at 30 min after ischemia-reperfusion. Neuroprotection by treatment with 100 mg/kg of HQ was shown using evaluation of neurological deficits, positron-emission tomography (PET) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazoliumchloride (TTC) staining. In addition, HQ treatment significantly attenuated ischemia-induced Evans blue dye extravasation from blood vessels and significantly increased immunoreactivities of SMI-71 (an endothelial BBB marker) and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1, an endothelial cell marker) in ischemic cortex compared to the vehicle-treated ischemia-operated group. Confocal microscopy and western blot analysis also showed that HQ treatment maintained expressions of tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1 and occludin) in the ischemic cortex. Post-treatment with HQ protected neurons from transient focal cerebral ischemic injury and the neuroprotective effect of HQ might be closely associated with prevention of BBB disruption via maintaining SMI-71 and GLUT-1 expressions as well as prevention of the degradation of zonula occludens-1 and occludin proteins. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. HOXA5 determines cell fate transition and impedes tumor initiation and progression in breast cancer through regulation of E-cadherin and CD24

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Wei Wen; Merino, Vanessa F.; Cho, Soonweng; Korangath, Preethi; Liang, Xiaohui; Wu, Ren-chin; Neumann, Neil M.; Ewald, Andrew J.; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2016-01-01

    Loss of HOXA5 expression occurs frequently in breast cancer and correlates with higher pathological grade and poorer disease outcome. However, how HOX proteins drive differentiation in mammalian cells is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigated cellular and molecular consequences of loss of HOXA5 in breast cancer, and the role played by retinoic acid in HOXA5 function. Analysis of global gene expression data from HOXA5-depleted MCF10A breast epithelial cells, followed by validation, pointed to a role for HOXA5 in maintaining several molecular traits typical of the epithelial lineage such as cell-cell adhesion, tight junctions and markers of differentiation. Depleting HOXA5 in immortalized MCF10A or transformed MCF10A-Kras cells reduced their CD24+/CD44lo population, enhanced self-renewal capacity, and reduced expression of E-cadherin (CDH1) and CD24. In the case of MCF10A-Kras, HOXA5 loss increased branching and protrusive morphology in Matrigel, all features suggestive of epithelial to basal transition. Further, orthotopically implanted xenografts of MCF10A-Kras-scr grew as well-differentiated pseudo-luminal carcinomas, while MCF10A-Kras-shHOXA5 cells formed aggressive, poorly differentiated carcinomas. Conversely, ectopic expression of HOXA5 in aggressive SUM149 or SUM159 breast cancer cells reversed the cellular and molecular alterations observed in the HOXA5-depleted cells. Retinoic acid is a known upstream regulator of HOXA5 expression. HOXA5 depletion in MCF10A cells engineered to express doxycycline-induced shHOXA5 slowed transition of cells from a less differentiated CD24−/CD44+ to the more differentiated CD24+/CD44+ state. This transition was promoted by retinal treatment which upregulated endogenous HOXA5 expression, and caused re-expression of, Occludin, and claudin-7 (CLDN7). Expression of CDH1 and CD24 was transcriptionally upregulated by direct binding of HOXA5 to their promoter sequences as demonstrated by luciferase and ChIP analyses

  6. Circadian locomotor output cycles kaput affects the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells by regulating the expression of E-cadherin via IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxue; Wang, Siyang; Yang, Shuhong; Ying, Junjie; Yu, Hang; Yang, Chunlei; Liu, Yanyou; Wang, Yuhui; Cheng, Shuting; Xiao, Jing; Guo, Huiling; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Zhengrong

    2018-05-01

    The circadian rhythm regulates numerous physiological activities, including sleep and wakefulness, behavior, immunity and metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that circadian rhythm disorder is associated with the occurrence of tumors. Responsible for regulating a number of functions, the Circadian locomotor output cycles kaput ( Clock ) gene is one of the core regulatory genes of circadian rhythm. The Clock gene has also been implicated in the occurrence and development of tumors in previously studies. The present study evaluated the role of the Clock gene in the proliferation and migration of mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells, and investigated its possible regulatory pathways and mechanisms. It was reported that downregulation of Clock facilitated the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Further investigation revealed the involvement of IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) protein expression in the Clock regulatory pathway, further influencing the expression of E-cadherin, a known proprietor of tumor cell migration and invasion. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report that Clock , acting through the regulation of the scaffolding protein IQGAP1, regulates the downstream expression of E-cadherin, thereby affecting tumor cell structure and motility. These results confirmed the role of Clock in breast cancer tumor etiology and provide insight regarding the molecular avenues of its regulatory nature, which may translate beyond breast cancer into other known functions of the gene.

  7. Isoform-specific function of calpains in cell adhesion disruption: studies in postlactational mammary gland and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Lucía; Ferrer-Vicens, Iván; García, Concha; Oltra, Sara S; Zaragozá, Rosa; Viña, Juan R; García-Trevijano, Elena R

    2016-09-15

    Cleavage of adhesion proteins is the first step for physiological clearance of undesired cells during postlactational regression of the mammary gland, but also for cell migration in pathological states such as breast cancer. The intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent proteases, calpains (CAPNs), are known to cleave adhesion proteins. The isoform-specific function of CAPN1 and CAPN2 was explored and compared in two models of cell adhesion disruption: mice mammary gland during weaning-induced involution and breast cancer cell lines according to tumor subtype classification. In both models, E-cadherin, β-catenin, p-120, and talin-1 were cleaved as assessed by western blot analysis. Both CAPNs were able to cleave adhesion proteins from lactating mammary gland in vitro Nevertheless, CAPN2 was the only isoform found to co-localize with E-cadherin in cell junctions at the peak of lactation. CAPN2/E-cadherin in vivo interaction, analyzed by proximity ligation assay, was dramatically increased during involution. Calpain inhibitor administration prevented the cytosolic accumulation of truncated E-cadherin cleaved by CAPN2. Conversely, in breast cancer cells, CAPN2 was restricted to the nuclear compartment. The isoform-specific expression of CAPNs and CAPN activity was dependent on the breast cancer subtype. However, CAPN1 and CAPN2 knockdown cells showed that cleavage of adhesion proteins and cell migration was mediated by CAPN1, independently of the breast cancer cell line used. Data presented here suggest that the subcellular distribution of CAPN1 and CAPN2 is a major issue in target-substrate recognition; therefore, it determines the isoform-specific role of CAPNs during disruption of cell adhesion in either a physiological or a pathological context. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Strongly foliated garnetiferous amphibolite clasts in ophiolitic melanges, Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Tibet; Early Cretaceous disruption of a back-arc basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilmette, C.; Hebert, R.; Wang, C.; Indares, A. D.; Ullrich, T. D.; Dostal, J.; Bedard, E.

    2007-12-01

    equilibrium between 11-13 kbars and 825-850°C, corresponding to high-P granulite facies conditions. In a general way, the geochemistry of the strongly foliated amphibolite clasts suggests that their igneous protolith probably crystallized within the same supra-subduction zone as the crustal rocks from the overlying ophiolite. Then some of these rocks were entrained to mantle depth and were rapidly exhumed, most likely along a lithospheric scale thrust fault underneath the ophiolite. This event corresponds with the end of magmatic activity within the ophiolitic crust and mantle and could be regarded as the inception of a subduction plane at the spreading ridge of a back-arc basin. The whole package was later on obducted over the Indian passive margin, at about 70 Ma. Such a model suggests that closure of the oceanic domain separating India from Eurasia implied disruption of at least one arc-back-arc system, thus requiring at least one early intraoceanic collision or major plate movement reorganization prior to the Late Cretaceous obduction.

  9. Modulation of Sonic hedgehog-induced mouse embryonic stem cell behaviors through E-cadherin expression and Integrin β1-dependent F-actin formation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Young; Suh, Han Na; Choi, Gee Euhn; Lee, Hyun Jik; Jung, Young Hyun; Ko, So Hee; Kim, Jun Sung; Chae, Chang Woo; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Han, Ho Jae

    2018-06-22

    Sonic hedgehog pathway (Shh) plays a central role in maintaining stem cell function and behavior in various processes related to self-renewal and tissue regeneration. However, the therapeutic effect of Shh on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has not yet been clearly described. Thus, we investigated the effect of Shh on the regulation of mESC behaviors as well as the effect of Shh-pretreated mESCs in skin wound healing. The present study investigated the underlying mechanisms of Shh signaling pathway in growth and motility of mESCs using western blot analysis, cell proliferation assay, and cell migration assay. In addition, the effect of Shh-pretreated mESCs in skin wound healing was determined using mouse excisional wound splinting model. Shh induced adherens junction disruption through proteolysis by activating matrix metallopeptidases. In addition, the release of β-catenin from adherens junctions mediated by Shh led to cell cycle-dependent mESC proliferation. Shh-mediated Gli1 expression led to integrin β1 upregulation, followed by FAK and Src phosphorylation. Furthermore, among the Rho-GTPases, Rac1 and Cdc42 were activated in a Shh-dependent manner while F-actin expression was suppressed by Rac1 and Cdc42 siRNA transfection. Consistent with the in vitro results, skin wound healing assay revealed that Shh-treated mESCs induced angiogenesis and skin wound repair compared to that in Shh-treated mESCs transfected with integrin β1 siRNA in vivo. Our results imply that Shh induces adherens junction disruption and integrin β1-dependent F-actin formation involving FAK/Src and Rac1/Cdc42 signaling pathways in mESCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Stromal Cells Positively and Negatively Modulate the Growth of Cancer Cells: Stimulation via the PGE2-TNFα-IL-6 Pathway and Inhibition via Secreted GAPDH-E-Cadherin Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Manabu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ohba, Shun-ichi; Yoshida, Junjiro; Masuda, Tohru; Yamasaki, Manabu; Usami, Ihomi; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Abe, Hikaru; Watanabe, Takumi; Yamori, Takao; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Nomoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast-like stromal cells modulate cancer cells through secreted factors and adhesion, but those factors are not fully understood. Here, we have identified critical stromal factors that modulate cancer growth positively and negatively. Using a cell co-culture system, we found that gastric stromal cells secreted IL-6 as a growth and survival factor for gastric cancer cells. Moreover, gastric cancer cells secreted PGE2 and TNFα that stimulated IL-6 secretion by the stromal cells. Furthermore, we found that stromal cells secreted glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Extracellular GAPDH, or its N-terminal domain, inhibited gastric cancer cell growth, a finding confirmed in other cell systems. GAPDH bound to E-cadherin and downregulated the mTOR-p70S6 kinase pathway. These results demonstrate that stromal cells could regulate cancer cell growth through the balance of these secreted factors. We propose that negative regulation of cancer growth using GAPDH could be a new anti-cancer strategy. PMID:25785838

  11. A combination of biomolecules enhances expression of E-cadherin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene leading to increased cell proliferation in primary human meniscal cells: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Mamatha M; Elakkiya, V; Gopinathan, J; Sabarinath, C; Shanthakumari, S; Sahanand, K Santosh; Dinakar Rai, B K; Bhattacharyya, Amitava; Selvakumar, R

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigates the impact of biomolecules (biotin, glucose, chondroitin sulphate, proline) as supplement, (individual and in combination) on primary human meniscus cell proliferation. Primary human meniscus cells isolated from patients undergoing meniscectomy were maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). The isolated cells were treated with above mentioned biomolecules as individual (0-100 µg/ml) and in combinations, as a supplement to DMEM. Based on the individual biomolecule study, a unique combination of biomolecules (UCM) was finalized using one way ANOVA analysis. With the addition of UCM as supplement to DMEM, meniscal cells reached 100 % confluency within 4 days in 60 mm culture plate; whereas the cells in medium devoid of UCM, required 36 days for reaching confluency. The impact of UCM on cell viability, doubling time, histology, gene expression, biomarkers expression, extra cellular matrix synthesis, meniscus cell proliferation with respect to passages and donor's age were investigated. The gene expression studies for E-cadherin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR∆) using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical analysis for Ki67, CD34 and Vimentin confirmed that UCM has significant impact on cell proliferation. The extracellular collagen and glycosaminoglycan secretion in cells supplemented with UCM were found to increase by 31 and 37 fold respectively, when compared to control on the 4th day. The cell doubling time was reduced significantly when supplemented with UCM. The addition of UCM showed positive influence on different passages and age groups. Hence, this optimized UCM can be used as an effective supplement for meniscal tissue engineering.

  12. Molecular iodine impairs chemoresistance mechanisms, enhances doxorubicin retention and induces downregulation of the CD44+/CD24+ and E-cadherin+/vimentin+ subpopulations in MCF-7 cells resistant to low doses of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Bontempo, Alexander; Ugalde-Villanueva, Brenda; Delgado-González, Evangelina; Rodríguez, Ángel Luis; Aceves, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    One of the most dreaded clinical events for an oncology patient is resistance to treatment. Chemoresistance is a complex phenomenon based on alterations in apoptosis, the cell cycle and drug metabolism, and it correlates with the cancer stem cell phenotype and/or epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Molecular iodine (I2) exerts an antitumor effect on different types of iodine-capturing neoplasms by its oxidant/antioxidant properties and formation of iodolipids. In the present study, wild-type breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7/W) were treated chronically with 10 nM doxorubicin (DOX) to establish a low-dose DOX-resistant mammary cancer model (MCF-7/D). MCF-7/D cells were established after 30 days of treatment when the culture showed a proliferation rate similar to that of MCF-7/W. These DOX-resistant cells also showed increases in p21, Bcl-2 and MDR-1 expression. Supplementation with 200 µM I2 exerted similar effects in both cell lines: it decreased the proliferation rate by ~40%, and I2 co-administration with DOX significantly increased the inhibitory effect (to ~60%) and also increased apoptosis (BAX/Bcl-2 index), principally by inhibiting Bcl-2 expression. The inhibition by I2 + DOX was also accompanied by impaired MDR-1 induction as well as by a significant increase in PPARγ expression. All of these changes could be attributed to enhanced DOX retention and differential down-selection of CD44+/CD24+ and E-cadherin+/vimentin+ subpopulations. I2 + DOX-selected cells showed a weak induction of xenografts in Foxn1nu/nu mice, indicating that the iodine supplements reversed the tumorogenic capacity of the MCF-7/D cells. In conclusion, I2 is able to reduce the drug resistance and invasive capacity of mammary cancer cells exposed to DOX and represents an anti-chemoresistance agent with clinical potential.

  13. Global methylation and promoter-specific methylation of the P16, SOCS-1, E-cadherin, P73 and SHP-1 genes and their expression in patients with multiple myeloma during active disease and remission.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Baños, Déborah; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz; Jiménez, Guadalupe; Barrera-Lumbreras, Georgina; Barrales-Benítez, Olga

    2017-05-01

    Tumor suppressor gene promoter CpG island methylation is a well-recognized mechanism in cancer pathogenesis, but its role in multiple myeloma (MM) is controversial. The present study investigated the methylation status and expression of P16 , suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 ( SOCS-1 ), P73, E-cadherin and Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 ( SHP-1 ), as well as global methylation in patients with MM during active disease and remission. Bone marrow samples were obtained from 43 patients at the Multiple Myeloma Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (Mexico City, Mexico) during active disease and remission. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and ELISA were performed on bisulfite-treated or untreated DNA to determine promoter-specific or genomic methylation, respectively. Gene expression was measured using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that SOCS-1 methylation occurred more frequently during active disease than remission [29 vs. 3.2% (P=0.021)] and was associated with more advanced forms of the disease [international staging system (ISS) 3, 16.67% vs. ISS 1, 8.3% (P=0.037)]. SHP-1 methylation during active disease was associated with a lower probability of survival at 39-month follow up (median), 52.5 vs. 87.5% (P=0.025). The percentage of methylation was associated with active disease at remission, but this was not significant. Global hypomethylation at remission was a negative predictor factor for overall survival (OS). The results indicated that methylated P16 , SOCS-1 and SHP-1 were associated with clinical variables of poor prognosis in MM, likewise the persistence of global hypomethylation at remission. The negative impact on OS of global hypomethylation at remission must be confirmed in a larger sample. Future studies are necessary to investigate whether patients with global hypermethylation at remission should receive more aggressive treatments to

  14. Global methylation and promoter-specific methylation of the P16, SOCS-1, E-cadherin, P73 and SHP-1 genes and their expression in patients with multiple myeloma during active disease and remission

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Baños, Déborah; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz; Jiménez, Guadalupe; Barrera-Lumbreras, Georgina; Barrales-Benítez, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Tumor suppressor gene promoter CpG island methylation is a well-recognized mechanism in cancer pathogenesis, but its role in multiple myeloma (MM) is controversial. The present study investigated the methylation status and expression of P16, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1), P73, E-cadherin and Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), as well as global methylation in patients with MM during active disease and remission. Bone marrow samples were obtained from 43 patients at the Multiple Myeloma Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (Mexico City, Mexico) during active disease and remission. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and ELISA were performed on bisulfite-treated or untreated DNA to determine promoter-specific or genomic methylation, respectively. Gene expression was measured using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that SOCS-1 methylation occurred more frequently during active disease than remission [29 vs. 3.2% (P=0.021)] and was associated with more advanced forms of the disease [international staging system (ISS) 3, 16.67% vs. ISS 1, 8.3% (P=0.037)]. SHP-1 methylation during active disease was associated with a lower probability of survival at 39-month follow up (median), 52.5 vs. 87.5% (P=0.025). The percentage of methylation was associated with active disease at remission, but this was not significant. Global hypomethylation at remission was a negative predictor factor for overall survival (OS). The results indicated that methylated P16, SOCS-1 and SHP-1 were associated with clinical variables of poor prognosis in MM, likewise the persistence of global hypomethylation at remission. The negative impact on OS of global hypomethylation at remission must be confirmed in a larger sample. Future studies are necessary to investigate whether patients with global hypermethylation at remission should receive more aggressive treatments to

  15. Disruption of adherens junction and alterations in YAP-related proliferation behavior as part of the underlying cell transformation process of alcohol-induced oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Husari, Ayman; Hülter-Hassler, Diana; Steinberg, Thorsten; Schulz, Simon Daniel; Tomakidi, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating evidences indicate that alcohol might play a causative in oral cancer. Unfortunately, in vitro cell systems, uncovering the molecular background of the underlying cell transformation process, are rare. Therefore, this study was conducted, to identify molecular changes and characterize their putative cell behavioral consequences in epitheloid (EPI) and fibroblastoid (FIB) oral keratinocyte phenotypes, arising from chronical alcohol treatment. Concerning adherens junctions (AJs), both EPI and FIB showed membrane-bound β-catenin, but exhibited differences for E-cadherin and zyxin. While EPI revealed E-cadherin/β-catenin membrane co-localization, which in parts also applied for zyxin, FIB membranes were devoid of E-cadherin and exhibited marginal zyxin expression. Fetal calf serum (FCS) administration in starved cells promoted proliferation in both keratinocyte phenotypes, whereat EPI and FIB yielded a strikingly modified FCS sensitivity on the temporal scale. Impedance measurement-based cell index detection yielded proliferation stimulation occurring much earlier in FIB (<20h) compared to EPI (>45h). Nuclear preference of the proliferation-associated YAP co-transcription factor in FIB was FCS independent, while it required FCS in EPI. Taken together, the lack of membrane-inherent E-cadherin/β-catenin co-localization together with low zyxin - reveals perturbation of AJ integrity in FIB. Regarding cell behavior, perturbed AJs in FIB correlate with temporal proliferation sensitivity towards FCS. CYF of 5.6 strongly suggests involvement of chromatin-bound YAP in FIB's proliferation temperosensitivity. These molecular differences detected for EPI and FIB are part of the underlying cell transformation process of alcohol-induced oral carcinogenesis, and indicate FIB being in a more advanced transformation stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Strong Libraries, Strong Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Carlyn

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about the first-ever Texas Conference on School Libraries on April 6, 2005 that was attended by one hundred thirty-five school administrators and trustees. The miniconference, entitled Strong Libraries, Strong Scores, was held at the Austin Hilton, Austin, Texas during the Texas Library Association's Annual Conference and was…

  17. α-Hederin inhibits interleukin 6-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition associated with disruption of JAK2/STAT3 signaling in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongdong; Shen, Weixing; Zhang, Feng; Fan, Huisen; Xu, Changliang; Li, Liu; Tan, Jiani; Miao, Yunjie; Zhang, Haibin; Yang, Ye; Cheng, Haibo

    2018-05-01

    Colon cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed malignancy and has high morbidity worldwide. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been increasingly implicated in colon cancer progression and metastasis. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential antitumor activity of α-hederin, a monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponin isolated from Hedera helix, in human SW620 colon cancer cells stimulated with interleukin 6 (IL-6) for mimicking the tumor inflammatory microenvironment in vivo. Cell viability assay showed that IL-6 at 6.25 ng/ml significantly enhanced viability of SW620 cells, and thus this concentration was used to stimulate SW620 cells throughout this study. We observed that α-hederin concentration-dependently inhibited cell viability, migration and invasion in IL-6-treated SW620 cells. Moreover, α-hederin significantly restored IL-6-induced decrease in E-cadherin expression and abolished IL-6-induced increase in N-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin, twist and snail at both mRNA and protein levels in SW620 cells. These data suggested that α-hederin suppressed IL-6-indcued EMT in colon cancer cells. Further molecular examinations showed that α-hederin inhibited phosphorylation of Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3(STAT3), and halted the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 in IL-6-treated SW620 cells. In addition, JAK2/STAT3 signaling inhibitor AG490 not only produced similar inhibitory effects on EMT markers as α-hederin, but also synergistically enhanced α-hederin's inhibitory effects on EMT markers in IL-6-treated SW620 cells. Altogether, we demonstrated that α-hederin suppressed IL-6-induced EMT associated with disruption of JAK2/STAT3 signaling in colon cancer cells. Our data strongly suggested α-hederin as a promising candidate for intervention of colon cancer and metastasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Ionizing radiation induces heritable disruption of epithelial cell interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Catherine C.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Talhouk, Rabih; Parvin, Bahram; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known human breast carcinogen. Although the mutagenic capacity of IR is widely acknowledged as the basis for its action as a carcinogen, we and others have shown that IR can also induce growth factors and extracellular matrix remodeling. As a consequence, we have proposed that an additional factor contributing to IR carcinogenesis is the potential disruption of critical constraints that are imposed by normal cell interactions. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether IR affected the ability of nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo tissue-specific morphogenesis in culture by using confocal microscopy and imaging bioinformatics. We found that irradiated single HMEC gave rise to colonies exhibiting decreased localization of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and connexin-43, proteins necessary for the establishment of polarity and communication. Severely compromised acinar organization was manifested by the majority of irradiated HMEC progeny as quantified by image analysis. Disrupted cell-cell communication, aberrant cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and loss of tissue-specific architecture observed in the daughters of irradiated HMEC are characteristic of neoplastic progression. These data point to a heritable, nonmutational mechanism whereby IR compromises cell polarity and multicellular organization.

  19. Anxa5 mediates the in vitro malignant behaviours of murine hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cells with high lymph node metastasis potential preferentially via ERK2/p-ERK2/c-Jun/p-c-Jun(Ser73) and E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xujuan; Wei, Bin; Liu, Shuqing; Guo, Chunmei; Wu, Na; Liu, Qinlong; Sun, Ming-Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Annexin A5 (Anxa5) is associated with the progression of some cancers, while its role and regulation mechanism in tumor lymphatic metastasis is rarely reported. This study aims to investigate the influence of Anxa5 knockdown on the malignant behaviours of murine hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line with high lymph node metastatic (LNM) potential and the underlying regulation mechanism. RNA interfering was performed to silence Anxa5 in Hca-F. Monoclonal shRNA-Anxa5- Hca-F cells were obtained via G418 screening by limited dilution method. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting (WB) were applied to measure Anxa5 expression levels. CCK-8, Boyden transwell-chamber and in situ LN adhesion assays were performed to explore the effects of Anxa5 on the proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion capacities of Hca-F. WB and qRT-PCR were used to detect the level changes of key molecules in corresponding signal pathways. We obtained two monoclonal shRNA-Anxa5-transfected Hca-F cell lines with stable knockdowns of Anxa5. Anxa5 knockdown resulted in significantly reduced proliferation, migration, invasion and in situ LN adhesion potentials of Hca-F in proportion to its knockdown extent. Anxa5 downregulation enhanced E-cadherin levels in Hca-F. Moreover, Anxa5 affected Hca-F behaviours specifically via ERK2/p-ERK2/c-Jun/p-c-Jun(Ser73) instead of p38MAPK/c-Jun, Jnk/c-Jun and AKT/c-Jun pathways. Anxa5 mediates the in vitro malignant behaviours of murine hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cells via ERK2/c-Jun/p-c-Jun(Ser73) and ERK2/E-cadherin pathways. It is an important molecule in metastasis (especially LNM) and a potential therapeutic target for hepatocarcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Family Disruptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Returns Do you or your spouse frequently travel on business? These can be disruptive times for your child and for the family as ... these out-of-town trips. Spend as much time as it takes to explain where you are ... before and during your travels. You need to acknowledge and accept her feelings: " ...

  1. Disruption of β-catenin/CBP signaling inhibits human airway epithelial-mesenchymal transition and repair.

    PubMed

    Moheimani, Fatemeh; Roth, Hollis M; Cross, Jennifer; Reid, Andrew T; Shaheen, Furquan; Warner, Stephanie M; Hirota, Jeremy A; Kicic, Anthony; Hallstrand, Teal S; Kahn, Michael; Stick, Stephen M; Hansbro, Philip M; Hackett, Tillie-Louise; Knight, Darryl A

    2015-11-01

    The epithelium of asthmatics is characterized by reduced expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of the basal cell markers ck-5 and p63 that is indicative of a relatively undifferentiated repairing epithelium. This phenotype correlates with increased proliferation, compromised wound healing and an enhanced capacity to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The transcription factor β-catenin plays a vital role in epithelial cell differentiation and regeneration, depending on the co-factor recruited. Transcriptional programs driven by the β-catenin/CBP axis are critical for maintaining an undifferentiated and proliferative state, whereas the β-catenin/p300 axis is associated with cell differentiation. We hypothesized that disrupting the β-catenin/CBP signaling axis would promote epithelial differentiation and inhibit EMT. We treated monolayer cultures of human airway epithelial cells with TGFβ1 in the presence or absence of the selective small molecule ICG-001 to inhibit β-catenin/CBP signaling. We used western blots to assess expression of an EMT signature, CBP, p300, β-catenin, fibronectin and ITGβ1 and scratch wound assays to assess epithelial cell migration. Snai-1 and -2 expressions were determined using q-PCR. Exposure to TGFβ1 induced EMT, characterized by reduced E-cadherin expression with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and EDA-fibronectin. Either co-treatment or therapeutic administration of ICG-001 completely inhibited TGFβ1-induced EMT. ICG-001 also reduced the expression of ck-5 and -19 independent of TGFβ1. Exposure to ICG-001 significantly inhibited epithelial cell proliferation and migration, coincident with a down regulation of ITGβ1 and fibronectin expression. These data support our hypothesis that modulating the β-catenin/CBP signaling axis plays a key role in epithelial plasticity and function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wound Disruption Following Colorectal Operations.

