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Sample records for e-cadherin gene expression

  1. Human Langerhans cells express E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Blauvelt, A; Katz, S I; Udey, M C

    1995-02-01

    Murine Langerhans cells (LC) synthesize and express E-cadherin, a Ca(++)-dependent homophilic cell adhesion molecule that mediates LC-keratinocyte (KC) binding in vitro. In vivo, E-cadherin expression by LC may promote localization and persistence of LC within the epidermis through LC-KC adhesion. In addition, changes in LC E-cadherin expression or affinity may be an important factor in the egress of LC from the epidermis after exposure to antigen. The aim of the present study was to determine if human LC also express E-cadherin. Suction blister roofs were obtained from normal volunteers and epidermal cell (EC) suspensions were prepared by limited trypsinization in the presence of 1 mM Ca++. EC were then incubated with antibodies to E-cadherin and CD1a or HLA-DR, and examined by two-color analytical flow cytometry or immunofluorescence microscopy. Most (82.9% +/- 7.4% [mean +/- SD], range 67-89%, n = 7) freshly prepared human LC expressed E-cadherin, as did the majority of KC. The amount of E-cadherin (as determined by mean fluorescence intensity) expressed by LC and KC was similar. Trypsin/EDTA treatment of freshly prepared EC abrogated expression of E-cadherin by LC and KC, whereas E-cadherin was not degraded by trypsin in the presence of Ca++. LC expressed lower levels of E-cadherin after 3 d in culture. Thus, human LC, like murine LC, express the homophilic adhesion molecule E-cadherin, which may be important in establishing and maintaining interactions between LC and KC in mammalian epidermis.

  2. Hypoxia reduces the E-cadherin expression and increases OSCC cell migration regardless of the E-cadherin methylation profile.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Patrícia Luciana Batista; Souza, Marcela Gonçalves; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; Santos, Eliane Sobrinho; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the association between E-cadherin methylation status, hypoxia and OSCC. HaCat and SCC9 cell lines were submitted to hypoxic treatment, followed by methylation profile analysis (MS-PCR) and analysis of the expression of mRNA gene E-cadherin (RT-PCR). Study group samples comprise individuals affected by potentially malignant lesions Potential Malignant Oral Lesion (PMOL, n=18) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, n=28). The control group oral mucosa (OM, n=15) of patients with an oral mucocele. Cell migration ability was evaluated a scratch wound assay in SCC9 and HaCat cell lines RESULTS: E-cadherin mRNA expression in the cell lines SCC9 and HaCat was significantly reduced under hypoxia, regardless of the methylation profile, when compared to the control group. No differences in methylation profile of the E-cadherin were observed among the groups OM, PMOL and OSCC. HaCat and SCC9 presented increases in cell migration rates under hypoxia. The current study demonstrates that hypoxia reduces E-cadherin expression and increase cell migration, regardless of the methylation profile. Additionally, no differences in E-cadherin methylation patterns were observed among OM, PMOL and OSCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Paradoxical expression of E-cadherin in prostatic bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Bryden, A A; Freemont, A J; Clarke, N W; George, N J

    1999-12-01

    To determine whether the calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is expressed in metastatic deposits of prostate cancer in bone. Ten bone biopsies containing metastatic deposits of untreated prostatic cancer were obtained and immunohistochemically stained for E-cadherin with the monoclonal antibody HECD-1, using the streptavidin-biotin complex technique. Benign prostatic tissue was used as the control. Of the 10 specimens, nine showed positive expression of E-cadherin, graded as strong in four. E-cadherin expression was strongest in well-differentiated metastases and decreased with increasing tumour grade. In some specimens there were mixed patterns of expression. E-cadherin is strongly expressed in prostatic bone metastases and the degree of expression appears to reflect local tumour grade. This suggests that loss of E-cadherin expression may not be critically linked to metastatic potential.

  4. Modulation of N-glycosylation by mesalamine facilitates membranous E-cadherin expression in colon epithelial cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Vineeta; Lang, Michaela; Dammann, Kyle; Campregher, Christoph; Lyakhovich, Alex; Gasche, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Genome wide association studies have implicated intestinal barrier function genes in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. One of such loci CDH1, encoding E-cadherin, a transmembrane glycoprotein with known tumor suppressor functions, is also linked to the susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Loss of membranous E-cadherin expression is common in both colitis and cancer. We have recently demonstrated that mesalamine (5-ASA); the anti-inflammatory drug used to treat ulcerative colitis, induces membranous expression of E-cadherin and increases intercellular adhesion. Using colorectal cancer epithelial cells with aberrant E-cadherin expression, we investigated the mechanism underlying such an effect of 5-ASA. Post-translational modification of E-cadherin glycosylation was analyzed by biotin/streptavidin detection of sialylated glycoproteins. GnT-III (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III) expression was assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. GnT-III activity was analyzed by reactivity with E-4/L-4-PHA. Expression, localization and interaction of E-cadherin and β-catenin were analyzed by Western blot, immunocytochemistry and RNA interference. 5-ASA activity modulated E-cadherin glycosylation and increased both mRNA and protein levels of GnT-III and its activity as detected by increased E4-lectin reactivity. Intestinal APCMin polyps in mice showed low expression of GnT-III and 5-ASA was effective in increasing its expression. The data demonstrated that remodeling of glycans by GnT-III mediated bisect glycosylation, contributes to the membranous retention of E-cadherin by 5-ASA; facilitating intercellular adhesion. Induction of membranous expression of E-cadherin by 5-ASA is a novel mechanism for mucosal healing in colitis that might impede tumor progression by modulation of GnT-III expression. PMID:24184502

  5. Expression of E-cadherin and vimentin in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingping; Tao, Detao; Xu, Qing; Gao, Zhenlin; Tang, Daofang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the levels of E-cadherin, vimentin expression in tumor tissues from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and the relationship between the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in order to explore its values for predicting the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma, short survival of patients in many types of cancer. E-cadherin and vimentin expression of 10 benign and 42 OSCC tumor tissues was examined by immunohistochemical staining. E-cadherin is positively expressed in normal oral mucosa epithelium, but vimentin expression is not found in normal oral mucosa epithelia; the E-cadherin and vimentin were expressed in 26 of 42 (61.9%) and 16 of 42 (38.1%), respectively. No statistically difference was found for E-cadherin and vimentin expression in patients with different age, gender and tumor location, E-cadherin and vimentin expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and tissue location (P < 0.05); E-cadherin expression was also significantly associated with tumor stage (P < 0.05); there are significantly difference between infiltrative margin and central area in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma for E-cadherin and vimentin positive expression (P < 0.05). E-cadherin and vimentin positive expression was associated with tumor metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our study preliminarily confirmed that EMT phenomenon is existed during the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Co-evaluation of E-cadherin and vimentin might be a valuable tool for predicting OSCC patient outcome. PMID:26045832

  6. [Immunohistochemical expression of the E-cadherin-catenin complex in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Pablo; Araya, Juan; Villaseca, Miguel; Roa, Iván; Melo, Angélica; Muñoz, Sergio; Roa, Juan

    2006-08-01

    The E-cadherin/catenin complex plays an essential role in the control of epithelial differentiation. Abnormal expression in tumors correlates with histological grade, advanced stage and poor prognosis. To evaluate the expression pattern of E-cadherin/catenin complex in gastric carcinoma and analyze their association with tumor clinicopathological features and patient survival. Inmunohistochemical staining of E-cadherin, alpha and ss-catenin was performed from paraffin specimens of 65 gastric carcinomas. Abnormal expression of E-cadherin, alpha and ss-catenin was demonstrated in 82%, 85% and 88% of gastric carcinomas, respectively. There was a significant correlation between abnormal expression and Lauren pathological classification and depth of infiltration, but not with tumor stage, positive lymph node metastases and survival. Abnormal expression of E-cadherin, alpha and ss-catenin occurs frequently in gastric carcinoma and correlates with histological grade.

  7. Expression of E-cadherin in canine anal sac gland carcinoma and its association with survival.

    PubMed

    Polton, G A; Brearley, M J; Green, L M; Scase, T J

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether an association could be demonstrated between survival and the expression of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin by the neoplastic cells in a group of dogs with anal sac gland carcinomas (ASGCs). Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded primary tumour specimens were obtained for 36 cases of canine ASGC with known clinical management and survival data. Immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate E-cadherin expression by the neoplastic cells and data were evaluated for an association between E-cadherin expression and survival. On univariate analysis, the median survival time for cases with tumours expressing E-cadherin in more than 75% of cells was significantly greater than that for cases with tumours expressing E-cadherin in fewer than 75% of cells (1168 versus 448 days, P = 0.0246). Both E-cadherin expression and presence or absence of distant metastases were significantly associated with survival on multivariate analysis. This study demonstrates that expression of E-cadherin at the cytoplasmic membrane in canine ASGCs is variable and potentially predictive of survival.

  8. Mucinous Colorectal Adenocarcinoma: Influence of EGFR and E-Cadherin Expression on Clinicopathologic Features and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd AlRahman M; AbdelAziz, Azza; El-Hawary, Amira K; Hosni, Ali; Zalata, Khalid R; Gado, Asmaa I

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting results on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E-cadherin expression in colorectal carcinoma and their prognostic significance. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate EGFR and E-cadherin expression, interrelation and relation to clinicopathologic, histologic parameters, and survival in rare colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA). In this study, we studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal MA and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA). High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tips technique, and immunohistochemistry for EGFR and E-cadherin was performed. All relations were analyzed using established statistical methodologies. NMA expressed EGFR and E-cadherin in significantly higher rates with significant heterogenous pattern than MA. EGFR and E-cadherin positivity rates were significantly interrelated in both NMA and MA groups. In the NMA group, high EGFR expression was associated with old age, male sex, multiplicity of tumors, lack of mucinous component, and association with schistosomiasis. However, in the MA group, high EGFR expression was associated only with old age and MA subtype rather than signet ring carcinoma subtype. Conversely, high E-cadherin expression in MA cases was associated with old age, fungating tumor configuration, MA subtype, and negative intratumoral lymphocytic response. However, in the NMA cases, none of these factors was statistically significant. In a univariate analysis, neither EGFR nor E-cadherin expression showed a significant impact on disease-free or overall survival. Targeted therapy against EGFR and E-cadherin may not be useful in patients with MA. Neither EGFR nor E-cadherin is an independent prognostic factor in NMA or MA.

  9. Homeoprotein Six2 promotes breast cancer metastasis via transcriptional and epigenetic control of E-cadherin expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chu-An; Drasin, David; Pham, Catherine; Jedlicka, Paul; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Guney, Michelle; Li, Howard; Nemenoff, Raphael; Costello, James C.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Ford, Heide L.

