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Sample records for e-cadherin expression suggesting

  1. Paradoxical expression of E-cadherin in prostatic bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Bryden, A A; Freemont, A J; Clarke, N W; George, N J

    1999-12-01

    To determine whether the calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is expressed in metastatic deposits of prostate cancer in bone. Ten bone biopsies containing metastatic deposits of untreated prostatic cancer were obtained and immunohistochemically stained for E-cadherin with the monoclonal antibody HECD-1, using the streptavidin-biotin complex technique. Benign prostatic tissue was used as the control. Of the 10 specimens, nine showed positive expression of E-cadherin, graded as strong in four. E-cadherin expression was strongest in well-differentiated metastases and decreased with increasing tumour grade. In some specimens there were mixed patterns of expression. E-cadherin is strongly expressed in prostatic bone metastases and the degree of expression appears to reflect local tumour grade. This suggests that loss of E-cadherin expression may not be critically linked to metastatic potential.

  2. Human Langerhans cells express E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Blauvelt, A; Katz, S I; Udey, M C

    1995-02-01

    Murine Langerhans cells (LC) synthesize and express E-cadherin, a Ca(++)-dependent homophilic cell adhesion molecule that mediates LC-keratinocyte (KC) binding in vitro. In vivo, E-cadherin expression by LC may promote localization and persistence of LC within the epidermis through LC-KC adhesion. In addition, changes in LC E-cadherin expression or affinity may be an important factor in the egress of LC from the epidermis after exposure to antigen. The aim of the present study was to determine if human LC also express E-cadherin. Suction blister roofs were obtained from normal volunteers and epidermal cell (EC) suspensions were prepared by limited trypsinization in the presence of 1 mM Ca++. EC were then incubated with antibodies to E-cadherin and CD1a or HLA-DR, and examined by two-color analytical flow cytometry or immunofluorescence microscopy. Most (82.9% +/- 7.4% [mean +/- SD], range 67-89%, n = 7) freshly prepared human LC expressed E-cadherin, as did the majority of KC. The amount of E-cadherin (as determined by mean fluorescence intensity) expressed by LC and KC was similar. Trypsin/EDTA treatment of freshly prepared EC abrogated expression of E-cadherin by LC and KC, whereas E-cadherin was not degraded by trypsin in the presence of Ca++. LC expressed lower levels of E-cadherin after 3 d in culture. Thus, human LC, like murine LC, express the homophilic adhesion molecule E-cadherin, which may be important in establishing and maintaining interactions between LC and KC in mammalian epidermis.

  3. Hypoxia reduces the E-cadherin expression and increases OSCC cell migration regardless of the E-cadherin methylation profile.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Patrícia Luciana Batista; Souza, Marcela Gonçalves; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; Santos, Eliane Sobrinho; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the association between E-cadherin methylation status, hypoxia and OSCC. HaCat and SCC9 cell lines were submitted to hypoxic treatment, followed by methylation profile analysis (MS-PCR) and analysis of the expression of mRNA gene E-cadherin (RT-PCR). Study group samples comprise individuals affected by potentially malignant lesions Potential Malignant Oral Lesion (PMOL, n=18) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, n=28). The control group oral mucosa (OM, n=15) of patients with an oral mucocele. Cell migration ability was evaluated a scratch wound assay in SCC9 and HaCat cell lines RESULTS: E-cadherin mRNA expression in the cell lines SCC9 and HaCat was significantly reduced under hypoxia, regardless of the methylation profile, when compared to the control group. No differences in methylation profile of the E-cadherin were observed among the groups OM, PMOL and OSCC. HaCat and SCC9 presented increases in cell migration rates under hypoxia. The current study demonstrates that hypoxia reduces E-cadherin expression and increase cell migration, regardless of the methylation profile. Additionally, no differences in E-cadherin methylation patterns were observed among OM, PMOL and OSCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-expression of E-cadherin in leukaemia cells causes loss of homophilic adhesion and promotes cell growth.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qing; Wang, Ji-Ying; Meng, Jihong; Tang, Kejing; Wang, Yanzhong; Wang, Min; Xing, Haiyan; Tian, Zheng; Wang, Jianxiang

    2011-09-01

    E-cadherin (epithelial cadherin) belongs to the calcium-dependent adhesion molecule superfamily and is implicated in the interactions of haematopoietic progenitors and bone marrow stromal cells. Adhesion capacity to bone marrow stroma was impaired for leukaemia cells, suggesting that a breakdown of adhesive mechanisms governed by an adhesion molecule may exist in leukaemic microenvironment. We previously found that E-cadherin was low expressed in primary acute leukaemia cells compared with normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. In this study, we investigate the functional importance of low E-cadherin expression in leukaemia cell behaviours and investigate its effects in the abnormal interaction of leukaemic cells with stromal cells. After expression of E-cadherin was restored by a demethylating agent in leukaemia cells, E-cadherin-specific adhesion was enhanced. Additionally, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated silencing of E-cadherin in Raji cells resulted in a reduction of cell homophilic adhesion and enhancement of cell proliferation and colony formation. These results suggest that low expression of E-cadherin contributes to the vigorous growth and transforming ability of leukaemic cells.

  5. Expression of E-cadherin and vimentin in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingping; Tao, Detao; Xu, Qing; Gao, Zhenlin; Tang, Daofang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the levels of E-cadherin, vimentin expression in tumor tissues from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and the relationship between the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in order to explore its values for predicting the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma, short survival of patients in many types of cancer. E-cadherin and vimentin expression of 10 benign and 42 OSCC tumor tissues was examined by immunohistochemical staining. E-cadherin is positively expressed in normal oral mucosa epithelium, but vimentin expression is not found in normal oral mucosa epithelia; the E-cadherin and vimentin were expressed in 26 of 42 (61.9%) and 16 of 42 (38.1%), respectively. No statistically difference was found for E-cadherin and vimentin expression in patients with different age, gender and tumor location, E-cadherin and vimentin expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and tissue location (P < 0.05); E-cadherin expression was also significantly associated with tumor stage (P < 0.05); there are significantly difference between infiltrative margin and central area in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma for E-cadherin and vimentin positive expression (P < 0.05). E-cadherin and vimentin positive expression was associated with tumor metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our study preliminarily confirmed that EMT phenomenon is existed during the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Co-evaluation of E-cadherin and vimentin might be a valuable tool for predicting OSCC patient outcome. PMID:26045832

  6. [Immunohistochemical expression of the E-cadherin-catenin complex in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Pablo; Araya, Juan; Villaseca, Miguel; Roa, Iván; Melo, Angélica; Muñoz, Sergio; Roa, Juan

    2006-08-01

    The E-cadherin/catenin complex plays an essential role in the control of epithelial differentiation. Abnormal expression in tumors correlates with histological grade, advanced stage and poor prognosis. To evaluate the expression pattern of E-cadherin/catenin complex in gastric carcinoma and analyze their association with tumor clinicopathological features and patient survival. Inmunohistochemical staining of E-cadherin, alpha and ss-catenin was performed from paraffin specimens of 65 gastric carcinomas. Abnormal expression of E-cadherin, alpha and ss-catenin was demonstrated in 82%, 85% and 88% of gastric carcinomas, respectively. There was a significant correlation between abnormal expression and Lauren pathological classification and depth of infiltration, but not with tumor stage, positive lymph node metastases and survival. Abnormal expression of E-cadherin, alpha and ss-catenin occurs frequently in gastric carcinoma and correlates with histological grade.

  7. Expression of E-cadherin in canine anal sac gland carcinoma and its association with survival.

    PubMed

    Polton, G A; Brearley, M J; Green, L M; Scase, T J

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether an association could be demonstrated between survival and the expression of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin by the neoplastic cells in a group of dogs with anal sac gland carcinomas (ASGCs). Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded primary tumour specimens were obtained for 36 cases of canine ASGC with known clinical management and survival data. Immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate E-cadherin expression by the neoplastic cells and data were evaluated for an association between E-cadherin expression and survival. On univariate analysis, the median survival time for cases with tumours expressing E-cadherin in more than 75% of cells was significantly greater than that for cases with tumours expressing E-cadherin in fewer than 75% of cells (1168 versus 448 days, P = 0.0246). Both E-cadherin expression and presence or absence of distant metastases were significantly associated with survival on multivariate analysis. This study demonstrates that expression of E-cadherin at the cytoplasmic membrane in canine ASGCs is variable and potentially predictive of survival.

  8. Mucinous Colorectal Adenocarcinoma: Influence of EGFR and E-Cadherin Expression on Clinicopathologic Features and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd AlRahman M; AbdelAziz, Azza; El-Hawary, Amira K; Hosni, Ali; Zalata, Khalid R; Gado, Asmaa I

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting results on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E-cadherin expression in colorectal carcinoma and their prognostic significance. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate EGFR and E-cadherin expression, interrelation and relation to clinicopathologic, histologic parameters, and survival in rare colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA). In this study, we studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal MA and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA). High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tips technique, and immunohistochemistry for EGFR and E-cadherin was performed. All relations were analyzed using established statistical methodologies. NMA expressed EGFR and E-cadherin in significantly higher rates with significant heterogenous pattern than MA. EGFR and E-cadherin positivity rates were significantly interrelated in both NMA and MA groups. In the NMA group, high EGFR expression was associated with old age, male sex, multiplicity of tumors, lack of mucinous component, and association with schistosomiasis. However, in the MA group, high EGFR expression was associated only with old age and MA subtype rather than signet ring carcinoma subtype. Conversely, high E-cadherin expression in MA cases was associated with old age, fungating tumor configuration, MA subtype, and negative intratumoral lymphocytic response. However, in the NMA cases, none of these factors was statistically significant. In a univariate analysis, neither EGFR nor E-cadherin expression showed a significant impact on disease-free or overall survival. Targeted therapy against EGFR and E-cadherin may not be useful in patients with MA. Neither EGFR nor E-cadherin is an independent prognostic factor in NMA or MA.

  9. Expression of p27Kip1 and E-cadherin in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Indonesian Patients.

    PubMed

    E I, Auerkari; V, Joewono; D R, Handjari; A T, Sarwono; A W, Suhartono; K, Eto; M A, Ikeda

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit characteristic damage of DNA and its expression. The expression of the tumor suppressors E-cadherin and p27(Kip1) has been tested on 57 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) of Indonesian subjects. HNSCC tumor samples including both primary and (unrelated) nodal cases were obtained from the archives of Indonesian hospitals, in accordance with acknowledged ethical requirements. Only modest correlation was found between reduced expression of E-cadherin or p27(Kip1) with increased malignancy of primary and nodal growth. The observed strong correlation regardless of malignancy between the expressed levels of E-cadherin and p27(Kip1) suggests that also in combination these would not help to better predict the outcome of HNSCC.

  10. E-cadherin immunohistochemical expression in mammary gland neoplasms in bitches.

    PubMed

    Rodo, A; Malicka, E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate E-cadherin expression in correlation with other neoplasm traits such as: histological type, the differentiation grade and proliferative activity. Material for the investigation comprised mammary gland tumours, collected from dogs, the patients of veterinary clinics, during surgical procedures and archival samples. All together 21 adenomas, 32 complex carcinomas, 35 simple carcinomas and 13 solid carcinomas were qualified for further investigation. E-cadherin expression was higher in adenomas as compared with carcinomas but lower in solid carcinomas as compared with simple and complex carcinomas. More over, the expression of E-cadherin decreased with the increase in the neoplasm malignancy and proliferative activity (value of the mitotic index and number of cells showing Ki67). The study has shown that the expression of E-cadherin can be used as a prognostic factor.

  11. Relation of glypican-3 and E-cadherin expressions to clinicopathological features and prognosis of mucinous and non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; Mohammad, Mie Ali; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal

    2015-06-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a member of the membrane-bound heparin sulfate proteoglycans. E-cadherin is an adhesive receptor that is believed to act as a tumor suppressor gene. Many studies had investigated E-cadherin expressions in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) while only one study had investigated GPC3 expression in CRC. This study aims to investigate expression of GCP3 and E-cadherin in colorectal mucinous carcinoma (MA) and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) using manual tissue microarray technique. Tumor tissue specimens are collected from 75 cases of MC and 75 cases of NMA who underwent radical surgery from Jan 2007 to Jan 2012 at the Gastroenterology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt. Their clinicopathological parameters and survival data were revised and analyzed using established statistical methodologies. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tip technique and immunohistochemistry for GPC3 and E-cadherin was done. NMA showed higher expression of GPC3 than MA with no statistically significant relation. NMA showed a significantly higher E-cadherin expression than MA. GPC3 and E-cadherin positivity rates were significantly interrelated in NMA, but not in MA, group. In NMA group, there was no significant relation between either GPC3 or E-cadherin expression and the clinicopathological features. In a univariate analysis, neither GPC3 nor E-cadherin expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival (OS). GPC3 and E-cadherin expressions are not independent prognostic factors in CRC. However, expressions of both are significantly interrelated in NMA patients, suggesting an excellent interplay between both, in contrast to MA. Further molecular studies are needed to further explore the relationship between GCP3 and E-cadherin in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  12. Restoring E-cadherin expression increases sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Witta, Samir E; Gemmill, Robert M; Hirsch, Fred R; Coldren, Christopher D; Hedman, Karla; Ravdel, Larisa; Helfrich, Barbara; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Chan, Daniel C; Sugita, Michio; Chan, Zeng; Baron, Anna; Franklin, Wilbur; Drabkin, Harry A; Girard, Luc; Gazdar, Adi F; Minna, John D; Bunn, Paul A

    2006-01-15

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in the majority of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, produce 9% to 27% response rates in NSCLC patients. E-Cadherin, a calcium-dependent adhesion molecule, plays an important role in NSCLC prognosis and progression, and interacts with EGFR. The zinc finger transcriptional repressor, ZEB1, inhibits E-cadherin expression by recruiting histone deacetylases (HDAC). We identified a significant correlation between sensitivity to gefitinib and expression of E-cadherin, and ZEB1, suggesting their predictive value for responsiveness to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. E-Cadherin transfection into a gefitinib-resistant line increased its sensitivity to gefitinib. Pretreating resistant cell lines with the HDAC inhibitor, MS-275, induced E-cadherin along with EGFR and led to a growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effect of gefitinib similar to that in gefitinib-sensitive NSCLC cell lines including those harboring EGFR mutations. Thus, combined HDAC inhibitor and gefitinib treatment represents a novel pharmacologic strategy for overcoming resistance to EGFR inhibitors in patients with lung cancer.

  13. Differences in E-Cadherin and Syndecan-1 Expression in Different Types of Ameloblastomas

    PubMed Central

    López-Verdín, Sandra; Pereira-Prado, Vanesa

    2018-01-01

    Ameloblastomas are a group of benign, locally aggressive, recurrent tumors characterized by their slow and infiltrative growth. E-Cadherin and syndecan-1 are cell adhesion molecules related to the behavior of various tumors, including ameloblastomas. Ninety-nine ameloblastoma samples were studied; the expression of E-cadherin and syndecan-1 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. E-Cadherin and epithelial syndecan-1 were more highly expressed in intraluminal/luminal unicystic ameloblastoma than in mural unicystic ameloblastoma and solid/multicystic ameloblastoma, whereas the stromal expression of syndecan-1 was higher in mural unicystic ameloblastoma and solid/multicystic ameloblastoma. Synchronicity was observed between E-cadherin and epithelial syndecan-1; the expression was correlated with intensity in all cases. There was a strong association between expression and tumor size and recurrence. The evaluation of the expression of E-cadherin and syndecan-1 are important for determining the potential aggressiveness of ameloblastoma variants. Future studies are required to understand how the expression of these markers is related to tumor aggressiveness.

  14. E-cadherin expression increases cell proliferation by regulating energy metabolism through nuclear factor-κB in AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Song Yi; Shin, Jee-Hye; Kee, Sun-Ho

    2017-09-01

    β-Catenin is a central player in Wnt signaling, and activation of Wnt signaling is associated with cancer development. E-cadherin in complex with β-catenin mediates cell-cell adhesion, which suppresses β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling. Recently, a tumor-suppressive role for E-cadherin has been reconsidered, as re-expression of E-cadherin was reported to enhance the metastatic potential of malignant tumors. To explore the role of E-cadherin, we established an E-cadherin-expressing cell line, EC96, from AGS cells that featured undetectable E-cadherin expression and a high level of Wnt signaling. In EC96 cells, E-cadherin re-expression enhanced cell proliferation, although Wnt signaling activity was reduced. Subsequent analysis revealed that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and consequent c-myc expression might be involved in E-cadherin expression-mediated cell proliferation. To facilitate rapid proliferation, EC96 cells enhance glucose uptake and produce ATP using both mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, whereas AGS cells use these mechanisms less efficiently. These events appeared to be mediated by NF-κB activation. Therefore, E-cadherin re-expression and subsequent induction of NF-κB signaling likely enhance energy production and cell proliferation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Modulation of N-glycosylation by mesalamine facilitates membranous E-cadherin expression in colon epithelial cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Vineeta; Lang, Michaela; Dammann, Kyle; Campregher, Christoph; Lyakhovich, Alex; Gasche, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Genome wide association studies have implicated intestinal barrier function genes in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. One of such loci CDH1, encoding E-cadherin, a transmembrane glycoprotein with known tumor suppressor functions, is also linked to the susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Loss of membranous E-cadherin expression is common in both colitis and cancer. We have recently demonstrated that mesalamine (5-ASA); the anti-inflammatory drug used to treat ulcerative colitis, induces membranous expression of E-cadherin and increases intercellular adhesion. Using colorectal cancer epithelial cells with aberrant E-cadherin expression, we investigated the mechanism underlying such an effect of 5-ASA. Post-translational modification of E-cadherin glycosylation was analyzed by biotin/streptavidin detection of sialylated glycoproteins. GnT-III (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III) expression was assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. GnT-III activity was analyzed by reactivity with E-4/L-4-PHA. Expression, localization and interaction of E-cadherin and β-catenin were analyzed by Western blot, immunocytochemistry and RNA interference. 5-ASA activity modulated E-cadherin glycosylation and increased both mRNA and protein levels of GnT-III and its activity as detected by increased E4-lectin reactivity. Intestinal APCMin polyps in mice showed low expression of GnT-III and 5-ASA was effective in increasing its expression. The data demonstrated that remodeling of glycans by GnT-III mediated bisect glycosylation, contributes to the membranous retention of E-cadherin by 5-ASA; facilitating intercellular adhesion. Induction of membranous expression of E-cadherin by 5-ASA is a novel mechanism for mucosal healing in colitis that might impede tumor progression by modulation of GnT-III expression. PMID:24184502

  16. Correlation of E-cadherin expression with differentiation grade and histological type in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gamallo, C.; Palacios, J.; Suarez, A.; Pizarro, A.; Navarro, P.; Quintanilla, M.; Cano, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a correlation has been suggested between a loss of E-cadherin (E-CD) and increased invasiveness of neoplastic cells. In this study, E-CD expression in breast cancer was investigated using an affinity-purified antibody (ECCD-2) in an immunoenzymatic (avidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase) test. Intensity and extension of E-CD immunoreactivity were evaluated in 61 breast carcinomas and correlated with their histological type and grade, nodal involvement, and hormonal receptor status. Histological types were infiltrating ductal carcinoma of no special type (n = 54) and infiltrating lobular carcinoma (n = 7). All infiltrating ductal carcinomas of no special type except two grade 3 carcinomas showed positive immunoreactivity that was variable among different cases. Grade 1 breast carcinomas (n = 10) showed greater immunoreactivity than grade 2 (n = 25) and grade 3 (n = 19) carcinomas. E-CD immunoreactivity correlated positively with the degree of tubular formation and inversely with the mitoses number. None of the infiltrating lobular carcinomas expressed E-CD in their infiltrating cells, whereas they showed only weak immunostains in areas of atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. These results indicate that E-CD expression correlates with histological type and grade in breast carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7682767

  17. Zebrafish E-cadherin: expression during early embryogenesis and regulation during brain development.

    PubMed

    Babb, S G; Barnett, J; Doedens, A L; Cobb, N; Liu, Q; Sorkin, B C; Yelick, P C; Raymond, P A; Marrs, J A

    2001-06-01

    Zebrafish E-cadherin (cdh1) cell adhesion molecule cDNAs were cloned. We investigated spatial and temporal expression of cdh1 during early embryogenesis. Expression was observed in blastomeres, the anterior mesoderm during gastrulation, and developing epithelial structures. In the developing nervous system, cdh1 was detected at the pharyngula stage (24 hpf) in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB). Developmental regulation of MHB formation involves wnt1 and pax2.1. wnt1 expression preceded cdh1 expression during MHB formation, and cdh1 expression in the MHB was dependent on normal development of this structure. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Dragon (Repulsive Guidance Molecule RGMb) Inhibits E-cadherin Expression and Induces Apoptosis in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yueshui; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Chao; Yang, Baoxue; Lan, Hui-Yao; Lin, Herbert Y.; Xia, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Dragon is one of the three members of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, i.e. RGMa, RGMb (Dragon), and RGMc (hemojuvelin). We previously identified the RGM members as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptors that enhance BMP signaling. Our previous studies found that Dragon is highly expressed in the tubular epithelial cells of mouse kidneys. However, the roles of Dragon in renal epithelial cells are yet to be defined. We now show that overexpression of Dragon increased cell death induced by hypoxia in association with increased cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase-3 levels in mouse inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD3) cells. Dragon also inhibited E-cadherin expression but did not affect epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β in IMCD3 cells. Previous studies suggest that the three RGM members can function as ligands for the receptor neogenin. Interestingly, our present study demonstrates that the Dragon actions on apoptosis and E-cadherin expression in IMCD3 cells were mediated by the neogenin receptor but not through the BMP pathway. Dragon expression in the kidney was up-regulated by unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous Dragon knock-out mice exhibited 45–66% reduction in Dragon mRNA expression, decreased epithelial apoptosis, and increased tubular E-cadherin expression and had attenuated tubular injury after unilateral ureteral obstruction. Our results suggest that Dragon may impair tubular epithelial integrity and induce epithelial apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24052264

  19. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule RGMb) inhibits E-cadherin expression and induces apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yueshui; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Chao; Yang, Baoxue; Lan, Hui-Yao; Lin, Herbert Y; Xia, Yin

    2013-11-01

    Dragon is one of the three members of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, i.e. RGMa, RGMb (Dragon), and RGMc (hemojuvelin). We previously identified the RGM members as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptors that enhance BMP signaling. Our previous studies found that Dragon is highly expressed in the tubular epithelial cells of mouse kidneys. However, the roles of Dragon in renal epithelial cells are yet to be defined. We now show that overexpression of Dragon increased cell death induced by hypoxia in association with increased cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase-3 levels in mouse inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD3) cells. Dragon also inhibited E-cadherin expression but did not affect epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β in IMCD3 cells. Previous studies suggest that the three RGM members can function as ligands for the receptor neogenin. Interestingly, our present study demonstrates that the Dragon actions on apoptosis and E-cadherin expression in IMCD3 cells were mediated by the neogenin receptor but not through the BMP pathway. Dragon expression in the kidney was up-regulated by unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous Dragon knock-out mice exhibited 45-66% reduction in Dragon mRNA expression, decreased epithelial apoptosis, and increased tubular E-cadherin expression and had attenuated tubular injury after unilateral ureteral obstruction. Our results suggest that Dragon may impair tubular epithelial integrity and induce epithelial apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Detachment-induced E-cadherin expression promotes 3D tumor spheroid formation but inhibits tumor formation and metastasis of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Powan, Phattrakorn; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; He, Xiaoqing; Rojanasakul, Yon; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2017-11-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is proposed to be a key mechanism responsible for metastasis-related deaths. Similarly, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been proposed to be a key driver of tumor metastasis. However, the link between the two events and their control mechanisms is unclear. We used a three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid assay and other CSC-indicating assays to investigate the role of E-cadherin in CSC regulation and its association to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cells. Ectopic overexpression and knockdown of E-cadherin were found to promote and retard, respectively, the formation of tumor spheroids in vitro but had opposite effects on tumor formation and metastasis in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. We explored the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo results and demonstrated, for the first time, that E-cadherin is required as a component of a major survival pathway under detachment conditions. Downregulation of E-cadherin increased the stemness of lung cancer cells but had an adverse effect on their survival, particularly on non-CSCs. Such downregulation also promoted anoikis resistance and invasiveness of lung cancer cells. These results suggest that anoikis assay could be used as an alternative method for in vitro assessment of CSCs that involves dysregulated adhesion proteins. Our data also suggest that agents that restore E-cadherin expression may be used as therapeutic agents for metastatic cancers. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology: a prognostic marker for tumor progression in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zacapala-Gómez, Ana E; Navarro-Tito, Napoleón; Alarcón-Romero, Luz Del C; Ortuño-Pineda, Carlos; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Ortiz-Ortiz, Julio; Garibay-Cerdenares, Olga L; Jiménez-López, Marco A; Mendoza-Catalán, Miguel A

    2018-03-27

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth cause of mortality by neoplasia in women worldwide. The use of immunomarkers is an alternative tool to complement currently used algorithms for detection of cancer, and to improve selection of therapeutic schemes. Aberrant expression of Ezrin and E-cadherin play an important role in tumor invasion. In this study we analyzed Ezrin and E-cadherin expression in liquid-based cervical cytology samples, and evaluated their potential use as prognostic immunomarkers. Immunocytochemical staining of Ezrin and E-cadherin was performed in cervical samples of 125 patients. The cytological or histological diagnostic was performed by Papanicolaou staining or H&E staining, respectively. HPV genotyping was determined using INNO-LIPA Genotyping Extra kit and the HPV physical status by in situ hybridization. Ezrin expression in HaCaT, HeLa and SiHa cell lines was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blot. High Ezrin expression was observed in cervical cancer samples (70%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV (43%), and samples with integrated viral genome (47%). High Ezrin expression was associated with degree of SIL, viral genotype and physical status. In contrast, low E-cadherin expression was found in cervical cancer samples (95%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV/LR-HPV (87%) and integrated viral genome (72%). Low E-cadherin expression was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. Interestingly, Ezrin nuclear staining was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. High Ezrin expression, high percent of nuclear Ezrin and low E-cadherin expression behaved as risk factors for progression to HSIL and cervical cancer. Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology samples could be a potential prognostic marker, useful for identifying cervical lesions with a high-risk of progression to cervical cancer.

  2. [The expression and clinical significance of EphA2 and E-cadherin in papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Miao, Yuhua; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the expression and clinical significance of EphA2 and E cadherin proteins in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues, and to explore the relationship between them. Using immunohistochemical SP/PV method, we detected the expression of EphA2 and E cadherin in tumors of 43 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 11 thyroid adenoma and 10 normal thyroid tissues, then studied their relationships with clinic pathological factors. The total positive rates of EphA2 and E cadherin expression were 58. 14% and 32. 56% in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues, 18. 18% and 81. 81% in thyroid adenoma.tissues and they were 10. 00% and 100. 00% in normal thyroid tissues respectively. The positive expression of EphA2 in carcinoma tissues was higher than in the thyroid adenoma tissues and normal thyroid tissues (P<0. 05) and the positive expression of E cadherin in carcinoma tissues was lower than that in the thyroid adenoma tissues and normal thyroid tissues (P<0. 05). The positive expression of EphA2 and E cadherin was associated with lymph node metastasis and histological grade (P<0. 05), but it was not associated with all the clinic-pathological factors including age, sex and the tumor size (P>0. 05). In papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues, the expression of EphA2 was negatively correlated with the expression of E cadherin protein (r= -0. 416, P<0. 01). EphA2 and E cadherin may be involved in carcinogenesis and development of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  3. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta is required for vitamin D receptor-dependent E-cadherin expression in SW480 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kouchi, Zen, E-mail: zkouchi@toyaku.ac.jp; Fujiwara, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Hideki

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} We analyzed Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate kinase II{beta} (PIPKII{beta}) function in cancer. {yields} PIPKII{beta} is required for vitamin D receptor-mediated E-cadherin upregulation in SW480. {yields} PIPKII{beta} suppresses cellular motility through E-cadherin induction in SW480 cells. {yields} Nuclear PIP{sub 2} but not plasma membrane-localized PIP{sub 2} mediates E-cadherin upregulation. -- Abstract: Numerous epidemiological data indicate that vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling induced by its ligand or active metabolite 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) has anti-cancer activity in several colon cancers. 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} induces the epithelial differentiation of SW480 colon cancer cells expressing VDR (SW480-ADH) by upregulating E-cadherin expression; however,more » its precise mechanism remains unknown. We found that phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta (PIPKII{beta}) but not PIPKII{alpha} is required for VDR-mediated E-cadherin induction in SW480-ADH cells. The syntenin-2 postsynaptic density protein/disc large/zona occludens (PDZ) domain and pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-delta1 (PLC{delta}1 PHD) possess high affinity for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P{sub 2}) mainly localized to the nucleus and plasma membrane, respectively. The expression of syntenin-2 PDZ but not PLC{delta}1 PHD inhibited 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}-induced E-cadherin upregulation, suggesting that nuclear PI(4,5)P{sub 2} production mediates E-cadherin expression through PIPKII{beta} in a VDR-dependent manner. PIPKII{beta} is also involved in the suppression of the cell motility induced by 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. These results indicate that PIPKII{beta}-mediated PI(4,5)P{sub 2} signaling is important for E-cadherin upregulation and inhibition of cellular motility induced by VDR activation.« less

  4. Zonula occludens-1, occludin and E-cadherin expression and organization in salivary glands with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mellas, Rachel E; Leigh, Noel J; Nelson, Joel W; McCall, Andrew D; Baker, Olga J

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes secretory dysfunction of the salivary glands leading to dry mouth. Previous studies reported that tight junction (TJ) proteins are down-regulated and lose polarity in human minor salivary glands with SS, suggesting that TJ structure is compromised in SS patients. In this paper, we utilized the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse with the main goal of evaluating this model for future TJ research. We found that the organization of apical proteins in areas proximal and distal to lymphocytic infiltration remained intact in mouse and human salivary glands with SS. These areas looked comparable to control glands (i.e., with no lymphocytic infiltration). TJ staining was absent in areas of lymphocytic infiltration coinciding with the loss of salivary epithelium. Gene expression studies show that most TJs are not significantly altered in 20-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Protein expression studies revealed that the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-12, as well as E-cadherin, do not significantly change in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Our results suggest that ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin are not altered in areas without lymphocytic infiltration. However, future studies will be necessary to test the functional aspect of these results. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component: relation of MMP-13, EGFR, and E-cadherin expressions to clinicopathological features and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal; Aziz, Azza Abdel

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, ordinary adenocarcinoma (OA) and mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) regarding clinicopathological parameters, survival, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 28 patients with adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, 47 with OA, and 56 with MA, who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012 at the Gastroenterology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt. High density manual tissue microarrays were constructed and immunohistochemistry for EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin was done. Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component (AWMC) was significantly associated with more perineural invasion, lower EGFR, and MMP-13 expressions than OA, with no difference in E-cadherin expression. Conversely, only microscopic abscess formation was significantly more with colorectal AWMC than MC with no difference in EGFR, MMP-13 and E-cadherin expression between both groups. Colorectal AWMC showed a better survival than MA with no difference with OA. In a univariate analysis, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin expressions did not show a significant impact on disease-free or overall survival in patients with colorectal AWMC. Colorectal AWMC remains a vague entity that resembles OA in some clinicopathological and molecular respects as well as MA. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Homeoprotein Six2 promotes breast cancer metastasis via transcriptional and epigenetic control of E-cadherin expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chu-An; Drasin, David; Pham, Catherine; Jedlicka, Paul; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Guney, Michelle; Li, Howard; Nemenoff, Raphael; Costello, James C.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Ford, Heide L.

    2014-01-01

    Misexpression of developmental transcription factors occurs often in human cancers, where embryonic programs may be reinstated in a context that promotes or sustains malignant development. In this study, we report the involvement of the kidney development transcription factor Six2 in the metastatic progression of human breast cancer. We found that Six2 promoted breast cancer metastasis by a novel mechanism involving both transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin. Downregulation of E-cadherin by Six2 was necessary for its ability to increase soft agar growth and in vivo metastasis in an immune competent mouse model of breast cancer. Mechanistic investigations showed that Six2 represses E-cadherin expression by upregulating Zeb2, in part through a microRNA-mediated mechanism, and by stimulating promoter methylation of the E-cadherin gene (Cdh1). Clinically, SIX2 expression correlated inversely with CDH1 expression in human breast cancer specimens, corroborating the disease relevance of their interaction. Our findings establish Six2 as a regulator of metastasis in human breast cancers and demonstrate an epigenetic function for SIX family transcription factors in metastatic progression through the regulation of E-cadherin. PMID:25348955

  7. High expression of SALL4 and fascin, and loss of E-cadherin expression in undifferentiated/dedifferentiated carcinomas of the endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Onder, Semen; Taskin, Orhun Cig; Sen, Fatma; Topuz, Samet; Kucucuk, Seden; Sozen, Hamdullah; Ilhan, Ridvan; Tuzlali, Sitki; Yavuz, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Undifferentiated/dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas (UCE/DCEs) of the endometrium are rare tumors with poor prognosis. There are few clinicopathologic studies with detailed immunohistochemical analysis regarding UCE/DCEs. We evaluated the diagnostic value of a selected tumor stem-cell marker and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, in addition to previously studied markers in identifying UCE/DCEs from other types of high-grade endometrial carcinomas. Eleven cases of UCE/DCEs with complete clinical follow-up that were diagnosed between 2006 and 2015 were included in the study. For immunohistochemical comparison, 11 clinically matched cases for each type of other high-grade endometrial carcinomas (high-grade endometrioid (F3-EC), serous [SC], and clear cell carcinoma [CCC]) were used as a control group. An immunohistochemical analysis including fascin, SALL4, E-cadherin, and β-catenin, in addition to epithelial and neuroendocrine markers was performed in each case. The majority of UCE/DCEs displayed diffuse expression of fascin (81.9%) and loss of E-cadherin expression (54.5%). SALL4 expression was detected in 36.3% of the UCE/DCE cases. SALL4 expression was significantly more frequent in UCE/DCEs than all other high-grade carcinomas (P < 0.001). Loss of E-cadherin and fascin expression was significantly more frequent in UCE/DCEs than high-grade endometrioid and clear cell adenocarcinomas (P = 0.012, 0.014 and P = 0.01, 0.003, respectively). We suggest that loss of E-cadherin expression together with fascin and SALL4 immunopositivity in addition to morphologic features have an impact in differential diagnosis of UCE/DCEs from other high-grade endometrial carcinomas. PMID:28272224

  8. E-cadherin regulators are differentially expressed in the epithelium and stroma of keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Porto, Lia Pontes Arruda; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Carneiro Júnior, Bráulio; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Paiva, Katiúcia Batista Silva; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino

    2016-04-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process where cells lose their epithelial features and acquire properties of typical mesenchymal cells. The dissociation of tumor cells due to changes in cell-cell adhesion is one of the key principles of tumor invasion and EMT. Thus, the knowledge of the molecular features of EMT in keratocyst odontogenic tumor (KOT) can provide useful markers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis and perhaps contribute to an alternative therapeutic approach as it shows an aggressive clinical behavior and high recurrence rates. This study aimed to evaluate the EMT in KOT by the immunoexpression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, and Slug and comparing to radicular cysts and dental follicles. Thirty-two KOTs, 15 radicular cysts, and 08 dental follicles were used for immunohistochemistry, evaluating the extent, intensity, labeling pattern, cellular compartment in the epithelium and stroma, and the presence of inflammation. E-cadherin was preserved in most cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. N-cadherin was increased in the tumor epithelium, a result that was positively correlated with the heterogeneous and nuclear immunoexpression of Slug in the epithelium; Slug also correlated with high Snail immunoexpression. N-cadherin was positively correlated with Slug in the stroma of keratocystic odontogenic tumors. The high immunoexpression of Snail and nuclear Slug in keratocystic odontogenic tumors suggests these proteins as transcription factors without necessarily participating in 'cadherin switching'. However, the knowledge of their induction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in odontogenic tumors is still limited. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Differential expression of E-cadherin at the surface of rat beta-cells as a marker of functional heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Domenico; Rouiller, Dominique G; Halban, Philippe A

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the expression of E-cadherin at the surface of rat beta-cells is regulated by insulin secretagogues and correlates with insulin secretion. When cultured under standard conditions, virtually all beta-cells expressed E-cadherin observed by immunofluorescence, but heterogeneous staining was observed. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), two beta-cell sub-populations were sorted: one that was poorly labeled ('ECad-low') and another that was highly labeled ('ECad-high'). After 1-h stimulation with 16.7 mM glucose, insulin secretion (reverse hemolytic plaque assay) from individual ECad-high beta-cells was higher than that from ECad-low beta-cells. Ca2+-dependent beta-cell aggregation was increased at 16.7 mM glucose when compared with 2.8 mM glucose. E-cadherin at the surface of beta-cells was increased after 18 h at 11.1 and 22.2 mM glucose when compared with 2.8 mM glucose, with the greatest increase at 22.2 mM glucose + 0.5 mM isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX). While no labeling was detected on freshly trypsinized cells, the proportion of stained cells increased in a time-dependent manner during culture for 1, 3, and 24 h. This recovery was faster when cells were incubated at 16.7 vs 2.8 mM glucose. Cycloheximide inhibited expression of E-cadherin at 2.8 mM glucose, but not at 16.7 mM, while depolymerization of actin by either cytochalasin B or latrunculin B increased surface E-cadherin at low glucose. In conclusion, these results show that expression of E-cadherin at the surface of islet beta-cells is controlled by secretagogues including glucose, correlates with insulin secretion, and can serve as a surface marker of beta-cell function.

  10. [Effect of forced E-cadherin expression on adhesion and proliferation of human breast carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Juan; Liu, Yu-Qin; Gu, Bei; Bian, Xiao-Cui; Feng, Hai-Liang; Yang, Zhen-Li; Liu, Yan-Yan

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the role that E-cadherin (E-cad) plays on cell adhesion and proliferation of human breast carcinoma. E-cad expression vector was transfected into an E-cad-negative human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. G418 was used to screen positive clones. E-cad, β-catenin (β-cat) and cyclin D1 expressions of these clones were confirmed by Western blot. Their cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion abilities were detected. E-cad/β-catenin interaction was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Direct two-step immunocytochemistry was used to detect the localization of β-cat. E-cad(+) cell strains Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9 were established. When cultured in ultra-low-binding dishes Ecad-231 cells grow in suspension while Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9 cells grow in large clamps. When co-cultured with HCT116 cells, the average adhesion rates at 30 min are 39.0%, 60.0% and 59.5% for MDA-MB-231, Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9 respectively. The average detachment rates by EDTA for 5 min are 37.4%, 4.2% and 7.4% respectively. So E-cad expression enhanced hemotypic and heterotypic cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix adhesion. Forced exogenously expressed E-cad could combine with endogenous β-cat, whereas down stream cyclin D1 expression was significantly decreased, as evidenced by Western blot. The rates of cell apoptosis of MDA-MB-231, Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9 were 1.8%, 2.0% and 2.1%. Expression of E-cad had no obvious effect on the apoptosis of tumor cells with regular culture. β-cat increased in the cytoplasma. Two monoclonal tumor cell strains (Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9) stably expressing E-cad were successfully established. E-cad could enhance adhesion and inhibit proliferation of human breast carcinoma cells through a pathway involving β-cat and cyclin D1.

  11. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) influences epithelial barrier function by regulating Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Severson, Eric A.; Kwon, Mike; Hilgarth, Roland S.

    2010-07-02

    The Apical Junctional Complex (AJC) encompassing the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) plays a pivotal role in regulating epithelial barrier function and epithelial cell proliferative processes through signaling events that remain poorly characterized. A potential regulator of AJC protein expression is Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 is a constitutively active kinase that is repressed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we report that GSK-3 activity regulates the structure and function of the AJC in polarized model intestinal (SK-CO15) and kidney (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)) epithelial cells. Reduction of GSK-3 activity, either by small molecule inhibitors ormore » siRNA targeting GSK-3 alpha and beta mRNA, resulted in increased permeability to both ions and bulk solutes. Immunofluorescence labeling and immunoblot analyses revealed that the barrier defects correlated with decreased protein expression of AJC transmembrane proteins Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin without influencing other TJ proteins, Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (JAM-A). The decrease in Occludin and E-cadherin protein expression correlated with downregulation of the corresponding mRNA levels for these respective proteins following GSK-3 inhibition. These observations implicate an important role of GSK-3 in the regulation of the structure and function of the AJC that is mediated by differential modulation of mRNA transcription of key AJC proteins, Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin.« less

  12. E-cadherin breast tumor expression, risk factors and survival: Pooled analysis of 5,933 cases from 12 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Horne, Hisani N; Oh, Hannah; Sherman, Mark E; Palakal, Maya; Hewitt, Stephen M; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Milne, Roger L; Hardisson, David; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bolla, Manjeet K; Brenner, Hermann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cora, Renata; Couch, Fergus J; Cuk, Katarina; Devilee, Peter; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Eilber, Ursula; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Heikkilä, Päivi; Holleczek, Bernd; Hooning, Maartje J; Jones, Michael; Keeman, Renske; Mannermaa, Arto; Martens, John W M; Muranen, Taru A; Nevanlinna, Heli; Olson, Janet E; Orr, Nick; Perez, Jose I A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Seynaeve, Caroline; Sironen, Reijo; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Tengström, Maria; Thomas, Abigail S; Timmermans, A Mieke; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Troester, Melissa A; van Asperen, Christi J; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Van Leeuwen, Flora F; Van't Veer, Laura J; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2018-04-26

    E-cadherin (CDH1) is a putative tumor suppressor gene implicated in breast carcinogenesis. Yet, whether risk factors or survival differ by E-cadherin tumor expression is unclear. We evaluated E-cadherin tumor immunohistochemistry expression using tissue microarrays of 5,933 female invasive breast cancers from 12 studies from the Breast Cancer Consortium. H-scores were calculated and case-case odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models. All analyses were stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic subtype. E-cadherin low cases (N = 1191, 20%) were more frequently of lobular histology, low grade, >2 cm, and HER2-negative. Loss of E-cadherin expression (score < 100) was associated with menopausal hormone use among ER-positive tumors (ever compared to never users, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.97-1.59), which was stronger when we evaluated complete loss of E-cadherin (i.e. H-score = 0), OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.06-2.33. Breast cancer specific mortality was unrelated to E-cadherin expression in multivariable models. E-cadherin low expression is associated with lobular histology, tumor characteristics and menopausal hormone use, with no evidence of an association with breast cancer specific survival. These data support loss of E-cadherin expression as an important marker of tumor subtypes.

  13. Reduced E-cadherin expression is associated with abdominal pain and symptom duration in a study of alternating and diarrhea predominant IBS.

    PubMed

    Wilcz-Villega, E; McClean, S; O'Sullivan, M

    2014-03-01

    Increased intestinal permeability and altered expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins may be implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to investigate the expression of adherens junction (AJ) protein E-cadherin and TJ proteins zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and claudin (CLD)-1 and associations with IBS symptoms. Junctional proteins were immunostained in cecal biopsy tissue of Rome II IBS patients (n = 34) comprising both alternating (IBS-A) and diarrhea predominant (IBS-D) subtypes, and controls (n = 12). IBS symptom duration, abdominal pain severity and stool frequency were assessed for IBS patients. Protein expression was determined by immunofluorescence. E-cadherin and ZO-1 protein expression was significantly lower (p = 0.03 and p = 0.016, respectively) in the cecal surface epithelium of the IBS group comprising both IBS-A and IBS-D subtypes. CLD-1 expression was not significantly altered compared with controls. On subtype analysis, ZO-1 expression was significantly reduced in both IBS-A and IBS-D compared with controls, whereas E-cadherin was reduced only in IBS-A. Lower E-cadherin expression was associated with longer symptoms duration specifically in IBS-A patients (rs = -0.76, p = 0.004). Reduced E-cadherin associated with abdominal pain severity in the overall IBS group (rs = -0.36, p = 0.041), but this association was unrelated to IBS subtype. E-cadherin protein expression in the cecum was significantly lower in IBS-A compared with controls and associated with longstanding symptoms. E-cadherin was further associated with abdominal pain severity in the IBS group overall, but unrelated to IBS subtype. Altered E-cadherin expression may provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying intestinal barrier dysfunction in IBS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hepatitis C virus depends on E-cadherin as an entry factor and regulates its expression in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Li, Qisheng; Sodroski, Catherine; Lowey, Brianna; Schweitzer, Cameron J; Cha, Helen; Zhang, Fang; Liang, T Jake

    2016-07-05

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters the host cell through interactions with a cascade of cellular factors. Although significant progress has been made in understanding HCV entry, the precise mechanisms by which HCV exploits the receptor complex and host machinery to enter the cell remain unclear. This intricate process of viral entry likely depends on additional yet-to-be-defined cellular molecules. Recently, by applying integrative functional genomics approaches, we identified and interrogated distinct sets of host dependencies in the complete HCV life cycle. Viral entry assays using HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpps) of various genotypes uncovered multiple previously unappreciated host factors, including E-cadherin, that mediate HCV entry. E-cadherin silencing significantly inhibited HCV infection in Huh7.5.1 cells, HepG2/miR122/CD81 cells, and primary human hepatocytes at a postbinding entry step. Knockdown of E-cadherin, however, had no effect on HCV RNA replication or internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation. In addition, an E-cadherin monoclonal antibody effectively blocked HCV entry and infection in hepatocytes. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that E-cadherin is closely associated with claudin-1 (CLDN1) and occludin (OCLN) on the cell membrane. Depletion of E-cadherin drastically diminished the cell-surface distribution of these two tight junction proteins in various hepatic cell lines, indicating that E-cadherin plays an important regulatory role in CLDN1/OCLN localization on the cell surface. Furthermore, loss of E-cadherin expression in hepatocytes is associated with HCV-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), providing an important link between HCV infection and liver cancer. Our data indicate that a dynamic interplay among E-cadherin, tight junctions, and EMT exists and mediates an important function in HCV entry.

  15. CDH4 suppresses the progression of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma via E-cadherin co-expression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jian; Feng, Yan; Lin, Ting; Huang, Xiao-Yu; Gan, Rui-Huan; Zhao, Yong; Su, Bo-Hua; Ding, Lin-Can; She, Lin; Chen, Jiang; Lin, Li-Song; Lin, Xu; Zheng, Da-Li; Lu, You-Guang

    2016-12-13

    The cadherin-4 gene (CDH4) of the cadherin family encodes non-epithelial R-cadherin (R-cad); however, the function of this gene in different types of cancer remains controversial. In this study, we found higher expression of CDH4 mRNA in a salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) cell line with low metastatic potential (SACC-83) than in a cell line with high metastatic potential (SACC-LM). By analyzing 67 samples of SACC tissues and 40 samples of paraneoplastic normal tissues, we found R-cad highly expressed in 100% of normal paraneoplastic tissue but only expressed in 64% of SACC tumor tissues (P<0.001). Knockdown of CDH4 expression in vitro promoted the growth, mobility and invasion of SACC cells, and in vivo experiments showed that decreased CDH4 expression enhanced SACC tumorigenicity. Furthermore, CDH4 suppression resulted in down-regulation of E-cadherin (E-cad), which is encoded by CDH1 gene and is a well-known tumor suppressor gene by inhibition of cell proliferation and migration. These results indicate that CDH4 may play a negative role in the growth and metastasis of SACC via co-expression with E-cadherin.

  16. Immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin does not distinguish canine cutaneous histiocytoma from other canine round cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Vara, J A; Miller, M A

    2011-05-01

    Immunohistochemistry for E-cadherin (ECAD) has been used to distinguish canine cutaneous histiocytoma from other leukocytic neoplasms ("round cell tumors"). To determine the specificity of this test, 5 types of canine cutaneous round cell tumors were evaluated for immunohistochemical expression of ECAD. Tumors of all 5 types had variable cytoplasmic, plasma membrane, and/or paranuclear ECAD expression: All 13 cutaneous histiocytomas were ECAD+; all but 1 of 14 mast cell tumors expressed ECAD; 10 of 12 epitheliotropic lymphomas reacted with E-cadherin antibody; of 72 plasmacytomas, 54 were ECAD+; and 5 of 5 histiocytic sarcomas were positive. Conclusions based on these results include the following: First, immunoreactivity for ECAD is not limited to leukocytes of cutaneous histiocytoma; second, antibody to ECAD also labels neoplastic cells in most mast cell tumors, plasmacytomas, cutaneous histiocytic sarcomas, and epitheliotropic lymphomas; third, although most histiocytomas have membranous ECAD expression, the immunoreactivity varies among round cell tumors and is frequently concurrent in different cellular compartments; fourth, the distinctively paranuclear ECAD expression pattern in epitheliotropic lymphomas might distinguish them from other round cell tumors; and, fifth, ECAD should be used with other markers (eg, MUM1 for plasmacytomas, KIT for mast cell tumors, CD3 and CD79a for lymphomas) to distinguish among canine round cell tumors.

  17. Prognostic role of integrin β1, E-cadherin, and rac1 expression in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Myung Hee; Lee, Kyungji; Lee, Kyo-Young; Kim, Yeon Sil; Kim, Young Kyoon; Kang, Jin-Hyoung

    2012-01-01

    Integrin β(1) mediates cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and is correlated with highly invasive and metastatic behavior in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). E-cadherin (ECAD) is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion receptor that restricts invasion of cells and reduces metastasis. Rac1 is involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, adhesion, migration, invasion, and tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine integrin β(1) , ECAD and rac1 expression in SCLC and to analyze the prognostic value of these markers in patients with SCLC. We analyzed integrin β(1) , ECAD, and rac1 expression in 112 SCLC tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Correlative analyses between integrin β(1) , ECAD, and rac1 expression and cliniopathological factors were performed. A total of 65 patients had extensive disease (ED) (58%), and 47 had limited disease (LD) (42%). The median follow-up duration was 61 months (range: 14-117 months), and the median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 6.1 months (range: 4.8-7.4 months) and 9.7 months (range: 8.1-11.3 months), respectively. The expression of integrin β(1) , ECAD, and rac1 protein was observed in 64, 73, and 99 of SCLC tissues, respectively. The correlative analyses between integrin β(1) , ECAD, or rac1 expression and various clinical parameters did not show any statistical significance. However, the ECAD expression was associated with OS in the entire cohort. In contrast, the expression of integrin β(1) and rac1 was not associated with PFS or OS. In a subgroup analysis, patients with less than two metastasis had significantly longer OS (p = 0.047) if their tumors expressed integrin β(1) compared to those without integrin β(1) expression. In addition, OS was longer for patients with ECAD positive tumors compared to those whose tumors did not express ECAD in males (p = 0.032) and patients who never smoked (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that LD (p = 0

  18. O-GlcNAcylation affects β-catenin and E-cadherin expression, cell motility and tumorigenicity of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Harosh-Davidovich, Shani Ben; Khalaila, Isam

    2018-03-01

    O-GlcNAcylation, the addition of β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety to Ser/Thr residues, is a sensor of the cell metabolic state. Cancer diseases such as colon, lung and breast cancer, possess deregulated O-GlcNAcylation. Studies during the last decade revealed that O-GlcNAcylation is implicated in cancer tumorigenesis and proliferation. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and cadherin-mediated adhesion are also implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key cellular process in invasion and cancer metastasis. Often, deregulation of the Wnt pathway is caused by altered phosphorylation of its components. Specifically, phosphorylation of Ser or Thr residues of β-catenin affects its location and interaction with E-cadherin, thus facilitating cell-cell adhesion. Consistent with previous studies, the current study indicates that β-catenin is O-GlcNAcylated. To test the effect of O-GlcNAcylation on cell motility and how O-GlcNAcylation might affect β-catenin and E-cadherin functions, the enzyme machinery of O-GlcNAcylation was modulated either with chemical inhibitors or by gene silencing. When O-GlcNAcase (OGA) was inhibited, a global elevation of protein O-GlcNAcylation and increase in the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin were noted. Concomitantly with enhanced O-GlcNAcylation, β-catenin transcriptional activity were elevated. Additionally, fibroblast cell motility was enhanced. Stable silenced cell lines with adenoviral OGA or adenoviral O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) were established. Consistent with the results obtained by OGA chemical inhibition by TMG, OGT-silencing led to a significant reduction in β-catenin level. In vivo, murine orthotropic colorectal cancer model indicates that elevated O-GlcNAcylation leads to increased mortality rate, tumor and metastasis development. However, reduction in O-GlcNAcylation promoted survival that could be attributed to attenuated tumor and metastasis development. The results described herein provide

  19. E-cadherin and, in its absence, N-cadherin promotes Nanog expression in mouse embryonic stem cells via STAT3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Kate; Mohamet, Lisa; Ritson, Sarah; Merry, Catherine L R; Ward, Christopher M

    2012-09-01

    We have recently shown that loss of E-cadherin in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) results in significant alterations to both the transcriptome and hierarchy of pluripotency-associated signaling pathways. Here, we show that E-cadherin promotes kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) and Nanog transcript and protein expression in mESCs via STAT3 phosphorylation and that β-catenin, and its binding region in E-cadherin, is required for this function. To further investigate the role of E-cadherin in leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-dependent pluripotency, E-cadherin null (Ecad(-/-)) mESCs were cultured in LIF/bone morphogenetic protein supplemented medium. Under these conditions, Ecad(-/-) mESCs exhibited partial restoration of cell-cell contact and STAT3 phosphorylation and upregulated Klf4, Nanog, and N-cadherin transcripts and protein. Abrogation of N-cadherin using an inhibitory peptide caused loss of phospho STAT3, Klf4, and Nanog in these cells, demonstrating that N-cadherin supports LIF-dependent pluripotency in this context. We therefore identify a novel molecular mechanism linking E- and N-cadherin to the core circuitry of pluripotency in mESCs. This mechanism may explain the recently documented role of E-cadherin in efficient induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  20. Zonula Occludens-1, Occludin and E-cadherin Expression and Organization in Salivary Glands with Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mellas, Rachel E.; Leigh, Noel J.; Nelson, Joel W.; McCall, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes secretory dysfunction of the salivary glands leading to dry mouth. Previous studies reported that tight junction (TJ) proteins are down-regulated and lose polarity in human minor salivary glands with SS, suggesting that TJ structure is compromised in SS patients. In this paper, we utilized the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse with the main goal of evaluating this model for future TJ research. We found that the organization of apical proteins in areas proximal and distal to lymphocytic infiltration remained intact in mouse and human salivary glands with SS. These areas looked comparable to control glands (i.e., with no lymphocytic infiltration). TJ staining was absent in areas of lymphocytic infiltration coinciding with the loss of salivary epithelium. Gene expression studies show that most TJs are not significantly altered in 20-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Protein expression studies revealed that the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-12, as well as E-cadherin, do not significantly change in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Our results suggest that ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin are not altered in areas without lymphocytic infiltration. However, future studies will be necessary to test the functional aspect of these results. PMID:25248927

  1. Allosteric Regulation of E-Cadherin Adhesion*

    PubMed Central

    Shashikanth, Nitesh; Petrova, Yuliya I.; Park, Seongjin; Chekan, Jillian; Maiden, Stephanie; Spano, Martha; Ha, Taekjip; Gumbiner, Barry M.; Leckband, Deborah E.

    2015-01-01

    Cadherins are transmembrane adhesion proteins that maintain intercellular cohesion in all tissues, and their rapid regulation is essential for organized tissue remodeling. Despite some evidence that cadherin adhesion might be allosterically regulated, testing of this has been hindered by the difficulty of quantifying altered E-cadherin binding affinity caused by perturbations outside the ectodomain binding site. Here, measured kinetics of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion demonstrated quantitatively that treatment with activating, anti-E-cadherin antibodies or the dephosphorylation of a cytoplasmic binding partner, p120ctn, increased the homophilic binding affinity of E-cadherin. Results obtained with Colo 205 cells, which express inactive E-cadherin and do not aggregate, demonstrated that four treatments, which induced Colo 205 aggregation and p120ctn dephosphorylation, triggered quantitatively similar increases in E-cadherin affinity. Several processes can alter cell aggregation, but these results directly demonstrated the allosteric regulation of cell surface E-cadherin by p120ctn dephosphorylation. PMID:26175155

  2. Thrombomodulin reduces tumorigenic and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells by up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of N-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nana; Huo, Zihe; Zhang, Bin; Meng, Mei; Cao, Zhifei; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Quansheng

    2016-08-05

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell membrane protein and plays critical roles in anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammation, vascular endothelial protection, and is traditionally regarded as a "vascular protection god". In recent years, although TM has been reported to be down-regulated in a variety of malignant tumors including lung cancer, the role and mechanism of TM in lung cancer are enigmatic. In this study, we found that induction of TM overexpression by cholesterol-reducing drug atorvastatin significantly diminished the tumorigenic capability of the lung cancer cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that TM overexpression caused G0/G1 phase arrest and markedly reduced the colony forming capability of the cells. Furthermore, overexpression of TM inhibited cell migration and invasion. Consistently, depletion of TM promoted cell growth, reduced the cell population at the G0/G1 phase, and enhanced cell migratory ability. Mechanistic study revealed that TM up-regulated E-cadherin but down-regulated N-cadherin expression, resulting in reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the lung cancer cells. Moreover, silencing TM expression led to decreased E-cadherin and increased N-cadherin. Taken together, our study suggests that TM functions as a tumor suppressive protein, providing a conceptual framework for inducing TM overexpression as a sensible strategy and approach for novel anti-lung cancer drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. E-cadherin expression in sporadic gastric cancer from Mexico: exon 8 and 9 deletions are infrequent events associated with poor survival.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Dominguez-Fonseca, Claudia; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; Vargas, Roberto; Reyes-Gutierrez, Edgardo; Green, Dan; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Luber, Birgit; Busch, Raymonde; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Becker, Ingrid; Höfler, Heinz; Fend, Falko

    2005-01-01

    Aberrant expression and mutation of E-cadherin is frequent in gastric carcinoma (GC) especially of the diffuse type. The frequency of CDH1 (gene encoding E-cadherin) mutation in populations with high incidence of diffuse GC and its prognostic significance is unknown. One hundred seventy-seven gastrectomies from Mexican mestizo patients with intestinal (53), mixed (55), or diffuse (69) GC were included. In addition, 101 endoscopic biopsies from patients with GC not subjected to surgery were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry against wild-type E-cadherin (clone 36) and against 2 mutation-specific antibodies (MSA) recognizing mutant CDH1 lacking exon-8 (del 8) or exon-9 (del 9) were performed. Staining was correlated with histotype, tumor node metastasis stage, and follow-up. Abnormal or absent E-cadherin expression (clone 36) was identified in 84% GC, predominantly in diffuse or mixed tumors (P = 0.004) in advanced stages (P = 0.003). No survival differences at 1 and 2 years were observed among patients showing normal, abnormal, or absent wild type E-cadherin expression. Overall reactivity with the MSA was observed in 10 (5.6%) patients who were treated with surgery. In 140 patients, dead from the disease or alive with the disease, the survival at 1 and 2 years was 37% versus 17% and 14% versus 0 for patients without and with del 8/9 positivity, respectively (log rank P = 0.01). Biopsies from patients with inoperable-GC (101) rendered 5 (4.95%) with del 8 or 9 immunoreactivity. Abnormal E-cadherin expression is frequent in GC. However, exon 8 or 9 deletions were observed in only 5.3% tumors in this series from Mexico, at a lower rate than previously published, but associated with a worse prognosis.

  4. Correlation between E-cadherin interactions, survivin expression, and apoptosis in MDCK and ts-Src MDCK cell culture models.

    PubMed

    Capra, Janne; Eskelinen, Sinikka

    2017-12-01

    Survivin, a member of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family, is a multifunctional protein expressed in most cancers. In addition to inhibition of apoptosis, it regulates proliferation and promotes migration. Its presence and function in cells is strongly regulated via transcription factors, intracellular localization, and degradation. We analyzed the presence of survivin at protein level in various culture environments and under activation of Src tyrosine kinase in epithelial canine kidney MDCK cells in order to elucidate factors controlling survivin 'lifespan'. We used untransformed and temperature sensitive ts-Src MDCK cells as a model and forced them to grow in suspension (1D), in 2D on hard and soft surfaces and in soft 3D Matrigel environment with or without EGTA. In addition, we tested the effect of stressful conditions by cultivating the cells in the presence of an anti-cancer drug and a generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS), piperlongumine (PL) with or without an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). We could confirm that inhibition of apoptosis and simultaneous downregulation of survivin in MDCK cells required both intact cell-cell junctions, trans-interactions of E-cadherin and soft 3D matrix environment. In ts-Src-transformed MDCK cells, survivin was upregulated as soon as the cell-cell junctions were disintegrated. ROS generation with PL-induced cell death of ts-Src MDCK cells concomitantly with survivin downregulation. NAC rescued the ts-Src MDCK cells from ROS-induced apoptosis without upregulation of survivin resulting in a situation resembling untransformed MDCK cells in 3D environment and E-cadherin delineating the lateral cell walls.

  5. Loss of CDH1 (E-cadherin) expression is associated with infiltrative tumour growth and lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun A; Inamura, Kentaro; Yamauchi, Mai; Nishihara, Reiko; Mima, Kosuke; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Li, Tingting; Yasunari, Mika; Morikawa, Teppei; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Fuchs, Charles S; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Zhang, Xuehong; Ogino, Shuji; Qian, Zhi Rong

    2016-01-19

    Loss of CDH1 (E-cadherin) expression in cancer cells may promote cell migration and invasion. Therefore, we hypothesised that loss of CDH1 expression in colorectal carcinoma might be associated with aggressive features and clinical outcome. Utilising molecular pathological epidemiology database of 689 rectal and colon cancer cases in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we assessed tumour CDH1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess association of CDH1 loss with tumour growth pattern (expansile-intermediate vs infiltrative) and lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis, controlling for potential confounders including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation, and PIK3CA, BRAF and KRAS mutations. Mortality according to CDH1 status was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Loss of tumour CDH1 expression was observed in 356 cases (52%), and associated with infiltrative tumour growth pattern (odds ratio (OR), 2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-3.34; P=0.006) and higher pN stage (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.23-2.43; P=0.001). Tumour CDH1 expression was not significantly associated with distant metastasis or prognosis. Loss of CDH1 expression in colorectal cancer is associated with infiltrative tumour growth pattern and lymph node metastasis.

  6. Expression of P-aPKC-iota, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin related to invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Du, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Ming; Lu, Jin-Xi; Li, Qiang; Ma, Chao-Qun; Du, Ji-Tao; Zou, Sheng-Quan

    2009-06-01

    Atypical protein kinase C iota (aPKC-iota) and its associated intracellular molecules, E-cadherin and beta-catenin, are important for cell polarization in tumorigenesis and progression. Expression of aPKC-iota, P-aPKC-iota (activated aPKC-iota), E-cadherin, and beta-catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was measured, and correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of HCC was analyzed. Paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was obtained from patients with HCC after resection without preoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Gene expression was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Expressions of aPKC-iota, P-aPKC-iota, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin were analyzed with relation to the clinicopathological data. The gene and protein expression of aPKC-iota are obviously higher in HCC tissues than that in peritumoral tissues and normal tissues by semiquantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry methods. Accumulation of aPKC-iota in HCC cytoplasm and nucleolus inhibited the later formation of belt-like adherens junctions (AJs) and/or tight junctions (TJs) in cell-cell contact. E-cadherin was reduced and accumulation of cytoplasm beta-catenin was increased in HCC. The expression of aPKC-iota was closely related to pathological differentiation, tumor size, invasion, and metastasis of HCC. Accumulation of cytoplasm aPKC-iota may reflect pathological differentiation, invasion, and metastasis potential of HCC. In this regard, our study on HCC revealed the potential usefulness of aPKC-iota, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin as a prognostic marker, closely related to pathological differentiation, invasion, metastasis, and prognosis of HCC.

  7. Silibinin Synergizes with Histone Deacetylase and DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors in Upregulating E-cadherin Expression Together with Inhibition of Migration and Invasion of Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mateen, Samiha; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Chan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive cancers in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phase are characterized by loss of cell adhesion, repression of E-cadherin, and increased cell mobility. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) differs in basal level of E-cadherin; predominantly exhibiting silenced expression due to epigenetic-related modifications. Accordingly, effective treatments are needed to modulate these epigenetic events that in turn can positively regulate E-cadherin levels. Herein, we investigated silibinin, a natural flavonolignan with anticancer efficacy against lung cancer, either alone or in combination with epigenetic therapies to modulate E-cadherin expression in a panel of NSCLC cell lines. Silibinin combined with HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A [TSA; 7-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-N-hydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-7-oxohepta-2,4-dienamide] or DNMT inhibitor 5′-Aza-deoxycytidine (Aza) significantly restored E-cadherin levels in NSCLC cells harboring epigenetically silenced E-cadherin expression. These combination treatments also strongly decreased the invasion/migration of these cells, which further emphasized the biologic significance of E-cadherin restoration. Treatment of NSCLC cells, with basal E-cadherin levels, by silibinin further increased the E-cadherin expression and inhibited their migratory and invasive potential. Additional studies showed that silibinin alone as well as in combination with TSA or Aza downmodulate the expression of Zeb1, which is a major transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin. Overall these findings demonstrate the potential of combinatorial treatments of silibinin with HDAC or DNMT inhibitor to modulate EMT events in NSCLC cell lines, leading to a significant inhibition in their migratory and invasive potentials. These results are highly significant, since loss of E-cadherin and metastatic spread of the disease via EMT is associated with poor prognosis and high mortalities in NSCLC. PMID:23461975

  8. Antioxidants Maintain E-Cadherin Levels to Limit Drosophila Prohemocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongjuan; Wu, Xiaorong; Simon, LaTonya; Fossett, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate a variety of biological processes by networking with signal transduction pathways to maintain homeostasis and support adaptation to stress. In this capacity, ROS have been shown to promote the differentiation of progenitor cells, including mammalian embryonic and hematopoietic stem cells and Drosophila hematopoietic progenitors (prohemocytes). However, many questions remain about how ROS alter the regulatory machinery to promote progenitor differentiation. Here, we provide evidence for the hypothesis that ROS reduce E-cadherin levels to promote Drosophila prohemocyte differentiation. Specifically, we show that knockdown of the antioxidants, Superoxide dismutatase 2 and Catalase reduce E-cadherin protein levels prior to the loss of Odd-skipped-expressing prohemocytes. Additionally, over-expression of E-cadherin limits prohemocyte differentiation resulting from paraquat-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, two established targets of ROS, Enhancer of Polycomb and FOS, control the level of E-cadherin protein expression. Finally, we show that knockdown of either Superoxide dismutatase 2 or Catalase leads to an increase in the E-cadherin repressor, Serpent. As a result, antioxidants and targets of ROS can control E-cadherin protein levels, and over-expression of E-cadherin can ameliorate the prohemocyte response to oxidative stress. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that ROS promote differentiation by reducing E-cadherin levels. In mammalian systems, ROS promote embryonic stem cell differentiation, whereas E-cadherin blocks differentiation. However, it is not known if elevated ROS reduce E-cadherin to promote embryonic stem cell differentiation. Thus, our findings may have identified an important mechanism by which ROS promote stem/progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:25226030

  9. CD8 T-cells and E-cadherin in host responses against oropharyngeal candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Quimby, K.; Lilly, E.A.; Zacharek, M.; McNulty, K.; Leigh, J.E.; Vazquez, J.E.; Fidel, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is the most common oral infection in HIV+ persons. Previous studies suggest a role for CD8+ T-cells against OPC when CD4+ T-cells are lost, but enhanced susceptibility to infection occurs when CD8+ T-cell migration is inhibited by reduced tissue E-cadherin. Objective Conduct a longitudinal study of tissue CD8+ T-cells and E-cadherin expression before, during, and after episodes of OPC. Methods Oral fungal burden was monitored and tissue was evaluated for CD8+ T-cells and E-cadherin over a one-year period in HIV+ persons with a history of, or an acute episode of OPC. Results While longitudinal analyses precluded formal interpretations, point prevalence analyses of the dataset revealed that when patients experiencing OPC were successfully treated, tissue E-cadherin expression was similar to patients who had not experienced OPC, and higher numbers of CD8+ T-cells were distributed throughout OPC− tissue under normal expression of E-cadherin. Conclusion These results suggest that 1) reduction in tissue E-cadherin expression in OPC+ patients is not permanent, and 2) high numbers of CD8+ T-cells can be distributed throughout OPC− tissue under normal E-cadherin expression. Together these results extend our previous studies and continue to support a role for CD8+ T-cells in host defense against OPC. PMID:21958417

  10. Drosophila E-Cadherin Functions in Hematopoietic Progenitors to Maintain Multipotency and Block Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongjuan; Wu, Xiaorong; Fossett, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in stem cell biology concerns the regulatory strategies that control the choice between multipotency and differentiation. Drosophila blood progenitors or prohemocytes exhibit key stem cell characteristics, including multipotency, quiescence, and niche dependence. As a result, studies of Drosophila hematopoiesis have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms that control these processes. Here, we show that E-cadherin is an important regulator of prohemocyte fate choice, maintaining prohemocyte multipotency and blocking differentiation. These functions are reminiscent of the role of E-cadherin in mammalian embryonic stem cells. We also show that mis-expression of E-cadherin in differentiating hemocytes disrupts the boundary between these cells and undifferentiated prohemocytes. Additionally, upregulation of E-cadherin in differentiating hemocytes increases the number of intermediate cell types expressing the prohemocyte marker, Patched. Furthermore, our studies indicate that the Drosophila GATA transcriptional co-factor, U-shaped, is required for E-cadherin expression. Consequently, E-cadherin is a downstream target of U-shaped in the maintenance of prohemocyte multipotency. In contrast, we showed that forced expression of the U-shaped GATA-binding partner, Serpent, repressed E-cadherin expression and promoted lamellocyte differentiation. Thus, U-shaped may maintain E-cadherin expression by blocking the inhibitory activity of Serpent. Collectively, these observations suggest that GATA:FOG complex formation regulates E-cadherin levels and, thereby, the choice between multipotency and differentiation. The work presented in this report further defines the molecular basis of prohemocyte cell fate choice, which will provide important insights into the mechanisms that govern stem cell biology. PMID:24040319

  11. Downregulation of Bit1 expression promotes growth, anoikis resistance, and transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells via Erk activation-dependent suppression of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Gray, Selena; Pham, Tri; Delgardo, Mychael; Nguyen, An; Do, Stephen; Ireland, Shubha Kale; Chen, Renwei; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Biliran, Hector

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondrial Bit1 protein exerts tumor-suppressive function in NSCLC through induction of anoikis and inhibition of EMT. Having this dual tumor suppressive effect, its downregulation in the established human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line resulted in potentiation of tumorigenicity and metastasis in vivo. However, the exact role of Bit1 in regulating malignant growth and transformation of human lung epithelial cells, which are origin of most forms of human lung cancers, has not been examined. To this end, we have downregulated the endogenous Bit1 expression in the immortalized non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Knockdown of Bit1 enhanced the growth and anoikis insensitivity of BEAS-2B cells. In line with their acquired anoikis resistance, the Bit1 knockdown BEAS-2B cells exhibited enhanced anchorage-independent growth in vitro but failed to form tumors in vivo. The loss of Bit1-induced transformed phenotypes was in part attributable to the repression of E-cadherin expression since forced exogenous E-cadherin expression attenuated the malignant phenotypes of the Bit1 knockdown cells. Importantly, we show that the loss of Bit1 expression in BEAS-2B cells resulted in increased Erk activation, which functions upstream to promote TLE1-mediated transcriptional repression of E-cadherin. These collective findings indicate that loss of Bit1 expression contributes to the acquisition of malignant phenotype of human lung epithelial cells via Erk activation-induced suppression of E-cadherin expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential membranous E-cadherin expression, cell proliferation and O-GlcNAcylation between primary and metastatic nodal lesion in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae Jung

    2016-02-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is an O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety linked to the side chain hydroxyl of a serine or threonine residue. The E-cadherin/β-catenin system, an integral component of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)/mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET), is affected through O-GlcNAcylation. The current study examined the status of EMT/MET in both the tumor center and invasive front of the primary colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and metastatic nodal lesions, which were compared to O-GlcNAcylation expression levels in those areas. In addition, the cliniopathological significance of O-GlcNAcylation was studied Immunohistochemical staining for E-cadherin, β-catenin, Snail, O-GlcNAc and Ki67 was performed in 40 primary CRC tissues, 40 nonneoplastic colons, and 17 nodal metastatic lesions. Western blot was also conducted in primary CRC tissue Membranous E-cadherin expression was lowest in the invasive front, but showed greater increases in metastatic nodal lesions. Moreover, its expression level was negatively correlated with that of nuclear β-catenin and Snail. The Ki67 labeling index (LI) was lowest in the invasive front, and increased in metastatic nodal lesions. Primary CRC showed higher expression of O-GlcNAcylation and O-GlcNAc-transferase (OGT) than nonneoplastic colons. O-GlcNAcylation expression decreased in metastatic nodal lesions compared to the invasive front and tumor center, and was inversely correlated with Ki67 LI. However, O-GlcNAcylation expression was only slightly changed between tumor center and invasive front. In addition, there was no correlation between its expression and the level of nuclear β-catenin, membranous E-cadherin and Snail. No significant relationship was observed between O-GlcNAcylation level and cliniopathological parameters. Differential membranous E-cadherin expression, cell proliferation and O-GlcNAcylation in metastatic nodal lesion compared to primary CRC may play role in establishing its lesions

  13. Reactive oxygen species promote ovarian cancer progression via the HIF-1α/LOX/E-cadherin pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ma, Jun; Shen, Haoran; Wang, Chengjie; Sun, Yueping; Howell, Stephen B; Lin, Xinjian

    2014-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can drive the de‑differentiation of tumor cells leading to the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to enhance invasion and metastasis. The invasive and metastatic phenotype of malignant cells is often linked to loss of E-cadherin expression, a hallmark of EMT. Recent studies have demonstrated that hypoxic exposure causes HIF-1-dependent repression of E-cadherin. However, the mechanism by which ROS and/or HIF suppresses E-cadherin expression remains less clear. In the present study, we found that ROS accumulation in ovarian carcinoma cells upregulated HIF-1α expression and subsequent transcriptional induction of lysyl oxidase (LOX) which repressed E-cadherin. Loss of E-cadherin facilitated ovarian cancer (OC) cell migration in vitro and promoted tumor growth in vivo. E-cadherin immunoreactivity correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, tumor differentiation and metastasis. Negative E-cadherin expression along with FIGO stage, tumor differentiation and metastasis significantly predicted for a lower 5-year survival rate. These findings suggest that ROS play an important role in the initiation of metastatic growth of OC cells and support a molecular pathway from ROS to aggressive transformation which involves upregulation of HIF-1α and its downstream target LOX to suppress E-cadherin expression leading to an increase in cell motility and invasiveness.