    PubMed

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Carmichael, Joseph C; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Nguyen, Ninh T; Stamos, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative wound disruption is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We sought to identify the risk factors and outcomes of wound disruption following colorectal resection. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to examine the clinical data of patients who underwent colorectal resection from 2005 to 2013. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors of wound disruption. We sampled a total of 164,297 patients who underwent colorectal resection. Of these, 2073 (1.3 %) had wound disruption. Patients with wound disruption had significantly higher mortality (5.1 vs. 1.9 %, AOR: 1.46, P = 0.01). The highest risk of wound disruption was seen in patients with wound infection (4.8 vs. 0.9 %, AOR: 4.11, P < 0.01). A number of factors are associated with wound disruption such as chronic steroid use (AOR: 1.71, P < 0.01), smoking (AOR: 1.60, P < 0.01), obesity (AOR: 1.57, P < 0.01), operation length more than 3 h (AOR: 1.56, P < 0.01), severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (AOR: 1.36, P < 0.01), urgent/emergent admission (AOR: 1.31, P = 0.01), and serum Albumin Level <3 g/dL (AOR: 1.27, P < 0.01). Laparoscopic surgery had significantly lower risk of wound disruption compared to open surgery (AOR: 0.61, P < 0.01). Wound disruption occurs in 1.3 % of colorectal resections, and it correlates with mortality of patients. Wound infection is the strongest predictor of wound disruption. Chronic steroid use, obesity, severe COPD, prolonged operation, non-elective admission, and serum albumin level are strongly associated with wound disruption. Utilization of the laparoscopic approach may decrease the risk of wound disruption when possible.

  3. The Convergence of Environmental Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Marshall I.

    1970-01-01

    Considers reasons for water, air, and land pollution in the Soviet Union, incentives to pollute under socialism and the advantages socialism has for environmental management. Concludes that industrialization, not private enterprise, causes environmental disruption, and that strongly centralized planned economics do not necessarily avoid…

  4. Tidal disruption of inviscid planetesimals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, A. P.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Benz, W.

    1991-01-01

    In view of previous efforts' demonstration that strongly dissipative planetesimals are immune to tidal disruption, an examination is presently conducted of the complementary case of inviscid planetesimals arising from collisions that are sufficiently energetic to entirely melt the resulting planetesimal and debris. The tidal disruption is numerically simulated by means of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code of Cameron and Benz (1991), concentrating on the tidal disruption of 0.01 earth-mass planetesimals passing by the earth with variations in the impact parameter at perigee and velocity at infinity. The SPH models show that tidal forces during a close encounter can efficiently convert orbital angular momentum into spin angular momentum, thereby initiating equatorial mass-shedding to inviscid planetesimals that have been spun up beyond the limit of rotational stability.

  5. Calcium/Ask1/MKK7/JNK2/c-Src signalling cascade mediates disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Samak, Geetha; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K; Gangwar, Ruchika; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2015-02-01

    Disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions is an important event in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colitis in mice with symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism of DSS-induced colitis is unknown. We investigated the mechanism of DSS-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro and mouse colon in vivo. DSS treatment resulted in disruption of tight junctions, adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton leading to barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers. DSS induced a rapid activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the inhibition or knockdown of JNK2 attenuated DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. In mice, DSS administration for 4 days caused redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins from the epithelial junctions, which was blocked by JNK inhibitor. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, DSS increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) by 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA/AM) or thapsigargin attenuated DSS-induced JNK activation, tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Knockdown of apoptosis signal-regulated kinase 1 (Ask1) or MKK7 blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS activated c-Src by a Ca2+ and JNK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of Src kinase activity or knockdown of c-Src blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS increased tyrosine phosphorylation of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin and β-catenin. SP600125 abrogated DSS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of junctional proteins. Recombinant JNK2 induced threonine phosphorylation and auto-phosphorylation of c-Src. The present study demonstrates that Ca(2+)/Ask1/MKK7/JNK2/cSrc signalling cascade mediates DSS-induced tight

  6. Automatic location of disruption times in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, R.; Vega, J.; Murari, A.

    2014-11-01

    The loss of stability and confinement in tokamak plasmas can induce critical events known as disruptions. Disruptions produce strong electromagnetic forces and thermal loads which can damage fundamental components of the devices. Determining the disruption time is extremely important for various disruption studies: theoretical models, physics-driven models, or disruption predictors. In JET, during the experimental campaigns with the JET-C (Carbon Fiber Composite) wall, a common criterion to determine the disruption time consisted of locating the time of the thermal quench. However, with the metallic ITER-like wall (JET-ILW), this criterion is usually not valid. Several thermal quenches may occur previous to the current quench but the temperature recovers. Therefore, a new criterion has to be defined. A possibility is to use the start of the current quench as disruption time. This work describes the implementation of an automatic data processing method to estimate the disruption time according to this new definition. This automatic determination allows both reducing human efforts to locate the disruption times and standardizing the estimates (with the benefit of being less vulnerable to human errors).

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase causes transient disruption of tight junctions and downregulation of PAR-2 in human nasal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kazuaki; Obata, Kazufumi; Keira, Takashi; Miyata, Ryo; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Takano, Ken-ichi; Kohno, Takayuki; Sawada, Norimasa; Himi, Tetsuo; Kojima, Takashi

    2014-02-18

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes chronic respiratory disease, and the elastase enzyme that it produces increases the permeability of airway epithelial cells owing to the disruption of tight junctions. P. aeruginosa is also implicated in prolonged chronic rhinosinusitis. However, the effects of P. aeruginosa elastase (PE) against the barrier formed by human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) remain unknown. To investigate the mechanisms involved in the disruption of tight junctions by PE in HNECs, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were used. The hTERT-HNECs were pretreated with inhibitors of various signal transduction pathways, PKC, MAPK, p38MAPK, PI3K, JNK, NF-κB, EGF receptor, proteasome, COX1 and COX2 before treatment with PE. Some cells were pretreated with siRNA and agonist of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) before treatment with PE. Expression and structures of tight junctions were determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, immunostaining and freeze-fracture. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was examined as the epithelial barrier function. PE treatment transiently disrupted the epithelial barrier and downregulated the transmembrane proteins claudin-1 and -4, occludin, and tricellulin, but not the scaffold PDZ-expression proteins ZO-1 and -2 and adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin. The transient downregulation of tight junction proteins was controlled via distinct signal transduction pathways such as the PKC, MAPK, PI3K, p38 MAPK, JNK, COX-1 and -2, and NF-κB pathways. Furthermore, treatment with PE transiently decreased PAR-2 expression, which also regulated the expression of the tight junction proteins. Treatment with a PAR-2 agonist prevented the downregulation of the tight junction proteins after PE treatment in HNECs. PE transiently disrupts tight junctions in HNECs and downregulates PAR-2. The transient disruption of tight junctions by PE might occur repeatedly

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase causes transient disruption of tight junctions and downregulation of PAR-2 in human nasal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes chronic respiratory disease, and the elastase enzyme that it produces increases the permeability of airway epithelial cells owing to the disruption of tight junctions. P. aeruginosa is also implicated in prolonged chronic rhinosinusitis. However, the effects of P. aeruginosa elastase (PE) against the barrier formed by human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) remain unknown. Methods To investigate the mechanisms involved in the disruption of tight junctions by PE in HNECs, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were used. The hTERT-HNECs were pretreated with inhibitors of various signal transduction pathways, PKC, MAPK, p38MAPK, PI3K, JNK, NF-κB, EGF receptor, proteasome, COX1 and COX2 before treatment with PE. Some cells were pretreated with siRNA and agonist of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) before treatment with PE. Expression and structures of tight junctions were determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, immunostaining and freeze-fracture. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was examined as the epithelial barrier function. Results PE treatment transiently disrupted the epithelial barrier and downregulated the transmembrane proteins claudin-1 and -4, occludin, and tricellulin, but not the scaffold PDZ-expression proteins ZO-1 and -2 and adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin. The transient downregulation of tight junction proteins was controlled via distinct signal transduction pathways such as the PKC, MAPK, PI3K, p38 MAPK, JNK, COX-1 and -2, and NF-κB pathways. Furthermore, treatment with PE transiently decreased PAR-2 expression, which also regulated the expression of the tight junction proteins. Treatment with a PAR-2 agonist prevented the downregulation of the tight junction proteins after PE treatment in HNECs. Conclusions PE transiently disrupts tight junctions in HNECs and downregulates PAR-2. The transient disruption of tight

  9. Sideways wall force produced during tokamak disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, H.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.; Sugiyama, L.; Jardin, S.

    2013-07-01

    A critical issue for ITER is to evaluate the forces produced on the surrounding conducting structures during plasma disruptions. We calculate the non-axisymmetric ‘sideways’ wall force Fx, produced in disruptions. Simulations were carried out of disruptions produced by destabilization of n = 1 modes by a vertical displacement event (VDE). The force depends strongly on γτwall, where γ is the mode growth rate and τwall is the wall penetration time, and is largest for γτwall = constant, which depends on initial conditions. Simulations of disruptions caused by a model of massive gas injection were also performed. It was found that the wall force increases approximately offset linearly with the displacement from the magnetic axis produced by a VDE. These results are also obtained with an analytical model. Disruptions are accompanied by toroidal variation of the plasma current Iφ. This is caused by toroidal variation of the halo current, as verified computationally and analytically.

  10. Disruption of Radiologist Workflow.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Akash P; Liu, Kevin; Yu, John-Paul J

    2016-01-01

    The effect of disruptions has been studied extensively in surgery and emergency medicine, and a number of solutions-such as preoperative checklists-have been implemented to enforce the integrity of critical safety-related workflows. Disruptions of the highly complex and cognitively demanding workflow of modern clinical radiology have only recently attracted attention as a potential safety hazard. In this article, we describe the variety of disruptions that arise in the reading room environment, review approaches that other specialties have taken to mitigate workflow disruption, and suggest possible solutions for workflow improvement in radiology. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The ITPA disruption database

    DOE PAGES

    Eidietis, N. W.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Granetz, R. S.; ...

    2015-05-22

    A multi-device database of disruption characteristics has been developed under the auspices of the International Tokamak Physics Activity magneto hydrodynamics topical group. The purpose of this ITPA Disruption Database (IDDB) is to find the commonalities between the disruption and disruption mitigation characteristics in a wide variety of tokamaks in order to elucidate the physics underlying tokamak disruptions and to extrapolate toward much larger devices, such as ITER and future burning plasma devices. Conversely, in order to previous smaller disruption data collation efforts, the IDDB aims to provide significant context for each shot provided, allowing exploration of a wide array ofmore » relationships between pre-disruption and disruption parameters. Furthermore, the IDDB presently includes contributions from nine tokamaks, including both conventional aspect ratio and spherical tokamaks. An initial parametric analysis of the available data is presented. Our analysis includes current quench rates, halo current fraction and peaking, and the effectiveness of massive impurity injection. The IDDB is publicly available, with instruction for access provided herein.« less

  12. Sideways Force Produced During Disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, H. R.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.; Jardin, S.; Sugiyama, L.

    2012-10-01

    We extend previous studies [1] of vertical displacement events (VDE) which can produce disruptions. The emphasis is on the non axisymmetric ``sideways'' wall force Fx. Simulations are performed using the M3D [2] code. A VDE expels magnetic flux through the resistive wall until the last closed flux surface has q < 3. At this point the plasma is unstable to an (m,n) = (2,1) mode. A theory of sideways force produced by this mode in the presence of a VDE is presented. The wall force depends strongly on γτw, where γ is the mode growth rate and τw is the wall resistive penetration time. The force Fx is largest when γτw is a constant of order unity, which depends on the initial conditions. For large values of γτw, the wall force asymptotes to a relatively smaller value, well below the critical value ITER is designed to withstand. The principle of disruption mitigation by massive gas injection is to cause a disruption with large γτw. [4pt] [1] H. R. Strauss, R. Paccagnella, and J. Breslau,Phys. Plasmas 17, 082505 (2010) [2] W. Park, E.V. Belova, G.Y. Fu, X. Tang, H.R. Strauss, L.E. Sugiyama, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999).

  13. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  14. Understanding disruptions in tokamaksa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Leonid E.; Galkin, Sergei A.; Gerasimov, Sergei N.; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes progress achieved since 2007 in understanding disruptions in tokamaks, when the effect of plasma current sharing with the wall was introduced into theory. As a result, the toroidal asymmetry of the plasma current measurements during vertical disruption event (VDE) on the Joint European Torus was explained. A new kind of plasma equilibria and mode coupling was introduced into theory, which can explain the duration of the external kink 1/1 mode during VDE. The paper presents first results of numerical simulations using a free boundary plasma model, relevant to disruptions.

  15. Being sucessfully disruptive.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J

    2005-06-01

    Small companies can more easily create "disruptive" innovation than large companies. This article discusses why and how they can introduce some basic processes to make sure they do not become victims of their own success.

  16. Fertility During Marital Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Bumpass, Larry L.

    1977-01-01

    Childbirth during marital disruption is found to be a surprisingly frequent occurrence. Both prevalence of intermarital fertility and social policy issues which are involved suggest this phenomenon may be similar in importance to illegitimacy. (Author)

  17. Digital disruption ?syndromes.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Clair; Staib, Andrew

    2017-05-18

    The digital transformation of hospitals in Australia is occurring rapidly in order to facilitate innovation and improve efficiency. Rapid transformation can cause temporary disruption of hospital workflows and staff as processes are adapted to the new digital workflows. The aim of this paper is to outline various types of digital disruption and some strategies for effective management. A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a rapid, successful roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR). We observed this transformation and propose several digital disruption "syndromes" to assist with understanding and management during digital transformation: digital deceleration, digital transparency, digital hypervigilance, data discordance, digital churn and post-digital 'depression'. These 'syndromes' are defined and discussed in detail. Successful management of this temporary digital disruption is important to ensure a successful transition to a digital platform. What is known about this topic? Digital disruption is defined as the changes facilitated by digital technologies that occur at a pace and magnitude that disrupt established ways of value creation, social interactions, doing business and more generally our thinking. Increasing numbers of Australian hospitals are implementing digital solutions to replace traditional paper-based systems for patient care in order to create opportunities for improved care and efficiencies. Such large scale change has the potential to create transient disruption to workflows and staff. Managing this temporary disruption effectively is an important factor in the successful implementation of an EMR. What does this paper add? A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a successful rapid roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR) to become Australia's largest digital hospital over a 3-week period. We observed and assisted with the management of several cultural, behavioural and

  18. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  19. The disruption management model.

    PubMed

    McAlister, James

    2011-10-01

    Within all organisations, business continuity disruptions present a set of dilemmas that managers may not have dealt with before in their normal daily duties. The disruption management model provides a simple but effective management tool to enable crisis management teams to stay focused on recovery in the midst of a business continuity incident. The model has four chronological primary headlines, which steer the team through a quick-time crisis decision-making process. The procedure facilitates timely, systematic, rationalised and justified decisions, which can withstand post-event scrutiny. The disruption management model has been thoroughly tested within an emergency services environment and is proven to significantly support clear and concise decision making in a business continuity context.

  20. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages. PMID:27683538

  1. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Disrupting incrementalism in health care innovation.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Farzad; Zenios, Stefanos

    2011-08-01

    To build enabling innovation frameworks for health care entrepreneurs to better identify, evaluate, and pursue entrepreneurial opportunities. Powerful frameworks have been developed to enable entrepreneurs and investors identify which opportunity areas are worth pursuing and which start-up ideas have the potential to succeed. These frameworks, however, have not been clearly defined and interpreted for innovations in health care. Having a better understanding of the process of innovation in health care allows physician entrepreneurs to innovate more successfully. A review of academic literature was conducted. Concepts and frameworks related to technology innovation were analyzed. A new set of health care specific frameworks was developed. These frameworks were then applied to innovations in various health care subsectors. Health care entrepreneurs would greatly benefit from distinguishing between incremental and disruptive innovations. The US regulatory and reimbursement systems favor incrementalism with a greater chance of success for established players. Small companies and individual groups, however, are more likely to thrive if they adopt a disruptive strategy. Disruption in health care occurs through various mechanisms as detailed in this article. While the main mechanism of disruption might vary across different health care subsectors, it is shown that disruptive innovations consistently require a component of contrarian interpretation to guarantee considerable payoff. If health care entrepreneurs choose to adopt an incrementalist approach, they need to build the risk of disruption into their models and also ascertain that they have a very strong intellectual property (IP) position to weather competition from established players. On the contrary, if they choose to pursue disruption in the market, albeit the competition will be less severe, they need to recognize that the regulatory and reimbursement hurdles are going to be very high. Thus, they would benefit

  3. Coincident disruptive coloration

    PubMed Central

    Cuthill, Innes C.; Székely, Aron

    2008-01-01

    Even if an animal matches its surroundings perfectly in colour and texture, any mismatch between the spatial phase of its pattern and that of the background, or shadow created by its three-dimensional relief, is potentially revealing. Nevertheless, for camouflage to be fully broken, the shape must be recognizable. Disruptive coloration acts against object recognition by the use of high-contrast internal colour boundaries to break up shape and form. As well as the general outline, characteristic features such as eyes and limbs must also be concealed; this can be achieved by having the colour patterns on different, but adjacent, body parts aligned to match each other (i.e. in phase). Such ‘coincident disruptive coloration’ ensures that there is no phase disjunction where body parts meet, and causes different sections of the body to blend perceptually. We tested this theory using field experiments with predation by wild birds on artificial moth-like targets, whose wings and (edible pastry) bodies had colour patterns that were variously coincident or not. We also carried out an experiment with humans searching for analogous targets on a computer screen. Both experiments show that coincident disruptive coloration is an effective mechanism for concealing an otherwise revealing body form. PMID:18990668

  4. Current Concepts in Neuroendocrine Disruption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    feeding in fish. There is growing evidence for the association between environmental contaminant exposures and diseases with strong neuroendocrine components, for example decreased fecundity, neurodegeneration, and cardiac disease. It is critical to consider the timing of exposures of neuroendocrine disruptors because embryonic stages of central nervous system development are exquisitely sensitive to adverse effects. There is also evidence for epigenetic and transgenerational neuroendocrine disrupting effects of some pollutants. We must now consider the impacts of neuroendocrine disruptors on reproduction, development, growth and behaviors, and the population consequences for evolutionary change in an increasingly contaminated world. This review examines the evidence to date that various so-called neuroendocrine disruptors can induce such effects often at environmentally-relevant concentrations. PMID:24530523

  5. [Perspectives on endocrine disruption].

    PubMed

    Olea, N; Fernández, M F; Araque, P; Olea-Serrano, F

    2002-01-01

    Two decades ago, reports of alterations in the reproductive function of some wild animal species and clear evidence of human and animal exposure to chemical substances with hormonal activity agonist and antagonist generated what is known now as the hypothesis of endocrine disruption. This is an emerging environmental health problem that has challenged some of the paradigms on which the control and regulation of the use of chemical compounds is based. The need to include in routine toxicology tests new research objectives that specifically refer to the development and growth of species and to the homeostasis and functionality of hormonal systems, has served to complicate both the evaluation of new compounds and the re-evaluation of existing ones. The repercussions on regulation and international trade have not taken long to be felt. On both sides of the Atlantic, screening systems for endocrine disrupters have been designed and established, and research programmes have been launched to characterise and quantify adverse effects on human and animal health and to develop preventive measures.

  6. Climate disruption and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Pimm, Stuart L

    2009-07-28

    'Global warming' may be a familiar term, but it is seriously misleading. Human actions are causing a massive disruption to the planet's climate that is severe, rapid, very variable over space and time, and highly complex. The biosphere itself is complex and its responses to even simple changes are difficult to predict in detail. One can likely only be certain that many changes will be unexpected and some unfortunate. Even the simple, slow warming of the climate will produce complex consequences to species numbers and distributions because of how species depend on each other. An alternative approach to worrying about details is to concentrate on understanding the most significant ecological changes, ones that are irreversible--so-called 'tipping points'. Once such a point has been passed, even if society managed to restore historical climatic conditions, it might not restore the historical ecological patterns. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the loss of species, for we cannot recreate them. Climate disruptions may cause the loss of a large fraction of the planet's biodiversity, even if the only mechanism were to be species ranges moving uphill as temperatures rise.

  7. Cell disruption for microalgae biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Günerken, E; D'Hondt, E; Eppink, M H M; Garcia-Gonzalez, L; Elst, K; Wijffels, R H

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a potential source for various valuable chemicals for commercial applications ranging from nutraceuticals to fuels. Objective in a biorefinery is to utilize biomass ingredients efficiently similarly to petroleum refineries in which oil is fractionated in fuels and a variety of products with higher value. Downstream processes in microalgae biorefineries consist of different steps whereof cell disruption is the most crucial part. To maintain the functionality of algae biochemicals during cell disruption while obtaining high disruption yields is an important challenge. Despite this need, studies on mild disruption of microalgae cells are limited. This review article focuses on the evaluation of conventional and emerging cell disruption technologies, and a comparison thereof with respect to their potential for the future microalgae biorefineries. The discussed techniques are bead milling, high pressure homogenization, high speed homogenization, ultrasonication, microwave treatment, pulsed electric field treatment, non-mechanical cell disruption and some emerging technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Disruptive Technology: An Uncertain Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-21

    Technology that overturns market -- Military - Technology that causes a fundamental change in force structure, basing, and capability balance * Disruptive Technologies may arise from systems or enabling technology.

  9. The characteristics of railway service disruption: implications for disruption management.

    PubMed

    Golightly, D; Dadashi, N

    2017-03-01

    Rail disruption management is central to operational continuity and customer satisfaction. Disruption is not a unitary phenomenon - it varies by time, cause, location and complexity of coordination. Effective, user-centred technology for rail disruption must reflect this variety. A repertory grid study was conducted to elicit disruption characteristics. Construct elicitation with a group of experts (n = 7) captured 26 characteristics relevant to rail disruption. A larger group of operational staff (n = 28) rated 10 types of rail incident against the 26 characteristics. The results revealed distinctions such as business impact and public perception, and the importance of management of the disruption over initial detection. There were clear differences between those events that stop the traffic, as opposed to those that only slow the traffic. The results also demonstrate the utility of repertory grid for capturing the characteristics of complex work domains. Practitioner Summary: The aim of the paper is to understand how variety in rail disruption influences socio-technical design. It uses repertory grid to identify and prioritise 26 constructs, and group 10 disruption types, identifying critical factors such as whether an incident stops or merely slows the service, and business reputation.

  10. Rapid disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junction and barrier dysfunction by ionizing radiation in mouse colon in vivo: protection by N-acetyl-l-cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Gangwar, Ruchika; Manda, Bhargavi; Meena, Avtar S.; Yadav, Nikki; Szabo, Erzsebet; Balogh, Andrea; Lee, Sue Chin; Tigyi, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on apical junctions in colonic epithelium and mucosal barrier function in mice in vivo. Adult mice were subjected to total body irradiation (4 Gy) with or without N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) feeding for 5 days before irradiation. At 2–24 h postirradiation, the integrity of colonic epithelial tight junctions (TJ), adherens junctions (AJ), and the actin cytoskeleton was assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analysis of detergent-insoluble fractions for TJ and AJ proteins. The barrier function was evaluated by measuring vascular-to-luminal flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-inulin in vivo and luminal-to-mucosal flux in vitro. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring protein thiol oxidation. Confocal microscopy showed that radiation caused redistribution of occludin, zona occludens-1, claudin-3, E-cadherin, and β-catenin, as well as the actin cytoskeleton as early as 2 h postirradiation, and this effect was sustained for at least 24 h. Feeding NAC before irradiation blocked radiation-induced disruption of TJ, AJ, and the actin cytoskeleton. Radiation increased mucosal permeability to inulin in colon, which was blocked by NAC feeding. The level of reduced-protein thiols in colon was depleted by radiation with a concomitant increase in the level of oxidized-protein thiol. NAC feeding blocked the radiation-induced protein thiol oxidation. These data demonstrate that radiation rapidly disrupts TJ, AJ, and the actin cytoskeleton by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism that can be prevented by NAC feeding. PMID:26822914

  11. What Is Strong Correlation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    Interpretation of correlation is often based on rules of thumb in which some boundary values are given to help decide whether correlation is non-important, weak, strong or very strong. This article shows that such rules of thumb may do more harm than good, and instead of supporting interpretation of correlation--which is their aim--they teach a…

  12. Strong Navajo Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogrand, Linda; Mueller, Mary Lou; Arrington, Rachel; LeBlanc, Heidi; Spotted Elk, Davina; Dayzie, Irene; Rosenbrand, Reva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study, conducted in two Navajo Nation chapters, was to learn what makes Navajo marriages strong because no research has been done on this topic. Twenty-one Navajo couples (42 individuals) who felt they had strong marriages volunteered to participate in the study. Couples identified the following marital strengths:…

  13. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators . In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators . These are materials...Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators Report Title In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis

  14. The Strong Nuclear Force

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    Scientists are aware of four fundamental forces- gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. Most people have at least some familiarity with gravity and electromagnetism, but not the other two. How is it that scientists are so certain that two additional forces exist? In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why scientists are so certain that the strong force exists.

  15. The Strong Nuclear Force

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2018-01-16

    Scientists are aware of four fundamental forces- gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. Most people have at least some familiarity with gravity and electromagnetism, but not the other two. How is it that scientists are so certain that two additional forces exist? In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why scientists are so certain that the strong force exists.

  16. Sleep disruption in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Schleimer, Robert P; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease of the upper airways and paranasal sinuses with a marked decline in quality of life (QOL). CRS patients suffer from sleep disruption at a significantly higher proportion (60 to 75%) than in the general population (8-18 %). Sleep disruption in CRS causes decreased QOL and is linked to poor functional outcomes such as impaired cognitive function and depression. Areas covered: A systematic PubMed/Medline search was done to assess the results of studies that have investigated sleep and sleep disturbances in CRS. Expert commentary: These studies reported sleep disruption in most CRS patients. The main risk factors for sleep disruption in CRS include allergic rhinitis, smoking, and high SNOT-22 total scores. The literature is inconsistent with regard to the prevalence of sleep-related disordered breathing (e.g. obstructive sleep apnea) in CRS patients. Although nasal obstruction is linked to sleep disruption, the extent of sleep disruption in CRS seems to expand beyond that expected from physical blockage of the upper airways alone. Despite the high prevalence of sleep disruption in CRS, and its detrimental effects on QOL, the literature contains a paucity of studies that have investigated the mechanisms underlying this major problem in CRS.