    2014-01-01

    Misexpression of developmental transcription factors occurs often in human cancers, where embryonic programs may be reinstated in a context that promotes or sustains malignant development. In this study, we report the involvement of the kidney development transcription factor Six2 in the metastatic progression of human breast cancer. We found that Six2 promoted breast cancer metastasis by a novel mechanism involving both transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin. Downregulation of E-cadherin by Six2 was necessary for its ability to increase soft agar growth and in vivo metastasis in an immune competent mouse model of breast cancer. Mechanistic investigations showed that Six2 represses E-cadherin expression by upregulating Zeb2, in part through a microRNA-mediated mechanism, and by stimulating promoter methylation of the E-cadherin gene (Cdh1). Clinically, SIX2 expression correlated inversely with CDH1 expression in human breast cancer specimens, corroborating the disease relevance of their interaction. Our findings establish Six2 as a regulator of metastasis in human breast cancers and demonstrate an epigenetic function for SIX family transcription factors in metastatic progression through the regulation of E-cadherin. PMID:25348955

  10. Relation of glypican-3 and E-cadherin expressions to clinicopathological features and prognosis of mucinous and non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; Mohammad, Mie Ali; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal

    2015-06-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a member of the membrane-bound heparin sulfate proteoglycans. E-cadherin is an adhesive receptor that is believed to act as a tumor suppressor gene. Many studies had investigated E-cadherin expressions in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) while only one study had investigated GPC3 expression in CRC. This study aims to investigate expression of GCP3 and E-cadherin in colorectal mucinous carcinoma (MA) and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) using manual tissue microarray technique. Tumor tissue specimens are collected from 75 cases of MC and 75 cases of NMA who underwent radical surgery from Jan 2007 to Jan 2012 at the Gastroenterology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt. Their clinicopathological parameters and survival data were revised and analyzed using established statistical methodologies. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tip technique and immunohistochemistry for GPC3 and E-cadherin was done. NMA showed higher expression of GPC3 than MA with no statistically significant relation. NMA showed a significantly higher E-cadherin expression than MA. GPC3 and E-cadherin positivity rates were significantly interrelated in NMA, but not in MA, group. In NMA group, there was no significant relation between either GPC3 or E-cadherin expression and the clinicopathological features. In a univariate analysis, neither GPC3 nor E-cadherin expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival (OS). GPC3 and E-cadherin expressions are not independent prognostic factors in CRC. However, expressions of both are significantly interrelated in NMA patients, suggesting an excellent interplay between both, in contrast to MA. Further molecular studies are needed to further explore the relationship between GCP3 and E-cadherin in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  11. E-cadherin immunohistochemical expression in mammary gland neoplasms in bitches.

    PubMed

    Rodo, A; Malicka, E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate E-cadherin expression in correlation with other neoplasm traits such as: histological type, the differentiation grade and proliferative activity. Material for the investigation comprised mammary gland tumours, collected from dogs, the patients of veterinary clinics, during surgical procedures and archival samples. All together 21 adenomas, 32 complex carcinomas, 35 simple carcinomas and 13 solid carcinomas were qualified for further investigation. E-cadherin expression was higher in adenomas as compared with carcinomas but lower in solid carcinomas as compared with simple and complex carcinomas. More over, the expression of E-cadherin decreased with the increase in the neoplasm malignancy and proliferative activity (value of the mitotic index and number of cells showing Ki67). The study has shown that the expression of E-cadherin can be used as a prognostic factor.

  12. Differences in E-Cadherin and Syndecan-1 Expression in Different Types of Ameloblastomas

    PubMed Central

    López-Verdín, Sandra; Pereira-Prado, Vanesa

    2018-01-01

    Ameloblastomas are a group of benign, locally aggressive, recurrent tumors characterized by their slow and infiltrative growth. E-Cadherin and syndecan-1 are cell adhesion molecules related to the behavior of various tumors, including ameloblastomas. Ninety-nine ameloblastoma samples were studied; the expression of E-cadherin and syndecan-1 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. E-Cadherin and epithelial syndecan-1 were more highly expressed in intraluminal/luminal unicystic ameloblastoma than in mural unicystic ameloblastoma and solid/multicystic ameloblastoma, whereas the stromal expression of syndecan-1 was higher in mural unicystic ameloblastoma and solid/multicystic ameloblastoma. Synchronicity was observed between E-cadherin and epithelial syndecan-1; the expression was correlated with intensity in all cases. There was a strong association between expression and tumor size and recurrence. The evaluation of the expression of E-cadherin and syndecan-1 are important for determining the potential aggressiveness of ameloblastoma variants. Future studies are required to understand how the expression of these markers is related to tumor aggressiveness.

  13. E-cadherin breast tumor expression, risk factors and survival: Pooled analysis of 5,933 cases from 12 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Horne, Hisani N; Oh, Hannah; Sherman, Mark E; Palakal, Maya; Hewitt, Stephen M; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Milne, Roger L; Hardisson, David; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bolla, Manjeet K; Brenner, Hermann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cora, Renata; Couch, Fergus J; Cuk, Katarina; Devilee, Peter; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Eilber, Ursula; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Heikkilä, Päivi; Holleczek, Bernd; Hooning, Maartje J; Jones, Michael; Keeman, Renske; Mannermaa, Arto; Martens, John W M; Muranen, Taru A; Nevanlinna, Heli; Olson, Janet E; Orr, Nick; Perez, Jose I A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Seynaeve, Caroline; Sironen, Reijo; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Tengström, Maria; Thomas, Abigail S; Timmermans, A Mieke; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Troester, Melissa A; van Asperen, Christi J; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Van Leeuwen, Flora F; Van't Veer, Laura J; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2018-04-26

    E-cadherin (CDH1) is a putative tumor suppressor gene implicated in breast carcinogenesis. Yet, whether risk factors or survival differ by E-cadherin tumor expression is unclear. We evaluated E-cadherin tumor immunohistochemistry expression using tissue microarrays of 5,933 female invasive breast cancers from 12 studies from the Breast Cancer Consortium. H-scores were calculated and case-case odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models. All analyses were stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic subtype. E-cadherin low cases (N = 1191, 20%) were more frequently of lobular histology, low grade, >2 cm, and HER2-negative. Loss of E-cadherin expression (score < 100) was associated with menopausal hormone use among ER-positive tumors (ever compared to never users, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.97-1.59), which was stronger when we evaluated complete loss of E-cadherin (i.e. H-score = 0), OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.06-2.33. Breast cancer specific mortality was unrelated to E-cadherin expression in multivariable models. E-cadherin low expression is associated with lobular histology, tumor characteristics and menopausal hormone use, with no evidence of an association with breast cancer specific survival. These data support loss of E-cadherin expression as an important marker of tumor subtypes.

  14. E-cadherin expression increases cell proliferation by regulating energy metabolism through nuclear factor-κB in AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Song Yi; Shin, Jee-Hye; Kee, Sun-Ho

    2017-09-01

    β-Catenin is a central player in Wnt signaling, and activation of Wnt signaling is associated with cancer development. E-cadherin in complex with β-catenin mediates cell-cell adhesion, which suppresses β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling. Recently, a tumor-suppressive role for E-cadherin has been reconsidered, as re-expression of E-cadherin was reported to enhance the metastatic potential of malignant tumors. To explore the role of E-cadherin, we established an E-cadherin-expressing cell line, EC96, from AGS cells that featured undetectable E-cadherin expression and a high level of Wnt signaling. In EC96 cells, E-cadherin re-expression enhanced cell proliferation, although Wnt signaling activity was reduced. Subsequent analysis revealed that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and consequent c-myc expression might be involved in E-cadherin expression-mediated cell proliferation. To facilitate rapid proliferation, EC96 cells enhance glucose uptake and produce ATP using both mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, whereas AGS cells use these mechanisms less efficiently. These events appeared to be mediated by NF-κB activation. Therefore, E-cadherin re-expression and subsequent induction of NF-κB signaling likely enhance energy production and cell proliferation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. A combination of biomolecules enhances expression of E-cadherin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene leading to increased cell proliferation in primary human meniscal cells: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Mamatha M; Elakkiya, V; Gopinathan, J; Sabarinath, C; Shanthakumari, S; Sahanand, K Santosh; Dinakar Rai, B K; Bhattacharyya, Amitava; Selvakumar, R

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigates the impact of biomolecules (biotin, glucose, chondroitin sulphate, proline) as supplement, (individual and in combination) on primary human meniscus cell proliferation. Primary human meniscus cells isolated from patients undergoing meniscectomy were maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). The isolated cells were treated with above mentioned biomolecules as individual (0-100 µg/ml) and in combinations, as a supplement to DMEM. Based on the individual biomolecule study, a unique combination of biomolecules (UCM) was finalized using one way ANOVA analysis. With the addition of UCM as supplement to DMEM, meniscal cells reached 100 % confluency within 4 days in 60 mm culture plate; whereas the cells in medium devoid of UCM, required 36 days for reaching confluency. The impact of UCM on cell viability, doubling time, histology, gene expression, biomarkers expression, extra cellular matrix synthesis, meniscus cell proliferation with respect to passages and donor's age were investigated. The gene expression studies for E-cadherin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR∆) using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical analysis for Ki67, CD34 and Vimentin confirmed that UCM has significant impact on cell proliferation. The extracellular collagen and glycosaminoglycan secretion in cells supplemented with UCM were found to increase by 31 and 37 fold respectively, when compared to control on the 4th day. The cell doubling time was reduced significantly when supplemented with UCM. The addition of UCM showed positive influence on different passages and age groups. Hence, this optimized UCM can be used as an effective supplement for meniscal tissue engineering.