  14. Allosteric Regulation of E-Cadherin Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Shashikanth, Nitesh; Petrova, Yuliya I; Park, Seongjin; Chekan, Jillian; Maiden, Stephanie; Spano, Martha; Ha, Taekjip; Gumbiner, Barry M; Leckband, Deborah E

    2015-08-28

    Cadherins are transmembrane adhesion proteins that maintain intercellular cohesion in all tissues, and their rapid regulation is essential for organized tissue remodeling. Despite some evidence that cadherin adhesion might be allosterically regulated, testing of this has been hindered by the difficulty of quantifying altered E-cadherin binding affinity caused by perturbations outside the ectodomain binding site. Here, measured kinetics of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion demonstrated quantitatively that treatment with activating, anti-E-cadherin antibodies or the dephosphorylation of a cytoplasmic binding partner, p120(ctn), increased the homophilic binding affinity of E-cadherin. Results obtained with Colo 205 cells, which express inactive E-cadherin and do not aggregate, demonstrated that four treatments, which induced Colo 205 aggregation and p120(ctn) dephosphorylation, triggered quantitatively similar increases in E-cadherin affinity. Several processes can alter cell aggregation, but these results directly demonstrated the allosteric regulation of cell surface E-cadherin by p120(ctn) dephosphorylation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: are potential prognostic markers?

    PubMed

    Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; Nonogaki, Suely; Nishimoto, Inês Nobuko; de Carli, Marina Lara; Landman, Gilles; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2014-06-03

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma presents with a preference for the head and neck region, and shows a distinct aggressive behavior, with frequent local recurrences, regional and distant metastasis. The alterations in the cadherin-catenin complex are fundamental requirements for the metastasis process, and this is the first study to evaluate the immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin in oral basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Seventeen cases of this tumor located exclusively in the mouth were compared to 26 cases of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and 28 cases of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma matched by stage and tumor site. The immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin were evaluated in the three groups and compared to their clinicopathological features and prognosis. For groups poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, reduction or absence of E-cadherin staining was observed in more than 80.0% of carcinomas, and it was statistically significant compared to well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p = .019). A strong expression of β-catenin was observed in 26.9% and 20.8% of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, respectively, and in 41.2% of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The 5-year and 10-year overall and disease-free survival rates demonstrated no significant differences among all three groups. The clinical and biological behavior of three groups of the oral cavity tumors evaluated are similar. E-cadherin and β-catenin immunostaining showed no prognostic value for basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinomas.

  16. Expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: are potential prognostic markers?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma presents with a preference for the head and neck region, and shows a distinct aggressive behavior, with frequent local recurrences, regional and distant metastasis. The alterations in the cadherin-catenin complex are fundamental requirements for the metastasis process, and this is the first study to evaluate the immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin in oral basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Methods Seventeen cases of this tumor located exclusively in the mouth were compared to 26 cases of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and 28 cases of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma matched by stage and tumor site. The immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin were evaluated in the three groups and compared to their clinicopathological features and prognosis. Results For groups poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, reduction or absence of E-cadherin staining was observed in more than 80.0% of carcinomas, and it was statistically significant compared to well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p = .019). A strong expression of β-catenin was observed in 26.9% and 20.8% of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, respectively, and in 41.2% of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The 5-year and 10-year overall and disease-free survival rates demonstrated no significant differences among all three groups. Conclusions The clinical and biological behavior of three groups of the oral cavity tumors evaluated are similar. E-cadherin and β-catenin immunostaining showed no prognostic value for basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:24893577

  17. EXPRESSION OF E-CADHERIN AND WNT PATHWAY PROTEINS BETACATENIN, APC, TCF-4 AND SURVIVIN IN GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA: CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL IMPLICATION.

    PubMed

    Lins, Rodrigo Rego; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Oliveira, Levindo Alves de; Silva, Marcelo Souza; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antonio; Waisberg, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.It has been reported that Wnt/ betacatenin pathway is activated in 30-50% of these tumors. However,the deregulation of this pathway has not been fully elucidated. To determine the expression of E-cadherin, betacatenin, APC, TCF-4 and survivin proteins in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and correlate with clinical and pathological parameters. Seventy-one patients with gastric adenocarcinoma undergoing gastrectomy were enrolled. The expression of E-cadherin, betacatenin, APC, TCF-4 and survivin proteins was detected by immunohistochemistryand related to the clinical and pathological parameters. The expression rates of E-cadherin in the membrane was 3%; betacatenin in the cytoplasm and nucleus were 23,4% and 3,1% respectively; APC in the cytoplasm was 94,6%; TCF-4 in the nucleus was 19,4%; and survivin in the nucleus 93,9%. The expression rate of E-cadherin was correlated with older patients (p=0,007), while betacatenin with tumors <5 cm (p=0,041) and APC with proximal tumors (p=0,047). Moreover, the expression of TCF-4 was significantly higher in the diffuse type (p=0,017) and T4 tumors (p=0,002). The Wnt/betacatenin is not involved in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the high frequency of survivin allows to suggest that other signaling pathways must be involved in the transformation of gastric tissue. O câncer gástrico encontra-se entre as principais neoplasias malignas do mundo sendo o quinto mais incidente e o terceiro em relação ao índice de mortalidade. Acredita-se que a via Wnt/betacatenina esteja ativada em 30-50% desses tumores, porém a desregulação dela ainda não está completamente esclarecida. Avaliar a imunoexpressão das proteínas E-caderina, betacatenina, APC, TCF-4 e survivina em tecidos de adenocarcinoma gástrico e correlacioná-las com as variáveis clínicas dos doentes e anatomopatológicas do tumor. Foram coletados os dados

  18. Reduced expression of E-cadherin and p120-catenin and elevated expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE are associated with aggressiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Liao, Liyan; Shrestha, Chandrama; Ji, Shangli; Chen, Ying; Peng, Jian; Wang, Larry; Liao, Eryuan; Xie, Zhongjian

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most lethal malignant tumors. The cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion complex plays a major role in cancer development and progression. p120-catenin (p120) is a cytoplasmic molecule closely associated with E-cadherin which activates phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1). Our previous studies indicate that activation of PLC-γ1 plays a critical role in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration and proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) is highly expressed in SCC cells and mediates EGFR-dependent SCC cell proliferation. Our current study was to determine whether the expression of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE, is associated with OSCC. To address this issue, we assessed levels and localization of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE in specimen of 92 patients with OSCC by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of E-cadherin, and p120 negatively correlated with the tumor differentiation and the expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE positively correlated with the tumor differentiation. The expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC stage T3 + T4 or in OSCC with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that in OSCC stage T1 + T2 or in OSCC without lymph node metastasis. The expression of p120 positively correlated with levels of E-cadherin but negatively correlated with levels of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC. These data indicate that increased expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE and decreased expression of E-cadherin and p120 are associated with the aggressiveness of OSCC. PMID:26464646

  19. Influence of intra-tumoral heterogeneity on the evaluation of BCL2, E-cadherin, EGFR, EMMPRIN, and Ki-67 expression in tissue microarrays from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tramm, Trine; Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming B; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The influence of intra-tumoral heterogeneity on the evaluation of immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarker expression may affect the analytical validity of new biomarkers substantially and hence compromise the clinical utility. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of intra-tumoral heterogeneity as well as inter-observer variability on the evaluation of various IHC markers with potential prognostic impact in breast cancer (BCL2, E-cadherin, EGFR, EMMPRIN and Ki-67). From each of 27 breast cancer patients, two tumor-containing paraffin blocks were chosen. Intra-tumoral heterogeneity was evaluated (1) within a single tumor-containing paraffin block ('intra-block agreement') by comparing information from a central, a peripheral tissue microarray (TMA) core and a whole slide section (WS), (2) between two different tumor-containing blocks from the same primary tumor ('inter-block agreement') by comparing information from TMA cores (central/peripheral) and WS. IHC markers on WS and TMA cores were evaluated by two observers independently, and agreements were estimated by Kappa statistics. For BCL2, E-cadherin and EGFR, an almost perfect intra- and inter-block agreement was found. EMMPRIN and Ki-67 showed a more heterogeneous expression with moderate to substantial intra-block agreements. For both stainings, there was a moderate inter-block agreement that improved slightly for EMMPRIN, when using WS instead of TMA cores. Inter-observer agreements were found to be almost perfect for BCL2, E-cadherin and EGFR (WS: κ > 0.82, TMAs: κ > 0.90), substantial for EMMPRIN (κ > 0.63), but only fair to moderate for Ki-67 (WS: κ = 0.54, TMAs: κ = 0.33). BCL2, E-cadherin and EGFR were found to be homogeneously expressed, whereas EMMPRIN and Ki-67 showed a more pronounced degree of intra-tumoral heterogeneity. The results emphasize the importance of securing the analytical validity of new biomarkers by examining the intra-tumoral heterogeneity of

  20. E-cadherin in contact inhibition and cancer.

    PubMed

    Mendonsa, Alisha M; Na, Tae-Young; Gumbiner, Barry M

    2018-05-21

    E-cadherin is a key component of the adherens junctions that are integral in cell adhesion and maintaining epithelial phenotype of cells. Homophilic E-cadherin binding between cells is important in mediating contact inhibition of proliferation when cells reach confluence. Loss of E-cadherin expression results in loss of contact inhibition and is associated with increased cell motility and advanced stages of cancer. In this review we discuss the role of E-cadherin and its downstream signaling in regulation of contact inhibition and the development and progression of cancer.

  1. E-Cadherin and Gastric Cancer: Cause, Consequence, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    E-cadherin (epithelial-cadherin), encoded by the CDH1 gene, is a transmembrane glycoprotein playing a crucial role in maintaining cell-cell adhesion. E-cadherin has been reported to be a tumor suppressor and to be down regulated in gastric cancer. Besides genetic mutations in CDH1 gene to induce hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), epigenetic factors such as DNA hypermethylation also contribute to the reduction of E-cadherin in gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, expression of E-cadherin could be mediated by infectious agents such as H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori). As E-cadherin is vitally involved in signaling pathways modulating cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and migration, dysregulation of E-cadherin leads to dysfunction of gastric epithelial cells and contributes to gastric cancer development. Moreover, changes in its expression could reflect pathological conditions of gastric mucosa, making its role in gastric cancer complicated. In this review, we summarize the functions of E-cadherin and the signaling pathways it regulates. We aim to provide comprehensive perspectives in the molecular mechanism of E-cadherin and its involvement in gastric cancer initiation and progression. We also focus on its applications for early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy in gastric cancer in order to open new avenues in this field. PMID:25184143

  2. Betacellulin induces Slug-mediated down-regulation of E-cadherin and cell migration in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianfang; Klausen, Christian; Qiu, Xin; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological cancers. Previous studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands can induce ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin. Betacellulin is a unique member of the EGF family. It is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and is associated with reduced survival. However, the biological functions and clinical significance of betacellulin in ovarian cancer remain unknown. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that betacellulin induces ovarian cancer cell migration by suppressing E-cadherin expression. Treatment of SKOV3 and OVCAR5 ovarian cancer cell lines with betacellulin down-regulated E-cadherin, but not N-cadherin. In addition, betacellulin treatment increased the expression of Snail and Slug, and these effects were completely blocked by pre-treatment with EGFR inhibitor AG1478. Interestingly, only knockdown of Slug reversed the down-regulation of E-cadherin by betacellulin. Betacellulin treatment induced the activation of both the MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways, and it also significantly increased ovarian cancer cell migration. Importantly, the effects of betacellulin on E-cadherin, Slug and cell migration were attenuated by pre-treatment with either U0126 or LY294002. Our results suggest that betacellulin induces ovarian cancer migration and Slug-dependent E-cadherin down-regulation via EGFR-mediated MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling. PMID:27129169

  3. Down regulation of E-Cadherin (ECAD) - a predictor for occult metastatic disease in sentinel node biopsy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Huber, Gerhard F; Züllig, Lena; Soltermann, Alex; Roessle, Matthias; Graf, Nicole; Haerle, Stephan K; Studer, Gabriela; Jochum, Wolfram; Moch, Holger; Stoeckli, Sandro J

    2011-06-03

    Prognostic factors in predicting occult lymph node metastasis in patients with head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are necessary to improve the results of the sentinel lymph node procedure in this tumour type. The E-Cadherin glycoprotein is an intercellular adhesion molecule in epithelial cells, which plays an important role in establishing and maintaining intercellular connections. To determine the value of the molecular marker E-Cadherin in predicting regional metastatic disease. E-Cadherin expression in tumour tissue of 120 patients with HNSCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were evaluated using the tissue microarray technique. 110 tumours were located in the oral cavity (91.7%; mostly tongue), 10 tumours in the oropharynx (8.3%). Intensity of E-Cadherin expression was quantified by the Intensity Reactivity Score (IRS). These results were correlated with the lymph node status of biopsied sentinel lymph nodes. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine statistical significance. pT-stage, gender, tumour side and location did not correlate with lymph node metastasis. Differentiation grade (p = 0.018) and down regulation of E-Cadherin expression significantly correlate with positive lymph node status (p = 0.005) in univariate and multivariate analysis. These data suggest that loss of E-cadherin expression is associated with increased lymhogeneous metastasis of HNSCC. E-cadherin immunohistochemistry may be used as a predictor for lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. 2b.

  4. WNT7a induces E-cadherin in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tatsuo; Gemmill, Robert M; Ferguson, Kevin; Kusy, Sophie; Roche, Joëlle; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Zeng, Chan; Baron, Anna; Bemis, Lynne; Erickson, Paul; Wilder, Elizabeth; Rustgi, Anil; Kitajewski, Jan; Gabrielson, Edward; Bremnes, Roy; Franklin, Wilbur; Drabkin, Harry A

    2003-09-02

    E-cadherin loss in cancer is associated with de-differentiation, invasion, and metastasis. Drosophila DE-cadherin is regulated by Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, although this has not been demonstrated in mammalian cells. We previously reported that expression of WNT7a, encoded on 3p25, was frequently downregulated in lung cancer, and that loss of E-cadherin or beta-catenin was a poor prognostic feature. Here we show that WNT7a both activates E-cadherin expression via a beta-catenin specific mechanism in lung cancer cells and is involved in a positive feedback loop. Li+, a GSK3 beta inhibitor, led to E-cadherin induction in an inositol-independent manner. Similarly, exposure to mWNT7a specifically induced free beta-catenin and E-cadherin. Among known transcriptional suppressors of E-cadherin, ZEB1 was uniquely correlated with E-cadherin loss in lung cancer cell lines, and its inhibition by RNA interference resulted in E-cadherin induction. Pharmacologic reversal of E-cadherin and WNT7a losses was achieved with Li+, histone deacetylase inhibition, or in some cases only with combined inhibitors. Our findings provide support that E-cadherin induction by WNT/beta-catenin signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway operative in lung cancer cells, and that loss of WNT7a expression may be important in lung cancer development or progression by its effects on E-cadherin.

  5. Involvement of microRNAs-MMPs-E-cadherin in the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongmei; Li, Xiaohui; Du, Jie; Yin, Youcong; Li, Yuanjian

    2018-06-15

    It has been found that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)is not only the main cause of gastric cancer, but also closely related to its metastasis. E-cadherin cleavage induced by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays an important role in the tumor metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the role of microRNAs-MMPs-E-cadherin in migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells treated with H. pylori. The results showed that H. pylori induced migration and invasion of SGC-7901 cells with a down-regulation of E-cadherin expression, which were abolished by MMPs knock down, E-cadherin overexpression, mimics of miR128 and miR148a. MiR128/miR148a inhibitors restored MMP-3/MMP-7 expression, down-regulated E-cadherin level, and accelerated cellular migration and invasion. This study suggests that H. pylori induces migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells through reduction of E-cadherin function by activation of MMP-3, - 7. The present results also suggest that the activated MMPs/E-cadherin pathway is related with down-regulation of miR128/miR148a in the human gastric cancer cells infected with H. pylori. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. ERβ1 inhibits the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells through upregulation of E-cadherin in a Id1-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yan; Ming, Jia; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • Expression of ERβ1 was positively correlated with E-cadherin in breast cancer cell. • ERβ1 upregulates E-cadherin expression in breast cancer cell lines. • ERβ1 upregulates E-cadherin expression in a Id1-dependent manner. - Abstract: ERβ1 is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-regulated transcription factors. It plays an important role in regulating the progression of breast cancer. However, the mechanisms of ERβ1 in tumorigenesis, metastasis and prognosis are still not fully clear. In this study, we showed that the expression of ERβ1 was positively correlated with E-cadherin expression in breast cancer cell lines. In addition, we foundmore » that ERβ1 upregulates E-cadherin expression in breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we also found that ERβ1 inhibits the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and upregulated E-cadherin expression in a Id1-dependent manner. Taken together, our study provides further understanding of the molecular mechanism of ERβ1 in tumor metastasis and suggests the feasibility of developing novel therapeutic approaches to target Id1 to inhibit breast cancer metastasis.« less

  7. E-cadherin can replace N-cadherin during secretory-stage enamel development.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaomu; Bidlack, Felicitas B; Stokes, Nicole; Bartlett, John D

    2014-01-01

    N-cadherin is a cell-cell adhesion molecule and deletion of N-cadherin in mice is embryonic lethal. During the secretory stage of enamel development, E-cadherin is down-regulated and N-cadherin is specifically up-regulated in ameloblasts when groups of ameloblasts slide by one another to form the rodent decussating enamel rod pattern. Since N-cadherin promotes cell migration, we asked if N-cadherin is essential for ameloblast cell movement during enamel development. The enamel organ, including its ameloblasts, is an epithelial tissue and for this study a mouse strain with N-cadherin ablated from epithelium was generated. Enamel from wild-type (WT) and N-cadherin conditional knockout (cKO) mice was analyzed. μCT and scanning electron microscopy showed that thickness, surface structure, and prism pattern of the cKO enamel looked identical to WT. No significant difference in hardness was observed between WT and cKO enamel. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry revealed the WT and N-cadherin cKO secretory stage ameloblasts expressed approximately equal amounts of total cadherins. Strikingly, E-cadherin was not normally down-regulated during the secretory stage in the cKO mice suggesting that E-cadherin can compensate for the loss of N-cadherin. Previously it was demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) induces E- and N-cadherin expression in human calvaria osteoblasts and we show that the N-cadherin cKO enamel organ expressed significantly more BMP2 and significantly less of the BMP antagonist Noggin than did WT enamel organ. The E- to N-cadherin switch at the secretory stage is not essential for enamel development or for forming the decussating enamel rod pattern. E-cadherin can substitute for N-cadherin during these developmental processes. Bmp2 expression may compensate for the loss of N-cadherin by inducing or maintaining E-cadherin expression when E-cadherin is normally down-regulated. Notably, this is the first demonstration of a natural endogenous

  8. E-Cadherin As A Chemotherapy Resistance Mechanism On Metastatic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    chemotherapy. REPORTABLE OUTCOMES Publications 1. Chao Y, Wu Q, Shepard C, and Wells A. “Hepatocyte induced re-expression of E-cadherin in breast...Microenvironment (Appendix 2) 3. Chao Y*, Shepard CR*, Wells A (2010). Breast carcinoma cells re-express E-cadherin during mesenchymal to epithelial...Metastases.” Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists. Redondo Beach, PA. June 2009. 2. Chao Y, Shepard CR, Wells, A. “E-cadherin

  9. Alterations induced by E-cadherin and beta-catenin antibodies during the development of Bufo arenarum (Anura-Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Izaguirre, M F; Adur, J F; Soler, A P; Casco, V H

    2001-10-01

    E(epithelial)-cadherin is a member of a calcium-dependent family of cell surface glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and morphogenesis. Catenins are a large family of proteins that connect the cadherins to the cytoskeleton. They are important for cadherin function and for transducing signals involved in specification of cell fate during embryogenesis. The best characterized catenins include alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and p120-catenin. Using specific antibodies, we studied the expression and distribution of E-cadherin, and alpha- and beta-catenin in developmental stages of Bufo arenarum toad. The three proteins were found co-localized in stages 19 to 41 of development. Surprisingly, E-cadherin was the only of these three proteins found earlier than stage 19. To test whether E-cadherin and beta-catenin have a functional role in Bufo arenarum embryogenesis, stage 17 whole embryos were incubated with anti-E-cadherin and beta-catenin antibodies. Both anti-E-cadherin and anti-beta-catenin antibodies induced severe morphological alterations. However, while alterations produced by the anti-beta-catenin antibody, showed some variability from the most severe (neural tube and notochord duplication) to a simple delay in development, the alterations with anti-E-cadherin were homogeneous. These observations suggest a critical role for E-cadherin and beta-catenin in the early embryonic development of the Bufo arenarum toad. Our results are consistent with the developmental role of these proteins in other species. One of the most surprising findings was the blockage with the anti-beta-catenin antibodies on later embryo stages, and we hypothesize that the partial axes duplication could be mediated by the notochord induction.

  10. Deregulation of E-cadherin, β-catenin, APC and Caveolin-1 expression occurs in canine prostate cancer and metastatic processes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Priscila E; Fonseca-Alves, Carlos E; Rivera-Calderón, Luis G; Carvalho, Márcio; Kuasne, Hellen; Rogatto, Silvia R; Laufer-Amorim, Renée

    2018-06-01

    Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease with high levels of clinical and gene heterogeneity, consequently offering several targets for therapy. Dogs with naturally occurring prostate cancer are useful models for molecular investigations and studying new treatment efficacy. Three genes and proteins associated with the WNT pathway (β-catenin, APC and E-cadherin) and Caveolin-1 (CAV-1) were evaluated in canine pre-neoplastic proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA), prostate cancer and metastatic disease. The APC gene methylation status was also investigated. As in human prostate cancer, cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin, which are fundamental for activating the canonical WNT pathway, were found in canine prostate cancer and metastasis. Membranous E-cadherin was also lost in these lesions, allowing cellular migration to the stroma and nuclear localization of β-catenin. In contrast to human prostate tumours, no APC downregulation or hypermethylation was found in canine prostate cancer. The CAV-1 gene and protein overexpression were found in canine prostate cancer, and as in humans, the highest levels were found in Gleason scores ≥8. In conclusion, as with human prostate cancer, β-catenin and E-cadherin in the WNT pathway, as well as Caveolin-1, are molecular drivers in canine prostate cancer. These findings provide additional evidence that dogs are useful models for studying new therapeutic targets in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Suppression of E-cadherin function drives the early stages of Ras-induced squamous cell carcinoma through up-regulation of FAK and Src

    PubMed Central

    Alt-Holland, Addy; Sowalsky, Adam; Szwec-Levin, Yonit; Shamis, Yulia; Hatch, Harold; Feig, Larry A.; Garlick, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced stages of epithelial carcinogenesis involve the loss of intercellular adhesion, but it remains unclear how proteins that regulate alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are deregulated to promote the early stages of cancer development. To address this, a three-dimensional human tissue model that mimics the incipient stages of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) was used to study how E-cadherin suppression promotes tumor progression in Ras-expressing human keratinocytes. We found that E-cadherin suppression triggered elevated mRNA and protein expression levels of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), and increased FAK and Src activities above the level seen in Ras-expressing E-cadherin-competent keratinocytes. sh-RNA-mediated depletion of FAK and Src restored E-cadherin expression levels by increasing its stability in the membrane, and blocked tumor cell invasion in tissues. Surface transplantation of these tissues to mice resulted in reversion of the tumor phenotype to low-grade tumor islands in contrast to control tissues that manifested an aggressive, high-grade SCC. These findings suggest that the tumor-promoting effect of E-cadherin suppression, a common event in SCC development, is exacerbated by enhanced E-cadherin degradation induced by elevated FAK and Src activities. Furthermore, they imply that targeting FAK or Src in human epithelial cells with neoplastic potential may inhibit the early stages of SCC. PMID:21716326

  12. Numb controls E-cadherin endocytosis through p120 catenin with aPKC

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Takashi; Wang, Shujie; Kakeno, Mai; Matsuzawa, Kenji; Matsui, Toshinori; Yokoi, Keiko; Murase, Kiyoko; Sugiyama, Ikuko; Ozawa, Masayuki; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    Cadherin trafficking controls tissue morphogenesis and cell polarity. The endocytic adaptor Numb participates in apicobasal polarity by acting on intercellular adhesions in epithelial cells. However, it remains largely unknown how Numb controls cadherin-based adhesion. Here, we found that Numb directly interacted with p120 catenin (p120), which is known to interact with E-cadherin and prevent its internalization. Numb accumulated at intercellular adhesion sites and the apical membrane in epithelial cells. Depletion of Numb impaired E-cadherin internalization, whereas depletion of p120 accelerated internalization. Expression of the Numb-binding fragment of p120 inhibited E-cadherin internalization in a dominant-negative fashion, indicating that Numb interacts with the E-cadherin/p120 complex and promotes E-cadherin endocytosis. Impairment of Numb induced mislocalization of E-cadherin from the lateral membrane to the apical membrane. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a member of the PAR complex, phosphorylated Numb and inhibited its association with p120 and α-adaptin. Depletion or inhibition of aPKC accelerated E-cadherin internalization. Wild-type Numb restored E-cadherin internalization in the Numb-depleted cells, whereas a phosphomimetic mutant or a mutant with defective α-adaptin-binding ability did not restore the internalization. Thus, we propose that aPKC phosphorylates Numb to prevent its binding to p120 and α-adaptin, thereby attenuating E-cadherin endocytosis to maintain apicobasal polarity. PMID:21775625

  13. Circadian locomotor output cycles kaput affects the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells by regulating the expression of E-cadherin via IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxue; Wang, Siyang; Yang, Shuhong; Ying, Junjie; Yu, Hang; Yang, Chunlei; Liu, Yanyou; Wang, Yuhui; Cheng, Shuting; Xiao, Jing; Guo, Huiling; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Zhengrong

    2018-05-01

    The circadian rhythm regulates numerous physiological activities, including sleep and wakefulness, behavior, immunity and metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that circadian rhythm disorder is associated with the occurrence of tumors. Responsible for regulating a number of functions, the Circadian locomotor output cycles kaput ( Clock ) gene is one of the core regulatory genes of circadian rhythm. The Clock gene has also been implicated in the occurrence and development of tumors in previously studies. The present study evaluated the role of the Clock gene in the proliferation and migration of mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells, and investigated its possible regulatory pathways and mechanisms. It was reported that downregulation of Clock facilitated the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Further investigation revealed the involvement of IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) protein expression in the Clock regulatory pathway, further influencing the expression of E-cadherin, a known proprietor of tumor cell migration and invasion. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report that Clock , acting through the regulation of the scaffolding protein IQGAP1, regulates the downstream expression of E-cadherin, thereby affecting tumor cell structure and motility. These results confirmed the role of Clock in breast cancer tumor etiology and provide insight regarding the molecular avenues of its regulatory nature, which may translate beyond breast cancer into other known functions of the gene.

  14. Down regulation of E-Cadherin (ECAD) - a predictor for occult metastatic disease in sentinel node biopsy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prognostic factors in predicting occult lymph node metastasis in patients with head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are necessary to improve the results of the sentinel lymph node procedure in this tumour type. The E-Cadherin glycoprotein is an intercellular adhesion molecule in epithelial cells, which plays an important role in establishing and maintaining intercellular connections. Objectives To determine the value of the molecular marker E-Cadherin in predicting regional metastatic disease. Methods E-Cadherin expression in tumour tissue of 120 patients with HNSCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were evaluated using the tissue microarray technique. 110 tumours were located in the oral cavity (91.7%; mostly tongue), 10 tumours in the oropharynx (8.3%). Intensity of E-Cadherin expression was quantified by the Intensity Reactivity Score (IRS). These results were correlated with the lymph node status of biopsied sentinel lymph nodes. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine statistical significance. Results pT-stage, gender, tumour side and location did not correlate with lymph node metastasis. Differentiation grade (p = 0.018) and down regulation of E-Cadherin expression significantly correlate with positive lymph node status (p = 0.005) in univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusion These data suggest that loss of E-cadherin expression is associated with increased lymhogeneous metastasis of HNSCC. E-cadherin immunohistochemistry may be used as a predictor for lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Level of evidence: 2b PMID:21639893

  15. Disruption of basement membrane, extracellular matrix metalloproteinases and E-cadherin in renal-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morell-Quadreny, L; Rubio, Jose; Lopez-Guerrero, Jose Antonio; Casanova, Juan; Ramos, D; Iborra, Inmaculada; Solsona, Eduardo; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine the prognostic value of Basement Membrane (BM) integrity, Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and E-Cadherin expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). An immunohistochemical study on laminin and collagen IV, MMPs 1 and 2, and E-Cadherin was carried out on 71 RCCs. BM fragmentation was considered taking 75% as a cut-off. MMP 1 and MMP2 immunostaining, as well as E-Cadherin was considered taking 25% as a cut-off. An inverse relationship was seen between E-Cadherin with laminin, collagen IV and MMPs. More than 75% loss of laminin, collagen IV and E-Cadherin, as well as higher expression of MMPs, were associated with symptoms, tumoral size and worse grade. Loss of collagen IV and E-Cadherin were of prognostic value. Both BM and E-Cadherin are good prognostic markers. MMPs patterns show a relationship between BM proteins and E-Cadherin, but evaluation is more time-consuming and provide no better prognostication; consequently they are not useful in routine clinical applications.

  16. Estrogen Deficiency Promotes Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture by Upregulation of Th17 Cells and Interleukin-17A Which Downregulates E-Cadherin.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Brian L; Rojas, Kelley; Lin, Li; Fazal, Hanain Z; Hourani, Siham; Nowicki, Kamil W; Schneider, Matheus B; Hosaka, Koji

    2018-04-13

    Estrogen deficiency is associated with the development of cerebral aneurysms; however, the mechanism remains unknown. We explored the pathway of cerebral aneurysm development by investigating the potential link between estrogen deficiency and inflammatory factors. First, we established the role of interleukin-17 (IL-17)A. We performed a cytokine screen demonstrating that IL-17A is significantly expressed in mouse and human aneurysms ( P =0.03). Likewise, IL-17A inhibition was shown to prevent aneurysm formation by 42% ( P =0.02) and rupture by 34% ( P <0.05). Second, we found that estrogen deficiency upregulates T helper 17 cells and IL-17A and promotes aneurysm rupture. Estrogen-deficient mice had more ruptures than control mice (47% versus 7%; P =0.04). Estradiol supplementation or IL-17A inhibition decreased the number of ruptures in estrogen-deficient mice (estradiol 6% versus 37%; P =0.04; IL-17A inhibition 18% versus 47%; P =0.018). Third, we found that IL-17A-blockade protects against aneurysm formation and rupture by increased E-cadherin expression. IL-17-inhibited mice had increased E-cadherin expression ( P =0.003). E-cadherin inhibition reversed the protective effect of IL-17A inhibition and increased the rate of aneurysm formation (65% versus 28%; P =0.04) and rupture (12% versus 0%; P =0.22). However, E-cadherin inhibition alone does not significantly increase aneurysm formation in normal mice or in estrogen-deficient mice. In cell migration assays, E-cadherin inhibition promoted macrophage infiltration across endothelial cells ( P <0.05), which may be the mechanism for the estrogen deficiency/IL-17/E-cadherin aneurysm pathway. Our data suggest that estrogen deficiency promotes cerebral aneurysm rupture by upregulating IL-17A, which downregulates E-cadherin, encouraging macrophage infiltration in the aneurysm vessel wall. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  17. E-cadherin Mediates the Preventive Effect of Vitamin D3 in Colitis-associated Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yu; He, Longmei; Luan, Zijian; Lv, Hong; Yang, Hong; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Xinhua; Zhou, Weixun; Yu, Songlin; Tan, Bei; Wang, Hongying; Qian, Jiaming

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin D3 is beneficial in ameliorating or preventing inflammation and carcinogenesis. Here, we evaluated if vitamin D3 has a preventive effect on colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Administration of azoxymethane (AOM), followed with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), was used to simulate colitis-associated colon cancer in mice. The supplement of vitamin D3 at different dosages (15, 30, 60 IU·g·w), started before AOM or immediately after DSS treatment (post 60), was sustained to the end of the experiment. Dietary vitamin D3 significantly reduced the number of tumors and tumor burden in a dose-dependent manner. Of note, vitamin D3 in high doses showed significant preventive effects on carcinogenesis regardless of administration before or after AOM-DSS treatment. Cell proliferation decreased in vitamin D3 groups compared with the control group after inhibition of expression of β-catenin and its downstream target gene cyclin D1 in the colon. In vitro, vitamin D3 reduced the transcriptional activity and nuclear level of β-catenin, and it also increased E-cadherin expression and its binding affinity for β-catenin. Moreover, repression of E-cadherin was rescued by supplemental vitamin D3 in mouse colons. Taken together, our results indicate that vitamin D3 effectively suppressed colonic carcinogenesis in the AOM-DSS mouse model. Our findings further suggest that upregulation of E-cadherin contributes to the preventive effect of vitamin D3 on β-catenin activity.

  18. E-cadherin and beta-catenin are down-regulated in prostatic bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Bryden, A A G; Hoyland, J A; Freemont, A J; Clarke, N W; Schembri Wismayer, D; George, N J R

    2002-03-01

    To determine the E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression phenotype in untreated primary prostate cancer and corresponding bone metastases. Paired bone metastasis and primary prostate specimens were obtained from 14 men with untreated metastatic prostate carcinoma. The tumours were histologically graded by an independent pathologist. Expression of mRNA for E-cadherin and beta-catenin was detected within the tumour cells using in-situ hybridization with a 35S-labelled cDNA probe. The expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin were graded as uniform, heterogeneous or negative. The mRNA for E-cadherin was expressed in 13 of 14 primary carcinomas and 11 bone metastases; beta-catenin was expressed by 13 and nine, respectively. Of the primary tumours, nine expressed E-cadherin and beta-catenin uniformly; in contrast, all metastases had down-regulated E-cadherin and/or beta-catenin. The down-regulation of E-cadherin and beta-catenin are a feature of the metastatic phenotype, which may be a significant factor in the genesis of bone metastases. However, this does not appear to be reflected in the expression of these molecules in the primary tumours.

  19. Low PIP4K2B expression in human breast tumors correlates with reduced patient survival: A role for PIP4K2B in the regulation of E-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    Keune, Willem-Jan; Sims, Andrew H; Jones, David R; Bultsma, Yvette; Lynch, James T; Jirström, Karin; Landberg, Goran; Divecha, Nullin

    2013-12-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PtdIns5P) 4-kinase β (PIP4K2B) directly regulates the levels of two important phosphoinositide second messengers, PtdIns5P and phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. PIP4K2B has been linked to the regulation of gene transcription, to TP53 and AKT activation, and to the regulation of cellular reactive oxygen accumulation. However, its role in human tumor development and on patient survival is not known. Here, we have interrogated the expression of PIP4K2B in a cohort (489) of patients with breast tumor using immunohistochemical staining and by a meta-analysis of gene expression profiles from 2,999 breast tumors, both with associated clinical outcome data. Low PIP4K2B expression was associated with increased tumor size, high Nottingham histological grade, Ki67 expression, and distant metastasis, whereas high PIP4K2B expression strongly associated with ERBB2 expression. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that both high and low PIP4K2B expression correlated with poorer patient survival compared with intermediate expression. In normal (MCF10A) and tumor (MCF7) breast epithelial cell lines, mimicking low PIP4K2B expression, using short hairpin RNA interference-mediated knockdown, led to a decrease in the transcription and expression of the tumor suppressor protein E-cadherin (CDH1). In MCF10A cells, knockdown of PIP4K2B enhanced TGF-β-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process required during the development of metastasis. Analysis of gene expression datasets confirmed the association between low PIP4K2B and low CDH1expression. Decreased CDH1 expression and enhancement of TGF-β-induced EMT by reduced PIP4K2B expression might, in part, explain the association between low PIP4K2B expression and poor patient survival.

  20. Abrogation of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contact in mouse embryonic stem cells results in reversible LIF-independent self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Soncin, Francesca; Mohamet, Lisa; Eckardt, Dominik; Ritson, Sarah; Eastham, Angela M; Bobola, Nicoletta; Russell, Angela; Davies, Steve; Kemler, Rolf; Merry, Catherine L R; Ward, Christopher M

    2009-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells is associated with downregulation of cell surface E-cadherin. In this study, we assessed the function of E-cadherin in mouse ES cell pluripotency and differentiation. We show that inhibition of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contact in ES cells using gene knockout (Ecad(-/-)), RNA interference (EcadRNAi), or a transhomodimerization-inhibiting peptide (CHAVC) results in cellular proliferation and maintenance of an undifferentiated phenotype in fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Re-expression of E-cadherin in Ecad(-/-), EcadRNAi, and CHAVC-treated ES cells restores cellular dependence to LIF supplementation. Although reversal of the LIF-independent phenotype in Ecad(-/-) ES cells is dependent on the beta-catenin binding domain of E-cadherin, we show that beta-catenin null (betacat(-/-)) ES cells also remain undifferentiated in the absence of LIF. This suggests that LIF-independent self-renewal of Ecad(-/-) ES cells is unlikely to be via beta-catenin signaling. Exposure of Ecad(-/-), EcadRNAi, and CHAVC-treated ES cells to the activin receptor-like kinase inhibitor SB431542 led to differentiation of the cells, which could be prevented by re-expression of E-cadherin. To confirm the role of transforming growth factor beta family signaling in the self-renewal of Ecad(-/-) ES cells, we show that these cells maintain an undifferentiated phenotype when cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with Activin A and Nodal, with fibroblast growth factor 2 required for cellular proliferation. We conclude that transhomodimerization of E-cadherin protein is required for LIF-dependent ES cell self-renewal and that multiple self-renewal signaling networks subsist in ES cells, with activity dependent upon the cellular context.

  1. Association of extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin mediated by MMP-7 with HGF-induced in vitro invasion in human stomach cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Choi, E Y; Hyun, M S; Jang, B I; Kim, T N; Kim, S W; Song, S K; Kim, J H; Kim, J-R

    2007-01-01

    Proteolytic shedding of the ectodomain of a variety of transmembrane proteins, including cell-to-cell adhesion molecules, has been observed in solid cancers. We have investigated whether extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is involved in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced in vitro invasion in stomach cancer cells. The effects of HGF on the expression of E-cadherin/beta-catenin and MMP-7 at both the protein and mRNA levels were assessed in stomach cancer cells, NUGC-3 and MKN-28, and in cells in which the expression of MMP-7 was downregulated by transfection with a MMP-7 short hairpin RNA plasmid. Treatment with HGF increased the extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin and the release of MMP-7 and reduced the level of E-cadherin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HGF treatment repressed the phosphorylation of beta-catenin in a Triton-soluble fraction, but enhanced this phosphorylation in a Triton-insoluble fraction. The association of E-cadherin with beta-catenin was decreased by HGF treatment in the Triton-soluble fraction. In addition, treatment of MMP-7 short hairpin RNA transfected NUGC-3 cells with HGF resulted in no extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin and also decreased the in vitro cell invasion. These results suggest that incubation with HGF mediated the release of MMP-7, resulting in extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin from stomach cancer cells. This might be a key mechanism in HGF-induced in vitro invasion and metastasis. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Colorectal laterally spreading tumors show characteristic expression of cell polarity factors, including atypical protein kinase C λ/ι, E-cadherin, β-catenin and basement membrane component.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Yasushi; Nagashima, Yoji; Morioka, Kaori; Akimoto, Kazunori; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Goto, Ayumu; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Fujii, Shoichi; Kawamata, Mayumi; Takagawa, Ryo; Kunizaki, Chikara; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin; Shimada, Hiroshi; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Ohno, Shigeo; Endo, Itaru

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal flat-type tumors include laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) and flat depressed-type tumors. The former of which shows a predominant lateral spreading growth rather than an invasive growth. The present study examined the morphological characteristics of LSTs, in comparison with polypoid- or flat depressed-type tumors, along with the expression of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) λ/ι, a pivotal cell polarity regulator, and the hallmarks of cell polarity, as well as with type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. In total, 37 flat-type (24 LSTs and 13 flat depressed-type tumors) and 20 polypoid-type colorectal tumors were examined. The LSTs were classified as 15 LST adenoma (LST-A) and nine LST cancer in adenoma (LST-CA). An immunohistochemical examination was performed on aPKC λ/ι, type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. The LST-A and -CA showed a superficial replacing growth pattern, with expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin in the basolateral membrane and type IV collagen along the basement membrane. In addition, 86.6% of LST-A and 55.6% of LST-CA showed aPKC λ/ι expression of 1+ (weak to normal intensity staining in the cytoplasm compared with the normal epithelium). Furthermore, ~45% of the polypoid-type adenomas showed 2+ (moderate intensity staining in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus) and 66.7% of the polypoid-type cancer in adenoma were 3+ (strong intensity staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus). A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the expression of aPKC λ/ι and β-catenin (r=0.842; P<0.001), or type IV collagen (r=0.823; P<0.001). The LSTs showed a unique growth pattern, different from the expanding growth pattern presented by a polypoid tumor and invasive cancer. The growth characteristics of LST appear to be caused by adequate coexpression of β-catenin, type IV collagen and aPKC λ/ι.

  3. DNA methylation-induced E-cadherin silencing is correlated with the clinicopathological features of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Venza, Mario; Visalli, Maria; Catalano, Teresa; Biondo, Carmelo; Beninati, Concetta; Teti, Diana; Venza, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    E-cadherin, a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule, has an important role in epithelial cell function, maintenance of tissue architecture and cancer suppression. Loss of E-cadherin promotes tumor metastatic dissemination and predicts poor prognosis. The present study investigated the clinicopathological significance of E-cadherin expression in cutaneous, mucosal and uveal melanoma related to epigenetic mechanisms that may contribute to E-cadherin silencing. E-cadherin expression was reduced in 55/130 cutaneous (42.3%), 49/82 mucosal (59.7%) and 36/64 uveal (56.2%) melanoma samples as compared to normal skin controls and was inversely associated with promoter methylation. Of the 10 different CpG sites studied (nt 863, 865, 873, 879, 887, 892, 901, 918, 920 and 940), two sites (nt 892 and 940) were 90-100% methylated in all the melanoma specimens examined and the other ones were partially methylated (range, 53-86%). In contrast, the methylation rate of the E-cadherin gene was low in normal tissues (range, 5-24%). In all the three types of melanoma studied, a significant correlation was found between reduced levels of E-cadherin and reduced survival, high mitotic index and metastasis, accounting for the predilection of lymph nodal localization. In cutaneous and mucosal melanoma, low E-cadherin expression was positively correlated also with head/neck localization and ulceration. A high frequency of reduced E-cadherin levels occurred in choroid melanomas. In vitro experiments showed that E-cadherin transcription was restored following 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment or DNMT1 silencing and was negatively correlated with the invasive potential of melanoma cells. The significant relationship between E-cadherin silencing and several poor prognostic factors indicates that this adhesion molecule may play an important role in melanomagenesis. Therefore, the inverse association of E-cadherin expression with promoter methylation raises the intriguing

  4. E-cadherin is required for cranial neural crest migration in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chaolie; Kratzer, Marie-Claire; Wedlich, Doris; Kashef, Jubin

    2016-03-15

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a highly motile and multipotent embryonic cell population, which migrates directionally on defined routes throughout the embryo, contributing to facial structures including cartilage, bone and ganglia. Cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion is known to play a crucial role in the directional migration of CNC cells. However, migrating CNC co-express different cadherin subtypes, and their individual roles have yet to be fully explored. In previous studies, the expression of individual cadherin subtypes has been analysed using different methods with varying sensitivities, preventing the direct comparison of expression levels. Here, we provide the first comprehensive and comparative analysis of the expression of six cadherin superfamily members during different phases of CNC cell migration in Xenopus. By applying a quantitative RT-qPCR approach, we can determine the copy number and abundance of each expressed cadherin through different phases of CNC migration. Using this approach, we show for the first time expression of E-cadherin and XB/C-cadherin in CNC cells, adding them as two new members of cadherins co-expressed during CNC migration. Cadherin co-expression during CNC migration in Xenopus, in particular the constant expression of E-cadherin, contradicts the classical epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) model postulating a switch in cadherin expression. Loss-of-function experiments further show that E-cadherin is required for proper CNC cell migration in vivo and also for cell protrusion formation in vitro. Knockdown of E-cadherin is not rescued by co-injection of other classical cadherins, pointing to a specific function of E-cadherin in mediating CNC cell migration. Finally, through reconstitution experiments with different E-cadherin deletion mutants in E-cadherin morphant embryos, we demonstrate that the extracellular domain, but not the cytoplasmic domain, of E-cadherin is sufficient to rescue CNC cell migration in vivo

  5. From the Cover: Exposure to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants Decreased p-β-Cateninser675 Expression and Its Interaction With E-Cadherin in the Mammary Glands of Lactating Rats.

    PubMed

    Dianati, Elham; Wade, Michael G; Hales, Barbara F; Robaire, Bernard; Plante, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Proper mammary gland development and function require precise hormonal regulation and bidirectional cross talk between cells provided by means of paracrine factors as well as intercellular junctions; exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can disturb these processes. Exposure to one such family of chemicals, the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is ubiquitous. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BFR exposures disrupt signaling pathways and intercellular junctions that control mammary gland development. Before mating, during pregnancy and throughout lactation, female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing that BFR mixture based on house dust, delivering nominal exposures of BFR of 0 (control), 0.06, 20, or 60 mg/kg/d. Dams were euthanized and mammary glands collected on postnatal day 21. BFR exposure had no significant effects on mammary gland/body weight ratios or the levels of proteins involved in milk synthesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell-cell interactions, or hormone signalling. However, BFR exposure (0.06 mg/kg/d) down-regulated phospho-ser675 β-catenin (p-β-catSer675) levels in the absence of any effect on total β-catenin levels. Levels of p-CREB were also down-regulated, suggesting that PKA inhibition plays a role. p-β-catSer675 co-localized with β-catenin at the mammary epithelial cell membrane, and its expression was decreased in animals from the 0.06 and 20 mg/kg/d BFR treatment groups. Although β-Catenin signaling was not affected by BFR exposure, the interaction between p-β-catSer675 and E-cadherin was significantly reduced. Together, our results demonstrate that exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of BFR during pregnancy and lactation decreases p-β-catser675 at cell adhesion sites, likely in a PKA-dependant manner, altering mammary gland signaling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  6. E-cadherin suppression accelerates squamous cell carcinoma progression in three-dimensional, human tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Alexander; Zhang, Weitian; Alt-Holland, Addy; Crawford, Howard C; Fusenig, Norbert E; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2005-03-01

    We studied the link between loss of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion and acquisition of malignant properties in three-dimensional, human tissue constructs that mimicked the initial stages of squamous cell cancer progression. Suppression of E-cadherin expression in early-stage, skin-derived tumor cells (HaCaT-II-4) was induced by cytoplasmic sequestration of beta-catenin upon stable expression of a dominant-negative E-cadherin fusion protein (H-2Kd-Ecad). In monolayer cultures, expression of H-2Kd-Ecad resulted in decreased levels of E-cadherin, redistribution of beta-catenin to the cytoplasm, and complete loss of intercellular adhesion when compared with control II-4 cells. This was accompanied by a 7-fold decrease in beta-catenin-mediated transcription and a 12-fold increase in cell migration. In three-dimensional constructs, E-cadherin-deficient tissues showed disruption of architecture, loss of adherens junctional proteins from cell contacts, and focal tumor cell invasion. Invasion was linked to activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated degradation of basement membrane in H-2Kd-Ecad-expressing tissue constructs that was blocked by MMP inhibition (GM6001). Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed a 2.5-fold increase in MMP-2 and an 8-fold increase in MMP-9 in cells expressing the H-2Kd-Ecad fusion protein when compared with controls, and gel zymography showed increased MMP protein levels. Following surface transplantation of three-dimensional tissues, suppression of E-cadherin expression greatly accelerated tumorigenesis in vivo by inducing a switch to high-grade carcinomas that resulted in a 5-fold increase in tumor size after 4 weeks. Suppression of E-cadherin expression and loss of its function fundamentally modified squamous cell carcinoma progression by activating a highly invasive, aggressive tumor phenotype, whereas maintenance of E-cadherin prevented invasion in vitro and limited tumor progression in vivo.

  7. ZEB1 overexpression associated with E-cadherin and microRNA-200 downregulation is characteristic of undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pérez, Laura; López-García, M Ángeles; Díaz-Martín, Juan; Biscuola, Michele; Castilla, M Ángeles; Tafe, Laura J; Garg, Karuna; Oliva, Esther; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Soslow, Robert A; Palacios, José

    2013-11-01

    Undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are very aggressive high-grade endometrial carcinomas that are frequently under-recognized. This study aimed to analyze the molecular alterations underlying the development of these endometrial carcinomas, focusing on those related to dedifferentiation. We assessed a series of 120 tumors: 57 grade 1 and 2 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, 15 grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, 27 endometrial serous carcinomas, and 21 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas. We found a high frequency of DNA mismatch repair deficiency (38%) and moderate rate of p53 overexpression (∼33%) in undifferentiated carcinomas. In contrast to the characteristic endometrioid phenotype, there was a dramatic downregulation of E-cadherin expression in the undifferentiated subtype. Quantitative methylation studies dismissed CDH1 promoter hypermethylation as the mechanism responsible for this change in gene expression, while immunohistochemistry revealed that the E-cadherin repressor ZEB1 was frequently overexpressed (62%) in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas. This finding was accompanied by a sharp downregulation in the expression of the miR-200 family of microRNAs, well-known targets of ZEB1. Furthermore, there was enhanced expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, such as N-cadherin, cytoplasmic p120, and osteonectin. In addition, HMGA2, a regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that is expressed in aggressive endometrial tumors, such as endometrial serous carcinomas and carcinosarcomas, was expressed in >20% of undifferentiated carcinomas. These results suggest that ZEB1 overexpression, associated with E-cadherin and miR-200s downregulation, and the expression of mesenchymal markers might enhance the metastatic potential of undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, leading to a poor prognosis. In addition, our observations suggest that the immnohistochemical analysis

  8. E-cadherin: A determinant molecule associated with ovarian cancer progression, dissemination and aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Devis, Laura; Lapyckyj, Lara; Besso, María José; Llauradó, Marta; Abascal, María Florencia; Matos, María Laura; Lanau, Lucia; Castellví, Josep; Sánchez, José Luis; Pérez Benavente, Asunción; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Reventós, Jaume; Santamaria Margalef, Anna; Rigau, Marina; Vazquez-Levin, Mónica Hebe

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fifth cancer death cause in women worldwide. The malignant nature of this disease stems from its unique dissemination pattern. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported in OC and downregulation of Epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) is a hallmark of this process. However, findings on the relationship between E-cadherin levels and OC progression, dissemination and aggressiveness are controversial. In this study, the evaluation of E-cadherin expression in an OC tissue microarray revealed its prognostic value to discriminate between advanced- and early-stage tumors, as well as serous tumors from other histologies. Moreover, E-cadherin, Neural cadherin (N-cadherin), cytokeratins and vimentin expression was assessed in TOV-112, SKOV-3, OAW-42 and OV-90 OC cell lines grown in monolayers and under anchorage-independent conditions to mimic ovarian tumor cell dissemination, and results were associated with cell aggressiveness. According to these EMT-related markers, cell lines were classified as mesenchymal (M; TOV-112), intermediate mesenchymal (IM; SKOV-3), intermediate epithelial (IE; OAW-42) and epithelial (E; OV-90). M- and IM-cells depicted the highest migration capacity when grown in monolayers, and aggregates derived from M- and IM-cell lines showed lower cell death, higher adhesion to extracellular matrices and higher invasion capacity than E- and IE-aggregates. The analysis of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, cytokeratin 19 and vimentin mRNA levels in 20 advanced-stage high-grade serous human OC ascites showed an IM phenotype in all cases, characterized by higher proportions of N- to E-cadherin and vimentin to cytokeratin 19. In particular, higher E-cadherin mRNA levels were associated with cancer antigen 125 levels more than 500 U/mL and platinum-free intervals less than 6 months. Altogether, E-cadherin expression levels were found relevant for the assessment of OC progression and aggressiveness. PMID:28934230

  9. Lacking hypoxia-mediated downregulation of E-cadherin in cancers of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Mayer, A; Höckel, M; Schlischewsky, N; Schmidberger, H; Horn, L-C; Vaupel, P

    2013-02-05

    Experimental studies have established a causal connection between tumour hypoxia, hypoxia-associated proteome changes and downregulation of E-cadherin, the final common pathway of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our study aimed at elucidating the interrelationship of these processes in cancers of the uterine cervix in vivo. Tumour oxygenation was assessed in 48 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix using polarographic needle electrodes. The expression pattern of E-cadherin was investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and was compared with that of the hypoxia-inducible proteins glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX in biopsy specimens of the oxygenation measurement tracks. The majority of cervical cancers (52%) were E-cadherin positive, with a complete absence of the antigen in only 10% of the tumours. No correlation was found between the level of E-cadherin expression and the oxygenation status (mean pO(2), median pO(2) and hypoxic fractions). In patients showing partial expression of E-cadherin (38%), staining was not preferentially diminished in GLUT-1- or CA IX-positive areas, and loss of E-cadherin occurred independently of tumour cell scattering. Our data provide no evidence in favour of a hypoxia-induced EMT as a mechanistic basis of cervical cancer invasiveness.

  10. Lacking hypoxia-mediated downregulation of E-cadherin in cancers of the uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, A; Höckel, M; Schlischewsky, N; Schmidberger, H; Horn, L-C; Vaupel, P

    2013-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies have established a causal connection between tumour hypoxia, hypoxia-associated proteome changes and downregulation of E-cadherin, the final common pathway of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our study aimed at elucidating the interrelationship of these processes in cancers of the uterine cervix in vivo. Methods: Tumour oxygenation was assessed in 48 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix using polarographic needle electrodes. The expression pattern of E-cadherin was investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and was compared with that of the hypoxia-inducible proteins glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX in biopsy specimens of the oxygenation measurement tracks. Results: The majority of cervical cancers (52%) were E-cadherin positive, with a complete absence of the antigen in only 10% of the tumours. No correlation was found between the level of E-cadherin expression and the oxygenation status (mean pO2, median pO2 and hypoxic fractions). In patients showing partial expression of E-cadherin (38%), staining was not preferentially diminished in GLUT-1- or CA IX-positive areas, and loss of E-cadherin occurred independently of tumour cell scattering. Conclusion: Our data provide no evidence in favour of a hypoxia-induced EMT as a mechanistic basis of cervical cancer invasiveness. PMID:23322209

  11. E-Cadherin Acts as a Regulator of Transcripts Associated with a Wide Range of Cellular Processes in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Soncin, Francesca; Mohamet, Lisa; Ritson, Sarah; Hawkins, Kate; Bobola, Nicoletta; Zeef, Leo; Merry, Catherine L. R.; Ward, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Background We have recently shown that expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is required for LIF-dependent pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Methodology In this study, we have assessed global transcript expression in E-cadherin null (Ecad-/-) ES cells cultured in either the presence or absence of LIF and compared these to the parental cell line wtD3. Results We show that LIF has little effect on the transcript profile of Ecad-/- ES cells, with statistically significant transcript alterations observed only for Sp8 and Stat3. Comparison of Ecad-/- and wtD3 ES cells cultured in LIF demonstrated significant alterations in the transcript profile, with effects not only confined to cell adhesion and motility but also affecting, for example, primary metabolic processes, catabolism and genes associated with apoptosis. Ecad-/- ES cells share similar, although not identical, gene expression profiles to epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that E-cadherin expression may inhibit inner cell mass to epiblast transition. We further show that Ecad-/- ES cells maintain a functional β-catenin pool that is able to induce β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation but, contrary to previous findings, do not display endogenous β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation. We conclude that loss of E-cadherin in mouse ES cells leads to significant transcript alterations independently of β-catenin/TCF transactivation. PMID:21779327

  12. E-cadherin acts as a regulator of transcripts associated with a wide range of cellular processes in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Soncin, Francesca; Mohamet, Lisa; Ritson, Sarah; Hawkins, Kate; Bobola, Nicoletta; Zeef, Leo; Merry, Catherine L R; Ward, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is required for LIF-dependent pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. In this study, we have assessed global transcript expression in E-cadherin null (Ecad-/-) ES cells cultured in either the presence or absence of LIF and compared these to the parental cell line wtD3. We show that LIF has little effect on the transcript profile of Ecad-/- ES cells, with statistically significant transcript alterations observed only for Sp8 and Stat3. Comparison of Ecad-/- and wtD3 ES cells cultured in LIF demonstrated significant alterations in the transcript profile, with effects not only confined to cell adhesion and motility but also affecting, for example, primary metabolic processes, catabolism and genes associated with apoptosis. Ecad-/- ES cells share similar, although not identical, gene expression profiles to epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that E-cadherin expression may inhibit inner cell mass to epiblast transition. We further show that Ecad-/- ES cells maintain a functional β-catenin pool that is able to induce β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation but, contrary to previous findings, do not display endogenous β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation. We conclude that loss of E-cadherin in mouse ES cells leads to significant transcript alterations independently of β-catenin/TCF transactivation.

  13. Matrilysin (Matrix Metalloproteinase-7) Mediates E-Cadherin Ectodomain Shedding in Injured Lung Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, John K.; Li, Qinglang; Parks, William C.

    2003-01-01

    Matrilysin (matrix metalloproteinase-7) is highly expressed in lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and other conditions associated with airway and alveolar injury. Although matrilysin is required for closure of epithelial wounds ex vivo, the mechanism of its action in repair is unknown. We demonstrate that matrilysin mediates shedding of E-cadherin ectodomain from injured lung epithelium both in vitro and in vivo. In alveolar-like epithelial cells, transfection of activated matrilysin resulted in shedding of E-cadherin and accelerated cell migration. In vivo, matrilysin co-localized with E-cadherin at the basolateral surfaces of migrating tracheal epithelium, and the reorganization of cell-cell junctions seen in wild-type injured tissue was absent in matrilysin-null samples. E-cadherin ectodomain was shed into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of bleomycin-injured wild-type mice, but was not shed in matrilysin-null mice. These findings identify E-cadherin as a novel substrate for matrilysin and indicate that shedding of E-cadherin ectodomain is required for epithelial repair. PMID:12759241

  14. Slug, Twist, and E-Cadherin as Immunohistochemical Biomarkers in Meningeal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nagaishi, Masaya; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Tanaka, Yuko; Ikota, Hayato; Yokoo, Hideaki; Nakazato, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    The overexpression of Twist and Slug and subsequent down-regulation of E-cadherin facilitate the acquirement of invasive growth properties in cancer cells. It is unclear which of these molecules are expressed in mesenchymal tumors in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated 10 cases each of hemangiopericytoma, solitary fibrous tumor, meningothelial, fibrous, angiomatous, and atypical meningiomas, and 5 cases of anaplastic meningioma for Slug, Twist, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin immunoexpression. Nuclear Slug expression was observed in 9/10 (90%) hemangiopericytomas and 5/10 (50%) solitary fibrous tumors, but not in any meningiomas, except for 1 case. Similarly, nuclear Twist expression was more extensive in hemangiopericytomas and solitary fibrous tumors than meningiomas. In contrast to Slug and Twist, the positive expression of E-cadherin was observed in 39/45 (87%) meningiomas, but not in any hemangiopericytomas or solitary fibrous tumors (P<0.0001). The fraction of tumor cells expressing E-cadherin in meningeal tumors was negatively correlated to those of Twist (P = 0.004) and Slug (P<0.0001). The overexpression of Slug and Twist with down-regulation of E-cadherin was characteristic findings in hemangiopericytomas and solitary fibrous tumors, but not in meningiomas. The immunohistochemical profiles of the two tumor groups may be useful as diagnostic markers in cases that present a differential diagnosis challenge. PMID:23029385

  15. A combination of biomolecules enhances expression of E-cadherin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene leading to increased cell proliferation in primary human meniscal cells: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Mamatha M; Elakkiya, V; Gopinathan, J; Sabarinath, C; Shanthakumari, S; Sahanand, K Santosh; Dinakar Rai, B K; Bhattacharyya, Amitava; Selvakumar, R

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigates the impact of biomolecules (biotin, glucose, chondroitin sulphate, proline) as supplement, (individual and in combination) on primary human meniscus cell proliferation. Primary human meniscus cells isolated from patients undergoing meniscectomy were maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). The isolated cells were treated with above mentioned biomolecules as individual (0-100 µg/ml) and in combinations, as a supplement to DMEM. Based on the individual biomolecule study, a unique combination of biomolecules (UCM) was finalized using one way ANOVA analysis. With the addition of UCM as supplement to DMEM, meniscal cells reached 100 % confluency within 4 days in 60 mm culture plate; whereas the cells in medium devoid of UCM, required 36 days for reaching confluency. The impact of UCM on cell viability, doubling time, histology, gene expression, biomarkers expression, extra cellular matrix synthesis, meniscus cell proliferation with respect to passages and donor's age were investigated. The gene expression studies for E-cadherin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR∆) using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical analysis for Ki67, CD34 and Vimentin confirmed that UCM has significant impact on cell proliferation. The extracellular collagen and glycosaminoglycan secretion in cells supplemented with UCM were found to increase by 31 and 37 fold respectively, when compared to control on the 4th day. The cell doubling time was reduced significantly when supplemented with UCM. The addition of UCM showed positive influence on different passages and age groups. Hence, this optimized UCM can be used as an effective supplement for meniscal tissue engineering.

  16. Modulation of Sonic hedgehog-induced mouse embryonic stem cell behaviors through E-cadherin expression and Integrin β1-dependent F-actin formation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Young; Suh, Han Na; Choi, Gee Euhn; Lee, Hyun Jik; Jung, Young Hyun; Ko, So Hee; Kim, Jun Sung; Chae, Chang Woo; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Han, Ho Jae

    2018-06-22

    Sonic hedgehog pathway (Shh) plays a central role in maintaining stem cell function and behavior in various processes related to self-renewal and tissue regeneration. However, the therapeutic effect of Shh on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has not yet been clearly described. Thus, we investigated the effect of Shh on the regulation of mESC behaviors as well as the effect of Shh-pretreated mESCs in skin wound healing. The present study investigated the underlying mechanisms of Shh signaling pathway in growth and motility of mESCs using western blot analysis, cell proliferation assay, and cell migration assay. In addition, the effect of Shh-pretreated mESCs in skin wound healing was determined using mouse excisional wound splinting model. Shh induced adherens junction disruption through proteolysis by activating matrix metallopeptidases. In addition, the release of β-catenin from adherens junctions mediated by Shh led to cell cycle-dependent mESC proliferation. Shh-mediated Gli1 expression led to integrin β1 upregulation, followed by FAK and Src phosphorylation. Furthermore, among the Rho-GTPases, Rac1 and Cdc42 were activated in a Shh-dependent manner while F-actin expression was suppressed by Rac1 and Cdc42 siRNA transfection. Consistent with the in vitro results, skin wound healing assay revealed that Shh-treated mESCs induced angiogenesis and skin wound repair compared to that in Shh-treated mESCs transfected with integrin β1 siRNA in vivo. Our results imply that Shh induces adherens junction disruption and integrin β1-dependent F-actin formation involving FAK/Src and Rac1/Cdc42 signaling pathways in mESCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. E-cadherin determines Caveolin-1 tumor suppression or metastasis enhancing function in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lobos-González, L; Aguilar, L; Diaz, J; Diaz, N; Urra, H; Torres, V; Silva, V; Fitzpatrick, C; Lladser, A; Hoek, K.S.; Leyton, L; Quest, AFG

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The role of caveolin-1 (CAV1) in cancer is highly controversial. CAV1 suppresses genes that favor tumor development, yet also promotes focal adhesion turnover and migration of metastatic cells. How these contrasting observations relate to CAV1 function in vivo is unclear. Our previous studies implicate E-cadherin in CAV1-dependent tumor suppression. Here we use murine melanoma B16F10 cells, with low levels of endogenous CAV1 and E-cadherin, to unravel how CAV1 affects tumor growth and metastasis, and to assess how co-expression of E-cadherin modulates CAV1 function in vivo in C57BL/6 mice. We find that overexpression of CAV1 in B16F10(cav-1) cells reduces subcutaneous tumor formation, but enhances metastasis relative to control cells. Furthermore, E-cadherin expression in B16F10(E-cad) cells reduces subcutaneous tumor formation, and lung metastasis when intravenously injected. Importantly, co-expression of CAV1 and E-cadherin in B16F10(cav1/E-cad) cells abolishes tumor formation, lung metastasis, increased Rac-1 activity and cell migration observed with B16F10(cav-1) cells. Finally, consistent with the notion that CAV1 participates in switching human melanomas to a more malignant phenotype, elevated levels of CAV1 expression correlated with enhanced migration and Rac-1 activation in these cells. PMID:23470013

  18. Application of APTES-Anti-E-cadherin film for early cancer monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ben Ismail, Manel; Carreiras, Franck; Agniel, Rémy; Mili, Donia; Sboui, Dejla; Zanina, Nahla; Othmane, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Cancer staging is a way to classify cancer according to the extent of the disease in the body. The stage is usually determined by several factors such as the location of the primary tumor, the tumor size, the degree of spread in the surrounding tissues, etc. The study of E-cadherin (EC) expression on cancerous cells of patients has revealed variations in the molecular expression patterns of primary tumors and metastatic tumors. The detection of these cells requires a long procedure involving conventional techniques, thus, the requirement for development of new rapid devices that permit direct and highly sensitive detection stimulates the sensing field progress. Here, we explore if E-cadherin could be used as a biomarker to bind and detect epithelial cancer cells. Hence, the sensitive and specific detection of E-cadherin expressed on epithelial cells is approached by immobilizing anti-E-cadherin antibody (AEC) onto aminosilanized indium-tin oxide (ITO) surface. The immunosensing surfaces have been characterized by electrochemical measurements, wettability and confocal microscopy and their performance has been assessed in the presence of cancer cell lines. Under optimal conditions, the resulting immunosensor displayed a selective detection of E-cadherin expressing cells, which could be detected either by fluorescence or electrochemical techniques. The developed immunosensing surface could provide a simple tool that can be applied to cancer staging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Global methylation and promoter-specific methylation of the P16, SOCS-1, E-cadherin, P73 and SHP-1 genes and their expression in patients with multiple myeloma during active disease and remission.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Baños, Déborah; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz; Jiménez, Guadalupe; Barrera-Lumbreras, Georgina; Barrales-Benítez, Olga

    2017-05-01

    Tumor suppressor gene promoter CpG island methylation is a well-recognized mechanism in cancer pathogenesis, but its role in multiple myeloma (MM) is controversial. The present study investigated the methylation status and expression of P16 , suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 ( SOCS-1 ), P73, E-cadherin and Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 ( SHP-1 ), as well as global methylation in patients with MM during active disease and remission. Bone marrow samples were obtained from 43 patients at the Multiple Myeloma Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (Mexico City, Mexico) during active disease and remission. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and ELISA were performed on bisulfite-treated or untreated DNA to determine promoter-specific or genomic methylation, respectively. Gene expression was measured using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that SOCS-1 methylation occurred more frequently during active disease than remission [29 vs. 3.2% (P=0.021)] and was associated with more advanced forms of the disease [international staging system (ISS) 3, 16.67% vs. ISS 1, 8.3% (P=0.037)]. SHP-1 methylation during active disease was associated with a lower probability of survival at 39-month follow up (median), 52.5 vs. 87.5% (P=0.025). The percentage of methylation was associated with active disease at remission, but this was not significant. Global hypomethylation at remission was a negative predictor factor for overall survival (OS). The results indicated that methylated P16 , SOCS-1 and SHP-1 were associated with clinical variables of poor prognosis in MM, likewise the persistence of global hypomethylation at remission. The negative impact on OS of global hypomethylation at remission must be confirmed in a larger sample. Future studies are necessary to investigate whether patients with global hypermethylation at remission should receive more aggressive treatments to

  20. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and nuclear β-catenin induced by conditional intestinal disruption of Cdh1 with Apc is E-cadherin EC1 domain dependent

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Emma J.; Barnes, David; Hoppe, Hans-Jürgen; Hughes, Jennifer; Cobbold, Stephen; Harper, James; Morreau, Hans; Surakhy, Mirvat; Hassan, A. Bassim

    2016-01-01

    Two important protein-protein interactions establish E-cadherin (Cdh1) in the adhesion complex; homophilic binding via the extra-cellular (EC1) domain and cytoplasmic tail binding to β-catenin. Here, we evaluate whether E-cadherin binding can inhibit β-catenin when there is loss of Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) from the β-catenin destruction complex. Combined conditional loss of Cdh1 and Apc were generated in the intestine, intestinal adenoma and adenoma organoids. Combined intestinal disruption (Cdh1fl/flApcfl/flVil-CreERT2) resulted in lethality, breakdown of the intestinal barrier, increased Wnt target gene expression and increased nuclear β-catenin localization, suggesting that E-cadherin inhibits β-catenin. Combination with an intestinal stem cell Cre (Lgr5CreERT2) resulted in ApcΔ/Δ recombination and adenoma, but intact Cdh1fl/fl alleles. Cultured ApcΔ/ΔCdh1fl/fl adenoma cells infected with adenovirus-Cre induced Cdh1fl/fl recombination (Cdh1Δ/Δ), disruption of organoid morphology, nuclear β-catenin localization, and cells with an epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype. Complementation with adenovirus expressing wild-type Cdh1 (Cdh1-WT) rescued adhesion and β-catenin membrane localization, yet an EC1 specific double mutant defective in homophilic adhesion (Cdh1-MutW2A, S78W) did not. These data suggest that E-cadherin inhibits β-catenin in the context of disruption of the APC-destruction complex, and that this function is also EC1 domain dependent. Both binding functions of E-cadherin may be required for its tumour suppressor activity. PMID:27566565

  1. CpG site hypermethylation of E-cadherin and Connexin26 genes in hepatocellular carcinomas induced by a choline-deficient L-Amino Acid-defined diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Shimizu, Kyoko; Itsuzaki, Yumi; Onishi, Mariko; Sugata, Eriko; Fujii, Hiromasa; Honoki, Kanya

    2007-04-01

    We investigated DNA methylation patterns of E-cadherin and Connexin26 (Cx26) genes in rat hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) induced by a choline-deficient L-Amino Acid-defined (CDAA) diet. Six-wks-old F344 male rats were continuously fed with a CDAA diet for 75 wks, and were then killed. A total of five HCCs were obtained, and genomic DNA was extracted from each HCC for assessment of methylation status in the 5' upstream regions of E-cadherin and Cx26 genes by bisulfite sequencing, comparing to two normal liver tissues. The five HCCs showed highly methylated E-cadherin and Cx26 genes, while these genes in two normal liver tissues were all unmethylated. For analysis of gene expression, real-time quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. Expressions of E-cadherin and Cx26 genes were significantly reduced in the five HCCs (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively) compared to normal liver tissues, correlating with their methylation statuses. These results suggested that hypermethylation of E-cadherin and Cx26 genes may be involved in the development of HCCs induced by a CDAA diet in rats.