  17. Thigmotaxis Mediates Trail Odour Disruption.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E; Sik Roh, Hyun; Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Manning, Lee-Anne M; Harper, Aimee R; Suckling, David M

    2017-05-10

    Disruption of foraging using oversupply of ant trail pheromones is a novel pest management application under investigation. It presents an opportunity to investigate the interaction of sensory modalities by removal of one of the modes. Superficially similar to sex pheromone-based mating disruption in moths, ant trail pheromone disruption lacks an equivalent mechanistic understanding of how the ants respond to an oversupply of their trail pheromone. Since significant compromise of one sensory modality essential for trail following (chemotaxis) has been demonstrated, we hypothesised that other sensory modalities such as thigmotaxis could act to reduce the impact on olfactory disruption of foraging behaviour. To test this, we provided a physical stimulus of thread to aid trailing by Argentine ants otherwise under disruptive pheromone concentrations. Trail following success was higher using a physical cue. While trail integrity reduced under continuous over-supply of trail pheromone delivered directly on the thread, provision of a physical cue in the form of thread slightly improved trail following and mediated trail disruption from high concentrations upwind. Our results indicate that ants are able to use physical structures to reduce but not eliminate the effects of trail pheromone disruption.

  18. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  19. When Disruptive Approaches Meet Disruptive Technologies: Learning at a Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chere Campbell

    2000-01-01

    Reviews research on constructivism in learning and selection of learning strategies. Suggests linking constructivism with instructional technologies for continuing medical education in order to "disrupt" reactive, habitual ways of learning and encourage active engagement. (SK)

  20. On Strong Anticipation

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, N.; Turvey, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    We examine Dubois's (2003) distinction between weak anticipation and strong anticipation. Anticipation is weak if it arises from a model of the system via internal simulations. Anticipation is strong if it arises from the system itself via lawful regularities embedded in the system's ordinary mode of functioning. The assumption of weak anticipation dominates cognitive science and neuroscience and in particular the study of perception and action. The assumption of strong anticipation, however, seems to be required by anticipation's ubiquity. It is, for example, characteristic of homeostatic processes at the level of the organism, organs, and cells. We develop the formal distinction between strong and weak anticipation by elaboration of anticipating synchronization, a phenomenon arising from time delays in appropriately coupled dynamical systems. The elaboration is conducted in respect to (a) strictly physical systems, (b) the defining features of circadian rhythms, often viewed as paradigmatic of biological behavior based in internal models, (c) Pavlovian learning, and (d) forward models in motor control. We identify the common thread of strongly anticipatory systems and argue for its significance in furthering understanding of notions such as “internal”, “model” and “prediction”. PMID:20191086

  1. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  2. Does Homework Disrupt the Home?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlen, Kathryn Fleming

    1978-01-01

    Homework assignments can be frustrating to elementary students and cause disruption of the family routine. Careful planning by the teacher and good communication with the home is needed to prevent this. (SJL)

  3. Route disruption analysis : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this project is to analyze the major highway routes in and through Kentucky to determine the potential liabilities associated with disruption of these routes. The analysis assesses the availability of convenient by-pass routes and th...

  4. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  5. Tidal disruption of inviscid protoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Alan P.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Benz, W.

    1991-01-01

    Roche showed that equilibrium is impossible for a small fluid body synchronously orbiting a primary within a critical radius now termed the Roche limit. Tidal disruption of orbitally unbound bodies is a potentially important process for planetary formation through collisional accumulation, because the area of the Roche limit is considerably larger then the physical cross section of a protoplanet. Several previous studies were made of dynamical tidal disruption and different models of disruption were proposed. Because of the limitation of these analytical models, we have used a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code to model the tidal disruption process. The code is basically the same as the one used to model giant impacts; we simply choose impact parameters large enough to avoid collisions. The primary and secondary both have iron cores and silicate mantles, and are initially isothermal at a molten temperature. The conclusions based on the analytical and numerical models are summarized.

  6. Advancing Prediction of Foster Placement Disruption Using Brief Behavioral Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlburt, Michael S.; Chamberlain, Patricia; DeGarmo, David; Zhang, Jinjin; Price, Joe M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral difficulties increase the risk that children will experience negative placement disruptions while in foster care. Chamberlain et al. (2006) found that the Parent Daily Report (PDR), a brief measure of parent-reported child behaviors, was a strong predictor of negative placement changes over 1 year among children receiving…

  7. A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To date, research on suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has focused on determining health effects in humans and wildlife and on occurrence of these chemicals in the environment. There is strong evidence that certain chemicals are causing endocrine-related effects in...

  8. Strong Little Magnets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Did you know that some strong little cylindrical magnets available in local hardware stores can have an effective circumferential current of 2500 A? This intriguing information can be obtained by hanging a pair of magnets at the center of a coil, as shown in Fig. 1, and measuring the oscillation frequency as a function of coil current.

  9. Interpreting Disruption Prediction Models to Improve Plasma Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    In order for the tokamak to be a feasible design for a fusion reactor, it is necessary to minimize damage to the machine caused by plasma disruptions. Accurately predicting disruptions is a critical capability for triggering any mitigative actions, and a modest amount of attention has been given to efforts that employ machine learning techniques to make these predictions. By monitoring diagnostic signals during a discharge, such predictive models look for signs that the plasma is about to disrupt. Typically these predictive models are interpreted simply to give a `yes' or `no' response as to whether a disruption is approaching. However, it is possible to extract further information from these models to indicate which input signals are more strongly correlated with the plasma approaching a disruption. If highly accurate predictive models can be developed, this information could be used in plasma control schemes to make better decisions about disruption avoidance. This work was supported by a Grant from the 2016-2017 Fulbright U.S. Student Program, administered by the Franco-American Fulbright Commission in France.

  10. The study of heat flux for disruption on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhendong; Fang, Jianan; Gong, Xianzu; Gan, Kaifu; Luo, Jiarong; Zhao, Hailin; Cui, Zhixue; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Meiwen

    2016-05-01

    Disruption of the plasma is one of the most dangerous instabilities in tokamak. During the disruption, most of the plasma thermal energy is lost, which causes damages to the plasma facing components. Infrared (IR) camera is an effective tool to detect the temperature distribution on the first wall, and the energy deposited on the first wall can be calculated from the surface temperature profile measured by the IR camera. This paper concentrates on the characteristics of heat flux distribution onto the first wall under different disruptions, including the minor disruption and the vertical displacement events (VDE) disruption. Several minor disruptions have been observed before the major disruption under the high plasma density in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. During the minor disruption, the heat fluxes are mainly deposited on the upper/lower divertors. The magnetic configuration prior to the minor disruption is a lower single null with the radial distance between the two separatrices in the outer midplane dRsep = -2 cm, while it changes to upper single null (dRsep = 1.4 cm) during the minor disruption. As for the VDE disruption, the spatial distribution of heat flux exhibits strong toroidal and radial nonuniformity, and the maximum heat flux received on the dome plate can be up to 11 MW/m2.

  11. Strong stellar winds.

    PubMed

    Conti, P S; McCray, R

    1980-04-04

    The hottest and most luminous stars lose a substantial fraction of their mass in strong stellar winds. These winds not only affect the evolution of the star, they also carve huge expanding cavities in the surrounding interstellar medium, possibly affecting star formation. The winds are probably driven by radiation pressure, but uncertainties persist in their theoretical description. Strong x-ray sources associated with a few of these hot stars may be used to probe the stellar winds. The nature of the weak x-ray sources recently observed to be associated with many of these stars is uncertain. It is suggested that roughly 10 percent of the luminous hot stars may have as companions neutron stars or black holes orbiting within the stellar winds.

  12. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, E

    2009-05-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a "valuable future". So Marquis would be wrong in thinking that what is essential about the wrongness of killing an adult human being is that they are being deprived of a valuable future. This paper shows that whichever way the concept of "valuable future" is interpreted, the proposed counterexamples fail: if it is interpreted as "future like ours", the proposed counterexamples have no bearing on Marquis's argument. If the concept is interpreted as referring to the patient's preferences, it must be either conceded that the patients in Strong's scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims.

  13. TAD disruption as oncogenic driver.

    PubMed

    Valton, Anne-Laure; Dekker, Job

    2016-02-01

    Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) are conserved during evolution and play roles in guiding and constraining long-range regulation of gene expression. Disruption of TAD boundaries results in aberrant gene expression by exposing genes to inappropriate regulatory elements. Recent studies have shown that TAD disruption is often found in cancer cells and contributes to oncogenesis through two mechanisms. One mechanism locally disrupts domains by deleting or mutating a TAD boundary leading to fusion of the two adjacent TADs. The other mechanism involves genomic rearrangements that break up TADs and creates new ones without directly affecting TAD boundaries. Understanding the mechanisms by which TADs form and control long-range chromatin interactions will therefore not only provide insights into the mechanism of gene regulation in general, but will also reveal how genomic rearrangements and mutations in cancer genomes can lead to misregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. TAD disruption as oncogenic driver

    PubMed Central

    Valton, Anne-Laure; Dekker, Job

    2016-01-01

    Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) are conserved during evolution and play roles in guiding and constraining long-range regulation of gene expression. Disruption of TAD boundaries results in aberrant gene expression by exposing genes to inappropriate regulatory elements. Recent studies have shown that TAD disruption is often found in cancer cells and contributes to oncogenesis through two mechanisms. One mechanism locally disrupts domains by deleting or mutating a TAD boundary leading to fusion of the two adjacent TADs. The other mechanism involves genomic rearrangements that break up TADs and creates new ones without directly affecting TAD boundaries. Understanding the mechanisms by which TADs form and control long-range chromatin interactions will therefore not only provide insights into the mechanism of gene regulation in general, but will also reveal how genomic rearrangements and mutations in cancer genomes can lead to misregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. PMID:27111891

  15. Strongly correlated materials.

    PubMed

    Morosan, Emilia; Natelson, Douglas; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H; Si, Qimiao

    2012-09-18

    Strongly correlated materials are profoundly affected by the repulsive electron-electron interaction. This stands in contrast to many commonly used materials such as silicon and aluminum, whose properties are comparatively unaffected by the Coulomb repulsion. Correlated materials often have remarkable properties and transitions between distinct, competing phases with dramatically different electronic and magnetic orders. These rich phenomena are fascinating from the basic science perspective and offer possibilities for technological applications. This article looks at these materials through the lens of research performed at Rice University. Topics examined include: Quantum phase transitions and quantum criticality in "heavy fermion" materials and the iron pnictide high temperature superconductors; computational ab initio methods to examine strongly correlated materials and their interface with analytical theory techniques; layered dichalcogenides as example correlated materials with rich phases (charge density waves, superconductivity, hard ferromagnetism) that may be tuned by composition, pressure, and magnetic field; and nanostructure methods applied to the correlated oxides VO₂ and Fe₃O₄, where metal-insulator transitions can be manipulated by doping at the nanoscale or driving the system out of equilibrium. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting prospects for this class of materials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Tidal disruption of dissipative planetesimals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, H.; Boss, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    A self-consistent numerical model is developed for the tidal disruption of a solid planetesimal. The planetesimal is treated as a highly viscous, slightly compressible fluid whose disturbed parts are an inviscid, pressureless fluid undergoing distortion and disruption. The distortions were constrained to being symmetrical above and below the equatorial plane. The tidal potential is expanded in terms of Legendre polynomials, which eliminates the center of mass acceleration effects, permitting definition of equations of motion in a noninertial frame. Consideration is given to viscous dissipation and to characteristics of the solid-atmosphere boundary. The model is applied to sample cases in one, two and three dimensions.

  17. Tidal disruption of viscous bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, S.; Tremaine, S.

    1992-01-01

    Tidal disruptions are investigated in viscous-fluid planetesimals whose radius is small relative to the distance of closest (parabolic-orbit) approach to a planet. The planetesimal surface is in these conditions always ellipsoidal, facilitating treatment by coupled ODEs which are solvable with high accuracy. While the disrupted planetesimals evolve into needlelike ellipsoids, their density does not decrease. The validity of viscous fluid treatment holds for solid (ice or rock) planetesimals in cases where tidal stresses are greater than material strength, but integrity is maintained by self-gravity.

  18. E-cadherin-defective gastric cancer cells depend on Laminin to survive and invade.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Joana; Figueiredo, Joana; Brás-Pereira, Catarina; Carneiro, Patrícia; Moreira, Ana M; Pinto, Marta T; Relvas, João B; Carneiro, Fátima; Barbosa, Mário; Casares, Fernando; Janody, Florence; Seruca, Raquel

    2015-10-15

    Epithelial-cadherin (Ecad) deregulation affects cell-cell adhesion and results in increased invasiveness of distinct human carcinomas. In gastric cancer, loss of Ecad expression is a common event and is associated with disease aggressiveness and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the invasive process associated to Ecad dysfunction are far from understood. We hypothesized that deregulation of cell-matrix interactions could play an important role during this process. Thus, we focussed on LM-332, which is a major matrix component, and in Ecad/LM-332 crosstalk in the process of Ecad-dependent invasion. To verify whether matrix deregulation was triggered by Ecad loss, we used the Drosophila model. To dissect the key molecules involved and unveil their functional significance, we used gastric cancer cell lines. The relevance of this relationship was then confirmed in human primary tumours. In vivo, Ecad knockdown induced apoptosis; nonetheless, at the invasive front, cells ectopically expressed Laminin A and βPS integrin. In vitro, we demonstrated that, in two different gastric cancer cell models, Ecad-defective cells overexpressed Laminin γ2 (LM-γ2), β1 and β4 integrin, when compared with Ecad-competent ones. We showed that LM-γ2 silencing impaired invasion and enhanced cell death, most likely via pSrc and pAkt reduction, and JNK activation. In human gastric carcinomas, we found a concomitant decrease in Ecad and increase in LM-γ2. This is the first evidence that ectopic Laminin expression depends on Ecad loss and allows Ecad-dysfunctional cells to survive and invade. This opens new avenues for using LM-γ2 signalling regulators as molecular targets to impair gastric cancer progression. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. E-cadherin-defective gastric cancer cells depend on Laminin to survive and invade

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, Joana; Figueiredo, Joana; Brás-Pereira, Catarina; Carneiro, Patrícia; Moreira, Ana M.; Pinto, Marta T.; Relvas, João B.; Carneiro, Fátima; Barbosa, Mário; Casares, Fernando; Janody, Florence; Seruca, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-cadherin (Ecad) deregulation affects cell–cell adhesion and results in increased invasiveness of distinct human carcinomas. In gastric cancer, loss of Ecad expression is a common event and is associated with disease aggressiveness and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the invasive process associated to Ecad dysfunction are far from understood. We hypothesized that deregulation of cell–matrix interactions could play an important role during this process. Thus, we focussed on LM-332, which is a major matrix component, and in Ecad/LM-332 crosstalk in the process of Ecad-dependent invasion. To verify whether matrix deregulation was triggered by Ecad loss, we used the Drosophila model. To dissect the key molecules involved and unveil their functional significance, we used gastric cancer cell lines. The relevance of this relationship was then confirmed in human primary tumours. In vivo, Ecad knockdown induced apoptosis; nonetheless, at the invasive front, cells ectopically expressed Laminin A and βPS integrin. In vitro, we demonstrated that, in two different gastric cancer cell models, Ecad-defective cells overexpressed Laminin γ2 (LM-γ2), β1 and β4 integrin, when compared with Ecad-competent ones. We showed that LM-γ2 silencing impaired invasion and enhanced cell death, most likely via pSrc and pAkt reduction, and JNK activation. In human gastric carcinomas, we found a concomitant decrease in Ecad and increase in LM-γ2. This is the first evidence that ectopic Laminin expression depends on Ecad loss and allows Ecad-dysfunctional cells to survive and invade. This opens new avenues for using LM-γ2 signalling regulators as molecular targets to impair gastric cancer progression. PMID:26246502

  20. Cleavage of E-Cadherin Contributes to Defective Barrier Function in Neosquamous Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Runge, Thomas M; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Djukic, Zorka; Hallquist, Suzanne; Orlando, Roy C

    2016-11-01

    After ablation of Barrett's esophagus (BE), the esophagus heals with neosquamous epithelium (NSE). Despite normal endoscopic appearance, NSE exhibits defective barrier function with similarities to defects noted in the distal esophageal epithelium in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). To determine whether patients with NSE, unlike patients with healthy esophageal epithelium, have C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of e-cad detectable on tissue biopsy. Secondly, to determine whether patients with NSE have elevated levels of N-terminal fragments (NTFs) of e-cad in the serum. Fifteen patients with ablated long-segment BE, who had healing with formation of NSE, were enrolled in this pilot study. Western blots for CTFs and NTFs were performed on biopsies of NSE. Venous blood was obtained to assess levels of NTFs. Endoscopic distal esophageal biopsies from patients without esophageal disease served as tissue controls. Control blood samples were obtained from healthy subjects. Blots of NSE were successful in 14/15 patients, and all 14 (100 %) had a 35-kD CTF of e-cad, while CTFs were absent in healthy control tissues. Despite CTFs in NSE, serum NTFs of e-cad in NSE were similar to controls, p > 0.05. However, unlike healthy controls, blots of NSE also showed NTFs with molecular weights of 70-90 kD. Cleavage of e-cad, as evidenced by the presence of CTFs and NTFs on biopsy, contributes to defective barrier function in NSE. However, unlike findings reported in GERD patients, serum NTFs are not elevated in NSE patients. This difference may reflect poor absorption with tissue entrapment of NTFs in previously ablated areas with poorly perfused NSE.

  1. Disruptive ecological selection on a mating cue.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Richard M; Wallbank, Richard W R; Bull, Vanessa; Salazar, Patricio C A; Mallet, James; Stevens, Martin; Jiggins, Chris D

    2012-12-22

    Adaptation to divergent ecological niches can result in speciation. Traits subject to disruptive selection that also contribute to non-random mating will facilitate speciation with gene flow. Such 'magic' or 'multiple-effect' traits may be widespread and important for generating biodiversity, but strong empirical evidence is still lacking. Although there is evidence that putative ecological traits are indeed involved in assortative mating, evidence that these same traits are under divergent selection is considerably weaker. Heliconius butterfly wing patterns are subject to positive frequency-dependent selection by predators, owing to aposematism and Müllerian mimicry, and divergent colour patterns are used by closely related species to recognize potential mates. The amenability of colour patterns to experimental manipulation, independent of other traits, presents an excellent opportunity to test their role during speciation. We conducted field experiments with artificial butterflies, designed to match natural butterflies with respect to avian vision. These were complemented with enclosure trials with live birds and real butterflies. Our experiments showed that hybrid colour-pattern phenotypes are attacked more frequently than parental forms. For the first time, we demonstrate disruptive ecological selection on a trait that also acts as a mating cue.

  2. Short temporal asynchrony disrupts visual object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Jedediah M.; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Humans can recognize objects and scenes in a small fraction of a second. The cascade of signals underlying rapid recognition might be disrupted by temporally jittering different parts of complex objects. Here we investigated the time course over which shape information can be integrated to allow for recognition of complex objects. We presented fragments of object images in an asynchronous fashion and behaviorally evaluated categorization performance. We observed that visual recognition was significantly disrupted by asynchronies of approximately 30 ms, suggesting that spatiotemporal integration begins to break down with even small deviations from simultaneity. However, moderate temporal asynchrony did not completely obliterate recognition; in fact, integration of visual shape information persisted even with an asynchrony of 100 ms. We describe the data with a concise model based on the dynamic reduction of uncertainty about what image was presented. These results emphasize the importance of timing in visual processing and provide strong constraints for the development of dynamical models of visual shape recognition. PMID:24819738

  3. The study of heat flux for disruption on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhendong, E-mail: dongyz@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: jafang@dhu.edu.cn; Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031; Fang, Jianan, E-mail: dongyz@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: jafang@dhu.edu.cn

    Disruption of the plasma is one of the most dangerous instabilities in tokamak. During the disruption, most of the plasma thermal energy is lost, which causes damages to the plasma facing components. Infrared (IR) camera is an effective tool to detect the temperature distribution on the first wall, and the energy deposited on the first wall can be calculated from the surface temperature profile measured by the IR camera. This paper concentrates on the characteristics of heat flux distribution onto the first wall under different disruptions, including the minor disruption and the vertical displacement events (VDE) disruption. Several minor disruptionsmore » have been observed before the major disruption under the high plasma density in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. During the minor disruption, the heat fluxes are mainly deposited on the upper/lower divertors. The magnetic configuration prior to the minor disruption is a lower single null with the radial distance between the two separatrices in the outer midplane dR{sub sep} = −2 cm, while it changes to upper single null (dR{sub sep} = 1.4 cm) during the minor disruption. As for the VDE disruption, the spatial distribution of heat flux exhibits strong toroidal and radial nonuniformity, and the maximum heat flux received on the dome plate can be up to 11 MW/m{sup 2}.« less

  4. Strongly coupled colloidal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Hubertus M.; Morfill, Gregor E.; Konopka, Uwe; Rothermel, Hermann; Zuzic, Milenko

    1998-11-01

    The research of strongly coupled effects in colloidal plasmas started a few years ago with the discovery of the Coulomb crystallization of micron-sized particles in a plasma. The particles are charged negatively to a few thousands of electron charges due to the flux of electrons and ions from the plasma and then react via their Coulomb-potentials. The Coulomb coupling parameter Γ - which is the ratio of the Coulomb energy between two neighboring particles to their thermal energy - could be much larger than the critical value of 172 (calculated for an one-component-plasma). That means that Coulomb-crystallization can be achieved easily. Such systems, which reach equilibrium very rapidly and can be easily tuned between their ordered and disordered states, are ideally suited for investigating the processes underlying the solid-to-liquid phase transition. Furthermore, the strongly coupled collidal plasma can be excited externally and the response can be studied in great detail dynamically. Gravity plays an important role for the production and stability of plasma crystals. In laboratory plasmas gravity has to be balanced out by the electrostatic field in the sheath of the electrodes of the experimental apparatus. Thus, in the vertical direction only monolayer crystals or crystals with a few lattice layers can be formed. This restricts the analysis to processes in 2-dimensional or ``2 1/2-dimensional'' crystals (e.g. the physics of monolayers, nano-crystals or grain boundaries). Under zero gravity larger (volume) systems are possible and the field of plasma crystal research can be extended to include the physics of 3-dimensional systems. We performed the worldwide first experiments under zero-g conditions on parabolic flights and two sounding rockets. During these experiments the behaviour of dust particles in a rf-discharge under zero-g conditions was investigated. Very interesting experiments were performed, which are possible only under low gravity conditions.

  5. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally…

  6. Disrupting the Networks of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Daniel F.; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems are interactive systems involving communities of species and their abiotic environment. Tumors are ecosystems in which cancer cells act as invasive species interacting with native host cell species in an established microenvironment within the larger host biosphere. At its heart, to study ecology is to study interconnectedness. In ecologic science, an ecologic network is a representation of the biotic interactions in an ecosystem in which species (nodes) are connected by pairwise interactions (links). Ecologic networks and signaling network models have been used to describe and compare the structures of ecosystems. It has been shown that disruption of ecologic networks through the loss of species or disruption of interactions between them can lead to the destruction of the ecosystem. Often, the destruction of a single node or link is not enough to disrupt the entire ecosystem. The more complex the network and its interactions, the more difficult it is to cause the extinction of a species, especially without leveraging other aspects of the ecosystem. Similarly, successful treatment of cancer with a single agent is rarely enough to cure a patient without strategically modifying the support systems conducive to survival of cancer. Cancer cells and the ecologic systems they reside in can be viewed as a series of nested networks. The most effective new paradigms for treatment will be developed through application of scaled network disruption. PMID:22442061

  7. Disrupting the networks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Daniel F; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2012-05-15

    Ecosystems are interactive systems involving communities of species and their abiotic environment. Tumors are ecosystems in which cancer cells act as invasive species interacting with native host cell species in an established microenvironment within the larger host biosphere. At its heart, to study ecology is to study interconnectedness. In ecologic science, an ecologic network is a representation of the biotic interactions in an ecosystem in which species (nodes) are connected by pairwise interactions (links). Ecologic networks and signaling network models have been used to describe and compare the structures of ecosystems. It has been shown that disruption of ecologic networks through the loss of species or disruption of interactions between them can lead to the destruction of the ecosystem. Often, the destruction of a single node or link is not enough to disrupt the entire ecosystem. The more complex the network and its interactions, the more difficult it is to cause the extinction of a species, especially without leveraging other aspects of the ecosystem. Similarly, successful treatment of cancer with a single agent is rarely enough to cure a patient without strategically modifying the support systems conducive to survival of cancer. Cancer cells and the ecologic systems they reside in can be viewed as a series of nested networks. The most effective new paradigms for treatment will be developed through application of scaled network disruption. ©2012 AACR.

  8. Disruptive Pupils and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Jack

    1981-01-01

    Teachers have identified a number of stress situations in their work with disruptive children: insecurity due to student unpredictability, doubting their effectiveness, frustrated attempts at communication with other professionals, and feelings of isolation and limited social relationships (expressed by residential workers). (CT)

  9. Marital Alternatives and Marital Disruption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udry, J. Richard

    1981-01-01

    Explores the usefulness of "marital alternatives" as a dimension in explaining marital stability, using longitudinal data from a panel of married, White, urban couples from 16 urban areas. Results indicated the dimension of marital alternatives appeared to be a better predictor of marital disruption than marital satisfaction. (Author/RC)

  10. Punishment and the Disruptive Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Michael A.

    1982-01-01

    A retributive perspective, in which punishment must be the response to a misdeed regardless of the misdeed's consequences, provides a more substantive approach to the disruptive student than does the presently accepted rehabilitation-utilitarian perspective, which only advocates the punishment of misdeeds that do not promote institutional goals.…

  11. Finding Strong Bridges and Strong Articulation Points in Linear Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Laura, Luigi; Santaroni, Federico

    Given a directed graph G, an edge is a strong bridge if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. Similarly, we say that a vertex is a strong articulation point if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. In this paper, we present linear-time algorithms for computing all the strong bridges and all the strong articulation points of directed graphs, solving an open problem posed in [2].

  12. Marital disruption and health insurance.

    PubMed

    Peters, H Elizabeth; Simon, Kosali; Taber, Jamie Rubenstein

    2014-08-01

    Despite the high levels of marital disruption in the United States and the fact that a significant portion of health insurance coverage for those less than age 65 is based on family membership, surprisingly little research is available on the consequences of marital disruption for the health insurance coverage of men, women, and children. We address this shortfall by examining patterns of coverage surrounding marital disruption for men, women, and children, further subset by educational level. Using the 1996, 2001, and 2004 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), we find large differences in health insurance coverage across marital status groups in the cross-section. In longitudinal analyses that focus on within-person change, we find small overall coverage changes but large changes in type of coverage following marital disruption. Both men and women show increases in private coverage in their own names, but offsetting decreases in dependent coverage tend to be larger. One surprising result is that dependent coverage for children also declines after marital dissolution, even though children are still likely to be eligible for that coverage. Children and (to a lesser extent) women show increases in public coverage around the time of divorce or separation. We also find that these patterns differ by education. The most vulnerable group appears to be lower-educated women with children because the increases in private, own-name, and public insurance are not large enough to offset the large decrease in dependent coverage. As the United States implements federal health reform, it is critical that we understand the ways in which life course events-specifically, marital disruption-shape the dynamic patterns of coverage.