  16. Global methylation and promoter-specific methylation of the P16, SOCS-1, E-cadherin, P73 and SHP-1 genes and their expression in patients with multiple myeloma during active disease and remission.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Baños, Déborah; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz; Jiménez, Guadalupe; Barrera-Lumbreras, Georgina; Barrales-Benítez, Olga

    2017-05-01

    Tumor suppressor gene promoter CpG island methylation is a well-recognized mechanism in cancer pathogenesis, but its role in multiple myeloma (MM) is controversial. The present study investigated the methylation status and expression of P16 , suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 ( SOCS-1 ), P73, E-cadherin and Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 ( SHP-1 ), as well as global methylation in patients with MM during active disease and remission. Bone marrow samples were obtained from 43 patients at the Multiple Myeloma Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (Mexico City, Mexico) during active disease and remission. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and ELISA were performed on bisulfite-treated or untreated DNA to determine promoter-specific or genomic methylation, respectively. Gene expression was measured using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that SOCS-1 methylation occurred more frequently during active disease than remission [29 vs. 3.2% (P=0.021)] and was associated with more advanced forms of the disease [international staging system (ISS) 3, 16.67% vs. ISS 1, 8.3% (P=0.037)]. SHP-1 methylation during active disease was associated with a lower probability of survival at 39-month follow up (median), 52.5 vs. 87.5% (P=0.025). The percentage of methylation was associated with active disease at remission, but this was not significant. Global hypomethylation at remission was a negative predictor factor for overall survival (OS). The results indicated that methylated P16 , SOCS-1 and SHP-1 were associated with clinical variables of poor prognosis in MM, likewise the persistence of global hypomethylation at remission. The negative impact on OS of global hypomethylation at remission must be confirmed in a larger sample. Future studies are necessary to investigate whether patients with global hypermethylation at remission should receive more aggressive treatments to

  17. CDH4 suppresses the progression of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma via E-cadherin co-expression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jian; Feng, Yan; Lin, Ting; Huang, Xiao-Yu; Gan, Rui-Huan; Zhao, Yong; Su, Bo-Hua; Ding, Lin-Can; She, Lin; Chen, Jiang; Lin, Li-Song; Lin, Xu; Zheng, Da-Li; Lu, You-Guang

    2016-12-13

    The cadherin-4 gene (CDH4) of the cadherin family encodes non-epithelial R-cadherin (R-cad); however, the function of this gene in different types of cancer remains controversial. In this study, we found higher expression of CDH4 mRNA in a salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) cell line with low metastatic potential (SACC-83) than in a cell line with high metastatic potential (SACC-LM). By analyzing 67 samples of SACC tissues and 40 samples of paraneoplastic normal tissues, we found R-cad highly expressed in 100% of normal paraneoplastic tissue but only expressed in 64% of SACC tumor tissues (P<0.001). Knockdown of CDH4 expression in vitro promoted the growth, mobility and invasion of SACC cells, and in vivo experiments showed that decreased CDH4 expression enhanced SACC tumorigenicity. Furthermore, CDH4 suppression resulted in down-regulation of E-cadherin (E-cad), which is encoded by CDH1 gene and is a well-known tumor suppressor gene by inhibition of cell proliferation and migration. These results indicate that CDH4 may play a negative role in the growth and metastasis of SACC via co-expression with E-cadherin.

  18. Low-expression of E-cadherin in leukaemia cells causes loss of homophilic adhesion and promotes cell growth.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qing; Wang, Ji-Ying; Meng, Jihong; Tang, Kejing; Wang, Yanzhong; Wang, Min; Xing, Haiyan; Tian, Zheng; Wang, Jianxiang

    2011-09-01

    E-cadherin (epithelial cadherin) belongs to the calcium-dependent adhesion molecule superfamily and is implicated in the interactions of haematopoietic progenitors and bone marrow stromal cells. Adhesion capacity to bone marrow stroma was impaired for leukaemia cells, suggesting that a breakdown of adhesive mechanisms governed by an adhesion molecule may exist in leukaemic microenvironment. We previously found that E-cadherin was low expressed in primary acute leukaemia cells compared with normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. In this study, we investigate the functional importance of low E-cadherin expression in leukaemia cell behaviours and investigate its effects in the abnormal interaction of leukaemic cells with stromal cells. After expression of E-cadherin was restored by a demethylating agent in leukaemia cells, E-cadherin-specific adhesion was enhanced. Additionally, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated silencing of E-cadherin in Raji cells resulted in a reduction of cell homophilic adhesion and enhancement of cell proliferation and colony formation. These results suggest that low expression of E-cadherin contributes to the vigorous growth and transforming ability of leukaemic cells.

  19. Zebrafish E-cadherin: expression during early embryogenesis and regulation during brain development.

    PubMed

    Babb, S G; Barnett, J; Doedens, A L; Cobb, N; Liu, Q; Sorkin, B C; Yelick, P C; Raymond, P A; Marrs, J A

    2001-06-01

    Zebrafish E-cadherin (cdh1) cell adhesion molecule cDNAs were cloned. We investigated spatial and temporal expression of cdh1 during early embryogenesis. Expression was observed in blastomeres, the anterior mesoderm during gastrulation, and developing epithelial structures. In the developing nervous system, cdh1 was detected at the pharyngula stage (24 hpf) in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB). Developmental regulation of MHB formation involves wnt1 and pax2.1. wnt1 expression preceded cdh1 expression during MHB formation, and cdh1 expression in the MHB was dependent on normal development of this structure. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Global methylation and promoter-specific methylation of the P16, SOCS-1, E-cadherin, P73 and SHP-1 genes and their expression in patients with multiple myeloma during active disease and remission

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Baños, Déborah; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz; Jiménez, Guadalupe; Barrera-Lumbreras, Georgina; Barrales-Benítez, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Tumor suppressor gene promoter CpG island methylation is a well-recognized mechanism in cancer pathogenesis, but its role in multiple myeloma (MM) is controversial. The present study investigated the methylation status and expression of P16, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1), P73, E-cadherin and Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), as well as global methylation in patients with MM during active disease and remission. Bone marrow samples were obtained from 43 patients at the Multiple Myeloma Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (Mexico City, Mexico) during active disease and remission. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and ELISA were performed on bisulfite-treated or untreated DNA to determine promoter-specific or genomic methylation, respectively. Gene expression was measured using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that SOCS-1 methylation occurred more frequently during active disease than remission [29 vs. 3.2% (P=0.021)] and was associated with more advanced forms of the disease [international staging system (ISS) 3, 16.67% vs. ISS 1, 8.3% (P=0.037)]. SHP-1 methylation during active disease was associated with a lower probability of survival at 39-month follow up (median), 52.5 vs. 87.5% (P=0.025). The percentage of methylation was associated with active disease at remission, but this was not significant. Global hypomethylation at remission was a negative predictor factor for overall survival (OS). The results indicated that methylated P16, SOCS-1 and SHP-1 were associated with clinical variables of poor prognosis in MM, likewise the persistence of global hypomethylation at remission. The negative impact on OS of global hypomethylation at remission must be confirmed in a larger sample. Future studies are necessary to investigate whether patients with global hypermethylation at remission should receive more aggressive treatments to

  1. E-cadherin expression in sporadic gastric cancer from Mexico: exon 8 and 9 deletions are infrequent events associated with poor survival.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Dominguez-Fonseca, Claudia; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; Vargas, Roberto; Reyes-Gutierrez, Edgardo; Green, Dan; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Luber, Birgit; Busch, Raymonde; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Becker, Ingrid; Höfler, Heinz; Fend, Falko

    2005-01-01

    Aberrant expression and mutation of E-cadherin is frequent in gastric carcinoma (GC) especially of the diffuse type. The frequency of CDH1 (gene encoding E-cadherin) mutation in populations with high incidence of diffuse GC and its prognostic significance is unknown. One hundred seventy-seven gastrectomies from Mexican mestizo patients with intestinal (53), mixed (55), or diffuse (69) GC were included. In addition, 101 endoscopic biopsies from patients with GC not subjected to surgery were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry against wild-type E-cadherin (clone 36) and against 2 mutation-specific antibodies (MSA) recognizing mutant CDH1 lacking exon-8 (del 8) or exon-9 (del 9) were performed. Staining was correlated with histotype, tumor node metastasis stage, and follow-up. Abnormal or absent E-cadherin expression (clone 36) was identified in 84% GC, predominantly in diffuse or mixed tumors (P = 0.004) in advanced stages (P = 0.003). No survival differences at 1 and 2 years were observed among patients showing normal, abnormal, or absent wild type E-cadherin expression. Overall reactivity with the MSA was observed in 10 (5.6%) patients who were treated with surgery. In 140 patients, dead from the disease or alive with the disease, the survival at 1 and 2 years was 37% versus 17% and 14% versus 0 for patients without and with del 8/9 positivity, respectively (log rank P = 0.01). Biopsies from patients with inoperable-GC (101) rendered 5 (4.95%) with del 8 or 9 immunoreactivity. Abnormal E-cadherin expression is frequent in GC. However, exon 8 or 9 deletions were observed in only 5.3% tumors in this series from Mexico, at a lower rate than previously published, but associated with a worse prognosis.

  2. Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology: a prognostic marker for tumor progression in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zacapala-Gómez, Ana E; Navarro-Tito, Napoleón; Alarcón-Romero, Luz Del C; Ortuño-Pineda, Carlos; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Ortiz-Ortiz, Julio; Garibay-Cerdenares, Olga L; Jiménez-López, Marco A; Mendoza-Catalán, Miguel A

    2018-03-27

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth cause of mortality by neoplasia in women worldwide. The use of immunomarkers is an alternative tool to complement currently used algorithms for detection of cancer, and to improve selection of therapeutic schemes. Aberrant expression of Ezrin and E-cadherin play an important role in tumor invasion. In this study we analyzed Ezrin and E-cadherin expression in liquid-based cervical cytology samples, and evaluated their potential use as prognostic immunomarkers. Immunocytochemical staining of Ezrin and E-cadherin was performed in cervical samples of 125 patients. The cytological or histological diagnostic was performed by Papanicolaou staining or H&E staining, respectively. HPV genotyping was determined using INNO-LIPA Genotyping Extra kit and the HPV physical status by in situ hybridization. Ezrin expression in HaCaT, HeLa and SiHa cell lines was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blot. High Ezrin expression was observed in cervical cancer samples (70%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV (43%), and samples with integrated viral genome (47%). High Ezrin expression was associated with degree of SIL, viral genotype and physical status. In contrast, low E-cadherin expression was found in cervical cancer samples (95%), samples with multiple infection by HR-HPV/LR-HPV (87%) and integrated viral genome (72%). Low E-cadherin expression was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. Interestingly, Ezrin nuclear staining was associated with degree of SIL and viral genotype. High Ezrin expression, high percent of nuclear Ezrin and low E-cadherin expression behaved as risk factors for progression to HSIL and cervical cancer. Ezrin and E-cadherin expression profile in cervical cytology samples could be a potential prognostic marker, useful for identifying cervical lesions with a high-risk of progression to cervical cancer.