  2. E-cadherin and β-catenin adhesion proteins correlate positively with connexins in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    KANCZUGA-KODA, LUIZA; WINCEWICZ, ANDRZEJ; FUDALA, ANDRZEJ; ABRYCKI, TOMASZ; FAMULSKI, WALDEMAR; BALTAZIAK, MAREK; SULKOWSKI, STANISLAW; KODA, MARIUSZ

    2014-01-01

    The majority of solid cancers present with qualitative and quantitative aberrations of adhesion proteins, including E-cadherin and β-catenin, and connexin (Cx) gap junction proteins, which is consistent with alterations in the expression and location of such proteins in neoplastic cells. Since there are no data on the correlation between adhesion proteins and Cxs in human colorectal cancer (CRC), the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and correlation between these proteins. Tissue specimens were obtained from 151 cases of surgically removed colorectal adenocarcinomas. The samples were examined by immunohistochemistry with the use of antibodies against E-cadherin, β-catenin and the three Cxs: Cx26, Cx32 and Cx43. The aberrant expression of the studied adhesion proteins (primarily cytoplasmic for E-cadherin and cytoplasmic and/or nuclear for β-catenin) was observed, whereas only a minority of cases revealed normal membranous distribution of the labeling. The present study is the first in the literature to reveal a correlation between the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin and the examined Cxs in CRC in humans. The positive correlation between the Cxs, particularly Cx26 and Cx32, and the adhesive proteins occurred in patients without lymph node metastases and in the moderately differentiated tumors (G2). Such a dependency was not observed in the analysis of the correlation between Cx43 and E-cadherin. However, a positive correlation between these proteins was observed in patients with lymph nodes metastases. Additionally, a link between the expression of these adhesion proteins was observed. The present study indicates, for the first time, that the expression of adhesion proteins, E-cadherin and β-catenin, is closely associated with the expression of three studied Cxs in CRC, and that this correlation may improve an understanding of the carcinogenic process in this cancer. PMID:24932249

  3. Hypoxia induced E-cadherin involving regulators of Hippo pathway due to HIF-1α stabilization/nuclear translocation in bone metastasis from breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, Paola; Matteucci, Emanuela; Drago, Lorenzo

    The present study deals with the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of E-cadherin expression under hypoxia, because the adjustment of the amount of E-cadherin due to physical stimuli of the microenvironment might influence the colonization of metastasis to skeleton. We analyzed the effect of 1% oxygen tension, that is similar to that encountered in the bone marrow by metastatic cells spreading from breast carcinoma. The purpose was to evaluate the hypoxia-orchestrated control of E-cadherin transactivation via hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and the involvement of Hippo pathway members, as regulators of transcription factors. Tomore » give a translational significance to the study, we took into consideration human pair-matched ductal breast carcinoma and bone metastasis: E-cadherin and Wwox were expressed in bone metastasis but not in breast carcinoma, while HIF-1α and TAZ seemed localized principally in nuclei of metastasis and were found in all cell compartments of breast carcinoma. A close examination of the regulatory mechanisms underlying E-cadherin expression in bone metastasis was done in 1833 clone derived from MDA-MB231 cells. Hypoxia induced E-cadherin only in 1833 clone, but not in parental cells, through HIF-1 and PPARγ activities, while Wwox decreased. Since Wwox was highly expressed in bone metastasis, the effect of ectopic Wwox was evaluated, and we showed E-cadherin transactivation and enhanced invasiveness in WWOX transfected 1833 cells. Also, hypoxia was additive with ectopic Wwox remarkably enhancing HIF-1α nuclear shuttle and accumulation due to the lengthening of the half-life of HIF-1α protein; under this experimental condition HIF-1α appeared as a slower migrated band compared with control, in agreement with the phosphorylation state. The in vitro data strongly supported the almost exclusive presence of HIF-1α in nuclei of human-bone metastasis. Thus, we

  4. Preventing E-cadherin aberrant N-glycosylation at Asn-554 improves its critical function in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, S; Catarino, TA; Dias, AM; Kato, M; Almeida, A; Hessling, B; Figueiredo, J; Gärtner, F; Sanches, JM; Ruppert, T; Miyoshi, E; Pierce, M; Carneiro, F; Kolarich, D; Seruca, R; Yamaguchi, Y; Taniguchi, N; Reis, CA; Pinho, SS

    2016-01-01

    E-cadherin is a central molecule in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its posttranslational modifications by N-glycosylation have been described to induce a deleterious effect on cell adhesion associated with tumor cell invasion. However, the role that site-specific glycosylation of E-cadherin has in its defective function in gastric cancer cells needs to be determined. Using transgenic mice models and human clinical samples, we demonstrated that N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V)-mediated glycosylation causes an abnormal pattern of E-cadherin expression in the gastric mucosa. In vitro models further indicated that, among the four potential N-glycosylation sites of E-cadherin, Asn-554 is the key site that is selectively modified with β1,6 GlcNAc-branched N-glycans catalyzed by GnT-V. This aberrant glycan modification on this specific asparagine site of E-cadherin was demonstrated to affect its critical functions in gastric cancer cells by affecting E-cadherin cellular localization, cis-dimer formation, molecular assembly and stability of the adherens junctions and cell–cell aggregation, which was further observed in human gastric carcinomas. Interestingly, manipulating this site-specific glycosylation, by preventing Asn-554 from receiving the deleterious branched structures, either by a mutation or by silencing GnT-V, resulted in a protective effect on E-cadherin, precluding its functional dysregulation and contributing to tumor suppression. PMID:26189796

  5. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng-han; Harrison, Oliver J.; Song, Hang; Smith, Adam W.; Huang, William Y. C.; Lin, Wan-Chen; Guo, Zhenhuan; Padmanabhan, Anup; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.; Dustin, Michael L.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Groves, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell−cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (E-cad-ECD) in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest that the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role. PMID:26290581

  6. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    DOE PAGES

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng -han; ...

    2015-08-19

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell–cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest thatmore » the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role.« less

  7. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng -han

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell–cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest thatmore » the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role.« less

  8. Global methylation and promoter-specific methylation of the P16, SOCS-1, E-cadherin, P73 and SHP-1 genes and their expression in patients with multiple myeloma during active disease and remission

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Baños, Déborah; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz; Jiménez, Guadalupe; Barrera-Lumbreras, Georgina; Barrales-Benítez, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Tumor suppressor gene promoter CpG island methylation is a well-recognized mechanism in cancer pathogenesis, but its role in multiple myeloma (MM) is controversial. The present study investigated the methylation status and expression of P16, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1), P73, E-cadherin and Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), as well as global methylation in patients with MM during active disease and remission. Bone marrow samples were obtained from 43 patients at the Multiple Myeloma Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (Mexico City, Mexico) during active disease and remission. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and ELISA were performed on bisulfite-treated or untreated DNA to determine promoter-specific or genomic methylation, respectively. Gene expression was measured using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that SOCS-1 methylation occurred more frequently during active disease than remission [29 vs. 3.2% (P=0.021)] and was associated with more advanced forms of the disease [international staging system (ISS) 3, 16.67% vs. ISS 1, 8.3% (P=0.037)]. SHP-1 methylation during active disease was associated with a lower probability of survival at 39-month follow up (median), 52.5 vs. 87.5% (P=0.025). The percentage of methylation was associated with active disease at remission, but this was not significant. Global hypomethylation at remission was a negative predictor factor for overall survival (OS). The results indicated that methylated P16, SOCS-1 and SHP-1 were associated with clinical variables of poor prognosis in MM, likewise the persistence of global hypomethylation at remission. The negative impact on OS of global hypomethylation at remission must be confirmed in a larger sample. Future studies are necessary to investigate whether patients with global hypermethylation at remission should receive more aggressive treatments to

  9. Induction of E-cadherin in lung cancer and interaction with growth suppression by histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Chan, Daniel; Webster, Robin B; Kato, Harubumi; Drabkin, Harry A; Gemmill, Robert M

    2009-12-01

    Loss of E-cadherin confers a poor prognosis in lung cancer patients and is associated with in vitro resistance to endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors. Zinc finger E box-binding homeobox (ZEB)-1, the predominant transcriptional suppressor of E-cadherin in lung tumor lines, recruits histone deacetylases (HDACs) as co-repressors. NSCLC cell lines were treated with HDAC inhibitors and analyzed for E-cadherin induction, growth inhibition and apoptosis. National Cancer Institute-H157 cells expressing ectopic E-cadherin were tested for tumorigenicity in murine xenografts. We found that treatment with MS-275, compared to vorinostat (SAHA), valproic acid or trichostatin A, was most effective in E-cadherin up-regulation and persistence in non-small cell lung cancers. As with other tumor types and HDAC inhibitors, MS-275 inhibited growth and induced apoptosis. Importantly, blocking E-cadherin induction by short hairpin RNA resulted in less inhibition by MS-275, implicating the epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype process as a contributing factor. In contrast to H460 and H661, H157 cells were resistant to E-cadherin up-regulation by HDAC inhibitors. However, E-cadherin was restored, in a synergistic manner, by combined knockdown of ZEB-1 and ZEB-2. In addition, H157 cells stably transfected with E-cadherin were markedly attenuated in their tumor forming ability. Lastly, combining MS-275 with the microtubule stabilizing agent, paclitaxel, or 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, resulted in synergistic growth inhibition. Since MS-275 has no reported activity against HDAC6, which regulates both microtubule and heat shock protein 90 functions, other mechanisms of synergy are anticipated. These results support the role of ZEB proteins and HDAC inhibitors in the pathogenesis and treatment of lung cancer.

  10. Insulin/IGF-I Signaling Pathways Enhances Tumor Cell Invasion through Bisecting GlcNAc N-glycans Modulation. An Interplay with E-Cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Ana M.; Oliveira, Patrícia; Cabral, Joana; Seruca, Raquel; Oliveira, Carla; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Reis, Celso A.; Pinho, Salomé S.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in glycosylation are considered a hallmark of cancer, and one of the key targets of glycosylation modifications is E-cadherin. We and others have previously demonstrated that E-cadherin has a role in the regulation of bisecting GlcNAc N-glycans expression, remaining to be determined the E-cadherin-dependent signaling pathway involved in this N-glycans expression regulation. In this study, we analysed the impact of E-cadherin expression in the activation profile of receptor tyrosine kinases such as insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR). We demonstrated that exogenous E-cadherin expression inhibits IR, IGF-IR and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Stimulation with insulin and IGF-I in MDA-MD-435 cancer cells overexpressing E-cadherin induces a decrease of bisecting GlcNAc N-glycans that was accompanied with alterations on E-cadherin cellular localization. Concomitantly, IR/IGF-IR signaling activation induced a mesenchymal-like phenotype of cancer cells together with an increased tumor cell invasion capability. Altogether, these results demonstrate an interplay between E-cadherin and IR/IGF-IR signaling as major networking players in the regulation of bisecting N-glycans expression, with important effects in the modulation of epithelial characteristics and tumor cell invasion. Here we provide new insights into the role that Insulin/IGF-I signaling play during cancer progression through glycosylation modifications. PMID:24282611

  11. Prognostic value of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, CD44v6, and HER2/neu in metastatic cutaneous adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakova, Olga; Hoang, Mai M P; Dresser, Karen A; Mahalingam, Meera

    2009-08-01

    Our recent experience with a patient developing cutaneous metastases within 3 months of diagnosis of esophageal adenocarcinoma suggests that altered expression of the cellular adhesion molecules, E-cadherin and CD44v6, may have had a role to play in the rapid onset of metastases. To corroborate these findings, we designed a cross-sectional study to investigate the expression of select molecules involved in the metastatic cascade. E-cadherin, beta-catenin, CD44v6, and HER2/neu immunohistochemical stains were performed on archival materials of metastatic adenocarcinoma to the skin from 27 patients and the available corresponding primary tumors in 10 patients. The primary sites included breast (n = 10; 37%), gastrointestinal tract (n = 10; 37%), ovary (n = 1; 4%), thyroid (n = 2; 7%), lung (n = 1; 4%), and unknown primary (n = 3; 11%). Expression of all markers was noted with the most significant increases observed in beta-catenin (26 of 27 cases; 96%), followed by CD44v6 (24 of 27 cases; 89%), E-cadherin (22 of 27 cases; 82%), and HER2/neu (11 of 27 cases; 41%). Contrasting expression of these molecules in the primary versus the metastatic tumors, enhanced expression of CD44v6 was observed in the cutaneous metastases relative to the primary in 6 of 10 (60%) cases. Of interest, 2 of these 6 cases (33%) also showed reduction in E-cadherin--a member of the cadherin family functioning as an invasion suppressor molecule. These findings reinforce the complexities of the metastatic cascade and imply that the variation in adhesive properties of tumor cells is, perhaps, a consequence of the difference in density of the molecules mediating this process.

  12. Effects of CD44 and E-cadherin overexpression on the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Meiya; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Jin, Bohong; Zhang, Fubin; Zhu, Linyan; Cui, Lining

    2017-12-01

    CD44 is a prognostic indicator of shorter survival time in ovarian cancer. E-cadherin fragmentation promotes the progression of ovarian cancer. However, the effects of CD44 and E-cadherin overexpression on ovarian cancer cells have remained elusive. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin on cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin was achieved by transfecting SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells with viruses carrying the CD44 or E-cadherin gene, respectively. Expression of CD44 and E-cadherin was detected by western blot analysis. The proliferation of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was measured by a Cell Counting Kit-8 at 0, 24 and 48 h after viral transfection. The adhesion ability of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells to the endothelial layer was detected. A Transwell invasion assay was utilized to assess the invasion ability of the cells. Overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was confirmed by western blot. Compared with the blank or negative control groups, the CD44 overexpression groups of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells exhibited an increased cell proliferation rate at 24 and 48 h, whereas overexpression of E-cadherin did not alter the proliferation of these cells. Furthermore, compared with the blank and negative control groups, the cell adhesion and invasion ability in the CD44 overexpression groups of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was markedly higher. There were no significant differences in adhesion ability between the E-cadherin overexpression group and the blank/negative control group. Of note, overexpression of E-cadherin decreased the invasive ability of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. In conclusion, Overexpression of CD44 increased the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, while overexpression of E-cadherin decreased the invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

  13. Hyaluronan and Layilin Mediate Loss of Airway Epithelial Barrier Function Induced by Cigarette Smoke by Decreasing E-cadherin*

    PubMed Central

    Forteza, Rosanna Malbran; Casalino-Matsuda, S. Marina; Falcon, Nieves S.; Valencia Gattas, Monica; Monzon, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CigS) exposure is associated with increased bronchial epithelial permeability and impaired barrier function. Primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to CigS exhibit decreased E-cadherin expression and reduced transepithelial electrical resistance. These effects were mediated by hyaluronan (HA) because inhibition of its synthesis with 4-methylumbelliferone prevented these effects, and exposure to HA fragments of <70 kDa mimicked these effects. We show that the HA receptor layilin is expressed apically in human airway epithelium and that cells infected with lentivirus expressing layilin siRNAs were protected against increased permeability triggered by both CigS and HA. We identified RhoA/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) as the signaling effectors downstream layilin. We conclude that HA fragments generated by CigS bind to layilin and signal through Rho/ROCK to inhibit the E-cadherin gene and protein expression, leading to a loss of epithelial cell-cell contact. These studies suggest that HA functions as a master switch protecting or disrupting the epithelial barrier in its high versus low molecular weight form and that its depolymerization is a first and necessary step triggering the inflammatory response to CigS. PMID:23048036

  14. The Integrated Role of Wnt/β-Catenin, N-Glycosylation, and E-Cadherin-Mediated Adhesion in Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Diego A.; Sun, Meng; Sadykov, Khikmet; Kukuruzinska, Maria A.; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2016-01-01

    The cellular network composed of the evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathways of protein N-glycosylation, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion plays pivotal roles in determining the balance between cell proliferation and intercellular adhesion during development and in maintaining homeostasis in differentiated tissues. These pathways share a highly conserved regulatory molecule, β-catenin, which functions as both a structural component of E-cadherin junctions and as a co-transcriptional activator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, whose target is the N-glycosylation-regulating gene, DPAGT1. Whereas these pathways have been studied independently, little is known about the dynamics of their interaction. Here we present the first numerical model of this network in MDCK cells. Since the network comprises a large number of molecules with varying cell context and time-dependent levels of expression, it can give rise to a wide range of plausible cellular states that are difficult to track. Using known kinetic parameters for individual reactions in the component pathways, we have developed a theoretical framework and gained new insights into cellular regulation of the network. Specifically, we developed a mathematical model to quantify the fold-change in concentration of any molecule included in the mathematical representation of the network in response to a simulated activation of the Wnt/ β-catenin pathway with Wnt3a under different conditions. We quantified the importance of protein N-glycosylation and synthesis of the DPAGT1 encoded enzyme, GPT, in determining the abundance of cytoplasmic β-catenin. We confirmed the role of axin in β-catenin degradation. Finally, our data suggest that cell-cell adhesion is insensitive to E-cadherin recycling in the cell. We validate the model by inhibiting β-catenin-mediated activation of DPAGT1 expression and predicting changes in cytoplasmic β-catenin concentration and stability

  15. E-cadherin interactions regulate beta-cell proliferation in islet-like structures.

    PubMed

    Carvell, Melanie J; Marsh, Phil J; Persaud, Shanta J; Jones, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Islet function is dependent on cells within the islet interacting with each other. E-cadherin (ECAD) mediates Ca(2+)-dependent homophilic cell adhesion between b-cells within islets and has been identified as a tumour suppressor. We generated clones of the MIN6 beta-cell line that stably over- (S) and under-express (alphaS) ECAD. Modified expression of ECAD was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Preproinsulin mRNA, insulin content and basal rates of insulin secretion were higher in S cells compared to aS and control (V) cells. However, stimulated insulin secretory responses were unaffected by ECAD expression levels. ECAD expression did affect proliferation, with enhanced ECAD expression being associated with reduced proliferation and vice versa. Formation of islet-like structures was associated with a significant reduction in proliferation of V and S cells but not alphaS cells. These data suggest that ECAD expression levels do not modulate insulin secretory function but are consistent with a role for ECAD in the regulation of beta-cell proliferation. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Single molecule imaging of green fluorescent proteins in living cells: E-cadherin forms oligomers on the free cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Iino, R; Koyama, I; Kusumi, A

    2001-01-01

    Single green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules were successfully imaged for the first time in living cells. GFP linked to the cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus of E-cadherin (E-cad-GFP) was expressed in mouse fibroblast L cells, and observed using an objective-type total internal reflection fluorescence microscope. Based on the fluorescence intensity of individual fluorescent spots, the majority of E-cad-GFP molecules on the free cell surface were found to be oligomers of various sizes, many of them greater than dimers, suggesting that oligomerization of E-cadherin takes place before its assembly at cell-cell adhesion sites. The translational diffusion coefficient of E-cad-GFP is reduced by a factor of 10 to 40 upon oligomerization. Because such large decreases in translational mobility cannot be explained solely by increases in radius upon oligomerization, an oligomerization-induced trapping model is proposed in which, when oligomers are formed, they are trapped in place due to greatly enhanced tethering and corralling effects of the membrane skeleton on oligomers (compared with monomers). The presence of many oligomers greater than dimers on the free surface suggests that these greater oligomers are the basic building blocks for the two-dimensional cell adhesion structures (adherens junctions). PMID:11371443

  17. O-mannosylation and N-glycosylation: two coordinated mechanisms regulating the tumour suppressor functions of E-cadherin in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Markus F.; Miyoshi, Eiji; Pierce, Michael; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Carneiro, Fátima; Seruca, Raquel; Reis, Celso A.; Strahl, Sabine; Pinho, Salomé S.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of tumor suppressor protein E-cadherin is an early molecular event in cancer. O-mannosylation profile of E-cadherin is a newly-described post-translational modification crucial for its adhesive functions in homeostasis. However, the role of O-mannosyl glycans in E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion in cancer and their interplay with N-glycans remains largely unknown. We herein demonstrated that human gastric carcinomas exhibiting a non-functional E-cadherin display a reduced expression of O-mannosyl glycans concomitantly with increased modification with branched complex N-glycans. Accordingly, overexpression of MGAT5-mediated branched N-glycans both in gastric cancer cells and transgenic mice models led to a significant decrease of O-mannosyl glycans attached to E-cadherin that was associated with impairment of its tumour suppressive functions. Importantly, overexpression of protein O-mannosyltransferase 2 (POMT2) induced a reduced expression of branched N-glycans which led to a protective effect of E-cadherin biological functions. Overall, our results reveal a newly identified mechanism of (dys)regulation of E-cadherin that occur through the interplay between O-mannosylation and N-glycosylation pathway. PMID:27533452

  18. An SPR based immunoassay for the sensitive detection of the soluble epithelial marker E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Daniele; Bianco, Monica; Pagano, Rosanna; Priore, Paola; Lunetti, Paola; Guerra, Flora; Bettini, Simona; Carallo, Sonia; Zizzari, Alessandra; Pitotti, Elena; Giotta, Livia; Capobianco, Loredana; Bucci, Cecilia; Valli, Ludovico; Maffia, Michele; Arima, Valentina; Gaballo, Antonio

    2018-06-11

    Protein biomarkers are important diagnostic tools for cancer and several other diseases. To be validated in a clinical context, a biomarker should satisfy some requirements including the ability to provide reliable information on a pathological state by measuring its expression levels. In parallel, the development of an approach capable of detecting biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity would be ideally suited for clinical applications. Here, we performed an immune-based label free assay using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based detection of the soluble form of E-cadherin, a cell-cell contact protein that is involved in the maintaining of tissue integrity. With this approach, we obtained a specific and quantitative detection of E-cadherin from a few hundred μl of serum of breast cancer patients by obtaining a 10-fold enhancement in the detection limit over a traditional colorimetric ELISA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Junctional E-cadherin/p120-catenin Is Correlated with the Absence of Supporting Cells to Hair Cells Conversion in Postnatal Mice Cochleae.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen-Wei; Wang, Xin-Wei; Ma, Rui; Chi, Fang-Lu; Chen, Ping; Cong, Ning; Gu, Yu-Yan; Ren, Dong-Dong; Yang, Juan-Mei

    2018-01-01

    Notch inhibition is known to generate supernumerary hair cells (HCs) at the expense of supporting cells (SCs) in the mammalian inner ear. However, inhibition of Notch activity becomes progressively less effective at inducing SC-to-HC conversion in the postnatal cochlea and balance organs as the animal ages. It has been suggested that the SC-to-HC conversion capacity is inversely correlated with E-cadherin accumulation in postnatal mammalian utricles. However, whether E-cadherin localization is linked to the SC-to-HC conversion capacity in the mammalian inner ear is poorly understood. In the present study, we treated cochleae from postnatal day 0 (P0) with the Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT and observed apparent SC-to-HC conversion along with E-cadherin/p120ctn disruption in the sensory region. In addition, the SC-to-HC conversion capacity and E-cadherin/p120ctn disorganization were robust in the apex but decreased toward the base. We further demonstrated that the ability to regenerate HCs and the disruption of E-cadherin/p120ctn concomitantly decreased with age and ceased at P7, even after extended DAPT treatments. This timing is consistent with E-cadherin/p120ctn accumulation in the postnatal cochleae. These results suggest that the decreasing capacity of SCs to transdifferentiate into HCs correlates with E-cadherin/p120ctn localization in the postnatal cochleae, which might account for the absence of SC-to-HC conversion in the mammalian cochlea.

  20. Correlation between E-cadherin-regulated cell adhesion and human osteosarcoma MG-63 cell anoikis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ding-Sheng; Cai, Le-Yi; Ding, Jian; Gao, Wei-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cell adhesion and anoikis evasion among human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63), and to further study the molecular mechanisms. Human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63) were assessed for apoptosis, and caspase-3, E-cadherin and β-catenin expression in EDTA and control non-EDTA groups. MG-63 cells were predominantly aggregated when in suspension, and the suspended cells were more dispersed in the EDTA group. Following culture in suspension for 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h, the rates of apoptosis were 34.88%±3.64%, 59.3%±7.22% and 78.5%±5.21% in the experimental group and 7.34%±2.13%, 14.7%±3.69%, and 21.4%±3.60% in the control group, respectively. Caspase-3 expression progressively increased and E-cadherin and β-catenin were decreased in the experimental group, whereas there was no change in the control group. MG-63 cells could avoid anoikis through cell adhesion, and E-cadherin might play a role in this process.

  1. E-cadherin genetic variants predict survival outcome in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Memni, Hager; Macherki, Yosra; Klayech, Zahra; Ben-Haj-Ayed, Ahlem; Farhat, Karim; Remadi, Yassmine; Gabbouj, Sallouha; Mahfoudh, Wijden; Bouzid, Nadia; Bouaouina, Noureddine; Chouchane, Lotfi; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Hassen, Elham

    2016-11-16

    E-cadherin is a major component of adherens junctions that regulates cell shape and maintains tissue integrity. A complete loss or any decrease in cell surface expression of E-cadherin will interfere with the cell-to-cell junctions' strength and leads to cell detachment and escape from the primary tumor site. In this prospective study, three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (-347G/GA, rs5030625; -160C/A, rs16260; +54C/T, rs1801026), were found to modulate E-cadherin expression. 577 DNA samples from breast cancer (BC) cases were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). We detected no significant correlations between each polymorphism and the clinical parameters of the patients whereas the GACC haplotype was significantly associated with low SBR grading. Overall survival analysis showed that both -347G/G and +54C/C wild (wt) genotypes had a significantly worse effect compared to the other genotypes (non-wt). Moreover, carrying simultaneously both the -347 and +54 wt genotypes confers a significantly higher risk of death. However, with metastatic recurrence, the death-rate was null in patients carrying the non-wt genotypes, and attained 37% in those carrying the wt genotype. A multivariate analysis showed that these two polymorphisms are independent prognostic factors for overall survival in BC patients. Our results support the fact that E-cadherin genetic variants control disease severity and progression and could be a marker of disease outcome. These findings could be useful in selecting patients that should be monitored differently.

  2. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 Restores intestinal Barrier Integrity by Regulation of E-cadherin Recycling.

    PubMed

    Terciolo, Chloé; Dobric, Aurélie; Ouaissi, Mehdi; Siret, Carole; Breuzard, Gilles; Silvy, Françoise; Marchiori, Bastien; Germain, Sébastien; Bonier, Renaté; Hama, Adel; Owens, Roisin; Lombardo, Dominique; Rigot, Véronique; André, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Alteration in intestinal permeability is the main factor underlying the pathogenesis of many diseases affecting the gut, such as inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Characterization of molecules targeting the restoration of intestinal barrier integrity is therefore vital for the development of alternative therapies. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 [Sb], used to prevent and treat antibiotic-associated infectious and functional diarrhea, may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of IBD. We analyzed the impact of Sb supernatant on tissue integrity and components of adherens junctions using cultured explants of colon from both IBD and healthy patients. To evaluate the pathways by which Sb regulates the expression of E-cadherin at the cell surface, we developed in vitro assays using human colonic cell lines, including cell aggregation, a calcium switch assay, real-time measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance [TEER] and pulse-chase experiments. We showed that Sb supernatant treatment of colonic explants protects the epithelial morphology and maintains E-cadherin expression at the cell surface. In vitro experiments revealed that Sb supernatant enhances E-cadherin delivery to the cell surface by re-routing endocytosed E-cadherin back to the plasma membrane. This process, involving Rab11A-dependent recycling endosome, leads to restoration of enterocyte adherens junctions, in addition to the overall restoration and strengthening of intestinal barrier function. These findings open new possibilities of discovering novel options for prevention and therapy of diseases that affect intestinal permeability. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Synthetic Lethal Screens Identify Vulnerabilities in GPCR Signaling and Cytoskeletal Organization in E-Cadherin-Deficient Cells.

    PubMed

    Telford, Bryony J; Chen, Augustine; Beetham, Henry; Frick, James; Brew, Tom P; Gould, Cathryn M; Single, Andrew; Godwin, Tanis; Simpson, Kaylene J; Guilford, Parry

    2015-05-01

    The CDH1 gene, which encodes the cell-to-cell adhesion protein E-cadherin, is frequently mutated in lobular breast cancer (LBC) and diffuse gastric cancer (DGC). However, because E-cadherin is a tumor suppressor protein and lost from the cancer cell, it is not a conventional drug target. To overcome this, we have taken a synthetic lethal approach to determine whether the loss of E-cadherin creates druggable vulnerabilities. We first conducted a genome-wide siRNA screen of isogenic MCF10A cells with and without CDH1 expression. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated that G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling proteins were highly enriched among the synthetic lethal candidates. Diverse families of cytoskeletal proteins were also frequently represented. These broad classes of E-cadherin synthetic lethal hits were validated using both lentiviral-mediated shRNA knockdown and specific antagonists, including the JAK inhibitor LY2784544, Pertussis toxin, and the aurora kinase inhibitors alisertib and danusertib. Next, we conducted a 4,057 known drug screen and time course studies on the CDH1 isogenic MCF10A cell lines and identified additional drug classes with linkages to GPCR signaling and cytoskeletal function that showed evidence of E-cadherin synthetic lethality. These included multiple histone deacetylase inhibitors, including vorinostat and entinostat, PI3K inhibitors, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitors crizotinib and saracatinib. Together, these results demonstrate that E-cadherin loss creates druggable vulnerabilities that have the potential to improve the management of both sporadic and familial LBC and DGC. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Cooperativity of E-cadherin and Smad4 loss to promote diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Won; Jang, Seok Hoon; Park, Dong Min; Lim, Na Jung; Deng, Chuxia; Kim, Dae Yong; Green, Jeffrey E; Kim, Hark Kyun

    2014-08-01

    Loss of E-cadherin (CDH1), Smad4, and p53 has been shown to play an integral role in gastric, intestinal, and breast cancer formation. Compound conditional knockout mice for Smad4, p53, and E-cadherin were generated to define and compare the roles of these genes in gastric, intestinal, and breast cancer development by crossing with Pdx-1-Cre, Villin-Cre, and MMTV-Cre transgenic mice. Interestingly, gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly more frequent in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice than in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(+/+) mice, demonstrating that Cdh1 heterozygosity accelerates the development and progression of gastric adenocarcinoma, in combination with loss of Smad4 and p53. Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice developed gastric adenocarcinomas without E-cadherin expression. However, intestinal and mammary adenocarcinomas with the same genetic background retained E-cadherin expression and were phenotypically similar to mice with both wild-type Cdh1 alleles. Lung metastases were identified in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice, but not in the other genotypes. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation was identified at the invasive tumor front of gastric adenocarcinomas arising in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice. This phenotype was less prominent in mice with intact E-cadherin or Smad4, indicating that the inhibition of β-catenin signaling by E-cadherin or Smad4 downregulates signaling pathways involved in metastases in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice. Knockdown of β-catenin significantly inhibited the migratory activity of Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) cell lines. Thus, loss of E-cadherin and Smad4 cooperates with p53 loss to promote the development and metastatic progression of gastric adenocarcinomas, with similarities to human gastric adenocarcinoma. This study demonstrates that inhibition of β-catenin is a converging node for the antimetastatic signaling

  5. Epithelial self-healing is recapitulated by a 3D biomimetic E-cadherin junction.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Daniel J; Gloerich, Martijn; Nelson, W James

    2016-12-20

    Epithelial monolayers undergo self-healing when wounded. During healing, cells collectively migrate into the wound site, and the converging tissue fronts collide and form a stable interface. To heal, migrating tissues must form cell-cell adhesions and reorganize from the front-rear polarity characteristic of cell migration to the apical-basal polarity of an epithelium. However, identifying the "stop signal" that induces colliding tissues to cease migrating and heal remains an open question. Epithelial cells form integrin-based adhesions to the basal extracellular matrix (ECM) and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesions on the orthogonal, lateral surfaces between cells. Current biological tools have been unable to probe this multicellular 3D interface to determine the stop signal. We addressed this problem by developing a unique biointerface that mimicked the 3D organization of epithelial cell adhesions. This "minimal tissue mimic" (MTM) comprised a basal ECM substrate and a vertical surface coated with purified extracellular domain of E-cadherin, and was designed for collision with the healing edge of an epithelial monolayer. Three-dimensional imaging showed that adhesions formed between cells, and the E-cadherin-coated MTM resembled the morphology and dynamics of native epithelial cell-cell junctions and induced the same polarity transition that occurs during epithelial self-healing. These results indicate that E-cadherin presented in the proper 3D context constitutes a minimum essential stop signal to induce self-healing. That the Ecad:Fc MTM stably integrated into an epithelial tissue and reduced migration at the interface suggests that this biointerface is a complimentary approach to existing tissue-material interfaces.

  6. Normal Fibroblasts Induce E-Cadherin Loss and Increase Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen; Hu, Xinlei; Chen, Zhongting; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chenjing; Wang, Gang; Chen, Yu; Zhou, Xinglu; Tang, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Laisheng; Xu, Xiang; Pan, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Background A tumor is considered a heterogeneous complex in a three-dimensional environment that is flush with pathophysiological and biomechanical signals. Cell-stroma interactions guide the development and generation of tumors. Here, we evaluate the contributions of normal fibroblasts to gastric cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings By coculturing normal fibroblasts in monolayers of BGC-823 gastric cancer cells, tumor cells sporadically developed short, spindle-like morphological characteristics and demonstrated enhanced proliferation and invasive potential. Furthermore, the transformed tumor cells demonstrated decreased tumor formation and increased lymphomatic and intestinal metastatic potential. Non-transformed BGC-823 cells, in contrast, demonstrated primary tumor formation and delayed intestinal and lymph node invasion. We also observed E-cadherin loss and the upregulation of vimentin expression in the transformed tumor cells, which suggested that the increase in metastasis was induced by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Conclusion Collectively, our data indicated that normal fibroblasts sufficiently induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells, thereby leading to metastasis. PMID:24845259

  7. Down-regulation of E-cadherin and catenins in human pituitary growth hormone-producing adenomas.

    PubMed

    Sano, Toshiaki; Rong, Qian Zhi; Kagawa, Noriko; Yamada, Shozo

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenomas can be ultrastructurally divided into two major types: densely granulated and sparsely granulated. The latter type of adenoma characteristically exhibits globular accumulations of cytokeratin filaments known as fibrous bodies, which are immunohistochemically identifiable as juxtanuclear dot-like immunoreactivity. We hypothesize that the formation of fibrous body might be related to dysfunction of adhesion molecules, because of the functional relationship between intermediate filaments and the cadherin-catenin complex and frequent observation of loss of cohesiveness of the adenoma cells. Our recent immunohistochemical study showed that expression of E-cadherin and its undercoat proteins, alpha-, beta- and gamma-catenin, in GH cell adenomas with prominent fibrous bodies was significantly reduced compared with GH cell adenomas without fibrous bodies and the normal adenohypophysial cells. Although no mutation of exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene was found in any GH cell adenomas with fibrous bodies, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the E-cadherin promoter region was methylated in 37.5% of these adenomas, two of which displayed total methylation, but not in GH cell adenomas without fibrous bodies. We conclude that the decreased expression of the E-cadherin-catenin complex and methylation of the E-cadherin gene promoter region are events associated with the formation of fibrous bodies in GH cell adenomas. It remains to be clarified to explain the mechanism by which down-regulation of adhesion molecules is involved in the abnormal assembly of intermediate filaments.

  8. Changes in E-cadherin rigidity sensing regulate cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Collins, Caitlin; Denisin, Aleksandra K; Pruitt, Beth L; Nelson, W James

    2017-07-18

    Mechanical cues are sensed and transduced by cell adhesion complexes to regulate diverse cell behaviors. Extracellular matrix (ECM) rigidity sensing by integrin adhesions has been well studied, but rigidity sensing by cadherins during cell adhesion is largely unexplored. Using mechanically tunable polyacrylamide (PA) gels functionalized with the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (Ecad-Fc), we showed that E-cadherin-dependent epithelial cell adhesion was sensitive to changes in PA gel elastic modulus that produced striking differences in cell morphology, actin organization, and membrane dynamics. Traction force microscopy (TFM) revealed that cells produced the greatest tractions at the cell periphery, where distinct types of actin-based membrane protrusions formed. Cells responded to substrate rigidity by reorganizing the distribution and size of high-traction-stress regions at the cell periphery. Differences in adhesion and protrusion dynamics were mediated by balancing the activities of specific signaling molecules. Cell adhesion to a 30-kPa Ecad-Fc PA gel required Cdc42- and formin-dependent filopodia formation, whereas adhesion to a 60-kPa Ecad-Fc PA gel induced Arp2/3-dependent lamellipodial protrusions. A quantitative 3D cell-cell adhesion assay and live cell imaging of cell-cell contact formation revealed that inhibition of Cdc42, formin, and Arp2/3 activities blocked the initiation, but not the maintenance of established cell-cell adhesions. These results indicate that the same signaling molecules activated by E-cadherin rigidity sensing on PA gels contribute to actin organization and membrane dynamics during cell-cell adhesion. We hypothesize that a transition in the stiffness of E-cadherin homotypic interactions regulates actin and membrane dynamics during initial stages of cell-cell adhesion.

  9. E-Cadherin/β-Catenin Complex: A Target for Anticancer and Antimetastasis Plants/Plant-derived Compounds.

    PubMed

    Tafrihi, Majid; Nakhaei Sistani, Roohollah

    2017-07-01

    Plants reputed to have cancer-inhibiting potential and putative active components derived from those plants have emerged as an exciting new field in cancer study. Some of these compounds have cancer-inhibiting potential in different clinical staging levels, especially metastasis. A few of them which stabilize cell-cell adhesions are controversial topics. This review article introduces some effective herbal compounds that target E-cadherin/β-catenin protein complex. In this article, at first, we briefly review the structure and function of E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins, Wnt signaling pathway, and its target genes. Then, effective compounds of the Teucrium persicum, Teucrium polium, Allium sativum (garlic), Glycine max (soy), and Brassica oleracea (broccoli) plants, which influence stability and cellular localization of E-cadherin/β-catenin complex, were studied. Based on literature review, there are some compounds in these plants, including genistein of soy, sulforaphane of broccoli, organosulfur compounds of garlic, and the total extract of Teucrium genus that change the expression of variety of Wnt target genes such as MMPs, E-cadherin, p21, p53, c-myc, and cyclin D1. So they may induce cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis and/or inhibition of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and metastasis.

  10. Nickel-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and E-cadherin Promoter Hypermethylation*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Hsien; Tang, Sheau-Chung; Wang, Po-Hui; Lee, Huei; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered a critical event in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and tumor metastasis. During EMT, the expression of differentiation markers switches from cell-cell junction proteins such as E-cadherin to mesenchymal markers such as fibronectin. Although nickel-containing compounds have been shown to be associated with lung carcinogenesis, the role of nickel in the EMT process in bronchial epithelial cells is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine whether nickel contributes to EMT in human bronchial epithelial cells. We also attempted to clarify the mechanisms involved in NiCl2-induced EMT. Our results showed that NiCl2 induced EMT phenotype marker alterations such as up-regulation of fibronectin and down-regulation of E-cadherin. In addition, the potent antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked EMT and expression of HIF-1α induced by NiCl2, whereas the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored the down-regulation of E-cadherin induced by NiCl2. Promoter hypermethylation of E-cadherin, determined by quantitative real time methyl-specific PCR and bisulfate sequencing, was also induced by NiCl2. These results shed new light on the contribution of NiCl2 to carcinogenesis. Specifically, NiCl2 induces down-regulation of E-cadherin by reactive oxygen species generation and promoter hypermethylation. This study demonstrates for the first time that nickel induces EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:22648416

  11. The Anoikis Effector Bit1 Inhibits EMT through Attenuation of TLE1-Mediated Repression of E-Cadherin in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xin; Pham, Tri; Temple, Brandi; Gray, Selena; Cannon, Cornita; Chen, Renwei; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Biliran, Hector

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial Bcl-2 inhibitor of transcription 1 (Bit1) protein is part of an anoikis-regulating pathway that is selectively dependent on integrins. We previously demonstrated that the caspase-independent apoptotic effector Bit1 exerts tumor suppressive function in lung cancer in part by inhibiting anoikis resistance and anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Herein we show a novel function of Bit1 as an inhibitor cell migration and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line. Suppression of endogenous Bit1 expression via siRNA and shRNA strategies promoted mesenchymal phenotypes, including enhanced fibroblastoid morphology and cell migratory potential with concomitant downregulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin expression. Conversely, ectopic Bit1 expression in A549 cells promoted epithelial transition characterized by cuboidal-like epithelial cell phenotype, reduced cell motility, and upregulated E-cadherin expression. Specific downregulation of E-cadherin in Bit1-transfected cells was sufficient to block Bit1-mediated inhibition of cell motility while forced expression of E-cadherin alone attenuated the enhanced migration of Bit1 knockdown cells, indicating that E-cadherin is a downstream target of Bit1 in regulating cell motility. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR and reporter analyses revealed that Bit1 upregulates E-cadherin expression at the transcriptional level through the transcriptional regulator Amino-terminal Enhancer of Split (AES) protein. Importantly, the Bit1/AES pathway induction of E-cadherin expression involves inhibition of the TLE1-mediated repression of E-cadherin, by decreasing TLE1 corepressor occupancy at the E-cadherin promoter as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Consistent with its EMT inhibitory function, exogenous Bit1 expression significantly suppressed the formation of lung metastases of A549 cells in an in vivo experimental

  12. Changes in E-cadherin rigidity sensing regulate cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Caitlin; Pruitt, Beth L.; Nelson, W. James

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical cues are sensed and transduced by cell adhesion complexes to regulate diverse cell behaviors. Extracellular matrix (ECM) rigidity sensing by integrin adhesions has been well studied, but rigidity sensing by cadherins during cell adhesion is largely unexplored. Using mechanically tunable polyacrylamide (PA) gels functionalized with the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (Ecad-Fc), we showed that E-cadherin–dependent epithelial cell adhesion was sensitive to changes in PA gel elastic modulus that produced striking differences in cell morphology, actin organization, and membrane dynamics. Traction force microscopy (TFM) revealed that cells produced the greatest tractions at the cell periphery, where distinct types of actin-based membrane protrusions formed. Cells responded to substrate rigidity by reorganizing the distribution and size of high-traction-stress regions at the cell periphery. Differences in adhesion and protrusion dynamics were mediated by balancing the activities of specific signaling molecules. Cell adhesion to a 30-kPa Ecad-Fc PA gel required Cdc42- and formin-dependent filopodia formation, whereas adhesion to a 60-kPa Ecad-Fc PA gel induced Arp2/3-dependent lamellipodial protrusions. A quantitative 3D cell–cell adhesion assay and live cell imaging of cell–cell contact formation revealed that inhibition of Cdc42, formin, and Arp2/3 activities blocked the initiation, but not the maintenance of established cell–cell adhesions. These results indicate that the same signaling molecules activated by E-cadherin rigidity sensing on PA gels contribute to actin organization and membrane dynamics during cell–cell adhesion. We hypothesize that a transition in the stiffness of E-cadherin homotypic interactions regulates actin and membrane dynamics during initial stages of cell–cell adhesion. PMID:28674019

  13. Rab11 in Recycling Endosomes Regulates the Sorting and Basolateral Transport of E-CadherinV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lock, John G.; Stow, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    E-cadherin plays an essential role in cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion; however, the pathway for delivery of E-cadherin to the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells has not been fully characterized. We first traced the post-Golgi, exocytic transport of GFP-tagged E-cadherin (Ecad-GFP) in unpolarized cells. In live cells, Ecad-GFP was found to exit the Golgi complex in pleiomorphic tubulovesicular carriers, which, instead of moving directly to the cell surface, most frequently fused with an intermediate compartment, subsequently identified as a Rab11-positive recycling endosome. In MDCK cells, basolateral targeting of E-cadherin relies on a dileucine motif. Both E-cadherin and a targeting mutant, ΔS1-E-cadherin, colocalized with Rab11 and fused with the recycling endosome before diverging to basolateral or apical membranes, respectively. In polarized and unpolarized cells, coexpression of Rab11 mutants disrupted the cell surface delivery of E-cadherin and caused its mistargeting to the apical membrane, whereas apical ΔS1-E-cadherin was unaffected. We thus demonstrate a novel pathway for Rab11 dependent, dileucine-mediated, μ1B-independent sorting and basolateral trafficking, exemplified by E-cadherin. The recycling endosome is identified as an intermediate compartment for the post-Golgi trafficking and exocytosis of E-cadherin, with a potentially important role in establishing and maintaining cadherin-based adhesion. PMID:15689490

  14. Epithelial self-healing is recapitulated by a 3D biomimetic E-cadherin junction

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel J.; Gloerich, Martijn; Nelson, W. James

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial monolayers undergo self-healing when wounded. During healing, cells collectively migrate into the wound site, and the converging tissue fronts collide and form a stable interface. To heal, migrating tissues must form cell–cell adhesions and reorganize from the front-rear polarity characteristic of cell migration to the apical-basal polarity of an epithelium. However, identifying the "stop signal" that induces colliding tissues to cease migrating and heal remains an open question. Epithelial cells form integrin-based adhesions to the basal extracellular matrix (ECM) and E-cadherin–mediated cell–cell adhesions on the orthogonal, lateral surfaces between cells. Current biological tools have been unable to probe this multicellular 3D interface to determine the stop signal. We addressed this problem by developing a unique biointerface that mimicked the 3D organization of epithelial cell adhesions. This "minimal tissue mimic" (MTM) comprised a basal ECM substrate and a vertical surface coated with purified extracellular domain of E-cadherin, and was designed for collision with the healing edge of an epithelial monolayer. Three-dimensional imaging showed that adhesions formed between cells, and the E-cadherin-coated MTM resembled the morphology and dynamics of native epithelial cell–cell junctions and induced the same polarity transition that occurs during epithelial self-healing. These results indicate that E-cadherin presented in the proper 3D context constitutes a minimum essential stop signal to induce self-healing. That the Ecad:Fc MTM stably integrated into an epithelial tissue and reduced migration at the interface suggests that this biointerface is a complimentary approach to existing tissue–material interfaces. PMID:27930308

  15. Fragments of e-Cadherin as Biomarkers of Non-erosive Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Jovov, Biljana; Reed, Craig C; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Pruitt, Amy; Ferrell, Kathleen; Orlando, Geraldine S; Djukic, Zorka; Orlando, Roy C

    2018-03-01

    Approximately, 20% of patients with heartburn and normal endoscopic findings do not symptomatically improve on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy making diagnosis and treatment uncertain. A biomarker distinguishing PPI-responsive from PPI-refractory heartburn is desirable. We performed a pilot study assessing whether carboxy(C)-terminal fragments (CTFs) of e-cadherin in esophageal biopsies or amino(N)-terminal fragments (NTFs) of e-cadherin in serum could serve this purpose. Twenty-nine patients with endoscopy-negative heartburn had esophageal biopsies for CTFs on Western blot and blood for serum NTFs on ELISA. All patients received dexlansoprazole 30 mg daily for 4 weeks, and heartburn was assessed by daily diary entry. Post-treatment blood samples were obtained for serum NTFs. A control group without GERD symptoms (n = 6) had biopsies for CTFs and a second control group (n = 20) blood serum for serum NTFs. Twenty-seven of 29 patients (93.1%) with endoscopy-negative heartburn, but 0 of 6 controls, were positive for CTFs. All patients and controls had measureable serum NTFs, but mean NTFs were significantly higher in those with PPI-responsive heartburn compared to those with PPI-refractory heartburn and controls. Following treatment, 24 of 29 (82.8) patients had relief of heartburn, which associated with a decline in mean NTFs compared to controls. NTFs in PPI-refractory patients (n = 5) were similar to controls before and after PPI therapy. When heartburn responds to PPI, elevated serum NTFs decline to normal. These data suggest that cleaved products of e-cadherin may serve as biomarkers of NERD. Further data are needed to assess and confirm this concept.

  16. Elevated Src family kinase activity stabilizes E-cadherin-based junctions and collective movement of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Veracini, Laurence; Grall, Dominique; Schaub, Sébastien; Divonne, Stéphanie Beghelli-de la Forest; Etienne-Grimaldi, Marie-Christine; Milano, Gérard; Bozec, Alexandre; Babin, Emmanuel; Sudaka, Anne; Thariat, Juliette; Van Obberghen-Schilling, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    EGF receptor (EGFR) overexpression is thought to drive head and neck carcinogenesis however clinical responses to EGFR-targeting agents have been modest and alternate targets are actively sought to improve results. Src family kinases (SFKs), reported to act downstream of EGFR are among the alternative targets for which increased expression or activity in epithelial tumors is commonly associated to the dissolution of E-cadherin-based junctions and acquisition of a mesenchymal-like phenotype. Robust expression of total and activated Src was observed in advanced stage head and neck tumors (N=60) and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma lines. In cultured cancer cells Src co-localized with E-cadherin in cell-cell junctions and its phosphorylation on Y419 was both constitutive and independent of EGFR activation. Selective inhibition of SFKs with SU6656 delocalized E-cadherin and disrupted cellular junctions without affecting E-cadherin expression and this effect was phenocopied by knockdown of Src or Yes. These findings reveal an EGFR-independent role for SFKs in the maintenance of intercellular junctions, which likely contributes to the cohesive invasion E-cadherin-positive cells in advanced tumors. Further, they highlight the need for a deeper comprehension of molecular pathways that drive collective cell invasion, in absence of mesenchymal transition, in order to combat tumor spread. PMID:25779657

  17. There are four dynamically and functionally distinct populations of E-cadherin in cell junctions

    PubMed Central

    Erami, Zahra; Timpson, Paul; Yao, Wu; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Anderson, Kurt I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT E-cadherin is a trans-membrane tumor suppressor responsible for epithelial cell adhesion. E-cadherin forms adhesive clusters through combined extra-cellular cis- and trans-interactions and intracellular interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. Here we identify four populations of E-cadherin within cell junctions based on the molecular interactions which determine their mobility and adhesive properties. Adhesive and non-adhesive populations of E-cadherin each consist of mobile and immobile fractions. Up to half of the E-cadherin immobilized in cell junctions is non-adhesive. Incorporation of E-cadherin into functional adhesions require all three adhesive interactions, with deletion of any one resulting in loss of effective cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, the only interaction which could independently slow the diffusion of E-cadherin was the tail-mediated intra-cellular interaction. The adhesive and non-adhesive mobile fractions of E-cadherin can be distinguished by their sensitivity to chemical cross-linking with adhesive clusters. Our data define the size, mobility, and adhesive properties of four distinct populations of E-cadherin within cell junctions, and support association with the actin cytoskeleton as the first step in adhesion formation. PMID:26471767

  18. MicroRNA-9 up-regulates E-cadherin through inhibition of NF-κB1-Snail1 pathway in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujing; Kumar, Suresh M; Lu, Hezhe; Liu, Aihua; Yang, Ruifeng; Pushparajan, Anitha; Guo, Wei; Xu, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Hsa-miR-9 has been shown to have opposite functions in different tumour types; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we show that hsa-miR-9 is down-regulated in metastatic melanomas compared to primary melanomas. Overexpression of miR-9 in melanoma cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation and migratory capacity with decreased F-actin polymerization and down-regulation of multiple GTPases involved in cytoskeleton remodelling. miR-9 overexpression induced significant down-regulation of Snail1 with a concomitant increase in E-cadherin expression. In contrast, knockdown of miR-9 increased Snail1 expression as well as melanoma cell proliferation and migration capacity. Mechanistically, miR-9 expression down-regulated NF-κB1 in melanoma and the effect was abolished by mutations in the putative miR-9 binding sites within the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of NF-κB1. Anti-miR-9 miRNA inhibitor also increased the expression of NF-κB1. The effects of miR-9 on Snail1 expression and melanoma cell proliferation and migration were rescued by overexpression of NF-κB1 in these cells. Furthermore, miR-9 overexpression resulted in significantly decreased melanoma growth and metastasis in vivo. In summary, miR-9 inhibits melanoma proliferation and metastasis through down-regulation of the NF-κB1-Snail1 pathway. This study finds a new mechanism that miR-9 utilizes to decrease E-cadherin expression and inhibit melanoma progression. The results suggest that function of microRNAs is context and tumour type-specific. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Targeting and crossing of the human maternofetal barrier by Listeria monocytogenes: role of internalin interaction with trophoblast E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Lecuit, Marc; Nelson, D Michael; Smith, Steve D; Khun, Huot; Huerre, Michel; Vacher-Lavenu, Marie-Cécile; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Cossart, Pascale

    2004-04-20

    Listeria monocytogenes produces severe fetoplacental infections in humans. How it targets and crosses the maternofetal barrier is unknown. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the location of L. monocytogenes in placental and amniotic tissue samples obtained from women with fetoplacental listeriosis. The results raised the possibility that L. monocytogenes crosses the maternofetal barrier through the villous syncytiotrophoblast, with secondary infection occurring via the amniotic epithelium. Because epidemiological studies indicate that the bacterial surface protein, internalin (InlA), may play a role in human fetoplacental listeriosis, we investigated the cellular patterns of expression of its host receptor, E-cadherin, at the maternofetal interface. E-cadherin was found on the basal and apical plasma membranes of syncytiotrophoblasts and in villous cytotrophoblasts. Established trophoblastic cell lines, primary trophoblast cultures, and placental villous explants were each exposed to isogenic InlA+ or InlA- strains of L. monocytogenes, and to L. innocua expressing or not InlA. Quantitative assays of cellular invasion demonstrated that bacterial entry into syncytiotrophoblasts occurs via the apical membrane in an InlA-E-cadherin dependent manner. In human placental villous explants, bacterial invasion of the syncytiotrophoblast barrier and underlying villous tissue and subsequent replication produces histopathological lesions that mimic those seen in placentas of women with listeriosis. Thus, the InlA-E-cadherin interaction that plays a key role in the crossing of the intestinal barrier in humans is also exploited by L. monocytogenes to target and cross the placental barrier. Such a ligand-receptor interaction allowing a pathogen to specifically cross the placental villous trophoblast barrier has not been reported previously.

  20. Targeting and crossing of the human maternofetal barrier by Listeria monocytogenes: Role of internalin interaction with trophoblast E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Lecuit, Marc; Nelson, D. Michael; Smith, Steve D.; Khun, Huot; Huerre, Michel; Vacher-Lavenu, Marie-Cécile; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Cossart, Pascale

    2004-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes produces severe fetoplacental infections in humans. How it targets and crosses the maternofetal barrier is unknown. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the location of L. monocytogenes in placental and amniotic tissue samples obtained from women with fetoplacental listeriosis. The results raised the possibility that L. monocytogenes crosses the maternofetal barrier through the villous syncytiotrophoblast, with secondary infection occurring via the amniotic epithelium. Because epidemiological studies indicate that the bacterial surface protein, internalin (InlA), may play a role in human fetoplacental listeriosis, we investigated the cellular patterns of expression of its host receptor, E-cadherin, at the maternofetal interface. E-cadherin was found on the basal and apical plasma membranes of syncytiotrophoblasts and in villous cytotrophoblasts. Established trophoblastic cell lines, primary trophoblast cultures, and placental villous explants were each exposed to isogenic InlA+ or InlA- strains of L. monocytogenes, and to L. innocua expressing or not InlA. Quantitative assays of cellular invasion demonstrated that bacterial entry into syncytiotrophoblasts occurs via the apical membrane in an InlA–E-cadherin dependent manner. In human placental villous explants, bacterial invasion of the syncytiotrophoblast barrier and underlying villous tissue and subsequent replication produces histopathological lesions that mimic those seen in placentas of women with listeriosis. Thus, the InlA–E-cadherin interaction that plays a key role in the crossing of the intestinal barrier in humans is also exploited by L. monocytogenes to target and cross the placental barrier. Such a ligand–receptor interaction allowing a pathogen to specifically cross the placental villous trophoblast barrier has not been reported previously. PMID:15073336

  1. Dual pulse-chase microscopy reveals early divergence in the biosynthetic trafficking of the Na,K-ATPase and E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Glen A.; Hull, Michael; Stoops, Emily H.; Bateson, Rosalie; Caplan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that newly synthesized membrane proteins that share the same distributions in the plasma membranes of polarized epithelial cells can pursue a variety of distinct trafficking routes as they travel from the Golgi complex to their common destination at the cell surface. In most polarized epithelial cells, both the Na,K-ATPase and E-cadherin are localized to the basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. To examine the itineraries pursued by newly synthesized Na,K-ATPase and E-cadherin in polarized MDCK epithelial cells, we used the SNAP and CLIP labeling systems to fluorescently tag temporally defined cohorts of these proteins and observe their behaviors simultaneously as they traverse the secretory pathway. These experiments reveal that E-cadherin is delivered to the cell surface substantially faster than is the Na,K-ATPase. Furthermore, the surface delivery of newly synthesized E-cadherin to the plasma membrane was not prevented by the 19°C temperature block that inhibits the trafficking of most proteins, including the Na,K-ATPase, out of the trans-Golgi network. Consistent with these distinct behaviors, populations of newly synthesized E-cadherin and Na,K-ATPase become separated from one another within the trans-Golgi network, suggesting that they are sorted into different carrier vesicles that mediate their post-Golgi trafficking. PMID:26424804

  2. Homophilic and heterophilic polycystin 1 interactions regulate E-cadherin recruitment and junction assembly in MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    Streets, Andrew J.; Wagner, Bart E.; Harris, Peter C.; Ward, Christopher J.; Ong, Albert C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited human renal disease and is caused by mutations in two genes, PKD1 (85%) and PKD2 (15%). Cyst epithelial cells are characterised by a complex cellular phenotype including changes in proliferation, apoptosis, basement membrane composition and apicobasal polarity. Since polycystin 1 (PC1), the PKD1 protein, has been located in the basolateral membrane of kidney epithelial cells, we hypothesised that it might have a key role in mediating or stabilising cell-cell interactions. In non-ciliated L929 cells, stable or transient surface expression of the PC1 extracellular domain was sufficient to confer an adhesive phenotype and stimulate junction formation. In MDCK cells, we found that PC1 was recruited to the lateral membranes coincident with E-cadherin within 30 minutes after a `calcium switch'. Recruitment of both proteins was significantly delayed when cells were treated with a PC1 blocking antibody raised to the PKD domains. Finally, PC1 and E-cadherin could be coimmunoprecipitated together from MDCK cells. We conclude that PC1 has a key role in initiating junction formation via initial homophilic interactions and facilitates junction assembly and the establishment of apicobasal polarity by E-cadherin recruitment. PMID:19351715

  3. The prognostic role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers E-cadherin and Slug in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cappellesso, Rocco; Marioni, Gino; Crescenzi, Marika; Giacomelli, Luciano; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Mussato, Alessio; Staffieri, Alberto; Martini, Alessandro; Blandamura, Stella; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2015-10-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) prognosis is definitely related to lymph node metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows neoplastic cells to gain the plasticity and motility required for tumour progression and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of EMT in the prognosis of LSCC. Immunohistochemical analysis of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, ZEB1, and ZEB2 was performed in 37 consecutive LSCC cases. Low E-cadherin levels and high Slug levels correlated with both disease recurrence (P = 0.02 and P =0.01, respectively) and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). Relative expression levels of CDH1, SNAI2, miR-1 and the miR-200 family were also evaluated. CDH1, miR-200a and miR-200c down-regulation and SNAI2 overexpression were significantly associated with disease recurrence (P = 0.03, P = 0.02, P = 0.04, and P = 0.04, respectively). EMT increases tumour recurrence risk and shortens DFS in LSCC. E-cadherin and Slug immunohistochemical analysis could be useful for identifying patients requiring more aggressive treatment after surgery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Serum soluble E-cadherin is a potential prognostic marker in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y; Law, S; Kwong, D L W; Luk, J M

    2011-01-01

    E-cadherin is a well-documented tumor suppressor with downregulated expression in many cancer types. Upon proteolytic cleavage, a soluble form of 80-kDa degradation fragment, known as soluble E-cadherin (s-Ecad), is present in circulation; its level in sera of cancer patients is significantly associated with metastasis, recurrence, and prognosis in some malignancies. The present study investigated the association of s-Ecad with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its prognostic significance. A cohort of 97 patients who underwent surgery alone (n= 56) or neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and surgery (CRT) (n= 41) was recruited for this study. Serum samples were collected at operation (surgery group) and pre- and post-CRT treatment (CRT group) for measurement of s-Ecad protein by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Serum s-Ecad levels were correlated with clinicopathological parameters as well as survival. Univariate analysis showed no significant relationship between serum s-Ecad level and clinicopathological parameters for all sets of samples. Survival analysis showed that in patients who had surgical resection only, those with s-Ecad levels equal to or below the median value survived significantly longer than those with levels above the median (median survival 25.6 vs. 14.1 months, P= 0.012). Multivariate analysis showed that pathological N stage, M stage, R category, and serum s-Ecad level were significant independent prognostic factors for ESCC patients who underwent surgery only. The hazard ratio for s-Ecad was 1.104 (95% CI: 1.026-1.187) and P= 0.008. Serum s-Ecad was detected in ESCC patients and its potential as an independent prognostic marker requires further investigation. © 2010 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  5. Arf6 regulates EGF-induced internalization of E-cadherin in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Zhang, Yujie; Gu, Luo; Zheng, Jianchao; Cui, Jie; Dong, Jing; Du, Jun

    2015-01-01

    E-cadherin internalization facilitates dissolution of adherens junctions and promotes tumor cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration. Our previous results have shown that Arf6 exerts pro-migratory action in breast cancer cells after EGF stimulation. Despite the fact that EGF signaling stimulates EMT of breast cancer cells, the effect of Arf6 on internalization of E-cadherin of breast cancer cells under EGF treatment remains to be determined. Here, we showed that EGF dose-dependently stimulated E-cadherin internalization by MCF-7 cells with the maximal effect at 50 ng/ml. Meanwhile, EGF treatment markedly increased Arf6 activation. Arf6 was involved in complexes of E-cadherin, and more E-cadherin was pulled down with Arf6 when the activity of the latter was increased. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays showed that transfection breast cancer cells with Arf6-T27N or Arf6 siRNA suppressed EGF-induced E-cadherin internalization. Taken together, our study demonstrated that Arf6 activation plays a potential role in EGF-induced E-cadherin internalization, providing new mechanism underlying the effect of Arf6 on promoting breast cancer cell metastasis.

  6. Cleavage and shedding of E-cadherin after induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Steinhusen, U; Weiske, J; Badock, V; Tauber, R; Bommert, K; Huber, O

    2001-02-16

    Apoptotic cell death induces dramatic molecular changes in cells, becoming apparent on the structural level as membrane blebbing, condensation of the cytoplasm and nucleus, and loss of cell-cell contacts. The activation of caspases is one of the fundamental steps during programmed cell death. Here we report a detailed analysis of the fate of the Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin in apoptotic epithelial cells and show that during apoptosis fragments of E-cadherin with apparent molecular masses of 24, 29, and 84 kDa are generated by two distinct proteolytic activities. In addition to a caspase-3-mediated cleavage releasing the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin, a metalloproteinase sheds the extracellular domain from the cell surface during apoptosis. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that concomitant with the disappearance of E-cadherin staining at the cell surface, the E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain accumulates in the cytosol. In the presence of inhibitors of caspase-3 and/or metalloproteinases, cleavage of E-cadherin was almost completely blocked. The simultaneous cleavage of the intracellular and extracellular domains of E-cadherin may provide a highly efficient mechanism to disrupt cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts in apoptotic cells, a prerequisite for cell rounding and exit from the epithelium.

  7. Novel metastatic models of esophageal adenocarcinoma derived from FLO-1 cells highlight the importance of E-cadherin in cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liu, David S; Hoefnagel, Sanne J M; Fisher, Oliver M; Krishnadath, Kausilia K; Montgomery, Karen G; Busuttil, Rita A; Colebatch, Andrew J; Read, Matthew; Duong, Cuong P; Phillips, Wayne A; Clemons, Nicholas J

    2016-12-13

    There is currently a paucity of preclinical models available to study the metastatic process in esophageal cancer. Here we report FLO-1, and its isogenic derivative FLO-1LM, as two spontaneously metastatic cell line models of human esophageal adenocarcinoma. We show that FLO-1 has undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasizes following subcutaneous injection in mice. FLO-1LM, derived from a FLO-1 liver metastasis, has markedly enhanced proliferative, clonogenic, anti-apoptotic, invasive, immune-tolerant and metastatic potential. Genome-wide RNAseq profiling revealed a significant enrichment of metastasis-related pathways in FLO-1LM cells. Moreover, CDH1, which encodes the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, was the most significantly downregulated gene in FLO-1LM compared to FLO-1. Consistent with this, repression of E-cadherin expression in FLO-1 cells resulted in increased metastatic activity. Importantly, reduced E-cadherin expression is commonly reported in esophageal adenocarcinoma and independently predicts poor patient survival. Collectively, these findings highlight the biological importance of E-cadherin activity in the pathogenesis of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma and validate the utility of FLO-1 parental and FLO-1LM cells as preclinical models of metastasis in this disease.

  8. DNAJB4 molecular chaperone distinguishes WT from mutant E-cadherin, determining their fate in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Simões-Correia, Joana; Silva, Diana I; Melo, Soraia; Figueiredo, Joana; Caldeira, Joana; Pinto, Marta T; Girão, Henrique; Pereira, Paulo; Seruca, Raquel

    2014-04-15

    E-cadherin (Ecad) is a well-known invasion suppressor and its loss of expression is common in invasive carcinomas. Germline Ecad mutations are the only known genetic cause of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), demonstrating the causative role of Ecad impairment in gastric cancer. HDGC-associated Ecad missense mutations can lead to folding defects and premature proteasome-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), but the molecular determinants for this fate were unidentified. Using a Drosophila-based genetic screen, we found that Drosophila DnaJ-1 interacts with wild type (WT) and mutant human Ecad in vivo. DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 4 (DNAJB4), the human homolog of DnaJ-1, influences Ecad localization and stability even in the absence of Ecad endogenous promoter, suggesting a post-transcriptional level of regulation. Increased expression of DNAJB4 leads to stabilization of WT Ecad in the plasma membrane, while it induces premature degradation of unfolded HDGC mutants in the proteasome. The interaction between DNAJB4 and Ecad is direct, and is increased in the context of the unfolded mutant E757K, especially when proteasome degradation is inhibited, suggesting that DNAJB4 is a molecular mediator of ERAD. Post-translational regulation of native Ecad by DNAJB4 molecular chaperone is sufficient to influence cell adhesion in vitro. Using a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay with gastric cancer derived cells, we demonstrate that DNAJB4 stimulates the anti-invasive function of WT Ecad in vivo. Additionally, the expression of DNAJB4 and Ecad is concomitantly decreased in human gastric carcinomas. Altogether, we demonstrate that DNAJB4 is a sensor of Ecad structural features that might contribute to gastric cancer progression.

  9. Dimethoxy Curcumin Induces Apoptosis by Suppressing Survivin and Inhibits Invasion by Enhancing E-Cadherin in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Dai, Fang; Chen, Zhehang; Wang, Saisai; Cheng, Xiaobin; Sheng, Qinsong; Lin, Jianjiang; Chen, Wenbin

    2016-09-11

    BACKGROUND Dimethoxy curcumin (DMC) is a kind of lipophilic analog of curcumin with great improvement in chemical and metabolic stability. DMC has been studied in breast and renal cancer, but no research in colon cancer has been found yet. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two colon cancer cells (HT-29 and SW480) and one normal human colon mucosal epithelial cell (NCM460) were used in this study. We studied the effect of DMC on the proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Transwell migration assay was used to estimate the inhibition of DMC on invasion. Moreover, the expressions of PARP, caspase-3, survivin and E-cadherin were detected to uncover the related signaling pathways by western blotting assay both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS DMC significantly inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells in dose-dependent manner; IC50 for DMC was calculated to be 43.4, 28.2 and 454.8µM on HT-29, SW480 and NCM460. DMC significantly increased the apoptosis in both HT-29 (p=0.0051) and SW480 (p=0.0013) cells in vitro, and significantly suppressed the growth of both cell lines in vivo. Moreover, DMC reduced the number of migrated cells in both HT-29 (p=0.007) and SW480 (p=0.004) cells. By western blotting analysis, the cleavage of pro-caspases-3 and PARP were clearly induced by DMC to their active form, while the expression of survivin was reduced and E-cadherin was enhanced in both cells in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS DMC may exert an effective anti-tumor effect in colon cancer cells by down-regulating survivin and upregulating E-cadherin.

  10. Pax-5 is a potent regulator of E-cadherin and breast cancer malignant processes

    PubMed Central

    Benzina, Sami; Beauregard, Annie-Pier; Guerrette, Roxann; Jean, Stéphanie; Faye, Mame Daro; Laflamme, Mark; Maïcas, Emmanuel; Crapoulet, Nicolas; Ouellette, Rodney J.; Robichaud, Gilles A.