  13. Strongly correlated surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Victor A.

    Everything has an edge. However trivial, this phrase has dominated theoretical condensed matter in the past half a decade. Prior to that, questions involving the edge considered to be more of an engineering problem rather than a one of fundamental science: it seemed self-evident that every edge is different. However, recent advances proved that many surface properties enjoy a certain universality, and moreover, are 'topologically' protected. In this thesis I discuss a selected range of problems that bring together topological properties of surface states and strong interactions. Strong interactions alone can lead to a wide spectrum of emergent phenomena: from high temperature superconductivity to unconventional magnetic ordering; interactions can change the properties of particles, from heavy electrons to fractional charges. It is a unique challenge to bring these two topics together. The thesis begins by describing a family of methods and models with interactions so high that electrons effectively disappear as particles and new bound states arise. By invoking the AdS/CFT correspondence we can mimic the physical systems of interest as living on the surface of a higher dimensional universe with a black hole. In a specific example we investigate the properties of the surface states and find helical spin structure of emerged particles. The thesis proceeds from helical particles on the surface of black hole to a surface of samarium hexaboride: an f-electron material with localized magnetic moments at every site. Interactions between electrons in the bulk lead to insulating behavior, but the surfaces found to be conducting. This observation motivated an extensive research: weather the origin of conduction is of a topological nature. Among our main results, we confirm theoretically the topological properties of SmB6; introduce a new framework to address similar questions for this type of insulators, called Kondo insulators. Most notably we introduce the idea of Kondo

  14. Acetaldehyde dissociates the PTP1B–E-cadherin–β-catenin complex in Caco-2 cell monolayers by a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Parimal; Seth, Ankur; Atkinson, Katherine J.; Gheyi, Tarun; Kale, Gautam; Giorgianni, Francesco; Desiderio, Dominic M.; Li, Chunying; Naren, Anjaparavanda; Rao, Radhakrishna

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between E-cadherin, β-catenin and PTP1B (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B) are crucial for the organization of AJs (adherens junctions) and epithelial cell–cell adhesion. In the present study, the effect of acetaldehyde on the AJs and on the interactions between E-cadherin, β-catenin and PTP1B was determined in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Treatment of cell monolayers with acetaldehyde induced redistribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin from the intercellular junctions by a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. The PTPase activity associated with E-cadherin and β-catenin was significantly reduced and the interaction of PTP1B with E-cadherin and β-catenin was attenuated by acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde treatment resulted in phosphorylation of β-catenin on tyrosine residues, and abolished the interaction of β-catenin with E-cadherin by a tyrosine kinase-dependent mechanism. Protein binding studies showed that the treatment of cells with acetaldehyde reduced the binding of β-catenin to the C-terminal region of E-cadherin. Pairwise binding studies using purified proteins indicated that the direct interaction between E-cadherin and β-catenin was reduced by tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin, but was unaffected by tyrosine phosphorylation of E-cadherin-C. Treatment of cells with acetaldehyde also reduced the binding of E-cadherin to GST (glutathione S-transferase)–PTP1B. The pairwise binding study showed that GST–E-cadherin-C binds to recombinant PTP1B, but this binding was significantly reduced by tyrosine phosphorylation of E-cadherin. Acetaldehyde increased the phosphorylation of β-catenin on Tyr-331, Tyr-333, Tyr-654 and Tyr-670. These results show that acetaldehyde induces disruption of interactions between E-cadherin, β-catenin and PTP1B by a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. PMID:17087658

  15. Polluted Pathways: Mechanisms of Metabolic Disruption by Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Mimoto, Mizuho S; Nadal, Angel; Sargis, Robert M

    2017-06-01

    Environmental toxicants are increasingly implicated in the global decline in metabolic health. Focusing on diabetes, herein, the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which metabolism disrupting chemicals (MDCs) impair energy homeostasis are discussed. Emerging data implicate MDC perturbations in a variety of pathways as contributors to metabolic disease pathogenesis, with effects in diverse tissues regulating fuel utilization. Potentiation of traditional metabolic risk factors, such as caloric excess, and emerging threats to metabolism, such as disruptions in circadian rhythms, are important areas of current and future MDC research. Increasing evidence also implicates deleterious effects of MDCs on metabolic programming that occur during vulnerable developmental windows, such as in utero and early post-natal life as well as pregnancy. Recent insights into the mechanisms by which MDCs alter energy homeostasis will advance the field's ability to predict interactions with classical metabolic disease risk factors and empower studies utilizing targeted therapeutics to treat MDC-mediated diabetes.

  16. Disruptive technologies and transportation : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-01

    Disruptive technologies refer to innovations that, at first, may be considered unproven, lacking refinement, relatively unknown, or even impractical, but ultimately they supplant existing technologies and/or applications. In general, disruptive techn...

  17. Disrupted Nighttime Sleep in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Thomas; Dauvilliers, Yves; Mignot, Emmanuel; Montplaisir, Jacques; Paul, Josh; Swick, Todd; Zee, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Characterize disrupted nighttime sleep (DNS) in narcolepsy, an important symptom of narcolepsy. Methods: A panel of international narcolepsy experts was convened in 2011 to build a consensus characterization of DNS in patients with narcolepsy. A literature search of the Medline (1965 to date), Medline In-Process (latest weeks), Embase (1974 to date), Embase Alert (latest 8 weeks), and Biosis (1965 to date) databases was conducted using the following search terms: narcolepsy and disrupted nighttime sleep, disturbed nighttime sleep, fragmented sleep, consolidated sleep, sleep disruption, and narcolepsy questionnaire. The purpose of the literature search was to identify publications characterizing the nighttime sleep of patients with narcolepsy. The panel reviewed the literature. Nocturnal sleep can also be disturbed by REM sleep abnormalities such as vivid dreaming and REM sleep behavior disorder; however, these were not reviewed in the current paper, as we were evaluating for idiopathic sleep disturbances. Results: The literature reviewed provide a consistent characterization of nighttime sleep in patients with narcolepsy as fragmented, with reports of frequent, brief nightly awakenings with difficulties returning to sleep and associated reports of poor sleep quality. Polysomnographic studies consistently report frequent awakenings/arousals after sleep onset, more stage 1 (S1) sleep, and more frequent shifts to S1 sleep or wake from deeper stages of sleep. The consensus of the International Experts' Panel on Narcolepsy was that DNS can be distressing for patients with narcolepsy and that treatment of DNS warrants consideration. Conclusions: Clinicians involved in the management of patients with narcolepsy should investigate patients' quality of nighttime sleep, give weight and consideration to patient reports of nighttime sleep experience, and consider DNS a target for treatment. Citation: Roth T; Dauvilliers Y; Mignot E; Montplaisir J; Paul J

  18. National Defense Industrial Association Disruptive Technologies Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-14

    NDIA Disruptive Technologies 10/16/2009 Page-1 National Defense Industrial Association Disruptive Technologies Conference 14 October 2009 The...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 6th Annual Disruptive Technologies Conference, 14-15 oct 2009, Washington, DC 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16...of conflict NDIA Disruptive Technologies 10/16/2009 Page-3 DDR&E Imperatives 1. Accelerate delivery of technical capabilities to win the current

  19. Disrupted narrative and narrative symbol.

    PubMed

    Vuletić, Georgije

    2018-02-01

    In this article a specific type of narrative, which often appears in analytic sessions, is discussed. It is characterized by a seemingly ordinary, everyday topic and by a peculiar disruption of the narrative flow. The threefold structure of this type of narrative is described, along with its main characteristics. One element of this type of narrative is very similar to symbolic content or complex symbolic structures, e.g. dreams, the sort of material that can be used for the purpose of interpretation. The similarities as well as the differences are elaborated in the article. Thanks to the observed general structure and 'symbolic' nature of some parts of the narrative, it is easy to notice some of the unconscious elements, which are not familiar to the patient's ego, and to make an interpretation. Because these elements are close to the threshold of consciousness, the patient willingly accepts an interpretation based on them. This is especially true for patients whose dominant function is thinking. A temporary, working name for this type of narrative is proposed in the article: 'disrupted narrative' - and for its disruptive part 'narrative symbol'. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  20. A Strong Merger Shock in Abell 665

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasadia, S.; Sun, M.; Sarazin, C.; Morandi, A.; Markevitch, M.; Wik, D.; Feretti, L.; Giovannini, G.; Govoni, F.

    2016-01-01

    Deep (103 ks) Chandra observations of Abell 665 have revealed rich structures in this merging galaxy cluster, including a strong shock and two cold fronts. The newly discovered shock has a Mach number of M =?3.0 +/- 0.6, propagating in front of a cold disrupted cloud. This makes Abell 665 the second cluster, after the Bullet cluster, where a strong merger shock of M is approximately 3 has been detected. The shock velocity from jump conditions is consistent with (2.7 +/- 0.7) × 10(exp 3) km s(exp -1). The new data also reveal a prominent southern cold front with potentially heated gas ahead of it. Abell 665 also hosts a giant radio halo. There is a hint of diffuse radio emission extending to the shock at the north, which needs to be examined with better radio data. This new strong shock provides a great opportunity to study the reacceleration model with the X-ray and radio data combined.

  1. Disruption and Distinctiveness in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    "Disruption"--while an evocative word triggering feelings of anxiety and perhaps even fear--also signals renewal and growth. The Higher Education (HE) sector in England has experienced some profound disruption over the years, and yet has emerged stronger and renewed in many ways. The impact of recent disruptive forces, from fees to the…

  2. Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

  3. Routine Responses to Disruption of Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guha, Mahua

    2015-01-01

    "Organisational routines" is a widely studied research area. However, there is a dearth of research on disruption of routines. The few studies on disruption of routines discussed problem-solving activities that are carried out in response to disruption. In contrast, this study develops a theory of "solution routines" that are a…

  4. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Tidal Disruption Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenko, Stephen B.

    2017-08-01

    When a star passes within the sphere of disruption of a massive black hole, tidal forces will overcome self-gravity and unbind the star. While approximately half of the stellar debris is ejected at high velocities, the remaining material stays bound to the black hole and accretes, resulting in a luminous, long-lived transient known as a tidal disruption flare (TDF). In addition to serving as unique laboratories for accretion physics,TDFs offer the hope of measuring black hole masses in galaxies much too distant for resolved kinematic studies.In order to realize this potential, we must better understand the detailed processes by which the bound debris circularizes and forms an accretion disk. Spectroscopy is critical to this effort, as emission and absorption line diagnostics provide insight into the location and physical state (velocity, density, composition) of the emitting gas (in analogy with quasars). UV spectra are particularly critical, as most strong atomic features fall in this bandpass, and high-redshift TDF discoveries from LSST will sample rest-frame UV wavelengths.Here I present recent attempts to obtain UV spectra of tidal disruption flares. I describe the UV spectrum of ASASSN-14li, in which we detect three classes of features: narrow absorption from the Milky Way (probably a high-velocity cloud), and narrow absorption and broad (2000-8000 km s-1) emission lines at or near the systemic host velocity. The absorption lines are blueshifted with respect to the emission lines by 250-400 km s-1. Due both to this velocity offset and the lack of common low-ionization features (Mg II, Fe II), we argue these arise from the same absorbing material responsible for the low-velocity outflow discovered at X-ray wavelengths. The broad nuclear emission lines display a remarkable abundance pattern: N III], N IV], and He II are quite prominent, while the common quasar emission lines of C III] and Mg II are weak or entirely absent. Detailed modeling of this spectrum will

  5. 3D hydrodynamic simulations of tidal disruption of terrestrial planets around white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shangfei; Zhang, Jinsu; Lin, Douglas N. C.

    2018-01-01

    Recent K2 mission spotted striking variability due to a group of minor bodies transiting white dwarf WD 1145+017 with periods ranging from 4.5 hours to 4.9 hours. One of the formation scenarios is that those transiting objects are the debris of a tidally disrupted minor planet. This scenario is consistent with fact that the white dwarf also hosts a dusty disk and displays strong metal atmospheric pollution. In this work, we perform state-of-the-art three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to study the consequences of tidal disruption of planets with various differentiated compositions by a white dwarf. We study the general outcomes of tidal disruption including partially disruption and total disruption. We also apply our results to the WD 1145+017 system to infer the physical and orbital properties of the progenitor.

  6. The formation of ordered nanoclusters controls cadherin anchoring to actin and cell–cell contact fluidity

    PubMed Central

    Strale, Pierre-Olivier; Duchesne, Laurence; Peyret, Grégoire; Montel, Lorraine; Nguyen, Thao; Png, Evelyn; Tampé, Robert; Troyanovsky, Sergey; Hénon, Sylvie; Ladoux, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Oligomerization of cadherins could provide the stability to ensure tissue cohesion. Cadherins mediate cell–cell adhesion by forming trans-interactions. They form cis-interactions whose role could be essential to stabilize intercellular junctions by shifting cadherin clusters from a fluid to an ordered phase. However, no evidence has been provided so far for cadherin oligomerization in cellulo and for its impact on cell–cell contact stability. Visualizing single cadherins within cell membrane at a nanometric resolution, we show that E-cadherins arrange in ordered clusters, providing the first demonstration of the existence of oligomeric cadherins at cell–cell contacts. Studying the consequences of the disruption of the cis-interface, we show that it is not essential for adherens junction formation. Its disruption, however, increased the mobility of junctional E-cadherin. This destabilization strongly affected E-cadherin anchoring to actin and cell–cell rearrangement during collective cell migration, indicating that the formation of oligomeric clusters controls the anchoring of cadherin to actin and cell–cell contact fluidity. PMID:26195669

  7. Disrupted nighttime sleep in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Thomas; Dauvilliers, Yves; Mignot, Emmanuel; Montplaisir, Jacques; Paul, Josh; Swick, Todd; Zee, Phyllis

    2013-09-15

    Characterize disrupted nighttime sleep (DNS) in narcolepsy, an important symptom of narcolepsy. A panel of international narcolepsy experts was convened in 2011 to build a consensus characterization of DNS in patients with narcolepsy. A literature search of the Medline (1965 to date), Medline In-Process (latest weeks), Embase (1974 to date), Embase Alert (latest 8 weeks), and Biosis (1965 to date) databases was conducted using the following search terms: narcolepsy and disrupted nighttime sleep, disturbed nighttime sleep, fragmented sleep, consolidated sleep, sleep disruption, and narcolepsy questionnaire. The purpose of the literature search was to identify publications characterizing the nighttime sleep of patients with narcolepsy. The panel reviewed the literature. Nocturnal sleep can also be disturbed by REM sleep abnormalities such as vivid dreaming and REM sleep behavior disorder; however, these were not reviewed in the current paper, as we were evaluating for idiopathic sleep disturbances. The literature reviewed provide a consistent characterization of nighttime sleep in patients with narcolepsy as fragmented, with reports of frequent, brief nightly awakenings with difficulties returning to sleep and associated reports of poor sleep quality. Polysomnographic studies consistently report frequent awakenings/arousals after sleep onset, more stage 1 (S1) sleep, and more frequent shifts to S1 sleep or wake from deeper stages of sleep. The consensus of the International Experts' Panel on Narcolepsy was that DNS can be distressing for patients with narcolepsy and that treatment of DNS warrants consideration. Clinicians involved in the management of patients with narcolepsy should investigate patients' quality of nighttime sleep, give weight and consideration to patient reports of nighttime sleep experience, and consider DNS a target for treatment.

  8. Collisional disruption of gravitational aggregates in the tidal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hyodo, Ryuki; Ohtsuki, Keiji

    2014-05-20

    The degree of disruption in collisions in free space is determined by specific impact energy, and the mass fraction of the largest remnant is a monotonically decreasing function of impact energy. However, it has not been shown whether such a relationship is applicable to collisions under the influence of a planet's tidal force, which is important in ring dynamics and satellite accretion. Here we examine the collisional disruption of gravitational aggregates in the tidal environment by using local N-body simulations. We find that outcomes of such a collision largely depend on the impact velocity, the direction of impact, and themore » radial distance from the planet. In the case of a strong tidal field corresponding to Saturn's F ring, collisions in the azimuthal direction are much more destructive than those in the radial direction. Numerical results of collisions sensitively depend on the impact velocity, and a complete disruption of aggregates can occur even in impacts with velocity much lower than their escape velocity. In such low-velocity collisions, the deformation of colliding aggregates plays an essential role in determining collision outcomes, because the physical size of the aggregate is comparable to its Hill radius. On the other hand, the dependence of collision outcomes on impact velocity becomes similar to the case in free space when the distance from the planet is sufficiently large. Our results are consistent with Cassini observations of the F ring, which suggest ongoing creation and disruption of aggregates within the ring.« less

  9. Disruptive innovation for social change.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Clayton M; Baumann, Heiner; Ruggles, Rudy; Sadtler, Thomas M

    2006-12-01

    Countries, organizations, and individuals around the globe spend aggressively to solve social problems, but these efforts often fail to deliver. Misdirected investment is the primary reason for that failure. Most of the money earmarked for social initiatives goes to organizations that are structured to support specific groups of recipients, often with sophisticated solutions. Such organizations rarely reach the broader populations that could be served by simpler alternatives. There is, however, an effective way to get to those underserved populations. The authors call it "catalytic innovation." Based on Clayton Christensen's disruptive-innovation model, catalytic innovations challenge organizational incumbents by offering simpler, good-enough solutions aimed at underserved groups. Unlike disruptive innovations, though, catalytic innovations are focused on creating social change. Catalytic innovators are defined by five distinct qualities. First, they create social change through scaling and replication. Second, they meet a need that is either overserved (that is, the existing solution is more complex than necessary for many people) or not served at all. Third, the products and services they offer are simpler and cheaper than alternatives, but recipients view them as good enough. Fourth, they bring in resources in ways that initially seem unattractive to incumbents. And fifth, they are often ignored, put down, or even encouraged by existing organizations, which don't see the catalytic innovators' solutions as viable. As the authors show through examples in health care, education, and economic development, both nonprofit and for-profit groups are finding ways to create catalytic innovation that drives social change.

  10. Transgenerational neuroendocrine disruption of reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Deena M.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is associated with dysfunctions of metabolism, energy balance, thyroid function and reproduction, and an increased risk of endocrine cancers. These multifactorial disorders can be ‘programmed’ through molecular epigenetic changes induced by exposure to EDCs early in life, the expression of which may not manifest until adulthood. In some cases, EDCs have detrimental effects on subsequent generations, which indicates that traits for disease predisposition may be passed to future generations by nongenomic inheritance. This Review discusses current understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms that underlie sexual differentiation of reproductive neuroendocrine systems in mammals and summarizes the literature on transgenerational epigenetic effects of representative EDCs: vinclozolin, diethylstilbesterol, bisphenol A and polychlorinated biphenyls. The article differentiates between context-dependent epigenetic transgenerational changes—namely, those that require environmental exposure, either via the EDC itself or through behavioral or physiological differences in parents—and germline-dependent epigenetic mechanisms. These processes, albeit discrete, are not mutually exclusive and can involve similar molecular mechanisms including DNA methylation and histone modifications and may predispose exposed individuals to transgenerational disruption of reproductive processes. New insights stress the crucial need to develop a clear understanding of how EDCs may program the epigenome of exposed individuals and their descendants. PMID:21263448

  11. Monitoring-induced disruption in skilled typewriting.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Kristy M; Logan, Gordon D

    2013-10-01

    It is often disruptive to attend to the details of one's expert performance. The current work presents four experiments that utilized a monitor to report protocol to evaluate the sufficiency of three accounts of monitoring-induced disruption. The inhibition hypothesis states that disruption results from costs associated with preparing to withhold inappropriate responses. The dual-task hypothesis states that disruption results from maintaining monitored information in working memory. The implicit-explicit hypothesis states that disruption results from explicitly monitoring details of performance that are normally implicit. The findings suggest that all three hypotheses are sufficient to produce disruption, but inhibition and dual-task costs are not necessary. Experiment 1 showed that monitoring to report was disruptive even when there was no requirement to inhibit. Experiment 2 showed that maintaining information in working memory caused some disruption but much less than monitoring to report. Experiment 4 showed that monitoring to inhibit was more disruptive than monitoring to report, suggesting that monitoring is more disruptive when it is combined with other task requirements, such as inhibition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Starting Strong: A School-Based Indicated Prevention Program during the Transition to Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Taylor, Heather; Baker, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Starting Strong in Kindergarten (Starting Strong) is a school-based indicated prevention targeting behavior problems, student-teacher relationships, and parent-school connectedness for children with or at risk for disruptive behavior problems during the transition to kindergarten. By use of a block-randomized, controlled trial to test program…

  13. Catastrophic Disruption Threshold and Maximum Deflection from Kinetic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The use of a kinetic impactor to deflect an asteroid on a collision course with Earth was described in the NASA Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives (2007) as the most mature approach for asteroid deflection and mitigation. The NASA DART mission will demonstrate asteroid deflection by kinetic impact at the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 65803 Didymos in October, 2022. The kinetic impactor approach is considered to be applicable with warning times of 10 years or more and with hazardous asteroid diameters of 400 m or less. In principle, a larger kinetic impactor bringing greater kinetic energy could cause a larger deflection, but input of excessive kinetic energy will cause catastrophic disruption of the target, leaving possibly large fragments still on collision course with Earth. Thus the catastrophic disruption threshold limits the maximum deflection from a kinetic impactor. An often-cited rule of thumb states that the maximum deflection is 0.1 times the escape velocity before the target will be disrupted. It turns out this rule of thumb does not work well. A comparison to numerical simulation results shows that a similar rule applies in the gravity limit, for large targets more than 300 m, where the maximum deflection is roughly the escape velocity at momentum enhancement factor β=2. In the gravity limit, the rule of thumb corresponds to pure momentum coupling (μ=1/3), but simulations find a slightly different scaling μ=0.43. In the smaller target size range that kinetic impactors would apply to, the catastrophic disruption limit is strength-controlled. A DART-like impactor won't disrupt any target asteroid down to significantly smaller size than the 50 m below which a hazardous object would not penetrate the atmosphere in any case unless it is unusually strong.

  14. Catastrophic disruption experiments: Recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martelli, G.; Ryan, E. V.; Nakamura, A. M.; Giblin, I.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the progress in the field of catastrophic disruption experiments over the past 4 years, since the publication of the review paper by Fujiwara et al. (1989). We describe the development of new techniques to produce shattering impacts relevant to the study of the collisional evolution of the asteroids, and summarize the results from numerous experiments which have been performed to date, using a variety of materials for both the impactor and the targets. Some of these, such as ice-on-ice, loose aggregates and pressurized targets, are quite new and have provided novel and exciting results. Some of the gaps existing previously in the data on fragment ejection-angle distributions, as well as translational and rotational velocity fields (including fine fragments) have been filled, and these new results will be surveyed.

  15. ITER Disruption Mitigation System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, David; Lyttle, M. S.; Baylor, L. R.; Carmichael, J. R.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Combs, S. K.; Ericson, N. M.; Bull-Ezell, N. D.; Fehling, D. T.; Fisher, P. W.; Foust, C. R.; Ha, T.; Meitner, S. J.; Nycz, A.; Shoulders, J. M.; Smith, S. F.; Warmack, R. J.; Coburn, J. D.; Gebhart, T. E.; Fisher, J. T.; Reed, J. R.; Younkin, T. R.

    2015-11-01

    The disruption mitigation system for ITER is under design and will require injection of up to 10 kPa-m3 of deuterium, helium, neon, or argon material for thermal mitigation and up to 100 kPa-m3 of material for suppression of runaway electrons. A hybrid unit compatible with the ITER nuclear, thermal and magnetic field environment is being developed. The unit incorporates a fast gas valve for massive gas injection (MGI) and a shattered pellet injector (SPI) to inject a massive spray of small particles, and can be operated as an SPI with a frozen pellet or an MGI without a pellet. Three ITER upper port locations will have three SPI/MGI units with a common delivery tube. One equatorial port location has space for sixteen similar SPI/MGI units. Supported by US DOE under DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  16. CATASTROPHIC DISRUPTION OF COMET ISON

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, Jacqueline V.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Riesen, Timm-Emmanuel

    2016-11-10

    We report submillimeter 450 and 850 μ m dust continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained at heliocentric distances 0.31–0.08 au prior to perihelion on 2013 November 28 ( r {sub h} = 0.0125 au). These observations reveal a rapidly varying dust environment in which the dust emission was initially point-like. As ISON approached perihelion, the continuum emission became an elongated dust column spread out over as much as 60″ (>10{sup 5} km) in the anti-solar direction. Deconvolution of the November 28.04 850 μ m image reveals numerous distinct clumps consistent with the catastrophic disruption of comet ISON, producingmore » ∼5.2 × 10{sup 10} kg of submillimeter-sized dust. Orbital computations suggest that the SCUBA-2 emission peak coincides with the comet's residual nucleus.« less

  17. Catastrophic Disruption of Comet ISON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keane, Jacqueline V.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Coulson, Iain M.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Sekanina, Zdenek; Kracht, Rainer; Riesen, Timm-Emmanuel; Meech, Karen J.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    We report submillimeter 450 and 850 microns dust continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained at heliocentric distances 0.31-0.08 au prior to perihelion on 2013 November 28 (rh?=?0.0125 au). These observations reveal a rapidly varying dust environment in which the dust emission was initially point-like. As ISON approached perihelion, the continuum emission became an elongated dust column spread out over as much as 60? (greater than 10(exp 5) km in the anti-solar direction. Deconvolution of the November 28.04 850 microns image reveals numerous distinct clumps consistent with the catastrophic disruption of comet ISON, producing approximately 5.2?×?10(exp 10) kg of submillimeter-sized dust. Orbital computations suggest that the SCUBA-2 emission peak coincides with the comet's residual nucleus.

  18. Rethinking Innovation: Disruptive Technology and Strategic Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Computer News, a magazine on public sector information technology. Pierce teaches classes at the Naval Postgraduate School and recently authored Warfighting and Disruptive Technologies : Disguising Innovation.

  19. Tidal Disruption Events Prefer Unusual Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcavi, Iair; French, K. Decker; Zabludoff, Ann I.

    2016-06-01

    A star passing close to a supermassive black hole (SMBH) can be torn apart in a Tidal Disruption Events (TDE). TDEs that are accompanied by observable flares are now being discovered in transient surveys and are revealing the presence and the properties of otherwise-quiescent SMBHs. Recently, it was discovered that TDEs show a strong preference for rare post-starburst galaxies, (i.e. galaxies that have undergone intense star formation but are no longer forming stars today). We quantify this preference and find that TDEs are approximately 30-200 times more likely to occur in post-starburst hosts (compared to the general SDSS galaxy population), with the enhancement factor depending on the star formation history of the galaxy. This surprising host-galaxy preference connects the until-now disparate TDE subclasses of UV/optical-dominated TDEs and X-ray-dominated TDEs, and serves as the basis for TDE-targeted transient surveys. Post-starburst galaxies may be post-mergers, with binary SMBH systems that are still spiraling in. Such systems could enhance the TDE rate, but it is not yet clear if models can quantitatively reproduce the observed enhancement. Alternative explanations for enhanced TDE rate in post-starbursts include non-spherical post-merger central potentials and enhanced rates of giant stars.