  3. [The expression and clinical significance of EphA2 and E-cadherin in papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Miao, Yuhua; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the expression and clinical significance of EphA2 and E cadherin proteins in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues, and to explore the relationship between them. Using immunohistochemical SP/PV method, we detected the expression of EphA2 and E cadherin in tumors of 43 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 11 thyroid adenoma and 10 normal thyroid tissues, then studied their relationships with clinic pathological factors. The total positive rates of EphA2 and E cadherin expression were 58. 14% and 32. 56% in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues, 18. 18% and 81. 81% in thyroid adenoma.tissues and they were 10. 00% and 100. 00% in normal thyroid tissues respectively. The positive expression of EphA2 in carcinoma tissues was higher than in the thyroid adenoma tissues and normal thyroid tissues (P<0. 05) and the positive expression of E cadherin in carcinoma tissues was lower than that in the thyroid adenoma tissues and normal thyroid tissues (P<0. 05). The positive expression of EphA2 and E cadherin was associated with lymph node metastasis and histological grade (P<0. 05), but it was not associated with all the clinic-pathological factors including age, sex and the tumor size (P>0. 05). In papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues, the expression of EphA2 was negatively correlated with the expression of E cadherin protein (r= -0. 416, P<0. 01). EphA2 and E cadherin may be involved in carcinogenesis and development of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  4. O-GlcNAcylation affects β-catenin and E-cadherin expression, cell motility and tumorigenicity of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Harosh-Davidovich, Shani Ben; Khalaila, Isam

    2018-03-01

    O-GlcNAcylation, the addition of β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety to Ser/Thr residues, is a sensor of the cell metabolic state. Cancer diseases such as colon, lung and breast cancer, possess deregulated O-GlcNAcylation. Studies during the last decade revealed that O-GlcNAcylation is implicated in cancer tumorigenesis and proliferation. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and cadherin-mediated adhesion are also implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key cellular process in invasion and cancer metastasis. Often, deregulation of the Wnt pathway is caused by altered phosphorylation of its components. Specifically, phosphorylation of Ser or Thr residues of β-catenin affects its location and interaction with E-cadherin, thus facilitating cell-cell adhesion. Consistent with previous studies, the current study indicates that β-catenin is O-GlcNAcylated. To test the effect of O-GlcNAcylation on cell motility and how O-GlcNAcylation might affect β-catenin and E-cadherin functions, the enzyme machinery of O-GlcNAcylation was modulated either with chemical inhibitors or by gene silencing. When O-GlcNAcase (OGA) was inhibited, a global elevation of protein O-GlcNAcylation and increase in the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin were noted. Concomitantly with enhanced O-GlcNAcylation, β-catenin transcriptional activity were elevated. Additionally, fibroblast cell motility was enhanced. Stable silenced cell lines with adenoviral OGA or adenoviral O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) were established. Consistent with the results obtained by OGA chemical inhibition by TMG, OGT-silencing led to a significant reduction in β-catenin level. In vivo, murine orthotropic colorectal cancer model indicates that elevated O-GlcNAcylation leads to increased mortality rate, tumor and metastasis development. However, reduction in O-GlcNAcylation promoted survival that could be attributed to attenuated tumor and metastasis development. The results described herein provide

  5. Expression of P-aPKC-iota, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin related to invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Du, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Ming; Lu, Jin-Xi; Li, Qiang; Ma, Chao-Qun; Du, Ji-Tao; Zou, Sheng-Quan

    2009-06-01

    Atypical protein kinase C iota (aPKC-iota) and its associated intracellular molecules, E-cadherin and beta-catenin, are important for cell polarization in tumorigenesis and progression. Expression of aPKC-iota, P-aPKC-iota (activated aPKC-iota), E-cadherin, and beta-catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was measured, and correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of HCC was analyzed. Paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was obtained from patients with HCC after resection without preoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Gene expression was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Expressions of aPKC-iota, P-aPKC-iota, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin were analyzed with relation to the clinicopathological data. The gene and protein expression of aPKC-iota are obviously higher in HCC tissues than that in peritumoral tissues and normal tissues by semiquantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry methods. Accumulation of aPKC-iota in HCC cytoplasm and nucleolus inhibited the later formation of belt-like adherens junctions (AJs) and/or tight junctions (TJs) in cell-cell contact. E-cadherin was reduced and accumulation of cytoplasm beta-catenin was increased in HCC. The expression of aPKC-iota was closely related to pathological differentiation, tumor size, invasion, and metastasis of HCC. Accumulation of cytoplasm aPKC-iota may reflect pathological differentiation, invasion, and metastasis potential of HCC. In this regard, our study on HCC revealed the potential usefulness of aPKC-iota, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin as a prognostic marker, closely related to pathological differentiation, invasion, metastasis, and prognosis of HCC.

  6. Zonula occludens-1, occludin and E-cadherin expression and organization in salivary glands with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mellas, Rachel E; Leigh, Noel J; Nelson, Joel W; McCall, Andrew D; Baker, Olga J

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes secretory dysfunction of the salivary glands leading to dry mouth. Previous studies reported that tight junction (TJ) proteins are down-regulated and lose polarity in human minor salivary glands with SS, suggesting that TJ structure is compromised in SS patients. In this paper, we utilized the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse with the main goal of evaluating this model for future TJ research. We found that the organization of apical proteins in areas proximal and distal to lymphocytic infiltration remained intact in mouse and human salivary glands with SS. These areas looked comparable to control glands (i.e., with no lymphocytic infiltration). TJ staining was absent in areas of lymphocytic infiltration coinciding with the loss of salivary epithelium. Gene expression studies show that most TJs are not significantly altered in 20-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Protein expression studies revealed that the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-12, as well as E-cadherin, do not significantly change in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Our results suggest that ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin are not altered in areas without lymphocytic infiltration. However, future studies will be necessary to test the functional aspect of these results. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component: relation of MMP-13, EGFR, and E-cadherin expressions to clinicopathological features and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal; Aziz, Azza Abdel

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, ordinary adenocarcinoma (OA) and mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) regarding clinicopathological parameters, survival, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 28 patients with adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, 47 with OA, and 56 with MA, who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012 at the Gastroenterology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt. High density manual tissue microarrays were constructed and immunohistochemistry for EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin was done. Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component (AWMC) was significantly associated with more perineural invasion, lower EGFR, and MMP-13 expressions than OA, with no difference in E-cadherin expression. Conversely, only microscopic abscess formation was significantly more with colorectal AWMC than MC with no difference in EGFR, MMP-13 and E-cadherin expression between both groups. Colorectal AWMC showed a better survival than MA with no difference with OA. In a univariate analysis, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin expressions did not show a significant impact on disease-free or overall survival in patients with colorectal AWMC. Colorectal AWMC remains a vague entity that resembles OA in some clinicopathological and molecular respects as well as MA. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Expression of p27Kip1 and E-cadherin in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Indonesian Patients.

    PubMed

    E I, Auerkari; V, Joewono; D R, Handjari; A T, Sarwono; A W, Suhartono; K, Eto; M A, Ikeda

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit characteristic damage of DNA and its expression. The expression of the tumor suppressors E-cadherin and p27(Kip1) has been tested on 57 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) of Indonesian subjects. HNSCC tumor samples including both primary and (unrelated) nodal cases were obtained from the archives of Indonesian hospitals, in accordance with acknowledged ethical requirements. Only modest correlation was found between reduced expression of E-cadherin or p27(Kip1) with increased malignancy of primary and nodal growth. The observed strong correlation regardless of malignancy between the expressed levels of E-cadherin and p27(Kip1) suggests that also in combination these would not help to better predict the outcome of HNSCC.

  9. Nuclear translocation of Acinetobacter baumannii transposase induces DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin gene.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong Chan; Choi, Chul Hee; Lee, Su Man; Lee, Jung Hwa; Kim, Seung Il; Kim, Dong Sun; Lee, Je Chul

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins has emerged as a pathogenic mechanism whereby bacterial proteins induce host cell pathology. In this study, we examined nuclear targeting of Acinetobacter baumannii transposase (Tnp) and subsequent epigenetic changes in host cells. Tnp of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 possesses nuclear localization signals (NLSs), (225)RKRKRK(230). Transient expression of A. baumannii Tnp fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) resulted in the nuclear localization of these proteins in COS-7 cells, whereas the truncated Tnp without NLSs fused with GFP were exclusively localized in the cytoplasm. A. baumannii Tnp was found in outer membrane vesicles, which delivered this protein to the nucleus of host cells. Nuclear expression of A. baumannii Tnp fused with GFP in A549 cells induced DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin (CDH1) gene, whereas the cytoplasmic localization of the truncated Tnp without NLSs fused with GFP did not induce DNA methylation. DNA methylation in the promoters of E-cadherin gene induced by nuclear targeting of A. baumannii Tnp resulted in down-regulation of gene expression. In conclusion, our data show that nuclear traffic of A. baumannii Tnp induces DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin gene, which subsequently down-regulates gene expression. This study provides a new insight into the epigenetic control of host genes by bacterial proteins.

  10. Restoring E-cadherin expression increases sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Witta, Samir E; Gemmill, Robert M; Hirsch, Fred R; Coldren, Christopher D; Hedman, Karla; Ravdel, Larisa; Helfrich, Barbara; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Chan, Daniel C; Sugita, Michio; Chan, Zeng; Baron, Anna; Franklin, Wilbur; Drabkin, Harry A; Girard, Luc; Gazdar, Adi F; Minna, John D; Bunn, Paul A

    2006-01-15

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in the majority of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, produce 9% to 27% response rates in NSCLC patients. E-Cadherin, a calcium-dependent adhesion molecule, plays an important role in NSCLC prognosis and progression, and interacts with EGFR. The zinc finger transcriptional repressor, ZEB1, inhibits E-cadherin expression by recruiting histone deacetylases (HDAC). We identified a significant correlation between sensitivity to gefitinib and expression of E-cadherin, and ZEB1, suggesting their predictive value for responsiveness to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. E-Cadherin transfection into a gefitinib-resistant line increased its sensitivity to gefitinib. Pretreating resistant cell lines with the HDAC inhibitor, MS-275, induced E-cadherin along with EGFR and led to a growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effect of gefitinib similar to that in gefitinib-sensitive NSCLC cell lines including those harboring EGFR mutations. Thus, combined HDAC inhibitor and gefitinib treatment represents a novel pharmacologic strategy for overcoming resistance to EGFR inhibitors in patients with lung cancer.