    2017-01-01

    Pax-5, an essential transcription factor for B lymphocyte development, has been linked with the development and progression of lymphoid cancers and carcinoma. In contrast to B-cell cancer lesions, the specific expression signatures and roles of Pax-5 in breast cancer progression are relatively unknown. In the present study, we set out to profile Pax-5 expression in mammary tissues and elucidate the cellular and molecular roles of Pax-5 in breast cancer processes. Using immunohistology on mammary tissue arrays, Pax-5 was detected in a total of 298/306 (97.6%) samples tested. Interestingly, our studies reveal that Pax-5 inhibits aggressive features and confers anti-proliferative effects in breast carcinoma cells in contrast to its oncogenic properties in B cell cancers. More precisely, Pax-5 suppressed breast cancer cell migration, invasion and tumor spheroid formation while concomitantly promoting cell adhesion properties. We also observed that Pax-5 inhibited and reversed breast cancer epithelial to mesenchymal phenotypic transitioning. Mechanistically, we found that the Pax-5 transcription factor binds and induces gene expression of E-cadherin, a pivotal regulator of epithelialisation. Globally, we demonstrate that Pax-5 is predominant expressed factor in mammary epithelial cells. We also present an important role for Pax-5 in the phenotypic transitioning processes and aggressive features associated with breast cancer malignancy and disease progression. PMID:28076843

  11. Sip1 mediates an E-cadherin-to-N-cadherin switch during cranial neural crest EMT

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Crystal D.; Saxena, Ankur

    2013-01-01

    The neural crest, an embryonic stem cell population, initially resides within the dorsal neural tube but subsequently undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to commence migration. Although neural crest and cancer EMTs are morphologically similar, little is known regarding conservation of their underlying molecular mechanisms. We report that Sip1, which is involved in cancer EMT, plays a critical role in promoting the neural crest cell transition to a mesenchymal state. Sip1 transcripts are expressed in premigratory/migrating crest cells. After Sip1 loss, the neural crest specifier gene FoxD3 was abnormally retained in the dorsal neuroepithelium, whereas Sox10, which is normally required for emigration, was diminished. Subsequently, clumps of adherent neural crest cells remained adjacent to the neural tube and aberrantly expressed E-cadherin while lacking N-cadherin. These findings demonstrate two distinct phases of neural crest EMT, detachment and mesenchymalization, with the latter involving a novel requirement for Sip1 in regulation of cadherin expression during completion of neural crest EMT. PMID:24297751

  12. Therapeutic potential of Dickkopf-1 in wild-type BRAF papillary thyroid cancer via regulation of β-catenin/E-cadherin signaling.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Young A; Sun, Hyun Jin; Ahn, Hwa Young; Lee, Eun Kyung; Yi, Ka Hee; Oh, Byung-Chul; Park, Do Joon; Cho, Bo Youn; Park, Young Joo

    2014-09-01

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a common pathogenesis of various human cancers. We investigated the role of the Wnt inhibitor, Dkk-1, in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Immunohistochemical β-catenin staining was performed in tissue microarray containing 148 PTCs and five normal thyroid tissues. In vivo effects of Dkk-1 were explored using ectopic tumors with BHP10-3SC cells. In 27 PTC patients, 60% of patients showed β-catenin up-regulation and Dkk-1 down-regulation in tumor vs normal tissues. Tissue microarray analysis showed that 14 of 148 PTC samples exhibited cytoplasmic-dominant β-catenin expression compared to membranous-dominant expression in normal tissues. Aberrant β-catenin expression was significantly correlated with higher rates of the loss of membranous E-cadherin expression and poor disease-free survival than that in the normal membranous expression group over a median follow-up period of 14 years. Implantation of Dkk-1-overexpressing BHP10-3SC cells revealed delayed tumor growth, resulting from the rescue of membranous β-catenin and E-cadherin expressions. Furthermore, tissue microarray analysis demonstrated that BRAF(WT) patients had higher rates of aberrant expressions of β-catenin and E-cadherin than BRAF(V600E) patients. Indeed, the inhibitory effects of Dkk-1 on cell survival were more sensitive in BRAF(WT) (BHP10-3SC and TPC-1) than in BRAF(V600E) (SNU-790 and BCPAP) cells. Overexpression of BRAF(V600E) in normal thyroid epithelial (H tori) cells also reduced the effects of Dkk-1 on cell survival. A subset of PTC patients showed aberrant expression of β-catenin/E-cadherin signaling and poor disease-free survival. Dkk-1 might have a therapeutic role, particularly in BRAF(WT) patients.

  13. Altered E-Cadherin Levels and Distribution in Melanocytes Precede Clinical Manifestations of Vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Roselyne Y; Luciani, Flavie; Cario-André, Muriel; Rubod, Alain; Petit, Valérie; Benzekri, Laila; Ezzedine, Khaled; Lepreux, Sébastien; Steingrimsson, Eirikur; Taieb, A; Gauthier, Yvon; Larue, Lionel; Delmas, Véronique

    2015-07-01

    Vitiligo is the most common depigmenting disorder resulting from the loss of melanocytes from the basal epidermal layer. The pathogenesis of the disease is likely multifactorial and involves autoimmune causes, as well as oxidative and mechanical stress. It is important to identify early events in vitiligo to clarify pathogenesis, improve diagnosis, and inform therapy. Here, we show that E-cadherin (Ecad), which mediates the adhesion between melanocytes and keratinocytes in the epidermis, is absent from or discontinuously distributed across melanocyte membranes of vitiligo patients long before clinical lesions appear. This abnormality is associated with the detachment of the melanocytes from the basal to the suprabasal layers in the epidermis. Using human epidermal reconstructed skin and mouse models with normal or defective Ecad expression in melanocytes, we demonstrated that Ecad is required for melanocyte adhesiveness to the basal layer under oxidative and mechanical stress, establishing a link between silent/preclinical, cell-autonomous defects in vitiligo melanocytes and known environmental stressors accelerating disease expression. Our results implicate a primary predisposing skin defect affecting melanocyte adhesiveness that, under stress conditions, leads to disappearance of melanocytes and clinical vitiligo. Melanocyte adhesiveness is thus a potential target for therapy aiming at disease stabilization.

  14. EGF promotes the shedding of soluble E-cadherin in an ADAM10-dependent manner in prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Magdalena M; Sandhu, Brindar; Day, Mark L

    2012-02-01

    During the progression of prostate cancer, the epithelial adhesion molecule E-cadherin is cleaved from the cell surface by ADAM15 proteolytic processing, generating an extracellular 80kDa fragment referred to as soluble E-cadherin (sE-cad). Contrary to observations in cancer, the generation of sE-cad appears to correlate with ADAM10 activity in benign prostatic epithelium. The ADAM10-specific inhibitor INCB8765 and the ADAM10 prodomain inhibit the generation of sE-cad, as well as downstream signaling and cell proliferation. Addition of EGF or amphiregulin (AREG) to these untransformed cell lines increases the amount of sE-cad shed into the conditioned media, as well as sE-cad bound to EGFR. EGF-associated shedding appears to be mediated by ADAM10 as shRNA knockdown of ADAM10 results in reduced shedding of sE-cad. To examine the physiologic role of sE-cad on benign prostatic epithelium, we treated BPH-1 and large T immortalized prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) with an sE-cad chimera comprised of the human Fc domain of IgG(1), fused to the extracellular domains of E-cadherin (Fc-Ecad). The treatment of untransformed prostate epithelial cells with Fc-Ecad resulted in phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream signaling through ERK and increased cell proliferation. Pre-treating BPH-1 and PrEC cells with cetuximab, a therapeutic monoclonal antibody against EGFR, decreased the ability of Fc-Ecad to induce EGFR phosphorylation, downstream signaling, and proliferation. These data suggest that ADAM10-generated sE-cad may have a role in EGFR signaling independent of traditional EGFR ligands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. E-cadherin-mediated force transduction signals regulate global cell mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Muhamed, Ismaeel; Wu, Jun; Sehgal, Poonam; Kong, Xinyu; Tajik, Arash; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This report elucidates an E-cadherin-based force-transduction pathway that triggers changes in cell mechanics through a mechanism requiring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and the downstream formation of new integrin adhesions. This mechanism operates in addition to local cytoskeletal remodeling triggered by conformational changes in the E-cadherin-associated protein α-catenin, at sites of mechanical perturbation. Studies using magnetic twisting cytometry (MTC), together with traction force microscopy (TFM) and confocal imaging identified force-activated E-cadherin-specific signals that integrate cadherin force transduction, integrin activation and cell contractility. EGFR is required for the downstream activation of PI3K and myosin-II-dependent cell stiffening. Our findings also demonstrated that α-catenin-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling at perturbed E-cadherin adhesions does not require cell stiffening. These results broaden the repertoire of E-cadherin-based force transduction mechanisms, and define the force-sensitive signaling network underlying the mechano-chemical integration of spatially segregated adhesion receptors. PMID:26966187

  16. Molecular basis for disruption of E-cadherin adhesion by botulinum neurotoxin A complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwangkook; Zhong, Xiaofen; Gu, Shenyan; Kruel, Anna Magdalena; Dorner, Martin B; Perry, Kay; Rummel, Andreas; Dong, Min; Jin, Rongsheng

    2014-06-20

    How botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cross the host intestinal epithelial barrier in foodborne botulism is poorly understood. Here, we present the crystal structure of a clostridial hemagglutinin (HA) complex of serotype BoNT/A bound to the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin at 2.4 angstroms. The HA complex recognizes E-cadherin with high specificity involving extensive intermolecular interactions and also binds to carbohydrates on the cell surface. Binding of the HA complex sequesters E-cadherin in the monomeric state, compromising the E-cadherin-mediated intercellular barrier and facilitating paracellular absorption of BoNT/A. We reconstituted the complete 14-subunit BoNT/A complex using recombinantly produced components and demonstrated that abolishing either E-cadherin- or carbohydrate-binding of the HA complex drastically reduces oral toxicity of BoNT/A complex in vivo. Together, these studies establish the molecular mechanism of how HAs contribute to the oral toxicity of BoNT/A. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. A Regulatory Network Involving β-Catenin, e-Cadherin, PI3k/Akt, and Slug Balances Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells In Response to Wnt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tyng-Shyan; Li, Li; Moalim-Nour, Lilian; Jia, Deyong; Bai, Jian; Yao, Zemin; Bennett, Steffany A L; Figeys, Daniel; Wang, Lisheng

    2015-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying disparate roles of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in maintaining self-renewal or inducing differentiation and lineage specification in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are not clear. In this study, we provide the first demonstration that self-renewal versus differentiation of human ESCs (hESCs) in response to Wnt signaling is predominantly determined by a two-layer regulatory circuit involving β-catenin, E-cadherin, PI3K/Akt, and Slug in a time-dependent manner. Short-term upregulation of β-catenin does not lead to the activation of T-cell factor (TCF)-eGFP Wnt reporter in hESCs. Instead, it enhances E-cadherin expression on the cell membrane, thereby enhancing hESC self-renewal through E-cadherin-associated PI3K/Akt signaling. Conversely, long-term Wnt activation or loss of E-cadherin intracellular β-catenin binding domain induces TCF-eGFP activity and promotes hESC differentiation through β-catenin-induced upregulation of Slug. Enhanced expression of Slug leads to a further reduction of E-cadherin that serves as a β-catenin "sink" sequestering free cytoplasmic β-catenin. The formation of such a framework reinforces hESCs to switch from a state of temporal self-renewal associated with short-term Wnt/β-catenin activation to definitive differentiation. Stem Cells 2015;33:1419-1433. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Nuclear translocation of Acinetobacter baumannii transposase induces DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin gene.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong Chan; Choi, Chul Hee; Lee, Su Man; Lee, Jung Hwa; Kim, Seung Il; Kim, Dong Sun; Lee, Je Chul

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins has emerged as a pathogenic mechanism whereby bacterial proteins induce host cell pathology. In this study, we examined nuclear targeting of Acinetobacter baumannii transposase (Tnp) and subsequent epigenetic changes in host cells. Tnp of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 possesses nuclear localization signals (NLSs), (225)RKRKRK(230). Transient expression of A. baumannii Tnp fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) resulted in the nuclear localization of these proteins in COS-7 cells, whereas the truncated Tnp without NLSs fused with GFP were exclusively localized in the cytoplasm. A. baumannii Tnp was found in outer membrane vesicles, which delivered this protein to the nucleus of host cells. Nuclear expression of A. baumannii Tnp fused with GFP in A549 cells induced DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin (CDH1) gene, whereas the cytoplasmic localization of the truncated Tnp without NLSs fused with GFP did not induce DNA methylation. DNA methylation in the promoters of E-cadherin gene induced by nuclear targeting of A. baumannii Tnp resulted in down-regulation of gene expression. In conclusion, our data show that nuclear traffic of A. baumannii Tnp induces DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin gene, which subsequently down-regulates gene expression. This study provides a new insight into the epigenetic control of host genes by bacterial proteins.

  19. Reevaluating αE-catenin monomer and homodimer functions by characterizing E-cadherin/αE-catenin chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Julie M.; Kitt, Khameeka N.; Gloerich, Martijn; Pokutta, Sabine; Weis, William I.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the E-cadherin–β-catenin–αE-catenin complex (CCC), mammalian αE-catenin binds F-actin weakly in the absence of force, whereas cytosolic αE-catenin forms a homodimer that interacts more strongly with F-actin. It has been concluded that cytosolic αE-catenin homodimer is not important for intercellular adhesion because E-cadherin/αE-catenin chimeras thought to mimic the CCC are sufficient to induce cell–cell adhesion. We show that, unlike αE-catenin in the CCC, these chimeras homodimerize, bind F-actin strongly, and inhibit the Arp2/3 complex, all of which are properties of the αE-catenin homodimer. To more accurately mimic the junctional CCC, we designed a constitutively monomeric chimera, and show that E-cadherin–dependent cell adhesion is weaker in cells expressing this chimera compared with cells in which αE-catenin homodimers are present. Our results demonstrate that E-cadherin/αE-catenin chimeras used previously do not mimic αE-catenin in the native CCC, and imply that both CCC-bound monomer and cytosolic homodimer αE-catenin are required for strong cell–cell adhesion. PMID:26416960

  20. The soluble extracellular domain of E-cadherin interferes with EPEC adherence via interaction with the Tir:intimin complex.

    PubMed

    Login, Frédéric H; Jensen, Helene H; Pedersen, Gitte A; Amieva, Manuel R; Nejsum, Lene N

    2018-06-19

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) causes watery diarrhea when colonizing the surface of enterocytes. The translocated intimin receptor (Tir):intimin receptor complex facilitates tight adherence to epithelial cells and formation of actin pedestals beneath EPEC. We found that the host cell adherens junction protein E-cadherin (Ecad) was recruited to EPEC microcolonies. Live-cell and confocal imaging revealed that Ecad recruitment depends on, and occurs after, formation of the Tir:intimin complex. Combinatorial binding experiments using wild-type EPEC, isogenic mutants lacking Tir or intimin, and E. coli expressing intimin showed that the extracellular domain of Ecad binds the bacterial surface in a Tir:intimin-dependent manner. Finally, addition of the soluble extracellular domain of Ecad to the infection medium or depletion of Ecad extracellular domain from the cell surface reduced EPEC adhesion to host cells. Thus, the soluble extracellular domain of Ecad may be used in the design of intervention strategies targeting EPEC adherence to host cells.-Login, F. H., Jensen, H. H., Pedersen, G. A., Amieva, M. R., Nejsum, L. N. The soluble extracellular domain of E-cadherin interferes with EPEC adherence via interaction with the Tir:intimin complex.

  1. Tre1 GPCR initiates germ cell transepithelial migration by regulating Drosophila melanogaster E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Prabhat S.; Sano, Hiroko; Renault, Andrew D.; Barbosa, Vitor; Fuse, Naoyuki; Lehmann, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant progress in identifying the guidance pathways that control cell migration, how a cell starts to move within an intact organism, acquires motility, and loses contact with its neighbors is poorly understood. We show that activation of the G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) trapped in endoderm 1 (Tre1) directs the redistribution of the G protein Gβ as well as adherens junction proteins and Rho guanosine triphosphatase from the cell periphery to the lagging tail of germ cells at the onset of Drosophila melanogaster germ cell migration. Subsequently, Tre1 activity triggers germ cell dispersal and orients them toward the midgut for directed transepithelial migration. A transition toward invasive migration is also a prerequisite for metastasis formation, which often correlates with down-regulation of adhesion proteins. We show that uniform down-regulation of E-cadherin causes germ cell dispersal but is not sufficient for transepithelial migration in the absence of Tre1. Our findings therefore suggest a new mechanism for GPCR function that links cell polarity, modulation of cell adhesion, and invasion. PMID:18824569

  2. Of mice and men: Dissecting the interaction between Listeria monocytogenes Internalin A and E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A

    2013-01-01

    We report a study of the interaction between internalin A (inlA) and human or murine E-cadherin (Ecad). inlA is used by Listeria monocytogenes to internalize itself into host cell, but the bacterium is unable to invade murine cells, which has been attributed to the difference in sequence between hEcad and mEcad. Using molecular dynamics simulations, MM/GBSA free energy calculations, hydrogen bond analysis, water characterization and umbrella sampling, we provide a complete atomistic picture of the binding between inlA and Ecad. We dissect key residues in the protein–protein interface and analyze the energetics using MM/GBSA. From this analysis it is clear that the binding of inlA–mEcad is weaker than inlA–hEcad, on par with the experimentally observed inability of inlA to bind to mEcad. However, extended MD simulations of 200 ns in length show no destabilization of the inlA–mEcad complex and the estimation of the potential of mean force (PMF) using umbrella sampling corroborates this conclusion. The binding strength computed from the PMFs show no significant difference between the two protein complexes. Hence, our study suggests that the inability of L. monocytogenes to invade murine cells cannot be explained by processes at the nanosecond to sub-microsecond time scale probed by the simulations performed here. PMID:24688730

  3. Of mice and men: Dissecting the interaction between Listeria monocytogenes Internalin A and E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A

    2013-01-01

    We report a study of the interaction between internalin A (inlA) and human or murine E-cadherin (Ecad). inlA is used by Listeria monocytogenes to internalize itself into host cell, but the bacterium is unable to invade murine cells, which has been attributed to the difference in sequence between hEcad and mEcad. Using molecular dynamics simulations, MM/GBSA free energy calculations, hydrogen bond analysis, water characterization and umbrella sampling, we provide a complete atomistic picture of the binding between inlA and Ecad. We dissect key residues in the protein-protein interface and analyze the energetics using MM/GBSA. From this analysis it is clear that the binding of inlA-mEcad is weaker than inlA-hEcad, on par with the experimentally observed inability of inlA to bind to mEcad. However, extended MD simulations of 200 ns in length show no destabilization of the inlA-mEcad complex and the estimation of the potential of mean force (PMF) using umbrella sampling corroborates this conclusion. The binding strength computed from the PMFs show no significant difference between the two protein complexes. Hence, our study suggests that the inability of L. monocytogenes to invade murine cells cannot be explained by processes at the nanosecond to sub-microsecond time scale probed by the simulations performed here.

  4. Thiazolidinedione, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand, modulates the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system in a human pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tetsuo; Elnemr, Ayman; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Nishimura, Gen-Ichi; Fujimura, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Kayahara, Masato; Shimizu, Koichi; Yi, Shuangqin; Miwa, Koichi

    2002-07-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma induces terminal differentiation and growth inhibition associated with G1 cell cycle arrest in some cancer cells. The multifunctional molecule beta-catenin performs important roles in intercellular adhesion and signal transduction. However, no report has focused on actions of PPAR-gamma in regulating the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system. We examined whether thiazolidinedione (TZD), a potent PPAR-gamma ligand, could modulate the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system in a human pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3, that has been found to express PPAR-gamma. According to Western blotting, TZD markedly increased differentiation markers including E-cadherin and carcinoembryonic antigen, while beta-catenin did not change significantly. In untreated cells, fluorescence immunostaining demonstrated beta-catenin predominantly in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus; in TZD-treated cells, beta-catenin localization had dramatically shifted to the plasma membrane, in association with increased E-cadherin at this site. Thus, a PPAR-gamma ligand appears to participate not only in induction of differentiation in pancreatic cancer cells, but also in the regulation of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system. Such ligands may prove clinically useful as cytostatic anticancer agents.

  5. The invasive phenotype of placenta accreta extravillous trophoblasts associates with loss of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Duzyj, C M; Buhimschi, I A; Motawea, H; Laky, C A; Cozzini, G; Zhao, G; Funai, E F; Buhimschi, C S

    2015-06-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process of molecular and phenotypic epithelial cell alteration promoting invasiveness. Loss of E-cadherin (E-CAD), a transmembrane protein involved in cell adhesion, is a marker of EMT. Proteolysis into N- and C-terminus fragments by ADAM10 and presenilin-1 (PSEN-1) generates soluble (sE-CAD) and transcriptionally active forms. We studied the protein expression patterns of E-CAD in the serum and placenta of women with histologically-confirmed over-invasive placentation. The patterns of expression and levels of sE-CAD were analyzed by Western blot, immunoassay, and immunoprecipitation. Tissue immunostaining for E-CAD, cytokeratin-7 (epithelial marker), vimentin (mesenchymal marker), ADAM10, PSEN-1 and β-catenin expression were investigated in parallel. N-terminus cleaved 80 kDa sE-CAD fragments were present in serum of pregnant women with gestational age regulation of the circulatory levels. Women with advanced trophoblast invasion did not display circulatory levels of sE-CAD different from those of women with normal placentation. Histologically, extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) closer to the placental-myometrial interface demonstrated less E-CAD staining than those found deeper in the myometrium. These cells expressed both vimentin and cytokeratin, an additional feature of EMT. EVT of placentas with advanced invasion displayed intracellular E-CAD C-terminus immunoreactivity predominating over that of the extracellular N-terminus, a pattern consistent with preferential PSEN-1 processing. Local processing of E-CAD may be an important molecular mechanism controlling the invasive phenotype of accreta EVT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. P21, COX-2, and E-cadherin are potential prognostic factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yao; Shen, Lu-Yan; Fu, Hao; Dong, Bin; Yang, He-Li; Yan, Wan-Pu; Kang, Xiao-Zheng; Dai, Liang; Zhou, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yong-Bo; Liang, Zhen; Chen, Ke-Neng

    2017-02-01

    Much research effort has been devoted to identifying prognostic factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by immunohistochemistry; however, no conclusive findings have been reached thus far. We hypothesized that certain molecules identified in previous studies might serve as useful prognostic markers for ESCC. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to validate the most relevant markers showing potential for ESCC prognosis in our prospective esophageal cancer database. A literature search was performed using the PubMed database for papers published between 1980 and 2015 using the following key words: 'esophageal cancer,' 'prognosis,' and 'immunohistochemistry.' Literature selection criteria were established to identify the most widely studied markers, and we further validated the selected markers in a cohort from our single-surgeon team, including 153 esophageal cancer patients treated from 2000 to 2010. A total of 1799 articles were identified, 82 of which met the selection criteria. Twelve markers were found to be the most widely studied, and the validation results indicated that only P21, COX-2, and E-cadherin were independent prognostic factors for ESCC patients in this series. The systemic review and cohort validation suggest that P21, COX-2, and E-cadherin are potential prognostic factors for ESCC, paving the way for more targeted prospective validation in the future. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  7. E-Cadherin as a Chemotherapy Resistance Mechanism on Metastatic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Gold Kit (Zymo, San Diego, CA) per the manufacturer’s specifications. MSP was performed in the way of Corn et al [62] or using the CpG WIZ E-cadherin...Amplification Kit per the manufacturer’s instructions (Millipore, Temecula, CA). Briefly, in the method of Corn , a nested PCR method was used, in...cadherin gene promoter methylation in prostatic adenocarcinomas. Cancer 92(11): 2786-95. 29. Corn , PG, BD Smith, ES Ruckdeschel et al (2000) E-cadherin

  8. E-cadherin roles in animal biology: A perspective on thyroid hormone-influence.

    PubMed

    Izaguirre, María Fernanda; Casco, Victor Hugo

    2016-11-04

    The establishment, remodeling and maintenance of tissular architecture during animal development, and even across juvenile to adult life, are deeply regulated by a delicate interplay of extracellular signals, cell membrane receptors and intracellular signal messengers. It is well known that cell adhesion molecules (cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix) play a critical role in these processes. Particularly, adherens junctions (AJs) mediated by E-cadherin and catenins determine cell-cell contact survival and epithelia function. Consequently, this review seeks to encompass the complex and prolific knowledge about E-cadherin roles during physiological and pathological states, particularly focusing on the influence exerted by the thyroid hormone (TH).

  9. Identification of E-cadherin signature motifs functioning as cleavage sites for Helicobacter pylori HtrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Thomas P.; Perna, Anna M.; Fugmann, Tim; Böhm, Manja; Jan Hiss; Haller, Sarah; Götz, Camilla; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Hoy, Benjamin; Rau, Tilman T.; Neri, Dario; Backert, Steffen; Schneider, Gisbert; Wessler, Silja

    2016-03-01

    The cell adhesion protein and tumour suppressor E-cadherin exhibits important functions in the prevention of gastric cancer. As a class-I carcinogen, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has developed a unique strategy to interfere with E-cadherin functions. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that H. pylori secretes the protease high temperature requirement A (HtrA) which cleaves off the E-cadherin ectodomain (NTF) on epithelial cells. This opens cell-to-cell junctions, allowing bacterial transmigration across the polarised epithelium. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the HtrA-E-cadherin interaction and identified E-cadherin cleavage sites for HtrA. Mass-spectrometry-based proteomics and Edman degradation revealed three signature motifs containing the [VITA]-[VITA]-x-x-D-[DN] sequence pattern, which were preferentially cleaved by HtrA. Based on these sites, we developed a substrate-derived peptide inhibitor that selectively bound and inhibited HtrA, thereby blocking transmigration of H. pylori. The discovery of HtrA-targeted signature sites might further explain why we detected a stable 90 kDa NTF fragment during H. pylori infection, but also additional E-cadherin fragments ranging from 105 kDa to 48 kDa in in vitro cleavage experiments. In conclusion, HtrA targets E-cadherin signature sites that are accessible in in vitro reactions, but might be partially masked on epithelial cells through functional homophilic E-cadherin interactions.

  10. Soluble fragments of e-cadherin cell-adhesion molecule increase in urinary-excretion of cancer-patients, potentially indicating its shedding from epithelial tumor-cells.

    PubMed

    Katayama, M; Hirai, S; Yasumoto, M; Nishikawa, K; Nagata, S; Otsuka, M; Kamihagi, K; Kato, I

    1994-11-01

    E-cadherin (Ecad) is well known to be a calcium-ion-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule expressed mostly in epithelial tissues. Previous immunohistochemical studies suggested that this cell adhesion molecule acts as an invasion suppressor and is negligibly detected in cancer metastatic regions. Soluble Ecad fragments derived from the proteolysed membrane-associated form were detected in culture supernatants of two cell lines, COLO 205 and A-431, with normal distribution of cell surface Ecad. Soluble Ecad levels released into culture of COLO 205 exhibiting reduced cell-cell adhesion were apparently elevated above those of A-431 with tight cell-cell adhesion. Furthermore, human circulation and urine continuously contain soluble Ecad which consists mainly of homogeneous 75-85 kDa extracellular domains. Soluble Ecad urinary level per urinary creatinine level was found to be significantly elevated in 53% of patients suffering from various types of cancers including lung, liver, stomach, colon and rectal cancers, as compared with those in the age-matched healthy subjects. These results suggest that dysfunction of cell surface Ecad is responsible for its enhanced proteolytic shedding in tumorigenesis, which may lead to the decrease of cell surface Ecads. Furthermore, excretion of high levels of soluble Ecad fragments potentially indicates the progression of epithelial tumors excessively degrading cell surface Ecad in clinical subjects.

  11. Maintenance and induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation using E-cadherin-Fc substrata without colony formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-Yuan; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2013-03-01

    Induced embryonic stem (ES) cells are expected to be promising cell resources for the observation of the cell behaviors in developmental biology as well as the implantation in cell treatments in human diseases. A recombinant E-cadherin substratum was developed as a cell recognizable substratum to maintain the ES cells' self-renewal and pluripotency at single cell level. Furthermore, the generation of various cell lineages in different germ layers, including hepatic or neural cells, was achieved on the chimeric protein layer precisely and effectively. The induction and isolation of specific cell population was carried out with the enhancing effect of other artificial extracellular matrices (ECMs) in enzyme-free process. The murine ES cell-derived cells showed highly morphological similarities and functional expressions to matured hepatocytes or neural progenitor cells.

  12. E-cadherin Is Critical for Collective Sheet Migration and Is Regulated by the Chemokine CXCL12 Protein During Restitution*

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Soonyean; Zimmerman, Noah P.; Agle, Kimberle A.; Turner, Jerrold R.; Kumar, Suresh N.; Dwinell, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Chemokines and other immune mediators enhance epithelial barrier repair. The intestinal barrier is established by highly regulated cell-cell contacts between epithelial cells. The goal of these studies was to define the role for the chemokine CXCL12 in regulating E-cadherin during collective sheet migration during epithelial restitution. Mechanisms regulating E-cadherin were investigated using Caco2BBE and IEC-6 model epithelia. Genetic knockdown confirmed a critical role for E-cadherin in in vitro restitution and in vivo wound repair. During restitution, both CXCL12 and TGF-β1 tightened the monolayer by decreasing the paracellular space between migrating epithelial cells. However, CXCL12 differed from TGF-β1 by stimulating the significant increase in E-cadherin membrane localization during restitution. Chemokine-stimulated relocalization of E-cadherin was paralleled by an increase in barrier integrity of polarized epithelium during restitution. CXCL12 activation of its cognate receptor CXCR4 stimulated E-cadherin localization and monolayer tightening through Rho-associated protein kinase activation and F-actin reorganization. These data demonstrate a key role for E-cadherin in intestinal epithelial restitution. PMID:22549778

  13. Molecular basis for the regulation of islet beta cell mass in mice: the role of E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Wakae-Takada, N.; Xuan, S.; Watanabe, K.; Meda, P.; Leibel, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis In rodents and humans, the rate of beta cell proliferation declines rapidly after birth; formation of the islets of Langerhans begins perinatally and continues after birth. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of E-cadherin during islet formation mediate the decline in beta cell proliferation rate by contributing to a reduction of nuclear β-catenin and D-cyclins. Methods We examined E-cadherin, nuclear β-catenin, and D-cyclin levels, as well as cell proliferation during in vitro and in vivo formation of islet cell aggregates, using β-TC6 cells and transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled beta cells, respectively. We tested the role of E-cadherin using antisense-mediated reductions of E-cadherin in β-TC6 cells, and mice segregating for a beta cell-specific E-cadherin knockout (Ecad [also known as Cdh1] βKO). Results In vitro, pseudo-islets of β-TC6 cells displayed increased E-cadherin but decreased nuclear β-catenin and cyclin D2, and reduced rates of cell proliferation, compared with monolayers. Antisense knockdown of E-cadherin increased cell proliferation and levels of cyclins D1 and D2. After birth, beta cells showed increased levels of E-cadherin, but decreased levels of D-cyclin, whereas islets of Ecad βKO mice showed increased levels of D-cyclins and nuclear β-catenin, as well as increased beta cell proliferation. These islets were significantly larger than those of control mice and displayed reduced levels of connexin 36. These changes correlated with reduced insulin response to ambient glucose, both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions/interpretation The findings support our hypothesis by indicating an important role of E-cadherin in the control of beta cell mass and function. PMID:23354125

  14. Molecular basis for the regulation of islet beta cell mass in mice: the role of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Wakae-Takada, N; Xuan, S; Watanabe, K; Meda, P; Leibel, R L

    2013-04-01

    In rodents and humans, the rate of beta cell proliferation declines rapidly after birth; formation of the islets of Langerhans begins perinatally and continues after birth. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of E-cadherin during islet formation mediate the decline in beta cell proliferation rate by contributing to a reduction of nuclear β-catenin and D-cyclins. We examined E-cadherin, nuclear β-catenin, and D-cyclin levels, as well as cell proliferation during in vitro and in vivo formation of islet cell aggregates, using β-TC6 cells and transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled beta cells, respectively. We tested the role of E-cadherin using antisense-mediated reductions of E-cadherin in β-TC6 cells, and mice segregating for a beta cell-specific E-cadherin knockout (Ecad [also known as Cdh1] βKO). In vitro, pseudo-islets of β-TC6 cells displayed increased E-cadherin but decreased nuclear β-catenin and cyclin D2, and reduced rates of cell proliferation, compared with monolayers. Antisense knockdown of E-cadherin increased cell proliferation and levels of cyclins D1 and D2. After birth, beta cells showed increased levels of E-cadherin, but decreased levels of D-cyclin, whereas islets of Ecad βKO mice showed increased levels of D-cyclins and nuclear β-catenin, as well as increased beta cell proliferation. These islets were significantly larger than those of control mice and displayed reduced levels of connexin 36. These changes correlated with reduced insulin response to ambient glucose, both in vitro and in vivo. The findings support our hypothesis by indicating an important role of E-cadherin in the control of beta cell mass and function.

  15. E-Cadherin-Dependent Stimulation of Traction Force at Focal Adhesions via the Src and PI3K Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jasaitis, Audrius; Estevez, Maruxa; Heysch, Julie; Ladoux, Benoit; Dufour, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between cadherin- and integrin-dependent signals controls cell behavior, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the strength of adhesion to the extracellular matrix remains poorly understood. We deposited cells expressing a defined repertoire of cadherins and integrins on fibronectin (FN)-coated polyacrylamide gels (FN-PAG) and on FN-coated pillars used as a micro-force sensor array (μFSA), and analyzed the functional relationship between these adhesion receptors to determine how it regulates cell traction force. We found that cadherin-mediated adhesion stimulated cell spreading on FN-PAG, and this was modulated by the substrate stiffness. We compared S180 cells with cells stably expressing different cadherins on μFSA and found that traction forces were stronger in cells expressing cadherins than in parental cells. E-cadherin-mediated contact and mechanical coupling between cells are required for this increase in cell-FN traction force, which was not observed in isolated cells, and required Src and PI3K activities. Traction forces were stronger in cells expressing type I cadherins than in cells expressing type II cadherins, which correlates with our previous observation of a higher intercellular adhesion strength developed by type I compared with type II cadherins. Our results reveal one of the mechanisms whereby molecular cross talk between cadherins and integrins upregulates traction forces at cell-FN adhesion sites, and thus provide additional insight into the molecular control of cell behavior. PMID:22853894

  16. [Expression and clinical significance of BCL6 corepressor-like 1 in non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Tuo, Hang; Si, Meili; Wang, Lei; Liang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    To detect the expression of BCL6 corepressor-like 1 (BCORL1) in tumor tissues of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and determine the effect of BCORL1 on cell migration and invasion in A549 cells by knockdown of BCORL1. Sixty-eight pairs of NSCLC and nontumor tissues were collected and the expressions of BCORL1 and E-cadherin in them were detected using immunohistochemical staining. The expression of BCORL1 was knocked down by siRNA in A549 cells. Transwell(TM) assays were performed to test NSCLC cell migration and invasion in vitro. The expression of BCORL1 in NSCLC was significantly higher than that in paired noncancerous tissues, while E-cadherin was down-regulated in NSCLC as compared with nontumor tissues. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis suggested that BCORL1 was negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression in NSCLC tissues. Clinical association analysis suggested that the elevated expression of BCORL1 was evidently associated with the higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and more advanced TNM stage. When the expression of BCORL1 was down-regulated by a specific siRNA, E-cadherin was up-regulated, and BCORL1 knockdown obviously inhibited cell migration and invasion in A549 cells. BCORL1 is overexpressed in NSCLC tissues and it is negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression. Its high expression is correlated with poor prognostic features. BCORL1 knockdown up-regulates E-cadherin expression and subsequently inhibits cell migration and invasion of lung cancer cells.

  17. High Glucose-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Stimulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration Through Snail and EZH2-Dependent E-Cadherin Repression.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Young; Choi, Gee Euhn; Lee, Hyun Jik; Jung, Young Hyun; Ko, So Hee; Chae, Chang Woo; Kim, Jun Sung; Kim, Seo Yihl; Lim, Jae Ryong; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Han, Ho Jae

    2018-01-01

    Glucose plays an important role in stem cell fate determination and behaviors. However, it is still not known how glucose contributes to the precise molecular mechanisms responsible for stem cell migration. Thus, we investigate the effect of glucose on the regulation of the human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hUCB-MSC) migration, and analyze the mechanism accompanied by this effect. Western blot analysis, wound healing migration assays, immunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were performed to investigate the effect of high glucose on hUCB-MSC migration. Additionally, hUCB-MSC transplantation was performed in the mouse excisional wound splinting model. High concentration glucose (25 mM) elicits hUCB-MSC migration compared to normal glucose and high glucose-pretreated hUCB-MSC transplantation into the wound sites in mice also accelerates skin wound repair. We therefore elucidated the detailed mechanisms how high glucose induces hUCB-MSC migration. We showed that high glucose regulates E-cadherin repression through increased Snail and EZH2 expressions. And, we found high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes two signaling; JNK which regulates γ-secretase leading to the cleavage of Notch proteins and PI3K/Akt signaling which enhances GSK-3β phosphorylation. High glucose-mediated JNK/Notch pathway regulates the expression of EZH2, and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway stimulates Snail stabilization, respectively. High glucose enhances the formation of EZH2/Snail/HDAC1 complex in the nucleus, which in turn causes E-cadherin repression. This study reveals that high glucose-induced ROS stimulates the migration of hUCB-MSC through E-cadherin repression via Snail and EZH2 signaling pathways. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Le(x) glycan mediates homotypic adhesion of embryonal cells independently from E-cadherin: a preliminary note.

    PubMed

    Handa, Kazuko; Takatani-Nakase, Tomoka; Larue, Lionel; Stemmler, Marc P; Kemler, Rolf; Hakomori, Sen-itiroh

    2007-06-22

    Le(x) glycan and E-cadherin (Ecad) are co-expressed at embryonal stem (ES) cells and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. While the structure and function of Ecad mediating homotypic adhesion of these cells have been well established, evidence that Le(x) glycan also mediates such adhesion is weak, despite the fact that Le(x) oligosaccharide inhibits the compaction process. To provide stronger evidence, we knocked out Ecad gene in EC and ES cells to establish F9 Ecad (-/-) and D3M Ecad (-/-) cells, which highly express Le(x) glycan but do not express Ecad at all. Both F9 Ecad (-/-) and D3M Ecad (-/-) cells displayed strong autoaggregation in the presence of Ca(2+), while PYS-2 cells, which express trace amount of Ecad and undetectable level of Le(x) glycan, did not display autoaggregation. In addition, F9 Ecad (-/-) and D3M Ecad (-/-) cells displayed strong adhesion to plates coated with Le(x) glycosphingolipid (III(3)FucnLc4Cer), in dose-dependent manner, in the presence of Ca(2+). Thus, ES or EC cells display autoaggregation and strong adhesion to Le(x)-coated plates in the absence of Ecad, further supporting the notion of Le(x) self-recognition (i.e., Le(x)-to-Le(x) interaction) in cell adhesion.

  19. Thermo-chemotherapy Induced miR-218 upregulation inhibits the invasion of gastric cancer via targeting Gli2 and E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Qiang; Fang, Zhi-Yuan; Cui, Shu-Zhong; Zhang, Xiang-Liang; Wu, Yin-Bing; Tang, Hong-Sheng; Tu, Yi-Nuo; Ding, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Thermo-chemotherapy has been proven to reduce the invasion capability of cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this anti-invasion effect is still unclear. In this study, the role of thermo-chemotherapy in the inhibition of tumor invasion was studied. The results demonstrated that expression of miR-218 was downregulated in gastric cancer tissues, which had a positive correlation with tumor invasion and metastasis. In vitro thermo-chemotherapy increased miR-218 expression in SGC7901 cells and inhibited both proliferation and invasion of cancer cells. Gli2 was identified as a downstream target of miR-218, and its expression was negatively regulated by miR-218. The thermo-chemotherapy induced miR-218 upregulation was also accompanied by increasing of E-cadherin expression. In conclusion, the present study indicates that thermo-chemotherapy can effectively decrease the invasion capability of cancer cells and increase cell-cell adhesion. miR-218 and its downstream target Gli2, as well as E-cadherin, participate in the anti-invasion process.

  20. Soluble E-cadherin is an independent pretherapeutic factor for long-term survival in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Annie On-On; Chu, Kent-Man; Lam, Shiu-Kum; Wong, Benjamin Chun-Yu; Kwok, Ka-Fai; Law, Simon; Ko, Samuel; Hui, Wai-Mo; Yueng, Yui-Hung; Wong, John

    2003-06-15

    To evaluate whether pretherapeutic serum soluble E-cadherin is an independent factor predicting long-term survival in gastric cancer. Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, but a satisfactory tumor marker is currently unavailable for gastric cancer. Soluble E-cadherin has recently been found to have prognostic value in gastric cancer. One hundred sixteen patients with histologically proven gastric adenocarcinoma were included in the trial. Pretherapeutic serum was collected, and soluble E-cadherin was assayed using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The patients were followed up prospectively at the outpatient clinic. There were 75 men and 41 women, with a mean (+/- SD) age of 66 +/- 14 years. Forty-eight percent of tumors were located in the gastric antrum. The median survival time was 11 months. The mean pretherapeutic value of soluble E-cadherin was 9,159 ng/mL (range, 6,002 to 10,025 ng/mL), and the mean pretherapeutic level of carcinoembryonic antigen was 11 ng/mL (range, 0.3 to 4,895 ng/mL). On multivariate analysis, soluble E-cadherin is an independent factor predicting long-term survival. Ninety percent of patients with a serum level of E-cadherin greater than 10,000 ng/mL had a survival time of less than 3 years (P =.009). Soluble E-cadherin is a potentially valuable pretherapeutic prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer.

  1. Direct regulation of E-cadherin by targeted histone methylation of TALE-SET fusion protein in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Soo; Kang, Jeong Gu; Lee, Jae-Hye; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Jeon, Seong Kook; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Dae-Soo; Park, Kun-Hyang; Kim, Yong-Sam; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2015-09-15

    TALE-nuclease chimeras (TALENs) can bind to and cleave specific genomic loci and, are used to engineer gene knockouts and additions. Recently, instead of using the FokI domain, epigenetically active domains, such as TET1 and LSD1, have been combined with TAL effector domains to regulate targeted gene expression via DNA and histone demethylation. However, studies of histone methylation in the TALE system have not been performed. Therefore, in this study, we established a novel targeted regulation system with a TAL effector domain and a histone methylation domain. To construct a TALE-methylation fusion protein, we combined a TAL effector domain containing an E-Box region to act as a Snail binding site and the SET domain of EHMT 2 to allow for histone methylation. The constructed TALE-SET module (TSET) repressed the expression of E-cadherin via by increasing H3K9 dimethylation. Moreover, the cells that overexpressed TSET showed increased cell migration and invasion. This is the first phenotype-based study of targeted histone methylation by the TALE module, and this new system can be applied in new cancer therapies to reduce side effects.

  2. HOXA5 determines cell fate transition and impedes tumor initiation and progression in breast cancer through regulation of E-cadherin and CD24

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Wei Wen; Merino, Vanessa F.; Cho, Soonweng; Korangath, Preethi; Liang, Xiaohui; Wu, Ren-chin; Neumann, Neil M.; Ewald, Andrew J.; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2016-01-01

    Loss of HOXA5 expression occurs frequently in breast cancer and correlates with higher pathological grade and poorer disease outcome. However, how HOX proteins drive differentiation in mammalian cells is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigated cellular and molecular consequences of loss of HOXA5 in breast cancer, and the role played by retinoic acid in HOXA5 function. Analysis of global gene expression data from HOXA5-depleted MCF10A breast epithelial cells, followed by validation, pointed to a role for HOXA5 in maintaining several molecular traits typical of the epithelial lineage such as cell-cell adhesion, tight junctions and markers of differentiation. Depleting HOXA5 in immortalized MCF10A or transformed MCF10A-Kras cells reduced their CD24+/CD44lo population, enhanced self-renewal capacity, and reduced expression of E-cadherin (CDH1) and CD24. In the case of MCF10A-Kras, HOXA5 loss increased branching and protrusive morphology in Matrigel, all features suggestive of epithelial to basal transition. Further, orthotopically implanted xenografts of MCF10A-Kras-scr grew as well-differentiated pseudo-luminal carcinomas, while MCF10A-Kras-shHOXA5 cells formed aggressive, poorly differentiated carcinomas. Conversely, ectopic expression of HOXA5 in aggressive SUM149 or SUM159 breast cancer cells reversed the cellular and molecular alterations observed in the HOXA5-depleted cells. Retinoic acid is a known upstream regulator of HOXA5 expression. HOXA5 depletion in MCF10A cells engineered to express doxycycline-induced shHOXA5 slowed transition of cells from a less differentiated CD24−/CD44+ to the more differentiated CD24+/CD44+ state. This transition was promoted by retinal treatment which upregulated endogenous HOXA5 expression, and caused re-expression of, Occludin, and claudin-7 (CLDN7). Expression of CDH1 and CD24 was transcriptionally upregulated by direct binding of HOXA5 to their promoter sequences as demonstrated by luciferase and ChIP analyses

  3. Reggies/flotillins interact with Rab11a and SNX4 at the tubulovesicular recycling compartment and function in transferrin receptor and E-cadherin trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Gonzalo P.; Hülsbusch, Nikola; Radon, Yvonne; Katanaev, Vladimir L.; Plattner, Helmut; Stuermer, Claudia A. O.

    2013-01-01

    The lipid raft proteins reggie-1 and -2 (flotillins) are implicated in membrane protein trafficking but exactly how has been elusive. We find that reggie-1 and -2 associate with the Rab11a, SNX4, and EHD1–decorated tubulovesicular recycling compartment in HeLa cells and that reggie-1 directly interacts with Rab11a and SNX4. Short hairpin RNA–mediated down-regulation of reggie-1 (and -2) in HeLa cells reduces association of Rab11a with tubular structures and impairs recycling of the transferrin–transferrin receptor (TfR) complex to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of constitutively active Rab11a rescues TfR recycling in reggie-deficient HeLa cells. Similarly, in a Ca2+ switch assay in reggie-depleted A431 cells, internalized E-cadherin is not efficiently recycled to the plasma membrane upon Ca2+ repletion. E-cadherin recycling is rescued, however, by overexpression of constitutively active Rab11a or SNX4 in reggie-deficient A431 cells. This suggests that the function of reggie-1 in sorting and recycling occurs in association with Rab11a and SNX4. Of interest, impaired recycling in reggie-deficient cells leads to de novo E-cadherin biosynthesis and cell contact reformation, showing that cells have ways to compensate the loss of reggies. Together our results identify reggie-1 as a regulator of the Rab11a/SNX4-controlled sorting and recycling pathway, which is, like reggies, evolutionarily conserved. PMID:23825023

  4. E-cadherin germline mutation carriers: clinical management and genetic implications.

    PubMed

    Corso, Giovanni; Figueiredo, Joana; Biffi, Roberto; Trentin, Chiara; Bonanni, Bernardo; Feroce, Irene; Serrano, Davide; Cassano, Enrico; Annibale, Bruno; Melo, Soraia; Seruca, Raquel; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Ferrara, Francesco; Piagnerelli, Riccardo; Roviello, Franco; Galimberti, Viviana

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is an autosomic dominant syndrome associated with E-cadherin protein (CDH1) gene germline mutations. Clinical criteria for genetic screening were revised in 2010 by the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium at the Cambridge meeting. About 40 % of families fulfilling clinical criteria for this inherited disease present deleterious CDH1 germline mutations. Lobular breast cancer is a neoplastic condition associated with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome. E-cadherin constitutional mutations have been described in both settings, in gastric and breast cancers. The management of CDH1 asymptomatic mutation carriers requires a multidisciplinary approach; the only life-saving procedure is the prophylactic total gastrectomy after thorough genetic counselling. Several prophylactic gastrectomies have been performed to date; conversely, no prophylactic mastectomies have been described in CDH1 mutant carriers. However, the recent discovery of novel germline alterations in pedigree clustering only for lobular breast cancer opens up a new debate in the management of these individuals. In this critical review, we describe the clinical management of CDH1 germline mutant carriers providing specific recommendations for genetic counselling, clinical criteria, surveillance and/ or prophylactic surgery.

  5. CD147 Induces Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition by Disassembling Cellular Apoptosis Susceptibility Protein/E-Cadherin/β-Catenin Complex in Human Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoqun; Zhang, Jieting; Fok, Kin Lam; Tsang, Lai Ling; Ye, Mei; Liu, Jianni; Li, Fanghong; Zhao, Allan Zijian; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Chen, Hao

    2018-04-06

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is postulated to be a prerequisite for the establishment of endometriosis (EMS), a common reproductive disorder in women. Our previous studies have demonstrated the elevated expression of transmembrane glycoprotein CD147 and its prosurvival effect on abnormal cells in endometriosis. Intriguingly, CD147 is known to promote EMT in cancers. However, the involvement of CD147 in EMT during the establishment of endometriosis remains incompletely understood. We found that CD147 promotes EMT in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. We identified a novel CD147-interacting partner, cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS), which stabilized the interaction between E-cadherin (E-cad) and β-catenin (β-cat) by forming the CAS/E-cad/β-cat complex. Down-regulation of CAS led to the release and nuclear translocation of β-cat from E-cad, resulting in the overexpression of the EMT-promoting gene SNAIL. Interestingly, overexpression of CD147 impaired the interaction between CAS and E-cad and triggered the release of β-cat from the CAS/E-cad/β-cat complex, which in turn led to EMT. Furthermore, CAS was down-regulated in EMS, with elevated levels of CD147 and nuclear β-cat. These findings suggest a previously undefined role of CAS in regulating EMT and reveal the involvement of a CD147-induced EMT signaling pathway in pathogenic progression of EMS. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased epithelial cadherin expression among Japanese intestinal-type gastric cancers compared with specimens from American patients of European descent.

    PubMed

    Theuer, Charles P; Al-Kuran, Rasha; Akiyama, Yoshiyuki; Okumura, Minoru; Ziogas, Al; Carpenter, Philip M

    2006-04-01

    The different patterns of gastric cancer in the Far East and West have evolved to the extent that it has been suggested that the disease in Japan is biologically less aggressive than in the West. We studied paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue blocks from Japanese patients and American patients of European descent who had undergone gastrectomy for gastric cancer not involving the gastroesophageal junction. Specimens were staged (T stage), graded (Lauren classification), and biomarker expression (epithelial cadherin [E-cadherin], c-erbB2, Ki67, and p53) was quantified using immunohistochemistry without knowledge of the country of origin. E-cadherin was expressed in 49 per cent of malignant cells from Japanese specimens compared with 27 per cent of malignant cells from American specimens (P = 0.04). The expression of E-cadherin on diffuse cancers from the two countries was similar (34.4 in Japanese vs 41.5 in American, P = 0.92). E-cadherin expression, however, was significantly higher among intestinal cancers from the two countries: 56.3 per cent of cells from intestinal or mixed cancers from Japan (n = 32) expressed E-cadherin compared with 22.2 per cent of American specimens (n = 12; P = 0.008).-c-erbB2 was expressed on a higher proportion of malignant cells from American specimens (30% vs 22%; P = 0.20). E-cadherin expression, a favorable prognostic factor, is more common in Japanese intestinal-type gastric cancer not involving the gastroesophageal junction. If the biology of gastric cancer in the Far East is less aggressive than that in the United States, it is likely that treatments need to be individualized.

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor and integrins control force-dependent vinculin recruitment to E-cadherin junctions.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Poonam; Kong, Xinyu; Wu, Jun; Sunyer, Raimon; Trepat, Xavier; Leckband, Deborah

    2018-03-20

    This study reports novel findings that link E-cadherin (also known as CDH1)-mediated force-transduction signaling to vinculin targeting to intercellular junctions via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrins. These results build on previous findings that demonstrated that mechanically perturbed E-cadherin receptors activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase and downstream integrins in an EGFR-dependent manner. Results of this study show that this EGFR-mediated kinase cascade controls the force-dependent recruitment of vinculin to stressed E-cadherin complexes - a key early signature of cadherin-based mechanotransduction. Vinculin targeting requires its phosphorylation at tyrosine 822 by Abl family kinases (hereafter Abl), but the origin of force-dependent Abl activation had not been identified. We now present evidence that integrin activation, which is downstream of EGFR signaling, controls Abl activation, thus linking E-cadherin to Abl through a mechanosensitive signaling network. These findings place EGFR and integrins at the center of a positive-feedback loop, through which force-activated E-cadherin signals regulate vinculin recruitment to cadherin complexes in response to increased intercellular tension.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. EVALUATION OF P53, E-CADHERIN, COX-2, AND EGFR PROTEIN IMUNNOEXPRESSION ON PROGNOSTIC OF RESECTED GALLBLADDER CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    PAIS-COSTA, Sergio Renato; FARAH, José Francisco de Matos; ARTIGIANI-NETO, Ricardo; MARTINS, Sandro José; GOLDENBERG, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Gallbladder carcinoma presents a dismal prognosis. Choice treatment is surgical resection that is associated a high levels of both morbidity and mortality. Best knowledgement of prognostic factors may result a better selection of patients either for surgical or multimodal treatment. Aim To evaluate tecidual immunoexpression of P53, E-cadherin, Cox-2, and EGFR proteins and to correlate these findings with resected gallbladder adenocarcinoma survival. Methods Clinical, laboratorial, surgical, and anatomopathological reports of a series of gallbladder adenocarcinoma patients were collected by individualized questionary. Total sample was 42 patients. Median of age was 72 years (35-87). There were seven men and 35 women. Lesion distribuition in according TNM state was the following: T1 (n=2), T2 (n=5), T3 (n=31), T4 (n=4). Twenty-three patients underwent radical resection (R0), while 19 palliative surgery (R1-R2). A block of tissue microarray with neoplasic tissue of each patient was confected. It was performed evaluation of P53, E-Caderine, COX-2, and EGFR proteins imunoexpression. These findings were correlated with overall survival. Results Five-year survival was 28%. The median of global survival was eight months. Only immunoexpression of EGFR protein was considered independent variable at multivariated analysis. Conclusion Final prognosis was influenced by over-expression of EGFR protein in tumoral tissue. PMID:25004291

  9. Effects of Cd{sup 2+} on cis-dimer structure of E-cadherin in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Hiroshi, E-mail: hirotake@sapmed.ac.jp

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • The effects of Cd on the dimer of cadherin in living cells was analyzed. • Cd induced cadherin dimer formation was not detected in living cell with low Ca. • Ca mediated structural cooperativity and allostery in the native cadherin. • Ca concentration-dependent competitive displacement of Cd from cadherin is proposed. - Abstract: E-cadherin, a calcium (Ca{sup 2+})-dependent cell–cell adhesion molecule, plays a key role in the maintenance of tissue integrity. We have previously demonstrated that E-cadherin functions in vivo as a cis-dimer through chemical cross-linking reagents. Ca{sup 2+} plays an important role in the cis-dimer formation ofmore » cadherin. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Ca{sup 2+} interacts with the binding sites that regulate cis-dimer structures have not been completely elucidated. As expected for a Ca{sup 2+} antagonist, cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) disrupts cadherin function by displacing Ca{sup 2+} from its binding sites on the cadherin molecules. We used Cd{sup 2+} as a probe for investigating the role of Ca{sup 2+} in the dynamics of the E-cadherin extracellular region that involve cis-dimer formation and adhesion. While cell–cell adhesion assembly was completely disrupted in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, the amount of cis-dimers of E-cadherin that formed at the cell surface was not affected. In our “Cd{sup 2+}-switch” experiments, we did not find that Cd{sup 2+}-induced E-cadherin cis-dimer formation in EL cells when they were incubated in low-Ca{sup 2+} medium. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time the effects of Cd{sup 2+} on the cis-dimer structure of E-cadherin in living cells using a chemical cross-link analysis.« less

  10. SASH1 regulates melanocyte transepithelial migration through a novel Gαs-SASH1-IQGAP1-E-Cadherin dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ding'an; Wei, Zhiyun; Deng, Shanshan; Wang, Teng; Zai, Meiqing; Wang, Honglian; Guo, Luo; Zhang, Junyu; Zhong, Hailei; He, Lin; Xing, Qinghe

    2013-06-01

    One important function of melanocytes (MCs) is to produce and transfer melanin to neighbouring keratinocytes (KCs) to protect epithelial cells from UV radiation. The mechanisms regulating the specific migration and localisation of the MC lineage remain unknown. We have found three heterozygous mutations that cause amino acid substitutions in the SASH1 gene in individuals with a kind of dyschromatosis. In epidermal tissues from an affected individual, we observed the increased transepithelial migration of melanocytes. Functional analyses indicate that these SASH1 mutations not only cause the increased migration of A375 cells and but also induce intensive bindings with two novel cell adhesion partners IQGAP1 and Gαs. Further, SASH1 mutations induce uniform loss of E-Cadherin in human A375 cells. Our findings suggest a new scaffold protein SASH1 to regulate IQGAP1-E-Cadherin signalling and demonstrate a novel crosstalking between GPCR signalling, calmodulin signalling for the modulation of MCs invasion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship among mismatch repair deficiency, CDX2 loss, p53 and E-cadherin in colon carcinoma and suitability of using a double panel of mismatch repair proteins by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Ilyas; Akbas, Emin Murat; Isik, Arda; Gokce, Aysun; Peker, Kemal; Demirtas, Levent; Gürbüzel, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Biomarkers such as mismatch repair proteins, CDX2, p53, and E-cadherin are blamed for colon cancers, but the relationships of these biomarkers with each other and with pathological risk factors in colon carcinoma are still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of these biomarkers with each other by using immunohistochemical staining and to compare their expression with pathological risk factors for colonic adenocarcinoma. We also aimed to study the usability of a double panel of mismatch repair proteins. One hundred and eleven cases with colonic adenocarcinoma were examined. There was a statistically significant relationship between tumor histological differentiation and perineural invasion, vascular invasion, mismatch repair deficiency, p53, CDX2, and E-cadherin (p < 0.05). PMS2 and MSH6 loss covered 100% of cases with mismatch repair deficiency. Mismatch repair deficiency was correlated with CDX2 loss and E-cadherin expression (p < 0.05). It was also observed that cases with PMS2 loss covered all the cases with CDX2 loss. In conclusion, this double panel may be used instead of a quadruple panel for detecting mismatch repair deficiency. Association of CDX2 and PMS2 in the present study is necessary to conduct further genetic and pathological studies focusing on these two markers together.

  12. Expression of adhesion molecules and cytokeratin 20 in merkel cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasushi; Sano, Toshiaki; Qian, Zhi Rong; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCCs often show characteristic paranuclear dot-like immunopositivity for cytokeratin 20 (CK20), a globular aggregation of CK20 intermediate filaments. These aggregates typically form rhabdoid features and fibrous bodies and may be associated with a down-regulation in adhesion molecules (AMs). To date, the relationship between the expression of AMs and CK20 and clinicopathological findings in MCC has not been well examined. In this immunohistochemical study, we assessed the expression of AMs, CK20, and chromogranin A (CgA) on MCCs in 8 men and 23 women with this disease, and also characterized their clinicopathological features. This study is the largest of its kind that has been undertaken to date in Japanese patients. Compared to normal tissue, E-cadherin and alpha- and beta-catenins showed reduced membranous expression in 95.7%, 46.7%, and 45.2% of MCCs, respectively. Nuclear E-cadherin localization was seen in four tumors, all of which predominantly showed a CK20 dot pattern. However, there was no significant relationship between the membranous expression of AMs and a CK20 dot pattern. E-cadherin expression was significantly lower in tumors of > or =2 cm, and tumors negative for E-cadherin more frequently developed outside of the head and neck than within those regions. CgA was more intensely expressed in tumors with uniform nuclei and a dense lymphocytic infiltrate than in those that showed pleomorphisms and that had few, if any, infiltrating lymphocytes. These findings suggest that MCCs have a reduced expression of AMs and that down-regulation of E-cadherin expression may correlate with increased tumor aggressiveness. The fact that no significant relationship was demonstrable between the membranous expression of AMs and the CK20 expression pattern suggests that the mechanism of aggregation of intermediate filaments may be different in different types of tumors.

  13. E-cadherin transport from the trans-Golgi network in tubulovesicular carriers is selectively regulated by golgin-97.

    PubMed

    Lock, John G; Hammond, Luke A; Houghton, Fiona; Gleeson, Paul A; Stow, Jennifer L

    2005-12-01

    E-cadherin is a cell-cell adhesion protein that is trafficked and delivered to the basolateral cell surface. Membrane-bound carriers for the post-Golgi exocytosis of E-cadherin have not been characterized. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged E-cadherin (Ecad-GFP) is transported from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the recycling endosome on its way to the cell surface in tubulovesicular carriers that resemble TGN tubules labeled by members of the golgin family of tethering proteins. Here, we examine the association of golgins with tubular carriers containing E-cadherin as cargo. Fluorescent GRIP domains from golgin proteins replicate the membrane binding of the full-length proteins and were coexpressed with Ecad-GFP. The GRIP domains of p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97 had overlapping but nonidentical distributions on the TGN; both domains were on TGN-derived tubules but only the golgin-97 GRIP domain coincided with Ecad-GFP tubules in live cells. When the Arl1-binding endogenous golgins, p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97 were displaced from Golgi membranes by overexpression of the p230 GRIP domain, trafficking of Ecad-GFP was inhibited. siRNA knockdown of golgin-97 also inhibited trafficking of Ecad-GFP. Thus, the GRIP domains of p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97 bind discriminately to distinct membrane subdomains of the TGN. Golgin-97 is identified as a selective and essential component of the tubulovesicular carriers transporting E-cadherin out of the TGN.

  14. Drosophila E-cadherin is required for the maintenance of ring canals anchoring to mechanically withstand tissue growth.

    PubMed

    Loyer, Nicolas; Kolotuev, Irina; Pinot, Mathieu; Le Borgne, Roland

    2015-10-13

    Intercellular bridges called "ring canals" (RCs) resulting from incomplete cytokinesis play an essential role in intercellular communication in somatic and germinal tissues. During Drosophila oogenesis, RCs connect the maturing oocyte to nurse cells supporting its growth. Despite numerous genetic screens aimed at identifying genes involved in RC biogenesis and maturation, how RCs anchor to the plasma membrane (PM) throughout development remains unexplained. In this study, we report that the clathrin adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) complex, although dispensable for the biogenesis of RCs, is required for the maintenance of the anchorage of RCs to the PM to withstand the increased membrane tension associated with the exponential tissue growth at the onset of vitellogenesis. Here we unravel the mechanisms by which AP-1 enables the maintenance of RCs' anchoring to the PM during size expansion. We show that AP-1 regulates the localization of the intercellular adhesion molecule E-cadherin and that loss of AP-1 causes the disappearance of the E-cadherin-containing adhesive clusters surrounding the RCs. E-cadherin itself is shown to be required for the maintenance of the RCs' anchorage, a function previously unrecognized because of functional compensation by N-cadherin. Scanning block-face EM combined with transmission EM analyses reveals the presence of interdigitated, actin- and Moesin-positive, microvilli-like structures wrapping the RCs. Thus, by modulating E-cadherin trafficking, we show that the sustained E-cadherin-dependent adhesion organizes the microvilli meshwork and ensures the proper attachment of RCs to the PM, thereby counteracting the increasing membrane tension induced by exponential tissue growth.

  15. Relevance of MET activation and genetic alterations of KRAS and E-cadherin for cetuximab sensitivity of gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Heindl, Stefan; Eggenstein, Evelyn; Keller, Simone; Kneissl, Julia; Keller, Gisela; Mutze, Kathrin; Rauser, Sandra; Gasteiger, Georg; Drexler, Ingo; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Höfler, Heinz; Luber, Birgit

    2012-05-01

    The therapeutic activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-directed monoclonal antibody cetuximab in gastric cancer is currently being investigated. Reliable biomarkers for the identification of patients who are likely to benefit from the treatment are not available. The aim of the study was to examine the drug sensitivity of five gastric cancer cell lines towards cetuximab as a single agent and to establish predictive markers for chemosensitivity in this cell culture model. The effect of a combination of cetuximab with chemotherapy was compared between a sensitive and a nonsensitive cell line. EGFR expression, activation and localisation, the presence and subcellular localisation of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin as well as MET activation were examined by Western blot analysis, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining. Cells were treated with varying concentrations of cetuximab and cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in tumour-relevant concentrations. The biological endpoint was cell viability, which was measured by XTT cell proliferation assay. Response to treatment was evaluated using statistical methods. We assessed the activity of cetuximab in five gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, KATOIII, MKN1, MKN28 and MKN45). The viability of two cell lines, MKN1 and MKN28, was significantly reduced by cetuximab treatment. High EGFR expression and low levels of receptor activation were associated with cetuximab responsiveness. MET activation as well as mutations of KRAS and CDH1 (gene encoding E-cadherin) was associated with cetuximab resistance. These data indicate that our examinations may be clinically relevant, and the candidate markers should therefore be tested in clinical studies.

  16. Role of E-cadherin in membrane-cortex interaction probed by nanotube extrusion.

    PubMed

    Tabdanov, Erdem; Borghi, Nicolas; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Dufour, Sylvie; Thiery, Jean-Paul

    2009-03-18

    This study aims to define the role of E-cadherin (Ecad) engagement in cell-cell contact during membrane-cortex interaction. As a tool, we used a hydrodynamic membrane tube extrusion technique to characterize the mechanical interaction between the plasma membrane and the underlying cortical cytoskeleton. Cells were anchored on 4.5 microm beads coated with polylysine (PL) to obtain nonspecific cell adhesion or with an antibody against Ecad to mimic specific Ecad-mediated cell adhesion. We investigated tube length dynamics L(t) over time and through successive extrusions applied to the cell at regular time intervals. A constant slow velocity was observed for the first extrusion, for PL-attached cells. Subsequent extrusions had two phases: an initial high-velocity regime followed by a low-velocity regime. Successive extrusions gradually weakened the binding of the membrane around the tube neck to the underlying cortical cytoskeleton. Cells specifically attached via Ecad first exhibited a very low extrusion velocity regime followed by a faster extrusion regime similar to nonspecific extrusion. This indicates that Ecad strengthens the membrane-cortical cytoskeleton interaction, but only in a restricted area corresponding to the site of contact between the cell and the bead. Occasional giant "cortex" tubes were extruded with specifically anchored cells, demonstrating that the cortex remained tightly bound to the membrane through Ecad-mediated adhesion at the contact site.

  17. Role of E-Cadherin in Membrane-Cortex Interaction Probed by Nanotube Extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Tabdanov, Erdem; Borghi, Nicolas; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Dufour, Sylvie; Thiery, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to define the role of E-cadherin (Ecad) engagement in cell-cell contact during membrane-cortex interaction. As a tool, we used a hydrodynamic membrane tube extrusion technique to characterize the mechanical interaction between the plasma membrane and the underlying cortical cytoskeleton. Cells were anchored on 4.5 μm beads coated with polylysine (PL) to obtain nonspecific cell adhesion or with an antibody against Ecad to mimic specific Ecad-mediated cell adhesion. We investigated tube length dynamics L(t) over time and through successive extrusions applied to the cell at regular time intervals. A constant slow velocity was observed for the first extrusion, for PL-attached cells. Subsequent extrusions had two phases: an initial high-velocity regime followed by a low-velocity regime. Successive extrusions gradually weakened the binding of the membrane around the tube neck to the underlying cortical cytoskeleton. Cells specifically attached via Ecad first exhibited a very low extrusion velocity regime followed by a faster extrusion regime similar to nonspecific extrusion. This indicates that Ecad strengthens the membrane-cortical cytoskeleton interaction, but only in a restricted area corresponding to the site of contact between the cell and the bead. Occasional giant “cortex” tubes were extruded with specifically anchored cells, demonstrating that the cortex remained tightly bound to the membrane through Ecad-mediated adhesion at the contact site. PMID:19289070

  18. E-cadherin and cell adhesion: a role in architecture and function in the pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Gareth J; Hodgkin, Matthew N; Squires, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    The efficient secretion of insulin from beta-cells requires extensive intra-islet communication. The cell surface adhesion protein epithelial (E)-cadherin (ECAD) establishes and maintains epithelial tissues such as the islets of Langerhans. In this study, the role of ECAD in regulating insulin secretion from pseudoislets was investigated. The effect of an immuno-neutralising ECAD on gross morphology, cytosolic calcium signalling, direct cell-to-cell communication and insulin secretion was assessed by fura-2 microfluorimetry, Lucifer Yellow dye injection and insulin ELISA in an insulin-secreting model system. Antibody blockade of ECAD reduces glucose-evoked changes in [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion. Neutralisation of ECAD causes a breakdown in the glucose-stimulated synchronicity of calcium oscillations between discrete regions within the pseudoislet, and the transfer of dye from an individual cell within a cell cluster is attenuated in the absence of ECAD ligation, demonstrating that gap junction communication is disrupted. The functional consequence of neutralising ECAD is a significant reduction in insulin secretion. Cell adhesion via ECAD has distinct roles in the regulation of intercellular communication between beta-cells within islets, with potential repercussions for insulin secretion.

  19. Expression of cell adhesion molecules in the normal and T3 blocked development of the tadpole's kidney of Bufo arenarum (Amphibian, Anuran, Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Izaguirre, M F; García-Sancho, M N; Miranda, L A; Tomas, J; Casco, V H

    2008-08-01

    Cell adhesion molecules act as signal transducers from the extracellular environment to the cytoskeleton and the nucleus and consequently induce changes in the expression pattern of structural proteins. In this study, we showed the effect of thyroid hormone (TH) inhibition and arrest of metamorphosis on the expression of E-cadherin, beta-and alpha-catenin in the developing kidney of Bufo arenarum. Cell adhesion molecules have selective temporal and spatial expression during development suggesting a specific role in nephrogenesis. In order to study mechanisms controlling the expression of adhesion molecules during renal development, we blocked the B. arenarum metamorphosis with a goitrogenic substance that blocks TH synthesis. E-cadherin expression in the proximal tubules is independent of thyroid control. However, the blockage of TH synthesis causes up-regulation of E-cadherin in the collecting ducts, the distal tubules and the glomeruli. The expression of beta-and alpha-catenin in the collecting ducts, the distal tubules, the glomeruli and the mesonephric mesenchyme is independent of TH. TH blockage causes up-regulation of beta-and alpha-catenin in the proximal tubules. In contrast to E-cadherin, the expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 1 (Dsg-1) is absent in the control of the larvae kidney during metamorphosis and is expressed in some interstitial cells in the KClO4 treated larvae. According to this work, the Dsg-1 expression is down-regulated by TH. We demonstrated that the expression of E-cadherin, Dsg-1, beta-catenin and alpha-catenin are differentially affected by TH levels, suggesting a hormone-dependent role of these proteins in the B. arenarum renal metamorphosis.

  20. A Pathway for the Control of Anoikis Sensitivity by E-Cadherin and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition▿‡

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Park, Sun Hee; Cieply, Benjamin; Schupp, Jane; Killiam, Elizabeth; Zhang, Fan; Rimm, David L.; Frisch, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Detachment of epithelial cells from matrix or attachment to an inappropriate matrix engages an apoptotic response known as anoikis, which prevents metastasis. Cellular sensitivity to anoikis is compromised during the oncogenic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), through unknown mechanisms. We report here a pathway through which EMT confers anoikis resistance. NRAGE (neurotrophin receptor-interacting melanoma antigen) interacted with a component of the E-cadherin complex, ankyrin-G, maintaining NRAGE in the cytoplasm. Oncogenic EMT downregulated ankyrin-G, enhancing the nuclear localization of NRAGE. The oncogenic transcriptional repressor protein TBX2 interacted with NRAGE, repressing the tumor suppressor gene p14ARF. P14ARF sensitized cells to anoikis; conversely, the TBX2/NRAGE complex protected cells against anoikis by downregulating this gene. This represents a novel pathway for the regulation of anoikis by EMT and E-cadherin. PMID:21746881

  1. Abrogation of E-cadherin-mediated cellular aggregation allows proliferation of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells in shake flask bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mohamet, Lisa; Lea, Michelle L; Ward, Christopher M

    2010-09-23

    A fundamental requirement for the exploitation of embryonic stem (ES) cells in regenerative medicine is the ability to reproducibly derive sufficient numbers of cells of a consistent quality in a cost-effective manner. However, undifferentiated ES cells are not ideally suited to suspension culture due to the formation of cellular aggregates, ultimately limiting scalability. Significant advances have been made in recent years in the culture of ES cells, including automated adherent culture and suspension microcarrier or embryoid body bioreactor culture. However, each of these methods exhibits specific disadvantages, such as high cost, additional downstream processes or reduced cell doubling times. Here we show that abrogation of the cell surface protein E-cadherin, using either gene knockout (Ecad-/-) or the neutralising antibody DECMA-1 (EcadAb), allows culture of mouse ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in scalable shake flask culture over prolonged periods without additional media supplements. Both Ecad-/- and EcadAb ES cells exhibited adaptation phases in suspension culture, with optimal doubling times of 7.3 h±0.9 and 15.6 h±4.7 respectively and mean-fold increase in viable cell number of 95.1±2.0 and 16±0.9-fold over 48 h. EcadAb ES cells propagated as a dispersed cell suspension for 15 d maintained expression of pluripotent markers, exhibited a normal karyotype and high viability. Subsequent differentiation of EcadAb ES cells resulted in expression of transcripts and proteins associated with the three primary germ layers. This is the first demonstration of the culture of pluripotent ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in a manual fed-batch shake flask bioreactor and represents a significant improvement on current ES cell culture techniques. Whilst this proof-of-principle method would be useful for the culture of human ES and iPS cells, further steps are necessary to increase cell viability of hES cells in suspension.

  2. Influence of E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion on mouse embryonic stem cells derivation from isolated blastomeres.