  20. Microtearing turbulence: Magnetic braiding and disruption limit

    SciTech Connect

    Firpo, Marie-Christine

    2015-12-15

    A realistic reduced model involving a large poloidal spectrum of microtearing modes is used to probe the existence of some stochasticity of magnetic field lines. Stochasticity is shown to occur even for the low values of the magnetic perturbation δB/B devoted to magnetic turbulence that have been experimentally measured. Because the diffusion coefficient may strongly depend on the radial (or magnetic-flux) coordinate, being very low near some resonant surfaces, and because its evaluation implicitly makes a normal diffusion hypothesis, one turns to another indicator appropriate to diagnose the confinement: the mean residence time of magnetic field lines. Their computation inmore » the microturbulence frame points to the existence of a disruption limit, namely of a critical order of magnitude of δB/B above which stochasticity is no longer benign yet, leads to a macroscopic loss of confinement in some tens to hundred of electron toroidal excursions. Since the level of magnetic turbulence δB/B has been measured to grow with the plasma electron density, this would also be a density limit.« less

  1. Disrupting Reconsolidation: Pharmacological and Behavioral Manipulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited modifications. At the same time, the fear-erasing effects…

  2. Classroom Disruption in English Comprehensive Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierenfield, Richard B.

    A comparative study was made of disruptive behavior in British comprehensive schools and American high schools. A survey was conducted in 41 British schools to obtain the opinions of teachers and administrators on severe discipline problems, causes of disruptive behavior, and possible solutions. There was general agreement that classroom…

  3. Disrupting the old order of imaging.

    PubMed

    Jha, Saurabh; Lexa, Frank J

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to expand on the economic concepts of creative destruction and disruptive innovation to imagine scenarios in which diagnostic imaging modalities and certain imaging paradigms can be rendered obsolete. Potential disrupters of imaging are novel drugs, clinical trials, accurate biomarkers, and government regulations. A taxonomic schema can be used to better predict the decline of certain imaging modalities.

  4. Resistance to Disruption in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E.; Neal, Carrie M.; Ahearn, William H.; Wheeler, Emily E.; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B.; Dube, William V.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple…

  5. Rurality and Patterns of Social Disruption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Kenneth P.

    1984-01-01

    Argues that structural cleavages provoke social disruptions where opportunities are conducive. Thus, combinations of rurality with particular structural cleavages predict specific disruption patterns. Data from northeastern United States indicate that rurality, combined with other population characteristics (provocation, ascriptive inequality,…

  6. Plasma membrane disruption: repair, prevention, adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeil, Paul L.; Steinhardt, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Many metazoan cells inhabit mechanically stressful environments and, consequently, their plasma membranes are frequently disrupted. Survival requires that the cell rapidly repair or reseal the disruption. Rapid resealing is an active and complex structural modification that employs endomembrane as its primary building block, and cytoskeletal and membrane fusion proteins as its catalysts. Endomembrane is delivered to the damaged plasma membrane through exocytosis, a ubiquitous Ca2+-triggered response to disruption. Tissue and cell level architecture prevent disruptions from occurring, either by shielding cells from damaging levels of force, or, when this is not possible, by promoting safe force transmission through the plasma membrane via protein-based cables and linkages. Prevention of disruption also can be a dynamic cell or tissue level adaptation triggered when a damaging level of mechanical stress is imposed. Disease results from failure of either the preventive or resealing mechanisms.

  7. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  8. Mapping the tidally disrupting Andromeda XXVII and its stellar stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Janet; Collins, Michelle; Bonaca, Ana; Ibata, Rodrigo; Tollerud, Erik; Geha, Marla; PAndAS Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    Andromeda XXVII is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the outskirts of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). It appears to be dissolving in to the Northern arc of M31, and could be the remnant of a strong tidal disruption. In the upcoming months, our spectroscopic program, which has measured velocities for multiple stars within both the dwarf galaxy progenitor and its stream (using the Keck II DEIMOS telescope, as part of the PAndAS survey), will determine velocity dispersions, scale radii and metallicities of both the dwarf and the stream. This in turn may enable us to ascertain the progenitor mass profile and determine whether it is cusped or cored.

  9. Ultrafast outflows in Super-Eddington Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Erin

    2017-08-01

    The disruption of a star from the strong tidal forces of a supermassive black hole can cause the stellar debris to fall back towards the black hole at super Eddington rates. Efficient circularization of the debris can lead to the formation of an accretion disc with luminosities close to or potentially exceeding Eddington limit. Most super-Eddington accretion flow models (including recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations) predict large scale height, optically thick equatorial winds at relativistic velocities. In this talk, we will present observational results from two of the most well-observed X-ray emitting Tidal Disruption Events, Swift J1644+57 and ASASSN-14li. Both of these objects show evidence for massive outflows at tens of percent of the speed of light. The outflow in Swift J1644+57 was detected via blue shifted emission and reverberation of the iron K alpha line, and ASASSN-14li shows a potential P Cygni profile of the OVIII line. We will discuss the constraints that these observations put on the geometry of the super-Eddington accretion flows in tidal disruption events.

  10. An autoantibody in narcolepsy disrupts colonic migrating motor complexes.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael W; Reed, Joanne H; Smith, Anthony J F; Gordon, Tom P

    2008-12-03

    Despite strong circumstantial evidence for the autoimmune hypothesis of narcolepsy, conventional immunological methods have failed to detect an autoantibody. This study investigated the real-time effects of narcoleptic immunoglobulins on a spontaneous colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC) preparation. IgG from patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy or healthy controls was added directly to isolated mouse colons undergoing CMMC activity to test for autoantibodies that disrupt colonic motility. The effect of immunoglobulins prepared for clinical intravenous treatment (IVIg) on autoantibody-mediated colonic disruption was also assessed. Narcoleptic IgGs markedly reduced the frequency of CMMCs or irreversibly abolished them. Abrogation of CMMCs was followed by an increase in the resting tension of the colon preparation and appearance of atropine-sensitive phasic smooth muscle contractions. IVIg partially neutralized the inhibitory effect of narcoleptic IgG on the CMMCs. The dramatic effect of narcoleptic IgG on CMMC generation is consistent with an autoantibody-mediated disruption of enteric neural pathways. The ex vivo whole-organ approach allows real-time examination of the physiological effects of the narcoleptic autoantibody and offers a new avenue for exploring the autoimmune basis of narcolepsy. The neutralizing effect of IVIg on the autoantibody provides a rationale for the reported clinical improvement in cataplexy when IVIg are given at disease onset.

  11. Disruptions generated runaways in the FTU high field tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, F. M.; Esposito, B.; Maddaluno, G.; Martin-Solis, J. R.

    2001-10-01

    Disruptions in FTU are usually accompanied by the generation of a strong pulse of photoneutrons (YN 10^12n/s), resulting from photonuclear reactions induced by the bremsstrahlung radiation emitted when runaway electrons (REs) strike the plasma facing components. Measurements of YN during major disruptions on TS [1] showed variations of three orders of magnitude when the toroidal field Bt increases from 1.8T to 3.9T. Similar results were found on JT-60 [2], where no REs are produced for low Bt (<2.2T) and a large YN was measured for higher fields (up to 4T). The range of Bt available in FTU (4T-8T) allows to extend such analysis so that useful predictions can be obtained for operation in next-step high field tokamaks (IGNITOR, ITER). The dependence of YN on Bt is investigated in several FTU disruptions. YN increases with Bt for B_t=4T-6T, while no variation is found for B_t=6T-8T: the role played by ne and Ip on such trend is discussed. [1]P.Joyer,G.Martin,Contr.Fusion and Plasma Heating,Proc.17^thEPS Conf.Amsterdam(1990) [2]R.Yoshino et al.,Nucl.Fus.39 151 (1999)

  12. Masking disrupts reentrant processing in human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Fahrenfort, J J; Scholte, H S; Lamme, V A F

    2007-09-01

    In masking, a stimulus is rendered invisible through the presentation of a second stimulus shortly after the first. Over the years, authors have typically explained masking by postulating some early disruption process. In these feedforward-type explanations, the mask somehow "catches up" with the target stimulus, disrupting its processing either through lateral or interchannel inhibition. However, studies from recent years indicate that visual perception--and most notably visual awareness itself--may depend strongly on cortico-cortical feedback connections from higher to lower visual areas. This has led some researchers to propose that masking derives its effectiveness from selectively interrupting these reentrant processes. In this experiment, we used electroencephalogram measurements to determine what happens in the human visual cortex during detection of a texture-defined square under nonmasked (seen) and masked (unseen) conditions. Electro-encephalogram derivatives that are typically associated with reentrant processing turn out to be absent in the masked condition. Moreover, extrastriate visual areas are still activated early on by both seen and unseen stimuli, as shown by scalp surface Laplacian current source-density maps. This conclusively shows that feedforward processing is preserved, even when subject performance is at chance as determined by objective measures. From these results, we conclude that masking derives its effectiveness, at least partly, from disrupting reentrant processing, thereby interfering with the neural mechanisms of figure-ground segmentation and visual awareness itself.

  13. Microalgal cell disruption via ultrasonic nozzle spraying.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Yuan, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated.

  14. Collisional disruptions of rotating targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ševeček, Pavel; Broz, Miroslav

    2017-10-01

    Collisions are key processes in the evolution of the Main Asteroid Belt and impact events - i.e. target fragmentation and gravitational reaccumulation - are commonly studied by numerical simulations, namely by SPH and N-body methods. In our work, we extend the previous studies by assuming rotating targets and we study the dependence of resulting size-distributions on the pre-impact rotation of the target. To obtain stable initial conditions, it is also necessary to include the self-gravity already in the fragmentation phase which was previously neglected.To tackle this problem, we developed an SPH code, accelerated by SSE/AVX instruction sets and parallelized. The code solves the standard set of hydrodynamic equations, using the Tillotson equation of state, von Mises criterion for plastic yielding and scalar Grady-Kipp model for fragmentation. We further modified the velocity gradient by a correction tensor (Schäfer et al. 2007) to ensure a first-order conservation of the total angular momentum. As the intact target is a spherical body, its gravity can be approximated by a potential of a homogeneous sphere, making it easy to set up initial conditions. This is however infeasible for later stages of the disruption; to this point, we included the Barnes-Hut algorithm to compute the gravitational accelerations, using a multipole expansion of distant particles up to hexadecapole order.We tested the code carefully, comparing the results to our previous computations obtained with the SPH5 code (Benz and Asphaug 1994). Finally, we ran a set of simulations and we discuss the difference between the synthetic families created by rotating and static targets.

  15. Strong and Long Makes Short: Strong-Pump Strong-Probe Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gelin, Maxim F; Egorova, Dassia; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2011-01-20

    We propose a new time-domain spectroscopic technique that is based on strong pump and probe pulses. The strong-pump strong-probe (SPSP) technique provides temporal resolution that is not limited by the durations of the pump and probe pulses. By numerically exact simulations of SPSP signals for a multilevel vibronic model, we show that the SPSP signals exhibit electronic and vibrational beatings on time scales which are significantly shorter than the pulse durations. This suggests the possible application of SPSP spectroscopy for the real-time investigation of molecular processes that cannot be temporally resolved by pump-probe spectroscopy with weak pump and probe pulses.

  16. Formation and termination of runaway beams in ITER disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Solís, J. R.; Loarte, A.; Lehnen, M.

    2017-06-01

    A self-consistent analysis of the relevant physics regarding the formation and termination of runaway beams during mitigated disruptions by Ar and Ne injection is presented for selected ITER scenarios with the aim of improving our understanding of the physics underlying the runaway heat loads onto the plasma facing components (PFCs) and identifying open issues for developing and accessing disruption mitigation schemes for ITER. This is carried out by means of simplified models, but still retaining sufficient details of the key physical processes, including: (a) the expected dominant runaway generation mechanisms (avalanche and primary runaway seeds: Dreicer and hot tail runaway generation, tritium decay and Compton scattering of γ rays emitted by the activated wall), (b) effects associated with the plasma and runaway current density profile shape, and (c) corrections to the runaway dynamics to account for the collisions of the runaways with the partially stripped impurity ions, which are found to have strong effects leading to low runaway current generation and low energy conversion during current termination for mitigated disruptions by noble gas injection (particularly for Ne injection) for the shortest current quench times compatible with acceptable forces on the ITER vessel and in-vessel components ({τ\\text{res}}∼ 22~\\text{ms} ). For the case of long current quench times ({τ\\text{res}}∼ 66~\\text{ms} ), runaway beams up to  ∼10 MA can be generated during the disruption current quench and, if the termination of the runaway current is slow enough, the generation of runaways by the avalanche mechanism can play an important role, increasing substantially the energy deposited by the runaways onto the PFCs up to a few hundreds of MJs. Mixed impurity (Ar or Ne) plus deuterium injection proves to be effective in controlling the formation of the runaway current during the current quench, even for the longest current quench times, as well as in decreasing

  17. Enhanced gravitropism of roots with a disrupted cap actin cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Guichuan; Mohamalawari, Deepti R.; Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2003-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been proposed to be a major player in plant gravitropism. However, understanding the role of actin in this process is far from complete. To address this problem, we conducted an analysis of the effect of Latrunculin B (Lat B), a potent actin-disrupting drug, on root gravitropism using various parameters that included detailed curvature kinetics, estimation of gravitropic sensitivity, and monitoring of curvature development after extended clinorotation. Lat B treatment resulted in a promotion of root curvature after a 90 degrees reorientation in three plant species tested. More significantly, the sensitivity of maize (Zea mays) roots to gravity was enhanced after actin disruption, as determined from a comparison of presentation time of Lat B-treated versus untreated roots. A short 10-min gravistimulus followed by extended rotation on a 1-rpm clinostat resulted in extensive gravitropic responses, manifested as curvature that often exceeded 90 degrees. Application of Lat B to the cap or elongation zone of maize roots resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, which was confined to the area of localized Lat B application. Only roots with Lat B applied to the cap displayed the strong curvature responses after extended clinorotation. Our study demonstrates that disrupting the actin cytoskeleton in the cap leads to the persistence of a signal established by a previous gravistimulus. Therefore, actin could function in root gravitropism by providing a mechanism to regulate the proliferation of a gravitropic signal originating from the cap to allow the root to attain its correct orientation or set point angle.

  18. System and method for disrupting suspect objects

    DOEpatents

    Gladwell, T. Scott; Garretson, Justin R; Hobart, Clinton G; Monda, Mark J

    2013-07-09

    A system and method for disrupting at least one component of a suspect object is provided. The system includes a source for passing radiation through the suspect object, a screen for receiving the radiation passing through the suspect object and generating at least one image therefrom, a weapon having a discharge deployable therefrom, and a targeting unit. The targeting unit displays the image(s) of the suspect object and aims the weapon at a disruption point on the displayed image such that the weapon may be positioned to deploy the discharge at the disruption point whereby the suspect object is disabled.

  19. Strong Gravitational Lensing with LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Philip J.; Bradac, M.; Chartas, G.; Dobler, G.; Eliasdottir, A.; Falco, E.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Jee, M. J.; Keeton, C. R.; Oguri, M.; Tyson, J. A.; LSST Strong Lensing Science Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    LSST will find more strong gravitational lensing events than any other survey preceding it, and will monitor them all at a cadence of a few days to a few weeks. We can expect the biggest advances in strong lensing science made with LSST to be in those areas that benefit most from the large volume, and the high accuracy multi-filter time series: studies of, and using, several thousand lensed quasars and several hundred supernovae. However, the high quality imaging will allow us to detect and measure large numbers of background galaxies multiply-imaged by galaxies, groups and clusters. In this poster we give an overview of the strong lensing science enabled by LSST, and highlight the particular associated technical challenges that will have to be faced when working with the survey.

  20. Strong Photoassociation in Ultracold Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Li; Jamison, Alan; Rvachov, Timur; Ebadi, Sepher; Son, Hyungmok; Jiang, Yijun; Zwierlein, Martin; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Despite many studies there are still open questions about strong photoassociation in ultracold gases. Photoassociation occurs only at short range and thus can be used as a tool to probe and control the two-body correlation function in an interacting many-body system and to engineer Hamiltonians using dissipation. We propose the possibility to slow down decoherence by photoassociation through the quantum Zeno effect. This can realized by shining strong photoassociation light on the superposition of the lowest two hyperfine states of Lithium 6. NSF, ARO-MURI, Samsung, NSERC.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disruptors are a class of chemicals of growing interest to the environmental community. USEPA's Risk Assessment Forum defined an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) as "an exogenous agent that interferes with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elim...

  2. Functional Network Disruption in the Degenerative Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Pievani, Michela; de Haan, Willem; Wu, Tao; Seeley, William W; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable advances toward understanding the molecular pathophysiology of the neurodegenerative dementias, the mechanisms linking molecular changes to neuropathology and the latter to clinical symptoms remain largely obscure. Connectivity is a distinctive feature of the brain and the integrity of functional network dynamics is critical for normal functioning. A better understanding of network disruption in the neurodegenerative dementias may help bridge the gap between molecular changes, pathology and symptoms. Recent findings on functional network disruption as assessed with “resting-state” or intrinsic connectivity fMRI and EEG/MEG have shown distinct patterns of network disruption across the major neurodegenerative diseases. These network abnormalities are relatively specific to the clinical syndromes, and in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia network disruption tracks the pattern of pathological changes. These findings may have a practical impact on diagnostic accuracy, allowing earlier detection of neurodegenerative diseases even at the pre-symptomatic stage, and tracking of disease progression. PMID:21778116

  3. Thyroid disrupting chemicals: Mechanisms and mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  4. Passive runaway electron suppression in tokamak disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H. M.; Helander, P.; Boozer, A. H.

    2013-07-15

    Runaway electrons created in disruptions pose a serious problem for tokamaks with large current. It would be desirable to have a runaway electron suppression method which is passive, i.e., a method that does not rely on an uncertain disruption prediction system. One option is to let the large electric field inherent in the disruption drive helical currents in the wall. This would create ergodic regions in the plasma and increase the runaway losses. Whether these regions appear at a suitable time and place to affect the formation of the runaway beam depends on disruption parameters, such as electron temperature andmore » density. We find that it is difficult to ergodize the central plasma before a beam of runaway current has formed. However, the ergodic outer region will make the Ohmic current profile contract, which can lead to instabilities that yield large runaway electron losses.« less

  5. Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a ubiquitous issue of concern in our aquatic systems. Commonly detected EDCs include natural and synthetic hormones, surfactants, plasticizers, disinfectants, herbicides and metals. The potency of these chemicals varies substantially, as ...

  6. Dual effect of cell-cell contact disruption on cytosolic calcium and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Jaques, Fabienne; Jousset, Hélène; Tomas, Alejandra; Prost, Anne-Lise; Wollheim, Claes B; Irminger, Jean-Claude; Demaurex, Nicolas; Halban, Philippe A

    2008-05-01

    Cell-to-cell interactions play an important role in insulin secretion. Compared with intact islets, dispersed pancreatic beta-cells show increased basal and decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In this study, we used mouse MIN6B1 cells to investigate the mechanisms that control insulin secretion when cells are in contact with each other or not. RNAi-mediated silencing of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin in confluent cells reduced glucose-stimulated secretion to the levels observed in isolated cells but had no impact on basal secretion. Dispersed cells presented high cytosolic Ca(2+) activity, depolymerized cytoskeleton and ERK1/2 activation in low glucose conditions. Both the increased basal secretion and the spontaneous Ca(2+) activity were corrected by transient removal of Ca(2+) or prolonged incubation of cells in low glucose, a procedure that restored the ability of dispersed cells to respond to glucose (11-fold stimulation). In conclusion, we show that dispersed pancreatic beta-cells can respond robustly to glucose once their elevated basal secretion has been corrected. The increased basal insulin secretion of dispersed cells is due to spontaneous Ca(2+) transients that activate downstream Ca(2+) effectors, whereas engagement of cell adhesion molecules including E-cadherin contributes to the greater secretory response to glucose seen in cells with normal intercellular contacts.

  7. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

  8. Strongly Coupled Nanotube Electromechanical Resonators.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guang-Wei; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Zou, Chang-Ling; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Liu, Di; Li, Yan; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-14

    Coupling an electromechanical resonator with carbon-nanotube quantum dots is a significant method to control both the electronic charge and the spin quantum states. By exploiting a novel microtransfer technique, we fabricate two separate strongly coupled and electrically tunable mechanical resonators for the first time. The frequency of the two resonators can be individually tuned by the bottom gates, and in each resonator, the electron transport through the quantum dot can be strongly affected by the phonon mode and vice versa. Furthermore, the conductance of either resonator can be nonlocally modulated by the other resonator through phonon-phonon interaction between the two resonators. Strong coupling is observed between the phonon modes of the two resonators, where the coupling strength larger than 200 kHz can be reached. This strongly coupled nanotube electromechanical resonator array provides an experimental platform for future studies of the coherent electron-phonon interaction, the phonon-mediated long-distance electron interaction, and entanglement state generation.

  9. Fast Time Response Electromagnetic Disruption Mitigation Concept

    DOE PAGES

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.; Jernigan, Thomas C.; ...

    2015-09-28

    An important and urgent issue for ITER is predicting and controlling disruptions. Tokamaks and spherical tokamaks have the potential to disrupt. Methods to rapidly quench the discharge after an impending disruption is detected are essential to protect the vessel and internal components. The warning time for the onset of some disruptions in tokamaks could be <10 ms, which poses stringent requirements on the disruption mitigation system for reactor systems. In this proposed method, a cylindrical boron nitride projectile containing a radiative payload composed of boron, boron nitride, or beryllium particulate matter and weighing similar to 15 g is accelerated tomore » velocities on the order of 1 to 2 km/s in <2 ms in a linear rail gun accelerator. A partially fragmented capsule is then injected into the tokamak discharge in the 3- to 6-ms timescale, where the radiative payload is dispersed. The device referred to as an electromagnetic particle injector has the potential to meet the short warning timescales for which a reactor disruption mitigation system must be built. The system is fully electromagnetic, with no mechanical moving parts, which ensures high reliability after a period of long standby.« less

  10. An Ecological Perspective on Sleep Disruption.

    PubMed

    Tougeron, Kévin; Abram, Paul K

    2017-09-01

    Despite its evolutionary importance and apparent ubiquity among animals, the ecological significance of sleep is largely unresolved. The ecology of sleep has been particularly neglected in invertebrates. In insects, recent neurobehavioral research convincingly demonstrates that resting behavior shares several common characteristics with sleep in vertebrates. Laboratory studies have produced compelling evidence that sleep disruption can cause changes in insect daily activity patterns (via "sleep rebound") and have consequences for behavioral performance during active periods. However, factors that could cause insect sleep disruption in nature have not been considered nor have the ecological consequences. Drawing on evidence from laboratory studies, we argue that sleep disruption may be an overlooked component of insect ecology and could be caused by a variety of anthropogenic and nonanthropogenic factors in nature. We identify several candidate sleep-disrupting factors and provide new insights on the potential consequences of sleep disruption on individual fitness, species interactions, and ecosystem services. We propose an experimental framework to bridge the current gap in knowledge between laboratory and field studies. We conclude that sleep disruption is a potential mechanism underpinning variation in behavioral, population, and community-level processes associated with several aspects of global change.

  11. Quality control by <strong>HyperS>pectral <strong>I>maging (HSI) in solid waste recycling: logics, algorithms and procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    In secondary raw materials and recycling sectors, the products quality represents, more and more, the key issue to pursuit in order to be competitive in a more and more demanding market, where quality standards and products certification play a preheminent role. These goals assume particular importance when recycling actions are applied. Recovered products, resulting from waste materials, and/or dismissed products processing, are, in fact, always seen with a certain suspect. An adequate response of the industry to the market can only be given through the utilization of equipment and procedures ensuring pure, high-quality production, and efficient work and cost. All these goals can be reached adopting not only more efficient equipment and layouts, but also introducing new processing logics able to realize a full control of the handled material flow streams fulfilling, at the same time, i) an easy management of the procedures, ii) an efficient use of the energy, iii) the definition and set up of reliable and robust procedures, iv) the possibility to implement network connectivity capabilities finalized to a remote monitoring and control of the processes and v) a full data storage, analysis and retrieving. Furthermore the ongoing legislation and regulation require the implementation of recycling infrastructure characterised by high resources efficiency and low environmental impacts, both aspects being strongly linked to the waste materials and/or dismissed products original characteristics. For these reasons an optimal recycling infrastructure design primarily requires a full knowledge of the characteristics of the input waste. What previously outlined requires the introduction of a new important concept to apply in solid waste recycling, the recycling-oriented characterization, that is the set of actions addressed to strategically determine selected attributes, in order to get goaloriented data on waste for the development, implementation or improvement of recycling

  12. The Evolutionary Consequences of Disrupted Male Mating Signals: An Agent-Based Modelling Exploration of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the Guppy

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair McNair; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Females may select a mate based on signalling traits that are believed to accurately correlate with heritable aspects of male quality. Anthropogenic actions, in particular chemicals released into the environment, are now disrupting the accuracy of mating signals to convey information about male quality. The long-term prediction for disrupted mating signals is most commonly loss of female preference. Yet, this prediction has rarely been tested using quantitative models. We use agent-based models to explore the effects of rapid disruption of mating signals. In our model, a gene determines survival. Males signal their level of genetic quality via a signal trait, which females use to select a mate. We allowed this system of sexual selection to become established, before introducing a disruption between the male signal trait and quality, which was similar in nature to that induced by exogenous chemicals. Finally, we assessed the capacity of the system to recover from this disruption. We found that within a relatively short time frame, disruption of mating signals led to a lasting loss of female preference. Decreases in mean viability at the population-level were also observed, because sexual-selection acting against newly arising deleterious mutations was relaxed. The ability of the population to recover from disrupted mating signals was strongly influenced by the mechanisms that promoted or maintained genetic diversity in traits under sexual selection. Our simple model demonstrates that environmental perturbations to the accuracy of male mating signals can result in a long-term loss of female preference for those signals within a few generations. What is more, the loss of this preference can have knock-on consequences for mean population fitness. PMID:25047080

  13. NIMROD Simulations of Low-q Disruptions in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Device (CTH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, E. C.; Pandya, M. D.; Hanson, J. D.; Mauer, D. A.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.

    2016-10-01

    Nonlinear MHD simulations of low-q disruptions in the CTH are presented. CTH is a current carrying stellarator that is used to study the effects of 3D shaping. The application of 3D shaping stabilizes low-q disruptions in CTH. The amount of 3D shaping is controlled by adjusting the external rotational transform, and it is characterized by the ratio of the external rotational transform to the total transform: f =ιvac / ι . Disruptions are routinely observed during operation with weak shaping (f < 0.05). The frequency of disruptions decreases with increasing amounts of 3D shaping, and the disruptions are completely suppressed for f > 0.1 . Nonlinear simulations are performed using the NIMROD code to better understand how the shaping suppresses the disruptions. Comparisons of runs with weak (f = 0.04) and strong (f = 0.10) shaping are shown. This material is based upon work supported by Auburn University and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Award Numbers DE-FG02-03ER54692 and DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  14. PRODUCTION OF IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE IN MICE AFTER REPEATED INJECTIONS OF DISRUPTED SPLEEN CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, C.; Smith, J. M.; Blaese, M.; Good, R. A.