  11. E-Cadherin and Gastric Cancer: Cause, Consequence, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    E-cadherin (epithelial-cadherin), encoded by the CDH1 gene, is a transmembrane glycoprotein playing a crucial role in maintaining cell-cell adhesion. E-cadherin has been reported to be a tumor suppressor and to be down regulated in gastric cancer. Besides genetic mutations in CDH1 gene to induce hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), epigenetic factors such as DNA hypermethylation also contribute to the reduction of E-cadherin in gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, expression of E-cadherin could be mediated by infectious agents such as H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori). As E-cadherin is vitally involved in signaling pathways modulating cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and migration, dysregulation of E-cadherin leads to dysfunction of gastric epithelial cells and contributes to gastric cancer development. Moreover, changes in its expression could reflect pathological conditions of gastric mucosa, making its role in gastric cancer complicated. In this review, we summarize the functions of E-cadherin and the signaling pathways it regulates. We aim to provide comprehensive perspectives in the molecular mechanism of E-cadherin and its involvement in gastric cancer initiation and progression. We also focus on its applications for early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy in gastric cancer in order to open new avenues in this field. PMID:25184143

  12. Correlation of E-cadherin expression with differentiation grade and histological type in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gamallo, C.; Palacios, J.; Suarez, A.; Pizarro, A.; Navarro, P.; Quintanilla, M.; Cano, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a correlation has been suggested between a loss of E-cadherin (E-CD) and increased invasiveness of neoplastic cells. In this study, E-CD expression in breast cancer was investigated using an affinity-purified antibody (ECCD-2) in an immunoenzymatic (avidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase) test. Intensity and extension of E-CD immunoreactivity were evaluated in 61 breast carcinomas and correlated with their histological type and grade, nodal involvement, and hormonal receptor status. Histological types were infiltrating ductal carcinoma of no special type (n = 54) and infiltrating lobular carcinoma (n = 7). All infiltrating ductal carcinomas of no special type except two grade 3 carcinomas showed positive immunoreactivity that was variable among different cases. Grade 1 breast carcinomas (n = 10) showed greater immunoreactivity than grade 2 (n = 25) and grade 3 (n = 19) carcinomas. E-CD immunoreactivity correlated positively with the degree of tubular formation and inversely with the mitoses number. None of the infiltrating lobular carcinomas expressed E-CD in their infiltrating cells, whereas they showed only weak immunostains in areas of atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. These results indicate that E-CD expression correlates with histological type and grade in breast carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7682767

  13. CpG site hypermethylation of E-cadherin and Connexin26 genes in hepatocellular carcinomas induced by a choline-deficient L-Amino Acid-defined diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Shimizu, Kyoko; Itsuzaki, Yumi; Onishi, Mariko; Sugata, Eriko; Fujii, Hiromasa; Honoki, Kanya

    2007-04-01

    We investigated DNA methylation patterns of E-cadherin and Connexin26 (Cx26) genes in rat hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) induced by a choline-deficient L-Amino Acid-defined (CDAA) diet. Six-wks-old F344 male rats were continuously fed with a CDAA diet for 75 wks, and were then killed. A total of five HCCs were obtained, and genomic DNA was extracted from each HCC for assessment of methylation status in the 5' upstream regions of E-cadherin and Cx26 genes by bisulfite sequencing, comparing to two normal liver tissues. The five HCCs showed highly methylated E-cadherin and Cx26 genes, while these genes in two normal liver tissues were all unmethylated. For analysis of gene expression, real-time quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. Expressions of E-cadherin and Cx26 genes were significantly reduced in the five HCCs (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively) compared to normal liver tissues, correlating with their methylation statuses. These results suggested that hypermethylation of E-cadherin and Cx26 genes may be involved in the development of HCCs induced by a CDAA diet in rats.

  14. Differential expression of E-cadherin at the surface of rat beta-cells as a marker of functional heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Domenico; Rouiller, Dominique G; Halban, Philippe A

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the expression of E-cadherin at the surface of rat beta-cells is regulated by insulin secretagogues and correlates with insulin secretion. When cultured under standard conditions, virtually all beta-cells expressed E-cadherin observed by immunofluorescence, but heterogeneous staining was observed. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), two beta-cell sub-populations were sorted: one that was poorly labeled ('ECad-low') and another that was highly labeled ('ECad-high'). After 1-h stimulation with 16.7 mM glucose, insulin secretion (reverse hemolytic plaque assay) from individual ECad-high beta-cells was higher than that from ECad-low beta-cells. Ca2+-dependent beta-cell aggregation was increased at 16.7 mM glucose when compared with 2.8 mM glucose. E-cadherin at the surface of beta-cells was increased after 18 h at 11.1 and 22.2 mM glucose when compared with 2.8 mM glucose, with the greatest increase at 22.2 mM glucose + 0.5 mM isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX). While no labeling was detected on freshly trypsinized cells, the proportion of stained cells increased in a time-dependent manner during culture for 1, 3, and 24 h. This recovery was faster when cells were incubated at 16.7 vs 2.8 mM glucose. Cycloheximide inhibited expression of E-cadherin at 2.8 mM glucose, but not at 16.7 mM, while depolymerization of actin by either cytochalasin B or latrunculin B increased surface E-cadherin at low glucose. In conclusion, these results show that expression of E-cadherin at the surface of islet beta-cells is controlled by secretagogues including glucose, correlates with insulin secretion, and can serve as a surface marker of beta-cell function.

  15. [Effect of forced E-cadherin expression on adhesion and proliferation of human breast carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Juan; Liu, Yu-Qin; Gu, Bei; Bian, Xiao-Cui; Feng, Hai-Liang; Yang, Zhen-Li; Liu, Yan-Yan

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the role that E-cadherin (E-cad) plays on cell adhesion and proliferation of human breast carcinoma. E-cad expression vector was transfected into an E-cad-negative human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. G418 was used to screen positive clones. E-cad, β-catenin (β-cat) and cyclin D1 expressions of these clones were confirmed by Western blot. Their cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion abilities were detected. E-cad/β-catenin interaction was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Direct two-step immunocytochemistry was used to detect the localization of β-cat. E-cad(+) cell strains Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9 were established. When cultured in ultra-low-binding dishes Ecad-231 cells grow in suspension while Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9 cells grow in large clamps. When co-cultured with HCT116 cells, the average adhesion rates at 30 min are 39.0%, 60.0% and 59.5% for MDA-MB-231, Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9 respectively. The average detachment rates by EDTA for 5 min are 37.4%, 4.2% and 7.4% respectively. So E-cad expression enhanced hemotypic and heterotypic cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix adhesion. Forced exogenously expressed E-cad could combine with endogenous β-cat, whereas down stream cyclin D1 expression was significantly decreased, as evidenced by Western blot. The rates of cell apoptosis of MDA-MB-231, Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9 were 1.8%, 2.0% and 2.1%. Expression of E-cad had no obvious effect on the apoptosis of tumor cells with regular culture. β-cat increased in the cytoplasma. Two monoclonal tumor cell strains (Ecad-231-7 and Ecad-231-9) stably expressing E-cad were successfully established. E-cad could enhance adhesion and inhibit proliferation of human breast carcinoma cells through a pathway involving β-cat and cyclin D1.

  16. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) influences epithelial barrier function by regulating Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin expression

    SciT

    Severson, Eric A.; Kwon, Mike; Hilgarth, Roland S.

    2010-07-02

    The Apical Junctional Complex (AJC) encompassing the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) plays a pivotal role in regulating epithelial barrier function and epithelial cell proliferative processes through signaling events that remain poorly characterized. A potential regulator of AJC protein expression is Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 is a constitutively active kinase that is repressed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we report that GSK-3 activity regulates the structure and function of the AJC in polarized model intestinal (SK-CO15) and kidney (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)) epithelial cells. Reduction of GSK-3 activity, either by small molecule inhibitors ormore » siRNA targeting GSK-3 alpha and beta mRNA, resulted in increased permeability to both ions and bulk solutes. Immunofluorescence labeling and immunoblot analyses revealed that the barrier defects correlated with decreased protein expression of AJC transmembrane proteins Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin without influencing other TJ proteins, Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (JAM-A). The decrease in Occludin and E-cadherin protein expression correlated with downregulation of the corresponding mRNA levels for these respective proteins following GSK-3 inhibition. These observations implicate an important role of GSK-3 in the regulation of the structure and function of the AJC that is mediated by differential modulation of mRNA transcription of key AJC proteins, Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin.« less

  17. Reduced E-cadherin expression is associated with abdominal pain and symptom duration in a study of alternating and diarrhea predominant IBS.

    PubMed

    Wilcz-Villega, E; McClean, S; O'Sullivan, M

    2014-03-01

    Increased intestinal permeability and altered expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins may be implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to investigate the expression of adherens junction (AJ) protein E-cadherin and TJ proteins zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and claudin (CLD)-1 and associations with IBS symptoms. Junctional proteins were immunostained in cecal biopsy tissue of Rome II IBS patients (n = 34) comprising both alternating (IBS-A) and diarrhea predominant (IBS-D) subtypes, and controls (n = 12). IBS symptom duration, abdominal pain severity and stool frequency were assessed for IBS patients. Protein expression was determined by immunofluorescence. E-cadherin and ZO-1 protein expression was significantly lower (p = 0.03 and p = 0.016, respectively) in the cecal surface epithelium of the IBS group comprising both IBS-A and IBS-D subtypes. CLD-1 expression was not significantly altered compared with controls. On subtype analysis, ZO-1 expression was significantly reduced in both IBS-A and IBS-D compared with controls, whereas E-cadherin was reduced only in IBS-A. Lower E-cadherin expression was associated with longer symptoms duration specifically in IBS-A patients (rs = -0.76, p = 0.004). Reduced E-cadherin associated with abdominal pain severity in the overall IBS group (rs = -0.36, p = 0.041), but this association was unrelated to IBS subtype. E-cadherin protein expression in the cecum was significantly lower in IBS-A compared with controls and associated with longstanding symptoms. E-cadherin was further associated with abdominal pain severity in the IBS group overall, but unrelated to IBS subtype. Altered E-cadherin expression may provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying intestinal barrier dysfunction in IBS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Hepatitis C virus depends on E-cadherin as an entry factor and regulates its expression in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Li, Qisheng; Sodroski, Catherine; Lowey, Brianna; Schweitzer, Cameron J; Cha, Helen; Zhang, Fang; Liang, T Jake

    2016-07-05

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters the host cell through interactions with a cascade of cellular factors. Although significant progress has been made in understanding HCV entry, the precise mechanisms by which HCV exploits the receptor complex and host machinery to enter the cell remain unclear. This intricate process of viral entry likely depends on additional yet-to-be-defined cellular molecules. Recently, by applying integrative functional genomics approaches, we identified and interrogated distinct sets of host dependencies in the complete HCV life cycle. Viral entry assays using HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpps) of various genotypes uncovered multiple previously unappreciated host factors, including E-cadherin, that mediate HCV entry. E-cadherin silencing significantly inhibited HCV infection in Huh7.5.1 cells, HepG2/miR122/CD81 cells, and primary human hepatocytes at a postbinding entry step. Knockdown of E-cadherin, however, had no effect on HCV RNA replication or internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation. In addition, an E-cadherin monoclonal antibody effectively blocked HCV entry and infection in hepatocytes. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that E-cadherin is closely associated with claudin-1 (CLDN1) and occludin (OCLN) on the cell membrane. Depletion of E-cadherin drastically diminished the cell-surface distribution of these two tight junction proteins in various hepatic cell lines, indicating that E-cadherin plays an important regulatory role in CLDN1/OCLN localization on the cell surface. Furthermore, loss of E-cadherin expression in hepatocytes is associated with HCV-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), providing an important link between HCV infection and liver cancer. Our data indicate that a dynamic interplay among E-cadherin, tight junctions, and EMT exists and mediates an important function in HCV entry.