    PubMed

    González, Sheyla; Ibáñez, Elena; Santaló, Josep

    2011-09-01

    Efforts to efficiently derive embryonic stem cells (ESC) from isolated blastomeres have been done to minimize ethical concerns about human embryo destruction. Previous studies in our laboratory indicated a poor derivation efficiency of mouse ESC lines from isolated blastomeres at the 8-cell stage (1/8 blastomeres) due, in part, to a low division rate of the single blastomeres in comparison to their counterparts with a higher number of blastomeres (2/8, 3/8 and 4/8 blastomeres). Communication and adhesion between blastomeres from which the derivation process begins could be important aspects to efficiently derive ESC lines. In the present study, an approach consisting in the adhesion of a chimeric E-cadherin (E-cad-Fc) to the blastomere surface was devised to recreate the signaling produced by native E-cadherin between neighboring blastomeres inside the embryo. By this approach, the division rate of 1/8 blastomeres increased from 44.6% to 88.8% and a short exposure of 24 h to the E-cad-Fc produced an ESC derivation efficiency of 33.6%, significantly higher than the 2.2% obtained from the control group without E-cad-Fc. By contrast, a longer exposure to the same chimeric protein resulted in higher proportions of trophoblastic vesicles. Thus, we establish an important role of E-cadherin-mediated adherens junctions in promoting both the division of single 1/8 blastomeres and the efficiency of the ESC derivation process.

  3. Enhanced Biological Functions of Human Mesenchymal Stem-Cell Aggregates Incorporating E-Cadherin-Modified PLGA Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Mao, Hongli; Gao, Chao; Li, Suhua; Shuai, Qizhi; Xu, Jianbin; Xu, Ke; Cao, Lei; Lang, Ren; Gu, Zhongwei; Akaike, Toshihiro; Yang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising source of multipotent cells for various cell-based therapies due to their unique properties, and formation of 3D MSC aggregates has been explored as a potential strategy to enhance therapeutic efficacy. In this study, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles modified with human E-cadherin fusion protein (hE-cad-PLGA microparticles) have been fabricated and integrated with human MSCs to form 3D cell aggregates. The results show that, compared with the plain PLGA, the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles distribute within the aggregates more evenly and further result in a more significant improvement of cellular proliferation and secretion of a series of bioactive factors due to the synergistic effects from the bioactive E-cadherin fragments and the PLGA microparticles. Meanwhile, the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles incorporated in the aggregates upregulate the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activate the AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the MSCs. Additionally, the E-cadherin/β-catenin cellular membrane complex in the MSCs is markedly stimulated by the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles. Therefore, engineering 3D cell aggregates with hE-cad-PLGA microparticles can be a promising method for ex vivo multipotent stem-cell expansion with enhanced biological functions and may offer a novel route to expand multipotent stem-cell-based clinical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The juxtamembrane domain of the E-cadherin cytoplasmic tail contributes to its interaction with Myosin VI

    PubMed Central

    Mangold, Sabine; Norwood, Suzanne J.; Yap, Alpha S.; Collins, Brett M.

    2012-01-01

    We recently identified the atypical myosin, Myosin VI, as a component of epithelial cell-cell junctions that interacts with E-cadherin. Recombinant proteins bearing the cargo-binding domain of Myosin VI (Myo VI-CBD) or the cytoplasmic tail of E-cadherin can interact directly with one another. In this report we further investigate the molecular requirements of the interaction between Myo VI-CBD and E-cadherin combining truncation mutation analysis with in vitro binding assays. We report that a short (28 amino acid) juxtamembrane region of the cadherin cytoplasmic tail is sufficient to bind Myo VI-CBD. However, central regions of the cadherin tail adjacent to the juxtamembrane sequence also display binding activity for Myo VI-CBD. It is therefore possible that the cadherin tail bears two binding sites for Myosin VI, or an extended binding site that includes the juxtamembrane region. Nevertheless, our biochemical data highlight the capacity for the juxtamembrane region to interact with functionally-significant cytoplasmic proteins. PMID:23007415

  5. Diffusion and intermembrane distance: case study of avidin and E-cadherin mediated adhesion.

    PubMed

    Fenz, Susanne F; Merkel, Rudolf; Sengupta, Kheya

    2009-01-20

    We present a biomimetic model system for cell-cell adhesion consisting of a giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) adhering via specific ligand-receptor interactions to a supported lipid bilayer (SLB). The modification of in-plane diffusion of tracer lipids and receptors in the SLB membrane due to adhesion to the GUV is reported. Adhesion was mediated by either biotin-neutravidin (an avidin analogue) or the extracellular domains of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin (Ecad). In the strong interaction (biotin-avidin) case, binding of soluble receptors to the SLB alone led to reduced diffusion of tracer lipids. From theoretical considerations, this could be attributed partially to introduction of obstacles and partially to viscous effects. Further specific binding of a GUV membrane caused additional slowing down of tracers (up to 15%) and immobilization of receptors, and led to accumulation of receptors in the adhesion zone until full coverage was achieved. The intermembrane distance was measured to be 7 nm from microinterferometry (RICM). We show that a crowding effect due to the accumulated receptors alone is not sufficient to account for the slowing downan additional friction from the membrane also plays a role. In the weak binding case (Ecad), the intermembrane distance was about 50 nm, corresponding to partial overlap of the Ecad domains. No significant change in diffusion of tracer lipids was observed upon either protein binding or subsequent vesicle binding. The former was probably due to very small effective size of the obstacles introduced into the bilayer by Ecad binding, whereas the latter was due to the fact that, with such high intermembrane distance, the resulting friction is negligible. We conclude that the effect of intermembrane adhesion on diffusion depends strongly on the choice of the receptors.

  6. Connective tissue growth factor enhances the migration of gastric cancer through downregulation of E-cadherin via the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhengfa; Ma, Xiaoyan; Rong, Yefei; Cui, Lei; Wang, Xuqing; Wu, Wenchuan; Zhang, Jianxin; Jin, Dayong

    2011-01-01

    Local invasion and distant metastasis are difficult problems for surgical intervention and treatment in gastric cancer. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) was considered to have an important role in this process. In this study, we demonstrated that expression of CTGF was significantly upregulated in clinical tissue samples of gastric carcinoma (GC) samples. Forced expression of CTGF in AGS GC cells promoted their migration in culture and significantly increased tumor metastasis in nude mice, whereas RNA interference-mediated knockdown of CTGF in GC cells significantly inhibited cell migration in vitro. We disclose that CTGF downregulated the expression of E-cadherin through activation of the nuclear factor-κappa B (NF-κB) pathway. The effects of CTGF in GC cells were abolished by dominant negative IκappaB. Collectively, these data reported here demonstrate CTGF could modulate the NF-κappaB pathway and perhaps be a promising therapeutic target for gastric cancer invasion and metastasis. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

  7. Drosophila E-cadherin is required for the maintenance of ring canals anchoring to mechanically withstand tissue growth

    PubMed Central

    Loyer, Nicolas; Kolotuev, Irina; Pinot, Mathieu; Le Borgne, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Intercellular bridges called “ring canals” (RCs) resulting from incomplete cytokinesis play an essential role in intercellular communication in somatic and germinal tissues. During Drosophila oogenesis, RCs connect the maturing oocyte to nurse cells supporting its growth. Despite numerous genetic screens aimed at identifying genes involved in RC biogenesis and maturation, how RCs anchor to the plasma membrane (PM) throughout development remains unexplained. In this study, we report that the clathrin adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) complex, although dispensable for the biogenesis of RCs, is required for the maintenance of the anchorage of RCs to the PM to withstand the increased membrane tension associated with the exponential tissue growth at the onset of vitellogenesis. Here we unravel the mechanisms by which AP-1 enables the maintenance of RCs’ anchoring to the PM during size expansion. We show that AP-1 regulates the localization of the intercellular adhesion molecule E-cadherin and that loss of AP-1 causes the disappearance of the E-cadherin–containing adhesive clusters surrounding the RCs. E-cadherin itself is shown to be required for the maintenance of the RCs’ anchorage, a function previously unrecognized because of functional compensation by N-cadherin. Scanning block-face EM combined with transmission EM analyses reveals the presence of interdigitated, actin- and Moesin-positive, microvilli-like structures wrapping the RCs. Thus, by modulating E-cadherin trafficking, we show that the sustained E-cadherin–dependent adhesion organizes the microvilli meshwork and ensures the proper attachment of RCs to the PM, thereby counteracting the increasing membrane tension induced by exponential tissue growth. PMID:26424451

  8. Slug silencing inhibited perineural invasion through regulation of EMMPRIN expression in human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baolei; Wei, Jianhua; Hu, Zhiqiang; Shan, Chun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Chenping; Yang, Xi; Yang, Xinjie; Lei, Delin

    2016-02-01

    Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is the most frequent salivary gland malignancy with a unique characteristic that has been named perineural invasion (PNI). EMMPRIN is a transmembrane glycoprotein that has been demonstrated to promote PNI in SACC. Slug, one of the most effective promoters of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), has been found to be associated with PNI in SACC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles and relationships of Slug, EMMPRIN, and E-cadherin in the PNI process of SACC. The expression levels of Slug, EMMPRIN, and E-cadherin in 115 primary SACC cases were statistically analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Simultaneously, the SACC cell line SACC-83 was transfected with recombinant plasmids of silencing Slug (si-Slug) and/or silencing EMMPRIN (si-EMMPRIN). The functions of Slug and EMMPRIN in the EMT and PNI process were assessed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), western blotting, morphological observation, scratch test, migration assay, and in vitro perineural invasion assay. The immunohistochemical statistics revealed that the high expression of Slug and EMMPRIN and the low expression of E-cadherin were significantly associated with the PNI of SACC (P < 0.05). Slug expression was significantly associated with EMMPRIN expression (P < 0.05), and Slug expression and EMMPRIN expression were both significantly negatively associated with E-cadherin expression (P < 0.05). Slug and EMMPRIN silencing both significantly inhibited EMMPRIN expression but promoted E-cadherin expression in SACC-83 cells (P < 0.01). The series of in vitro assays revealed that silencing of Slug, EMMPRIN, or both induced cell morphology changes and inhibited tumor cell motility and PNI ability in SACC-83 cells (P < 0.01). These results suggested that Slug silencing could inhibit the EMT process by downregulating EMMPRIN and then upregulating E-cadherin in the PNI process of SACC. The present study indicated that Slug

  9. Epidermal E-Cadherin Dependent β-Catenin Pathway Is Phytochemical Inducible and Accelerates Anagen Hair Cycling.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Noha S; Ghatak, Subhadip; El Masry, Mohamed S; Gnyawali, Surya C; Roy, Sashwati; Amer, Mohamed; Everts, Helen; Sen, Chandan K; Khanna, Savita

    2017-11-01

    Unlike the epidermis, which regenerates continually, hair follicles anchored in the subcutis periodically regenerate by spontaneous repetitive cycles of growth (anagen), degeneration (catagen), and rest (telogen). The loss of hair follicles in response to injuries or pathologies such as alopecia endangers certain inherent functions of the skin. Thus, it is of interest to understand mechanisms underlying follicular regeneration in adults. In this work, a phytochemical rich in the natural vitamin E tocotrienol (TRF) served as a productive tool to unveil a novel epidermal pathway of hair follicular regeneration. Topical TRF application markedly induced epidermal hair follicle development akin to that during fetal skin development. This was observed in the skin of healthy as well as diabetic mice, which are known to be resistant to anagen hair cycling. TRF suppressed epidermal E-cadherin followed by 4-fold induction of β-catenin and its nuclear translocation. Nuclear β-catenin interacted with Tcf3. Such sequestration of Tcf3 from its otherwise known function to repress pluripotent factors induced the plasticity factors Oct4, Sox9, Klf4, c-Myc, and Nanog. Pharmacological inhibition of β-catenin arrested anagen hair cycling by TRF. This work reports epidermal E-cadherin/β-catenin as a novel pathway capable of inducing developmental folliculogenesis in the adult skin. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative study of the Ar and He atmospheric pressure plasmas on E-cadherin protein regulation for plasma-mediated transdermal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Young; Hae Choi, Jeong; Hong, Jin Woo; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Lee, Hae June

    2018-05-01

    The effects of argon plasma (ArP) and helium plasma (HeP) jets on E-cadherin protein function have been tested in order to choose the working gas for a better plasma-mediated transdermal drug delivery. The plasma-mediated changes of the E-cadherin function and the skin penetration efficacies of epidermal growth factor (EGF) were monitored in vitro using HaCaT human keratinocytes and in vivo using hairless mice. The ArP showed higher efficacy for E-cadherin regulation and EGF absorption than HeP under the same applied voltage and the same gas flow rate. The ArP generates higher volume power density, higher discharge current peak, and more reactive species than HeP, especially for OH with the same operating parameters. Moreover, the effect of ArP on E-cadherin function was blocked by the use of a grounded metal mesh. Taken together, this study presents the possibility that the synergetic effect of negative charges with radicals plays an important role in plasma-mediated E-cadherin regulation, which leads to enhanced transdermal drug delivery.

  11. Mammary-specific inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 impairs functional gland development and leads to pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Derksen, Patrick W B; Braumuller, Tanya M; van der Burg, Eline; Hornsveld, Marten; Mesman, Elly; Wesseling, Jelle; Krimpenfort, Paul; Jonkers, Jos

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women of the Western world. Even though a large percentage of breast cancer patients show pathological complete remission after standard treatment regimes, approximately 30-40% are non-responsive and ultimately develop metastatic disease. To generate a good preclinical model of invasive breast cancer, we have taken a tissue-specific approach to somatically inactivate p53 and E-cadherin, the cardinal cell-cell adhesion receptor that is strongly associated with tumor invasiveness. In breast cancer, E-cadherin is found mutated or otherwise functionally silenced in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), which accounts for 10-15% of all breast cancers. We show that mammary-specific stochastic inactivation of conditional E-cadherin and p53 results in impaired mammary gland function during pregnancy through the induction of anoikis resistance of mammary epithelium, resulting in loss of epithelial organization and a dysfunctional mammary gland. Moreover, combined inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 induced lactation-independent development of invasive and metastatic mammary carcinomas, which showed strong resemblance to human pleomorphic ILC. Dissemination patterns of mouse ILC mimic the human malignancy, showing metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lung, lymph nodes and bone. Our results confirm that loss of E-cadherin contributes to both mammary tumor initiation and metastasis, and establish a preclinical mouse model of human ILC that can be used for the development of novel intervention strategies to treat invasive breast cancer.

  12. The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) variants T340A and L599V in gastric and colorectal cancer patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H; Wheeler, J; Kim, J; Ilyas, M; Beck, N; Kim, B; Park, K; Bodmer, W

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION—Germline mutations in E-cadherin (CDH1) have been reported in families with early onset, diffuse gastric cancer. More recently, mutations in CDH1 have been described in colorectal cancer cell lines.
AIMS—We have investigated if germline mutations in CDH1 occur among different groups of Korean gastric and colorectal cancer patients, with and without a positive family history.
METHODS—We studied 131 patients and 168 normal controls (88 Korean and 80 non-Korean). Patients were divided into five groups: group I, 20 gastric cancer patients with a family history; group II, 26 colorectal cancer patients with a family history of gastric cancer (those from familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindred were excluded); group III, 16 HNPCC patients without identified germline mutations in hMLH1 and hMSH2; group IV, 35 gastric cancer patients without a family history; and group V, 34 colorectal cancer patients without a family history. Polymerase chain reaction, single strand conformational polymorphism analysis, direct sequencing, and genotyping for identified variants were performed.
RESULTS—Several germline changes in CDH1 were found. In addition to previously described polymorphisms, we found three novel changes, two of which were missense changes (T340A and L599V). T340A was present in one patient in group III and one in group V. L599V was present in one patient in group II, in two in group III, and in one in group IV. T340A was not found in normal controls while L599V was present in two of 88 Korean controls. Patients with these variants may appear to have a tendency to early onset cancer with a positive family history, although differences in frequencies did not reach statistical significance. Genotyping results suggest that these variants might have a common origin, particularly T340A.
CONCLUSION—We have described two new missense germline variants in CDH1 in various groups

  13. Probing the interaction between cHAVc3 peptide and the EC1 domain of E-cadherin using NMR and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Alaofi, Ahmed; Farokhi, Elinaz; Prasasty, Vivitri D; Anbanandam, Asokan; Kuczera, Krzysztof; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to probe the interaction between cyclic cHAVc3 peptide and the EC1 domain of human E-cadherin protein. Cyclic cHAVc3 peptide (cyclo(1,6)Ac-CSHAVC-NH 2 ) binds to the EC1 domain as shown by chemical shift perturbations in the 2D 1 H,- 15 N-HSQC NMR spectrum. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the EC1 domain showed folding of the C-terminal tail region into the main head region of the EC1 domain. For cHAVc3 peptide, replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations generated five structural clusters of cHAVc3 peptide. Representative structures of cHAVc3 and the EC1 structure from MD simulations were used in molecular docking experiments with NMR constraints to determine the binding site of the peptide on EC1. The results suggest that cHAVc3 binds to EC1 around residues Y36, S37, I38, I53, F77, S78, H79, and I94. The dissociation constants (K d values) of cHAVc3 peptide to EC1 were estimated using the NMR chemical shifts data and the estimated K d s are in the range of .5 × 10 -5 -7.0 × 10 -5  M.

  14. E-Cadherin Antagonizes Transforming Growth Factor β1 Gene Induction in Hepatic Stellate Cells by Inhibiting RhoA–Dependent Smad3 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Il Je; Kim, Young Woo; Han, Chang Yeob; Kim, Eun Hyun; Anderson, Richard A.; Lee, Young Sok; Lee, Chang Ho; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Geon

    2011-01-01

    Cadherins mediate cell-cell adhesion and catenin (ctn)-related signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis is accompanied by the loss of E-cadherin (ECAD), which promotes the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Currently, no information is available about the inhibitory role of ECAD in hepatic stellate cell activation. Because of ECAD’s potential for inhibiting the induction of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), we investigated whether ECAD overexpression prevents TGFβ1 gene induction; we also examined what the molecular basis could be. Forced expression of ECAD decreased α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin levels and caused decreases in the constitutive and inducible expression of the TGFβ1 gene and its downstream genes. ECAD overexpression decreased Smad3 phosphorylation, weakly decreased Smad2 phosphorylation, and thus inhibited Smad reporter activity induced by either treatment with TGFβ1 or Smad3 overexpression. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of ras homolog gene family A (RhoA) diminished the ability of TGFβ1 to elicit its own gene induction. Consistently, transfection with a constitutively active mutant of RhoA reversed the inhibition of TGFβ1-inducible or Smad3-inducible reporter activity by ECAD. Studies using the mutant constructs of ECAD revealed that the p120-ctn binding domain of ECAD was responsible for TGFβ1 repression. Consistently, ECAD was capable of binding p120-ctn, which recruited RhoA; this prevented TGFβ1 from increasing RhoA-mediated Smad3 phosphorylation. In the liver samples of patients with mild or severe fibrosis, ECAD expression reciprocally correlated with the severity of fibrosis. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ECAD inhibits Smad3/2 phosphorylation by recruiting RhoA to p120-ctn at the p120-ctn binding domain, whereas the loss of ECAD due to cadherin switching promotes the up-regulation of TGFβ1 and its target genes, and facilitates liver fibrosis. PMID:20890948

  15. E-cadherin antagonizes transforming growth factor β1 gene induction in hepatic stellate cells by inhibiting RhoA-dependent Smad3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il Je; Kim, Young Woo; Han, Chang Yeob; Kim, Eun Hyun; Anderson, Richard A; Lee, Young Sok; Lee, Chang Ho; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Geon

    2010-12-01

    Cadherins mediate cell-cell adhesion and catenin (ctn)-related signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis is accompanied by the loss of E-cadherin (ECAD), which promotes the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Currently, no information is available about the inhibitory role of ECAD in hepatic stellate cell activation. Because of ECAD's potential for inhibiting the induction of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), we investigated whether ECAD overexpression prevents TGFβ1 gene induction; we also examined what the molecular basis could be. Forced expression of ECAD decreased α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin levels and caused decreases in the constitutive and inducible expression of the TGFβ1 gene and its downstream genes. ECAD overexpression decreased Smad3 phosphorylation, weakly decreased Smad2 phosphorylation, and thus inhibited Smad reporter activity induced by either treatment with TGFβ1 or Smad3 overexpression. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of ras homolog gene family A (RhoA) diminished the ability of TGFβ1 to elicit its own gene induction. Consistently, transfection with a constitutively active mutant of RhoA reversed the inhibition of TGFβ1-inducible or Smad3-inducible reporter activity by ECAD. Studies using the mutant constructs of ECAD revealed that the p120-ctn binding domain of ECAD was responsible for TGFβ1 repression. Consistently, ECAD was capable of binding p120-ctn, which recruited RhoA; this prevented TGFβ1 from increasing RhoA-mediated Smad3 phosphorylation. In the liver samples of patients with mild or severe fibrosis, ECAD expression reciprocally correlated with the severity of fibrosis. Our results demonstrate that ECAD inhibits Smad3/2 phosphorylation by recruiting RhoA to p120-ctn at the p120-ctn binding domain, whereas the loss of ECAD due to cadherin switching promotes the up-regulation of TGFβ1 and its target genes, and facilitates liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver

  16. SPHK1 (sphingosine kinase 1) induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by promoting the autophagy-linked lysosomal degradation of CDH1/E-cadherin in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Ma, Yan; He, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Wu-Li; Shao, Rong-Guang

    2017-05-04

    SPHK1 (sphingosine kinase 1), a regulator of sphingolipid metabolites, plays a causal role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through augmenting HCC invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which SPHK1 signaling promotes invasion and metastasis in HCC remains to be clarified. Here, we reported that SPHK1 induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by accelerating CDH1/E-cadherin lysosomal degradation and facilitating the invasion and metastasis of HepG2 cells. Initially, we found that SPHK1 promoted cell migration and invasion and induced the EMT process through decreasing the expression of CDH1, which is an epithelial marker. Furthermore, SPHK1 accelerated the lysosomal degradation of CDH1 to induce EMT, which depended on TRAF2 (TNF receptor associated factor 2)-mediated macroautophagy/autophagy activation. In addition, the inhibition of autophagy recovered CDH1 expression and reduced cell migration and invasion through delaying the degradation of CDH1 in SPHK1-overexpressing cells. Moreover, the overexpression of SPHK1 produced intracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). In response to S1P stimulation, TRAF2 bound to BECN1/Beclin 1 and catalyzed the lysine 63-linked ubiquitination of BECN1 for triggering autophagy. The deletion of the RING domain of TRAF2 inhibited autophagy and the interaction of BECN1 and TRAF2. Our findings define a novel mechanism responsible for the regulation of the EMT via SPHK1-TRAF2-BECN1-CDH1 signal cascades in HCC cells. Our work indicates that the blockage of SPHK1 activity to attenuate autophagy may be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of HCC.

  17. Purification of fetal mouse hepatoblasts by magnetic beads coated with monoclonal anti-e-cadherin antibodies and their in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Nitou, Miho; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Katsutoshi; Shiojiri, Nobuyoshi

    2002-10-01

    A simple, rapid, and reproducible method of fetal hepatoblast purification was established to investigate mechanisms controlling interactions between hepatoblasts and nonparenchymal cells during liver development. Because E-cadherin is exclusively expressed on the cell membrane of hepatoblasts, magnetic beads coated with monoclonal antibodies to an extracellular epitope of its molecule were used to purify hepatoblasts from a cell suspension prepared from 12.5-day fetal mouse livers. The purity and yield in the hepatoblast fraction prepared in our protocol were more than 90% and approximately 30%, respectively. The nonparenchymal fraction rarely contained hepatoblasts; the rate of hepatoblast contamination in this fraction was less than 1%. Separate cultures of these two fractions were compared with cocultures of both fractions. In culture of the hepatoblast fraction, hepatoblasts formed aggregates similar to a bunch of grapes via their loose adhesion, floating in the medium after 24 h, and dissociated into single cells from the aggregates after 120 h of culture. By contrast, in the mixed culture, the majority of hepatoblasts formed multicellular spheroids after 24 h, and these spheroids changed into monolayer cell sheets after 120 h of culture. The cells comprising these monolayer sheets abundantly expressed albumin and carbamoylphosphate synthase I. In the mixed culture, fibroblastic cells also proliferated extensively with spreading on glass slides and surrounded the hepatoblast or hepatocyte colonies. On the other hand, fibroblastic cells spreading on glass slides decreased gradually in cultures of the nonparenchymal cell fraction alone. These findings indicated that the coexistence of hepatoblasts and nonparenchymal cells may be essential for their mutual survival, proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis. The conditioned medium of fetal liver cell cultures could partially replace the effects of the nonparenchymal cells on hepatoblasts in vitro. Our

  18. DNA-methylation analysis identifies the E-cadherin gene as a potential marker of disease progression in patients with monoclonal gammopathies.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Sonja; Ackermann, Jutta; Kaufmann, Hannes; Keck, Andrea; Nösslinger, Thomas; Zielinski, Christoph C; Drach, Johannes; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine

    2004-06-15

    Silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) by aberrant methylation (referred to as methylation) contributes to the pathogenesis of various human malignancies. However, little is known about the methylation of known and putative TSGs in monoclonal gammopathies. Thus, the authors investigated the methylation frequencies of 10 genes in patients with monoclonal gammopathies. The methylation patterns of the genes p16(INK4a) (p16), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), p15(INK4b) (p15), E-cadherin (ECAD), death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), p73, RAS-association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), p14, O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), and retinoid acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta) were determined in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; n = 29), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM; n = 5), multiple myeloma (MM; n = 113), or plasma cell leukemia (PCL; n = 7) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. Methylation frequencies for p16, TIMP3, p15, ECAD, DAPK, p73, RASSF1A, p14, MGMT, and RARbeta were as follows: 28%, 35%, 10%, 0%, 17%, 21%, 14%, 14%, 7%, and 0%, respectively, in patients with MGUS and 36%, 29%, 27%, 27%, 22%, 15%, 15%, 9%, 4%, and 0%, respectively, in patients with MM. Methylation of at least 1 of these genes was detected in 79% of patients with MGUS and in 80% of patients with MM. Although methylation of ECAD was not detected in patients with MGUS, it was observed frequently in patients with MM and with even greater frequency in patients with PCL. It is noteworthy that an association was found between ECAD methylation and poor prognostic markers in patients with MM. Methylation of certain genes can be detected frequently in patients with monoclonal gammopathies. The current data suggest that methylation of ECAD is a marker of disease progression in patients with MM and PCL. Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.

  19. E-cadherin-defective gastric cancer cells depend on Laminin to survive and invade.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Joana; Figueiredo, Joana; Brás-Pereira, Catarina; Carneiro, Patrícia; Moreira, Ana M; Pinto, Marta T; Relvas, João B; Carneiro, Fátima; Barbosa, Mário; Casares, Fernando; Janody, Florence; Seruca, Raquel

    2015-10-15

    Epithelial-cadherin (Ecad) deregulation affects cell-cell adhesion and results in increased invasiveness of distinct human carcinomas. In gastric cancer, loss of Ecad expression is a common event and is associated with disease aggressiveness and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the invasive process associated to Ecad dysfunction are far from understood. We hypothesized that deregulation of cell-matrix interactions could play an important role during this process. Thus, we focussed on LM-332, which is a major matrix component, and in Ecad/LM-332 crosstalk in the process of Ecad-dependent invasion. To verify whether matrix deregulation was triggered by Ecad loss, we used the Drosophila model. To dissect the key molecules involved and unveil their functional significance, we used gastric cancer cell lines. The relevance of this relationship was then confirmed in human primary tumours. In vivo, Ecad knockdown induced apoptosis; nonetheless, at the invasive front, cells ectopically expressed Laminin A and βPS integrin. In vitro, we demonstrated that, in two different gastric cancer cell models, Ecad-defective cells overexpressed Laminin γ2 (LM-γ2), β1 and β4 integrin, when compared with Ecad-competent ones. We showed that LM-γ2 silencing impaired invasion and enhanced cell death, most likely via pSrc and pAkt reduction, and JNK activation. In human gastric carcinomas, we found a concomitant decrease in Ecad and increase in LM-γ2. This is the first evidence that ectopic Laminin expression depends on Ecad loss and allows Ecad-dysfunctional cells to survive and invade. This opens new avenues for using LM-γ2 signalling regulators as molecular targets to impair gastric cancer progression. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. E-cadherin-defective gastric cancer cells depend on Laminin to survive and invade

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, Joana; Figueiredo, Joana; Brás-Pereira, Catarina; Carneiro, Patrícia; Moreira, Ana M.; Pinto, Marta T.; Relvas, João B.; Carneiro, Fátima; Barbosa, Mário; Casares, Fernando; Janody, Florence; Seruca, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-cadherin (Ecad) deregulation affects cell–cell adhesion and results in increased invasiveness of distinct human carcinomas. In gastric cancer, loss of Ecad expression is a common event and is associated with disease aggressiveness and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the invasive process associated to Ecad dysfunction are far from understood. We hypothesized that deregulation of cell–matrix interactions could play an important role during this process. Thus, we focussed on LM-332, which is a major matrix component, and in Ecad/LM-332 crosstalk in the process of Ecad-dependent invasion. To verify whether matrix deregulation was triggered by Ecad loss, we used the Drosophila model. To dissect the key molecules involved and unveil their functional significance, we used gastric cancer cell lines. The relevance of this relationship was then confirmed in human primary tumours. In vivo, Ecad knockdown induced apoptosis; nonetheless, at the invasive front, cells ectopically expressed Laminin A and βPS integrin. In vitro, we demonstrated that, in two different gastric cancer cell models, Ecad-defective cells overexpressed Laminin γ2 (LM-γ2), β1 and β4 integrin, when compared with Ecad-competent ones. We showed that LM-γ2 silencing impaired invasion and enhanced cell death, most likely via pSrc and pAkt reduction, and JNK activation. In human gastric carcinomas, we found a concomitant decrease in Ecad and increase in LM-γ2. This is the first evidence that ectopic Laminin expression depends on Ecad loss and allows Ecad-dysfunctional cells to survive and invade. This opens new avenues for using LM-γ2 signalling regulators as molecular targets to impair gastric cancer progression. PMID:26246502

  1. Transcytosis of Listeria monocytogenes across the intestinal barrier upon specific targeting of goblet cell accessible E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Nikitas, Georgios; Deschamps, Chantal; Disson, Olivier; Niault, Théodora; Cossart, Pascale; Lecuit, Marc

    2011-10-24

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier upon interaction between its surface protein InlA and its species-specific host receptor E-cadherin (Ecad). Ecad, the key constituent of adherens junctions, is typically situated below tight junctions and therefore considered inaccessible from the intestinal lumen. In this study, we investigated how Lm specifically targets its receptor on intestinal villi and crosses the intestinal epithelium to disseminate systemically. We demonstrate that Ecad is luminally accessible around mucus-expelling goblet cells (GCs), around extruding enterocytes at the tip and lateral sides of villi, and in villus epithelial folds. We show that upon preferential adherence to accessible Ecad on GCs, Lm is internalized, rapidly transcytosed across the intestinal epithelium, and released in the lamina propria by exocytosis from where it disseminates systemically. Together, these results show that Lm exploits intrinsic tissue heterogeneity to access its receptor and reveal transcytosis as a novel and unanticipated pathway that is hijacked by Lm to breach the intestinal epithelium and cause systemic infection.

  2. Detecting methylation patterns of p16, MGMT, DAPK and E-cadherin genes in multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Yuregir, O Ozalp; Yurtcu, E; Kizilkilic, E; Kocer, N E; Ozdogu, H; Sahin, F I

    2010-04-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell neoplasia characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. Besides known genetic abnormalities, epigenetic changes are also known to effect MM pathogenesis. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that silences genes by adding methyl groups to cytosine-guanine dinucleotides at the promoter regions. In this study, the methylation status of four genes; p16, O6-methyl guanine DNA methyl transferase (MGMT), death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and E-cadherin (ECAD); at the time of diagnosis was investigated using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR). In the 20 cases studied; methylation of the promoter regions of p16, MGMT, DAPK and ECAD genes was detected in 10%, 40%, 10% and 45% of the cases, respectively. In 65% (13/20) of cases, at least one of the genes studied had promoter methylation; while 35% of cases (7/20) had methylated promoters of more than one gene. There was a significant correlation between promoter hypermethylation of MGMT and the presence of extramedullary involvement; but for the other genes no correlation was found regarding disease properties like age, disease stage, clinical course and the presence of lytic bone lesions. Determining the methylation profiles of genes in MM, could lead to a new understanding of the disease pathogenesis and guide the assessment of treatment options.

  3. Transcytosis of Listeria monocytogenes across the intestinal barrier upon specific targeting of goblet cell accessible E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Nikitas, Georgios; Deschamps, Chantal; Disson, Olivier; Niault, Théodora; Cossart, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier upon interaction between its surface protein InlA and its species-specific host receptor E-cadherin (Ecad). Ecad, the key constituent of adherens junctions, is typically situated below tight junctions and therefore considered inaccessible from the intestinal lumen. In this study, we investigated how Lm specifically targets its receptor on intestinal villi and crosses the intestinal epithelium to disseminate systemically. We demonstrate that Ecad is luminally accessible around mucus-expelling goblet cells (GCs), around extruding enterocytes at the tip and lateral sides of villi, and in villus epithelial folds. We show that upon preferential adherence to accessible Ecad on GCs, Lm is internalized, rapidly transcytosed across the intestinal epithelium, and released in the lamina propria by exocytosis from where it disseminates systemically. Together, these results show that Lm exploits intrinsic tissue heterogeneity to access its receptor and reveal transcytosis as a novel and unanticipated pathway that is hijacked by Lm to breach the intestinal epithelium and cause systemic infection. PMID:21967767

  4. Detecting cell-in-cell structures in human tumor samples by E-cadherin/CD68/CD45 triple staining

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manna; Ning, Xiangkai; He, Meifang; Hu, Yazhuo; Yuan, Long; Li, Shichong; Wang, Qiwei; Liu, Hong; Chen, Zhaolie; Ren, Jun; Sun, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Although Cell-in-cell structures (CICs) had been documented in human tumors for decades, it is unclear what types of CICs were formed largely due to low resolution of traditional way such as H&E staining. In this work, we employed immunofluorescent method to stain a panel of human tumor samples simultaneously with antibodies against E-cadherin for Epithelium, CD68 for Macrophage and CD45 for Leukocytes, which we termed as “EML method” based on the cells detected. Detail analysis revealed four types of CICs, with tumor cells or macrophage engulfing tumor cells or leukocytes respectively. Interestingly, tumor cells seem to be dominant over macrophage (93% vs 7%) as the engulfer cells in all CICs detected, whereas the overall amount of internalized tumor cells is comparable to that of internalized CD45+ leukocytes (57% vs 43%). The CICs profiles vary from tumor to tumor, which may indicate different malignant stages and/or inflammatory conditions. Given the potential impacts different types of CICs might have on tumor growth, we therefore recommend EML analysis of tumor samples to clarify the correlation of CICs subtypes with clinical prognosis in future researches. PMID:26109430

  5. Detecting cell-in-cell structures in human tumor samples by E-cadherin/CD68/CD45 triple staining.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongyan; Chen, Ang; Wang, Ting; Wang, Manna; Ning, Xiangkai; He, Meifang; Hu, Yazhuo; Yuan, Long; Li, Shichong; Wang, Qiwei; Liu, Hong; Chen, Zhaolie; Ren, Jun; Sun, Qiang

    2015-08-21

    Although Cell-in-cell structures (CICs) had been documented in human tumors for decades, it is unclear what types of CICs were formed largely due to low resolution of traditional way such as H&E staining. In this work, we employed immunofluorescent method to stain a panel of human tumor samples simultaneously with antibodies against E-cadherin for Epithelium, CD68 for Macrophage and CD45 for Leukocytes, which we termed as "EML method" based on the cells detected. Detail analysis revealed four types of CICs, with tumor cells or macrophage engulfing tumor cells or leukocytes respectively. Interestingly, tumor cells seem to be dominant over macrophage (93% vs 7%) as the engulfer cells in all CICs detected, whereas the overall amount of internalized tumor cells is comparable to that of internalized CD45+ leukocytes (57% vs 43%). The CICs profiles vary from tumor to tumor, which may indicate different malignant stages and/or inflammatory conditions. Given the potential impacts different types of CICs might have on tumor growth, we therefore recommend EML analysis of tumor samples to clarify the correlation of CICs subtypes with clinical prognosis in future researches.

  6. A complex of α6 integrin and E-cadherin drives liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells through hepatic angiopoietin-like 6.

    PubMed

    Marchiò, Serena; Soster, Marco; Cardaci, Sabrina; Muratore, Andrea; Bartolini, Alice; Barone, Vanessa; Ribero, Dario; Monti, Maria; Bovino, Paola; Sun, Jessica; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Asioli, Sofia; Cassoni, Paola; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Pucci, Piero; Bugatti, Antonella; Rusnati, Marco; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Bussolino, Federico

    2012-11-01

    Homing of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to the liver is a non-random process driven by a crosstalk between tumour cells and components of the host tissue. Here we report the isolation of a liver metastasis-specific peptide ligand (CGIYRLRSC) that binds a complex of E-cadherin and α(6) integrin on the surface of CRC cells. We identify angiopoietin-like 6 protein as a peptide-mimicked natural ligand enriched in hepatic blood vessels of CRC patients. We demonstrate that an interaction between hepatic angiopoietin-like 6 and tumoural α(6) integrin/E-cadherin drives liver homing and colonization by CRC cells, and that CGIYRLRSC inhibits liver metastasis through interference with this ligand/receptor system. Our results indicate a mechanism for metastasis whereby a soluble factor accumulated in normal vessels functions as a specific ligand for circulating cancer cells. Consistently, we show that high amounts of coexpressed α(6) integrin and E-cadherin in primary tumours represent a poor prognostic factor for patients with advanced CRC. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  7. A complex of α6 integrin and E-cadherin drives liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells through hepatic angiopoietin-like 6

    PubMed Central

    Marchiò, Serena; Soster, Marco; Cardaci, Sabrina; Muratore, Andrea; Bartolini, Alice; Barone, Vanessa; Ribero, Dario; Monti, Maria; Bovino, Paola; Sun, Jessica; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Asioli, Sofia; Cassoni, Paola; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Pucci, Piero; Bugatti, Antonella; Rusnati, Marco; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Bussolino, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Homing of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to the liver is a non-random process driven by a crosstalk between tumour cells and components of the host tissue. Here we report the isolation of a liver metastasis-specific peptide ligand (CGIYRLRSC) that binds a complex of E-cadherin and α6 integrin on the surface of CRC cells. We identify angiopoietin-like 6 protein as a peptide-mimicked natural ligand enriched in hepatic blood vessels of CRC patients. We demonstrate that an interaction between hepatic angiopoietin-like 6 and tumoural α6 integrin/E-cadherin drives liver homing and colonization by CRC cells, and that CGIYRLRSC inhibits liver metastasis through interference with this ligand/receptor system. Our results indicate a mechanism for metastasis whereby a soluble factor accumulated in normal vessels functions as a specific ligand for circulating cancer cells. Consistently, we show that high amounts of coexpressed α6 integrin and E-cadherin in primary tumours represent a poor prognostic factor for patients with advanced CRC. PMID:23070965

  8. The effects of artificial E-cadherin matrix-induced embryonic stem cell scattering on paxillin and RhoA activation via α-catenin.

    PubMed

    Mattias, Leino; Haque, Amranul; Adnan, Nihad; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2014-02-01

    Mechanical forces have been shown to affect stem cell behavior in a large array of ways. However, our understanding of how these mechanical cues may regulate the behavior of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains in its infancy. Here, we aim to clarify the effect of cell scattering on the regulation of Rho family GTPases Rac1 and RhoA as well as paxillin. Allowing ESCs to spread and scatter on a synthetically designed E-cadherin substratum causes phosphorylation of paxillin on consensus phosphorylation sites leading to activation of Rac1 and inactivation of RhoA. By culturing cells in presence of RhoA activator or growing cells to a highly confluent state reverses the effect of cell scattering phenotype. Knockdown of E-cadherin-adapter protein α-catenin revealed that it negatively affects paxillin phosphorylation and up-regulates RhoA activity in compact cellular aggregates. Collectively these results indicate that cell scattering might cause a conformational change of α-catenin limiting its capacity to inhibit paxillin phosphorylation that causes an increase in Rac1 activation and RhoA deactivation. Understanding how synthetically designed extracellular matrix affect ESC signaling through mechanical cues brings a new aspect for stem cell engineers to develop technologies for controlling cell function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The N-Myc down regulated Gene1 (NDRG1) Is a Rab4a effector involved in vesicular recycling of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Kachhap, Sushant K; Faith, Dennis; Qian, David Z; Shabbeer, Shabana; Galloway, Nathan L; Pili, Roberto; Denmeade, Samuel R; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Carducci, Michael A

    2007-09-05

    Cell to cell adhesion is mediated by adhesion molecules present on the cell surface. Downregulation of molecules that form the adhesion complex is a characteristic of metastatic cancer cells. Downregulation of the N-myc down regulated gene1 (NDRG1) increases prostate and breast metastasis. The exact function of NDRG1 is not known. Here by using live cell confocal microscopy and in vitro reconstitution, we report that NDRG1 is involved in recycling the adhesion molecule E-cadherin thereby stabilizing it. Evidence is provided that NDRG1 recruits on recycling endosomes in the Trans Golgi network by binding to phosphotidylinositol 4-phosphate and interacts with membrane bound Rab4aGTPase. NDRG1 specifically interacts with constitutively active Rab4aQ67L mutant protein and not with GDP-bound Rab4aS22N mutant proving NDRG1 as a novel Rab4a effector. Transferrin recycling experiments reveals NDRG1 colocalizes with transferrin during the recycling phase. NDRG1 alters the kinetics of transferrin recycling in cells. NDRG1 knockdown cells show a delay in recycling transferrin, conversely NDRG1 overexpressing cells reveal an increase in rate of transferrin recycling. This novel finding of NDRG1 as a recycling protein involved with recycling of E-cadherin will aid in understanding NDRG1 role as a metastasis suppressor protein.

  10. Molecular iodine impairs chemoresistance mechanisms, enhances doxorubicin retention and induces downregulation of the CD44+/CD24+ and E-cadherin+/vimentin+ subpopulations in MCF-7 cells resistant to low doses of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Bontempo, Alexander; Ugalde-Villanueva, Brenda; Delgado-González, Evangelina; Rodríguez, Ángel Luis; Aceves, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    One of the most dreaded clinical events for an oncology patient is resistance to treatment. Chemoresistance is a complex phenomenon based on alterations in apoptosis, the cell cycle and drug metabolism, and it correlates with the cancer stem cell phenotype and/or epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Molecular iodine (I2) exerts an antitumor effect on different types of iodine-capturing neoplasms by its oxidant/antioxidant properties and formation of iodolipids. In the present study, wild-type breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7/W) were treated chronically with 10 nM doxorubicin (DOX) to establish a low-dose DOX-resistant mammary cancer model (MCF-7/D). MCF-7/D cells were established after 30 days of treatment when the culture showed a proliferation rate similar to that of MCF-7/W. These DOX-resistant cells also showed increases in p21, Bcl-2 and MDR-1 expression. Supplementation with 200 µM I2 exerted similar effects in both cell lines: it decreased the proliferation rate by ~40%, and I2 co-administration with DOX significantly increased the inhibitory effect (to ~60%) and also increased apoptosis (BAX/Bcl-2 index), principally by inhibiting Bcl-2 expression. The inhibition by I2 + DOX was also accompanied by impaired MDR-1 induction as well as by a significant increase in PPARγ expression. All of these changes could be attributed to enhanced DOX retention and differential down-selection of CD44+/CD24+ and E-cadherin+/vimentin+ subpopulations. I2 + DOX-selected cells showed a weak induction of xenografts in Foxn1nu/nu mice, indicating that the iodine supplements reversed the tumorogenic capacity of the MCF-7/D cells. In conclusion, I2 is able to reduce the drug resistance and invasive capacity of mammary cancer cells exposed to DOX and represents an anti-chemoresistance agent with clinical potential.

  11. Different Expression Profiles Suggest Functional Differentiation Among Chemosensory Proteins in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; He, Peng; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play various roles in insect physiology including olfaction and development. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål , is one of the most notorious rice pests worldwide. The wing-from variation and annually long distance migration imply that olfaction would play a key role in N. lugens behavior. In this study, full-length cDNAs of nine CSPs were cloned by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends procedure, and their expression profiles were determined by the quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), with regard to developmental stage, wing-form, gender, and tissues of short-wing adult. These NlugCSP genes showed distinct expression patterns, indicating different roles they play. In particular, NlugCSP5 was long wing form biased and highly expressed in female wings among tissues; NlugCSP1 was mainly expressed in male adults and abdomen; NlugCSP7 was widely expressed in chemosensory tissues but little in the nonchemosensory abdomen. The function of NlugCSP7 in olfaction was further explored by the competitive fluorescence binding assay using the recombinant protein. However, the recombinant NlugCSP7 showed no obvious binding with all tested volatile compounds, suggesting that it may participate in physiological processes other than olfaction. Our results provide bases and some important clues for the function of NlugCSPs . PMID:25527582

  12. Blood gene expression profiles suggest altered immune function associated with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Aliza P; Gibson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies found that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can impair immune function and increase risk for cardiovascular disease or events. Mechanisms underlying the physiological reverberations of anxiety, however, are still elusive. Hence, we aimed to investigate molecular processes mediating effects of anxiety on physical health using blood gene expression profiles of 336 community participants (157 anxious and 179 control). We examined genome-wide differential gene expression in anxiety, as well as associations between nine major modules of co-regulated transcripts in blood gene expression and anxiety. No significant differential expression was observed in women, but 631 genes were differentially expressed between anxious and control men at the false discovery rate of 0.1 after controlling for age, body mass index, race, and batch effect. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that genes with altered expression levels in anxious men were involved in response of various immune cells to vaccination and to acute viral and bacterial infection, and in a metabolic network affecting traits of metabolic syndrome. Further, we found one set of 260 co-regulated genes to be significantly associated with anxiety in men after controlling for the relevant covariates, and demonstrate its equivalence to a component of the stress-related conserved transcriptional response to adversity profile. Taken together, our results suggest potential molecular pathways that can explain negative effects of GAD observed in epidemiological studies. Remarkably, even mild anxiety, which most of our participants had, was associated with observable changes in immune-related gene expression levels. Our findings generate hypotheses and provide incremental insights into molecular mechanisms mediating negative physiological effects of GAD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Expression patterns of TEL genes in Poaceae suggest a conserved association with cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Nicolas; Bernadet, Marie; Morin, Halima; Traas, Jan; Dron, Michel; Charon, Celine

    2005-06-01

    Poaceae species present a conserved distichous phyllotaxy (leaf position along the stem) and share common properties with respect to leaf initiation. The goal of this work was to determine if these common traits imply common genes. Therefore, homologues of the maize TERMINAL EAR1 gene in Poaceae were studied. This gene encodes an RNA-binding motif (RRM) protein, that is suggested to regulate leaf initiation. Using degenerate primers, one unique tel (terminal ear1-like) gene from seven Poaceae members, covering almost all the phylogenetic tree of the family, was identified by PCR. These genes present a very high degree of similarity, a much conserved exon-intron structure, and the three RRMs and TEL characteristic motifs. The evolution of tel sequences in Poaceae strongly correlates with the known phylogenetic tree of this family. RT-PCR gene expression analyses show conserved tel expression in the shoot apex in all species, suggesting functional orthology between these genes. In addition, in situ hybridization experiments with specific antisense probes show tel transcript accumulation in all differentiating cells of the leaf, from the recruitment of leaf founder cells to leaf margins cells. Tel expression is not restricted to initiating leaves as it is also found in pro-vascular tissues, root meristems, and immature inflorescences. Therefore, these results suggest that TEL is not only associated with leaf initiation but more generally with cell differentiation in Poaceae.

  14. Primordial odontogenic tumor: Subepithelial expression of Syndecan-1 and Ki-67 suggests origin during early odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bologna-Molina, R; Mikami, T; Pereira-Prado, V; Tapia-Repetto, G; Pires, F R; Carlos, R; Mosqueda-Taylor, A

    2018-03-01

    Primordial odontogenic tumor (POT) is composed of variably cellular myxoid connective tissue, surrounded by cuboidal to columnar odontogenic epithelium resembling the inner epithelium of the enamel organ, which often invaginates into the underlying connective tissue. The tumor is delimited at least partially by a thin fibrous capsule. It derives from the early stages of tooth development. Syndecan-1 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that has a physiological role in several cellular functions, including maintenance of the epithelial architecture, cell-to-cell adhesion and interaction of cells with extracellular matrix, and with diverse growth factors, stimulating cell proliferation. Ki-67 is considered the gold standard as a cell proliferation marker. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of Syndecan-1 and Ki-67 proliferation index in POT and normal tooth germs to better understand the biological behavior of this tumor. Results showed that Syndecan-1 was more intensely expressed in subepithelial mesenchymal areas of POT, in a pattern that resembles the early stages of tooth development. The cell proliferation index (4.1%) suggests that POT is a slow growing tumor. Syndecan-1 expression in tooth germs in late cap and early bell stages was similar to POT, showing immunopositivity in subepithelial mesenchymal condensed areas. The immunohistochemical findings showed a pattern in which the population of subepithelial mesenchymal cells exhibited greater proliferative activity than the central portion of the dental papilla. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Global gene expression profiling of oral cavity cancers suggests molecular heterogeneity within anatomic subsites

    PubMed Central

    Severino, Patricia; Alvares, Adriana M; Michaluart, Pedro; Okamoto, Oswaldo K; Nunes, Fabio D; Moreira-Filho, Carlos A; Tajara, Eloiza H

    2008-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a frequent neoplasm, which is usually aggressive and has unpredictable biological behavior and unfavorable prognosis. The comprehension of the molecular basis of this variability should lead to the development of targeted therapies as well as to improvements in specificity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Results Samples of primary OSCCs and their corresponding surgical margins were obtained from male patients during surgery and their gene expression profiles were screened using whole-genome microarray technology. Hierarchical clustering and Principal Components Analysis were used for data visualization and One-way Analysis of Variance was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Samples clustered mostly according to disease subsite, suggesting molecular heterogeneity within tumor stages. In order to corroborate our results, two publicly available datasets of microarray experiments were assessed. We found significant molecular differences between OSCC anatomic subsites concerning groups of genes presently or potentially important for drug development, including mRNA processing, cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis, metabolic process, cell cycle and apoptosis. Conclusion Our results corroborate literature data on molecular heterogeneity of OSCCs. Differences between disease subsites and among samples belonging to the same TNM class highlight the importance of gene expression-based classification and challenge the development of targeted therapies. PMID:19014556

  16. Expression studies of the PIS-regulated genes suggest different mechanisms of sex determination within mammals.

    PubMed

    Pannetier, M; Servel, N; Cocquet, J; Besnard, N; Cotinot, C; Pailhoux, E

    2003-01-01

    In mammals, the Y-located SRY gene is known to induce testis formation from the indifferent gonad. A related gene, SOX9, also plays a critical role in testis differentiation in mammals, in birds and reptiles. It is now assumed that SRY acts upstream of SOX9 in the sex determination cascade, but the regulatory link which should exist between these two genes remains unknown. Studies on XX sex reversal in polled goats (PIS mutation: Polled Intersex Syndrome) have led to the discovery of a female-specific locus crucial for ovarian differentiation. This genomic region is composed of at least two genes, FOXL2 and PISRT1, which share a common transcriptional regulatory region, PIS. In this review, we present the expression pattern of these PIS-regulated genes in mice. The FOXL2 expression profile of mice is similar to that described in goats in accordance with a conserved role of this ovarian differentiating gene in mammals. On the contrary, the PISRT1 expression profile is different between mice and goats, suggesting different mechanisms of the primary switch in the testis determination process within mammals. A model based on two different modes of SOX9 regulation in mice and other mammals is proposed in order to integrate our results into the current scheme of gonad differentiation. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Impulsive Choice in Mice Lacking Paternal Expression of Grb10 Suggests Intragenomic Conflict in Behavior.

    PubMed

    Dent, Claire L; Humby, Trevor; Lewis, Katie; Ward, Andrew; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Wilkins, Jon F; Isles, Anthony R

    2018-05-01

    Imprinted genes are expressed from one parental allele only as a consequence of epigenetic events that take place in the mammalian germ line and are thought to have evolved through intragenomic conflict between parental alleles. We demonstrate, for the first time, oppositional effects of imprinted genes on brain and behavior. Specifically, we show that mice lacking paternal Grb10 make fewer impulsive choices, with no dissociable effects on a separate measure of impulsive action. Taken together with previous work showing that mice lacking maternal Nesp55 make more impulsive choices, this suggests that impulsive choice behavior is a substrate for the action of genomic imprinting. Moreover, the contrasting effect of these two genes suggests that impulsive choices are subject to intragenomic conflict and that maternal and paternal interests pull this behavior in opposite directions. Finally, these data may also indicate that an imbalance in expression of imprinted genes contributes to pathological conditions such as gambling and drug addiction, where impulsive behavior becomes maladaptive. Copyright © 2018 Dent et al.

  18. Impulsive Choice in Mice Lacking Paternal Expression of Grb10 Suggests Intragenomic Conflict in Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Claire L.; Humby, Trevor; Lewis, Katie; Ward, Andrew; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Wilkinson, Lawrence S.; Wilkins, Jon F.; Isles, Anthony R.

    2018-01-01

    Imprinted genes are expressed from one parental allele only as a consequence of epigenetic events that take place in the mammalian germ line and are thought to have evolved through intragenomic conflict between parental alleles. We demonstrate, for the first time, oppositional effects of imprinted genes on brain and behavior. Specifically, we show that mice lacking paternal Grb10 make fewer impulsive choices, with no dissociable effects on a separate measure of impulsive action. Taken together with previous work showing that mice lacking maternal Nesp55 make more impulsive choices, this suggests that impulsive choice behavior is a substrate for the action of genomic imprinting. Moreover, the contrasting effect of these two genes suggests that impulsive choices are subject to intragenomic conflict and that maternal and paternal interests pull this behavior in opposite directions. Finally, these data may also indicate that an imbalance in expression of imprinted genes contributes to pathological conditions such as gambling and drug addiction, where impulsive behavior becomes maladaptive. PMID:29563147

  19. Gene expression suggests spontaneously hypertensive rats may have altered metabolism and reduced hypoxic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Marie-Françoise; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Engelter, Stefan; Lyrer, Philippe

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is an important cause of stroke, cognitive decline and vascular dementia (VaD). It is associated with diffuse white matter abnormalities and small deep cerebral ischemic infarcts. The molecular mechanisms involved in the development and progression of SVD are unclear. As hypertension is a major risk factor for developing SVD, Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) are considered an appropriate experimental model for SVD. Prior work suggested an imbalance between the number of blood microvessels and astrocytes at the level of the neurovascular unit in 2-month-old SHR, leading to neuronal hypoxia in the brain of 9-month-old animals. To identify genes and pathways involved in the development of SVD, we compared the gene expression profile in the cortex of 2 and 9-month-old of SHR with age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats using microarray-based technology. The results revealed significant differences in expression of genes involved in energy and lipid metabolisms, mitochondrial functions, oxidative stress and ischemic responses between both groups. These results strongly suggest that SHR suffer from chronic hypoxia, and therefore are unable to tolerate ischemia-like conditions, and are more vulnerable to high-energy needs than WKY. This molecular analysis gives new insights about pathways accounting for the development of SVD.

  20. Integrative analysis of copy number and gene expression data suggests novel pathogenetic mechanisms in primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Salati, Simona; Zini, Roberta; Nuzzo, Simona; Guglielmelli, Paola; Pennucci, Valentina; Prudente, Zelia; Ruberti, Samantha; Rontauroli, Sebastiano; Norfo, Ruggiero; Bianchi, Elisa; Bogani, Costanza; Rotunno, Giada; Fanelli, Tiziana; Mannarelli, Carmela; Rosti, Vittorio; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Pietra, Daniela; Ferrari, Sergio; Barosi, Giovanni; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario; Bicciato, Silvio; Tagliafico, Enrico; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Manfredini, Rossella

    2016-04-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a Myeloproliferative Neoplasm (MPN) characterized by megakaryocyte hyperplasia, progressive bone marrow fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis and transformation to Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). A number of phenotypic driver (JAK2, CALR, MPL) and additional subclonal mutations have been described in PMF, pointing to a complex genomic landscape. To discover novel genomic lesions that can contribute to disease phenotype and/or development, gene expression and copy number signals were integrated and several genomic abnormalities leading to a concordant alteration in gene expression levels were identified. In particular, copy number gain in the polyamine oxidase (PAOX) gene locus was accompanied by a coordinated transcriptional up-regulation in PMF patients. PAOX inhibition resulted in rapid cell death of PMF progenitor cells, while sparing normal cells, suggesting that PAOX inhibition could represent a therapeutic strategy to selectively target PMF cells without affecting normal hematopoietic cells' survival. Moreover, copy number loss in the chromatin modifier HMGXB4 gene correlates with a concomitant transcriptional down-regulation in PMF patients. Interestingly, silencing of HMGXB4 induces megakaryocyte differentiation, while inhibiting erythroid development, in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. These results highlight a previously un-reported, yet potentially interesting role of HMGXB4 in the hematopoietic system and suggest that genomic and transcriptional imbalances of HMGXB4 could contribute to the aberrant expansion of the megakaryocytic lineage that characterizes PMF patients. © 2015 UICC.

  1. Genomic Features That Predict Allelic Imbalance in Humans Suggest Patterns of Constraint on Gene Expression Variation

    PubMed Central

    Fédrigo, Olivier; Haygood, Ralph; Mukherjee, Sayan; Wray, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in gene expression is an important contributor to phenotypic diversity within and between species. Although this variation often has a genetic component, identification of the genetic variants driving this relationship remains challenging. In particular, measurements of gene expression usually do not reveal whether the genetic basis for any observed variation lies in cis or in trans to the gene, a distinction that has direct relevance to the physical location of the underlying genetic variant, and which may also impact its evolutionary trajectory. Allelic imbalance measurements identify cis-acting genetic effects by assaying the relative contribution of the two alleles of a cis-regulatory region to gene expression within individuals. Identification of patterns that predict commonly imbalanced genes could therefore serve as a useful tool and also shed light on the evolution of cis-regulatory variation itself. Here, we show that sequence motifs, polymorphism levels, and divergence levels around a gene can be used to predict commonly imbalanced genes in a human data set. Reduction of this feature set to four factors revealed that only one factor significantly differentiated between commonly imbalanced and nonimbalanced genes. We demonstrate that these results are consistent between the original data set and a second published data set in humans obtained using different technical and statistical methods. Finally, we show that variation in the single allelic imbalance-associated factor is partially explained by the density of genes in the region of a target gene (allelic imbalance is less probable for genes in gene-dense regions), and, to a lesser extent, the evenness of expression of the gene across tissues and the magnitude of negative selection on putative regulatory regions of the gene. These results suggest that the genomic distribution of functional cis-regulatory variants in the human genome is nonrandom, perhaps due to local differences in evolutionary

  2. African Americans with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma exhibit gender differences in Kaiso expression

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Angana; Jones, Jacqueline; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Davis, Melissa; Jaynes, Jesse; Reams, R. Renee; Dean-Colomb, Windy; Yates, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Kaiso, a bi-modal transcription factor, regulates gene expression, and is elevated in breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Depletion of Kaiso in other cancer types leads to a reduction in markers for the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) (Jones et al., 2014), however its clinical implications in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDCA) have not been widely explored. PDCA is rarely detected at an early stage but is characterized by rapid progression and invasiveness. We now report the significance of the subcellular localization of Kaiso in PDCAs from African Americans. Kaiso expression is higher in the cytoplasm of invasive and metastatic pancreatic cancers. In males, cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso correlates with cancer grade and lymph node positivity. In male and female patients, cytoplasmic Kaiso expression correlates with invasiveness. Also, nuclear expression of Kaiso increases with increased invasiveness and lymph node positivity. Further, analysis of the largest PDCA dataset available on ONCOMINE shows that as Kaiso increases, there is an overall increase in Zeb1, which is the inverse for E-cadherin. Hence, these findings suggest a role for Kaiso in the progression of PDCAs, involving the EMT markers, E-cadherin and Zeb1. PMID:27424525

  3. Probing the Interaction between Cyclic ADTC1 Ac-CADTPPVC-NH2) Peptide with EC1-EC2 domain of E-cadherin using Molecular Docking Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, P.; Wuning, S.; Manna, A.; Prasasty, V. D.; Hudiyanti, D.

    2018-04-01

    Deeply understanding that intermolecular interaction between molecules on the paracellular pathway has given insight to its microscopic and macroscopic properties. In the paracellular pathway, synthetic cyclic ADTC1 (Ac-CADTPPVC-NH2) peptide has been studied to modulate EC1-EC2 domain, computationally using molecular docking method. The aim of this research is to probe the effect of amino acid alanine (A) of ADTC1 on its interaction properties. The study carried out in two steps: 1. the optimization using GROMACS v4.6.5 program and; 2. Determination of the interaction properties using AutoDock 4.2 program. The interaction was done for A-J box, and the best position of the binding site and binding energy on the OC and CC ADTC1 peptides against the EC1-EC2 domain of E-cadherin was selected. The result showed that the CC of the F box ADTC1 has the best interaction with binding energy of - 26.36 kJ/mol and its energy was lower than ADTC5 without alanine amino acid. ADTC1 interacted with EC1 of EC1-EC2 on Asp1, Trp2, Val3, Ile4, Ile24, Lys25, Ser26, Asn27, and Met92 residues.

  4. Control of E-cadherin apical localisation and morphogenesis by a SOAP-1/AP-1/clathrin pathway in C. elegans epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Ghislain; Shafaq-Zadah, Massiullah; Nicolle, Ophélie; Damaj, Raghida; Pécréaux, Jacques; Michaux, Grégoire

    2015-05-01

    E-cadherin (E-cad) is the main component of epithelial junctions in multicellular organisms, where it is essential for cell-cell adhesion. The localisation of E-cad is often strongly polarised in the apico-basal axis. However, the mechanisms required for its polarised distribution are still largely unknown. We performed a systematic RNAi screen in vivo to identify genes required for the strict E-cad apical localisation in C. elegans epithelial epidermal cells. We found that the loss of clathrin, its adaptor AP-1 and the AP-1 interactor SOAP-1 induced a basolateral localisation of E-cad without affecting the apico-basal diffusion barrier. We further found that SOAP-1 controls AP-1 localisation, and that AP-1 is required for clathrin recruitment. Finally, we also show that AP-1 controls E-cad apical delivery and actin organisation during embryonic elongation, the final morphogenetic step of embryogenesis. We therefore propose that a molecular pathway, containing SOAP-1, AP-1 and clathrin, controls the apical delivery of E-cad and morphogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Anxa5 mediates the in vitro malignant behaviours of murine hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cells with high lymph node metastasis potential preferentially via ERK2/p-ERK2/c-Jun/p-c-Jun(Ser73) and E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xujuan; Wei, Bin; Liu, Shuqing; Guo, Chunmei; Wu, Na; Liu, Qinlong; Sun, Ming-Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Annexin A5 (Anxa5) is associated with the progression of some cancers, while its role and regulation mechanism in tumor lymphatic metastasis is rarely reported. This study aims to investigate the influence of Anxa5 knockdown on the malignant behaviours of murine hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line with high lymph node metastatic (LNM) potential and the underlying regulation mechanism. RNA interfering was performed to silence Anxa5 in Hca-F. Monoclonal shRNA-Anxa5- Hca-F cells were obtained via G418 screening by limited dilution method. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting (WB) were applied to measure Anxa5 expression levels. CCK-8, Boyden transwell-chamber and in situ LN adhesion assays were performed to explore the effects of Anxa5 on the proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion capacities of Hca-F. WB and qRT-PCR were used to detect the level changes of key molecules in corresponding signal pathways. We obtained two monoclonal shRNA-Anxa5-transfected Hca-F cell lines with stable knockdowns of Anxa5. Anxa5 knockdown resulted in significantly reduced proliferation, migration, invasion and in situ LN adhesion potentials of Hca-F in proportion to its knockdown extent. Anxa5 downregulation enhanced E-cadherin levels in Hca-F. Moreover, Anxa5 affected Hca-F behaviours specifically via ERK2/p-ERK2/c-Jun/p-c-Jun(Ser73) instead of p38MAPK/c-Jun, Jnk/c-Jun and AKT/c-Jun pathways. Anxa5 mediates the in vitro malignant behaviours of murine hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cells via ERK2/c-Jun/p-c-Jun(Ser73) and ERK2/E-cadherin pathways. It is an important molecule in metastasis (especially LNM) and a potential therapeutic target for hepatocarcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. High expression of P-cadherin is significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Imai, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Masashi; Takasaki, Chihiro; Ishibashi, Hironori; Okubo, Kenichi

    2018-04-01

    Placental (P)-cadherin expression is associated with malignant phenotype of cancer cell. The loss of E-cadherin has been thought to play a key role in tumor progression in several cancers. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of P-cadherin expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC patients (n = 172) were enrolled in this study; among them, 107 harbored adenocarcinomas, and 65 had squamous cell carcinomas. We examined P-cadherin and E-cadherin expression by immunohistochemical analysis and assessed the associations between each cadherin expression and both cadherin expression patterns with clinicopathological factors and prognosis. To investigate the pathway to acquire tumor progression associated with P-cadherin and E-cadherin, we examined p120 catenin localization by immunohistochemical analysis. High P-cadherin expression was significantly associated with lymphatic metastasis, pathological stage, and Ki-67 proliferation index (P < .05, respectively). Low E-cadherin expression was significantly associated with maximum standardized uptake value, lymphatic metastasis, and pathological stage (P < .05, respectively). The cytoplasmic p120 catenin localization was associated with the low E-cadherin and high P-cadherin expression group (P < .001). High P-cadherin expression was associated with shorter disease-free survival (P = .044) and shorter overall survival (OS; P = .044). The low E-cadherin and high P-cadherin expression group was associated with shorter OS (P = .024). High P-cadherin expression was associated with tumor progression and poor patient survival in NSCLC. In these patients, the low E-cadherin expression might be associated with tumor progression involving cytoplasmic p120 catenin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) inhibits cancer cell growth and expression of key molecules in inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M; Acevedo, Raysa Rosario; Otero-Franqui, Elisa; Cubano, Luis A; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal and least understood form of advanced breast cancer. Its lethality originates from its nature of invading the lymphatic system and absence of a palpable tumor mass. Different from other metastatic breast cancer cells, IBC cells invade by forming tumor spheroids that retain E-cadherin-based cell-cell adhesions. Herein we describe the potential of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy. Reishi contains biological compounds that are cytotoxic against cancer cells. We report the effects of Reishi on viability, apoptosis, invasion, and its mechanism of action in IBC cells (SUM-149). Results show that Reishi selectively inhibits cancer cell viability although it does not affect the viability of noncancerous mammary epithelial cells. Apoptosis induction is consistent with decreased cell viability. Reishi inhibits cell invasion and disrupts the cell spheroids that are characteristic of the IBC invasive pathology. Reishi decreases the expression of genes involved in cancer cell survival and proliferation (BCL-2, TERT, PDGFB), and invasion and metastasis (MMP-9), whereas it increases the expression of IL8. Reishi reduces BCL-2, BCL-XL, E-cadherin, eIF4G, p120-catenin, and c-Myc protein expression and gelatinase activity. These findings suggest that Reishi is an effective anti-IBC therapeutic.

  8. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth and Expression of Key Molecules in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M.; Acevedo, Raysa Rosario; Otero-Franqui, Elisa; Cubano, Luis. A.; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal and least understood form of advanced breast cancer. Its lethality originates from its nature of invading the lymphatic system and absence of a palpable tumor mass. Different from other metastatic breast cancer cells, IBC cells invade by forming tumor spheroids that retain E-cadherin-based cell–cell adhesions. Herein we describe the potential of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy. Reishi contains biological compounds that are cytotoxic against cancer cells. We report the effects of Reishi on viability, apoptosis, invasion, and its mechanism of action in IBC cells (SUM-149). Results show that Reishi selectively inhibits cancer cell viability although it does not affect the viability of noncancerous mammary epithelial cells. Apoptosis induction is consistent with decreased cell viability. Reishi inhibits cell invasion and disrupts the cell spheroids that are characteristic of the IBC invasive pathology. Reishi decreases the expression of genes involved in cancer cell survival and proliferation (BCL-2, TERT, PDGFB), and invasion and metastasis (MMP-9), whereas it increases the expression of IL8. Reishi reduces BCL-2, BCL-XL, E-cadherin, eIF4G, p120-catenin, and c-Myc protein expression and gelatinase activity. These findings suggest that Reishi is an effective anti-IBC therapeutic. PMID:21888505

  9. The use of language to express thermal sensation suggests heat acclimatization by Indonesian people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochihara, Yutaka; Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Bakri, Ilham; Parsons, Ken

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is evidence of heat acclimatization in the words used to express thermal sensation. A total of 458 urban Japanese and 601 Indonesians participated in a questionnaire. In addition, in a preliminary survey, 39 native English speakers in the UK participated. Our results showed that (1) for Indonesians, the closest thermal descriptor of a feeling of thermal comfort was `cool' (75%) followed by `slightly cool' (7%), `slightly cold' (5%) and `cold' (5%), while Japanese responses were distributed uniformly among descriptors `cool', `slightly cool', `neither', `slightly warm', and `warm'; (2) the closest thermal descriptors of a feeling of discomfort for Indonesians were less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than those for Japanese; (3) in the cases where `cool' and `slightly cold' were imagined in the mind, the descriptors were cognized as a thermal comfortable feeling by 97% and 57% of Indonesians, respectively; (4) the most frequently voted choice endorsing hot weather was `higher than 32°C' for Indonesians and `higher than 29°C' for Japanese respondents; for cold weather, `lower than 15°C' for Japanese and `lower than 20°C' for Indonesians. In summary, the descriptor `cool' in Indonesians connotes a thermally comfortable feeling, but the inter-zone between hot and cold weather that was judged in the mind showed a upward shift when compared to that of Japanese. It is suggested that linguistic heat acclimatization exists on a cognitive level for Indonesians and is preserved in the words of thermal descriptors.

  10. ZEB1 expression is a potential indicator of invasive endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Masataka; Masuda, Hirotaka; Hara, Kanako; Uchida, Hiroshi; Sato, Kenji; Sato, Suguru; Asada, Hironori; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Tanaka, Mamoru; Saya, Hideyuki

    2017-09-01

    Although endometriosis is a benign disease, it shares some features with cancers, such as invasiveness and the potential to metastasize. This study sought to investigate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition status in human endometriotic lesions. Thirteen endometriosis patients and 10 control women without endometriosis undergoing surgery for benign indications were recruited. We examined the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-induced transcriptional factors, such as Snail and ZEB1, by immunohistochemistry. We evaluated the expression of each marker in epithelial cells of both endometriotic lesions (ovarian endometrioma, deep infiltrating endometriosis, adenomyosis) and normal endometria. The correlation between ZEB1 expression and serum level of CA125 was also investigated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that although E-cadherin, vimentin, and Snail were expressed in epithelia of normal endometria and endometriotic lesions, ZEB1 expression was only expressed in epithelia of endometriotic lesions. Additionally, ZEB1 was most frequently observed in epithelial cells of invasive endometriosis. The endometriosis patients with high serum CA125 level were more likely to have ZEB1-positive lesions. This is the first observation of ZEB1 expression in epithelial cells of benign disease. The preferential expression of ZEB1 in epithelial cells of endometriotic lesions suggests that these cells may have, at least in part, a higher level of mesenchymal features possibly via ZEB1-driven epithelial-mesenchymal transition than normal endometria and that ZEB1 can be a potential indicator of invasiveness or severity of endometriosis. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Expression profiling suggests a regulatory role of gallbladder in lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zuo-Biao; Han, Tian-Quan; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Fei, Jian; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Jian; Tian, Zhi-Jie; Shang, Jun; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Cai, Xing-Xing; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Sheng-Dao; Jin, Gang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine expression profile of gallbladder using microarray and to investigate the role of gallbladder in lipid homeostasis. METHODS: 33P-labelled cDNA derived from total RNA of gallbladder tissue was hybridized to a cDNA array representing 17000 cDNA clusters. Genes with intensities ≥2 and variation <0.33 between two samples were considered as positive signals with subtraction of background chosen from an area where no cDNA was spotted. The average gray level of two gallbladders was adopted to analyze its bioinformatics. Identified target genes were confirmed by touch-down polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 11 047 genes expressed in normal gallbladder, which was more than that predicted by another author, and the first 10 genes highly expressed (high gray level in hybridization image), e.g., ARPC5 (2225.88±90.46), LOC55972 (2220.32±446.51) and SLC20A2 (1865.21±98.02), were related to the function of smooth muscle contraction and material transport. Meanwhile, 149 lipid-related genes were expressed in the gallbladder, 89 of which were first identified (with gray level in hybridization image), e.g., FASN (11.42±2.62), APOD (92.61±8.90) and CYP21A2 (246.11±42.36), and they were involved in each step of lipid metabolism pathway. In addition, 19 of those 149 genes were gallstone candidate susceptibility genes (with gray level in hybridization image), e.g., HMGCR (10.98±0.31), NPC1 (34.88±12.12) and NR1H4 (16.8±0.65), which were previously thought to be expressed in the liver and/or intestine tissue only. CONCLUSION: Gallbladder expresses 11 047 genes and takes part in lipid homeostasis. PMID:15810076

  12. Suggested Greek translations of expressions in the experimental analysis of behavior

    PubMed Central

    Charalambous, Neophytos; Cramer, Owen; Roberts, Carl L.