    1963-01-01

    1. Tolerance of male skin isografts has been regularly produced in female mice of the C57B1 strain sublines 1, 4, and 6 during adult life by repeated injection of completely disrupted spleen cells derived from male donors. The tolerant state is long-lasting since such grafts have remained in place more than 9 months. 2. Prolonged survival of homotransplants of skin has regularly been produced in DBA/2 mice during adult life by repeated injections of completely disrupted spleen cells from Balb/C donors. When injections of disrupted spleen cell material are continued over a sufficiently long period, permanent acceptance of the skin homografts may be obtained between these strains. 3. Immunological tolerance across even the strong H-2 histocompatibility barrier was obtained in the neonatal period and during adult life by repeated injection of disrupted spleen cell preparations. The tolerant state has been revealed by both mammary adenocarcinoma and skin homografting across this strong histocompatibility barrier. 4. In contradistinction to the tolerant state produced by injection of intact spleen cells in neonatal animals or during adult life or that produced by parabiotic union, the tolerance produced by repeated injection of disrupted spleen cell preparations cannot be transferred to syngenic neonatal mice with spleen cells of the tolerant animal. 5. The implications of these findings in transplantation biology and in consideration of the basic nature of tolerance are discussed. PMID:14087619

  15. Strongly contracted canonical transformation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuscamman, Eric; Yanai, Takeshi; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2010-01-01

    Canonical transformation (CT) theory describes dynamic correlation in multireference systems with large active spaces. Here we discuss CT theory's intruder state problem and why our previous approach of overlap matrix truncation becomes infeasible for sufficiently large active spaces. We propose the use of strongly and weakly contracted excitation operators as alternatives for dealing with intruder states in CT theory. The performance of these operators is evaluated for the H2O, N2, and NiO molecules, with comparisons made to complete active space second order perturbation theory and Davidson-corrected multireference configuration interaction theory. Finally, using a combination of strongly contracted CT theory and orbital-optimized density matrix renormalization group theory, we evaluate the singlet-triplet gap of free base porphin using an active space containing all 24 out-of-plane 2p orbitals. Modeling dynamic correlation with an active space of this size is currently only possible using CT theory.

  16. Tilts in strong ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graizer, V.

    2006-01-01

    Most instruments used in seismological practice to record ground motion are pendulum seismographs, velocigraphs, or accelerographs. In most cases it is assumed that seismic instruments are only sensitive to the translational motion of the instrument's base. In this study the full equation of pendulum motion, including the inputs of rotations and tilts, is considered. It is shown that tilting the accelerograph's base can severely impact its response to the ground motion. The method of tilt evaluation using uncorrected strong-motion accelerograms was first suggested by Graizer (1989), and later tested in several laboratory experiments with different strong-motion instruments. The method is based on the difference in the tilt sensitivity of the horizontal and vertical pendulums. The method was applied to many of the strongest records of the Mw 6.7 Northridge earthquake of 1994. Examples are shown when relatively large tilts of up to a few degrees occurred during strong earthquake ground motion. Residual tilt extracted from the strong-motion record at the Pacoima Dam-Upper Left Abutment reached 3.1?? in N45??E direction, and was a result of local earthquake-induced tilting due to high-amplitude shaking. This value is in agreement with the residual tilt measured by using electronic level a few days after the earthquake. The method was applied to the building records from the Northridge earthquake. According to the estimates, residual tilt reached 2.6?? on the ground floor of the 12-story Hotel in Ventura. Processing of most of the strongest records of the Northridge earthquake shows that tilts, if happened, were within the error of the method, or less than about 0.5??.

  17. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in two approaches to the study of strong Langmuir turbulence is reported. In two spatial dimensions, numerical solution of the Zakharov equations yields a steady state involving linear growth, linear damping, and a collection of coherent, long-lived entities which might loosely be called solitons. In one spatial dimension, a statistical theory is applied to the cubically nonlinear Schroedinger equation and is solved analytically in a special case.

  18. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in two approaches to the study of strong Langmuir turbulence is reported. In two spatial dimensions, numerical solution of the Zakharov equations yields a steady state involving linear growth, linear damping, and a collection of coherent, long-lived entities which might loosely be called solitons. In one spatial dimension, a statistical theory is applied to the cubically nonlinear Schroedinger equation and is solved analytically in a special case.

  19. Strong CP and SUZ2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaid, Abdelhamid; Dine, Michael; Draper, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Solutions to the strong CP problem typically introduce new scales associated with the spontaneous breaking of symmetries. Absent any anthropic argument for small overline{θ} , these scales require stabilization against ultraviolet corrections. Supersymmetry offers a tempting stabilization mechanism, since it can solve the "big" electroweak hierarchy problem at the same time. One family of solutions to strong CP, including generalized parity models, heavy axion models, and heavy η' models, introduces {Z}_2 copies of (part of) the Standard Model and an associated scale of {Z}_2 -breaking. We review why, without additional structure such as supersymmetry, the {Z}_2 -breaking scale is unacceptably tuned. We then study "SUZ2" models, supersymmetric theories with {Z}_2 copies of the MSSM. We find that the addition of SUSY typically destroys the {Z}_2 protection of overline{θ}=0 , even at tree level, once SUSY and {Z}_2 are broken. In theories like supersymmetric completions of the twin Higgs, where {Z}_2 addresses the little hierarchy problem but not strong CP, two axions can be used to relax overline{θ}.

  20. Gravitational interactions of stars with supermassive black hole binaries. I. Tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbha, Siva; Coughlin, Eric R.; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-04-01

    Stars approaching supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the centers of galaxies can be torn apart by strong tidal forces. We study the physics of tidal disruption by a circular, binary SMBH as a function of the binary mass ratio q = M2/M1 and separation a, exploring a large set of points in the parameter range q ∈ [0.01, 1] and a/rt1 ∈ [10, 1000]. We simulate encounters in which field stars approach the binary from the loss cone on parabolic, low angular momentum orbits. We present the rate of disruption and the orbital properties of the disrupted stars, and examine the fallback dynamics of the post-disruption debris in the "frozen-in" approximation. We conclude by calculating the time-dependent disruption rate over the lifetime of the binary. Throughout, we use a primary mass M1 = 106M⊙ as our central example. We find that the tidal disruption rate is a factor of ˜2 - 7 times larger than the rate for an isolated BH, and is independent of q for q ≳ 0.2. In the "frozen-in" model, disruptions from close, nearly equal mass binaries can produce intense tidal fallbacks: for binaries with q ≳ 0.2 and a/rt1 ˜ 100, roughly ˜18 - 40% of disruptions will have short rise times (trise ˜ 1 - 10 d) and highly super-Eddington peak return rates (\\dot{M}_{peak} / \\dot{M}_{Edd} ˜ 2 × 10^2 - 3 × 10^3).

  1. Gravitational interactions of stars with supermassive black hole binaries - I. Tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbha, Siva; Coughlin, Eric R.; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-07-01

    Stars approaching supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the centres of galaxies can be torn apart by strong tidal forces. We study the physics of tidal disruption by a circular, binary SMBH as a function of the binary mass ratio q = M2/M1 and separation a, exploring a large set of points in the parameter range q ∈ [0.01, 1] and a/rt1 ∈ [10, 1000]. We simulate encounters in which field stars approach the binary from the loss cone on parabolic, low angular momentum orbits. We present the rate of disruption and the orbital properties of the disrupted stars, and examine the fallback dynamics of the post-disruption debris in the `frozen-in' approximation. We conclude by calculating the time-dependent disruption rate over the lifetime of the binary. Throughout, we use a primary mass M1 = 106 M⊙ as our central example. We find that the tidal disruption rate is a factor of ˜2-7 times larger than the rate for an isolated BH, and is independent of q for q ≳ 0.2. In the `frozen-in' model, disruptions from close, nearly equal mass binaries can produce intense tidal fallbacks: for binaries with q ≳ 0.2 and a/rt1 ˜ 100, roughly {˜ } 18-40 per cent of disruptions will have short rise times (trise ˜ 1-10 d) and highly super-Eddington peak return rates (\\dot{M}_peak / \\dot{M}_Edd ˜ 2 × 10^2-3 × 10^3).

  2. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  3. Disruptive Effects of Net-Centricity on Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    expectations too quickly are vulnerable to disruptive technologies . When the disruptive innovation gains market share, and old customers adopt new...it is important to remember that disruptive technologies are not merely those that have introduced steep performance improvements, but which, at the...technologies. Disruptive technologies are thereby distinguished from discontinuous sustaining innovations. Net-centric information environments are proving

  4. Effect of music on mealtime disruptions.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Jeff; Carson, Derek; Lindsay, Bill

    People with learning disabilities can disrupt mealtimes with non-cooperative, aggressive and self-injurious behaviours that challenge other people to tolerate and manage them. These behaviours appear to arise because the proximity of other people, and the heightened activity and noise of a dining room, causes anxiety and agitation. To examine how delivering calming background music via headphones affected anxiety-driven behaviours that disrupted mealtimes. A sample of 30 adults with mild, moderate or severe learning disabilities were videotaped during mealtimes on two consecutive days. On the first day, half the group ate without any calming music while the other half sat opposite them wearing earphones and listening to calming music. On the second day, the non-music and music groups swapped around. Of the participants who tolerated the earphones, only three showed disruptive behaviour; all three had been sitting at the table waiting for their food. With so few examples, meaningful inferential analysis was not possible. However, there were signs that calming music had a positive effect on disruptive mealtime behaviours. It eliminated physical harm, complaining and verbal repetition in one person, and stopped another from shouting/swearing. It also reduced the incidence of shouting/swearing, restlessness and vocalising. Calming music and reduced waiting at tables for food may reduce disruptive behaviours.

  5. Simulation study of disruption characteristics in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongkyu; Kim, J. Y.; Kessel, C. E.; Poli, F.

    2012-10-01

    A detailed simulation study of disruption in KSTAR had been performed using the Tokamak Simulation Code(TSC) [1] during the initial design phase of KSTAR [2]. Recently, however, a partial modification in the structure of passive plate was made in relation to reduce eddy current and increase the efficiency of control of vertical position. A substantial change can then occur in disruption characteristics and plasma behavior during disruption due to changes in passive plate structure. Because of this, growth rate of vertical instability is expected to be increased and eddy current and its associated electomagnetic force are expected to be reduced. To check this in more detail, a new simulation study is here given with modified passive plate structure of KSTAR. In particular, modeling of vertical disruption that is vertical displacement event (VDE) was carried out. We calculated vertical growth rate for a drift phase of plasma and electromagnetic force acting on PFC structures and compared the results between in a new model and an old model. [4pt] [1] S.C. Jardin, N. Pomphrey and J. Delucia, J. Comp. Phys. 66, 481 (1986).[0pt] [2] J.Y. Kim, S.Y. Cho and KSTAR Team, Disruption load analysis on KSTAR PFC structures, J. Accel. Plasma Res. 5, 149 (2000).

  6. Disruption mitigation and avoidance at ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraschek, M.; Pautasso, G.; Esposito, B.; Granucci, G.; Stober, J.; Treutterer, W.

    2009-11-01

    Disruptions are a major concern for tokamaks and in particular for ITER. They cause high heat loads during the thermal quench and high mechanical forces during the subsequent current quench. The generation and loss of runaway electrons (highly accelerated electrons carrying large fractions of the plasma current) can produce damage to the vessel structures. Therefore, schemes are implemented in present tokamaks to mitigate or to even avoid them. Mitigation has been proven to be effective through the injection of noble gases causing a reduction of the thermal heat load by radiation and a reduction of the mechanical forces. In addition 25% of the required density for the collisional suppression of runaways in ITER has been reached. For the trigger of the noble gas injection a locked mode detector is routinely used at ASDEX Upgrade. An extension to more complex precursors is planed. A different approach has been used for disruption avoidance by injecting ECRH triggered by the loop voltage increase before the disruption. The avoidance of an ongoing density limit disruption has been achieved when the ECRH is deposited at resonant surfaces where MHD modes, such as the m=2/n=1, occur. Present schemes for the mitigation and eventually avoidance of disruptions will be discussed.

  7. Endocrine Disrupting Contaminants—Beyond the Dogma

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of endocrine disruption have largely been associated with wildlife and driven by observations documenting estrogenic, androgenic, antiandrogenic, and antithyroid actions. These actions, in response to exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of various environmental contaminants, have now been established in numerous vertebrate species. However, many potential mechanisms and endocrine actions have not been studied. For example, the DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] metabolite, p,p′-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] is known to disrupt prostaglandin synthesis in the uterus of birds, providing part of the explanation for DDT-induced egg shell thinning. Few studies have examined prostaglandin synthesis as a target for endocrine disruption, yet these hormones are active in reproduction, immune responses, and cardiovascular physiology. Future studies must broaden the basic science approach to endocrine disruption, thereby expanding the mechanisms and endocrine end points examined. This goal should be accomplished even if the primary influence and funding continue to emphasize a narrower approach based on regulatory needs. Without this broader approach, research into endocrine disruption will become dominated by a narrow dogma, focusing on a few end points and mechanisms. PMID:16818240

  8. Preschool Children's Observed Disruptive Behavior: Variations across Sex, Interactional Context, and Disruptive Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Sarah A. O.; Carter, Alice S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in disruptive behavior and sensitivity to social context are documented, but the intersection between them is rarely examined empirically. This report focuses on sex differences in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts and diagnostic status. Preschoolers (n = 327) were classified as nondisruptive (51%),…

  9. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortov, Vladimir E.; Golden, Kenneth I.; Norman, Genri E.

    2006-04-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS) which was held during the week of 20 24 June 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The Moscow conference was the tenth in a series of conferences. The previous conferences were organized as follows. 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (organized by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (organized by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, NY, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) After 1995 the name of the series was changed from `Strongly Coupled Plasmas' to the present name in order to extend the topics of the conferences. The planned frequency for the future is once every three years. The purpose of these conferences is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of research accomplishments and ideas relating to a variety of plasma liquid and condensed matter systems, dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Strongly coupled Coulomb systems encompass diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphasis as new discoveries and new methods appear. This year, sessions were organized for invited presentations and posters on dense plasmas and warm matter, astrophysics and dense hydrogen, non-neutral and ultracold plasmas, dusty plasmas, condensed matter 2D and layered charged-particle systems, Coulomb liquids, and statistical theory of SCCS. Within

  10. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  11. Tidal Disruption Events from Eccentric Nuclear Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernke, Heather N.; Madigan, Ann-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Stars that get too close to a supermassive black hole are in danger of being tidally disrupted. Stellar two-body relaxation is commonly assumed to be the main driver of these events. Recent work has shown, however, that secular gravitational torques from eccentric nuclear disks can push stars to extreme eccentricities at much higher rates than predicted by two-body relaxation. This work did not include the effects of general relativity, however, which could quench secular torques via rapid apsidal precession. Here we show that, for a star in danger of disruption, general relativity acts on a timescale of less than an orbital period. This short timescale means that general relativity does not have enough time to have a major effect on the orbit. When driven by secular torques from eccentric nuclear disks, tidal disruption event rates are not affected by general relativity.

  12. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

  13. Maternal characteristics predicting young girls' disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate generalized estimating equation analyses indicated that European American race, mother's prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls' disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls' disruptive behavior.

  14. Tokamak plasma current disruption infrared control system

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Ulrickson, Michael

    1987-01-01

    In a magnetic plasma confinment device having an inner toroidal limiter mounted on an inner wall of a plasma containment vessel, an arrangement is provided for monitoring vertical temperature profiles of the limiter. The temperature profiles are taken at brief time intervals, in a time scan fashion. The time scans of the vertical temperature profile are continuously monitored to detect the presence of a peaked temperature excursion, which, according to the present invention, is a precursor of a subsequent major plasma disruption. A fast scan of the temperature profile is made so as to provide a time interval in real time prior to the major plasma disruption, such that corrective action can be taken to reduce the harmful effects of the plasma disruption.

  15. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  16. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d < 1 that are characterized by the fraction of occupied adsorption sites and whether the dominant conformation of adsorbed chains is a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" or double-end-adsorbed loop. For l / d > 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker

  17. Automated selective disruption of slow wave sleep.

    PubMed

    Ooms, Sharon J; Zempel, John M; Holtzman, David M; Ju, Yo-El S

    2017-04-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays an important role in neurophysiologic restoration. Experimentally testing the effect of SWS disruption previously required highly time-intensive and subjective methods. Our goal was to develop an automated and objective protocol to reduce SWS without affecting sleep architecture. We developed a custom Matlab™ protocol to calculate electroencephalogram spectral power every 10s live during a polysomnogram, exclude artifact, and, if measurements met criteria for SWS, deliver increasingly louder tones through earphones. Middle-aged healthy volunteers (n=10) each underwent 2 polysomnograms, one with the SWS disruption protocol and one with sham condition. The SWS disruption protocol reduced SWS compared to sham condition, as measured by spectral power in the delta (0.5-4Hz) band, particularly in the 0.5-2Hz range (mean 20% decrease). A compensatory increase in the proportion of total spectral power in the theta (4-8Hz) and alpha (8-12Hz) bands was seen, but otherwise normal sleep features were preserved. N3 sleep decreased from 20±34 to 3±6min, otherwise there were no significant changes in total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or other macrostructural sleep characteristics. This novel SWS disruption protocol produces specific reductions in delta band power similar to existing methods, but has the advantage of being automated, such that SWS disruption can be performed easily in a highly standardized and operator-independent manner. This automated SWS disruption protocol effectively reduces SWS without impacting overall sleep architecture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated selective disruption of slow wave sleep

    PubMed Central

    Ooms, Sharon J.; Zempel, John M.; Holtzman, David M.; Ju, Yo-El S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays an important role in neurophysiologic restoration. Experimentally testing the effect of SWS disruption previously required highly time-intensive and subjective methods. Our goal was to develop an automated and objective protocol to reduce SWS without affecting sleep architecture. New Method We developed a custom Matlab™ protocol to calculate electroencephalogram spectral power every 10 seconds live during a polysomnogram, exclude artifact, and, if measurements met criteria for SWS, deliver increasingly louder tones through earphones. Middle-aged healthy volunteers (n=10) each underwent 2 polysomnograms, one with the SWS disruption protocol and one with sham condition. Results The SWS disruption protocol reduced SWS compared to sham condition, as measured by spectral power in the delta (0.5–4 Hz) band, particularly in the 0.5–2 Hz range (mean 20% decrease). A compensatory increase in the proportion of total spectral power in the theta (4–8 Hz) and alpha (8–12 Hz) bands was seen, but otherwise normal sleep features were preserved. N3 sleep decreased from 20±34 to 3±6 minutes, otherwise there were no significant changes in total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or other macrostructural sleep characteristics. Comparison with existing method This novel SWS disruption protocol produces specific reductions in delta band power similar to existing methods, but has the advantage of being automated, such that SWS disruption can be performed easily in a highly standardized and operator-independent manner. Conclusion This automated SWS disruption protocol effectively reduces SWS without impacting overall sleep architecture. PMID:28238859

  19. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    PubMed

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  20. Strong shock implosion, approximate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Y.; Mishkin, E. A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1983-01-01

    The self-similar, center-bound motion of a strong spherical, or cylindrical, shock wave moving through an ideal gas with a constant, γ= cp/ cv, is considered and a linearized, approximate solution is derived. An X, Y phase plane of the self-similar solution is defined and the representative curved of the system behind the shock front is replaced by a straight line connecting the mappings of the shock front with that of its tail. The reduced pressure P(ξ), density R(ξ) and velocity U1(ξ) are found in closed, quite accurate, form. Comparison with numerically obtained results, for γ= {5}/{3} and γ= {7}/{5}, is shown.

  1. Gaia DR1 Evidence of Disrupting the Perseus Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Junichi; Kawata, Daisuke; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Grand, Robert J. J.; Hunt, Jason A. S.

    2018-02-01

    We have discovered a clear sign of the disruption phase of the Perseus arm in the Milky Way using Cepheid variables, taking advantage of the accurately measured distances of Cepheids and the proper motions from Gaia Data Release 1. Both the Galactocentric radial and rotation velocities of 77 Cepheids within 1.5 kpc of the Perseus arm are correlated with their distances from the locus of the Perseus arm, as the trailing side is rotating faster and moving inward compared to the leading side. We also found a negative vertex deviation for the Cepheids on the trailing side, ‑27.°6 ± 2.°4, in contrast to the positive vertex deviation in the solar neighborhood. This is, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that the vertex deviation around the Perseus arm is affected by the spiral arm. We compared these observational trends with our N-body/hydrodynamics simulations based on a static density-wave spiral scenario and with those based on a transient dynamic spiral scenario. Although our comparisons are limited to qualitative trends, they strongly favor the conclusion that the Perseus arm is in the disruption phase of a transient arm.

  2. β-Catenin serves as a clutch between low and high intercellular E-cadherin bond strengths.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Saumendra; Feng, Yunfeng; Wirtz, Denis; Longmore, Gregory D

    2013-11-19

    A wide range of invasive pathological outcomes originate from the loss of epithelial phenotype and involve either loss of function or downregulation of transmembrane adhesive receptor complexes, including Ecadherin (Ecad) and binding partners β-catenin and α-catenin at adherens junctions. Cellular pathways regulating wild-type β-catenin level, or direct mutations in β-catenin that affect the turnover of the protein have been shown to contribute to cancer development, through induction of uncontrolled proliferation of transformed tumor cells, particularly in colon cancer. Using single-molecule force spectroscopy, we show that depletion of β-catenin or the prominent cancer-related S45 deletion mutation in β-catenin present in human colon cancers both weaken tumor intercellular Ecad/Ecad bond strength and diminishes the capacity of specific extracellular matrix proteins-including collagen I, collagen IV, and laminin V-to modulate intercellular Ecad/Ecad bond strength through α-catenin and the kinase activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3β). Thus, in addition to regulating tumor cell proliferation, cancer-related mutations in β-catenin can influence tumor progression by weakening the adhesion of tumor cells to one another through reduced individual Ecad/Ecad bond strength and cellular adhesion to specific components of the extracellular matrix and the basement membrane. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. β-Catenin Serves as a Clutch between Low and High Intercellular E-Cadherin Bond Strengths

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Saumendra; Feng, Yunfeng; Wirtz, Denis; Longmore, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of invasive pathological outcomes originate from the loss of epithelial phenotype and involve either loss of function or downregulation of transmembrane adhesive receptor complexes, including Ecadherin (Ecad) and binding partners β-catenin and α-catenin at adherens junctions. Cellular pathways regulating wild-type β-catenin level, or direct mutations in β-catenin that affect the turnover of the protein have been shown to contribute to cancer development, through induction of uncontrolled proliferation of transformed tumor cells, particularly in colon cancer. Using single-molecule force spectroscopy, we show that depletion of β-catenin or the prominent cancer-related S45 deletion mutation in β-catenin present in human colon cancers both weaken tumor intercellular Ecad/Ecad bond strength and diminishes the capacity of specific extracellular matrix proteins—including collagen I, collagen IV, and laminin V—to modulate intercellular Ecad/Ecad bond strength through α-catenin and the kinase activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3β). Thus, in addition to regulating tumor cell proliferation, cancer-related mutations in β-catenin can influence tumor progression by weakening the adhesion of tumor cells to one another through reduced individual Ecad/Ecad bond strength and cellular adhesion to specific components of the extracellular matrix and the basement membrane. PMID:24268141

  4. Can We Predict Disruptive School Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eamon, Mary Keegan; Altshuler, Sandra J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether child, parental, and socioenvironmental factors predict disruptive school behavior two years later. Data from a sample of 10-to 12-year-old youths, including 289 African American, 183 Hispanic/Latino, and 335 non-Hispanic white youths from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were analyzed. Findings indicate that…

  5. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Schug, Thaddeus T.; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are thought to cause endocrine disruption, including pharmaceuticals, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and other pesticides, and components of plastics such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates. EDCs are found in many everyday products– including plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food additives, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides. EDCs interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, activity, or elimination of natural hormones. This interference can block or mimic hormone action, causing a wide range of effects. This review focuses on the mechanisms and modes of action by which EDCs alter hormone signaling. It also includes brief overviews of select disease endpoints associated with endocrine disruption. PMID:21899826

  6. New directions for mating disruption in Wisconsin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mating Disruption (MD) is an alternative to insecticide for control of three major pests -Sparganthois fruitworm, Cranberry fruitworm and Blackheaded fireworm. MD functions by sending out false plumes of the insect's sex pheromones – this interferes with the insect’s ability to find a mate, preempti...

  7. Disrupting Educational Inequalities through Youth Digital Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornaiuolo, Amy; Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews scholarship on youth and young adult activism in digital spaces, as young users of participatory media sites are engaging in political, civic, social, or cultural action and advocacy online to create social change. The authors argue that youth's digital activism serves as a central mechanism to disrupt inequality, and that…

  8. The Evolution and Disruption of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Gregory; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Planetary systems that encounter passing stars can experience severe orbital disruption, and the efficiency of this process is greatly enhanced when the impinging systems are binary pairs rather than single stars. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we have performed nearly half a million numerical experiments to examine the long term ramifications of planetary scattering on planetary systems. We have concluded that systems which form in dense environments such as Orion's Trapezium cluster have roughly a ten percent chance of being seriously disrupted. We have also used our programs to explore the long-term prospects for our own Solar system. Given the current interstellar environment, we have computed the odds that Earth will find its orbit seriously disrupted prior to the emergence of a runaway greenhouse effect driven by the Sun's increasing luminosity. This estimate includes both direct disruption events and scattering processes that seriously alter the orbits of the Jovian planets, which then force severe changes upon the Earth's orbit. We then explore the consequences of the Earth being thrown into deep space. The surface biosphere would rapidly shut down under conditions of zero insolation, but the Earth's radioactive heat is capable of maintaining life deep underground, and perhaps in hydrothermal vent communities, for some time to come. Although unlikely for the Earth, this scenario may be common throughout the universe, since many environments where liquid water could exist (e.g., Europa and Callisto) must derive their energy from internal (rather than external) heating.