  19. Dragon (Repulsive Guidance Molecule RGMb) Inhibits E-cadherin Expression and Induces Apoptosis in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yueshui; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Chao; Yang, Baoxue; Lan, Hui-Yao; Lin, Herbert Y.; Xia, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Dragon is one of the three members of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, i.e. RGMa, RGMb (Dragon), and RGMc (hemojuvelin). We previously identified the RGM members as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptors that enhance BMP signaling. Our previous studies found that Dragon is highly expressed in the tubular epithelial cells of mouse kidneys. However, the roles of Dragon in renal epithelial cells are yet to be defined. We now show that overexpression of Dragon increased cell death induced by hypoxia in association with increased cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase-3 levels in mouse inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD3) cells. Dragon also inhibited E-cadherin expression but did not affect epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β in IMCD3 cells. Previous studies suggest that the three RGM members can function as ligands for the receptor neogenin. Interestingly, our present study demonstrates that the Dragon actions on apoptosis and E-cadherin expression in IMCD3 cells were mediated by the neogenin receptor but not through the BMP pathway. Dragon expression in the kidney was up-regulated by unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous Dragon knock-out mice exhibited 45–66% reduction in Dragon mRNA expression, decreased epithelial apoptosis, and increased tubular E-cadherin expression and had attenuated tubular injury after unilateral ureteral obstruction. Our results suggest that Dragon may impair tubular epithelial integrity and induce epithelial apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24052264

  20. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule RGMb) inhibits E-cadherin expression and induces apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yueshui; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Chao; Yang, Baoxue; Lan, Hui-Yao; Lin, Herbert Y; Xia, Yin

    2013-11-01

    Dragon is one of the three members of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, i.e. RGMa, RGMb (Dragon), and RGMc (hemojuvelin). We previously identified the RGM members as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptors that enhance BMP signaling. Our previous studies found that Dragon is highly expressed in the tubular epithelial cells of mouse kidneys. However, the roles of Dragon in renal epithelial cells are yet to be defined. We now show that overexpression of Dragon increased cell death induced by hypoxia in association with increased cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase-3 levels in mouse inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD3) cells. Dragon also inhibited E-cadherin expression but did not affect epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β in IMCD3 cells. Previous studies suggest that the three RGM members can function as ligands for the receptor neogenin. Interestingly, our present study demonstrates that the Dragon actions on apoptosis and E-cadherin expression in IMCD3 cells were mediated by the neogenin receptor but not through the BMP pathway. Dragon expression in the kidney was up-regulated by unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous Dragon knock-out mice exhibited 45-66% reduction in Dragon mRNA expression, decreased epithelial apoptosis, and increased tubular E-cadherin expression and had attenuated tubular injury after unilateral ureteral obstruction. Our results suggest that Dragon may impair tubular epithelial integrity and induce epithelial apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin does not distinguish canine cutaneous histiocytoma from other canine round cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Vara, J A; Miller, M A

    2011-05-01

    Immunohistochemistry for E-cadherin (ECAD) has been used to distinguish canine cutaneous histiocytoma from other leukocytic neoplasms ("round cell tumors"). To determine the specificity of this test, 5 types of canine cutaneous round cell tumors were evaluated for immunohistochemical expression of ECAD. Tumors of all 5 types had variable cytoplasmic, plasma membrane, and/or paranuclear ECAD expression: All 13 cutaneous histiocytomas were ECAD+; all but 1 of 14 mast cell tumors expressed ECAD; 10 of 12 epitheliotropic lymphomas reacted with E-cadherin antibody; of 72 plasmacytomas, 54 were ECAD+; and 5 of 5 histiocytic sarcomas were positive. Conclusions based on these results include the following: First, immunoreactivity for ECAD is not limited to leukocytes of cutaneous histiocytoma; second, antibody to ECAD also labels neoplastic cells in most mast cell tumors, plasmacytomas, cutaneous histiocytic sarcomas, and epitheliotropic lymphomas; third, although most histiocytomas have membranous ECAD expression, the immunoreactivity varies among round cell tumors and is frequently concurrent in different cellular compartments; fourth, the distinctively paranuclear ECAD expression pattern in epitheliotropic lymphomas might distinguish them from other round cell tumors; and, fifth, ECAD should be used with other markers (eg, MUM1 for plasmacytomas, KIT for mast cell tumors, CD3 and CD79a for lymphomas) to distinguish among canine round cell tumors.

  2. E-cadherin and, in its absence, N-cadherin promotes Nanog expression in mouse embryonic stem cells via STAT3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Kate; Mohamet, Lisa; Ritson, Sarah; Merry, Catherine L R; Ward, Christopher M

    2012-09-01

    We have recently shown that loss of E-cadherin in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) results in significant alterations to both the transcriptome and hierarchy of pluripotency-associated signaling pathways. Here, we show that E-cadherin promotes kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) and Nanog transcript and protein expression in mESCs via STAT3 phosphorylation and that β-catenin, and its binding region in E-cadherin, is required for this function. To further investigate the role of E-cadherin in leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-dependent pluripotency, E-cadherin null (Ecad(-/-)) mESCs were cultured in LIF/bone morphogenetic protein supplemented medium. Under these conditions, Ecad(-/-) mESCs exhibited partial restoration of cell-cell contact and STAT3 phosphorylation and upregulated Klf4, Nanog, and N-cadherin transcripts and protein. Abrogation of N-cadherin using an inhibitory peptide caused loss of phospho STAT3, Klf4, and Nanog in these cells, demonstrating that N-cadherin supports LIF-dependent pluripotency in this context. We therefore identify a novel molecular mechanism linking E- and N-cadherin to the core circuitry of pluripotency in mESCs. This mechanism may explain the recently documented role of E-cadherin in efficient induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  3. E-cadherin regulators are differentially expressed in the epithelium and stroma of keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Porto, Lia Pontes Arruda; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Carneiro Júnior, Bráulio; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Paiva, Katiúcia Batista Silva; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino

    2016-04-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process where cells lose their epithelial features and acquire properties of typical mesenchymal cells. The dissociation of tumor cells due to changes in cell-cell adhesion is one of the key principles of tumor invasion and EMT. Thus, the knowledge of the molecular features of EMT in keratocyst odontogenic tumor (KOT) can provide useful markers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis and perhaps contribute to an alternative therapeutic approach as it shows an aggressive clinical behavior and high recurrence rates. This study aimed to evaluate the EMT in KOT by the immunoexpression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, and Slug and comparing to radicular cysts and dental follicles. Thirty-two KOTs, 15 radicular cysts, and 08 dental follicles were used for immunohistochemistry, evaluating the extent, intensity, labeling pattern, cellular compartment in the epithelium and stroma, and the presence of inflammation. E-cadherin was preserved in most cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. N-cadherin was increased in the tumor epithelium, a result that was positively correlated with the heterogeneous and nuclear immunoexpression of Slug in the epithelium; Slug also correlated with high Snail immunoexpression. N-cadherin was positively correlated with Slug in the stroma of keratocystic odontogenic tumors. The high immunoexpression of Snail and nuclear Slug in keratocystic odontogenic tumors suggests these proteins as transcription factors without necessarily participating in 'cadherin switching'. However, the knowledge of their induction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in odontogenic tumors is still limited. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Zonula Occludens-1, Occludin and E-cadherin Expression and Organization in Salivary Glands with Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mellas, Rachel E.; Leigh, Noel J.; Nelson, Joel W.; McCall, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes secretory dysfunction of the salivary glands leading to dry mouth. Previous studies reported that tight junction (TJ) proteins are down-regulated and lose polarity in human minor salivary glands with SS, suggesting that TJ structure is compromised in SS patients. In this paper, we utilized the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse with the main goal of evaluating this model for future TJ research. We found that the organization of apical proteins in areas proximal and distal to lymphocytic infiltration remained intact in mouse and human salivary glands with SS. These areas looked comparable to control glands (i.e., with no lymphocytic infiltration). TJ staining was absent in areas of lymphocytic infiltration coinciding with the loss of salivary epithelium. Gene expression studies show that most TJs are not significantly altered in 20-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Protein expression studies revealed that the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-12, as well as E-cadherin, do not significantly change in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Our results suggest that ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin are not altered in areas without lymphocytic infiltration. However, future studies will be necessary to test the functional aspect of these results. PMID:25248927

  5. Allosteric Regulation of E-Cadherin Adhesion*

    PubMed Central

    Shashikanth, Nitesh; Petrova, Yuliya I.; Park, Seongjin; Chekan, Jillian; Maiden, Stephanie; Spano, Martha; Ha, Taekjip; Gumbiner, Barry M.; Leckband, Deborah E.

    2015-01-01

    Cadherins are transmembrane adhesion proteins that maintain intercellular cohesion in all tissues, and their rapid regulation is essential for organized tissue remodeling. Despite some evidence that cadherin adhesion might be allosterically regulated, testing of this has been hindered by the difficulty of quantifying altered E-cadherin binding affinity caused by perturbations outside the ectodomain binding site. Here, measured kinetics of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion demonstrated quantitatively that treatment with activating, anti-E-cadherin antibodies or the dephosphorylation of a cytoplasmic binding partner, p120ctn, increased the homophilic binding affinity of E-cadherin. Results obtained with Colo 205 cells, which express inactive E-cadherin and do not aggregate, demonstrated that four treatments, which induced Colo 205 aggregation and p120ctn dephosphorylation, triggered quantitatively similar increases in E-cadherin affinity. Several processes can alter cell aggregation, but these results directly demonstrated the allosteric regulation of cell surface E-cadherin by p120ctn dephosphorylation. PMID:26175155

  6. Detachment-induced E-cadherin expression promotes 3D tumor spheroid formation but inhibits tumor formation and metastasis of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Powan, Phattrakorn; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; He, Xiaoqing; Rojanasakul, Yon; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2017-11-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is proposed to be a key mechanism responsible for metastasis-related deaths. Similarly, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been proposed to be a key driver of tumor metastasis. However, the link between the two events and their control mechanisms is unclear. We used a three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid assay and other CSC-indicating assays to investigate the role of E-cadherin in CSC regulation and its association to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cells. Ectopic overexpression and knockdown of E-cadherin were found to promote and retard, respectively, the formation of tumor spheroids in vitro but had opposite effects on tumor formation and metastasis in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. We explored the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo results and demonstrated, for the first time, that E-cadherin is required as a component of a major survival pathway under detachment conditions. Downregulation of E-cadherin increased the stemness of lung cancer cells but had an adverse effect on their survival, particularly on non-CSCs. Such downregulation also promoted anoikis resistance and invasiveness of lung cancer cells. These results suggest that anoikis assay could be used as an alternative method for in vitro assessment of CSCs that involves dysregulated adhesion proteins. Our data also suggest that agents that restore E-cadherin expression may be used as therapeutic agents for metastatic cancers. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Correlation between E-cadherin interactions, survivin expression, and apoptosis in MDCK and ts-Src MDCK cell culture models.