    1979-01-01

    Greek-English and English-Greek translations of expressions in the experimental analysis of behavior are presented. Included is a short discussion of some of the problems which arose, partly because of the mentalistic nature of Greek science. PMID:16812132

  13. Whole blood genome-wide expression profiling and network analysis suggest MELAS master regulators.

    PubMed

    Mende, Susanne; Royer, Loic; Herr, Alexander; Schmiedel, Janet; Deschauer, Marcus; Klopstock, Thomas; Kostic, Vladimir S; Schroeder, Michael; Reichmann, Heinz; Storch, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    The heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation A3243G causes the mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome as one of the most frequent mitochondrial diseases. The process of reconfiguration of nuclear gene expression profile to accommodate cellular processes to the functional status of mitochondria might be a key to MELAS disease manifestation and could contribute to its diverse phenotypic presentation. To determine master regulatory protein networks and disease-modifying genes in MELAS syndrome. Analyses of whole blood transcriptomes from 10 MELAS patients using a novel strategy by combining classic Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray profiling with regulatory and protein interaction network analyses. Hierarchical cluster analysis elucidated that the relative abundance of mutant mtDNA molecules is decisive for the nuclear gene expression response. Further analyses confirmed not only transcription factors already known to be involved in mitochondrial diseases (such as TFAM), but also detected the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 complex, nuclear factor Y and cAMP responsive element-binding protein-related transcription factors as novel master regulators for reconfiguration of nuclear gene expression in response to the MELAS mutation. Correlation analyses of gene alterations and clinico-genetic data detected significant correlations between A3243G-induced nuclear gene expression changes and mutant mtDNA load as well as disease characteristics. These potential disease-modifying genes influencing the expression of the MELAS phenotype are mainly related to clusters primarily unrelated to cellular energy metabolism, but important for nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and signal transduction. Our data thus provide a framework to search for new pathogenetic concepts and potential therapeutic approaches to treat the MELAS syndrome.

  14. Graphical modeling of gene expression in monocytes suggests molecular mechanisms explaining increased atherosclerosis in smokers.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Ricardo A; Zeller, Tanja; Rotival, Maxime; Wild, Philipp S; Münzel, Thomas; Lackner, Karl J; Weidmann, Henri; Ninio, Ewa; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Cambien, François; Blankenberg, Stefan; Tiret, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for atherosclerosis with reported widespread effects on gene expression in circulating blood cells. We hypothesized that a molecular signature mediating the relation between smoking and atherosclerosis may be found in the transcriptome of circulating monocytes. Genome-wide expression profiles and counts of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries were collected in 248 smokers and 688 non-smokers from the general population. Patterns of co-expressed genes were identified by Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and network structure of the pattern-specific gene modules was inferred by the PC-algorithm. A likelihood-based causality test was implemented to select patterns that fit models containing a path "smoking→gene expression→plaques". Robustness of the causal inference was assessed by bootstrapping. At a FDR ≤0.10, 3,368 genes were associated to smoking or plaques, of which 93% were associated to smoking only. SASH1 showed the strongest association to smoking and PPARG the strongest association to plaques. Twenty-nine gene patterns were identified by ICA. Modules containing SASH1 and PPARG did not show evidence for the "smoking→gene expression→plaques" causality model. Conversely, three modules had good support for causal effects and exhibited a network topology consistent with gene expression mediating the relation between smoking and plaques. The network with the strongest support for causal effects was connected to plaques through SLC39A8, a gene with known association to HDL-cholesterol and cellular uptake of cadmium from tobacco, while smoking was directly connected to GAS6, a gene reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in atherosclerosis and to be up-regulated in the placenta of women smoking during pregnancy. Our analysis of the transcriptome of monocytes recovered genes relevant for association to smoking and atherosclerosis, and connected genes that before, were only studied in separate contexts. Inspection of

  15. Decreased Expression of EHD2 Promotes Tumor Metastasis and Indicates Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxia; Ni, Wenkai; Qu, Lishuai; Cui, Xiaopeng; Lin, Zhipeng; Liu, Qingqing; Zhou, Huiling; Ni, Runzhou

    2016-09-01

    Metastasis remains the most common cause of lethal outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. Understanding molecular mechanisms that regulate metastasis process is crucial for improving treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this article, we examined whether Eps15 homology domain-containing 2 (EHD2) played a critical role in hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis and explored the possible mechanism. EHD2 and E-cadherin expression levels in hepatocellular carcinoma patients were examined using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The cell migration and invasion were evaluated by wound-healing assay and trans-well assay. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition was analyzed by immunofluorescence, and the vital markers were detected by Western blotting. The correlation of EHD2 and E-cadherin was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. EHD2 expression, along with the epithelial marker E-cadherin, was markedly reduced in tumor tissues than in adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, EHD2 was positively correlated with E-cadherin, histological grade, tumor metastasis, and microvascular invasion. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that hepatocellular carcinoma patients with decreased EHD2 expression had shorter overall survival times than those with higher EHD2 expression. Knockdown of EHD2 induced an increase in cell invasion and changes characteristic of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, while overexpression of EHD2 inhibited these processes. Molecular data indicated that EHD2 inhibited migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma probably by interacting with E-cadherin and it might be an independent, significant risk factor for survival after curative resection.

  16. Graphical Modeling of Gene Expression in Monocytes Suggests Molecular Mechanisms Explaining Increased Atherosclerosis in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Verdugo, Ricardo A.; Zeller, Tanja; Rotival, Maxime; Wild, Philipp S.; Münzel, Thomas; Lackner, Karl J.; Weidmann, Henri; Ninio, Ewa; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Cambien, François; Blankenberg, Stefan; Tiret, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for atherosclerosis with reported widespread effects on gene expression in circulating blood cells. We hypothesized that a molecular signature mediating the relation between smoking and atherosclerosis may be found in the transcriptome of circulating monocytes. Genome-wide expression profiles and counts of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries were collected in 248 smokers and 688 non-smokers from the general population. Patterns of co-expressed genes were identified by Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and network structure of the pattern-specific gene modules was inferred by the PC-algorithm. A likelihood-based causality test was implemented to select patterns that fit models containing a path “smoking→gene expression→plaques”. Robustness of the causal inference was assessed by bootstrapping. At a FDR ≤0.10, 3,368 genes were associated to smoking or plaques, of which 93% were associated to smoking only. SASH1 showed the strongest association to smoking and PPARG the strongest association to plaques. Twenty-nine gene patterns were identified by ICA. Modules containing SASH1 and PPARG did not show evidence for the “smoking→gene expression→plaques” causality model. Conversely, three modules had good support for causal effects and exhibited a network topology consistent with gene expression mediating the relation between smoking and plaques. The network with the strongest support for causal effects was connected to plaques through SLC39A8, a gene with known association to HDL-cholesterol and cellular uptake of cadmium from tobacco, while smoking was directly connected to GAS6, a gene reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in atherosclerosis and to be up-regulated in the placenta of women smoking during pregnancy. Our analysis of the transcriptome of monocytes recovered genes relevant for association to smoking and atherosclerosis, and connected genes that before, were only studied in separate contexts

  17. Leptin acts on neoplastic behavior and expression levels of genes related to hypoxia, angiogenesis, and invasiveness in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sobrinho Santos, Eliane Macedo; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Cangussu, Lilian Mendes Borborema; de Jesus, Sabrina Ferreira; Fraga, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho; Cardoso, Claudio Marcelo; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2017-05-01

    Leptin, one of the main hormones controlling energy homeostasis, has been associated with different cancer types. In oral cancer, its effect is not well understood. We investigated, through in vitro and in vivo assays, whether leptin can affect the neoplastic behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of genes possibly linked to the leptin pathway was assessed in leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and also in tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral mucosa, including leptin, leptin receptor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, Col1A1, Ki67, and mir-210. Leptin treatment favored higher rates of cell proliferation and migration, and reduced apoptosis. Accordingly, leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells show decreased messenger RNA caspase-3 expression, and increased levels of E-cadherin, Col1A1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and mir-210. In tissue samples, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha messenger RNA and protein expression of leptin and leptin receptor were high in oral squamous cell carcinoma cases. Serum leptin levels were increased in first clinical stages of the disease. In animal model, oral squamous cell carcinoma-induced mice show higher leptin receptor expression, and serum leptin level was increased in dysplasia group. Our findings suggest that leptin seems to exert an effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma cells behavior and also on molecular markers related to cell proliferation, migration, and tumor angiogenesis.

  18. Matrilysin (Matrix Metalloproteinase-7) Regulates Anti-Inflammatory and Antifibrotic Pulmonary Dendritic Cells That Express CD103 (αEβ7-Integrin)

    PubMed Central

    Manicone, Anne M.; Huizar, Isham; McGuire, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The E-cadherin receptor CD103 (αEβ7-integrin) is expressed on specific populations of pulmonary dendritic cells (DC) and T cells. However, CD103 function in the lung is not well understood. Matrilysin (MMP-7) expression is increased in lung injury and cleaves E-cadherin from injured lung epithelium. Thus, to assess matrilysin effects on CD103-E-cadherin interactions in lung injury, wild-type, CD103−/−, and Mmp7−/− mice, in which E-cadherin isn’t cleaved in the lung, were treated with bleomycin or bleomycin with nFMLP to reverse the defect in acute neutrophil influx seen in Mmp7−/− mice. Pulmonary CD103+ DC were significantly increased in injured wild-type compared with Mmp7−/− mice, and CD103+ leukocytes showed significantly enhanced interaction with E-cadherin on injured wild-type epithelium than with Mmp7−/− epithelium in vitro and in vivo. Bleomycin-treated CD103−/− mice had persistent neutrophilic inflammation, increased fibrosis, and increased mortality compared with wild-type mice, a phenotype that was partially recapitulated in bleomycin/nFMLP-treated Mmp7−/− mice. Soluble E-cadherin increased IL-12 and IL-10 and reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in wild-type bone marrow-derived DC but not in CD103−/− bone marrow-derived DC. Similar mRNA patterns were seen in lungs of bleomycin-injured wild-type, but not CD103−/− or Mmp7−/−, mice. In conclusion, matrilysin regulates pulmonary localization of DC that express CD103, and E-cadherin cleavage may activate CD103+ DC to limit inflammation and inhibit fibrosis. PMID:19893044

  19. Reduced immunohistochemical expression of adhesion molecules in vitiligo skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Reichert Faria, Adriane; Jung, Juliana Elizabeth; Silva de Castro, Caio César; de Noronha, Lucia

    2017-03-01

    Because defects in adhesion impairment seem to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of vitiligo, this study aimed to compare the immunohistochemical expression of several adhesion molecules in the epidermis of vitiligo and non lesional vitiligo skin. Sixty-six specimens of lesional and non lesional skin from 33 volunteers with vitiligo were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using anti-beta-catenin, anti-E-cadherin, anti-laminin, anti-beta1 integrin, anti-collagen IV, anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. Biopsies of vitiligo skin demonstrated a significant reduction in the expression of laminin and integrin. The average value of the immunohistochemically positive reaction area of the vitiligo specimens was 3053.2μm 2 , compared with the observed value of 3431.8μm 2 in non vitiligo skin (p=0.003) for laminin. The immuno-positive area was 7174.6μm 2 (vitiligo) and 8966.7μm 2 (non lesional skin) for integrin (p=0.042). A reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the basal layer of the epidermis in vitiligo samples was also observed (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). However, no significant differences were observed with respect to the expression of beta-catenin, E-cadherin, and collagen IV between vitiligo and non lesional skin. Our results suggest that an impairment in adhesion exists in vitiligo skin, which is supported by the diminished immunohistochemical expression of laminin, beta1 integrin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Positive correlation between ADAR expression and its targets suggests a complex regulation mediated by RNA editing in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Liscovitch, Noa; Bazak, Lily; Levanon, Erez Y; Chechik, Gal

    2014-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA is a post-transcriptional modification that is crucial for normal life and development in vertebrates. RNA editing has been shown to be very abundant in the human transcriptome, specifically at the primate-specific Alu elements. The functional role of this wide-spread effect is still not clear; it is believed that editing of transcripts is a mechanism for their down-regulation via processes such as nuclear retention or RNA degradation. Here we combine 2 neural gene expression datasets with genome-level editing information to examine the relation between the expression of ADAR genes with the expression of their target genes. Specifically, we computed the spatial correlation across structures of post-mortem human brains between ADAR and a large set of targets that were found to be edited in their Alu repeats. Surprisingly, we found that a large fraction of the edited genes are positively correlated with ADAR, opposing the assumption that editing would reduce expression. When considering the correlations between ADAR and its targets over development, 2 gene subsets emerge, positively correlated and negatively correlated with ADAR expression. Specifically, in embryonic time points, ADAR is positively correlated with many genes related to RNA processing and regulation of gene expression. These findings imply that the suggested mechanism of regulation of expression by editing is probably not a global one; ADAR expression does not have a genome wide effect reducing the expression of editing targets. It is possible, however, that RNA editing by ADAR in non-coding regions of the gene might be a part of a more complex expression regulation mechanism. PMID:25692240

  1. Positive correlation between ADAR expression and its targets suggests a complex regulation mediated by RNA editing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Liscovitch, Noa; Bazak, Lily; Levanon, Erez Y; Chechik, Gal

    2014-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA is a post-transcriptional modification that is crucial for normal life and development in vertebrates. RNA editing has been shown to be very abundant in the human transcriptome, specifically at the primate-specific Alu elements. The functional role of this wide-spread effect is still not clear; it is believed that editing of transcripts is a mechanism for their down-regulation via processes such as nuclear retention or RNA degradation. Here we combine 2 neural gene expression datasets with genome-level editing information to examine the relation between the expression of ADAR genes with the expression of their target genes. Specifically, we computed the spatial correlation across structures of post-mortem human brains between ADAR and a large set of targets that were found to be edited in their Alu repeats. Surprisingly, we found that a large fraction of the edited genes are positively correlated with ADAR, opposing the assumption that editing would reduce expression. When considering the correlations between ADAR and its targets over development, 2 gene subsets emerge, positively correlated and negatively correlated with ADAR expression. Specifically, in embryonic time points, ADAR is positively correlated with many genes related to RNA processing and regulation of gene expression. These findings imply that the suggested mechanism of regulation of expression by editing is probably not a global one; ADAR expression does not have a genome wide effect reducing the expression of editing targets. It is possible, however, that RNA editing by ADAR in non-coding regions of the gene might be a part of a more complex expression regulation mechanism.

  2. Comparative study of angiostatic and anti-invasive gene expressions as prognostic factors in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Koh, J T; Shin, B A; Ahn, K Y; Roh, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, K K

    2001-02-01

    Genes involving angiogenesis and metastasis play an important role in the progression and infiltration of cancer. We examined the expressions of various angiostatic and potential invasion/metastasis suppressor genes through RT-PCR analyses in 32 gastric cancer specimens with or without distant metastasis. The expressions of the invasion/metastasis suppressor, nm23 and E-cadherin increased much more in the cancer tissue (CT) and metastatic lymph node (MLN) than in the extraneoplastic mucosa (EM) and non-metastatic lymph node (NLN), respectively. The expressions of the angiostatic factor, angiopoietin 2 and thrombospondin 2 increased in the CT and MLN as compared with the EM and NLN, respectively. The newly cloned angiostatic factor, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) decreased much more in the CT and MLN than the EM and NLN, respectively. However, BAI1 increased in the CT compared with the EM among the patients with poor prognosis and distant metastasis, such as liver or peritoneum. The expressions of the invasive factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its suppressor, tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) increased in the CM as compared with the EM, but the increased expression pattern of these genes in the CT became blunted among the patients with good prognosis. Our results indicate that BAI1 and TIMP-2 expressions in the extraneoplastic mucosa and non-metastatic lymph nodes were not suppressed in the patients with good prognosis, but increased expressions of angiopoietin 2, thrombospondin 2, TIMP-2, nm23 and E-cadherin in the tumor tissue did not lead to a long survival after operation. It is suggested that the extent of BAI1 and TIMP-2 expression in the gastric mucosa may be an important prognostic factor for predicting survival in gastric cancer.

  3. The expression of cholesterol metabolism genes in monocytes from HIV-infected subjects suggests intracellular cholesterol accumulation.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Eoin R; McAuley, Nuala; O'Halloran, Jane A; Rock, Clare; Low, Justin; Satchell, Claudette S; Lambert, John S; Sheehan, Gerald J; Mallon, Patrick W G

    2013-02-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). In vitro, HIV impairs monocyte-macrophage cholesterol efflux, a major determinant of circulating HDL-c, by increasing ABCA1 degradation, with compensatory upregulation of ABCA1 messenger RNA (mRNA). We examined expression of genes involved in cholesterol uptake, metabolism, and efflux in monocytes from 22 HIV-positive subjects on antiretroviral therapy (ART-Treated), 30 untreated HIV-positive subjects (ART-Naive), and 22 HIV-negative controls (HIV-Neg). HDL-c was lower and expression of ABCA1 mRNA was higher in ART-Naive subjects than in both ART-Treated and HIV-Neg subjects (both P < .01), with HDL-c inversely correlated with HIV RNA (ρ = -0.52; P < .01). Expression of genes involved in cholesterol uptake (LDLR, CD36), synthesis (HMGCR), and regulation (SREBP2, LXRA) was significantly lower in both ART-Treated and ART-Naive subjects than in HIV-Neg controls. In vivo, increased monocyte ABCA1 expression in untreated HIV-infected patients and normalization of ABCA1 expression with virological suppression by ART supports direct HIV-induced impairment of cholesterol efflux previously demonstrated in vitro. However, decreased expression of cholesterol sensing, uptake, and synthesis genes in both untreated and treated HIV infection suggests that both HIV and ART affect monocyte cholesterol metabolism in a pattern consistent with accumulation of intramonocyte cholesterol.

  4. Microarray analysis of glial cells resistant to JCV infection suggests a correlation between viral infection and inflammatory cytokine gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Kate; Gee, Gretchen V; Simkevich, Carl P; Sedivy, John M; Atwood, Walter J

    2007-01-01

    The human polyomavirus, JCV, has a highly restricted tropism and primarily infects glial cells. The mechanisms restricting infection of cells by JCV are poorly understood. Previously we developed and described a glial cell line that was resistant to JCV infection with the aim of using these cells to identify factors that determine JCV tropism. Gene expression profiling of susceptible and resistant glial cells revealed a direct correlation between the expression of inflammatory cytokines and susceptibility to JCV infection. This correlation manifested at the level of viral gene transcription. Previous studies have suggested a link between an increase in cytokine gene expression in HIV patients and the development of PML and these data support this hypothesis. PMID:17555786

  5. Altered gene expression in dry age-related macular degeneration suggests early loss of choroidal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, S Scott; Braun, Terry A; Skeie, Jessica M; Haas, Christine M; Sohn, Elliott H; Stone, Edwin M; Scheetz, Todd E; Mullins, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in developed countries. The molecular pathogenesis of early events in AMD is poorly understood. We investigated differential gene expression in samples of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid from early AMD and control maculas with exon-based arrays. Gene expression levels in nine human donor eyes with early AMD and nine control human donor eyes were assessed using Affymetrix Human Exon ST 1.0 arrays. Two controls did not pass quality control and were removed. Differentially expressed genes were annotated using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed on RPE-specific and endothelium-associated gene sets. The complement factor H (CFH) genotype was also assessed, and differential expression was analyzed regarding high AMD risk (YH/HH) and low AMD risk (YY) genotypes. Seventy-five genes were identified as differentially expressed (raw p value <0.01; ≥50% fold change, mean log2 expression level in AMD or control ≥ median of all average gene expression values); however, no genes were significant (adj. p value <0.01) after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Of 52 genes with decreased expression in AMD (fold change <0.5; raw p value <0.01), 18 genes were identified by DAVID analysis as associated with vision or neurologic processes. The GSEA of the RPE-associated and endothelium-associated genes revealed a significant decrease in genes typically expressed by endothelial cells in the early AMD group compared to controls, consistent with previous histologic and proteomic studies. Analysis of the CFH genotype indicated decreased expression of ADAMTS9 in eyes with high-risk genotypes (fold change = -2.61; raw p value=0.0008). GSEA results suggest that RPE transcripts are preserved or elevated in early AMD, concomitant with loss of endothelial cell marker expression. These results are

  6. Contrasting expression of membrane metalloproteinases, MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP, suggests distinct functions in skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maozhou; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhang, Liang; Gibson, Gary

    2008-07-01

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is the most ubiquitous and widely studied of the membrane-type metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs). It was thus surprising to find no published data on chicken MT1-MMP. We report here the characterization of the chicken gene. Its low sequence identity with the MT1-MMP genes of other species, high GC content, and divergent catalytic domain explains the absence of data and our difficulties in characterizing the gene. The absence of structural features in the chicken gene that have been suggested to be critical for the activation of MMP-2 by MT1-MMP; for the effect of MT1-MMP on cell migration and for the recycling of MT1-MMP suggest these features are either not essential or that MT1-MMP does not perform these functions in chickens. Comparison of the expression of chicken MT1-MMP with MT3-MMP and with MMP-2 and MMP-13 has confirmed the previously recognized co-expression of MT1-MMP with MMP-2 and MMP-13 in fibrous and vascular tissues, particularly those surrounding the developing long bones in other species. By contrast, MT3-MMP expression differs markedly from that of MT1-MMP and of both MMP-2 and MMP-13. MT3-MMP is expressed by chondrocytes of the developing articular surface. Similar expression patterns of this group of MT-MMPs and MMPs have been observed in mouse embryos and suggest distinct and specific functions for MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP in skeletal development.

  7. The yan gene is highly conserved in Drosophila and its expression suggests a complex role throughout development.

    PubMed

    Price, M D; Lai, Z

    1999-04-01

    Competence for cell fate determination and cellular differentiation is under tight control of regulatory genes. Yan, a nuclear target of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, is an E twenty six (ETS) DNA-binding protein that functions as a negative regulator of cell differentiation and proliferation in Drosophila. Most members of RTK signaling pathways are highly conserved through evolution, yet no yan orthologues have been identified to date in vertebrates. To investigate the degree of yan conservation during evolution, we have characterized a yan homologue from a sibling species of D. melanogaster, D. virilis. Our results show that the organization, primary structure and expression pattern of yan are highly conserved. Both genes span over 20 kb and contain four exons with introns at identical positions. The areas with highest amino acid similarity include the Pointed and ETS domain but there are other discrete regions with a high degree of similarity. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that yan's closest relative is the human tel gene, a negative regulator of differentiation in hematopoetic precursors. In both species, Yan is dynamically expressed beginning as early as stage 4/5 and persisting throughout embryogenesis. In third instar larvae, Yan is expressed in and behind the morphogenetic furrow of the eye imaginal disc as well as in the laminar precursor cells of the brain. Ovarian follicle cells also contain Yan protein. Conservation of the structure and expression patterns of yan genes strongly suggests that regulatory mechanisms for their expression are also conserved in these two species.

  8. Progesterone receptor expression during prostate cancer progression suggests a role of this receptor in stromal cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Yang, Ou; Fazli, Ladan; Rennie, Paul S; Gleave, Martin E; Dong, Xuesen

    2015-07-01

    The progesterone receptor, like the androgen receptor, belongs to the steroid receptor superfamily. Our previous studies have reported that the PR is expressed specifically in prostate stroma. PR inhibits proliferation of, and regulates cytokine secretion by stromal cells. However, PR protein expression in cancer-associated stroma during prostate cancer progression has not been profiled. Since the phenotypes of prostate stromal cells change dynamically as tumors progress, whether the PR plays a role in regulating stromal cell differentiation needs to be investigated. Immunohistochemistry assays measured PR protein levels on human prostate tissue microarrays containing 367 tissue cores from benign prostate, prostate tumors with different Gleason scores, tumors under various durations of castration therapy, and tumors at the castration-resistant stage. Immunoblotting assays determined whether PR regulated the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin, and fibroblast specific protein (FSP) in human prostate stromal cells. PR protein levels decreased in cancer-associated stroma when compared with that in benign prostate stroma. This reduction in PR expression was not correlated with Gleason scores. PR protein levels were elevated by castration therapy, but reduced to pre-castration levels when tumors progressed to the castration-resistant stage. Enhanced PR expression in human prostate stromal cells increased α-SMA, but decreased vimentin and FSP protein levels ligand-independently. These results suggest that PR plays an active role in regulating stromal cell phenotypes during prostate cancer progression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Gene Expression Signature Associated with Overall Survival in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Suggests a New Treatment Strategy.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Andersen, Jesper B; Madigan, James P; Varma, Sudhir; Bagni, Rachel K; Powell, Katie; Burgan, William E; Wu, Chung-Pu; Calcagno, Anna Maria; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Gottesman, Michael M

    2016-02-01

    Despite improvements in the management of liver cancer, the survival rate for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains dismal. The survival benefit of systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of liver cancer is only marginal. Although the reasons for treatment failure are multifactorial, intrinsic resistance to chemotherapy plays a primary role. Here, we analyzed the expression of 377 multidrug resistance (MDR)-associated genes in two independent cohorts of patients with advanced HCC, with the aim of finding ways to improve survival in this poor-prognosis cancer. Taqman-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed a 45-gene signature that predicts overall survival (OS) in patients with HCC. Using the Connectivity Map Tool, we were able to identify drugs that converted the gene expression profiles of HCC cell lines from ones matching patients with poor OS to profiles associated with good OS. We found three compounds that convert the gene expression profiles of three HCC cell lines to gene expression profiles associated with good OS. These compounds increase histone acetylation, which correlates with the synergistic sensitization of those MDR tumor cells to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, including cisplatin, sorafenib, and 5-fluorouracil. Our results indicate that it is possible to modulate gene expression profiles in HCC cell lines to those associated with better outcome. This approach also increases sensitization of HCC cells toward conventional chemotherapeutic agents. This work suggests new treatment strategies for a disease for which few therapeutic options exist. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  10. Increased expression of transforming growth factor beta s after acute oedematous pancreatitis in rats suggests a role in pancreatic repair.

    PubMed Central

    Riesle, E; Friess, H; Zhao, L; Wagner, M; Uhl, W; Baczako, K; Gold, L I; Korc, M; Büchler, M W

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta isoforms (TGF beta s) belong to a family of multifunctional regulators of cellular growth and differentiation. They are mitogenic and chemotactic for fibroblasts and are potent stimulators of extracellular matrix production (collagen) and deposition. Upregulation of TGF beta transcription has been reported for several in vivo systems during repair after injury. AIMS: To study the expression of the three mammalian isoforms of TGF beta (TGF beta 1-3) and their relation to collagen expression as a marker for fibroblast response in acute oedematous pancreatitis in rats. METHODS: Using northern blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, the expression and localisation of TGF beta isoforms, collagen, and amylase were analysed during the course of acute oedematous pancreatitis in rats, experimentally induced by intravenous caerulein infusion. RESULTS: Induction of acute pancreatitis resulted in a biphasic peak pattern of expression of TGF beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 mRNA, with a pronounced increase from day 1 to day 3 (sixfold, 2.5-fold, fivefold, respectively) and again from day 5 to day 7 (three-fold, 2.3-fold, 3.5-fold, respectively). The temporal changes in TGF beta mRNA identically paralleled the expression in collagen mRNA. In contrast, amylase mRNA expression, used as a general indicator of acinar cell integrity, was slightly decreased after induction of acute pancreatitis. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatitis tissue showed that increased expression of TGF beta s was mainly present in the pancreatic acinar and ductal cells; this was evident within one day after pancreatitis induction. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of TGF beta s after induction of acute pancreatitis suggests a role for these proteins in pancreatic repair and remodelling. The increased levels of TGF beta s may help suppress immune activation, and may contribute to the increase in the extracellular matrix including collagen and to the repair of the

  11. Gene expression analysis and microdialysis suggest hypothalamic triiodothyronine (T3) gates daily torpor in Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Bank, Jonathan H H; Cubuk, Ceyda; Wilson, Dana; Rijntjes, Eddy; Kemmling, Julia; Markovsky, Hanna; Barrett, Perry; Herwig, Annika

    2017-07-01

    Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating seasonal adaptations of mammals. Several studies suggested that reduced availability of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) in the hypothalamus is required for the physiological adaptation to winter in Djungarian hamsters. We have previously shown that T3 is involved in the regulation of daily torpor, but it remains unclear, whether T3 affects torpor by central or peripheral mechanisms. To determine the effect of T3 concentrations within the hypothalamus in regulating daily torpor, we tested the hypothesis that low hypothalamic T3 metabolism would favour torpor and high T3 concentrations would not. In experiment 1 gene expression in torpid hamsters was assessed for transporters carrying thyroid hormones between cerebrospinal fluid and hypothalamic cells and for deiodinases enzymes, activating or inactivating T3 within hypothalamic cells. Gene expression analysis suggests reduced T3 in hypothalamic cells during torpor. In experiment 2, hypothalamic T3 concentrations were altered via microdialysis and torpor behaviour was continuously monitored by implanted body temperature transmitters. Increased T3 concentrations in the hypothalamus reduced expression of torpor as well as torpor bout duration and depth. Subsequent analysis of gene expression in the ependymal layer of the third ventricle showed clear up-regulation of T3 inactivating deiodinase 3 but no changes in several other genes related to photoperiodic adaptations in hamsters. Finally, serum analysis revealed that increased total T3 serum concentrations were not necessary to inhibit torpor expression. Taken together, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that T3 availability within the hypothalamus significantly contributes to the regulation of daily torpor via a central pathway.

  12. Expression pattern of cadherins in the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) suggests innate cortical diversification of the cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Nambu, Sanae; Iriki, Atsushi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-06-15

    The cerebral cortex is an indispensable region for higher cognitive function that is remarkably diverse among mammalian species. Although previous research has shown that the cortical area map in the mammalian cerebral cortex is formed by innate and activity-dependent mechanisms, it remains unknown how these mechanisms contribute to the evolution and diversification of the functional cortical areas in various species. The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean, eusocial rodent. Physiological and anatomical studies have revealed that the visual system is regressed and the somatosensory system is enlarged. To examine whether species differences in cortical area development are caused by intrinsic factors or environmental factors, we performed comparative gene expression analysis of neonatal naked mole rat and mouse brains. The expression domain of cadherin-6, a somatosensory marker, was expanded caudally and shifted dorsally in the cortex, whereas the expression domain of cadherin-8, a visual marker, was reduced caudally in the neonatal naked mole rat cortex. The expression domain of cadherin-8 was also reduced in other visual areas, such as the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus. Immunohistochemical analysis of thalamocortical fibers further suggested that somatosensory input did not affect cortical gene expression in the neonatal naked mole rat brain. These results suggest that the development of the somatosensory system and the regression of the visual system in the naked mole rat cortex are due to intrinsic genetic mechanisms as well as sensory input-dependent mechanisms. Intrinsic genetic mechanisms thus appear to contribute to species diversity in cortical area formation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Sequence and expression variations suggest an adaptive role for the DA1-like gene family in the evolution of soybeans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Man; Gu, Yongzhe; He, Lingli; Chen, Qingshan; He, Chaoying

    2015-05-15

    The DA1 gene family is plant-specific and Arabidopsis DA1 regulates seed and organ size, but the functions in soybeans are unknown. The cultivated soybean (Glycine max) is believed to be domesticated from the annual wild soybeans (Glycine soja). To evaluate whether DA1-like genes were involved in the evolution of soybeans, we compared variation at both sequence and expression levels of DA1-like genes from G. max (GmaDA1) and G. soja (GsoDA1). Sequence identities were extremely high between the orthologous pairs between soybeans, while the paralogous copies in a soybean species showed a relatively high divergence. Moreover, the expression variation of DA1-like paralogous genes in soybean was much greater than the orthologous gene pairs between the wild and cultivated soybeans during development and challenging abiotic stresses such as salinity. We further found that overexpressing GsoDA1 genes did not affect seed size. Nevertheless, overexpressing them reduced transgenic Arabidopsis seed germination sensitivity to salt stress. Moreover, most of these genes could improve salt tolerance of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, corroborated by a detection of expression variation of several key genes in the salt-tolerance pathways. Our work suggested that expression diversification of DA1-like genes is functionally associated with adaptive radiation of soybeans, reinforcing that the plant-specific DA1 gene family might have contributed to the successful adaption to complex environments and radiation of the plants.

  14. Cloning and expression of R-Spondin1 in different vertebrates suggests a conserved role in ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig A; Shoemaker, Christina M; Roeszler, Kelly N; Queen, Joanna; Crews, David; Sinclair, Andrew H

    2008-07-24

    is expressed in the incipient ovary. These findings suggest that R-SPONDIN1 is an ancient, conserved part of the vertebrate ovary-determining pathway.

  15. Cloning and expression of R-Spondin1 in different vertebrates suggests a conserved role in ovarian development

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Craig A; Shoemaker, Christina M; Roeszler, Kelly N; Queen, Joanna; Crews, David; Sinclair, Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    -determining mechanisms. In all instances, RSPO1 is expressed in the incipient ovary. These findings suggest that R-SPONDIN1 is an ancient, conserved part of the vertebrate ovary-determining pathway. PMID:18651984

  16. Does human endometrial LGR5 gene expression suggest the existence of another hormonally regulated epithelial stem cell niche?

    PubMed

    Tempest, N; Baker, A M; Wright, N A; Hapangama, D K

    2018-06-01

    .01), however, they did not correlate in luminal and stratum basalis epithelium (r = 0.5 and 0.13, respectively). Endometrial LGR5 demonstrates a dynamic spatiotemporal expression pattern, suggesting hormonal regulation. Oral and local progestogens significantly reduced endometrial LGR5 mRNA levels compared with women not on hormonal treatment (P < 0.01). Our data were in agreement with in silico analysis of published endometrial microarrays. We did not generate our own large scale data but interrogated publically available large scale data sets. In the absence of reliable antibodies for human LGR5 protein and validated lineage markers for the various epithelial populations that potentially exist within the endometrium, our study does not formally characterise or examine the functional ability of the resident LGR5+ cells as multipotent. These data will facilitate future lineage tracing studies in the human endometrial epithelium; to identify the location of stem cells and further complement the in vitro functional studies, to confirm if the LGR5 expressing epithelial cells indeed represent the epithelial stem cell population. This work was supported by funding from the Wellbeing of Women project grant (RTF510) and Cancer Research UK (A14895). None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose.

  17. Gene Expression Profiles from Disease Discordant Twins Suggest Shared Antiviral Pathways and Viral Exposures among Multiple Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; O'Hanlon, Terrance P; Lai, Zhennan; Fannin, Rick; Weller, Melodie L; Rider, Lisa G; Chiorini, John A; Miller, Frederick W

    2015-01-01

    Viral agents are of interest as possible autoimmune triggers due to prior reported associations and widely studied molecular mechanisms of antiviral immune responses in autoimmunity. Here we examined new viral candidates for the initiation and/or promotion of systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID), as well as possible related signaling pathways shared in the pathogenesis of those disorders. RNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 33 twins discordant for SAID and 33 matched, unrelated healthy controls was analyzed using a custom viral-human gene microarray. Paired comparisons were made among three study groups-probands with SAID, their unaffected twins, and matched, unrelated healthy controls-using statistical and molecular pathway analyses. Probands and unaffected twins differed significantly in the expression of 537 human genes, and 107 of those were associated with viral infections. These 537 differentially expressed human genes participate in overlapping networks of several canonical, biologic pathways relating to antiviral responses and inflammation. Moreover, certain viral genes were expressed at higher levels in probands compared to either unaffected twins or unrelated, healthy controls. Interestingly, viral gene expression levels in unaffected twins appeared intermediate between those of probands and the matched, unrelated healthy controls. Of the viruses with overexpressed viral genes, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) was the only human viral pathogen identified using four distinct oligonucleotide probes corresponding to three HSV-2 genes associated with different stages of viral infection. Although the effects from immunosuppressive therapy on viral gene expression remain unclear, this exploratory study suggests a new approach to evaluate shared viral agents and antiviral immune responses that may be involved in the development of SAID.

  18. Gene Expression Profiles from Disease Discordant Twins Suggest Shared Antiviral Pathways and Viral Exposures among Multiple Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Lai, Zhennan; Fannin, Rick; Weller, Melodie L.; Rider, Lisa G.; Chiorini, John A.; Miller, Frederick W.

    2015-01-01

    Viral agents are of interest as possible autoimmune triggers due to prior reported associations and widely studied molecular mechanisms of antiviral immune responses in autoimmunity. Here we examined new viral candidates for the initiation and/or promotion of systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID), as well as possible related signaling pathways shared in the pathogenesis of those disorders. RNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 33 twins discordant for SAID and 33 matched, unrelated healthy controls was analyzed using a custom viral-human gene microarray. Paired comparisons were made among three study groups—probands with SAID, their unaffected twins, and matched, unrelated healthy controls—using statistical and molecular pathway analyses. Probands and unaffected twins differed significantly in the expression of 537 human genes, and 107 of those were associated with viral infections. These 537 differentially expressed human genes participate in overlapping networks of several canonical, biologic pathways relating to antiviral responses and inflammation. Moreover, certain viral genes were expressed at higher levels in probands compared to either unaffected twins or unrelated, healthy controls. Interestingly, viral gene expression levels in unaffected twins appeared intermediate between those of probands and the matched, unrelated healthy controls. Of the viruses with overexpressed viral genes, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) was the only human viral pathogen identified using four distinct oligonucleotide probes corresponding to three HSV-2 genes associated with different stages of viral infection. Although the effects from immunosuppressive therapy on viral gene expression remain unclear, this exploratory study suggests a new approach to evaluate shared viral agents and antiviral immune responses that may be involved in the development of SAID. PMID:26556803

  19. Expression of the KNOTTED HOMEOBOX Genes in the Cactaceae Cambial Zone Suggests Their Involvement in Wood Development.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Rodríguez-Alonso, Gustavo; Petrone, Emilio; Vasco, Alejandra; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Shishkova, Svetlana; Terrazas, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem that produces secondary xylem (i.e., wood) and phloem. Different Cactaceae species develop different types of secondary xylem; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying wood formation in the Cactaceae. The KNOTTED HOMEOBOX (KNOX) gene family encodes transcription factors that regulate plant development. The role of class I KNOX genes in the regulation of the shoot apical meristem, inflorescence architecture, and secondary growth is established in a few model species, while the functions of class II KNOX genes are less well understood, although the Arabidopsis thaliana class II KNOX protein KNAT7 is known to regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis. To explore the involvement of the KNOX genes in the enormous variability of wood in Cactaceae, we identified orthologous genes expressed in species with fibrous ( Pereskia lychnidiflora and Pilosocereus alensis ), non-fibrous ( Ariocarpus retusus ), and dimorphic ( Ferocactus pilosus ) wood. Both class I and class II KNOX genes were expressed in the cactus cambial zone, including one or two class I paralogs of KNAT1 , as well as one or two class II paralogs of KNAT3 - KNAT4 - KNAT5 . While the KNOX gene SHOOTMERISTEMLESS ( STM) and its ortholog ARK1 are expressed during secondary growth in the Arabidopsis and Populus stem, respectively, we did not find STM orthologs in the Cactaceae cambial zone, which suggests possible differences in the vascular cambium genetic regulatory network in these species. Importantly, while two class II KNOX paralogs from the KNAT7 clade were expressed in the cambial zone of A. retusus and F. pilosus , we did not detect KNAT7 ortholog expression in the cambial zone of P. lychnidiflora . Differences in the transcriptional repressor activity of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by the KNAT7 orthologs could therefore explain the differences in wood development in the cactus species.

  20. Expression of the KNOTTED HOMEOBOX Genes in the Cactaceae Cambial Zone Suggests Their Involvement in Wood Development

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Rodríguez-Alonso, Gustavo; Petrone, Emilio; Vasco, Alejandra; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Shishkova, Svetlana; Terrazas, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem that produces secondary xylem (i.e., wood) and phloem. Different Cactaceae species develop different types of secondary xylem; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying wood formation in the Cactaceae. The KNOTTED HOMEOBOX (KNOX) gene family encodes transcription factors that regulate plant development. The role of class I KNOX genes in the regulation of the shoot apical meristem, inflorescence architecture, and secondary growth is established in a few model species, while the functions of class II KNOX genes are less well understood, although the Arabidopsis thaliana class II KNOX protein KNAT7 is known to regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis. To explore the involvement of the KNOX genes in the enormous variability of wood in Cactaceae, we identified orthologous genes expressed in species with fibrous (Pereskia lychnidiflora and Pilosocereus alensis), non-fibrous (Ariocarpus retusus), and dimorphic (Ferocactus pilosus) wood. Both class I and class II KNOX genes were expressed in the cactus cambial zone, including one or two class I paralogs of KNAT1, as well as one or two class II paralogs of KNAT3-KNAT4-KNAT5. While the KNOX gene SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) and its ortholog ARK1 are expressed during secondary growth in the Arabidopsis and Populus stem, respectively, we did not find STM orthologs in the Cactaceae cambial zone, which suggests possible differences in the vascular cambium genetic regulatory network in these species. Importantly, while two class II KNOX paralogs from the KNAT7 clade were expressed in the cambial zone of A. retusus and F. pilosus, we did not detect KNAT7 ortholog expression in the cambial zone of P. lychnidiflora. Differences in the transcriptional repressor activity of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by the KNAT7 orthologs could therefore explain the differences in wood development in the cactus species. PMID:28316604

  1. Dioxin Receptor Expression Inhibits Basal and Transforming Growth Factor β-induced Epithelial-to-mesenchymal Transition*

    PubMed Central

    Rico-Leo, Eva M.; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fernandez-Salguero, Pedro M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the role of the dioxin receptor (AhR) in maintaining cell morphology, adhesion, and migration. These novel AhR functions depend on the cell phenotype, and although AhR expression maintains mesenchymal fibroblasts migration, it inhibits keratinocytes motility. These observations prompted us to investigate whether AhR modulates the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). For this, we have used primary AhR+/+ and AhR−/− keratinocytes and NMuMG cells engineered to knock down AhR levels (sh-AhR) or to express a constitutively active receptor (CA-AhR). Both AhR−/− keratinocytes and sh-AhR NMuMG cells had increased migration, reduced levels of epithelial markers E-cadherin and β-catenin, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers Snail, Slug/Snai2, vimentin, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin. Consistently, AhR+/+ and CA-AhR NMuMG cells had reduced migration and enhanced expression of epithelial markers. AhR activation by the agonist FICZ (6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole) inhibited NMuMG migration, whereas the antagonist α-naphthoflavone induced migration as did AhR knockdown. Exogenous TGFβ exacerbated the promigratory mesenchymal phenotype in both AhR-expressing and AhR-depleted cells, although the effects on the latter were more pronounced. Rescuing AhR expression in sh-AhR cells reduced Snail and Slug/Snai2 levels and cell migration and restored E-cadherin levels. Interference of AhR in human HaCaT cells further supported its role in EMT. Interestingly, co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays showed that AhR associates in common protein complexes with E-cadherin and β-catenin, suggesting the implication of AhR in cell-cell adhesion. Thus, basal or TGFβ-induced AhR down-modulation could be relevant in the acquisition of a motile EMT phenotype in both normal and transformed epithelial cells. PMID:23382382

  2. Distinct expression patterns of glycoprotein hormone-alpha2 and -beta5 in a basal chordate suggest independent developmental functions.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Sandra; Bardet, Claire; Bertrand, Stephanie; Escriva, Hector; Habert, Damien; Querat, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    The vertebrate glycoprotein hormones (GpHs), gonadotropins and thyrotropin, are heterodimers composed of a common alpha- and specific beta-subunit. The recombinant heterodimer of two additional, structurally related proteins identified in vertebrate and protostome genomes, the glycoproteins-alpha2 (GPA2) and-beta5 (GPB5), was shown to activate the thyrotropin receptor and was therefore named thyrostimulin. However, differences in tissue distribution and expression levels of these proteins suggested that they might act as nonassociated factors, prompting further investigation on these proteins. In this study we show that GPA2 and GPB5 appeared with the emergence of bilateria and were maintained in most groups. These genes are tightly associated at the genomic level, an association, however, lost in tetrapods. Our structural and genomic environment comparison reinforces the hypothesis of their phylogenetic relationships with GpH-alpha and -beta. In contrast, the glycosylation status of GPA2 and GPB5 is highly variable further questioning heterodimer secretory efficiency and activity. As a first step toward understanding their function, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of GPA2 and GPB5 genes at different developmental stages in a basal chordate, the amphioxus. Expression of GPB5 was essentially ubiquitous with an anteroposterior gradient in embryos. GPA2 embryonic and larvae expression was restricted to specific areas and, interestingly, partially overlapped that of a GpH receptor-related gene. In conclusion, we speculate that GPA2 and GPB5 have nondispensable and coordinated functions related to a novelty appeared with bilateria. These proteins would be active during embryonic development in a manner that does not require their heterodimerization.

  3. P120-Catenin Protects Endplate Chondrocytes From Intermittent Cyclic Mechanical Tension Induced Degeneration by Inhibiting the Expression of RhoA/ROCK-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Guang; Ma, Ming-Ming; Zheng, Quan; Shen, Xiang; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Shu-Feng; Xu, Jia-Jia; Wang, Chuan-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Ling

    2016-08-15

    The changes of endplate chondrocytes induced by intermittent cyclic mechanical tension (ICMT) were observed by realtime reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis. To investigate the role of RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway and E-cadherin/P120-catenin complex in endplate chondrocytes degeneration induced by ICMT. ICMT can induce the endplate chondrocyte degeneration. However, the relationship between P120-catenin or RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway and endplate chondrocytes degeneration induced by ICMT is not clear. ICMT (strain at 0.5 Hz sinusoidal curve at 8% elongation) was applied to rat endplate chondrocytes for 6 days, 16 hours a day. The cell viability and apoptosis were examined by the LIVE/DEAD assay and flow cytometry. Histological staining was used to examine the lumbar disc tissue morphology and extracellular matrix. To regulate RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway and the expression of E-cadherin and P120-catenin, RhoA/ROCK-1 pathway-specific inhibitors, E-cadherin, and p120-catenin plasmid were applied. Coimmunoprecipitation was employed to examine the interaction between E-cadherin and P120-catenin, P120-catenin, and RhoA. The related gene expression and protein location was examined by realtime reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. There was no change of viability verified by LIVE/DEAD assay and flow cytometry after ICMT loading. ICMT loading led to RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling activation and the loss of the chondrogenic phenotype of endplate chondrocytes. Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway significantly ameliorated the degeneration induced by ICMT. The expression of P120-catenin and E-cadherin were inhibited by ICMT. ICMT reduced the interaction between P120-catenin and E-cadherin. Furthermore, over-expression of P120-catenin and E-cadherin can suppress the expression of chondrogenic gene, over-expression of P120-catenin can suppress the RhoA/ROCK-1

  4. Epithelial dominant expression of antifreeze proteins in cunner suggests recent entry into a high freeze-risk ecozone.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Rod S; Fletcher, Garth L

    2013-01-01

    Most marine teleost fishes residing in a high freeze-risk ecozone, such as the coastal waters of Newfoundland during winter, avoid freezing by secreting high concentrations of antifreeze proteins (AFP) into their blood plasma where they can bind to and prevent the growth of ice that enter the fish. Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), which overwinter in such shallow waters are the only known exception. Although this species does produce type I AFP, the plasma levels are too low to be of value as a freeze protectant. Southern and Northern blot analyses carried out in this study establish that the cunner AFP genes belong to a multigene family that is predominantly expressed in external epithelia (skin and gill filaments). These results support the hypothesis that the survival of cunner in icy waters is attributable in part to epithelial AFP that help block ice propagation into their interior milieu. In contrast to the cunner, heterospecifics occupying the same habitat have greater freeze protection because they produce AFP in the liver for export to the plasma as well as in external epithelia. Since the external epithelia would be the first tissue to come into contact with ice it is possible that one of the earliest steps involved in the evolution of freeze resistant fish could have been the expression of AFP in tissues such as the skin. We suggest that this epithelial-dominant AFP expression represents a primitive stage in AFP evolution and propose that cunner began to inhabit "freeze-risk ecozones" more recently than heterospecifics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of CD44 and CD29 by PEComa cells suggests their possible origin of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruixue; Jia, Wei; Zou, Hong; Wang, Xinhua; Ren, Yan; Zhao, Jin; Wang, Lianghai; Li, Man; Qi, Yan; Shen, Yaoyuan; Liang, Weihua; Jiang, Jinfang; Sun, Zhenzhu; Pang, Lijuan; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal tumor composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells. The perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC) co-expresses melanocytic and muscle markers. Since no normal counterpart to the PEC has ever been identified in any normal tissue, the cell origin of these tumors is still uncertain. Although, several hypotheses have recently been advanced to explain the histogenesis of PEComa, it remains unclear. The aim of this study was to discuss whether differential expression of stem cell-associated proteins could be used to aid in determining the histogenesis of PEComa. For this purpose, we detected the immunoexpression of 5 kinds of stem cell markers on PEComas, including CD29, CD44, CD133, ALDH1, and nestin. In addition to observed histopathologic morphology, we also performed PEComa relevant clinical diagnostic markers (HMB-45, SMA, melan-A, Desmin, Ki-67, S-100 and TFE3) to identify whether they belonged to PEComas. Our study included 13 PEComa samples, and we obtained positive immunoexpression results as follows: CD29 (13/13), CD44 (8/13), ALDH1 (10/13), nestin (1/13), and CD133 (0/13). Since CD44 and CD29 are surface proteins associated with MSCs, these results suggest that PEComa might arise from MSCs. However, whether MSCs are the origin of PEComa needs to be further explored in the future.

  6. Expression of CD44 and CD29 by PEComa cells suggests their possible origin of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruixue; Jia, Wei; Zou, Hong; Wang, Xinhua; Ren, Yan; Zhao, Jin; Wang, Lianghai; Li, Man; Qi, Yan; Shen, Yaoyuan; Liang, Weihua; Jiang, Jinfang; Sun, Zhenzhu; Pang, Lijuan; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal tumor composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells. The perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC) co-expresses melanocytic and muscle markers. Since no normal counterpart to the PEC has ever been identified in any normal tissue, the cell origin of these tumors is still uncertain. Although, several hypotheses have recently been advanced to explain the histogenesis of PEComa, it remains unclear. Methods: The aim of this study was to discuss whether differential expression of stem cell-associated proteins could be used to aid in determining the histogenesis of PEComa. For this purpose, we detected the immunoexpression of 5 kinds of stem cell markers on PEComas, including CD29, CD44, CD133, ALDH1, and nestin. In addition to observed histopathologic morphology, we also performed PEComa relevant clinical diagnostic markers (HMB-45, SMA, melan-A, Desmin, Ki-67, S-100 and TFE3) to identify whether they belonged to PEComas. Results: Our study included 13 PEComa samples, and we obtained positive immunoexpression results as follows: CD29 (13/13), CD44 (8/13), ALDH1 (10/13), nestin (1/13), and CD133 (0/13). Conclusions: Since CD44 and CD29 are surface proteins associated with MSCs, these results suggest that PEComa might arise from MSCs. However, whether MSCs are the origin of PEComa needs to be further explored in the future. PMID:26722497

  7. High expression of atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota in gastric cancer as a prognostic factor for recurrence.

    PubMed

    Takagawa, Ryo; Akimoto, Kazunori; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Aoki, Ichiro; Kunisaki, Chikara; Endo, Itaru; Nagashima, Yoji; Ohno, Shigeo

    2010-01-01

    The atypical protein kinase C lambda/iota (aPKClambda/iota) is involved in several signal transduction pathways that influence cell growth, apoptosis, and the establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity. Overexpression of aPKClambda/iota has been reported in several cancers and been shown to be associated with oncogenesis. However, the expression and role of aPKClambda/iota in gastric cancer, one of the commonest cancers in Asia, have not so far been investigated. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between aPKClambda/iota expression and the clinicopathological features of gastric cancer. Gastric adenocarcinoma samples were obtained from 177 patients who underwent gastrectomy at the Yokohama City University Hospital between 1999 and 2004. Expression of aPKClambda/iota and E: -cadherin was examined immunohistochemically and compared with clinicopathological features of the tumors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for both disease-specific and relapse-free survival. Overexpression of aPKClambda/iota protein was detected in 126 of the 177 (71.2%) gastric cancers. Immunohistological staining for aPKClambda/iota was stronger in gastric adenocarcinoma of intestinal type than diffuse type (p = 0.036), but was not correlated with E: -cadherin expression. A multivariate analysis suggested that nodal metastasis and aPKClambda/iota overexpression were prognostic factors for disease recurrence. Our results suggested that aPKClambda/iota overexpression was a strong prognostic factor for gastric adenocarcinoma recurrence. As well as being a new prognostic indicator, aPKClambda/iota is also likely to be a novel therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

  8. Decreased expression of MUC1 induces apoptosis and inhibits migration in pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells via regulation of Slug pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Meng, Meng; Xu, Bin; Dong, Aiping; Ni, Guangzhen; Lu, Lianfang

    2017-12-06

    MUC1, a membrane tethered mucin glycoprotein, is overexpressed in > 60% of human pancreatic cancers (PCs), and is associated with poor prognosis and enhanced metastasis. Here, we report the effect of silencing MUC1 expression on the growth, migration and invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells, and explored its mechanisms. We observed that siRNA mediated suppression of the MUC1 expression significantly reduced invasive and migrative capability and induced apoptosis of the pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. We found that Slug was inhibited in the MUC1 siRNA transfected PANC-1 cells (MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells). Expression of PUMA and E-cadherin was increased in the MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells. PANC-1 cells overexpressing full long Slug gene (when transfected with Slug cDNA plasmid) significantly inhibited PUMA and E-cadherin expression in the MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells. Silencing PUMA expression inhibited apoptosis in the MUC1 siRNA transfected PANC-1 cells (MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells). Silencing E-cadherin expression restored the invasion and migration ability in the MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells. We therefore concluded that silencing MUC1 expression inhibited migration and invasion, and induced apoptosis of PANC-1 cells via downregulation of Slug and upregulation of Slug dependent PUMA and E-cadherin expression. MUC1 could serve as a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.

  9. Prognostic implications of adhesion molecule expression in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Maru; Kim, Jeana

    2015-01-01

    Research on the expression of adhesion molecules, E-cadherin (ECAD), CD24, CD44 and osteopontin (OPN) in colorectal cancer (CRC) has been limited, even though CRC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. This study was conducted to evaluate the expression of adhesion molecules in CRC and to determine their relationships with clinicopathologic variables, and the prognostic significance. The expression of ECAD, CD24, CD44 and OPN was examined in 174 stage II and III CRC specimens by immunohistochemistry of TMA. Negative ECAD expression was significantly correlated with advanced nodal stage and poor tumor differentiation. Multivariate analysis showed that both negative expression of ECAD and positive expression of CD24 were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) in CRC patients (P<0.001, relative risk [RR] = 5.596, 95% CI = 2.712-11.549; P = 0.038, RR = 3.768, 95% CI = 1.077-13.185, respectively). However, for overall survival (OS), only ECAD negativity showed statistically significant results in multivariate analysis (P<0.001, RR = 4.819, 95% CI = 2.515-9.234). Positive expression of CD24 was associated with poor OS in univariate analysis but was of no prognostic value in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, our study suggests that among these four adhesion molecules, ECAD and CD24 expression can be considered independent prognostic factors. The role of CD44 and OPN may need further evaluation.

  10. Prognostic implications of adhesion molecule expression in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Maru; Kim, Jeana

    2015-01-01

    Research on the expression of adhesion molecules, E-cadherin (ECAD), CD24, CD44 and osteopontin (OPN) in colorectal cancer (CRC) has been limited, even though CRC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. This study was conducted to evaluate the expression of adhesion molecules in CRC and to determine their relationships with clinicopathologic variables, and the prognostic significance. The expression of ECAD, CD24, CD44 and OPN was examined in 174 stage II and III CRC specimens by immunohistochemistry of TMA. Negative ECAD expression was significantly correlated with advanced nodal stage and poor tumor differentiation. Multivariate analysis showed that both negative expression of ECAD and positive expression of CD24 were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) in CRC patients (P<0.001, relative risk [RR] = 5.596, 95% CI = 2.712-11.549; P = 0.038, RR = 3.768, 95% CI = 1.077-13.185, respectively). However, for overall survival (OS), only ECAD negativity showed statistically significant results in multivariate analysis (P<0.001, RR = 4.819, 95% CI = 2.515-9.234). Positive expression of CD24 was associated with poor OS in univariate analysis but was of no prognostic value in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, our study suggests that among these four adhesion molecules, ECAD and CD24 expression can be considered independent prognostic factors. The role of CD44 and OPN may need further evaluation. PMID:26097606

  11. Evaluation of transforming growth factor-β1 suppress Pokemon/epithelial-mesenchymal transition expression in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Hu, Yangyang; Guo, Changcheng; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Peng, Bo; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a dual role in apoptosis and in proapoptotic responses in the support of survival in a variety of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the function of TGF-β1 in bladder cancer cells and the relationship with POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon). TGF-β1 and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell proliferation, migration, and survival of bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells T24 were treated with different levels of TGF-β1. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin, Snail, MMP2, MMP9, Twist, VEGF, and β-catenin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were examined by real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay, proliferation of T24 was evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assay, and cell invasive ability was investigated by Transwell assay. Data show that Pokemon was inhibited by TGF-β1 treatment; the gene and protein of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression level showed decreased markedly after TGF-β1 treatment (P < 0.05). While the bladder cancer cell after TGF-β1 treatment showed a significantly reduced wound-closing efficiency at 6, 12, and 24 h, mechanistic analyses demonstrated that different levels of TGF-β1 promotes tumor cell growth, migration, and invasion in bladder cancer cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). In summary, our findings suggest that TGF-β1 may inhibit the expression of Pokemon, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. The high expression of TGF-β1 leads to an increase in the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Related mechanism is worthy of further investigation.

  12. Genome-wide gene expression profiling suggests distinct radiation susceptibilities in sporadic and post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancers

    PubMed Central

    Detours, V; Delys, L; Libert, F; Weiss Solís, D; Bogdanova, T; Dumont, J E; Franc, B; Thomas, G; Maenhaut, C

    2007-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs) incidence dramatically increased in the vicinity of Chernobyl. The cancer-initiating role of radiation elsewhere is debated. Therefore, we searched for a signature distinguishing radio-induced from sporadic cancers. Using microarrays, we compared the expression profiles of PTCs from the Chernobyl Tissue Bank (CTB, n=12) and from French patients with no history of exposure to ionising radiations (n=14). We also compared the transcriptional responses of human lymphocytes to the presumed aetiological agents initiating these tumours, γ-radiation and H2O2. On a global scale, the transcriptomes of CTB and French tumours are indistinguishable, and the transcriptional responses to γ-radiation and H2O2 are similar. On a finer scale, a 118 genes signature discriminated the γ-radiation and H2O2 responses. This signature could be used to classify the tumours as CTB or French with an error of 15–27%. Similar results were obtained with an independent signature of 13 genes involved in homologous recombination. Although sporadic and radio-induced PTCs represent the same disease, they are distinguishable with molecular signatures reflecting specific responses to γ-radiation and H2O2. These signatures in PTCs could reflect the susceptibility profiles of the patients, suggesting the feasibility of a radiation susceptibility test. PMID:17712314

  13. Refined mapping of autoimmune disease associated genetic variants with gene expression suggests an important role for non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Zhernakova, Daria V; Deelen, Patrick; Luo, Oscar; Li, Xingwang; Isaacs, Aaron; Karjalainen, Juha; Di Tommaso, Jennifer; Borek, Zuzanna Agnieszka; Zorro, Maria M; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; van Meurs, Joyce; Netea, Mihai G; Jonkers, Iris H; Withoff, Sebo; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Li, Yang; Ruan, Yijun; Franke, Lude; Wijmenga, Cisca; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-04-01

    Genome-wide association and fine-mapping studies in 14 autoimmune diseases (AID) have implicated more than 250 loci in one or more of these diseases. As more than 90% of AID-associated SNPs are intergenic or intronic, pinpointing the causal genes is challenging. We performed a systematic analysis to link 460 SNPs that are associated with 14 AID to causal genes using transcriptomic data from 629 blood samples. We were able to link 71 (39%) of the AID-SNPs to two or more nearby genes, providing evidence that for part of the AID loci multiple causal genes exist. While 54 of the AID loci are shared by one or more AID, 17% of them do not share candidate causal genes. In addition to finding novel genes such as ULK3, we also implicate novel disease mechanisms and pathways like autophagy in celiac disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, 42 of the AID SNPs specifically affected the expression of 53 non-coding RNA genes. To further understand how the non-coding genome contributes to AID, the SNPs were linked to functional regulatory elements, which suggest a model where AID genes are regulated by network of chromatin looping/non-coding RNAs interactions. The looping model also explains how a causal candidate gene is not necessarily the gene closest to the AID SNP, which was the case in nearly 50% of cases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Bottom-up proteomics suggests an association between differential expression of mitochondrial proteins and chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ciregia, F; Kollipara, L; Giusti, L; Zahedi, R P; Giacomelli, C; Mazzoni, M R; Giannaccini, G; Scarpellini, P; Urbani, A; Sickmann, A; Lucacchini, A; Bazzichi, L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by unexplained fatigue not improved by rest. An area of investigation is the likely connection of CFS with defective mitochondrial function. In a previous work, we investigated the proteomic salivary profile in a couple of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS. Following this work, we analyzed mitochondrial proteins in the same couple of twins. Nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS) was used to study the mitochondria extracted from platelets of the twins. Subsequently, we selected three proteins that were validated using western blot analysis in a big cohort of subjects (n=45 CFS; n=45 healthy), using whole saliva (WS). The selected proteins were as follows: aconitate hydratase (ACON), ATP synthase subunit beta (ATPB) and malate dehydrogenase (MDHM). Results for ATPB and ACON confirmed their upregulation in CFS. However, the MDHM alteration was not confirmed. Thereafter, seeing the great variability of clinical features of CFS patients, we decided to analyze the expression of our proteins after splitting patients according to clinical parameters. For each marker, the values were actually higher in the group of patients who had clinical features similar to the ill twin. In conclusion, these results suggest that our potential markers could be one of the criteria to be taken into account for helping in diagnosis. Furthermore, the identification of biomarkers present in particular subgroups of CFS patients may help in shedding light upon the complex entity of CFS. Moreover, it could help in developing tailored treatments. PMID:27676445

  15. Stromal Cells Positively and Negatively Modulate the Growth of Cancer Cells: Stimulation via the PGE2-TNFα-IL-6 Pathway and Inhibition via Secreted GAPDH-E-Cadherin Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Manabu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ohba, Shun-ichi; Yoshida, Junjiro; Masuda, Tohru; Yamasaki, Manabu; Usami, Ihomi; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Abe, Hikaru; Watanabe, Takumi; Yamori, Takao; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Nomoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast-like stromal cells modulate cancer cells through secreted factors and adhesion, but those factors are not fully understood. Here, we have identified critical stromal factors that modulate cancer growth positively and negatively. Using a cell co-culture system, we found that gastric stromal cells secreted IL-6 as a growth and survival factor for gastric cancer cells. Moreover, gastric cancer cells secreted PGE2 and TNFα that stimulated IL-6 secretion by the stromal cells. Furthermore, we found that stromal cells secreted glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Extracellular GAPDH, or its N-terminal domain, inhibited gastric cancer cell growth, a finding confirmed in other cell systems. GAPDH bound to E-cadherin and downregulated the mTOR-p70S6 kinase pathway. These results demonstrate that stromal cells could regulate cancer cell growth through the balance of these secreted factors. We propose that negative regulation of cancer growth using GAPDH could be a new anti-cancer strategy. PMID:25785838

  16. Transcript expression and genetic variability analysis of caspases in breast carcinomas suggests CASP9 as the most interesting target.

    PubMed

    Brynychova, Veronika; Hlavac, Viktor; Ehrlichova, Marie; Vaclavikova, Radka; Nemcova-Furstova, Vlasta; Pecha, Vaclav; Trnkova, Marketa; Mrhalova, Marcela; Kodet, Roman; Vrana, David; Gatek, Jiri; Bendova, Marie; Vernerova, Zdenka; Kovar, Jan; Soucek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis plays a critical role in cancer cell survival and tumor development. We provide a hypothesis-generating screen for further research by exploring the expression profile and genetic variability of caspases (2, 3, 7, 8, 9, and 10) in breast carcinoma patients. This study addressed isoform-specific caspase transcript expression and genetic variability in regulatory sequences of caspases 2 and 9. Gene expression profiling was performed by quantitative real-time PCR in tumor and paired non-malignant tissues of two independent groups of patients. Genetic variability was determined by high resolution melting, allelic discrimination, and sequencing analysis in tumor and peripheral blood lymphocyte DNA of the patients. CASP3 A+B and S isoforms were over-expressed in tumors of both patient groups. The CASP9 transcript was down-regulated in tumors of both groups of patients and significantly associated with expression of hormonal receptors and with the presence of rs4645978-rs2020903-rs4646034 haplotype in the CASP9 gene. Patients with a low intratumoral CASP9A/B isoform expression ratio (predicted to shift equilibrium towards anti-apoptotic isoform) subsequently treated with adjuvant chemotherapy had a significantly shorter disease-free survival than those with the high ratio (p=0.04). Inheritance of CC genotype of rs2020903 in CASP9 was associated with progesterone receptor expression in tumors (p=0.003). Genetic variability in CASP9 and expression of its splicing variants present targets for further study.

  17. Expression and imprinting of MAGEL2 suggest a role in Prader-willi syndrome and the homologous murine imprinting phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Kozlov, S; Hernandez, L; Chamberlain, S J; Brannan, C I; Stewart, C L; Wevrick, R

    2000-07-22

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is caused by the loss of expression of imprinted genes in chromosome 15q11-q13. Affected individuals exhibit neonatal hypotonia, developmental delay and childhood-onset obesity. Necdin, a protein implicated in the terminal differentiation of neurons, is the only PWS candidate gene to reduce viability when disrupted in a mouse model. In this study, we have characterized MAGEL2 (also known as NDNL1), a gene with 51% amino acid sequence similarity to necdin and located 41 kb distal to NDN in the PWS deletion region. MAGEL2 is expressed predominantly in brain, the primary tissue affected in PWS and in several fetal tissues as shown by northern blot analysis. MAGEL2 is imprinted with monoallelic expression in control brain, and paternal-only expression in the central nervous system as demonstrated by its lack of expression in brain from a PWS-affected individual. The orthologous mouse gene (Magel2) is located within 150 kb of NDN:, is imprinted with paternal-only expression and is expressed predominantly in late developmental stages and adult brain as shown by northern blotting, RT-PCR and whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization. Magel2 distribution partially overlaps that of NDN:, with strong expression being detected in the central nervous system in mid-gestation mouse embryos by in situ hybridization. We hypothesize that, although loss of necdin expression may be important in the neonatal presentation of PWS, loss of MAGEL2 may be critical to abnormalities in brain development and dysmorphic features in individuals with PWS.

  18. Expression of venom gene homologs in diverse python tissues suggests a new model for the evolution of snake venom.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Card, Daren C; Andrew, Audra L; Shaney, Kyle J; Adams, Richard H; Schield, Drew R; Casewell, Nicholas R; Mackessy, Stephen P; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Snake venom gene evolution has been studied intensively over the past several decades, yet most previous studies have lacked the context of complete snake genomes and the full context of gene expression across diverse snake tissues. We took a novel approach to studying snake venom evolution by leveraging the complete genome of the Burmese python, including information from tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. We identified the orthologs of snake venom genes in the python genome, and conducted detailed analysis of gene expression of these venom homologs to identify patterns that differ between snake venom gene families and all other genes. We found that venom gene homologs in the python are expressed in many different tissues outside of oral glands, which illustrates the pitfalls of using transcriptomic data alone to define "venom toxins." We hypothesize that the python may represent an ancestral state prior to major venom development, which is supported by our finding that the expansion of venom gene families is largely restricted to highly venomous caenophidian snakes. Therefore, the python provides insight into biases in which genes were recruited for snake venom systems. Python venom homologs are generally expressed at lower levels, have higher variance among tissues, and are expressed in fewer organs compared with all other python genes. We propose a model for the evolution of snake venoms in which venom genes are recruited preferentially from genes with particular expression profile characteristics, which facilitate a nearly neutral transition toward specialized venom system expression. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Expression profiling and bioinformatic analyses suggest new target genes and pathways for human hair follicle related microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Hochfeld, Lara M; Anhalt, Thomas; Reinbold, Céline S; Herrera-Rivero, Marisol; Fricker, Nadine; Nöthen, Markus M; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie

    2017-02-22

    Human hair follicle (HF) cycling is characterised by the tight orchestration and regulation of signalling cascades. Research shows that micro(mi)RNAs are potent regulators of these pathways. However, knowledge of the expression of miRNAs and their target genes and pathways in the human HF is limited. The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the role of miRNAs and their regulatory interactions in the human HF. Expression levels of ten candidate miRNAs with reported functions in hair biology were assessed in HFs from 25 healthy male donors. MiRNA expression levels were correlated with mRNA-expression levels from the same samples. Identified target genes were tested for enrichment in biological pathways and accumulation in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Expression in the human HF was confirmed for seven of the ten candidate miRNAs, and numerous target genes for miR-24, miR-31, and miR-106a were identified. While the latter include several genes with known functions in hair biology (e.g., ITGB1, SOX9), the majority have not been previously implicated (e.g., PHF1). Target genes were enriched in pathways of interest to hair biology, such as integrin and GnRH signalling, and the respective gene products showed accumulation in PPIs. Further investigation of miRNA expression in the human HF, and the identification of novel miRNA target genes and pathways via the systematic integration of miRNA and mRNA expression data, may facilitate the delineation of tissue-specific regulatory interactions, and improve our understanding of both normal hair growth and the pathobiology of hair loss disorders.