  9. Is Online Learning a Disruptive Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2011-01-01

    In their desire to plan for the future, planners must assess the role of both internal and external influences on the institution. What then should people make of the idea that technology is disruptive? This perception fuels the views of Barone and Hagner (2001), who claimed that technology would "transform" higher education; Duderstadt (2000),…

  10. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  11. The Relative Ineffectiveness of Criminal Network Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Duijn, Paul A. C.; Kashirin, Victor; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers, policymakers and law enforcement agencies across the globe struggle to find effective strategies to control criminal networks. The effectiveness of disruption strategies is known to depend on both network topology and network resilience. However, as these criminal networks operate in secrecy, data-driven knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different criminal network disruption strategies is very limited. By combining computational modeling and social network analysis with unique criminal network intelligence data from the Dutch Police, we discovered, in contrast to common belief, that criminal networks might even become ‘stronger’, after targeted attacks. On the other hand increased efficiency within criminal networks decreases its internal security, thus offering opportunities for law enforcement agencies to target these networks more deliberately. Our results emphasize the importance of criminal network interventions at an early stage, before the network gets a chance to (re-)organize to maximum resilience. In the end disruption strategies force criminal networks to become more exposed, which causes successful network disruption to become a long-term effort. PMID:24577374

  12. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J

    2011-11-01

    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are thought to cause endocrine disruption, including pharmaceuticals, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and other pesticides, and components of plastics such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates. EDCs are found in many everyday products--including plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food additives, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides. EDCs interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, activity, or elimination of natural hormones. This interference can block or mimic hormone action, causing a wide range of effects. This review focuses on the mechanisms and modes of action by which EDCs alter hormone signaling. It also includes brief overviews of select disease endpoints associated with endocrine disruption. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in schizophrenia†

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Katharina; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Middleton, Benita; Foster, Russell G.; Joyce, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances comparable with insomnia occur in up to 80% of people with schizophrenia, but very little is known about the contribution of circadian coordination to these prevalent disruptions. Aims A systematic exploration of circadian time patterns in individuals with schizophrenia with recurrent sleep disruption. Method We examined the relationship between sleep-wake activity, recorded actigraphically over 6 weeks, along with ambient light exposure and simultaneous circadian clock timing, by collecting weekly 48 h profiles of a urinary metabolite of melatonin in 20 out-patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy control individuals matched for age, gender and being unemployed. Results Significant sleep/circadian disruption occurred in all the participants with schizophrenia. Half these individuals showed severe circadian misalignment ranging from phase-advance/delay to non-24 h periods in sleep-wake and melatonin cycles, and the other half showed patterns from excessive sleep to highly irregular and fragmented sleep epochs but with normally timed melatonin production. Conclusions Severe circadian sleep/wake disruptions exist despite stability in mood, mental state and newer antipsychotic treatment. They cannot be explained by the individuals' level of everyday function. PMID:22194182

  14. THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION: FROM KINETICS TO DYNAMICS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or t...

  15. An Integrated Curriculum for Chronic Disruptive Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sidney; And Others

    Materials contained in this manual and curriculum guide provide educational coordinators with theoretical and operational information on how to carry out the integrated curriculum designed to facilitate improved instructional and career programming for students in residential settings. Chapter 1, Career Education for Chronically Disruptive Youth,…

  16. GENOMIC IMPRINTING, DISRUPTED PLACENTAL EXPRESSION, AND SPECIATION

    PubMed Central

    Brekke, Thomas D.; Henry, Lindy A.; Good, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of regulatory incompatibilities to the early stages of speciation remains unclear. Hybrid mammals often show extreme parent-of-origin growth effects that are thought to be a consequence of disrupted genetic imprinting (parent-specific epigenetic gene silencing) during early development. Here we test the long-standing hypothesis that abnormal hybrid growth reflects disrupted gene expression due to loss of imprinting (LOI) in hybrid placentas, resulting in dosage imbalances between paternal growth factors and maternal growth repressors. We analyzed placental gene expression in reciprocal dwarf hamster hybrids that show extreme parent-of-origin growth effects relative to their parental species. In massively enlarged hybrid placentas, we observed both extensive transgressive expression of growth-related genes and bi-allelic expression of many genes that were paternally silenced in normal sized hybrids. However, the apparent widespread disruption of paternal silencing was coupled with reduced gene expression levels overall. These patterns are contrary to the predictions of the LOI model and indicate that hybrid misexpression of dosage sensitive genes is caused by other regulatory mechanisms in this system. Collectively, our results support a central role for disrupted gene expression and imprinting in the evolution of mammalian hybrid inviability, but call into question the generality of the widely invoked LOI model. PMID:27714796

  17. Development of Disruptive Open Access Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; McConkey, Brigette

    2009-01-01

    Open access (OA) publication has emerged, with disruptive effects, as a major outlet for scholarly publication. OA publication is usually associated with on-line distribution and provides access to scholarly publications to anyone, anywhere--regardless of their ability to pay subscription fees or their association with an educational institution.…

  18. Circadian dysregulation disrupts bile acid homeostasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bile acids are potentially toxic compounds and their levels of hepatic production, uptake, and export are tightly regulated by many inputs, including circadian rhythm. We tested the impact of disrupting the peripheral circadian clock on integral steps of bile acid homeostasis. Both restricted feedi...

  19. Disruption Event Characterization and Forecasting in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Park, Y. S.; Ahn, J. H.; Jiang, Y.; Riquezes, J. D.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Myers, C. E.

    2017-10-01

    The Disruption Event Characterization and Forecasting (DECAF) code, being developed to meet the challenging goal of high reliability disruption prediction in tokamaks, automates data analysis to determine chains of events that lead to disruptions and to forecast their evolution. The relative timing of magnetohydrodynamic modes and other events including plasma vertical displacement, loss of boundary control, proximity to density limits, reduction of safety factor, and mismatch of the measured and desired plasma current are considered. NSTX/-U databases are examined with analysis expanding to DIII-D, KSTAR, and TCV. Characterization of tearing modes has determined mode bifurcation frequency and locking points. In an NSTX database exhibiting unstable resistive wall modes (RWM), the RWM event and loss of boundary control event were found in 100%, and the vertical displacement event in over 90% of cases. A reduced kinetic RWM stability physics model is evaluated to determine the proximity of discharges to marginal stability. The model shows high success as a disruption predictor (greater than 85%) with relatively low false positive rate. Supported by US DOE Contracts DE-FG02-99ER54524, DE-AC02-09CH11466, and DE-SC0016614.

  20. Managing Disruptive Behaviour in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deering, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Both faculty and students at many colleges and universities report numerous incidents of disruptive and uncivil behaviour. However, studies show that faculty are often reluctant to confront these situations, or they feel ill-equipped to intervene. If the behaviour escalates, a disproportionate amount of time and effort can be spent trying to…

  1. Disrupting the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahena, Sofía, Ed.; Cooc, North, Ed.; Currie-Rubin, Rachel, Ed.; Kuttner, Paul, Ed.; Ng, Monica, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    A trenchant and wide-ranging look at this alarming national trend, "Disrupting the School-to-Prison Pipeline" is unsparing in its account of the problem while pointing in the direction of meaningful and much-needed reforms. The "school-to-prison pipeline" has received much attention in the education world over the past few…

  2. Empathy in Boys with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wied, Minet; Goudena, Paul P.; Matthys, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Background: The present study examined empathy in 8- to 12-year-old clinically referred boys with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (n = 25) and age-matched normal controls (n = 24). Method: Situational empathy was assessed by children's emotional and cognitive responses to six empathy-inducing vignettes (displaying sadness, anger or happiness).…

  3. The relative ineffectiveness of criminal network disruption.

    PubMed

    Duijn, Paul A C; Kashirin, Victor; Sloot, Peter M A

    2014-02-28

    Researchers, policymakers and law enforcement agencies across the globe struggle to find effective strategies to control criminal networks. The effectiveness of disruption strategies is known to depend on both network topology and network resilience. However, as these criminal networks operate in secrecy, data-driven knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different criminal network disruption strategies is very limited. By combining computational modeling and social network analysis with unique criminal network intelligence data from the Dutch Police, we discovered, in contrast to common belief, that criminal networks might even become 'stronger', after targeted attacks. On the other hand increased efficiency within criminal networks decreases its internal security, thus offering opportunities for law enforcement agencies to target these networks more deliberately. Our results emphasize the importance of criminal network interventions at an early stage, before the network gets a chance to (re-)organize to maximum resilience. In the end disruption strategies force criminal networks to become more exposed, which causes successful network disruption to become a long-term effort.

  4. Natural and Professional Help during Marital Disruption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.; Zax, Melvin

    Although few people bring their psychological problems to mental health professionals, research in the area of 'natural' help is rudimentary. To investigate the process and effectiveness of natural professional groups in helping individuals experiencing marital disruption, 42 helpers (14 mental health professionals, 14 divorce lawyers, and 14…

  5. Strong Winds over the Keel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    The latest ESO image reveals amazing detail in the intricate structures of one of the largest and brightest nebulae in the sky, the Carina Nebula (NGC 3372), where strong winds and powerful radiation from an armada of massive stars are creating havoc in the large cloud of dust and gas from which the stars were born. ESO PR Photo 05a/09 The Carina Nebula ESO PR Video 05a/09 Pan over the Carina Nebula ESO PR Video 05b/09 Carina Nebula Zoom-in The large and beautiful image displays the full variety of this impressive skyscape, spattered with clusters of young stars, large nebulae of dust and gas, dust pillars, globules, and adorned by one of the Universe's most impressive binary stars. It was produced by combining exposures through six different filters from the Wide Field Imager (WFI), attached to the 2.2 m ESO/MPG telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory, in Chile. The Carina Nebula is located about 7500 light-years away in the constellation of the same name (Carina; the Keel). Spanning about 100 light-years, it is four times larger than the famous Orion Nebula and far brighter. It is an intensive star-forming region with dark lanes of cool dust splitting up the glowing nebula gas that surrounds its many clusters of stars. The glow of the Carina Nebula comes mainly from hot hydrogen basking in the strong radiation of monster baby stars. The interaction between the hydrogen and the ultraviolet light results in its characteristic red and purple colour. The immense nebula contains over a dozen stars with at least 50 to 100 times the mass of our Sun. Such stars have a very short lifespan, a few million years at most, the blink of an eye compared with the Sun's expected lifetime of ten billion years. One of the Universe's most impressive stars, Eta Carinae, is found in the nebula. It is one of the most massive stars in our Milky Way, over 100 times the mass of the Sun and about four million times brighter, making it the most luminous star known. Eta Carinae is highly

  6. Large-scale disruptions in a current-carrying magnetofluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlburg, J. P.; Montgomery, D.; Doolen, G. D.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    Internal disruptions in a strongly magnetized electrically conducting fluid contained within a rigid conducting cylinder of square cross section are investigated theoretically, both with and without an externally applied axial electric field, by means of computer simulations using the pseudospectral three-dimensional Strauss-equations code of Dahlburg et al. (1985). Results from undriven inviscid, driven inviscid, and driven viscid simulations are presented graphically, and the significant effects of low-order truncations on the modeling accuracy are considered. A helical current filament about the cylinder axis is observed. The ratio of turbulent kinetic energy to total poloidal magnetic energy is found to undergo cyclic bounces in the undriven inviscid case, to exhibit one large bounce followed by decay to a quasi-steady state with poloidal fluid velocity flow in the driven inviscid case, and to show one large bounce followed by further sawtoothlike bounces in the driven viscid case.

  7. Proline induced disruption of the structure and dynamics of water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dehong; Hennig, Marcus; Mole, Richard A; Li, Ji Chen; Wheeler, Cheryl; Strässle, Thierry; Kearley, Gordon J

    2013-12-21

    We use quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectroscopy to study the diffusive motion of water molecules at ambient temperature as a function of the solute molar fraction of the amino acid, proline. We validate molecular dynamics simulations against experimental quasielastic neutron scattering data and then use the simulations to reveal, and understand, a strong dependence of the translational self-diffusion coefficient of water on the distance to the amino acid molecule. An analysis based on the juxtaposition of water molecules in the simulation shows that the rigidity of proline imposes itself on the local water structure, which disrupts the hydrogen-bond network of water leading to an increase in the mean lifetime of hydrogen bonds. The net effect is some distortion of the proline molecule and a slowing down of the water mobility.

  8. Neuroendocrine Disruption: More than Hormones are Upset

    PubMed Central

    Waye, Andrew; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2011-01-01

    Only a small proportion of the published research on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) directly examined effects on neuroendocrine processes. There is an expanding body of evidence that anthropogenic chemicals exert effects on neuroendocrine systems and that these changes might impact peripheral organ systems and physiological processes. Neuroendocrine disruption extends the concept of endocrine disruption to include the full breadth of integrative physiology (i.e., more than hormones are upset). Pollutants may also disrupt numerous other neurochemical pathways to affect an animal's capacity to reproduce, develop and grow, or deal with stress and other challenges. Several examples are presented in this review, from both vertebrates and invertebrates, illustrating that diverse environmental pollutants including pharmaceuticals, organochlorine pesticides, and industrial contaminants have the potential to disrupt neuroendocrine control mechanisms. While most investigations on EDC are carried out with vertebrate models, an attempt is also made to highlight the importance of research on invertebrate neuroendocrine disruption. The neurophysiology of many invertebrates is well described and many of their neurotransmitters are similar or identical to those in vertebrates; therefore, lessons learned from one group of organisms may help us understand potential adverse effects in others. This review argues for the adoption of systems biology and integrative physiology to address the effects of EDC. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on fish reproduction are a good example of where relatively narrow hypothesis testing strategies (e.g., whether or not pollutants are sex steroid mimics) have only partially solved a major problem in environmental biology. It is clear that a global, integrative physiological approach, including improved understanding of neuroendocrine control mechanisms, is warranted to fully understand the impacts of pulp and paper mill effluents

  9. A statistical model describing combined irreversible electroporation and electroporation-induced blood-brain barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Sharabi, Shirley; Kos, Bor; Last, David; Guez, David; Daniels, Dianne; Harnof, Sagi; Mardor, Yael; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2016-03-01

    Electroporation-based therapies such as electrochemotherapy (ECT) and irreversible electroporation (IRE) are emerging as promising tools for treatment of tumors. When applied to the brain, electroporation can also induce transient blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption in volumes extending beyond IRE, thus enabling efficient drug penetration. The main objective of this study was to develop a statistical model predicting cell death and BBB disruption induced by electroporation. This model can be used for individual treatment planning. Cell death and BBB disruption models were developed based on the Peleg-Fermi model in combination with numerical models of the electric field. The model calculates the electric field thresholds for cell kill and BBB disruption and describes the dependence on the number of treatment pulses. The model was validated using in vivo experimental data consisting of rats brains MRIs post electroporation treatments. Linear regression analysis confirmed that the model described the IRE and BBB disruption volumes as a function of treatment pulses number (r(2) = 0.79; p < 0.008, r(2) = 0.91; p < 0.001). The results presented a strong plateau effect as the pulse number increased. The ratio between complete cell death and no cell death thresholds was relatively narrow (between 0.88-0.91) even for small numbers of pulses and depended weakly on the number of pulses. For BBB disruption, the ratio increased with the number of pulses. BBB disruption radii were on average 67% ± 11% larger than IRE volumes. The statistical model can be used to describe the dependence of treatment-effects on the number of pulses independent of the experimental setup.

  10. A statistical model describing combined irreversible electroporation and electroporation-induced blood-brain barrier disruption

    PubMed Central

    Sharabi, Shirley; Kos, Bor; Last, David; Guez, David; Daniels, Dianne; Harnof, Sagi; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2016-01-01

    Background Electroporation-based therapies such as electrochemotherapy (ECT) and irreversible electroporation (IRE) are emerging as promising tools for treatment of tumors. When applied to the brain, electroporation can also induce transient blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption in volumes extending beyond IRE, thus enabling efficient drug penetration. The main objective of this study was to develop a statistical model predicting cell death and BBB disruption induced by electroporation. This model can be used for individual treatment planning. Material and methods Cell death and BBB disruption models were developed based on the Peleg-Fermi model in combination with numerical models of the electric field. The model calculates the electric field thresholds for cell kill and BBB disruption and describes the dependence on the number of treatment pulses. The model was validated using in vivo experimental data consisting of rats brains MRIs post electroporation treatments. Results Linear regression analysis confirmed that the model described the IRE and BBB disruption volumes as a function of treatment pulses number (r2 = 0.79; p < 0.008, r2 = 0.91; p < 0.001). The results presented a strong plateau effect as the pulse number increased. The ratio between complete cell death and no cell death thresholds was relatively narrow (between 0.88-0.91) even for small numbers of pulses and depended weakly on the number of pulses. For BBB disruption, the ratio increased with the number of pulses. BBB disruption radii were on average 67% ± 11% larger than IRE volumes. Conclusions The statistical model can be used to describe the dependence of treatment-effects on the number of pulses independent of the experimental setup. PMID:27069447

  11. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  12. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; ...

    2016-05-16

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes.more » Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.« less

  13. Strong majorization entropic uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-05-01

    We analyze entropic uncertainty relations in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space and derive several strong bounds for the sum of two entropies obtained in projective measurements with respect to any two orthogonal bases. We improve the recent bounds by Coles and Piani [P. Coles and M. Piani, Phys. Rev. A 89, 022112 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.022112], which are known to be stronger than the well-known result of Maassen and Uffink [H. Maassen and J. B. M. Uffink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1103 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.60.1103]. Furthermore, we find a bound based on majorization techniques, which also happens to be stronger than the recent results involving the largest singular values of submatrices of the unitary matrix connecting both bases. The first set of bounds gives better results for unitary matrices close to the Fourier matrix, while the second one provides a significant improvement in the opposite sectors. Some results derived admit generalization to arbitrary mixed states, so that corresponding bounds are increased by the von Neumann entropy of the measured state. The majorization approach is finally extended to the case of several measurements.

  14. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-09

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  15. Disrupting vagal feedback affects birdsong motor control.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Jorge M; Dall'asén, Analía G; Goller, Franz

    2010-12-15

    Coordination of different motor systems for sound production involves the use of feedback mechanisms. Song production in oscines is a well-established animal model for studying learned vocal behavior. Whereas the online use of auditory feedback has been studied in the songbird model, very little is known about the role of other feedback mechanisms. Auditory feedback is required for the maintenance of stereotyped adult song. In addition, the use of somatosensory feedback to maintain pressure during song has been demonstrated with experimentally induced fluctuations in air sac pressure. Feedback information mediating this response is thought to be routed to the central nervous system via afferent fibers of the vagus nerve. Here, we tested the effects of unilateral vagotomy on the peripheral motor patterns of song production and the acoustic features. Unilateral vagotomy caused a variety of disruptions and alterations to the respiratory pattern of song, some of which affected the acoustic structure of vocalizations. These changes were most pronounced a few days after nerve resection and varied between individuals. In the most extreme cases, the motor gestures of respiration were so severely disrupted that individual song syllables or the song motif were atypically terminated. Acoustic changes also suggest altered use of the two sound generators and upper vocal tract filtering, indicating that the disruption of vagal feedback caused changes to the motor program of all motor systems involved in song production and modification. This evidence for the use of vagal feedback by the song system with disruption of song during the first days after nerve cut provides a contrast to the longer-term effects of auditory feedback disruption. It suggests a significant role for somatosensory feedback that differs from that of auditory feedback.

  16. Disrupting vagal feedback affects birdsong motor control

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Jorge M.; Dall'Asén, Analía G.; Goller, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of different motor systems for sound production involves the use of feedback mechanisms. Song production in oscines is a well-established animal model for studying learned vocal behavior. Whereas the online use of auditory feedback has been studied in the songbird model, very little is known about the role of other feedback mechanisms. Auditory feedback is required for the maintenance of stereotyped adult song. In addition, the use of somatosensory feedback to maintain pressure during song has been demonstrated with experimentally induced fluctuations in air sac pressure. Feedback information mediating this response is thought to be routed to the central nervous system via afferent fibers of the vagus nerve. Here, we tested the effects of unilateral vagotomy on the peripheral motor patterns of song production and the acoustic features. Unilateral vagotomy caused a variety of disruptions and alterations to the respiratory pattern of song, some of which affected the acoustic structure of vocalizations. These changes were most pronounced a few days after nerve resection and varied between individuals. In the most extreme cases, the motor gestures of respiration were so severely disrupted that individual song syllables or the song motif were atypically terminated. Acoustic changes also suggest altered use of the two sound generators and upper vocal tract filtering, indicating that the disruption of vagal feedback caused changes to the motor program of all motor systems involved in song production and modification. This evidence for the use of vagal feedback by the song system with disruption of song during the first days after nerve cut provides a contrast to the longer-term effects of auditory feedback disruption. It suggests a significant role for somatosensory feedback that differs from that of auditory feedback. PMID:21113000

  17. Perceptual consequences of disrupted auditory nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Kong, Ying-Yee; Michalewski, Henry J; Starr, Arnold

    2005-06-01

    Perceptual consequences of disrupted auditory nerve activity were systematically studied in 21 subjects who had been clinically diagnosed with auditory neuropathy (AN), a recently defined disorder characterized by normal outer hair cell function but disrupted auditory nerve function. Neurological and electrophysical evidence suggests that disrupted auditory nerve activity is due to desynchronized or reduced neural activity or both. Psychophysical measures showed that the disrupted neural activity has minimal effects on intensity-related perception, such as loudness discrimination, pitch discrimination at high frequencies, and sound localization using interaural level differences. In contrast, the disrupted neural activity significantly impairs timing related perception, such as pitch discrimination at low frequencies, temporal integration, gap detection, temporal modulation detection, backward and forward masking, signal detection in noise, binaural beats, and sound localization using interaural time differences. These perceptual consequences are the opposite of what is typically observed in cochlear-impaired subjects who have impaired intensity perception but relatively normal temporal processing after taking their impaired intensity perception into account. These differences in perceptual consequences between auditory neuropathy and cochlear damage suggest the use of different neural codes in auditory perception: a suboptimal spike count code for intensity processing, a synchronized spike code for temporal processing, and a duplex code for frequency processing. We also proposed two underlying physiological models based on desynchronized and reduced discharge in the auditory nerve to successfully account for the observed neurological and behavioral data. These methods and measures cannot differentiate between these two AN models, but future studies using electric stimulation of the auditory nerve via a cochlear implant might. These results not only show the unique

  18. The mass disruption of Jupiter Family comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    2015-01-01

    I show that the size-distribution of small scattered-disk trans-neptunian objects when derived from the observed size-distribution of Jupiter Family comets (JFCs) and other observational constraints implies that a large percentage (94-97%) of newly arrived active comets within a range of 0.2-15.4 km effective radius must physically disrupt, i.e., macroscopically disintegrate, within their median dynamical lifetime. Additional observational constraints include the numbers of dormant and active nuclei in the near-Earth object (NEO) population and the slope of their size distributions. I show that the cumulative power-law slope (-2.86 to -3.15) of the scattered-disk TNO hot population between 0.2 and 15.4 km effective radius is only weakly dependent on the size-dependence of the otherwise unknown disruption mechanism. Evidently, as JFC nuclei from the scattered disk evolve into the inner Solar System only a fraction achieve dormancy while the vast majority of small nuclei (e.g., primarily those with effective radius <2 km) break-up. The percentage disruption rate appears to be comparable with that of the dynamically distinct Oort cloud and Halley type comets (Levison, H.F., Morbidelli, A., Dones, L., Jedicke, R., Wiegert, P.A., Bottke Jr., W.F. [2002]. Science 296, 2212-2215) suggesting that all types of comet nuclei may have similar structural characteristics even though they may have different source regions and thermal histories. The typical disruption rate for a 1 km radius active nucleus is ∼5 × 10-5 disruptions/year and the dormancy rate is typically 3 times less. We also estimate that average fragmentation rates range from 0.01 to 0.04 events/year/comet, somewhat above the lower limit of 0.01 events/year/comet observed by Chen and Jewitt (Chen, J., Jewitt, D.C. [1994]. Icarus 108, 265-271).

  19. Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Caused by Ultrasound Bursts Combined with Microbubbles Depends on Anesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDannold, Nathan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Vykhodtseva, Natalia

    2011-09-01

    Prior works on BBB disruption via inter-arterial infusions of osmotic agents have shown a strong dependence on anesthesia. Here, we investigated whether different anesthesia agents can affect ultrasound-induced BBB disruption. A piston transducer fired through a rubber aperture (frequency: 532 kHz, diameter: 4 cm, aperture diameter: 16 mm) was used to generate the ultrasound fields, and sonications combined with an ultrasound contrast agent were performed at 5 power levels. BBB disruption was quantified by measuring the MRI contrast enhancement in T1-weighted MRI, and erythrocyte extravasation characterized in light microscopy. For each exposure level tested, experiments performed with ketamine/xylazine resulted in significantly greater (P<0.05) enhancement than with isoflurane/oxygen. The onset of severe red blood cell extravasation occurred at lower power levels with ketamine/xylazine. These results suggest ultrasound-induced BBB disruption can depend on anesthesia agent, possibly due effects on the vasculature. These results suggest that care is needed in comparing experiments with different anesthesia agents and physiological factors need to be considered with ultrasound-induced BBB disruption.

  20. Scrape-off-layer currents during MHD activity and disruptions in HBT-EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, J. P.; Desanto, S.; Battey, A.; Bialek, J.; Brooks, J. W.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.

    2017-10-01

    We report scrape-off layer (SOL) current measurements during MHD mode activity and disruptions in the HBT-EP tokamak. Currents are measured via Rogowski coils mounted on tiles in the low-field-side SOL, toroidal jumpers between otherwise-isolated vessel sections, and segmented plasma current Rogowski coils. These currents strongly depend on the plasma's major radius, mode amplitude, and mode phase. Plasma current asymmetries and SOL currents during disruptions reach 4% of the plasma current. Asymmetric toroidal currents between vessel sections rotate at tens of kHz through most of the current quench, then symmetrize once Ip reaches 30% of its pre-disruptive value. Toroidal jumper currents oscillate between co- and counter-Ip, with co-Ip being dominant on average during disruptions. Increases in local plasma current correlate with counter-Ip current in the nearest toroidal jumper. Measurements are interpreted in the context of two models that produce contrary predictions for the toroidal vessel current polarity during disruptions. Plasma current asymmetries are consistent with both models, and scale with plasma displacement toward the wall. Progress of ongoing SOL current diagnostic upgrades is also presented. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  1. Burning the Candle at Both Ends: Extramarital Sex as a Precursor of Marital Disruption.

    PubMed

    Demaris, Alfred

    2013-11-01

    This study examines several aspects of the association between engaging in extramarital sex and the disruption of one's marriage. In particular: is there a differential effect on disruption depending on the gender of the perpetrator? Is the effect of infidelity primarily due to its negative impact on marital quality and one's resistance to divorce? Are there characteristics of marriages that condition the effect of infidelity? Panel data on 1621 respondents followed from 1980 - 2000 in the Marital Instability Over the Life Course survey were utilized to answer these questions. Interval-censored Cox regression analysis revealed several noteworthy findings. Reports of problems due to extramarital involvement were strongly related to marital disruption, even holding constant the quality of the marriage. Although men were about three times more likely to be the cheating spouse, there was no difference in the effect of an affair on the marriage according to gender of the cheater. Approximately 40% of the effect of extramarital sex on disruption is accounted for by the mediating factors. Two moderators of infidelity's positive effect on disruption were found: the effect was substantially stronger for very religious couples, but weaker when the wife was in the labor force.

  2. Burning the Candle at Both Ends: Extramarital Sex as a Precursor of Marital Disruption

    PubMed Central

    DeMaris, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study examines several aspects of the association between engaging in extramarital sex and the disruption of one’s marriage. In particular: is there a differential effect on disruption depending on the gender of the perpetrator? Is the effect of infidelity primarily due to its negative impact on marital quality and one’s resistance to divorce? Are there characteristics of marriages that condition the effect of infidelity? Panel data on 1621 respondents followed from 1980 – 2000 in the Marital Instability Over the Life Course survey were utilized to answer these questions. Interval-censored Cox regression analysis revealed several noteworthy findings. Reports of problems due to extramarital involvement were strongly related to marital disruption, even holding constant the quality of the marriage. Although men were about three times more likely to be the cheating spouse, there was no difference in the effect of an affair on the marriage according to gender of the cheater. Approximately 40% of the effect of extramarital sex on disruption is accounted for by the mediating factors. Two moderators of infidelity’s positive effect on disruption were found: the effect was substantially stronger for very religious couples, but weaker when the wife was in the labor force. PMID:24634559

  3. Why We Need a Single Definition of Disruptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Michelle A; Scholl, Adam T

    2018-03-18

    Disruptive behavior is known to produce a wide range of negative effects in healthcare, such as impacting patient safety, lowering employee morale, and decreasing employee retention. Healthcare organizations have worked towards eliminating disruptive behavior; however, despite countless interventions, the issue continues to be a problem today. Why then does the issue of disruptive behavior persist? We argue that one reason is the multiple ways disruptive behavior can be described, henceforth defined as the "plurality of terms", which can make it difficult to collect relevant data by doing a simple literature search. Hence, we believe having a single definition for "disruptive behavior" will improve the meta-analysis on disruptive behavior research.