    PubMed

    Capra, Janne; Eskelinen, Sinikka

    2017-12-01

    Survivin, a member of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family, is a multifunctional protein expressed in most cancers. In addition to inhibition of apoptosis, it regulates proliferation and promotes migration. Its presence and function in cells is strongly regulated via transcription factors, intracellular localization, and degradation. We analyzed the presence of survivin at protein level in various culture environments and under activation of Src tyrosine kinase in epithelial canine kidney MDCK cells in order to elucidate factors controlling survivin 'lifespan'. We used untransformed and temperature sensitive ts-Src MDCK cells as a model and forced them to grow in suspension (1D), in 2D on hard and soft surfaces and in soft 3D Matrigel environment with or without EGTA. In addition, we tested the effect of stressful conditions by cultivating the cells in the presence of an anti-cancer drug and a generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS), piperlongumine (PL) with or without an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). We could confirm that inhibition of apoptosis and simultaneous downregulation of survivin in MDCK cells required both intact cell-cell junctions, trans-interactions of E-cadherin and soft 3D matrix environment. In ts-Src-transformed MDCK cells, survivin was upregulated as soon as the cell-cell junctions were disintegrated. ROS generation with PL-induced cell death of ts-Src MDCK cells concomitantly with survivin downregulation. NAC rescued the ts-Src MDCK cells from ROS-induced apoptosis without upregulation of survivin resulting in a situation resembling untransformed MDCK cells in 3D environment and E-cadherin delineating the lateral cell walls.

  8. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta is required for vitamin D receptor-dependent E-cadherin expression in SW480 cells

    SciT

    Kouchi, Zen, E-mail: zkouchi@toyaku.ac.jp; Fujiwara, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Hideki

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} We analyzed Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate kinase II{beta} (PIPKII{beta}) function in cancer. {yields} PIPKII{beta} is required for vitamin D receptor-mediated E-cadherin upregulation in SW480. {yields} PIPKII{beta} suppresses cellular motility through E-cadherin induction in SW480 cells. {yields} Nuclear PIP{sub 2} but not plasma membrane-localized PIP{sub 2} mediates E-cadherin upregulation. -- Abstract: Numerous epidemiological data indicate that vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling induced by its ligand or active metabolite 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) has anti-cancer activity in several colon cancers. 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} induces the epithelial differentiation of SW480 colon cancer cells expressing VDR (SW480-ADH) by upregulating E-cadherin expression; however,more » its precise mechanism remains unknown. We found that phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta (PIPKII{beta}) but not PIPKII{alpha} is required for VDR-mediated E-cadherin induction in SW480-ADH cells. The syntenin-2 postsynaptic density protein/disc large/zona occludens (PDZ) domain and pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-delta1 (PLC{delta}1 PHD) possess high affinity for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P{sub 2}) mainly localized to the nucleus and plasma membrane, respectively. The expression of syntenin-2 PDZ but not PLC{delta}1 PHD inhibited 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}-induced E-cadherin upregulation, suggesting that nuclear PI(4,5)P{sub 2} production mediates E-cadherin expression through PIPKII{beta} in a VDR-dependent manner. PIPKII{beta} is also involved in the suppression of the cell motility induced by 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. These results indicate that PIPKII{beta}-mediated PI(4,5)P{sub 2} signaling is important for E-cadherin upregulation and inhibition of cellular motility induced by VDR activation.« less

  9. High expression of SALL4 and fascin, and loss of E-cadherin expression in undifferentiated/dedifferentiated carcinomas of the endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Onder, Semen; Taskin, Orhun Cig; Sen, Fatma; Topuz, Samet; Kucucuk, Seden; Sozen, Hamdullah; Ilhan, Ridvan; Tuzlali, Sitki; Yavuz, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Undifferentiated/dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas (UCE/DCEs) of the endometrium are rare tumors with poor prognosis. There are few clinicopathologic studies with detailed immunohistochemical analysis regarding UCE/DCEs. We evaluated the diagnostic value of a selected tumor stem-cell marker and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, in addition to previously studied markers in identifying UCE/DCEs from other types of high-grade endometrial carcinomas. Eleven cases of UCE/DCEs with complete clinical follow-up that were diagnosed between 2006 and 2015 were included in the study. For immunohistochemical comparison, 11 clinically matched cases for each type of other high-grade endometrial carcinomas (high-grade endometrioid (F3-EC), serous [SC], and clear cell carcinoma [CCC]) were used as a control group. An immunohistochemical analysis including fascin, SALL4, E-cadherin, and β-catenin, in addition to epithelial and neuroendocrine markers was performed in each case. The majority of UCE/DCEs displayed diffuse expression of fascin (81.9%) and loss of E-cadherin expression (54.5%). SALL4 expression was detected in 36.3% of the UCE/DCE cases. SALL4 expression was significantly more frequent in UCE/DCEs than all other high-grade carcinomas (P < 0.001). Loss of E-cadherin and fascin expression was significantly more frequent in UCE/DCEs than high-grade endometrioid and clear cell adenocarcinomas (P = 0.012, 0.014 and P = 0.01, 0.003, respectively). We suggest that loss of E-cadherin expression together with fascin and SALL4 immunopositivity in addition to morphologic features have an impact in differential diagnosis of UCE/DCEs from other high-grade endometrial carcinomas. PMID:28272224

  10. Detecting methylation patterns of p16, MGMT, DAPK and E-cadherin genes in multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Yuregir, O Ozalp; Yurtcu, E; Kizilkilic, E; Kocer, N E; Ozdogu, H; Sahin, F I

    2010-04-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell neoplasia characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. Besides known genetic abnormalities, epigenetic changes are also known to effect MM pathogenesis. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that silences genes by adding methyl groups to cytosine-guanine dinucleotides at the promoter regions. In this study, the methylation status of four genes; p16, O6-methyl guanine DNA methyl transferase (MGMT), death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and E-cadherin (ECAD); at the time of diagnosis was investigated using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR). In the 20 cases studied; methylation of the promoter regions of p16, MGMT, DAPK and ECAD genes was detected in 10%, 40%, 10% and 45% of the cases, respectively. In 65% (13/20) of cases, at least one of the genes studied had promoter methylation; while 35% of cases (7/20) had methylated promoters of more than one gene. There was a significant correlation between promoter hypermethylation of MGMT and the presence of extramedullary involvement; but for the other genes no correlation was found regarding disease properties like age, disease stage, clinical course and the presence of lytic bone lesions. Determining the methylation profiles of genes in MM, could lead to a new understanding of the disease pathogenesis and guide the assessment of treatment options.

  11. Loss of CDH1 (E-cadherin) expression is associated with infiltrative tumour growth and lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun A; Inamura, Kentaro; Yamauchi, Mai; Nishihara, Reiko; Mima, Kosuke; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Li, Tingting; Yasunari, Mika; Morikawa, Teppei; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Fuchs, Charles S; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Zhang, Xuehong; Ogino, Shuji; Qian, Zhi Rong

    2016-01-19

    Loss of CDH1 (E-cadherin) expression in cancer cells may promote cell migration and invasion. Therefore, we hypothesised that loss of CDH1 expression in colorectal carcinoma might be associated with aggressive features and clinical outcome. Utilising molecular pathological epidemiology database of 689 rectal and colon cancer cases in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we assessed tumour CDH1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess association of CDH1 loss with tumour growth pattern (expansile-intermediate vs infiltrative) and lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis, controlling for potential confounders including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation, and PIK3CA, BRAF and KRAS mutations. Mortality according to CDH1 status was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Loss of tumour CDH1 expression was observed in 356 cases (52%), and associated with infiltrative tumour growth pattern (odds ratio (OR), 2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-3.34; P=0.006) and higher pN stage (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.23-2.43; P=0.001). Tumour CDH1 expression was not significantly associated with distant metastasis or prognosis. Loss of CDH1 expression in colorectal cancer is associated with infiltrative tumour growth pattern and lymph node metastasis.

  12. Silibinin Synergizes with Histone Deacetylase and DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors in Upregulating E-cadherin Expression Together with Inhibition of Migration and Invasion of Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mateen, Samiha; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Chan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive cancers in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phase are characterized by loss of cell adhesion, repression of E-cadherin, and increased cell mobility. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) differs in basal level of E-cadherin; predominantly exhibiting silenced expression due to epigenetic-related modifications. Accordingly, effective treatments are needed to modulate these epigenetic events that in turn can positively regulate E-cadherin levels. Herein, we investigated silibinin, a natural flavonolignan with anticancer efficacy against lung cancer, either alone or in combination with epigenetic therapies to modulate E-cadherin expression in a panel of NSCLC cell lines. Silibinin combined with HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A [TSA; 7-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-N-hydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-7-oxohepta-2,4-dienamide] or DNMT inhibitor 5′-Aza-deoxycytidine (Aza) significantly restored E-cadherin levels in NSCLC cells harboring epigenetically silenced E-cadherin expression. These combination treatments also strongly decreased the invasion/migration of these cells, which further emphasized the biologic significance of E-cadherin restoration. Treatment of NSCLC cells, with basal E-cadherin levels, by silibinin further increased the E-cadherin expression and inhibited their migratory and invasive potential. Additional studies showed that silibinin alone as well as in combination with TSA or Aza downmodulate the expression of Zeb1, which is a major transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin. Overall these findings demonstrate the potential of combinatorial treatments of silibinin with HDAC or DNMT inhibitor to modulate EMT events in NSCLC cell lines, leading to a significant inhibition in their migratory and invasive potentials. These results are highly significant, since loss of E-cadherin and metastatic spread of the disease via EMT is associated with poor prognosis and high mortalities in NSCLC. PMID:23461975