  20. Altered microRNA expression patterns in irradiated hematopoietic tissues suggest a sex-specific protective mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Zemp, Franz J.; Koturbash, Igor

    To investigate involvement of miRNAs in radiation responses we used microRNAome profiling to analyze the sex-specific response of radiation sensitive hematopoietic lymphoid tissues. We show that radiation exposure resulted in a significant and sex-specific deregulation of microRNA expression in murine spleen and thymus tissues. Among the regulated miRNAs, we found that changes in expression of miR-34a and miR-7 may be involved in important protective mechanisms counteracting radiation cytotoxicity. We observed a significant increase in the expression of tumor-suppressor miR-34a, paralleled by a decrease in the expression of its target oncogenes NOTCH1, MYC, E2F3 and cyclin D1. Additionally, we show thatmore » miR-7 targets the lymphoid-specific helicase LSH, a pivotal regulator of DNA methylation and genome stability. While miR-7 was significantly down-regulated LSH was significantly up-regulated. These cellular changes may constitute an attempt to counteract radiation-induced hypomethylation. Tissue specificity of miRNA responses and possible regulation of miRNA expression upon irradiation are discussed.« less

  1. Pancreatic cancer cells express CD44 variant 9 and multidrug resistance protein 1 during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Shizuka; Ikeshita, Shunji; Miyatake, Yukiko; Kasahara, Masanori

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers with high metastatic potential and strong chemoresistance. Its intractable natures are attributed to high robustness in tumor cells for their survival. We demonstrate here that pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) with an epithelial phenotype upregulate cell surface expression of CD44 variant 9 (CD44v9), an important cancer stem cell marker, during the mitotic phases of the cell cycle. Of five human CD44(+) PCC lines examined, three cell lines, PCI-24, PCI-43 and PCI-55, expressed E-cadherin and CD44 variants, suggesting that they have an epithelial phenotype. By contrast, PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells expressed vimentin and ZEB1, suggesting that they have a mesenchymal phenotype. PCCs with an epithelial phenotype upregulated cell surface expression of CD44v9 in prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase and downregulated CD44v9 expression in late-telophase, cytokinesis and interphase. Sorted CD44v9-negative PCI-55 cells resumed CD44v9 expression when they re-entered the mitotic stage. Interestingly, CD44v9(bright) mitotic cells expressed multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) intracellularly. Upregulated expression of CD44v9 and MDR1 might contribute to the intractable nature of PCCs with high proliferative activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Octamer-binding protein 4 affects the cell biology and phenotypic transition of lung cancer cells involving β-catenin/E-cadherin complex degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-Shu; Ling, Dong-Jin; Zhang, Yang-De; Feng, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Xue-Yu; Shi, Tian-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Clinical studies have reported evidence for the involvement of octamer‑binding protein 4 (Oct4) in the tumorigenicity and progression of lung cancer; however, the role of Oct4 in lung cancer cell biology in vitro and its mechanism of action remain to be elucidated. Mortality among lung cancer patients is more frequently due to metastasis rather than their primary tumors. Epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a prominent biological event for the induction of epithelial cancer metastasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Oct4 had the capacity to induce lung cancer cell metastasis via the promoting the EMT in vitro. Moreover, the effect of Oct4 on the β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex, associated with EMT, was examined using immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation assays as well as western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that Oct4 enhanced cell invasion and adhesion accompanied by the downregulation of epithelial marker cytokeratin, and upregulation of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and N‑cadherin. Furthermore, Oct4 induced EMT of lung cancer cells by promoting β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex degradation and regulating nuclear localization of β‑catenin. In conclusion, the present study indicated that Oct4 affected the cell biology of lung cancer cells in vitro through promoting lung cancer cell metastasis via EMT; in addition, the results suggested that the association and degradation of the β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex was regulated by Oct4 during the process of EMT.

  3. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis Suggests Hypoxia-Triggered Hyper-Coagulation Leading to Venous Thrombosis at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Jha, Prabhash Kumar; Sahu, Anita; Prabhakar, Amit; Tyagi, Tarun; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Arvind, Prathima; Nair, Jiny; Gupta, Neha; Kumari, Babita; Nair, Velu; Bajaj, Nitin; Shanker, Jayashree; Sharma, Manish; Kumar, Bhuvnesh; Ashraf, Mohammad Zahid

    2018-06-04

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), a multi-factorial disease, is the third most common cardiovascular disease. Established genetic and acquired risk factors are responsible for the onset of VTE. High altitude (HA) also poses as an additional risk factor, predisposing individuals to VTE; however, its molecular mechanism remains elusive. This study aimed to identify genes/pathways associated with the pathophysiology of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) at HA. Gene expression profiling of DVT patients, who developed the disease, either at sea level or at HA-DVT locations, resulted in differential expression of 378 and 875 genes, respectively. Gene expression profiles were subjected to bioinformatic analysis, followed by technical and biological validation of selected genes using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Both gene ontology and pathway analysis showed enrichment of genes involved in haemostasis and platelet activation in HA-DVT patients with the most relevant pathway being 'response to hypoxia'. Thus, given the environmental condition the differential expression of hypoxia-responsive genes (angiogenin, ribonuclease, RNase A family, 5; early growth response 1; lamin A; matrix metallopeptidase 14 [membrane-inserted]; neurofibromin 1; PDZ and LIM domain 1; procollagen-lysine 1, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1; solute carrier family 6 [neurotransmitter transporter, serotonin], member 4; solute carrier family 9 [sodium/hydrogen exchanger], member 1; and TEK tyrosine kinase, endothelial) in HA-DVT could be a determining factor to understand the pathophysiology of DVT at HA. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  4. Significantly greater expression of ER, PR, and ECAD in advanced-stage low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Lu, Karen H; Malpica, Anais; Bodurka, Diane C; Shvartsman, Hyun S; Schmandt, Rosemarie E; Thornton, Angela D; Deavers, Michael T; Silva, Elvio G; Gershenson, David M

    2007-10-01

    A 2-tier system that classifies ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC) as low grade or high grade is gaining acceptance. Women with low-grade OSC generally have higher 5-year survival rates than do women with high-grade OSC. We examined the expression of various markers to further understand the molecular differences between low-grade and high-grade OSCs: the potential therapeutic targets or prognostic markers Her-2/neu, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor (PR); the metastasis-associated markers cyclin D1 (BCL1), E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, and MMP-9; and the cell proliferation-associated markers BCL1, Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67), and p53. For this immunohistochemical analysis, we used paraffin-embedded specimens from 47 patients with advanced-stage low-grade OSC and from 49 patients with advanced-stage high-grade OSC. Our results showed that low-grade tumors expressed significantly higher levels of estrogen receptor, PR, and E-cadherin than did high-grade tumors, suggesting the involvement of gonadal steroid hormones, especially in the pathogenesis of low-grade OSC; the PR positivity was also observed in the stromal component of these low-grade tumors. On the other hand, high-grade tumors trended toward increased expression of MMP-9, BCL1, p53, and Ki-67, and robust MMP-9 positivity was observed in the stromal component of these high-grade tumors. These differences may lead to the development of different therapeutic strategies for women with either the low-grade or the high-grade form of OSC.

  5. A High-Throughput Data Mining of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Coffea Species Expressed Sequence Tags Suggests Differential Homeologous Gene Expression in the Allotetraploid Coffea arabica1[W

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Pot, David; Ambrósio, Alinne Batista; Andrade, Alan Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    Polyploidization constitutes a common mode of evolution in flowering plants. This event provides the raw material for the divergence of function in homeologous genes, leading to phenotypic novelty that can contribute to the success of polyploids in nature or their selection for use in agriculture. Mounting evidence underlined the existence of homeologous expression biases in polyploid genomes; however, strategies to analyze such transcriptome regulation remained scarce. Important factors regarding homeologous expression biases remain to be explored, such as whether this phenomenon influences specific genes, how paralogs are affected by genome doubling, and what is the importance of the variability of homeologous expression bias to genotype differences. This study reports the expressed sequence tag assembly of the allopolyploid Coffea arabica and one of its direct ancestors, Coffea canephora. The assembly was used for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms through the identification of high-quality discrepancies in overlapped expressed sequence tags and for gene expression information indirectly estimated by the transcript redundancy. Sequence diversity profiles were evaluated within C. arabica (Ca) and C. canephora (Cc) and used to deduce the transcript contribution of the Coffea eugenioides (Ce) ancestor. The assignment of the C. arabica haplotypes to the C. canephora (CaCc) or C. eugenioides (CaCe) ancestral genomes allowed us to analyze gene expression contributions of each subgenome in C. arabica. In silico data were validated by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and allele-specific combination TaqMAMA-based method. The presence of differential expression of C. arabica homeologous genes and its implications in coffee gene expression, ontology, and physiology are discussed. PMID:20864545

  6. Gene expression changes in a zebrafish model of drug dependency suggest conservation of neuro-adaptation pathways.

    PubMed

    Kily, Layla J M; Cowe, Yuka C M; Hussain, Osman; Patel, Salma; McElwaine, Suzanne; Cotter, Finbarr E; Brennan, Caroline H

    2008-05-01

    Addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder considered to be a disease of the brain's natural reward reinforcement system. Repeated stimulation of the 'reward' pathway leads to adaptive changes in gene expression and synaptic organization that reinforce drug taking and underlie long-term changes in behaviour. The primitive nature of reward reinforcement pathways and the near universal ability of abused drugs to target the same system allow drug-associated reward and reinforcement to be studied in non-mammalian species. Zebrafish have proved to be a valuable model system for the study of vertebrate development and disease. Here we demonstrate that adult zebrafish show a dose-dependent acute conditioned place preference (CPP) reinforcement response to ethanol or nicotine. Repeated exposure of adult zebrafish to either nicotine or ethanol leads to a robust CPP response that persists following 3 weeks of abstinence and in the face of adverse stimuli, a behavioural indicator of the establishment of dependence. Microarray analysis using whole brain samples from drug-treated and control zebrafish identified 1362 genes that show a significant change in expression between control and treated individuals. Of these genes, 153 are common to both ethanol- and nicotine-treated animals. These genes include members of pathways and processes implicated in drug dependence in mammalian models, revealing conservation of neuro-adaptation pathways between zebrafish and mammals.

  7. Gene expression analysis of pancreatic cell lines reveals genes overexpressed in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Alldinger, Ingo; Dittert, Dag; Peiper, Matthias; Fusco, Alberto; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Staub, Eike; Lohr, Matthias; Jesnowski, Ralf; Baretton, Gustavo; Ockert, Detlef; Saeger, Hans-Detlev; Grützmann, Robert; Pilarsky, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Using DNA gene expression analysis based on a custom made Affymetrix cancer array, we investigated the expression pattern of both primary and established pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. We analyzed the gene expression of 5 established pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Capan-1, Capan-2 and HPAF II) and 5 primary isolates, 1 of them derived from benign pancreatic duct cells. Out of 1,540 genes which were expressed in at least 3 experiments, we found 122 genes upregulated and 18 downregulated in tumor cell lines compared to benign cells with a fold change >3. Several of the upregulated genes (like Prefoldin 5, ADAM9 and E-cadherin) have been associated with pancreatic cancer before. The other differentially regulated genes, however, play a so far unknown role in the course of human pancreatic carcinoma. By means of immunohistochemistry we could show that thymosin beta-10 (TMSB10), upregulated in tumor cell lines, is expressed in human pancreatic carcinoma, but not in non-neoplastic pancreatic tissue, suggesting a role for TMSB10 in the carcinogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma. Using gene expression profiling of pancreatic cell lines we were able to identify genes differentially expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which might contribute to pancreatic cancer development. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Gene expression in spider appendages reveals reversal of exd/hth spatial specificity, altered leg gap gene dynamics, and suggests divergent distal morphogen signaling.

    PubMed

    Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Janssen, Ralf; Wigand, Barbara; Klingler, Martin; Damen, Wim G M

    2003-12-01

    Leg development in Drosophila has been studied in much detail. However, Drosophila limbs form in the larva as imaginal discs and not during embryogenesis as in most other arthropods. Here, we analyze appendage genes in the spider Cupiennius salei and the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Differences in decapentaplegic (dpp) expression suggest a different mode of distal morphogen signaling suitable for the specific geometry of growing limb buds. Also, expression of the proximal genes homothorax (hth) and extradenticle (exd) is significantly altered: in the spider, exd is restricted to the proximal leg and hth expression extends distally, while in insects, exd is expressed in the entire leg and hth is restricted to proximal parts. This reversal of spatial specificity demonstrates an evolutionary shift, which is nevertheless compatible with a conserved role of this gene pair as instructor of proximal fate. Different expression dynamics of dachshund and Distal-less point to modifications in the regulation of the leg gap gene system. We comment on the significance of this finding for attempts to homologize leg segments in different arthropod classes. Comparison of the expression profiles of H15 and optomotor-blind to the Drosophila patterns suggests modifications also in the dorsal-ventral patterning system of the legs. Together, our results suggest alterations in many components of the leg developmental system, namely proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning, and leg segmentation. Thus, the leg developmental system exhibits a propensity to evolutionary change, which probably forms the basis for the impressive diversity of arthropod leg morphologies.

  9. p63 expression defines a lethal subset of muscle-invasive bladder cancers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woonyoung; Shah, Jay B; Tran, Mai; Svatek, Robert; Marquis, Lauren; Lee, I-Ling; Yu, Dasom; Adam, Liana; Wen, Sijin; Shen, Yu; Dinney, Colin; McConkey, David J; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    p63 is a member of the p53 family that has been implicated in maintenance of epithelial stem cell compartments. Previous studies demonstrated that p63 is downregulated in muscle-invasive bladder cancers, but the relationship between p63 expression and survival is not clear. We used real-time PCR to characterize p63 expression and several genes implicated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bladder cancer cell lines (n = 15) and primary tumors (n = 101). We correlated tumor marker expression with stage, disease-specific (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Expression of E-cadherin and p63 correlated directly with one another and inversely with expression of the mesenchymal markers Zeb-1, Zeb-2, and vimentin. Non-muscle-invasive (Ta and T1) bladder cancers uniformly expressed high levels of E-cadherin and p63 and low levels of the mesenchymal markers. Interestingly, a subset of muscle-invasive (T2-T4) tumors maintained high levels of E-cadherin and p63 expression. As expected, there was a strongly significant correlation between EMT marker expression and muscle invasion (p<0.0001). However, OS was shorter in patients with muscle-invasive tumors that retained p63 (p = 0.007). Our data confirm that molecular markers of EMT are elevated in muscle-invasive bladder cancers, but interestingly, retention of the "epithelial" marker p63 in muscle-invasive tumors is associated with a worse outcome.

  10. Expression and substrate specificity of betaine/proline transporters suggest a novel choline transport mechanism in sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nana; Sakakibara, Shota; Tsutsumi, Koichi; Waditee, Rungaroon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2011-09-15

    Proline transporters (ProTs) originally described as highly selective transporters for proline, have been shown to also transport glycinebetaine (betaine). Here we examined and compared the transport properties of Bet/ProTs from betaine accumulating (sugar beet, Amaranthus, and Atriplex,) and non-accumulating (Arabidopsis) plants. Using a yeast mutant deficient for uptake of proline and betaine, it was shown that all these transporters exhibited higher affinity for betaine than proline. The uptake of betaine and proline was pH-dependent and inhibited by the proton uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). We also investigated choline transport by using a choline transport-deficient yeast mutant. Results revealed that these transporters exhibited a higher affinity for choline uptake rather than betaine. Uptake of choline by sugar beet BvBet/ProT1 was independent of the proton gradient and the inhibition by CCCP was reduced compared with that for uptake of betaine, suggesting different proton binding properties between the transport of choline and betaine. Additionally, in situ hybridization experiments revealed the localization of sugar beet BvBet/ProT1 in phloem and xylem parenchyma cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Delineation of Matriptase Protein Expression by Enzymatic Gene Trapping Suggests Diverging Roles in Barrier Function, Hair Formation, and Squamous Cell Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    List, Karin; Szabo, Roman; Molinolo, Alfredo; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    The membrane serine protease matriptase is required for epidermal barrier function, hair formation, and thymocyte development in mice, and dysregulated matriptase expression causes epidermal squamous cell carcinoma. To elucidate the specific functions of matriptase in normal and aberrant epidermal differentiation, we used enzymatic gene trapping combined with immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and barrier function assays to delineate the spatio-temporal expression and function of matriptase in mouse keratinized tissue development, homeostasis, and malignant transformation. In the interfollicular epidermis, matriptase expression was restricted to postmitotic transitional layer keratinocytes undergoing terminal differentiation. Matriptase was also expressed in keratinizing oral epithelium, where it was required for oral barrier function, and in thymic epithelium. In all three tissues, matriptase colocalized with profilaggrin. In staged embryos, the onset of epidermal matriptase expression coincided with that of profilaggrin expression and acquisition of the epidermal barrier. In marked contrast to stratifying keritinized epithelium, matripase expression commenced already in undifferentiated and rapidly proliferating profilaggrin-negative matrix cells and displayed hair growth cycle-dependent expression. Exposure of the epidermis to carcinogens led to the gradual appearance of matriptase in a keratin-5-positive proliferative cell compartment during malignant progression. Combined with previous studies, these data suggest that matriptase has diverging functions in the genesis of stratified keratinized epithelium, hair follicles, and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:16651618

  12. Delineation of matriptase protein expression by enzymatic gene trapping suggests diverging roles in barrier function, hair formation, and squamous cell carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    List, Karin; Szabo, Roman; Molinolo, Alfredo; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Bugge, Thomas H

    2006-05-01

    The membrane serine protease matriptase is required for epidermal barrier function, hair formation, and thymocyte development in mice, and dysregulated matriptase expression causes epidermal squamous cell carcinoma. To elucidate the specific functions of matriptase in normal and aberrant epidermal differentiation, we used enzymatic gene trapping combined with immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and barrier function assays to delineate the spatio-temporal expression and function of matriptase in mouse keratinized tissue development, homeostasis, and malignant transformation. In the interfollicular epidermis, matriptase expression was restricted to postmitotic transitional layer keratinocytes undergoing terminal differentiation. Matriptase was also expressed in keratinizing oral epithelium, where it was required for oral barrier function, and in thymic epithelium. In all three tissues, matriptase colocalized with profilaggrin. In staged embryos, the onset of epidermal matriptase expression coincided with that of profilaggrin expression and acquisition of the epidermal barrier. In marked contrast to stratifying keritinized epithelium, matripase expression commenced already in undifferentiated and rapidly proliferating profilaggrin-negative matrix cells and displayed hair growth cycle-dependent expression. Exposure of the epidermis to carcinogens led to the gradual appearance of matriptase in a keratin-5-positive proliferative cell compartment during malignant progression. Combined with previous studies, these data suggest that matriptase has diverging functions in the genesis of stratified keratinized epithelium, hair follicles, and squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. Differential expression patterns of metastasis suppressor proteins in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bozdogan, Onder; Yulug, Isik G; Vargel, Ibrahim; Cavusoglu, Tarik; Karabulut, Ayse A; Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer

    2015-08-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are common malignant skin tumors. Despite having a significant invasion capacity, they metastasize only rarely. Our aim in this study was to detect the expression patterns of the NM23-H1, NDRG1, E-cadherin, RHOGDI2, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 metastasis suppressor proteins in BCCs. A total of 96 BCC and 10 normal skin samples were included for the immunohistochemical study. Eleven frozen BCC samples were also studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect the gene expression profile. NM23-H1 was strongly and diffusely expressed in all types of BCC. Significant cytoplasmic expression of NDRG1 and E-cadherin was also detected. However, AKAP12 and CD82/KAI1 expression was significantly decreased. The expressions of the other proteins were somewhere between the two extremes. Similarly, qRT-PCR analysis showed down-regulation of AKAP12 and up-regulation of NM23-H1 and NDRG1 in BCC. Morphologically aggressive BCCs showed significantly higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression scores and lower CD82/KAI1 scores than non-aggressive BCCs. The relatively preserved levels of NM23-H1, NDRG1, and E-cadherin proteins may have a positive effect on the non-metastasizing features of these tumors. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. HDAC1 and HDAC2 are Differentially Expressed in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Colón-Díaz, Maricarmen; Báez-Vega, Perla; García, Miosotis; Ruiz, Abigail; Monteiro, Janice B.; Fourquet, Jessica; Bayona, Manuel; Alvarez-Garriga, Carolina; Achille, Alexandra; Seto, Edward; Flores, Idhaliz

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms have been ascribed important roles in endometriosis. Covalent histone modifications at lysine residues have been shown to regulate gene expression and thus contribute to pathological states in many diseases. In endometriosis, histone deacetylase inhibition (HDACi) resulted in reactivation of E-cadherin, attenuation of invasion, decreased proliferation of endometriotic cells, and caused lesion regression in an animal model. This study was conducted to assess basal and hormone-regulated gene expression levels of HDAC1 and HDAC2 (HDAC1/2) in cell lines and protein expression levels in tissues. Basal and steroid hormone-regulated HDAC1/2 gene expression levels were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in cell lines and tissues. Protein levels were measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissues on an endometriosis tissue microarray (TMA). Basal HDAC1/2 gene expression levels were significantly higher in endometriotic versus endometrial stromal cells, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) significantly downregulated HDAC1 expression in endometrial epithelial cells. Levels of HDAC2 were upregulated by E2 and downregulated by E2 + P4 in endometrial stromal cells. Hormone modulation of HDAC1/2 gene expression was lost in the endometriotic cell line. Immunohistochemistry showed that HDAC1/2 proteins were expressed in a substantial proportion of lesions and endometrium from patients, and their expression levels varied according to lesion localization. The highest proportion of strong HDAC1 immunostaining was seen in ovarian, skin, and gastrointestinal lesions, and of HDAC2 in skin lesions and endometrium from patients with endometriosis. These studies suggest that endometriosis etiology may be partially explained by epigenetic regulation of gene expression due to dysregulations in the expression of HDACs. PMID:22344732

  15. Stable expression of calpain 3 from a muscle transgene in vivo: Immature muscle in transgenic mice suggests a role for calpain 3 in muscle maturation

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, M. J.; Guyon, J. R.; Sorimachi, H.; Potts, A.; Richard, I.; Herasse, M.; Chamberlain, J.; Dalkilic, I.; Kunkel, L. M.; Beckmann, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, type 2A (LGMD 2A), is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes late-onset muscle-wasting, and is due to mutations in the muscle-specific protease calpain 3 (C3). Although LGMD 2A would be a feasible candidate for gene therapy, the reported instability of C3 in vitro raised questions about the potential of obtaining a stable, high-level expression of C3 from a transgene in vivo. We have generated transgenic (Tg) mice with muscle-specific overexpression of full-length C3 or C3 isoforms, which arise from alternative splicing, to test whether stable expression of C3 transgenes could occur in vivo. Unexpectedly, we found that full-length C3 can be overexpressed at high levels in vivo, without toxicity. In addition, we found that Tg expressing C3 lacking exon 6, an isoform expressed embryonically, have muscles that resemble regenerating or developing muscle. Tg expressing C3 lacking exon 15 shared this morphology in the soleus, but not other muscles. Assays of inflammation or muscle membrane damage indicated that the Tg muscles were not degenerative, suggesting that the immature muscle resulted from a developmental block rather than degeneration and regeneration. These studies show that C3 can be expressed stably in vivo from a transgene, and indicate that alternatively spliced C3 isoforms should not be used in gene-therapy applications because they impair proper muscle development. PMID:12084932

  16. Copper toxicity in Chinese cabbage is not influenced by plant sulphur status, but affects sulphur metabolism-related gene expression and the suggested regulatory metabolites.

    PubMed

    Shahbaz, M; Stuiver, C E E; Posthumus, F S; Parmar, S; Hawkesford, M J; De Kok, L J

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of high copper (Cu) concentrations in the root environment of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) was little influenced by the sulphur nutritional status of the plant. However, Cu toxicity removed the correlation between sulphur metabolism-related gene expression and the suggested regulatory metabolites. At high tissue Cu levels, there was no relation between sulphur metabolite levels viz. total sulphur, sulphate and water-soluble non-protein thiols, and the expression and activity of sulphate transporters and expression of APS reductase under sulphate-sufficient or-deprived conditions, in the presence or absence of H2 S. This indicated that the regulatory signal transduction pathway of sulphate transporters was overruled or by-passed upon exposure to elevated Cu concentrations. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Sialotranscriptomics of Rhipicephalus zambeziensis reveals intricate expression profiles of secretory proteins and suggests tight temporal transcriptional regulation during blood-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Minique Hilda; de Klerk, Daniel; Pienaar, Ronel; Rees, D Jasper G; Mans, Ben J

    2017-08-10

    Ticks secrete a diverse mixture of secretory proteins into the host to evade its immune response and facilitate blood-feeding, making secretory proteins attractive targets for the production of recombinant anti-tick vaccines. The largely neglected tick species, Rhipicephalus zambeziensis, is an efficient vector of Theileria parva in southern Africa but its available sequence information is limited. Next generation sequencing has advanced sequence availability for ticks in recent years and has assisted the characterisation of secretory proteins. This study focused on the de novo assembly and annotation of the salivary gland transcriptome of R. zambeziensis and the temporal expression of secretory protein transcripts in female and male ticks, before the onset of feeding and during early and late feeding. The sialotranscriptome of R. zambeziensis yielded 23,631 transcripts from which 13,584 non-redundant proteins were predicted. Eighty-six percent of these contained a predicted start and stop codon and were estimated to be putatively full-length proteins. A fifth (2569) of the predicted proteins were annotated as putative secretory proteins and explained 52% of the expression in the transcriptome. Expression analyses revealed that 2832 transcripts were differentially expressed among feeding time points and 1209 between the tick sexes. The expression analyses further indicated that 57% of the annotated secretory protein transcripts were differentially expressed. Dynamic expression profiles of secretory protein transcripts were observed during feeding of female ticks. Whereby a number of transcripts were upregulated during early feeding, presumably for feeding site establishment and then during late feeding, 52% of these were downregulated, indicating that transcripts were required at specific feeding stages. This suggested that secretory proteins are under stringent transcriptional regulation that fine-tunes their expression in salivary glands during feeding. No open

  18. Gene expression analysis of parthenogenetic embryonic development of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, suggests that aphid parthenogenesis evolved from meiotic oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Dayalan G; Abdelhady, Ahmed; Stern, David L

    2014-01-01

    Aphids exhibit a form of phenotypic plasticity, called polyphenism, in which genetically identical females reproduce sexually during one part of the life cycle and asexually (via parthenogenesis) during the remainder of the life cycle. The molecular basis for aphid parthenogenesis is unknown. Cytological observations of aphid parthenogenesis suggest that asexual oogenesis evolved either through a modification of meiosis or from a mitotic process. As a test of these alternatives, we assessed the expression levels and expression patterns of canonical meiotic recombination and germline genes in the sexual and asexual ovaries of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We observed expression of all meiosis genes in similar patterns in asexual and sexual ovaries, with the exception that some genes encoding Argonaute-family members were not expressed in sexual ovaries. In addition, we observed that asexual aphid tissues accumulated unspliced transcripts of Spo11, whereas sexual aphid tissues accumulated primarily spliced transcripts. In situ hybridization revealed Spo11 transcript in sexual germ cells and undetectable levels of Spo11 transcript in asexual germ cells. We also found that an obligately asexual strain of pea aphid produced little spliced Spo11 transcript. Together, these results suggest that parthenogenetic oogenesis evolved from a meiosis-like, and not a mitosis-like, process and that the aphid reproductive polyphenism may involve a modification of Spo11 gene activity.

  19. Gene Expression Analysis of Parthenogenetic Embryonic Development of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, Suggests That Aphid Parthenogenesis Evolved from Meiotic Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Dayalan G.; Abdelhady, Ahmed; Stern, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Aphids exhibit a form of phenotypic plasticity, called polyphenism, in which genetically identical females reproduce sexually during one part of the life cycle and asexually (via parthenogenesis) during the remainder of the life cycle. The molecular basis for aphid parthenogenesis is unknown. Cytological observations of aphid parthenogenesis suggest that asexual oogenesis evolved either through a modification of meiosis or from a mitotic process. As a test of these alternatives, we assessed the expression levels and expression patterns of canonical meiotic recombination and germline genes in the sexual and asexual ovaries of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We observed expression of all meiosis genes in similar patterns in asexual and sexual ovaries, with the exception that some genes encoding Argonaute-family members were not expressed in sexual ovaries. In addition, we observed that asexual aphid tissues accumulated unspliced transcripts of Spo11, whereas sexual aphid tissues accumulated primarily spliced transcripts. In situ hybridization revealed Spo11 transcript in sexual germ cells and undetectable levels of Spo11 transcript in asexual germ cells. We also found that an obligately asexual strain of pea aphid produced little spliced Spo11 transcript. Together, these results suggest that parthenogenetic oogenesis evolved from a meiosis-like, and not a mitosis-like, process and that the aphid reproductive polyphenism may involve a modification of Spo11 gene activity. PMID:25501006

  20. Differential gene expression in Daphnia magna suggests distinct modes of action and bioavailability for ZnO nanoparticles and Zn ions.

    PubMed

    Poynton, Helen C; Lazorchak, James M; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Smith, Mark E; Rogers, Kim; Patra, Manomita; Hammer, Katherine A; Allen, H Joel; Vulpe, Chris D

    2011-01-15

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being rapidly developed for use in consumer products, wastewater treatment, and chemotherapy providing several possible routes for ZnO NP exposure to humans and aquatic organisms. Recent studies have shown that ZnO NPs undergo rapid dissolution to Zn(2+), but the relative contribution of Zn(2+) to ZnO NP bioavailability and toxicity is not clear. We show that a fraction of the ZnO NPs in suspension dissolves, and this fraction cannot account for the toxicity of the ZnO NP suspensions to Daphnia magna. Gene expression profiling of D. magna exposed to ZnO NPs or ZnSO(4) at sublethal concentrations revealed distinct modes of toxicity. There was also little overlap in gene expression between ZnO NPs and SiO(x) NPs, suggesting specificity for the ZnO NP expression profile. ZnO NPs effected expression of genes involved in cytoskeletal transport, cellular respiration, and reproduction. A specific pattern of differential expression of three biomarker genes including a multicystatin, ferritin, and C1q containing gene were confirmed for ZnO NP exposure and provide a suite of biomarkers for identifying environmental exposure to ZnO NPs and differentiating between NP and ionic exposure.

  1. In Vivo Genome-Wide Expression Study on Human Circulating B Cells Suggests a Novel ESR1 and MAPK3 Network for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Peng; Chen, Yuan; Jiang, Hui; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Pan, Feng; Yang, Tie-Lin; Tang, Zi-Hui; Larsen, Jennifer A; Lappe, Joan M; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis is characterized by low BMD. Studies have shown that B cells may participate in osteoclastogenesis through expression of osteoclast-related factors, such as RANKL, transforming growth factor β (TGFB), and osteoprotegerin (OPG). However, the in vivo significance of B cells in human bone metabolism and osteoporosis is still largely unknown, particularly at the systematic gene expression level. Materials and Methods In this study, Affymetrix HG-U133A GeneChip arrays were used to identify genes differentially expressed in B cells between 10 low and 10 high BMD postmenopausal women. Significance of differential expression was tested by t-test and adjusted for multiple testing with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) procedure (adjusted p ≤ 0.05). Results Twenty-nine genes were downregulated in the low versus high BMD group. These genes were further analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (Ingenuity Systems). A network involving estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and mitogen activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) was identified. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed differential expression of eight genes, including ESR1, MAPK3, methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2), proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 1 (PSTPIP1), Scr-like-adaptor (SLA), serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11), WNK lysine-deficient protein kinase 1 (WNK1), and zinc finger protein 446 (ZNF446). Conclusions This is the first in vivo genome-wide expression study on human B cells in relation to osteoporosis. Our results highlight the significance of B cells in the etiology of osteoporosis and suggest a novel mechanism for postmenopausal osteoporosis (i.e., that downregulation of ESR1 and MAPK3 in B cells regulates secretion of factors, leading to increased osteoclastogenesis or decreased osteoblastogenesis). PMID:18433299

  2. Expression Profiling of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Gene in Alternate Bearing ‘Hass' Avocado Trees Suggests a Role for PaFT in Avocado Flower Induction

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Dafna; Zviran, Tali; Zezak, Oshrat; Samach, Alon; Irihimovitch, Vered

    2014-01-01

    In many perennials, heavy fruit load on a shoot decreases the ability of the plant to undergo floral induction in the following spring, resulting in a pattern of crop production known as alternate bearing. Here, we studied the effects of fruit load on floral determination in ‘Hass' avocado (Persea americana). De-fruiting experiments initially confirmed the negative effects of fruit load on return to flowering. Next, we isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, PaFT, hypothesized to act as a phloem-mobile florigen signal and examined its expression profile in shoot tissues of on (fully loaded) and off (fruit-lacking) trees. Expression analyses revealed a strong peak in PaFT transcript levels in leaves of off trees from the end of October through November, followed by a return to starting levels. Moreover and concomitant with inflorescence development, only off buds displayed up-regulation of the floral identity transcripts PaAP1 and PaLFY, with significant variation being detected from October and November, respectively. Furthermore, a parallel microscopic study of off apical buds revealed the presence of secondary inflorescence axis structures that only appeared towards the end of November. Finally, ectopic expression of PaFT in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering transition. Together, our data suggests a link between increased PaFT expression observed during late autumn and avocado flower induction. Furthermore, our results also imply that, as in the case of other crop trees, fruit-load might affect flowering by repressing the expression of PaFT in the leaves. Possible mechanism(s) by which fruit crop might repress PaFT expression, are discussed. PMID:25330324

  3. Expression profiling of FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene in alternate bearing 'Hass' avocado trees suggests a role for PaFT in avocado flower induction.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Dafna; Zviran, Tali; Zezak, Oshrat; Samach, Alon; Irihimovitch, Vered

    2014-01-01

    In many perennials, heavy fruit load on a shoot decreases the ability of the plant to undergo floral induction in the following spring, resulting in a pattern of crop production known as alternate bearing. Here, we studied the effects of fruit load on floral determination in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana). De-fruiting experiments initially confirmed the negative effects of fruit load on return to flowering. Next, we isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, PaFT, hypothesized to act as a phloem-mobile florigen signal and examined its expression profile in shoot tissues of on (fully loaded) and off (fruit-lacking) trees. Expression analyses revealed a strong peak in PaFT transcript levels in leaves of off trees from the end of October through November, followed by a return to starting levels. Moreover and concomitant with inflorescence development, only off buds displayed up-regulation of the floral identity transcripts PaAP1 and PaLFY, with significant variation being detected from October and November, respectively. Furthermore, a parallel microscopic study of off apical buds revealed the presence of secondary inflorescence axis structures that only appeared towards the end of November. Finally, ectopic expression of PaFT in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering transition. Together, our data suggests a link between increased PaFT expression observed during late autumn and avocado flower induction. Furthermore, our results also imply that, as in the case of other crop trees, fruit-load might affect flowering by repressing the expression of PaFT in the leaves. Possible mechanism(s) by which fruit crop might repress PaFT expression, are discussed.

  4. Aberrant upregulation of MUC4 mucin expression in cutaneous condyloma acuminatum and squamous cell carcinoma suggests a potential role in the diagnosis and therapy of skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhankar; Swanson, Benjamin J; Bonthu, Neelima; Batra, Surinder K

    2010-07-01

    Mucins comprise a family of high-molecular-weight glycoproteins. MUC4, a large transmembrane mucin, has recently emerged as a novel marker for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in several malignancies. However, its role in skin pathologies remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression of MUC4 in cutaneous pathologies by immunohistochemistry for potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic applications. A total of 330 tissue spots representing the normal skin, and benign and malignant cutaneous diseases, were analysed after staining with the monoclonal antibody to human MUC4 (clone 8G7). While the normal epidermis showed a negative to weak-positive expression of MUC4, its expression was significantly upregulated in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) where the intensity of staining correlated negatively with tumour grade and positively with age. A moderately strong MUC4 expression was also noted in 2/20 cancer adjacent normal skin and 2/21 chronically inflamed skin tissues, while 10/19 cases of vulval condyloma acuminate, 3/12 of vulval hyperplasia and 2 cases of verruca vulgaris also showed strong MUC4 positivity. Malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous cysts were negative. The results indicate that MUC4 expression is aberrantly upregulated in cutaneous SCCs, vulval condylomas and verruca vulgaris. Further, it appears that MUC4 expression in the skin may be modulated by chronic inflammation and the presence of an adjacent cutaneous malignancy in certain cases. These observations suggest a novel role for MUC4 mucin in the pathogenesis of cutaneous SCC and a possible application as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker in cutaneous pathologies.

  5. Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Bin; Wang, Zhiwei; Ali, Shadan; Kong, Dejuan; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Ahmad, Aamir; Li, Yiwei; Azmi, Asfar S.; Miele, Lucio; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2011-01-01

    FoxM1 is known to play important role in the development and progression of many malignancies including pancreatic cancer. Studies have shown that the acquisition of Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and induction of cancer stem cell (CSC) or cancer stem-like cell phenotypes are highly inter-related, and contributes to drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. The molecular mechanism(s) by which FoxM1 contributes to the acquisition of EMT phenotype and induction of CSC self-renewal capacity is poorly understood. Therefore, we established FoxM1 over-expressing pancreatic cancer (AsPC-1) cells, which showed increased cell growth, clonogenicity and cell migration. Moreover, over-expression of FoxM1 led to the acquisition of EMT phenotype by activation of mesenchymal cell markers, ZEB1, ZEB2, Snail2, E-cadherin, and vimentin, which is consistent with increased sphere-forming (pancreatospheres) capacity and expression of CSC surface markers (CD44 and EpCAM). We also found that over-expression of FoxM1 led to decreased expression of miRNAs (let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, miR-200b and miR-200c); however, re-expression of miR-200b inhibited the expression of ZEB1, ZEB2, vimentin as well as FoxM1, and induced the expression of E-cadherin, leading to the reversal of EMT phenotype. Finally, we found that genistein, a natural chemo-preventive agent, inhibited cell growth, clonogenicity, cell migration and invasion, EMT phenotype, and formation of pancreatospheres consistent with reduced expression of CD44 and EpCAM. These results suggest, for the first time, that FoxM1 over-expression is responsible for the acquisition of EMT and CSC phenotype, which is in part mediated through the regulation of miR-200b and these processes, could be easily attenuated by genistein. PMID:21503965

  6. The HDAC inhibitor valproate induces a bivalent status of the CD20 promoter in CLL patients suggesting distinct epigenetic regulation of CD20 expression in CLL in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Scialdone, Annarita; Hasni, Muhammad Sharif; Damm, Jesper Kofoed; Lennartsson, Andreas; Gullberg, Urban; Drott, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Treatment with anti-CD20 antibodies is only moderately efficient in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a feature which has been explained by the inherently low CD20 expression in CLL. It has been shown that CD20 is epigenetically regulated and that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) can increase CD20 expression in vitro in CLL. To assess whether HDACis can upregulate CD20 also in vivo in CLL, the HDACi valproate was given to three del13q/NOTCH1wt CLL patients and CD20 levels were analysed (the PREVAIL study). Valproate treatment resulted in expected global activating histone modifications suggesting HDAC inhibitory effects. However, although valproate induced expression of CD20 mRNA and protein in the del13q/NOTCH1wt I83-E95 CLL cell line, no such effects were observed in the patients studied. In contrast to the cell line, in patients valproate treatment resulted in transient recruitment of the transcriptional repressor EZH2 to the CD20 promoter, correlating to an increase of the repressive histone mark H3K27me3. This suggests that valproate-mediated induction of CD20 may be hampered by EZH2 mediated H3K27me3 in vivo in CLL. Moreover, valproate treatment resulted in induction of EZH2 and global H3K27me3 in patient cells, suggesting transcriptionally repressive effects of valproate in CLL. Our results suggest new in vivo mechanisms of HDACis which may have implications on the design of future clinical trials in B-cell malignancies. PMID:28445158

  7. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2016-07-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations (healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3-55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P < 0·01) whilst increasing ACE expression within a physiological range (<1·8-fold at 48 h; P < 0·01). Our findings suggest novel hypotheses. Firstly, cellular feedback regulation may occur between UCPs and ACE. Secondly, cellular UCP regulation of sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role. © 2016 The Authors. BioEssays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin‐converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen‐Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J.; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R.; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E.; Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole‐body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations (healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3‐55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P < 0·01) whilst increasing ACE expression within a physiological range (<1·8‐fold at 48 h; P < 0·01). Our findings suggest novel hypotheses. Firstly, cellular feedback regulation may occur between UCPs and ACE. Secondly, cellular UCP regulation of sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role. PMID:27347560

  9. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations ( healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients ) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3-55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold ( P  < 0·01) whilst increasing ACE expression within a physiological range (<1·8-fold at 48 h; P  < 0·01). Our findings suggest novel hypotheses. Firstly, cellular feedback regulation may occur between UCPs and ACE. Secondly, cellular UCP regulation of sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role.

  10. CLDN1 expression in cervical cancer cells is related to tumor invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Na; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Li; Hu, Zheng; Zhu, Da; Ding, Wen-Cheng; Liu, Dan; Li, Ke-Zhen; Ma, Ding; Wang, Hui

    2016-12-27

    Even though infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) is very important, it is not the sole cause of cervical cancer. Because it is known that genetic variations that result from HPV infection are probably the most important causes of cervical cancer, we used human whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization to detect the copy number variations of genes in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The results of the array were validated by PCR, FISH and immunohistochemistry. We find that the copy number and protein expression of claudin-1 (CLDN1) increase with the progression of cervical cancer. The strong positive staining of CLDN1 in the cervical lymph node metastasis group received a significantly higher score than the staining in the group with no lymph node metastasis of cervical cancer tissues. The overexpression of CLDN1 in SiHa cells can increase anti-apoptosis ability and promote invasive ability of these cells accompanied by a decrease in expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin as well as an increase in the expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin. CLDN1 induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through its interaction with SNAI1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CLDN1 overexpression has significant effects on the growth and metastasis of xenografted tumors in athymic mice. These data suggest that CLDN1 promotes invasion and metastasis in cervical cancer cells via the expression of EMT/invasion-related genes. Therefore, CLDN1 could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  11. Thymoquinone inhibits cancer metastasis by downregulating TWIST1 expression to reduce epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Wei, Chunli; Mei, Zhiqiang; Fu, Shelly; Cheng, Jingliang; Xu, Jianming; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-08-14

    Proteins that promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) are associated with cancer metastasis. Inhibition of EMT regulators may be a promising approach in cancer therapy. In this study, Thymoquinone (TQ) was used to treat cancer cell lines to investigate its effects on EMT-regulatory proteins and cancer metastasis. We show that TQ inhibited cancer cell growth, migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. At the molecular level, TQ treatment decreased the transcriptional activity of the TWIST1 promoter and the mRNA expression of TWIST1, an EMT-promoting transcription factor. Accordingly, TQ treatment also decreased the expression of TWIST1-upregulated genes such as N-Cadherin and increased the expression of TWIST1-repressed genes such as E-Cadherin, resulting in a reduction of cell migration and invasion. TQ treatment also inhibited the growth and metastasis of cancer cell-derived xenograft tumors in mice but partially attenuated the migration and invasion in TWIST1-overexpressed cell lines. Furthermore, we found that TQ treatment enhanced the promoter DNA methylation of the TWIST1 gene in BT 549 cells. Together, these results demonstrate that TQ treatment inhibits TWIST1 promoter activity and decreases its expression, leading to the inhibition of cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. These findings suggest TQ as a potential small molecular inhibitor of cancer growth and metastasis.

  12. Thymoquinone inhibits cancer metastasis by downregulating TWIST1 expression to reduce epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Wei, Chunli; Mei, Zhiqiang; Fu, Shelly; Cheng, Jingliang; Xu, Jianming; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-01-01

    Proteins that promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) are associated with cancer metastasis. Inhibition of EMT regulators may be a promising approach in cancer therapy. In this study, Thymoquinone (TQ) was used to treat cancer cell lines to investigate its effects on EMT-regulatory proteins and cancer metastasis. We show that TQ inhibited cancer cell growth, migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. At the molecular level, TQ treatment decreased the transcriptional activity of the TWIST1 promoter and the mRNA expression of TWIST1, an EMT-promoting transcription factor. Accordingly, TQ treatment also decreased the expression of TWIST1-upregulated genes such as N-Cadherin and increased the expression of TWIST1-repressed genes such as E-Cadherin, resulting in a reduction of cell migration and invasion. TQ treatment also inhibited the growth and metastasis of cancer cell-derived xenograft tumors in mice but partially attenuated the migration and invasion in TWIST1-overexpressed cell lines. Furthermore, we found that TQ treatment enhanced the promoter DNA methylation of the TWIST1 gene in BT 549 cells. Together, these results demonstrate that TQ treatment inhibits TWIST1 promoter activity and decreases its expression, leading to the inhibition of cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. These findings suggest TQ as a potential small molecular inhibitor of cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:26023736

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic expression of self-incompatibility haplotypes in Arabidopsis lyrata suggests unique origin of alleles in different dominance classes.

    PubMed

    Prigoda, Nadia L; Nassuth, Annette; Mable, Barbara K

    2005-07-01

    The highly divergent alleles of the SRK gene in outcrossing Arabidopsis lyrata have provided important insights into the evolutionary history of self-incompatibility (SI) alleles and serve as an ideal model for studies of the evolutionary and molecular interactions between alleles in cell-cell recognition systems in general. One tantalizing question is how new specificities arise in systems that require coordination between male and female components. Allelic recruitment via gene conversion has been proposed as one possibility, based on the division of DNA sequences at the SRK locus into two distinctive groups: (1) sequences whose relationships are not well resolved and display the long branch lengths expected for a gene under balancing selection (Class A); and (2) sequences falling into a well-supported group with shorter branch lengths (Class B) that are closely related to an unlinked paralogous locus. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in phenotype (site of expression assayed using allele-specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) or function (dominance relationships assayed through controlled pollinations) accompany the sequence-based classification. Expression of Class A alleles was restricted to floral tissues, as predicted for genes involved in the SI response. In contrast, Class B alleles, despite being tightly linked to the SI phenotype, were unexpectedly expressed in both leaves and floral tissues; the same pattern found for a related unlinked paralogous sequence. Whereas Class A included haplotypes in three different dominance classes, all Class B haplotypes were found to be recessive to all except one Class A haplotype. In addition, mapping of expression and dominance patterns onto an S-domain-based genealogy suggested that allelic dominance may be determined more by evolutionary history than by frequency-dependent selection for lowered dominance as some theories suggest. The possibility that interlocus gene

  14. Profibrotic Effect of Interleukin-18 in HK-2 Cells Is Dependent on Stimulation of the Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Promoter and Increased TLR4 Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Meldrum, Kirstan K.; Zhang, Hongji; Hile, Karen L.; Moldower, Lyle L.; Dong, Zizheng; Meldrum, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    IL-18 is an important mediator of obstruction-induced renal fibrosis and tubular epithelial cell injury independent of TGF-β1 activity. We sought to determine whether the profibrotic effect of IL-18 is mediated through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Male C57BL6 wild type and mice transgenic for human IL-18-binding protein were subjected to left unilateral ureteral obstruction versus sham operation. The kidneys were harvested 1 week postoperatively and analyzed for IL-18 production and TLR4 expression. In a separate arm, renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) were directly stimulated with IL-18 in the presence or absence of a TLR4 agonist, TLR4 antagonist, or TLR4 siRNA knockdown. Cell lysates were analyzed for TLR4, α-smooth muscle actin, and E-cadherin expression. TLR4 promotor activity, as well as AP-1 activation and the effect of AP-1 knockdown on TLR4 expression, was evaluated in HK-2 cells in response to IL-18 stimulation. The results demonstrate that IL-18 induces TLR4 expression during unilateral ureteral obstruction and induces TLR4 expression in HK-2 cells via AP-1 activation. Inhibition of TLR4 or knockdown of TLR4 gene expression in turn prevents IL-18-induced profibrotic changes in HK-2 cells. These results suggest that IL-18 induces profibrotic changes in tubular epithelial cells via increased TLR4 expression/signaling. PMID:23027874

  15. Whole blood gene expression in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome: an exploratory cross-sectional study suggesting altered B cell differentiation and survival.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chinh Bkrong; Alsøe, Lene; Lindvall, Jessica M; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Winger, Anette; Kaarbø, Mari; Nilsen, Hilde; Wyller, Vegard Bruun

    2017-05-11

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a prevalent and disabling condition affecting adolescents. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but immune alterations might be an important component. This study compared whole blood gene expression in adolescent CFS patients and healthy controls, and explored associations between gene expression and neuroendocrine markers, immune markers and clinical markers within the CFS group. CFS patients (12-18 years old) were recruited nation-wide to a single referral center as part of the NorCAPITAL project. A broad case definition of CFS was applied, requiring 3 months of unexplained, disabling chronic/relapsing fatigue of new onset, whereas no accompanying symptoms were necessary. Healthy controls having comparable distribution of gender and age were recruited from local schools. Whole blood samples were subjected to RNA sequencing. Immune markers were blood leukocyte counts, plasma cytokines, serum C-reactive protein and immunoglobulins. Neuroendocrine markers encompassed plasma and urine levels of catecholamines and cortisol, as well as heart rate variability indices. Clinical markers consisted of questionnaire scores for symptoms of post-exertional malaise, inflammation, fatigue, depression and trait anxiety, as well as activity recordings. A total of 29 CFS patients and 18 healthy controls were included. We identified 176 genes as differentially expressed in patients compared to controls, adjusting for age and gender factors. Gene set enrichment analyses suggested impairment of B cell differentiation and survival, as well as enhancement of innate antiviral responses and inflammation in the CFS group. A pattern of co-expression could be identified, and this pattern, as well as single gene transcripts, was significantly associated with indices of autonomic nervous activity, plasma cortisol, and blood monocyte and eosinophil counts. Also, an association with symptoms of post-exertional malaise was demonstrated. Adolescent CFS is

  16. CRISPR/Cas9n-Mediated Deletion of the Snail 1Gene (SNAI1) Reveals Its Role in Regulating Cell Morphology, Cell-Cell Interactions, and Gene Expression in Ovarian Cancer (RMG-1) Cells.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Misako; Sato, Masahiro; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Snail1 is a transcription factor that induces the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT, epithelial cells lose their junctions, reorganize their cytoskeletons, and reprogram gene expression. Although Snail1 is a prominent repressor of E-cadherin transcription, its precise roles in each of the phenomena of EMT are not completely understood, particularly in cytoskeletal changes. Previous studies have employed gene knockdown systems to determine the functions of Snail1. However, incomplete protein knockdown is often associated with these systems, which may cause incorrect interpretation of the data. To more precisely evaluate the functions of Snail1, we generated a stable cell line with a targeted ablation of Snail1 (Snail1 KO) by using the CRISPR/Cas9n system. Snail1 KO cells show increased cell-cell adhesion, decreased cell-substrate adhesion and cell migration, changes to their cytoskeletal organization that include few stress fibers and abundant cortical actin, and upregulation of epithelial marker genes such as E-cadherin, occludin, and claudin-1. However, morphological changes were induced by treatment of Snail1 KO cells with TGF-beta. Other transcription factors that induce EMT were also induced by treatment with TGF-beta. The precise deletion of Snail1 by the CRISPR/Cas9n system provides clear evidence that loss of Snail1 causes changes in the actin cytoskeleton, decreases cell-substrate adhesion, and increases cell-cell adhesion. Treatment of RMG1 cells with TGF-beta suggests redundancy among the transcription factors that induce EMT.

  17. Elevated Gene Expression in Chalcone Synthase Enzyme Suggests an Increased Production of Flavonoids in Skin and Synchronized Red Cell Cultures of North American Native Grape Berries

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Gina; Ananga, Anthony; Krastanova, Stoyanka; Sutton, Safira; Ochieng, Joel W.; Leong, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanins are antioxidants and are among the natural products synthesized via the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Anthocyanins have been recommended for dietary intake in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or dementia. With an increasingly aging population in many parts of the world, strategies for the commercial production of in vitro synchronized red cell cultures as natural antioxidants will be a significant contribution to human medicine. Red pigmented fruits such as grapes (Vitis sp.) are a major source of bioavailable anthocyanins and other polyphenols. Since the level of antioxidants varies among cultivars, this study is the first one that phytochemically and genetically characterizes native grape cultivars of North America to determine the optimal cultivar and berry cells for the production of anthocyanins as antioxidants. Using real-time PCR and bioinformatics approaches, we tested for the transcript expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene, an enzyme involved in the flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, in different parts of physiologically mature grape berries and in vitro synchronized red cells. A low level of expression was recorded in berry flesh, compared with an elevated expression in berry skins and in vitro synchronized red cells, suggesting increased production of flavonoids in skin and cell cultures. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of functional genomics in natural products research as well as in systematic studies of North American native grapes, specifically in muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia). PMID:22364203

  18. Elevated gene expression in chalcone synthase enzyme suggests an increased production of flavonoids in skin and synchronized red cell cultures of North American native grape berries.

    PubMed

    Davis, Gina; Ananga, Anthony; Krastanova, Stoyanka; Sutton, Safira; Ochieng, Joel W; Leong, Stephen; Tsolova, Violetka

    2012-06-01

    Anthocyanins are antioxidants and are among the natural products synthesized via the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Anthocyanins have been recommended for dietary intake in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or dementia. With an increasingly aging population in many parts of the world, strategies for the commercial production of in vitro synchronized red cell cultures as natural antioxidants will be a significant contribution to human medicine. Red pigmented fruits such as grapes (Vitis sp.) are a major source of bioavailable anthocyanins and other polyphenols. Since the level of antioxidants varies among cultivars, this study is the first one that phytochemically and genetically characterizes native grape cultivars of North America to determine the optimal cultivar and berry cells for the production of anthocyanins as antioxidants. Using real-time PCR and bioinformatics approaches, we tested for the transcript expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene, an enzyme involved in the flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, in different parts of physiologically mature grape berries and in vitro synchronized red cells. A low level of expression was recorded in berry flesh, compared with an elevated expression in berry skins and in vitro synchronized red cells, suggesting increased production of flavonoids in skin and cell cultures. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of functional genomics in natural products research as well as in systematic studies of North American native grapes, specifically in muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia).

  19. Expression Patterns and Identified Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest That Cassava CBL-CIPK Signal Networks Function in Responses to Abiotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Mo, Chunyan; Wan, Shumin; Xia, Youquan; Ren, Ning; Zhou, Yang; Jiang, Xingyu

    2018-01-01

    Cassava is an energy crop that is tolerant of multiple abiotic stresses. It has been reported that the interaction between Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) is implicated in plant development and responses to various stresses. However, little is known about their functions in cassava. Herein, 8 CBL ( MeCBL ) and 26 CIPK ( MeCIPK ) genes were isolated from cassava by genome searching and cloning of cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis CBL s and CIPK s. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression levels of MeCBL and MeCIPK genes were different in different tissues throughout the life cycle. The expression patterns of 7 CBL and 26 CIPK genes in response to NaCl, PEG, heat and cold stresses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and it was found that the expression of each was induced by multiple stimuli. Furthermore, we found that many pairs of CBLs and CIPKs could interact with each other via investigating the interactions between 8 CBL and 25 CIPK proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Yeast cells co-transformed with cassava MeCIPK24, MeCBL10 , and Na + /H + antiporter MeSOS1 genes exhibited higher salt tolerance compared to those with one or two genes. These results suggest that the cassava CBL-CIPK signal network might play key roles in response to abiotic stresses.

  20. Expression Patterns and Identified Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest That Cassava CBL-CIPK Signal Networks Function in Responses to Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Chunyan; Wan, Shumin; Xia, Youquan; Ren, Ning; Zhou, Yang; Jiang, Xingyu

    2018-01-01

    Cassava is an energy crop that is tolerant of multiple abiotic stresses. It has been reported that the interaction between Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) is implicated in plant development and responses to various stresses. However, little is known about their functions in cassava. Herein, 8 CBL (MeCBL) and 26 CIPK (MeCIPK) genes were isolated from cassava by genome searching and cloning of cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis CBLs and CIPKs. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression levels of MeCBL and MeCIPK genes were different in different tissues throughout the life cycle. The expression patterns of 7 CBL and 26 CIPK genes in response to NaCl, PEG, heat and cold stresses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and it was found that the expression of each was induced by multiple stimuli. Furthermore, we found that many pairs of CBLs and CIPKs could interact with each other via investigating the interactions between 8 CBL and 25 CIPK proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Yeast cells co-transformed with cassava MeCIPK24, MeCBL10, and Na+/H+ antiporter MeSOS1 genes exhibited higher salt tolerance compared to those with one or two genes. These results suggest that the cassava CBL-CIPK signal network might play key roles in response to abiotic stresses. PMID:29552024

  1. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling suggest diverse roles of GH3 genes during development and abiotic stress responses in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikash K.; Jain, Mukesh; Garg, Rohini

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone auxin regulates various cellular processes by altering the expression of diverse genes in plants. Among various auxin-responsive genes, GH3 genes maintain endogenous auxin homeostasis by conjugating excess of auxin with amino acids. GH3 genes have been characterized in many plant species, but not in legumes. In the present work, we identified members of GH3 gene family and analyzed their chromosomal distribution, gene structure, gene duplication and phylogenetic analysis in different legumes, including chickpea, soybean, Medicago, and Lotus. A comprehensive expression analysis in different vegetative and reproductive tissues/stages revealed that many of GH3 genes were expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Notably, chickpea CaGH3-3, soybean GmGH3-8 and -25, and Lotus LjGH3-4, -5, -9 and -18 genes were up-regulated in root, indicating their putative role in root development. In addition, chickpea CaGH3-1 and -7, and Medicago MtGH3-7, -8, and -9 were found to be highly induced under drought and/or salt stresses, suggesting their role in abiotic stress responses. We also observed the examples of differential expression pattern of duplicated GH3 genes in soybean, indicating their functional diversification. Furthermore, analyses of three-dimensional structures, active site residues and ligand preferences provided molecular insights into function of GH3 genes in legumes. The analysis presented here would help in investigation of precise function of GH3 genes in legumes during development and stress conditions. PMID:25642236

  2. Age-Dependent Brain Gene Expression and Copy Number Anomalies in Autism Suggest Distinct Pathological Processes at Young Versus Mature Ages

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Mary E.; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Li, Hai-Ri; Weiss, Lauren; Fan, Jian-Bing; Murray, Sarah; April, Craig; Belinson, Haim; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Schork, Nicholas J.; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs) in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess prefrontal neurons

  3. Age-dependent brain gene expression and copy number anomalies in autism suggest distinct pathological processes at young versus mature ages.

    PubMed

    Chow, Maggie L; Pramparo, Tiziano; Winn, Mary E; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Li, Hai-Ri; Weiss, Lauren; Fan, Jian-Bing; Murray, Sarah; April, Craig; Belinson, Haim; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Schork, Nicholas J; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs) in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess prefrontal neurons

  4. Physiologically Shrinking the Solution Space of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome-Scale Model Suggests the Role of the Metabolic Network in Shaping Gene Expression Noise.

    PubMed

    Chi, Baofang; Tao, Shiheng; Liu, Yanlin

    2015-01-01

    Sampling the solution space of genome-scale models is generally conducted to determine the feasible region for metabolic flux distribution. Because the region for actual metabolic states resides only in a small fraction of the entire space, it is necessary to shrink the solution space to improve the predictive power of a model. A common strategy is to constrain models by integrating extra datasets such as high-throughput datasets and C13-labeled flux datasets. However, studies refining these approaches by performing a meta-analysis of massive experimental metabolic flux measurements, which are closely linked to cellular phenotypes, are limited. In the present study, experimentally identified metabolic flux data from 96 published reports were systematically reviewed. Several strong associations among metabolic flux phenotypes were observed. These phenotype-phenotype associations at the flux level were quantified and integrated into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome-scale model as extra physiological constraints. By sampling the shrunken solution space of the model, the metabolic flux fluctuation level, which is an intrinsic trait of metabolic reactions determined by the network, was estimated and utilized to explore its relationship to gene expression noise. Although no correlation was observed in all enzyme-coding genes, a relationship between metabolic flux fluctuation and expression noise of genes associated with enzyme-dosage sensitive reactions was detected, suggesting that the metabolic network plays a role in shaping gene expression noise. Such correlation was mainly attributed to the genes corresponding to non-essential reactions, rather than essential ones. This was at least partially, due to regulations underlying the flux phenotype-phenotype associations. Altogether, this study proposes a new approach in shrinking the solution space of a genome-scale model, of which sampling provides new insights into gene expression noise.

  5. A protein and mRNA expression-based classification of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Setia, Namrata; Agoston, Agoston T; Han, Hye S; Mullen, John T; Duda, Dan G; Clark, Jeffrey W; Deshpande, Vikram; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Srivastava, Amitabh; Lennerz, Jochen K; Hong, Theodore S; Kwak, Eunice L; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2016-07-01

    The overall survival of gastric carcinoma patients remains poor despite improved control over known risk factors and surveillance. This highlights the need for new classifications, driven towards identification of potential therapeutic targets. Using sophisticated molecular technologies and analysis, three groups recently provided genetic and epigenetic molecular classifications of gastric cancer (The Cancer Genome Atlas, 'Singapore-Duke' study, and Asian Cancer Research Group). Suggested by these classifications, here, we examined the expression of 14 biomarkers in a cohort of 146 gastric adenocarcinomas and performed unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis using less expensive and widely available immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Ultimately, we identified five groups of gastric cancers based on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity, microsatellite instability, aberrant E-cadherin, and p53 expression; the remaining cases constituted a group characterized by normal p53 expression. In addition, the five categories correspond to the reported molecular subgroups by virtue of clinicopathologic features. Furthermore, evaluation between these clusters and survival using the Cox proportional hazards model showed a trend for superior survival in the EBV and microsatellite-instable related adenocarcinomas. In conclusion, we offer as a proposal a simplified algorithm that is able to reproduce the recently proposed molecular subgroups of gastric adenocarcinoma, using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques.

  6. Analysis of Antisense Expression by Whole Genome Tiling Microarrays and siRNAs Suggests Mis-Annotation of Arabidopsis Orphan Protein-Coding Genes

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Casey R.; Luo, Qing-Jun; Gontcharova, Viktoria; Jiang, Ying-Wen; Samanta, Manoj; Youn, Eunseog; Rock, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting small-interfering RNAs (tasi-RNAs) are small (20–22 nt long) RNAs (smRNAs) generated from hairpin secondary structures or antisense transcripts, respectively, that regulate gene expression by Watson-Crick pairing to a target mRNA and altering expression by mechanisms related to RNA interference. The high sequence homology of plant miRNAs to their targets has been the mainstay of miRNA prediction algorithms, which are limited in their predictive power for other kingdoms because miRNA complementarity is less conserved yet transitive processes (production of antisense smRNAs) are active in eukaryotes. We hypothesize that antisense transcription and associated smRNAs are biomarkers which can be computationally modeled for gene discovery. Principal Findings We explored rice (Oryza sativa) sense and antisense gene expression in publicly available whole genome tiling array transcriptome data and sequenced smRNA libraries (as well as C. elegans) and found evidence of transitivity of MIRNA genes similar to that found in Arabidopsis. Statistical analysis of antisense transcript abundances, presence of antisense ESTs, and association with smRNAs suggests several hundred Arabidopsis ‘orphan’ hypothetical genes are non-coding RNAs. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found novel Arabidopsis homologues of some MIRNA genes on the antisense strand of previously annotated protein-coding genes. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) was applied using thermodynamic energy of binding plus novel expression features of sense/antisense transcription topology and siRNA abundances to build a prediction model of miRNA targets. The SVM when trained on targets could predict the “ancient” (deeply conserved) class of validated Arabidopsis MIRNA genes with an accuracy of 84%, and 76% for “new” rapidly-evolving MIRNA genes. Conclusions Antisense and smRNA expression features and computational methods may identify novel MIRNA genes and other non

  7. Expression of the fructose receptor BmGr9 and its involvement in the promotion of feeding, suggested by its co-expression with neuropeptide F1 in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Mang, Dingze; Shu, Min; Tanaka, Shiho; Nagata, Shinji; Takada, Tomoyuki; Endo, Haruka; Kikuta, Shingo; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-08-01

    Insect gustatory receptors (Grs) are members of a large family of proteins with seven transmembrane domains that provide insects with the ability to detect chemical signals critical for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, 69 Bombyx mori Grs (BmGrs) genes have been identified via genome studies. BmGr9 has been shown to respond specifically to fructose and to function as a ligand-gated ion channel selectively activated by fructose. However, the sites where this Gr are expressed remain unclear. We demonstrated using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR that BmGr9 is widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), as well as oral sensory organs. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-BmGr9 antiserum to show that BmGr9 is expressed in cells of the oral sensory organs, including the maxillary galea, maxillary palps, labrum, and labium, as well as in putative neurosecretory cells of the CNS. Furthermore, double immunohistochemical analysis showed that most BmGr9-expressing cells co-localized with putative neuropeptide F1-expressing cells in the brain, suggesting that BmGr9 is involved in the promotion of feeding behaviors. In addition, a portion of BmGr9-expressing cells in the brain co-localized with cells expressing BmGr6, a molecule of the sugar receptor clade, suggesting that sugars other than fructose are involved in the regulation of feeding behaviors in B. mori larvae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The over expression of long non-coding RNA ANRIL promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition by activating the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer: An in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Zhang, Jia-Qiang; Chen, Jiang-Zhi; Chen, Hui-Xing; Qiu, Fu-Nan; Yan, Mao-Lin; Chen, Yan-Ling; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Tian, Yi-Feng; Wang, Yao-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the roles of lncRNA ANRIL in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by regulating the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer (PC). PC rat models were established and ANRIL overexpression and interference plasmids were transfected. The expression of ANRIL, EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin) and ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway-related proteins (ATM, E2F1, INK4A, INK4B and ARF) were detected. Small molecule drugs were applied to activate and inhibit the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway. Transwell assay and the scratch test were adopted to detect cell invasion and migration abilities. ANRIL expression in the PC cells was higher than in normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells. In the PC rat models and PC cells, ANRIL interference promoted the expressions of INK4B, INK4A, ARF and E-cadherin, while reduced N-cadherin and Vimentin expression. Over-expressed ANRIL decreased the expression of INK4B, INK4A, ARF and E-cadherin, but raised N-cadherin and Vimentin expressions. By inhibiting the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway in PC cells, E-cadherin expression increased but N-cadherin and Vimentin expressions decreased. After ANRIL was silenced or the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway inhibited, PC cell migration and invasion abilities were decreased. In conclusion, over-expression of lncRNA ANRIL can promote EMT of PC cells by activating the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Different roles suggested by sex-biased expression and pheromone binding affinity among three pheromone binding proteins in the pink rice borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Jin, Jun-Yan; Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Liu, Nai-Yong; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-07-01

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to bind and transport hydrophobic sex pheromone molecules across the aqueous sensillar lymph to specific pheromone receptors on the dendritic membrane of olfactory neurons. A maximum of 3 PBP genes have been consistently identified in noctuid species, and each of them shares high identity with its counterparts in other species within the family. The functionality differences of the 3 proteins are poorly understood. In the present study, 3 PBP cDNAs (SinfPBP1, 2, 3) were identified from the pink rice borer, Sesamia inferens, for the first time. The quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the 3 PBPs displayed similar temporal but very different sex related expression profiles. Expression of SinfPBP1 and SinfPBP2 were highly and moderately male biased, respectively, while SinfPBP3 was slightly female biased, as SinfPBPs were expressed at very different levels (PBP1>PBP2≫PBP3) in male antennae, but at similar levels in female antennae. Furthermore, the 3 SinfPBPs displayed different ligand binding profiles in fluorescence competitive binding assays. SinfPBP1 exhibited high and similar binding affinities to all 3 sex pheromone components (Ki=0.72-1.60 μM), while SinfPBP2 showed selective binding to the alcohol and aldehyde components (Ki=0.78-1.71 μM), and SinfPBP3 showed no obvious binding to the 3 sex pheromone components. The results suggest that SinfPBP1 plays a major role in the reception of female sex pheromones in S. inferens, while SinfPBP3 plays a least role (if any) and SinfPBP2 functions as a recognizer of alcohol and aldehyde components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A putative positive feedback regulation mechanism in CsACS2 expression suggests a modified model for sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu; Tao, Qianyi; Pan, Junsong; Si, Longting; Gong, Zhenhui; Cai, Run

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that the plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in cucumber sex determination. Since the unisexual control gene M was cloned and shown to encode an ethylene synthase, instead of an ethylene receptor, the ‘one-hormone hypothesis’, which was used to explain the cucumber sex phenotype, has been challenged. Here, the physiological function of CsACS2 (the gene encoded by the M locus) was studied using the transgenic tobacco system. The results indicated that overexpression of CsACS2 increased ethylene production in the tobacco plant, and the native cucumber promoter had no activity in transgenic tobacco (PM). However, when PM plants were treated with exogenous ethylene, CsACS2 expression could be detected. In cucumber, ethylene treatment could also induce transcription of CsACS2, while inhibition of ethylene action reduced the expression level. These findings suggest a positive feedback regulation mechanism for CsACS2, and a modified ‘one-hormone hypothesis’ for sex determination in cucumber is proposed. PMID:22577183

  11. A putative positive feedback regulation mechanism in CsACS2 expression suggests a modified model for sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Shu; Tao, Qianyi; Pan, Junsong; Si, Longting; Gong, Zhenhui; Cai, Run

    2012-07-01

    It is well established that the plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in cucumber sex determination. Since the unisexual control gene M was cloned and shown to encode an ethylene synthase, instead of an ethylene receptor, the 'one-hormone hypothesis', which was used to explain the cucumber sex phenotype, has been challenged. Here, the physiological function of CsACS2 (the gene encoded by the M locus) was studied using the transgenic tobacco system. The results indicated that overexpression of CsACS2 increased ethylene production in the tobacco plant, and the native cucumber promoter had no activity in transgenic tobacco (PM). However, when PM plants were treated with exogenous ethylene, CsACS2 expression could be detected. In cucumber, ethylene treatment could also induce transcription of CsACS2, while inhibition of ethylene action reduced the expression level. These findings suggest a positive feedback regulation mechanism for CsACS2, and a modified 'one-hormone hypothesis' for sex determination in cucumber is proposed.

  12. Speaking With and Without Words-An Analysis of Foster Children's Expressions and Behaviors That Are Suggestive of Prior Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Wubs, Dorijn; Batstra, Laura; Grietens, Hans W E

    2018-01-01

    This exploratory study reports on foster children's informal self-disclosures of previously unknown histories of sexual abuse. Data were collected from 40 children's files, and an inductive thematic analysis of verbal and behavioral expressions was conducted. Findings suggest that foster children's self-disclosures can be fragmented, spontaneous, narrative, or triggered and often occur during everyday activities in the foster family. The children disclose their past by referring to the perpetrator or the severity of the abuse or by acting out, mostly by reenacting sexual abuse experiences. In addition, some children use childish vocabulary focusing on genitals or sexual acts they were involved in or want to be involved in. Last, some foster children seem to be linguistically challenged to disclose that a female person abused them or that they were forced to reciprocate sexually. This study adds to the understanding of the complex process of child sexual abuse disclosure in the context of foster care.

  13. The Expression of AQP1 IS Modified in Lung of Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Addressing a Possible New Target.

    PubMed

    Galán-Cobo, Ana; Arellano-Orden, Elena; Sánchez Silva, Rocío; López-Campos, José Luis; Gutiérrez Rivera, César; Gómez Izquierdo, Lourdes; Suárez-Luna, Nela; Molina-Molina, María; Rodríguez Portal, José A; Echevarría, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    Activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process (EMT) by which alveolar cells in human lung tissue undergo differentiation giving rise to a mesenchymal phenotype (fibroblast/miofibroblasts) has been well recognized as a key element in the origin of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Here we analyzed expression of AQP1 in lung biopsies of patients diagnosed with IPF, and compared it to biopsies derived from patients with diverse lung pneumonies, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis, sarcoidosis or normal lungs. Immunostaining for AQP1 showed a clear increment of AQP1 localized in the alveolar epithelium in biopsies from IPF patients alone. Moreover, to examine the possible participation of AQP1 in the pathophysiology of IPF, we evaluated its role in the pro-fibrotic transformation induced by transforming growth factor (TGF-β) in vitro . Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549), and fibroblasts derived from an IPF patient (LL29), or fibroblasts from healthy normal lung tissue (MRC-5), were treated with TGF-β, and levels of expression of AQP1, as well as those of E-cadherin, vimentin, α-SMA and collagen were analyzed by RT-qPCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. An increase of AQP1 mRNA and protein after TGF-β treatment (4-72h) was observed either in A549 or IPF fibroblast-LL29 but not in MRC-5 fibroblasts. A gradual reduction of E-cadherin, and increased expression of vimentin, with no changes in α-SMA levels were observed in A549. Whereas in LL29 and MRC-5, TGF-β1 elicited a large production of collagen and α-SMA that was significantly greater in IPF fibroblast-LL29. Changes observed are consistent with activation of EMT by TGF-β, but whether modifications in AQP1 expression are responsible or independent events occurring at the same time is still unknown. Our results suggest that AQP1 plays a role in the pro-fibrotic TGF-β action and contributes to the etiology and pathophysiology of IPF. Understanding AQP1's role will help us comprehend

  14. Suggested Involvement of PP1/PP2A Activity and De Novo Gene Expression in Anhydrobiotic Survival in a Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini, by Chemical Genetic Approach.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Koyuki; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Upon desiccation, some tardigrades enter an ametabolic dehydrated state called anhydrobiosis and can survive a desiccated environment in this state. For successful transition to anhydrobiosis, some anhydrobiotic tardigrades require pre-incubation under high humidity conditions, a process called preconditioning, prior to exposure to severe desiccation. Although tardigrades are thought to prepare for transition to anhydrobiosis during preconditioning, the molecular mechanisms governing such processes remain unknown. In this study, we used chemical genetic approaches to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of anhydrobiosis in the anhydrobiotic tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. We first demonstrated that inhibition of transcription or translation drastically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that de novo gene expression is required for successful transition to anhydrobiosis in this tardigrade. We then screened 81 chemicals and identified 5 chemicals that significantly impaired anhydrobiotic survival after severe desiccation, in contrast to little or no effect on survival after high humidity exposure only. In particular, cantharidic acid, a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A, exhibited the most profound inhibitory effects. Another PP1/PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, also significantly and specifically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that PP1/PP2A activity plays an important role for anhydrobiosis in this species. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the required activities of signaling molecules for desiccation tolerance in tardigrades. The identified inhibitory chemicals could provide novel clues to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying anhydrobiosis in tardigrades.