  4. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  5. Modeling resistive wall modes and disruptive instabilities with M3D-C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Nm; Jardin, Sc; Pfefferle, D.

    2016-10-01

    Disruptive instabilities pose a significant challenge to the tokamak approach to magnetic fusion energy, and must be reliably avoided in a successful reactor. These instabilities generally involve rapid, global changes to the magnetic field, and electromagnetic interaction with surrounding conducting structures. Here we apply the extended-MHD code M3D-C1 to calculate the stability and evolution of disruptive modes, including their interaction with external conducting structures. The M3D-C1 model includes the effects of resistivity, equilibrium rotation, and resistive walls of arbitrary thickness, each of which may play important roles in the stability and evolution of disruptive modes. The strong stabilizing effect of rotation on resistive wall modes is explored and compared with analytic theory. The nonlinear evolution of vertical displacement events is also considered, including the evolution of non-axisymmetric instabilities that may arise during the current-quench phase of the disruption. It is found that the non-axisymmetric stability of the plasma during a VDE depends strongly on the thermal history of the plasma. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-AC02-09CH11466 and the SciDAC Center for Extended MHD Modeling.

  6. Extraction of nucleic acids from yeast cells and plant tissues using ethanol as medium for sample preservation and cell disruption.

    PubMed

    Linke, Bettina; Schröder, Kersten; Arter, Juliane; Gasperazzo, Tatiana; Woehlecke, Holger; Ehwald, Rudolf

    2010-09-01

    Here we report that dehydrated ethanol is an excellent medium for both in situ preservation of nucleic acids and cell disruption of plant and yeast cells. Cell disruption was strongly facilitated by prior dehydration of the ethanol using dehydrated zeolite. Following removal of ethanol, nucleic acids were extracted from the homogenate pellet using denaturing buffers. The method provided DNA and RNA of high yield and integrity. Whereas cell wall disruption was essential for extraction of DNA and large RNA molecules, smaller molecules such as tRNAs could be selectively extracted from undisrupted, ethanol-treated yeast cells. Our results demonstrate the utility of absolute ethanol for sample fixation, cell membrane and cell wall disruption, as well as preservation of nucleic acids during sample storage.

  7. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Writer, J.H.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Kiesling, R.L.; Ferrey, M.L.; Jahns, N.D.; Bartell, S.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17??-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. ?? 2010.

  8. Structural basis of membrane disruption and cellular toxicity by α-synuclein oligomers.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Giuliana; Chen, Serene W; Williamson, Philip T F; Cascella, Roberta; Perni, Michele; Jarvis, James A; Cecchi, Cristina; Vendruscolo, Michele; Chiti, Fabrizio; Cremades, Nunilo; Ying, Liming; Dobson, Christopher M; De Simone, Alfonso

    2017-12-15

    Oligomeric species populated during the aggregation process of α-synuclein have been linked to neuronal impairment in Parkinson's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. By using solution and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques in conjunction with other structural methods, we identified the fundamental characteristics that enable toxic α-synuclein oligomers to perturb biological membranes and disrupt cellular function; these include a highly lipophilic element that promotes strong membrane interactions and a structured region that inserts into lipid bilayers and disrupts their integrity. In support of these conclusions, mutations that target the region that promotes strong membrane interactions by α-synuclein oligomers suppressed their toxicity in neuroblastoma cells and primary cortical neurons. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  9. CUMULATIVE DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS: SYNERGY OR ADDITIVITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to chemicals with hormonal activity during critical developmental periods can disrupt reproductive function and development. Within the last decade, several classes of pesticides and toxic substances have been shown to disrupt differentiation of the male rat reproductive...

  10. Characterizing traffic under uncertain disruptions : an experimental approach.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the research is to study long-term traffic patterns under uncertain disruptions using : data collected from human subjects who simultaneously make route choices in controlled PC-based : laboratory experiments. Uncertain disruptions t...

  11. The hexagon hypothesis: Six disruptive scenarios.

    PubMed

    Burtles, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to bring a simple but effective and comprehensive approach to the development, delivery and monitoring of business continuity solutions. To ensure that the arguments and principles apply across the board, the paper sticks to basic underlying concepts rather than sophisticated interpretations. First, the paper explores what exactly people are defending themselves against. Secondly, the paper looks at how defences should be set up. Disruptive events tend to unfold in phases, each of which invites a particular style of protection, ranging from risk management through to business continuity to insurance cover. Their impact upon any business operation will fall into one of six basic scenarios. The hexagon hypothesis suggests that everyone should be prepared to deal with each of these six disruptive scenarios and it provides them with a useful benchmark for business continuity.

  12. JET disruption studies in support of ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardo, V.; Arnoux, G.; Cahyna, P.; Hender, T. C.; Huber, A.; Jachmich, S.; Kiptily, V.; Koslowski, R.; Krlin, L.; Lehnen, M.; Loarte, A.; Nardon, E.; Paprok, R.; Tskhakaya (Sr, D.; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2010-12-01

    Plasma disruptions affect plasma-facing and structural components of tokamaks due to electromechanical forces, thermal loads and generation of high energy runaway electrons (REs). Asymmetries in poloidal halo and toroidal plasma current can now be routinely measured in four positions 90° apart. Their assessment is used to validate the design of the ITER vessel support system and its in-vessel components. The challenge of disruption thermal loads comes from both the short duration over which a large energy has to be lost and the potential for asymmetries. The focus of this paper will be on localized heat loads. Resonant magnetic perturbations failed to reduce the generation of REs in JET. An explanation of the limitations applying to these attempts is offered together with a minimum guideline. The REs generated by a moderate, but fast, Ar injection in limiter plasmas show evidence of milder and more efficient losses due to the high Ar background density.

  13. Disrupted neural synchronization in toddlers with autism

    PubMed Central

    Dinstein, Ilan; Pierce, Karen; Eyler, Lisa; Solso, Stephanie; Malach, Rafael; Behrmann, Marlene; Courchesne, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Summary Autism is often described as a disorder of neural synchronization. However, it is unknown how early in development synchronization abnormalities emerge and whether they are related to the development of early autistic behavioral symptoms. Here, we show that disrupted synchronization is evident in the spontaneous cortical activity of naturally sleeping toddlers with autism, but not in toddlers with language delay or typical development. Toddlers with autism exhibited significantly weaker inter-hemispheric synchronization (i.e. weak “functional connectivity” across the two hemispheres) in putative language areas. The strength of synchronization was positively correlated with verbal ability, negatively correlated with autism severity, and enabled identification of the majority of autistic toddlers (72%) with high accuracy (84%). Disrupted cortical synchronization, therefore, appears to be a notable characteristic of autism neurophysiology that is evident at very early stages of autism development. PMID:21689606

  14. Capture of Small Bodies After Tidal Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershova, A.; Medvedev, Yu.

    2017-09-01

    The subject of the current work is the phisical and dynamical evolution of the small comets group formed by tidal disruption of the protocomet while passing near the large body (Sun, Jupiter). The equations of motion were integrated numericaly. In case of the Sun the evolution of the sun-grazing orbits were discussed and the typical lifetime of such comets was estimated. Nongravitational acceleration and the size reduction of fragments due to sublimation were taking into account using the Marsden formula.

  15. Disrupting Mating Behavior of Diaphorina citri (Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Lujo, S; Hartman, E; Norton, K; Pregmon, E A; Rohde, B B; Mankin, R W

    2016-12-01

    Severe economic damage from citrus greening disease, caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' bacteria, has stimulated development of methods to reduce mating and reproduction in populations of its insect vector, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Male D. citri find mating partners by walking on host plants, intermittently producing vibrational calls that stimulate duetting replies by receptive females. The replies provide orientational feedback, assisting the search process. To test a hypothesis that D. citri mating can be disrupted using vibrational signals that compete with and/or mask female replies, courtship bioassays were conducted in citrus trees with or without interference from female reply mimics produced by a vibrating buzzer. Statistically significant reductions occurred in the rates and proportions of mating when the buzzer produced reply mimics within 0.4 s after male courtship calls compared with undisturbed controls. Observations of courtship behaviors in the two bioassays revealed activity patterns that likely contributed to the reductions. In both disruption and control tests, males reciprocated frequently between structural bifurcations and other transition points where signal amplitudes changed. Males in the disruption bioassay had to select among vibrational signals combined from the buzzer and the female at each transition point. They often turned towards the buzzer instead of the female. There was a statistically significant reduction in the proportion of males mating if they contacted the buzzer, possibly due to its higher vibration amplitude and duration in comparison with female replies. Potential applications of D. citri mating disruption technology in citrus groves are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. A case for change: disruption in academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Marc J; Maurer, Ralph; Wartman, Steven A; Sachs, Benjamin P

    2014-09-01

    Disruptive technologies allow less expensive and more efficient processes to eventually dominate a market sector. The academic health center's tripartite mission of education, clinical care, and research is threatened by decreasing revenues and increasing expenses and is, as a result, ripe for disruption. The authors describe current disruptive technologies that threaten traditional operations at academic health centers and provide a prescription not only to survive, but also to prosper, in the face of disruptive forces.

  17. Paranoia, Disruption, and Dominance: Corporate Lessons for the DOD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    acknowledge disruptive technologies , the failure or inability to embrace innovation quickly, or complacency? What are the potential consequences and...challenge us directly? Should we be looking for some disruptive technologies , looking for somebody to come in at the low end of things to take the United...Thus is created the potential for upstart companies to introduce disruptive technologies or disruptive innovations—cheaper, simpler, more convenient

  18. Hydrodynamical simulations of strong tides in astrophysical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillochon, James

    2013-07-01

    At the simplest level, gravitational sources are considered to be point-like and in solitude, with a radial force that falls off as r -2. In reality, all astrophysical objects aside from black holes are extended in space, and can be deformed by the tidal forces arising from the proximity of companion objects with large average densities. When these forces are weak, the response of an object to a tide can be through a decomposition into basis functions, but this approach fails when the tide is strong enough to deform an object by a distance equal to its own size. Under these circumstances, a hydrodynamical representation of the object is required to understand the true tidal response. In this thesis, we present a number of examples of physical systems in which tides dominate the dynamics. First, we consider the case of a star that encounters a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in a deeply penetrating encounter, resulting in a dramatic compression that produces shocks that would be observable in the X-ray. Second, we present the results of hydrodynamical simulations that demonstrate a new mechanism for igniting Type Ia supernovae from binary systems composed of two white dwarfs undergoing Roche-lobe overflow. Third, we investigate the survival prospects of giant planets that have been scattered into highly eccentricity orbits and are exposed to a strong tide applied by their parent star. Fourth, we systematically map the fallback rate resulting from the tidal disruptions of stars by SMBHs. Finally, we use what we have learned about the feeding rate to model determine the highest-likelihood model for an observed prototypical tidal disruption event.

  19. Macroeconomics and oil-supply disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, R.G.; Fry, R.C. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    Energy-economy interactions and domestic linkages have been used in a system of models. Domestic economic aggregates are linked with a model of the world oil market by a core macroeconomic model with real and financial sectors. The model can be used to examine the policy ramifications of various short-run scenarios. Demand factors are not taken as exogenous to the world oil market, nor are oil prices taken as exogenous to the US economy. Simulations of the model have generated endogenous cycles in the world oil market; which then affect the US economy primarily through output and inflation channels. Policy simulationmore » was centered around the short-run imposition of a disruption tariff. The disruption tariff exhibited at least some of the desirable features noted by its proponents, though it did not function as a shield against the short-run output loss forced by the disruption. One might also simulate the rebate of tariff revenues as a reduction in the social security payroll tax. Other possible simulations include the use of any of the fiscal and monetary instruments included in the model. The effectiveness of these other policy instruments will be examined in a later paper.« less

  20. Disruption of coronal magnetic field arcades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Linker, Jon A.

    1994-01-01

    The ideal and resistive properties of isolated large-scale coronal magnetic arcades are studied using axisymmetric solutions of the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in spherical geometry. We examine how flares and coronal mass ejections may be initiated by sudden disruptions of the magnetic field. The evolution of coronal arcades in response to applied shearing photospheric flows indicates that disruptive behavior can occur beyond a critical shear. The disruption can be traced to ideal MHD magnetic nonequilibrium. The magnetic field expands outward in a process that opens the field lines and produces a tangential discontinuity in the magnetic field. In the presence of plasma resistivity, the resulting current sheet is the site of rapid reconnection, leading to an impulsive release of magnetic energy, fast flows, and the ejection of a plasmoid. We relate these results to previous studies of force-free fields and to the properties of the open-field configuration. We show that the field lines in an arcade are forced open when the magnetic energy approaches (but is still below) the open-field energy, creating a partially open field in which most of the field lines extend away from the solar surface. Preliminary application of this model to helmet streamers indicates that it is relevant to the initiation of coronal mass ejections.

  1. Circadian Rhythm Disruption Promotes Lung Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Bauer, Matthew R; Davidson, Shawn M; Heimann, Megan; Subbaraj, Lakshmipriya; Bhutkar, Arjun; Bartlebaugh, Jordan; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Jacks, Tyler

    2016-08-09

    Circadian rhythms are 24-hr oscillations that control a variety of biological processes in living systems, including two hallmarks of cancer, cell division and metabolism. Circadian rhythm disruption by shift work is associated with greater risk for cancer development and poor prognosis, suggesting a putative tumor-suppressive role for circadian rhythm homeostasis. Using a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma, we have characterized the effects of circadian rhythm disruption on lung tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that both physiologic perturbation (jet lag) and genetic mutation of the central circadian clock components decreased survival and promoted lung tumor growth and progression. The core circadian genes Per2 and Bmal1 were shown to have cell-autonomous tumor-suppressive roles in transformation and lung tumor progression. Loss of the central clock components led to increased c-Myc expression, enhanced proliferation, and metabolic dysregulation. Our findings demonstrate that both systemic and somatic disruption of circadian rhythms contribute to cancer progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disruptive Innovation Can Prevent the Next Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Affan T; Ferland, Lisa; Hood-Cree, Robert; Shaffer, Loren; McNabb, Scott J N

    2015-01-01

    Public health surveillance (PHS) is at a tipping point, where the application of novel processes, technologies, and tools promise to vastly improve efficiency and effectiveness. Yet twentieth century, entrenched ideology and lack of training results in slow uptake and resistance to change. The term disruptive innovation - used to describe advances in technology and processes that change existing markets - is useful to describe the transformation of PHS. Past disruptive innovations used in PHS, such as distance learning, the smart phone, and field-based laboratory testing have outpaced older services, practices, and technologies used in the traditional classroom, governmental offices, and personal communication, respectively. Arguably, the greatest of these is the Internet - an infrastructural innovation that continues to enable exponential benefits in seemingly limitless ways. Considering the Global Health Security Agenda and facing emerging and reemerging infectious disease threats, evolving environmental and behavioral risks, and ever changing epidemiologic trends, PHS must transform. Embracing disruptive innovation in the structures and processes of PHS can be unpredictable. However, it is necessary to strengthen and unlock the potential to prevent, detect, and respond.

  3. Natural Hazards and Supply Chain Disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Natural hazards distress the global economy through disruptions in supply chain networks. Moreover, despite increasing investment to infrastructure for disaster risk management, economic damages and losses caused by natural hazards are increasing. Manufacturing companies today have reduced inventories and streamlined logistics in order to maximize economic competitiveness. As a result, today's supply chains are profoundly susceptible to systemic risks, which are the risk of collapse of an entire network caused by a few node of the network. For instance, the prolonged floods in Thailand in 2011 caused supply chain disruptions in their primary industries, i.e. electronic and automotive industries, harming not only the Thai economy but also the global economy. Similar problems occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011, the Mississippi River floods and droughts during 2011 - 2013, and the Earthquake in Kumamoto Japan in 2016. This study attempts to discover what kind of effective measures are available for private companies to manage supply chain disruptions caused by floods. It also proposes a method to estimate potential risks using a Bayesian network. The study uses a Bayesian network to create synthetic networks that include variables associated with the magnitude and duration of floods, major components of supply chains such as logistics, multiple layers of suppliers, warehouses, and consumer markets. Considering situations across different times, our study shows desirable data requirements for the analysis and effective measures to improve Value at Risk (VaR) for private enterprises and supply chains.

  4. Spin Dependence in Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesden, Michael; Stone, Nicholas; van Velzen, Sjoert

    2018-01-01

    A supermassive black hole (SBH) can tidally disrupt stars when its tidal field overwhelms the stars’ self-gravity. The stellar debris produced in such tidal disruption events (TDEs) evolves into tidal streams that can self-intersect. These inelastic stream collisions dissipate orbital energy, both circularizing the tidal stream and contributing to the emission observed during the TDE. Once circularized into a disk, the stellar debris can be viscously accreted by the SBH powering additional luminous emission. We explore how SBH spin can affect the tidal disruption process. Tidal forces are spin dependent, as is the minimum orbital angular momentum below which stars are directly captured by the SBH. This implies that the TDE rate will be spin dependent, particularly for more massive SBHs for which relativistic effects are more significant. SBH spin also affects TDE light curves through the initial debris orbits, the nature of the stream collisions, the viscous evolution of the accretion disk, and the possibility of launching jets. We explore the spin dependence of these phenomena to identify promising signatures for upcoming surveys expected to discover hundreds of TDE candidates in the next decade.

  5. Understanding the Emergence of Disruptive Innovation in Air Force Science and Technology Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    respect to various key attributes. Although the principles of low-end and new market disruption play the most significant role in the fluid and...crucial role in the emergence of breakthrough and game changing ideas. By examining these key elements with regard to industry innovation, a base...that help define the key characteristics of an innovative culture: strong customer focus, collaboration, effective processes , creative people

  6. Lipid rafts are disrupted in mildly inflamed intestinal microenvironments without overt disruption of the epithelial barrier.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Rachel V; Donatello, Simona; Lyes, Clíona; Owens, Mark B; Babina, Irina S; Hudson, Lance; Walsh, Shaun V; O'Donoghue, Diarmuid P; Amu, Sylvie; Barry, Sean P; Fallon, Padraic G; Hopkins, Ann M

    2012-04-15

    Intestinal epithelial barrier disruption is a feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but whether barrier disruption precedes or merely accompanies inflammation remains controversial. Tight junction (TJ) adhesion complexes control epithelial barrier integrity. Since some TJ proteins reside in cholesterol-enriched regions of the cell membrane termed lipid rafts, we sought to elucidate the relationship between rafts and intestinal epithelial barrier function. Lipid rafts were isolated from Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells primed with the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin as a positive control for raft disruption. Rafts were also isolated from the ilea of mice in which colitis had been induced in conjunction with in vivo intestinal permeability measurements, and lastly from intestinal biopsies of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with predominantly mild or quiescent disease. Raft distribution was analyzed by measuring activity of the raft-associated enzyme alkaline phosphatase and by performing Western blot analysis for flotillin-1. Epithelial barrier integrity was estimated by measuring transepithelial resistance in cytokine-treated cells or in vivo permeability to fluorescent dextran in colitic mice. Raft and nonraft fractions were analyzed by Western blotting for the TJ proteins occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Our results revealed that lipid rafts were disrupted in IFN-γ-treated cells, in the ilea of mice with subclinical colitis, and in UC patients with quiescent inflammation. This was not associated with a clear pattern of occludin or ZO-1 relocalization from raft to nonraft fractions. Significantly, a time-course study in colitic mice revealed that disruption of lipid rafts preceded the onset of increased intestinal permeability. Our data suggest for the first time that lipid raft disruption occurs early in the inflammatory cascade in murine and human colitis and, we speculate, may contribute to

  7. The Impact of Marital Conflict and Disruption on Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseknecht, Sharon K.; Hango, Darcy W.

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of inconsistency between parental marital conflict and disruption on children's health. Inconsistent situations arise when minimal marital conflict precedes disruption or when marital conflict is high but there is no disruption. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, two alternative…

  8. A CIT Investigation of Disruptive Faculty Behaviors: The Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, K. Douglas; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent focus on disruptive student behaviors in the classroom, little attention has been given to disruptive faculty behaviors. Utilizing theoretical concepts developed in the services-marketing literature, this study empirically explores student perceptions of disruptive faculty behaviors in the classroom. More specifically, this…

  9. Disruptive Behaviour of Students in Primary Education and Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esturgo-Deu, M. Estrella; Sala-Roca, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the relation between disruptive behaviours and the emotional abilities of children in primary education. To do this, disruptive behaviour and emotional abilities were evaluated in 1422 pupils aged between 6 and 12 years of age at 11 education centres using EQIjv. No relation was found between disruptive behaviours and age, but…

  10. Disrupting Ourselves: The Problem of Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Randy

    2012-01-01

    A growing appreciation for the porous boundaries between the classroom and life experience, along with the power of social learning, authentic audiences, and integrative contexts, has created not only promising changes in learning but also disruptive moments in teaching. Disruptive moments, the author means "disruption" in the way Clayton…

  11. Glucocorticoids and histone deacetylase inhibitors cooperate to block the invasiveness of basal-like breast cancer cells through novel mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Law, ME; Corsino, PE; Jahn, SC; Davis, BJ; Chen, S; Patel, B; Pham, K; Lu, J; Sheppard, B; Nørgaard, P; Hong, J; Higgins, P; Kim, J-S; Luesch, H; Law, BK

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive cancers often express E-cadherin in cytoplasmic vesicles rather than on the plasma membrane and this may contribute to the invasive phenotype of these tumors. Therapeutic strategies are not currently available that restore the anti-invasive function of E-cadherin in cancers. MDA-MB-231 cells are a frequently used model of invasive triple-negative breast cancer, and these cells express low levels of E-cadherin that is mislocalized to cytoplasmic vesicles. MDA-MB-231 cell lines stably expressing wild-type E-cadherin or E-cadherin fused to glutathione S-transferase or green fluorescent protein were used as experimental systems to probe the mechanisms responsible for cytoplasmic E-cadherin localization in invasive cancers. Although E-cadherin expression partly reduced cell invasion in vitro, E-cadherin was largely localized to the cytoplasm and did not block the invasiveness of the corresponding orthotopic xenograft tumors. Further studies indicated that the glucocorticoid dexamethasone and the highly potent class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor largazole cooperated to induce E-cadherin localization to the plasma membrane in triple-negative breast cancers, and to suppress cellular invasion in vitro. Dexamethasone blocked the production of the cleaved form of the CDCP1 (that is, CUB domain-containing protein 1) protein (cCDCP1) previously implicated in the pro-invasive activities of CDCP1 by upregulating the serine protease inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. E-cadherin preferentially associated with cCDCP1 compared with the full-length form. In contrast, largazole did not influence CDCP1 cleavage, but increased the association of E-cadherin with γ-catenin. This effect on E-cadherin/γ-catenin complexes was shared with the nonisoform selective HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA), although largazole upregulated endogenous E-cadherin levels more strongly than TSA. These results demonstrate

  12. Disruption of Alfvénic turbulence by magnetic reconnection in a collisionless plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, Alfred; Schekochihin, Alexander A.; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.

    2017-12-01

    We calculate the disruption scale \\text{D}$ at which sheet-like structures in dynamically aligned Alfvénic turbulence are destroyed by the onset of magnetic reconnection in a low- collisionless plasma. The scaling of \\text{D}$ depends on the order of the statistics being considered, with more intense structures being disrupted at larger scales. The disruption scale for the structures that dominate the energy spectrum is \\text{D}\\sim L\\bot 1/9(de\\unicode[STIX]{x1D70C}s)4/9$ , where e$ is the electron inertial scale, s$ is the ion sound scale and \\bot $ is the outer scale of the turbulence. When e$ and s/L\\bot $ are sufficiently small, the scale \\text{D}$ is larger than s$ and there is a break in the energy spectrum at \\text{D}$ , rather than at s$ . We propose that the fluctuations produced by the disruption are circularised flux ropes, which may have already been observed in the solar wind. We predict the relationship between the amplitude and radius of these structures and quantify the importance of the disruption process to the cascade in terms of the filling fraction of undisrupted structures and the fractional reduction of the energy contained in them at the ion sound scale s$ . Both of these fractions depend strongly on e$ , with the disrupted structures becoming more important at lower e$ . Finally, we predict that the energy spectrum between \\text{D}$ and s$ is steeper than \\bot -3$ , when this range exists. Such a steep `transition range' is sometimes observed in short intervals of solar-wind turbulence. The onset of collisionless magnetic reconnection may therefore significantly affect the nature of plasma turbulence around the ion gyroscale.

  13. Disruptive coloration in woodland camouflage: evaluation of camouflage effectiveness due to minor disruptive patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selj, Gorm K.; Heinrich, Daniela H.

    2016-10-01

    We present results from an observer based photosimulation study of generic camouflage patterns, intended for military uniforms, where three near-identical patterns have been compared. All the patterns were prepared with similar effective color, but were different in how the individual pattern patches were distributed throughout the target. We did this in order to test if high contrast (black) patches along the outline of the target would enhance the survivability when exposed to human observers. In the recent years it has been shown that disruptive coloration in the form of high contrast patches are capable of disturbing an observer by creating false edges of the target and consequently enhance target survivability. This effect has been shown in different forms in the Animal Kingdom, but not to the same extent in camouflaged military targets. The three patterns in this study were i) with no disruptive preference, ii) with a disruptive patch along the outline of the head and iii) with a disruptive patch on the outline of one of the shoulders. We used a high number of human observers to assess the three targets in 16 natural (woodland) backgrounds by showing images of one of the targets at the time on a high definition pc screen. We found that the two patterns that were thought to have a minor disruptive preference to the remaining pattern were more difficult to detect in some (though not all) of the 16 scenes and were also better in overall performance when all the scenes were accounted for.

  14. Mating Disruption for the 21st Century: Matching Technology With Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Miller, James R; Gut, Larry J

    2015-06-01

    Progress toward proof of the principal cause of insect mating disruption under a particular set of conditions has been hindered by a lack of logical rigor and clean falsifications of possible explanations. Here we make the case that understanding of mating disruption and optimization of particular formulations can be significantly advanced by rigorous application of the principles of strong inference. To that end, we offer a dichotomous key for eight distinct categories of mating disruption and detail criteria and methodologies for differentiating among them. Mechanisms of mating disruption closely align with those established for enzyme inhibition, falling into two major categories-competitive and noncompetitive. Under competitive disruption, no impairments are experienced by males, females, or the signal of