  15. Suggested Involvement of PP1/PP2A Activity and De Novo Gene Expression in Anhydrobiotic Survival in a Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini, by Chemical Genetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Koyuki; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Upon desiccation, some tardigrades enter an ametabolic dehydrated state called anhydrobiosis and can survive a desiccated environment in this state. For successful transition to anhydrobiosis, some anhydrobiotic tardigrades require pre-incubation under high humidity conditions, a process called preconditioning, prior to exposure to severe desiccation. Although tardigrades are thought to prepare for transition to anhydrobiosis during preconditioning, the molecular mechanisms governing such processes remain unknown. In this study, we used chemical genetic approaches to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of anhydrobiosis in the anhydrobiotic tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. We first demonstrated that inhibition of transcription or translation drastically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that de novo gene expression is required for successful transition to anhydrobiosis in this tardigrade. We then screened 81 chemicals and identified 5 chemicals that significantly impaired anhydrobiotic survival after severe desiccation, in contrast to little or no effect on survival after high humidity exposure only. In particular, cantharidic acid, a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A, exhibited the most profound inhibitory effects. Another PP1/PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, also significantly and specifically impaired anhydrobiotic survival, suggesting that PP1/PP2A activity plays an important role for anhydrobiosis in this species. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the required activities of signaling molecules for desiccation tolerance in tardigrades. The identified inhibitory chemicals could provide novel clues to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying anhydrobiosis in tardigrades. PMID:26690982

  16. Terminal oxidase diversity and function in "Metallosphaera yellowstonensis": gene expression and protein modeling suggest mechanisms of Fe(II) oxidation in the sulfolobales.

    PubMed

    Kozubal, M A; Dlakic, M; Macur, R E; Inskeep, W P

    2011-03-01

    "Metallosphaera yellowstonensis" is a thermoacidophilic archaeon isolated from Yellowstone National Park that is capable of autotrophic growth using Fe(II), elemental S, or pyrite as electron donors. Analysis of the draft genome sequence from M. yellowstonensis strain MK1 revealed seven different copies of heme copper oxidases (subunit I) in a total of five different terminal oxidase complexes, including doxBCEF, foxABCDEFGHIJ, soxABC, and the soxM supercomplex, as well as a novel hypothetical two-protein doxB-like polyferredoxin complex. Other genes found in M. yellowstonensis with possible roles in S and or Fe cycling include a thiosulfate oxidase (tqoAB), a sulfite oxidase (som), a cbsA cytochrome b(558/566), several small blue copper proteins, and a novel gene sequence coding for a putative multicopper oxidase (Mco). Results from gene expression studies, including reverse transcriptase (RT) quantitative PCR (qPCR) of cultures grown autotrophically on either Fe(II), pyrite, or elemental S showed that the fox gene cluster and mco are highly expressed under conditions where Fe(II) is an electron donor. Metagenome sequence and gene expression studies of Fe-oxide mats confirmed the importance of fox genes (e.g., foxA and foxC) and mco under Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions. Protein modeling of FoxC suggests a novel lysine-lysine or lysine-arginine heme B binding domain, indicating that it is likely the cytochrome component of a heterodimer complex with foxG as a ferredoxin subunit. Analysis of mco shows that it encodes a novel multicopper blue protein with two plastocyanin type I copper domains that may play a role in the transfer of electrons within the Fox protein complex. An understanding of metabolic pathways involved in aerobic iron and sulfur oxidation in Sulfolobales has broad implications for understanding the evolution and niche diversification of these thermophiles as well as practical applications in fields such as bioleaching of trace metals from pyritic ores.

  17. Low Phosphorylated AKT Expression in Laryngeal Cancer: Indications for a Higher Metastatic Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Nijkamp, Monique M.; Span, Paul N.; Stegeman, Hanneke

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To validate the association of phosphorylated (p)AKT with lymph node metastasis in an independent, homogeneous cohort of patients with larynx cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients with laryngeal cancer were included. Epidermal growth factor receptor, pAKT, vimentin, E-cadherin, hypoxia, and blood vessels were visualized in biopsy material using immunohistochemistry. Positive tumor areas and spatial relationships between markers were assessed by automated image analysis. In 6 laryngeal cancer cell lines, E-cadherin and vimentin messenger RNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and by immunohistochemistry before and after treatment with the pAKT inhibitor MK-2206. Results: A significant correlation was foundmore » between low pAKT in the primary tumor and positive lymph node status (P=.0005). Tumors with lymph node metastases had an approximately 10-fold lower median pAKT value compared with tumors without lymph node metastases, albeit with large intertumor variations, validating our previous results. After inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer cells with MK-2206, up-regulation of vimentin and a downregulation of E-cadherin occurred, consistent with epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Conclusion: Low pAKT expression in larynx tumors is associated with lymph node metastases. Further, inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition, predisposing for an increased metastatic risk.« less

  18. Gallic acid modulates phenotypic behavior and gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway.

    PubMed

    Santos, Eliane Macedo Sobrinho; da Rocha, Rogério Gonçalves; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; da Silveira, Luiz Henrique; Batista, Paulo Ricardo; de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes; Melo, Geraldo Aclécio; Santos, Sérgio Henrique; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2018-01-01

    Gallic acid is a polyphenolic compost appointed to interfere with neoplastic cells behavior. Evidence suggests an important role of leptin in carcinogenesis pathways, inducing a proliferative phenotype. We investigated the potential of gallic acid to modulate leptin-induced cell proliferation and migration of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The gallic acid effect on leptin secretion by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, was also assessed. For this, we performed proliferation, migration, immunocytochemical and qPCR assays. The expression levels of cell migration-related genes (MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, and E-cadherin), angiogenesis (HIF-1α, mir210), leptin signaling (LepR, p44/42 MAPK), apoptosis (casp-3), and secreted leptin levels by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells were also measured. Gallic acid decreased proliferation and migration of leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, and reduced mRNA expression of MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, mir210, but did not change HIF-1α. Gallic acid decreased levels of leptin secreted by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, accordingly with downregulation of p44/42 MAPK expression. Thus, gallic acid appears to break down neoplastic phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between high levels of Notch3 expression and high invasion and poor overall survival rates in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin-Xue; Zhou, Liang; Li, Qing-Jun; Feng, Wen; Wang, Pei-Min; Li, Er-Feng; Gong, Wen-Jing; Kou, Ming-Wen; Gou, Wei-Ting; Yang, Yan-Ling

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a commonly fatal tumour. It is characterized by early metastasis and high mortality. Many patients die as a result of PDAC tumour progression. However, the underlying mechanism of invasion and metastasis in PDAC is still not fully understood. Previous studies showed that the Notch signalling pathway may play an important role in the progression of tumour invasion and metastasis. However, it is not yet known whether the Notch signalling pathway participates in the progression of invasion in PDAC. In the present study, immunohistochemistry showed that a high expression of Notch3 was correlated with tumour grade, metastasis, venous invasion and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Kaplan-Meier curves suggested that a high expression of Notch3 was a significant risk factor for shortened survival time. We also showed that inhibition of Notch3 had an anti‑invasion role in PDAC cells. In vitro, the inhibition of Notch3 reduced the migration and invasion capabilities of PDAC cells by regulating the expressions of E-cadherin, CD44v6, MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF and uPA via regulating the COX-2 and ERK1/2 pathways. These results indicated that downregulation of the Notch signalling pathway may be a novel and useful approach for preventing and treating PDAC invasion.

  20. YB-1 expression promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer that is inhibited by a small molecule fisetin

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Imran; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Lall, Rahul Kumar; Sechi, Mario; Joshi, Dinesh C.; Haidar, Omar M.; Syed, Deeba Nadeem; Siddiqui, Imtiaz Ahmad; Chiu, Shing-Yan; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis. The transcription/translation regulatory Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is known to be associated with cancer metastasis. We observed that YB-1 expression increased with tumor grade and showed an inverse relationship with E-cadherin in a human PCa tissue array. Forced YB-1 expression induced a mesenchymal morphology that was associated with down regulation of epithelial markers. Silencing of YB-1 reversed mesenchymal features and decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion in PCa cells. YB-1 is activated directly via Akt mediated phosphorylation at Ser102 within the cold shock domain (CSD). We next identified fisetin as an inhibitor of YB-1 activation. Computational docking and molecular dynamics suggested that fisetin binds on the residues from β1 - β4 strands of CSD, hindering Akt's interaction with YB-1. Calculated free binding energy ranged from −11.9845 to −9.6273 kcal/mol. Plasmon Surface Resonance studies showed that fisetin binds to YB-1 with an affinity of approximately 35 μM, with both slow association and dissociation. Fisetin also inhibited EGF induced YB-1 phosphorylation and markers of EMT both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively our data suggest that YB-1 induces EMT in PCa and identify fisetin as an inhibitor of its activation. PMID:24770864

  1. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin and decreased expression of epithelial cadherin in human papillomavirus-positive tonsillar cancer: an early event in human papillomavirus-related tumour progression?

    PubMed

    Stenner, Markus; Yosef, Basima; Huebbers, Christian U; Preuss, Simon F; Dienes, Hans-Peter; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Odenthal, Margarete; Klussmann, Jens P

    2011-06-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) constitute an important risk factor for tonsillar cancer. This study describes changes in cell adhesion molecules during metastasis of HPV-related and HPV-unrelated tonsillar carcinomas. We examined 48 primary tonsillar carcinoma samples (25 HPV-16 DNA-positive, 23 HPV-16 DNA-negative) and their respective lymph node metastases for their HPV status and for the expression of p16, epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), β-catenin, and vimentin. A positive HPV-specific polymerase chain reaction finding correlated significantly with p16 overexpression in both primary tumours and their metastases (P<0.0001 for both). In HPV-unrelated carcinomas, the expression of E-cadherin was significantly lower in metastases than in primary tumours (P<0.001). In contrast, the expression of nuclear β-catenin was significantly higher in metastases than in primary tumours (P=0.016). In HPV-related carcinomas, nuclear localization of β-catenin expression was already apparent in primary tumours (P=0.030). The expression of vimentin significantly correlated with the grading of the primary tumour (P=0.021). Our data indicate that the down-regulation of E-cadherin and the up-regulation of nuclear β-catenin expression might be crucial steps during tumour progression of tonsillar carcinomas, being already present in primary tumours in HPV-driven carcinomas, but becoming apparent in HPV-unrelated tumours later in the process of metastasis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  2. Curcumin inhibits tumor epithelial-mesenchymal transition by downregulating the Wnt signaling pathway and upregulating NKD2 expression in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZEWEI; CHEN, HAITAO; XU, CHAO; SONG, LU; HUANG, LULU; LAI, YUEBIAO; WANG, YUQI; CHEN, HANLU; GU, DANLIN; REN, LILI; YAO, QINGHUA

    2016-01-01

    Tumor invasion and metastasis are closely associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT refers to epithelial cells under physiological and pathological conditions that are specific to mesenchymal transition. Curcumin inhibits EMT progression via Wnt signaling. The Wnt signaling pathway is a conservative EMT-related signaling pathway that is involved in the development of various tumors. In the present study, MTS assays were employed to analyze the proliferation of curcumin-treated cells. Naked cuticle homolog 2 (NKD2), chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and antibodies associated with EMT were examined in SW620 colorectal cancer cell lines using western blot analysis and real-time qPCR. NKD2 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and CXCR4 expression plasmid was synthesized and transfected into the colorectal cancer cell lines, and NKD2 and CXCR4 expression levels were detected. The results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and upregulated the expression of NKD2 in SW620 colorectal cancer cells and in the xenograft, resulting in the downregulation of key markers in the Wnt signaling. In addition, the progression of ETM was inhibited due to the overexpression of E-cadherin as well as the downregulation of vimentin. Curcumin also inhibited tumor metastasis by downregulating the expression of CXCR4 significantly. The results suggested involvement of the NKD2-Wnt-CXCR4 signaling pathway in colorectal cancer cells. In addition, curcumin is inhibit this signaling and the development of colorectal cancer. PMID:26985708

  3. In vivo biomarker expression patterns are preserved in 3D cultures of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Windus, Louisa C.E.; Kiss, Debra L.; Glover, Tristan

    2012-11-15

    Here we report that Prostate Cancer (PCa) cell-lines DU145, PC3, LNCaP and RWPE-1 grown in 3D matrices in contrast to conventional 2D monolayers, display distinct differences in cell morphology, proliferation and expression of important biomarker proteins associated with cancer progression. Consistent with in vivo growth rates, in 3D cultures, all PCa cell-lines were found to proliferate at significantly lower rates in comparison to their 2D counterparts. Moreover, when grown in a 3D matrix, metastatic PC3 cell-lines were found to mimic more precisely protein expression patterns of metastatic tumour formation as found in vivo. In comparison to the prostate epithelial cell-linemore » RWPE-1, metastatic PC3 cell-lines exhibited a down-regulation of E-cadherin and {alpha}6 integrin expression and an up-regulation of N-cadherin, Vimentin and {beta}1 integrin expression and re-expressed non-transcriptionally active AR. In comparison to the non-invasive LNCaP cell-lines, PC3 cells were found to have an up-regulation of chemokine receptor CXCR4, consistent with a metastatic phenotype. In 2D cultures, there was little distinction in protein expression between metastatic, non-invasive and epithelial cells. These results suggest that 3D cultures are more representative of in vivo morphology and may serve as a more biologically relevant model in the drug discovery pipeline. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed and optimised 3D culturing techniques for Prostate Cancer cell-lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated biomarker expression in 2D versus 3D culture techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metastatic PC3 cells re-expressed non-transcriptionally active androgen receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metastatic PCa cell lines retain in vivo-like antigenic profiles in 3D cultures.« less

  4. Regulated expression of homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 in mouse mammary gland development suggests a role in hormone action and epithelial-stromal interactions.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Y; Daniel, C W

    1996-07-10

    The murine homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 are related to the Drosophila msh gene and are expressed in a variety of tissues during mouse embryogenesis. We now report the developmentally regulated expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 in the mouse mammary gland and show that their expression patterns point toward significant functional roles. Msx-1 and Msx-2 transcripts were present in glands of virgin mice and in glands of mice in early pregnancy, but transcripts decreased dramatically during late pregnancy. Low levels of Msx-1 transcripts were detected in glands from lactating animals and during the first days of involution, whereas Msx-2 expression was not detected during lactation or early involution. Expression of both genes increased gradually as involution progressed. Msx-2 but not Msx-1 expression was decreased following ovariectomy or following exposure to anti-estrogen implanted directly into the gland. Hormonal regulation of Msx-2 expression was confirmed when transcripts returned to normal levels after estrogen was administered to ovariectomized animals. In situ molecular hybridization for Msx-1 showed transcripts localized to the mammary epithelium, whereas Msx-2 expression was confined to the periductal stroma. Mammary stroma from which mammary epithelium had been removed did not transcribe detectable amounts of Msx-2, showing that expression is regulated by contiguous mammary epithelium, and indicating a role for these homeobox genes in mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during mammary development.

  5. Leukotriene B4 induces EMT and vimentin expression in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells: Involvement of BLT2 via ERK2 activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Ri; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Gyeong Jin; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kim, Eun Ji; Byun, Hyun Jung; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Lee, Chang Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ) is a leukocyte chemoattractant and plays a major role controlling inflammatory responses including pancreatitis. LTB 4 is known to be correlated with cancer progression. LTB 4 induces keratin phosphorylation and reorganization by activating extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines. However, the role of LTB 4 in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and vimentin expression in pancreatic cancer cells is unknown. We examined whether LTB 4 induces EMT and vimentin expression by Western blot, si-RNA, and RT-PCR. LTB 4 induced morphological change, decreased E-cadherin expression and increased N-cadherin and vimentin expression. LTB4 increased migration and invasion of PANC-1 cancer cells. LTB 4 dose-dependently upregulated expression of vimentin in PANC-1 cancer cells. LTB 4 -induced vimentin expression was suppressed by LY255283 (BLT2 antagonist). Comp A, a BLT2 agonist, further increased vimentin expression. Gene silencing of BLT2 suppressed LTB 4 -or Comp A-induced vimentin expression in PANC-1 cells. The MEK inhibitor, PD98059 suppressed Comp A-induced vimentin expression. Comp A or transfection of plasmid containing BLT2 cDNA (pC BLT2 ) activated ERK, and BLT2 gene silencing suppressed Comp A-induced ERK activation. ERK2 siRNA abrogated Comp A-induced vimentin expression and ERK2 overexpression enhanced vimentin expression. One of well-known cause of ras mutation, cigarette smoke extracts increased BLT2 expression in PANC-1 cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that BLT2 is involved in LTB 4 -induced vimentin expression through ERK2 in PANC-1 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Irradiated fibroblasts promote epithelial–mesenchymal transition and HDGF expression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Ci-Hang; Wang, Xin-Tong; Ma, Wei

    2015-03-06

    Recent evidence suggested that nonirradiated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promoted aggressive phenotypes of cancer cells through epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a radiosensitive gene of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated fibroblasts on EMT and HDGF expression of ESCC. Our study demonstrated that coculture with nonirradiated fibroblasts significantly increased the invasive ability of ESCC cells and the increased invasiveness was further accelerated when they were cocultured with irradiated fibroblasts. Scattering of ESCC cells was also accelerated by the supernatant from irradiated fibroblasts. Exposure of ESCC cells to supernatant from irradiatedmore » fibroblasts resulted in decreased E-cadherin, increased vimentin in vitro and β-catenin was demonstrated to localize to the nucleus in tumor cells with irradiated fibroblasts in vivo models. The expression of HDGF and β-catenin were increased in both fibroblasts and ESCC cells of irradiated group in vitro and in vivo models. Interestingly, the tumor cells adjoining the stromal fibroblasts displayed strong nuclear HDGF immunoreactivity, which suggested the occurrence of a paracrine effect of fibroblasts on HDGF expression. These data suggested that irradiated fibroblasts promoted invasion, growth, EMT and HDGF expression of ESCC. - Highlights: • Irradiated CAFs accelerated invasiveness and scattering of ESCC cell lines. • Irradiated CAFs promoted EMT of ESCC cells. • Irradiated fibroblasts induced nuclear β-catenin relocalization in ESCC cells. • Irradiated fibroblasts increased HDGF expression in vitro and in vivo.« less

  7. α-Solanine inhibits invasion of human prostate cancer cell by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and MMPs expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kun-Hung; Liao, Alex Chien-Hwa; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Hu, Kai-Chieh; Lin, Pin-Tsen; Liao, Ruei-Fang; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2014-08-11

    α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid found in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.), was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in suppression of cancer cell metastasis by α-solanine remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of α-solanine on motility of the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results show that α-solanine reduces the viability of PC-3 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by α-solanine. α-Solanine also significantly elevates epithelial marker E-cadherin expression, while it concomitantly decreases mesenchymal marker vimentin expression, suggesting it suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). α-Solanine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN), but increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2. Immunoblotting assays indicate α-solanine is effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt and ERK. Moreover, α-solanine downregulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21) and upregulates tumor suppressor miR-138 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of PC-3 cell invasion by α-solanine may be, at least in part, through blocking EMT and MMPs expression. α-Solanine also reduces ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and regulates expression of miR-21 and miR-138. These findings suggest an attractive therapeutic potential of α-solanine for suppressing invasion of prostate cancer cell.

  8. G Protein-Coupled Receptor 30 (GPR30) Expression Pattern in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Suggests its Key Role in the Inflammatory Process. A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Aleksandra; Cygankiewicz, Adam I; Jacenik, Damian; Piechota-Polańczyk, Aleksandra; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna; Krajewska, Wanda M; Fichna, Jakub; Wiśniewska-Jarosińska, Maria

    2017-03-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is a recently de-orphanized estrogen receptor that mediates the effects of estrogens on different cells. It has been postulated that in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) activation of GPR30 blocks the pathways dependent on pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of our study was to investigate GPR30 expression in patients with IBD and its potential implication in future therapies. Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in our study: 20 subjects with Crohn's disease (CD), 22 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 15 controls. In each subject, biopsies were taken from various left-colonic locations. Gene and protein expression of GPR30 was quantified using real time RT-PCR or Western blot. GPR30 mRNA and protein expression were detected in all tested colonic tissues. No significant differences in GPR30 gene expression were observed. In non-inflamed areas, GPR30 protein was strongly increased in CD patients, but moderately in UC patients (p= 0.014 and p=0.143, respectively, vs. controls). In CD patients, a significantly lower GPR30 protein content in inflamed than in non-inflamed tissue was observed (p=0.039). The change was independent of patient gender. Our observations indicate that GPR30 may play a role in the development and progression of inflammatory lesions in IBD, thus affecting disease severity, and consequently IBD treatment. Therefore, GPR30 may become an attractive target for novel anti-IBD drugs, particularly in CD.

  9. ΔNp63α induces the expression of FAT2 and Slug to promote tumor invasion

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Tuyen T.; Westcott, Jill M.; Maine, Erin A.; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Xing, Chao; Pearson, Gray W.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor invasion can be induced by changes in gene expression that alter cell phenotype. The transcription factor ΔNp63α promotes basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) migration by inducing the expression of the mesenchymal genes Slug and Axl, which confers cells with a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal state. However, the extent of the ΔNp63α regulated genes that support invasive behavior is not known. Here, using gene expression analysis, ChIP-seq, and functional testing, we find that ΔNp63α promotes BLBC motility by inducing the expression of the atypical cadherin FAT2, the vesicular binding protein SNCA, the carbonic anhydrase CA12, the lipid binding protein CPNE8 and the kinase NEK1, along with Slug and Axl. Notably, lung squamous cell carcinoma migration also required ΔNp63α dependent FAT2 and Slug expression, demonstrating that ΔNp63α promotes migration in multiple tumor types by inducing mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal genes. ΔNp63α activation of FAT2 and Slug influenced E-cadherin localization to cell-cell contacts, which can restrict spontaneous cell movement. Moreover, live-imaging of spheroids in organotypic culture demonstrated that ΔNp63α, FAT2 and Slug were essential for the extension of cellular protrusions that initiate collective invasion. Importantly, ΔNp63α is co-expressed with FAT2 and Slug in patient tumors and the elevated expression of ΔNp63α, FAT2 and Slug correlated with poor patient outcome. Together, these results reveal how ΔNp63α promotes cell migration by directly inducing the expression of a cohort of genes with distinct cellular functions and suggest that FAT2 is a new regulator of collective invasion that may influence patient outcome. PMID:27081041

  10. Analysis of the Salmonella regulatory network suggests involvement of SsrB and H-NS in σ E-regulated SPI-2 gene expression

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Jie; Overall, Christopher C.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; ...

    2015-02-10

    The extracytoplasmic functioning sigma factor σ E is known to play an essential role for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to survive and proliferate in macrophages and mice. However, its regulatory network is not well characterized, especially during infection. Here we used microarray to identify genes regulated by σ E in Salmonella grown in three conditions: a nutrient-rich condition and two others that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that in each condition σ E regulated different sets of genes, and notably, several global regulators. When comparing nutrient-rich and infection-like conditions, large changes were observed in the expression ofmore » genes involved in Salmonella pathogenesis island (SPI)-1 type-three secretion system (TTSS), SPI-2 TTSS, protein synthesis, and stress responses. In total, the expression of 58% of Salmonella genes was affected by σ E in at least one of the three conditions. An important finding is that σ E up-regulates SPI-2 genes, which are essential for Salmonella intracellular survival, by up-regulating SPI-2 activator ssrB expression at the early stage of infection and down-regulating SPI-2 repressor hns expression at a later stage. Moreover, σ E is capable of countering the silencing of H-NS, releasing the expression of SPI-2 genes. This connection between σ E and SPI-2 genes, combined with the global regulatory effect of σ E, may account for the lethality of rpoE-deficient Salmonella in murine infection.« less

  11. Analysis of the Salmonella regulatory network suggests involvement of SsrB and H-NS in σ E-regulated SPI-2 gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jie; Overall, Christopher C.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.

    The extracytoplasmic functioning sigma factor σ E is known to play an essential role for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to survive and proliferate in macrophages and mice. However, its regulatory network is not well characterized, especially during infection. Here we used microarray to identify genes regulated by σ E in Salmonella grown in three conditions: a nutrient-rich condition and two others that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that in each condition σ E regulated different sets of genes, and notably, several global regulators. When comparing nutrient-rich and infection-like conditions, large changes were observed in the expression ofmore » genes involved in Salmonella pathogenesis island (SPI)-1 type-three secretion system (TTSS), SPI-2 TTSS, protein synthesis, and stress responses. In total, the expression of 58% of Salmonella genes was affected by σ E in at least one of the three conditions. An important finding is that σ E up-regulates SPI-2 genes, which are essential for Salmonella intracellular survival, by up-regulating SPI-2 activator ssrB expression at the early stage of infection and down-regulating SPI-2 repressor hns expression at a later stage. Moreover, σ E is capable of countering the silencing of H-NS, releasing the expression of SPI-2 genes. This connection between σ E and SPI-2 genes, combined with the global regulatory effect of σ E, may account for the lethality of rpoE-deficient Salmonella in murine infection.« less

  12. Progranulin expression in breast cancer with different intrinsic subtypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Li Qin; Min, Li Shan; Jiang, Qun; Ping, Jin Liang; Li, Jing; Dai, Li Cheng

    2012-04-15

    Progranulin is a newly discovered 88-kDa glycoprotein originally purified from the highly tumorigenic mouse teratoma-derived cell line PC. We found that high progranulin expression was associated with higher breast carcinoma angiogenesis, reflected by increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression and higher microvessel density. However, no immunohistochemical evidence currently exists to correlate progranulin expression with clinicopathological features in different intrinsic subtypes of breast carcinoma biopsies. The aim of this study was to investigate the progranulin expression profiles in the intrinsic subtypes of breast carcinomas and their relevance to histopathological and clinicopathological features. Tissue blocks containing 264 cases of breast carcinomas from 2006 to 2009 were classified as different intrinsic subtypes. Tissues of four intrinsic subtypes were immunostained for progranulin, vascular endothelial growth factor and CD105. Their relevance to histopathological and clinicopathological features was also analyzed. Twenty tissue samples from breast fibroadenomas were included in this study. Progranulin expression showed no significant differences in different intrinsic subtypes, although an increasing tendency could be found in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subgroup (χ(2)=5.00, df=3, p=0.17). However, differences were significant when pathologically node metastasis-positive (pN(+)) TNBC were excluded (χ(2)=17.84, df=3, p<0.01). Some clinicopathological parameters, including CK5/6 (χ(2)=0.08, df=3, p=0.78), E-cadherin (χ(2)=0.71, df=3, p=0.40) and P53 (χ(2)=0.05, df=3, p=0.83), displayed no correlation with activity of progranulin in pathologically node metastasis-negative (pN(-)) TNBC. It was noted that the EGFR expression level of the pN(-) TNBC subtype was significantly higher in cases with strong progranulin expression than in cases with weak progranulin expression (χ(2)=11.26, df=1, p<0.01). A significantly higher

  13. Expression of EphA2 and Ephrin A-1 in carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Shaji; Knapp, Deborah W; Cheng, Liang; Snyder, Paul W; Mittal, Suresh K; Bangari, Dinesh S; Kinch, Michael; Wu, Lan; Dhariwal, Jay; Mohammed, Sulma I

    2006-01-15

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase is believed to play a role in tumor growth and metastasis. The clinical significance of the expression of EphA2 was observed in breast, prostate, colon, skin, cervical, ovarian, and lung cancers. The purpose of this work was to determine the expression of EphA2 and its ligand, Ephrin A-1, and E-cadherin in carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and determine EphA2 as a new target for therapy in bladder cancer. EphA2 mRNA and protein expression was investigated by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot, respectively, in bladder cancer cell lines. In addition, the expression of EphA2, Ephrin A-1, and E-cadherin in tissues from patients with different stages of urinary bladder cancer was determined by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the ability of Ephrin A-1 to inhibit growth of bladder cancer cells was also investigated using an adenoviral delivery system. Western blot analysis showed high EphA2 expression in TCCSUP, T24, and UMUC-3 cell lines. In tissues, the staining intensity of EphA2 was less in normal urothelium but increased greatly in advancing stages of urothelial carcinoma (P < 0.05). Similarly, the staining intensity of Ephrin A-1 was low in normal tissues and high in cancerous tissues, but it was similar across the various stages of urothelial carcinoma (T(a)-T(4)). E-cadherin immunoreactivity decreased in urothelial cancer. Association of EphA2 and Ephrin A-1 expression was found to be significant between T(a) stage and T(1)-T(2) (P < 0.04) and T(a) and T(3)-T(4) stages (P < 0.0001). Adenovirus delivery of Ephrin A-1 inhibited proliferation of TCCSUP cells. EphA2 may serve as a novel target for bladder cancer therapy.

  14. Meta-analysis of gene expression patterns in animal models of prenatal alcohol exposure suggests role for protein synthesis inhibition and chromatin remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Rogic, Sanja; Wong, Albertina; Pavlidis, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in an array of morphological, behavioural and neurobiological deficits that can range in their severity. Despite extensive research in the field and a significant progress made, especially in understanding the range of possible malformations and neurobehavioral abnormalities, the molecular mechanisms of alcohol responses in development are still not well understood. There have been multiple transcriptomic studies looking at the changes in gene expression after PAE in animal models, however there is a limited apparent consensus among the reported findings. In an effort to address this issue, we performed a comprehensive re-analysis and meta-analysis of all suitable, publically available expression data sets. Methods We assembled ten microarray data sets of gene expression after PAE in mouse and rat models consisting of samples from a total of 63 ethanol-exposed and 80 control animals. We re-analyzed each data set for differential expression and then used the results to perform meta-analyses considering all data sets together or grouping them by time or duration of exposure (pre- and post-natal, acute and chronic, respectively). We performed network and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis to further characterize the identified signatures. Results For each sub-analysis we identified signatures of differential expressed genes that show support from multiple studies. Overall, the changes in gene expression were more extensive after acute ethanol treatment during prenatal development than in other models. Considering the analysis of all the data together, we identified a robust core signature of 104 genes down-regulated after PAE, with no up-regulated genes. Functional analysis reveals over-representation of genes involved in protein synthesis, mRNA splicing and chromatin organization. Conclusions Our meta-analysis shows that existing studies, despite superficial dissimilarity in findings, share features that allow us

  15. Early postnatal maternal separation causes alterations in the expression of β3-adrenergic receptor in rat adipose tissue suggesting long-term influence on obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, Takanori, E-mail: mikit@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp; Liu, Jun-Qian; Ohta, Ken-ichi

    Highlights: •High-fat diet intake following maternal separation did not cause body weight gain. •However, levels of metabolism-related molecules in adipose tissue were altered. •Increased levels of prohibitin mRNA in white fat were observed. •Attenuated levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA were observed in brown fat. •Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. -- Abstract: The effects of early postnatal maternal deprivation on the biological characteristics of the adipose tissue later in life were investigated in the present study. Sprague–Dawley rats were classified as either maternal deprivation (MD) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD was achieved bymore » separating the rat pups from their mothers for 3 h each day during the 10–15 postnatal days. mRNA levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), and prohibitin (PHB) in the brown and white adipose tissue were determined using real-time RT-PCR analysis. UCP-1, which is mediated through β3-AR, is closely involved in the energy metabolism and expenditure. PHB is highly expressed in the proliferating tissues/cells. At 10 weeks of age, the body weight of the MRC and MD rats was similar. However, the levels of the key molecules in the adipose tissue were substantially altered. There was a significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the β3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life.« less

  16. Increased cortical expression of the zinc transporter SLC39A12 suggests a breakdown in zinc cellular homeostasis as part of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Scarr, Elizabeth; Udawela, Madhara; Greenough, Mark A; Neo, Jaclyn; Suk Seo, Myoung; Money, Tammie T; Upadhyay, Aradhana; Bush, Ashley I; Everall, Ian P; Thomas, Elizabeth A; Dean, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Our expression microarray studies showed messenger RNA (mRNA) for solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 12 (SLC39A12) was higher in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from subjects with schizophrenia (Sz) in comparison with controls. To better understand the significance of these data we ascertained whether SLC39A12 mRNA was altered in a number of cortical regions (Brodmann’s area (BA) 8, 9, 44) from subjects with Sz, in BA 9 from subjects with mood disorders and in rats treated with antipsychotic drugs. In addition, we determined whether inducing the expression of SLC39A12 resulted in an increased cellular zinc uptake. SLC39A12 variant 1 and 2 mRNA was measured using quantitative PCR. Zinc uptake was measured in CHO cells transfected with human SLC39A12 variant 1 and 2. In Sz, compared with controls, SLC39A12 variant 1 and 2 mRNA was higher in all cortical regions studied. The were no differences in levels of mRNA for either variant of SLC39A12 in BA 9 from subjects with mood disorders and levels of mRNA for Slc39a12 was not different in the cortex of rats treated with antipsychotic drugs. Finally, expressing both variants in CHO-K1 cells was associated with an increase in radioactive zinc uptake. As increased levels of murine Slc39a12 mRNA has been shown to correlate with increasing cellular zinc uptake, our data would be consistent with the possibility of a dysregulated zinc homeostasis in the cortex of subjects with schizophrenia due to altered expression of SLC39A12. PMID:27336053

  17. Domestication and tameness: brain gene expression in red junglefowl selected for less fear of humans suggests effects on reproduction and immunology

    PubMed Central

    Agnvall, Beatrix; Johnsson, Martin; Wright, Dominic; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    The domestication of animals has generated a set of phenotypic modifications, affecting behaviour, appearance, physiology and reproduction, which are consistent across a range of species. We hypothesized that some of these phenotypes could have evolved because of genetic correlation to tameness, an essential trait for successful domestication. Starting from an outbred population of red junglefowl, ancestor of all domestic chickens, we selected birds for either high or low fear of humans for five generations. Birds from the fifth selected generation (S5) showed a divergent pattern of growth and reproduction, where low fear chickens grew larger and produced larger offspring. To examine underlying genetic mechanisms, we used microarrays to study gene expression in thalamus/hypothalamus, a brain region involved in fear and stress, in both the parental generation and the S5. While parents of the selection lines did not show any differentially expressed genes, there were a total of 33 genes with adjusted p-values below 0.1 in S5. These were mainly related to sperm-function, immunological functions, with only a few known to be relevant to behaviour. Hence, five generations of divergent selection for fear of humans produced changes in hypothalamic gene expression profiles related to pathways associated with male reproduction and to immunology. This may be linked to the effects seen on growth and size of offspring. These results support the hypothesis that domesticated phenotypes may evolve because of correlated effects related to reduced fear of humans. PMID:27853585

  18. Expression patterns and promoter analyses of aluminum-responsive NAC genes suggest a possible growth regulation of rice mediated by aluminum, hormones and NAC transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Sepúlveda, Hugo Fernando; Trejo-Téllez, Libia Iris; García-Morales, Soledad; Gómez-Merino, Fernando Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In acid soils, the solubilized form of aluminum, Al+3, decreases root growth and affects the development of most crops. However, like other toxic elements, Al can have hormetic effects on plant metabolism. Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most tolerant species to Al toxicity, and when this element is supplied at low doses, growth stimulation has been observed, which could be due to combined mechanisms that are partly triggered by NAC transcription factors. This protein family can regulate vital processes in plants, including growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli, whether biotic or abiotic. Under our experimental conditions, 200 μM Al stimulated root growth and the formation of tillers; it also caused differential expression of a set of NAC genes. The promoter regions of the genes regulated by Al were analyzed and the cis-acting elements that are potentially involved in the responses to different stimuli, including environmental stress, were identified. Through the Genevestigator platform, data on the expression of NAC genes were obtained by experimental condition, tissue, and vegetative stage. This is the first study on NAC genes where in vivo and in silico data are complementarily analyzed, relating the hormetic effect of Al on plant growth and gene expression with a possible interaction in the response to phytohormones in rice. These findings could help to elucidate the possible convergence between the signaling pathways mediated by phytohormones and the role of the NAC transcription factors in the regulation of growth mediated by low Al doses.

  19. Expression patterns and promoter analyses of aluminum-responsive NAC genes suggest a possible growth regulation of rice mediated by aluminum, hormones and NAC transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In acid soils, the solubilized form of aluminum, Al+3, decreases root growth and affects the development of most crops. However, like other toxic elements, Al can have hormetic effects on plant metabolism. Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most tolerant species to Al toxicity, and when this element is supplied at low doses, growth stimulation has been observed, which could be due to combined mechanisms that are partly triggered by NAC transcription factors. This protein family can regulate vital processes in plants, including growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli, whether biotic or abiotic. Under our experimental conditions, 200 μM Al stimulated root growth and the formation of tillers; it also caused differential expression of a set of NAC genes. The promoter regions of the genes regulated by Al were analyzed and the cis-acting elements that are potentially involved in the responses to different stimuli, including environmental stress, were identified. Through the Genevestigator platform, data on the expression of NAC genes were obtained by experimental condition, tissue, and vegetative stage. This is the first study on NAC genes where in vivo and in silico data are complementarily analyzed, relating the hormetic effect of Al on plant growth and gene expression with a possible interaction in the response to phytohormones in rice. These findings could help to elucidate the possible convergence between the signaling pathways mediated by phytohormones and the role of the NAC transcription factors in the regulation of growth mediated by low Al doses. PMID:29023561

  20. 2D DIGE Does Not Reveal all: A Scotopic Report Suggests Differential Expression of a Single "Calponin Family Member" Protein for Tetany of Sphincters!

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Using 2D differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS), a recent report by Rattan and Ali (2015) compared proteome expression between tonically contracted sphincteric smooth muscles of the internal anal sphincter (IAS), in comparison to the adjacent rectum [rectal smooth muscles (RSM)] that contracts in a phasic fashion. The study showed the differential expression of a single 23 kDa protein SM22, which was 1.87 fold, overexpressed in RSM in comparison to IAS. Earlier studies have shown differences in expression of different proteins like Rho-associated protein kinase II, myosin light chain kinase, myosin phosphatase, and protein kinase C between IAS and RSM. The currently employed methods, despite its high-throughput potential, failed to identify these well-characterized differences between phasic and tonic muscles. This calls into question the fidelity and validatory potential of the otherwise powerful technology of 2D DIGE/MS. These discrepancies, when redressed in future studies, will evolve this recent report as an important baseline study of "sphincter proteome." Proteomics techniques are currently underutilized in examining pathophysiology of hypertensive/hypotensive disorders involving gastrointestinal sphincters, including achalasia, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), spastic pylorus, seen during diabetes or chronic chemotherapy, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and recto-anal incontinence. Global proteome mapping may provide instant snapshot of the complete repertoire of differential proteins, thus expediting to identify the molecular pathology of gastrointestinal motility disorders currently labeled "idiopathic" and facilitating practice of precision medicine.

  1. Domestication and tameness: brain gene expression in red junglefowl selected for less fear of humans suggests effects on reproduction and immunology.

    PubMed

    Bélteky, Johan; Agnvall, Beatrix; Johnsson, Martin; Wright, Dominic; Jensen, Per

    2016-08-01

    The domestication of animals has generated a set of phenotypic modifications, affecting behaviour, appearance, physiology and reproduction, which are consistent across a range of species. We hypothesized that some of these phenotypes could have evolved because of genetic correlation to tameness, an essential trait for successful domestication. Starting from an outbred population of red junglefowl, ancestor of all domestic chickens, we selected birds for either high or low fear of humans for five generations. Birds from the fifth selected generation (S 5 ) showed a divergent pattern of growth and reproduction, where low fear chickens grew larger and produced larger offspring. To examine underlying genetic mechanisms, we used microarrays to study gene expression in thalamus/hypothalamus, a brain region involved in fear and stress, in both the parental generation and the S 5 . While parents of the selection lines did not show any differentially expressed genes, there were a total of 33 genes with adjusted p -values below 0.1 in S 5 . These were mainly related to sperm-function, immunological functions, with only a few known to be relevant to behaviour. Hence, five generations of divergent selection for fear of humans produced changes in hypothalamic gene expression profiles related to pathways associated with male reproduction and to immunology. This may be linked to the effects seen on growth and size of offspring. These results support the hypothesis that domesticated phenotypes may evolve because of correlated effects related to reduced fear of humans.

  2. Asian Citrus Psyllid Expression Profiles Suggest Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus-Mediated Alteration of Adult Nutrition and Metabolism, and of Nymphal Development and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    He, Ruifeng; Nelson, William; Yin, Guohua; Cicero, Joseph M.; Willer, Mark; Kim, Ryan; Kramer, Robin; May, Greg A.; Crow, John A.; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.; Brown, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB). The widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and HLB in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. One tenable solution is through the deployment of RNA interference technology to silence protein-protein interactions essential for ACP-mediated CLas invasion and transmission. To identify psyllid interactor-bacterial effector combinations associated with psyllid-CLas interactions, cDNA libraries were constructed from CLas-infected and CLas-free ACP adults and nymphs, and analyzed for differential expression. Library assemblies comprised 24,039,255 reads and yielded 45,976 consensus contigs. They were annotated (UniProt), classified using Gene Ontology, and subjected to in silico expression analyses using the Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW) (http://www.sohomoptera.org/ACPPoP/). Functional-biological pathway interpretations were carried out using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Differentially expressed contigs in adults and/or nymphs represented genes and/or metabolic/pathogenesis pathways involved in adhesion, biofilm formation, development-related, immunity, nutrition, stress, and virulence. Notably, contigs involved in gene silencing and transposon-related responses were documented in a psyllid for the first time. This is the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of ACP adults and nymphs infected and uninfected with CLas. The results provide key initial insights into host-parasite interactions involving CLas effectors that contribute to invasion-virulence, and to host nutritional exploitation and immune-related responses that appear to be essential for successful ACP-mediated circulative, propagative CLas transmission. PMID

  3. Endothelial and Epithelial Cell Transition to a Mesenchymal Phenotype Was Delineated by Nestin Expression.

    PubMed

    Chabot, Andréanne; Hertig, Vanessa; Boscher, Elena; Nguyen, Quang Trinh; Boivin, Benoît; Chebli, Jasmine; Bissonnette, Lyse; Villeneuve, Louis; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Dupuis, Jocelyn; Calderone, Angelino

    2016-07-01

    Endothelial and epithelial cell transition to a mesenchymal phenotype was identified as cellular paradigms implicated in the appearance of fibroblasts and development of reactive fibrosis in interstitial lung disease. The intermediate filament protein nestin was highly expressed in fibrotic tissue, detected in fibroblasts and participated in proliferation and migration. The present study tested the hypothesis that the transition of endothelial and epithelial cells to a mesenchymal phenotype was delineated by nestin expression. Three weeks following hypobaric hypoxia, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats characterized by alveolar and perivascular lung fibrosis were associated with increased nestin protein and mRNA levels and marked appearance of nestin/collagen type I((+))-fibroblasts. In the perivascular region of hypobaric hypoxic rats, displaced CD31((+))-endothelial cells were detected, exhibited a mesenchymal phenotype and co-expressed nestin. Likewise, epithelial cells in the lungs of hypobaric hypoxic rats transitioned to a mesenchymal phenotype distinguished by the co-expression of E-cadherin and collagen. Following the removal of FBS from primary passage rat alveolar epithelial cells, TGF-β1 was detected in the media and a subpopulation acquired a mesenchymal phenotype characterized by E-cadherin downregulation and concomitant induction of collagen and nestin. Bone morphogenic protein-7 treatment of alveolar epithelial cells prevented E-cadherin downregulation, suppressed collagen induction but partially inhibited nestin expression. These data support the premise that the transition of endothelial and epithelial cells to a mesenchymal cell may have contributed in part to the appearance nestin/collagen type I((+))-fibroblasts and the reactive fibrotic response in the lungs of hypobaric hypoxic rats. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Expression of ABA Metabolism-Related Genes Suggests Similarities and Differences Between Seed Dormancy and Bud Dormancy of Peach (Prunus persica)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongling; Gao, Zhenzhen; Du, Peiyong; Xiao, Wei; Tan, Qiuping; Chen, Xiude; Li, Ling; Gao, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy inhibits seed and bud growth of perennial plants until the environmental conditions are optimal for survival. Previous studies indicated that certain co-regulation pathways exist in seed and bud dormancy. In our study, we found that seed and bud dormancy are similar to some extent but show different reactions to chemical treatments that induce breaking of dormancy. Whether the abscisic acid (ABA) regulatory networks are similar in dormant peach seeds and buds is not well known; however, ABA is generally believed to play a critical role in seed and bud dormancy. In peach, some genes putatively involved in ABA synthesis and catabolism were identified and their expression patterns were studied to learn more about ABA homeostasis and the possible crosstalk between bud dormancy and seed dormancy mechanisms. The analysis demonstrated that two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase-encoding genes seem to be key in regulating ABA biosynthesis to induce seed and bud dormancy. Three CYP707As play an overlapping role in controlling ABA inactivation, resulting in dormancy-release. In addition, Transcript analysis of ABA metabolism-related genes was much similar demonstrated that ABA pathways was similar in the regulation of vegetative and flower bud dormancy, whereas, expression patterns of ABA metabolism-related genes were different in seed dormancy showed that ABA pathway maybe different in regulating seed dormancy in peach. PMID:26793222

  5. Expression of galectin-3, cytokeratin 19, neural cell adhesion molecule and E-cadhedrin in certain variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Laco, J; Ryska, A; Cáp, J; Celakovský, P

    2008-10-01

    The immunohistochemical expression of galectin-3 (Gal3), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and E-cadherin (Ecad) was evaluated to assess their use in diagnostics of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A total of 84 PTCs - 36 classical variants (cPTCs), 26 follicular variants (fPTCs), and 22 papillary microcarcinomas (mPTCs) were studied. Expression of Gal3 was found in 36/36 (100%) cPTCs, 24/26 (92%) fPTCs, and 19/22 (86%) mPTCs. CK19 expression was detected in 34/36 (94%) cPTCs, 17/26 (65%) fPTCs, and 13/22 (59%) mPTCs. Expression of NCAM was seen in 5/36 (14%) cPTCs, 7/26 (27%) fPTCs, and 9/22 (41%) mPTCs. Ecad expression was found in 23/36 (64%) cPTCs, 17/26 (65%) fPTCs, and 18/22 (82%) mPTCs. A significant difference in CK19 expression was observed between cPTC and both fPTC and mPTC (p < 0.001). Furthermore, extrathyroid tumor spread significantly correlated with both level of CK19 expression and loss of Ecad expression (p = 0.001, p = 0.04). Our findings suggest that Gal3 and CK19 are useful markers for PTC, although decreased CK19 expression in mPTC and fPTC must be considered. Furthermore, CK19 and Ecad may play a role in extrathyroid tumor spread.

  6. Gene expression analysis of overwintering mountain pine beetle larvae suggests multiple systems involved in overwintering stress, cold hardiness, and preparation for spring development

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, Tiffany; Pitt, Caitlin; Spooner, Luke J.; Fraser, Jordie; Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Keeling, Christopher I.; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Cold-induced mortality has historically been a key aspect of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), population control, but little is known about the molecular basis for cold tolerance in this insect. We used RNA-seq analysis to monitor gene expression patterns of mountain pine beetle larvae at four time points during their overwintering period—early-autumn, late-autumn, early-spring, and late-spring. Changing transcript profiles over the winter indicates a multipronged physiological response from larvae that is broadly characterized by gene transcripts involved in insect immune responses and detoxification during the autumn. In the spring, although transcripts associated with developmental process are present, there was no particular biological process dominating the transcriptome. PMID:27441109

  7. Gene expression analysis of overwintering mountain pine beetle larvae suggests multiple systems involved in overwintering stress, cold hardiness, and preparation for spring development.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jeanne A; Bonnett, Tiffany; Pitt, Caitlin; Spooner, Luke J; Fraser, Jordie; Yuen, Macaire M S; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P W

    2016-01-01

    Cold-induced mortality has historically been a key aspect of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), population control, but little is known about the molecular basis for cold tolerance in this insect. We used RNA-seq analysis to monitor gene expression patterns of mountain pine beetle larvae at four time points during their overwintering period-early-autumn, late-autumn, early-spring, and late-spring. Changing transcript profiles over the winter indicates a multipronged physiological response from larvae that is broadly characterized by gene transcripts involved in insect immune responses and detoxification during the autumn. In the spring, although transcripts associated with developmental process are present, there was no particular biological process dominating the transcriptome.

  8. Caste-biased gene expression in a facultatively eusocial bee suggests a role for genetic accommodation in the evolution of eusociality

    PubMed Central

    Kingwell, Callum J.; Wcislo, William T.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2017-01-01

    Developmental plasticity may accelerate the evolution of phenotypic novelty through genetic accommodation, but studies of genetic accommodation often lack knowledge of the ancestral state to place selected traits in an evolutionary context. A promising approach for assessing genetic accommodation involves using a comparative framework to ask whether ancestral plasticity is related to the evolution of a particular trait. Bees are an excellent group for such comparisons because caste-based societies (eusociality) have evolved multiple times independently and extant species exhibit different modes of eusociality. We measured brain and abdominal gene expression in a facultatively eusocial bee, Megalopta genalis, and assessed whether plasticity in this species is functionally linked to eusocial traits in other bee lineages. Caste-biased abdominal genes in M. genalis overlapped significantly with caste-biased genes in obligately eusocial bees. Moreover, caste-biased genes in M. genalis overlapped significantly with genes shown to be rapidly evolving in multiple studies of 10 bee species, particularly for genes in the glycolysis pathway and other genes involved in metabolism. These results provide support for the idea that eusociality can evolve via genetic accommodation, with plasticity in facultatively eusocial species like M. genalis providing a substrate for selection during the evolution of caste in obligately eusocial lineages. PMID:28053060

  9. Caste-biased gene expression in a facultatively eusocial bee suggests a role for genetic accommodation in the evolution of eusociality.

    PubMed

    Jones, Beryl M; Kingwell, Callum J; Wcislo, William T; Robinson, Gene E

    2017-01-11

    Developmental plasticity may accelerate the evolution of phenotypic novelty through genetic accommodation, but studies of genetic accommodation often lack knowledge of the ancestral state to place selected traits in an evolutionary context. A promising approach for assessing genetic accommodation involves using a comparative framework to ask whether ancestral plasticity is related to the evolution of a particular trait. Bees are an excellent group for such comparisons because caste-based societies (eusociality) have evolved multiple times independently and extant species exhibit different modes of eusociality. We measured brain and abdominal gene expression in a facultatively eusocial bee, Megalopta genalis, and assessed whether plasticity in this species is functionally linked to eusocial traits in other bee lineages. Caste-biased abdominal genes in M. genalis overlapped significantly with caste-biased genes in obligately eusocial bees. Moreover, caste-biased genes in M. genalis overlapped significantly with genes shown to be rapidly evolving in multiple studies of 10 bee species, particularly for genes in the glycolysis pathway and other genes involved in metabolism. These results provide support for the idea that eusociality can evolve via genetic accommodation, with plasticity in facultatively eusocial species like M. genalis providing a substrate for selection during the evolution of caste in obligately eusocial lineages. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. The enforced expression of c-Myc in pig fibroblasts triggers mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) via F-actin reorganization and RhoA/Rock pathway inactivation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-Wen; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Sheng-Chun; Lin, Xiao-Lin; Li, Jing; Jia, Jun-Shuang; Sheng, Hong-Fen; Yao, Zhi-Fang; Zhao, Wen-Tao; Zhao, Zun-Lan; Xie, Rao-Ying; Yang, Sheng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Quan-Rong; Zhang, Meng-Ya; Yue, Min; Yuan, Jin; Gu, Wei-Wang; Yao, Kai-Tai; Xiao, Dong

    2013-04-01

    In previous studies from other labs it has been well demonstrated that the ectopic expression of c-Myc in mammary epithelial cells can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas in our pilot experiment, epithelial-like morphological changes were unexpectedly observed in c-Myc-expressing pig fibroblasts [i.e., porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEFs) and porcine dermal fibroblasts (PDFs)] and pig mesenchymal stem cells, suggesting that the same c-Myc gene is entitled to trigger EMT in epithelial cells and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) in fibroblasts. This prompted us to characterize the existence of a MET in c-Myc-expressing PEFs and PDFs at the molecular level. qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis illustrated that epithelial-like morphological changes were accompanied by the increased expression of epithelial markers [such as cell adhesion proteins (E-cadherin, α-catenin and Bves), tight junction protein occludin and cytokeratins (Krt8 and Krt18)], the reduced expression of mesenchymal markers [vimentin, fibronectin 1 (FN1), snail1, collagen family of proteins (COL1A1, COL5A2) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family (MMP12 and MMP14)] and the decreased cell motility and increased cell adhesion in c-Myc-expressing PEFs and PDFs. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of c-Myc in pig fibroblasts disrupted the stress fiber network, suppressed the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia, and resulted in RhoA/Rock pathway inactivation, which finally participates in epithelial-like morphological conversion. Taken together, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that the enforced expression of c-Myc in fibroblasts can trigger MET, to which cytoskeleton depolymerization and RhoA/Rock pathway inactivation contribute.

  11. Loss of N-Cadherin Expression in Tumor Transplants Produced From As+3- and Cd+2-Transformed Human Urothelial (UROtsa) Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sandquist, Elizabeth J.; Somji, Seema; Dunlevy, Jane R.; Garrett, Scott H.; Zhou, Xu Dong; Slusser-Nore, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is a process in which a cell experiences a loss of epithelial cell characteristics and acquires a more mesenchymal cell phenotype. In cancer, epithelial to mesenchymal transition has been proposed to play an important role during specific stages of tumor progression. The role epithelial to mesenchymal transition and mesenchymal to epithelial transition might play in toxicant-induced urothelial cancer is unknown. Methods Real-time PCR, Western blotting, immuno-histochemistry and immuno-fluorescence were used to determine the expression of E- and N-cadherin in the UROtsa parent, the As+3- and Cd+2-transformed cell lines, the spheroids isolated from these cell lines as well as the tumor heterotransplants that were produced by the injection of the transformed cells into immune compromised mice. Results This study showed that N-cadherin expression was increased in 6 As+3- and 7 Cd+2- transformed cell lines generated from human urothelial cells (UROtsa). The expression varied within each cell line, with 10% to 95% of the cells expressing N-cadherin. Tumors produced from these cell lines showed no expression of the N-cadherin protein. Spheroids which are made up of putative cancer initiating cells produced from these cell lines showed only background expression of N-cadherin mRNA, increased expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 mRNA and produced tumors which did not express N-cadherin. There was no change in the expression of E-cadherin in the tumors, and the tumors formed by all the As+3 and Cd+2-transformed cell lines and cancer initiating cells stained intensely and uniformly for E-cadherin. Conclusions The finding that the cells expressing N-cadherin gave rise to tumors with no expression of N-cadherin is in agreement with the classical view of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition and N-cadherin are associated with dissemination and not with the ability to establish new tumor growth

  12. Loss of N-Cadherin Expression in Tumor Transplants Produced From As+3- and Cd+2-Transformed Human Urothelial (UROtsa) Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Sandquist, Elizabeth J; Somji, Seema; Dunlevy, Jane R; Garrett, Scott H; Zhou, Xu Dong; Slusser-Nore, Andrea; Sens, Donald A

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is a process in which a cell experiences a loss of epithelial cell characteristics and acquires a more mesenchymal cell phenotype. In cancer, epithelial to mesenchymal transition has been proposed to play an important role during specific stages of tumor progression. The role epithelial to mesenchymal transition and mesenchymal to epithelial transition might play in toxicant-induced urothelial cancer is unknown. Real-time PCR, Western blotting, immuno-histochemistry and immuno-fluorescence were used to determine the expression of E- and N-cadherin in the UROtsa parent, the As+3- and Cd+2-transformed cell lines, the spheroids isolated from these cell lines as well as the tumor heterotransplants that were produced by the injection of the transformed cells into immune compromised mice. This study showed that N-cadherin expression was increased in 6 As+3- and 7 Cd+2- transformed cell lines generated from human urothelial cells (UROtsa). The expression varied within each cell line, with 10% to 95% of the cells expressing N-cadherin. Tumors produced from these cell lines showed no expression of the N-cadherin protein. Spheroids which are made up of putative cancer initiating cells produced from these cell lines showed only background expression of N-cadherin mRNA, increased expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 mRNA and produced tumors which did not express N-cadherin. There was no change in the expression of E-cadherin in the tumors, and the tumors formed by all the As+3 and Cd+2-transformed cell lines and cancer initiating cells stained intensely and uniformly for E-cadherin. The finding that the cells expressing N-cadherin gave rise to tumors with no expression of N-cadherin is in agreement with the classical view of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition and N-cadherin are associated with dissemination and not with the ability to establish new tumor growth. Mesenchymal to epithelial transition

  13. Anti-sense suppression of epidermal growth factor receptor expression alters cellular proliferation, cell-adhesion and tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Alper, O; De Santis, M L; Stromberg, K; Hacker, N F; Cho-Chung, Y S; Salomon, D S

    2000-11-15

    Over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in ovarian cancer has been well documented. Human NIH:OVCAR-8 ovarian carcinoma cells were transfected with an expression vector containing the anti-sense orientation of truncated human EGFR cDNA. EGFR anti-sense over-expression resulted in decreased EGFR protein and mRNA expression, cell proliferation and tumor formation in nude mice. In accordance with the reduced levels of EGFR in EGFR anti-sense-expressing cells, tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR was decreased compared to untransfected parental cells treated with EGF. In EGFR anti-sense-transfected cells, expression of erbB-3, but not erbB-2, was increased. In addition, basal and heregulin-beta 1-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of erbB-3 was higher in EGFR anti-sense vector-transfected cells. A morphological alteration in EGFR anti-sense gene-expressing cells was correlated with a decrease in the expression of E-cadherin, alpha-catenin and, to a lesser extent, beta-catenin. Changes in the expression of these proteins were associated with a reduction in complex formation among E-cadherin, beta-catenin and alpha-catenin and between beta-catenin and EGFR in EGFR anti-sense-expressing cells compared to sense-transfected control cells. These results demonstrate that EGFR expression in ovarian carcinoma cells regulates expression of cell adhesion proteins that may enhance cell growth and invasiveness. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Genome-wide and expression-profiling analyses suggest the main cytochrome P450 genes related to pyrethroid resistance in the malaria vector, Anopheles sinensis (Diptera Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng-Wen; He, Zheng-Bo; Yan, Zhen-Tian; Si, Feng-Ling; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Bin

    2018-02-02

    Anopheles sinensis is one of the major malaria vectors. However, pyrethroid resistance in An. sinensis is threatening malaria control. Cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification is an important pyrethroid resistance mechanism that has been unexplored in An. sinensis. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the An. sinensis P450 gene superfamily with special attention to their role in pyrethroid resistance using bioinformatics and molecular approaches. Our data revealed the presence of 112 individual P450 genes in An. sinensis, which were classified into four major clans (mitochondrial, CYP2, CYP3 and CYP4), 18 families and 50 subfamilies. Sixty-seven genes formed nine gene clusters, and genes within the same cluster and the same gene family had a similar gene structure. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of An. sinensis P450s (82/112) had very close 1: 1 orthology with Anopheles gambiae P450s. Five genes (AsCYP6Z2, AsCYP6P3v1, AsCYP6P3v2, AsCYP9J5 and AsCYP306A1) were significantly upregulated in three pyrethroid-resistant populations in both RNA-seq and RT-qPCR analyses, suggesting that they could be the most important P450 genes involved in pyrethroid resistance in An. sinensis. Our study provides insight on the diversity of An. sinensis P450 superfamily and basis for further elucidating pyrethroid resistance mechanism in this mosquito species. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. 3-Deazaneplanocin A suppresses aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Hatta, Mitsutoki, E-mail: hatta@college.fdcnet.ac.jp; Naganuma, Kaori; Kato, Kenichi

    In tumor tissues, alterations of gene expression caused by aberrant epigenetic modifications confer phenotypic diversity on malignant cells. Although 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) has been shown to reactivate tumor suppressor genes in several cancer cells, it remains unclear whether DZNep attenuates the malignant phenotypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of DZNep on the expression of genes related to aggressive phenotypes, such as epithelial–mesenchymal transition, in OSCC cells. We found that DZNep reduced the cellular levels of polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, BMI1, and RING1A) and the associated trimethylation of Lys27 on histonemore » H3 and monoubiquitination of Lys119 on histone H2A in the poorly differentiated OSCC cell line SAS. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated that DZNep induced the reorganization of filamentous actin and the membrane localization of E-cadherin associated with cell–cell adhesions. We also found an inhibitory effect of DZNep on cell proliferation using a WST assay. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that genes involved in the aggressive phenotypes (TWIST2, EGFR, ACTA2, TGFB1, WNT5B, and APLIN) were down-regulated, whereas epithelial phenotype genes (CDH1, CLDN4, IVL, and TGM1) were up-regulated in SAS cells treated with DZNep. Collectively, our findings suggest that DZNep reverses the aggressive characteristics of OSCC cells through the dynamic regulation of epithelial plasticity via the reprogramming of gene expression patterns. - Highlights: • DZNep reduced PcG proteins and associated histone modifications in OSCC cells. • DZNep enhanced cell–cell adhesion indicative of epithelial phenotype in OSCC cells. • DZNep suppressed the aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in OSCC cells. • DZNep activated the gene expression of epithelial markers in OSCC cells.« less

  16. PhotoMorphs™: A Novel Light-Activated Reagent for Controlling Gene Expression in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini, Amber J.; Schuler, Aaron D.; Zebala, John A.; Mayer, Alan N.

    2009-01-01

    Manipulating gene expression in zebrafish is critical for exploiting the full potential of this vertebrate model organism. Morpholino oligos are the most commonly employed antisense technology for knocking down gene expression. However, morpholinos suffer from a lack of control over the timing and location of knockdown. In this report, we describe a novel light-activatable knockdown reagent called PhotoMorph™. PhotoMorphs can be generated from existing morpholinos by hybridization with a complementary caging strand containing a photocleavable linkage. The caging strand neutralizes the morpholino activity until irradiation of the PhotoMorph with UV light releases the morpholino. We generated PhotoMorphs to target genes encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), No tail, and E-cadherin to illustrate the utility of this approach. Temporal control of gene expression with PhotoMorphs permitted us to circumvent the early lethal phenotype of E-cadherin knockdown. A splice-blocking PhotoMorph directed to the rheb gene showed light-dependent gene knockdown up to 72 hpf. PhotoMorphs thus offer a new class of laboratory reagents suitable for the spatiotemporal control of gene expression in the zebrafish. PMID:19644983

  17. Expression of the cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-2 in developing rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Syaidah, Rahimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ramadhani, Dini; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    In the anterior pituitary gland, folliculo-stellate cells and five types of hormone-producing cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM) essential for these cells to perform their respective roles. Syndecans-type I transmembrane cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as major ECM coreceptors via their respective heparan sulfate chains and efficiently transduce intracellular signals through the convergent action of their transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The syndecans comprise four family members in vertebrates: syndecan-1, -2, -3 and -4. However, whether syndecans are produced in the pituitary gland or whether they have a role as a coreceptor is not known. We therefore used (1) reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of syndecan genes and (2) immunohistochemical techniques to identify the cells that produce the syndecans in the anterior pituitary gland of adult rat. Syndecan-2 mRNA expression was clearly detected in the corticotropes of the anterior pituitary gland. Moreover, the expression of syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland had a distinct temporospatial pattern. To identify the cells expressing syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland, we used double-immunohistochemistry for syndecan-2 and the cell markers E-cadherin (immature cells) and Ki-67 (proliferating cells). Some E-cadherin- and Ki-67-immunopositive cells expressed syndecan-2. Therefore, syndecan-2 expression occurs in developmentally regulated patterns and syndecan-2 probably has different roles in adult and developing anterior pituitary glands.

  18. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  19. Stromal Clues in Endometrial Carcinoma: Loss of Expression of β-Catenin, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Regulators, and Estrogen-Progesterone Receptor.

    PubMed

    Senol, Serkan; Sayar, Ilyas; Ceyran, Ayse B; Ibiloglu, Ibrahim; Akalin, Ibrahim; Firat, Ugur; Kosemetin, Duygu; Engin Zerk, Pinar; Aydin, Abdullah

    2016-05-01

    Epithelial-stroma interactions in the endometrium are known to be responsible for physiological functions and emergence of several pathologic lesions. Periglandular stromal cells act on endometrial cells in a paracrine manner through sex hormones. In this study, we immunohistochemically evaluated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators (SNAIL/SLUG, TWIST, ZEB1), adhesion molecules (β-catenin and E-cadhenin), estrogen (ER)-progesterone (PR) receptor and their correlation with each other in 30 benign, 148 hyperplastic (EH), and 101 endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma (EC) endometria. In the epithelial component, loss of expression in E-cadherin, ER and PR, and overexpression of TWIST and ZEB1 were significantly higher in EC than in EH (P<0.01). In the periglandular stromal component, β-catenin and SNAIL/SLUG expression were significantly higher in normal endometrium and simple without atypical EH compared with complex atypical EH and EC (P<0.01). In addition, periglandular stromal TWIST expression was significantly higher in EH group compared with EC (P<0.05). There was significantly negative correlation between β-catenin and ER, TWIST and ER, and TWIST and PR in hyperplastic and carcinomatous glandular epithelium, whereas there was a significantly positive correlation between β-catenin and SNAIL-SLUG, β-catenin and TWIST, β-catenin and ER, β-catenin and PR, SNAIL-SLUG and ER, SNAIL-SLUG and PR, TWIST and ER, TWIST and PR, in periglandular/cancer-associated stromal cells (P<0.01). In conclusion, the pattern of positive and negative correlations in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators (SNAIL-SLUG and TWIST), sex hormone receptors (ER and PR), and β-catenin between ECs and hyperplasia, as well as between epithelium and stroma herein, is suggestive of a significant role for these proteins and their underlying molecular processes in the development of endometrial carcinomas.

  20. Stromal Clues in Endometrial Carcinoma: Loss of Expression of β-Catenin, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Regulators, and Estrogen-Progesterone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Ilyas; Ceyran, Ayse B.; Ibiloglu, Ibrahim; Akalin, Ibrahim; Firat, Ugur; Kosemetin, Duygu; Engin Zerk, Pinar; Aydin, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-stroma interactions in the endometrium are known to be responsible for physiological functions and emergence of several pathologic lesions. Periglandular stromal cells act on endometrial cells in a paracrine manner through sex hormones. In this study, we immunohistochemically evaluated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators (SNAIL/SLUG, TWIST, ZEB1), adhesion molecules (β-catenin and E-cadhenin), estrogen (ER)-progesterone (PR) receptor and their correlation with each other in 30 benign, 148 hyperplastic (EH), and 101 endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma (EC) endometria. In the epithelial component, loss of expression in E-cadherin, ER and PR, and overexpression of TWIST and ZEB1 were significantly higher in EC than in EH (P<0.01). In the periglandular stromal component, β-catenin and SNAIL/SLUG expression were significantly higher in normal endometrium and simple without atypical EH compared with complex atypical EH and EC (P<0.01). In addition, periglandular stromal TWIST expression was significantly higher in EH group compared with EC (P<0.05). There was significantly negative correlation between β-catenin and ER, TWIST and ER, and TWIST and PR in hyperplastic and carcinomatous glandular epithelium, whereas there was a significantly positive correlation between β-catenin and SNAIL-SLUG, β-catenin and TWIST, β-catenin and ER, β-catenin and PR, SNAIL-SLUG and ER, SNAIL-SLUG and PR, TWIST and ER, TWIST and PR, in periglandular/cancer-associated stromal cells (P<0.01). In conclusion, the pattern of positive and negative correlations in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators (SNAIL-SLUG and TWIST), sex hormone receptors (ER and PR), and β-catenin between ECs and hyperplasia, as well as between epithelium and stroma herein, is suggestive of a significant role for these proteins and their underlying molecular processes in the development of endometrial carcinomas. PMID:26367784

  1. Effects of Intercellular Junction Protein Expression on Intracellular Ice Formation in Mouse Insulinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Adam Z.; Karlsson, Jens O.M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of cryopreservation procedures for tissues has proven to be difficult in part because cells within tissue are more susceptible to intracellular ice formation (IIF) than are isolated cells. In particular, previous studies suggest that cell-cell interactions increase the likelihood of IIF by enabling propagation of ice between neighboring cells, a process thought to be mediated by gap junction channels. In this study, we investigated the effects of cell-cell interactions on IIF using three genetically modified strains of the mouse insulinoma cell line MIN6, each of which expressed key intercellular junction proteins (connexin-36, E-cadherin, and occludin) at different levels. High-speed video cryomicroscopy was used to visualize the freezing process in pairs of adherent cells, revealing that the initial IIF event in a given cell pair was correlated with a hitherto unrecognized precursor phenomenon: penetration of extracellular ice into paracellular spaces at the cell-cell interface. Such paracellular ice penetration occurred in the majority of cell pairs observed, and typically preceded and colocalized with the IIF initiation events. Paracellular ice penetration was generally not observed at temperatures >−5.65°C, which is consistent with a penetration mechanism via defects in tight-junction barriers at the cell-cell interface. Although the maximum temperature of paracellular penetration was similar for all four cell strains, genetically modified cells exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ice penetration and a higher mean IIF temperature than did wild-type cells. A four-state Markov chain model was used to quantify the rate constants of the paracellular ice penetration process, the penetration-associated IIF initiation process, and the intercellular ice propagation process. In the initial stages of freezing (>−15°C), junction protein expression appeared to only have a modest effect on the kinetics of propagative IIF, and even cell

  2. Downregulated expression of the cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) reduces migration in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Yang, Xiaojing; Shi, Hui; Ren, Hanru; Chen, Xueyu; Zhang, Shu; Zhu, Junya; Zhang, Jianguo

    2013-09-01

    Overexpression of cyclase-associated proteins has been associated with poor prognosis in several human cancers. Cyclase-associated protein 1 is a member of the cyclase-associated proteins which contributes to tumor progression. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of cyclase-associated protein 1 and to elucidate its clinicopathologic significance in a larger series of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses were performed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissues. Survival analyses were performed by using the Kaplan-Meier method. The role of cyclase-associated protein 1 in migration was studied in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines of TE1 through knocking down cyclase-associated protein 1 with siRNA and overexpression of cyclase-associated protein 1. The regulation of cyclase-associated protein 1 on migration was determined by transwell and wound-healing assays. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that cyclase-associated protein 1 expression was negatively associated with E-cadherin and significantly associated with lymph node metastases. Survival analysis revealed that cyclase-associated protein 1 overexpression was significantly associated with overall survival (P = 0.011). Knock down of cyclase-associated protein 1 in TE1 cells resulted in decreased vimentin and F-actin levels and the capability for migration. In addition, overexpression of cyclase-associated protein 1 promoted the migration of TE1 cells. These findings suggest that cyclase-associated protein 1 is involved in the metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and that elevated levels of cyclase-associated protein 1 expression may indicate a poor prognosis for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.