  13. DNA methylation-induced E-cadherin silencing is correlated with the clinicopathological features of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Venza, Mario; Visalli, Maria; Catalano, Teresa; Biondo, Carmelo; Beninati, Concetta; Teti, Diana; Venza, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    E-cadherin, a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule, has an important role in epithelial cell function, maintenance of tissue architecture and cancer suppression. Loss of E-cadherin promotes tumor metastatic dissemination and predicts poor prognosis. The present study investigated the clinicopathological significance of E-cadherin expression in cutaneous, mucosal and uveal melanoma related to epigenetic mechanisms that may contribute to E-cadherin silencing. E-cadherin expression was reduced in 55/130 cutaneous (42.3%), 49/82 mucosal (59.7%) and 36/64 uveal (56.2%) melanoma samples as compared to normal skin controls and was inversely associated with promoter methylation. Of the 10 different CpG sites studied (nt 863, 865, 873, 879, 887, 892, 901, 918, 920 and 940), two sites (nt 892 and 940) were 90-100% methylated in all the melanoma specimens examined and the other ones were partially methylated (range, 53-86%). In contrast, the methylation rate of the E-cadherin gene was low in normal tissues (range, 5-24%). In all the three types of melanoma studied, a significant correlation was found between reduced levels of E-cadherin and reduced survival, high mitotic index and metastasis, accounting for the predilection of lymph nodal localization. In cutaneous and mucosal melanoma, low E-cadherin expression was positively correlated also with head/neck localization and ulceration. A high frequency of reduced E-cadherin levels occurred in choroid melanomas. In vitro experiments showed that E-cadherin transcription was restored following 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment or DNMT1 silencing and was negatively correlated with the invasive potential of melanoma cells. The significant relationship between E-cadherin silencing and several poor prognostic factors indicates that this adhesion molecule may play an important role in melanomagenesis. Therefore, the inverse association of E-cadherin expression with promoter methylation raises the intriguing

  14. Prognostic role of integrin β1, E-cadherin, and rac1 expression in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Myung Hee; Lee, Kyungji; Lee, Kyo-Young; Kim, Yeon Sil; Kim, Young Kyoon; Kang, Jin-Hyoung

    2012-01-01

    Integrin β(1) mediates cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and is correlated with highly invasive and metastatic behavior in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). E-cadherin (ECAD) is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion receptor that restricts invasion of cells and reduces metastasis. Rac1 is involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, adhesion, migration, invasion, and tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine integrin β(1) , ECAD and rac1 expression in SCLC and to analyze the prognostic value of these markers in patients with SCLC. We analyzed integrin β(1) , ECAD, and rac1 expression in 112 SCLC tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Correlative analyses between integrin β(1) , ECAD, and rac1 expression and cliniopathological factors were performed. A total of 65 patients had extensive disease (ED) (58%), and 47 had limited disease (LD) (42%). The median follow-up duration was 61 months (range: 14-117 months), and the median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 6.1 months (range: 4.8-7.4 months) and 9.7 months (range: 8.1-11.3 months), respectively. The expression of integrin β(1) , ECAD, and rac1 protein was observed in 64, 73, and 99 of SCLC tissues, respectively. The correlative analyses between integrin β(1) , ECAD, or rac1 expression and various clinical parameters did not show any statistical significance. However, the ECAD expression was associated with OS in the entire cohort. In contrast, the expression of integrin β(1) and rac1 was not associated with PFS or OS. In a subgroup analysis, patients with less than two metastasis had significantly longer OS (p = 0.047) if their tumors expressed integrin β(1) compared to those without integrin β(1) expression. In addition, OS was longer for patients with ECAD positive tumors compared to those whose tumors did not express ECAD in males (p = 0.032) and patients who never smoked (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that LD (p = 0

  15. Downregulation of Bit1 expression promotes growth, anoikis resistance, and transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells via Erk activation-dependent suppression of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Gray, Selena; Pham, Tri; Delgardo, Mychael; Nguyen, An; Do, Stephen; Ireland, Shubha Kale; Chen, Renwei; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Biliran, Hector

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondrial Bit1 protein exerts tumor-suppressive function in NSCLC through induction of anoikis and inhibition of EMT. Having this dual tumor suppressive effect, its downregulation in the established human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line resulted in potentiation of tumorigenicity and metastasis in vivo. However, the exact role of Bit1 in regulating malignant growth and transformation of human lung epithelial cells, which are origin of most forms of human lung cancers, has not been examined. To this end, we have downregulated the endogenous Bit1 expression in the immortalized non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Knockdown of Bit1 enhanced the growth and anoikis insensitivity of BEAS-2B cells. In line with their acquired anoikis resistance, the Bit1 knockdown BEAS-2B cells exhibited enhanced anchorage-independent growth in vitro but failed to form tumors in vivo. The loss of Bit1-induced transformed phenotypes was in part attributable to the repression of E-cadherin expression since forced exogenous E-cadherin expression attenuated the malignant phenotypes of the Bit1 knockdown cells. Importantly, we show that the loss of Bit1 expression in BEAS-2B cells resulted in increased Erk activation, which functions upstream to promote TLE1-mediated transcriptional repression of E-cadherin. These collective findings indicate that loss of Bit1 expression contributes to the acquisition of malignant phenotype of human lung epithelial cells via Erk activation-induced suppression of E-cadherin expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Deregulation of E-cadherin, β-catenin, APC and Caveolin-1 expression occurs in canine prostate cancer and metastatic processes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Priscila E; Fonseca-Alves, Carlos E; Rivera-Calderón, Luis G; Carvalho, Márcio; Kuasne, Hellen; Rogatto, Silvia R; Laufer-Amorim, Renée

    2018-06-01

    Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease with high levels of clinical and gene heterogeneity, consequently offering several targets for therapy. Dogs with naturally occurring prostate cancer are useful models for molecular investigations and studying new treatment efficacy. Three genes and proteins associated with the WNT pathway (β-catenin, APC and E-cadherin) and Caveolin-1 (CAV-1) were evaluated in canine pre-neoplastic proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA), prostate cancer and metastatic disease. The APC gene methylation status was also investigated. As in human prostate cancer, cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin, which are fundamental for activating the canonical WNT pathway, were found in canine prostate cancer and metastasis. Membranous E-cadherin was also lost in these lesions, allowing cellular migration to the stroma and nuclear localization of β-catenin. In contrast to human prostate tumours, no APC downregulation or hypermethylation was found in canine prostate cancer. The CAV-1 gene and protein overexpression were found in canine prostate cancer, and as in humans, the highest levels were found in Gleason scores ≥8. In conclusion, as with human prostate cancer, β-catenin and E-cadherin in the WNT pathway, as well as Caveolin-1, are molecular drivers in canine prostate cancer. These findings provide additional evidence that dogs are useful models for studying new therapeutic targets in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. E-Cadherin Antagonizes Transforming Growth Factor β1 Gene Induction in Hepatic Stellate Cells by Inhibiting RhoA–Dependent Smad3 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Il Je; Kim, Young Woo; Han, Chang Yeob; Kim, Eun Hyun; Anderson, Richard A.; Lee, Young Sok; Lee, Chang Ho; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Geon

    2011-01-01

    Cadherins mediate cell-cell adhesion and catenin (ctn)-related signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis is accompanied by the loss of E-cadherin (ECAD), which promotes the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Currently, no information is available about the inhibitory role of ECAD in hepatic stellate cell activation. Because of ECAD’s potential for inhibiting the induction of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), we investigated whether ECAD overexpression prevents TGFβ1 gene induction; we also examined what the molecular basis could be. Forced expression of ECAD decreased α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin levels and caused decreases in the constitutive and inducible expression of the TGFβ1 gene and its downstream genes. ECAD overexpression decreased Smad3 phosphorylation, weakly decreased Smad2 phosphorylation, and thus inhibited Smad reporter activity induced by either treatment with TGFβ1 or Smad3 overexpression. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of ras homolog gene family A (RhoA) diminished the ability of TGFβ1 to elicit its own gene induction. Consistently, transfection with a constitutively active mutant of RhoA reversed the inhibition of TGFβ1-inducible or Smad3-inducible reporter activity by ECAD. Studies using the mutant constructs of ECAD revealed that the p120-ctn binding domain of ECAD was responsible for TGFβ1 repression. Consistently, ECAD was capable of binding p120-ctn, which recruited RhoA; this prevented TGFβ1 from increasing RhoA-mediated Smad3 phosphorylation. In the liver samples of patients with mild or severe fibrosis, ECAD expression reciprocally correlated with the severity of fibrosis. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ECAD inhibits Smad3/2 phosphorylation by recruiting RhoA to p120-ctn at the p120-ctn binding domain, whereas the loss of ECAD due to cadherin switching promotes the up-regulation of TGFβ1 and its target genes, and facilitates liver fibrosis. PMID:20890948

  18. E-cadherin antagonizes transforming growth factor β1 gene induction in hepatic stellate cells by inhibiting RhoA-dependent Smad3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il Je; Kim, Young Woo; Han, Chang Yeob; Kim, Eun Hyun; Anderson, Richard A; Lee, Young Sok; Lee, Chang Ho; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Geon

    2010-12-01

    Cadherins mediate cell-cell adhesion and catenin (ctn)-related signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis is accompanied by the loss of E-cadherin (ECAD), which promotes the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Currently, no information is available about the inhibitory role of ECAD in hepatic stellate cell activation. Because of ECAD's potential for inhibiting the induction of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), we investigated whether ECAD overexpression prevents TGFβ1 gene induction; we also examined what the molecular basis could be. Forced expression of ECAD decreased α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin levels and caused decreases in the constitutive and inducible expression of the TGFβ1 gene and its downstream genes. ECAD overexpression decreased Smad3 phosphorylation, weakly decreased Smad2 phosphorylation, and thus inhibited Smad reporter activity induced by either treatment with TGFβ1 or Smad3 overexpression. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of ras homolog gene family A (RhoA) diminished the ability of TGFβ1 to elicit its own gene induction. Consistently, transfection with a constitutively active mutant of RhoA reversed the inhibition of TGFβ1-inducible or Smad3-inducible reporter activity by ECAD. Studies using the mutant constructs of ECAD revealed that the p120-ctn binding domain of ECAD was responsible for TGFβ1 repression. Consistently, ECAD was capable of binding p120-ctn, which recruited RhoA; this prevented TGFβ1 from increasing RhoA-mediated Smad3 phosphorylation. In the liver samples of patients with mild or severe fibrosis, ECAD expression reciprocally correlated with the severity of fibrosis. Our results demonstrate that ECAD inhibits Smad3/2 phosphorylation by recruiting RhoA to p120-ctn at the p120-ctn binding domain, whereas the loss of ECAD due to cadherin switching promotes the up-regulation of TGFβ1 and its target genes, and facilitates liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver

  19. Differential membranous E-cadherin expression, cell proliferation and O-GlcNAcylation between primary and metastatic nodal lesion in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae Jung

    2016-02-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is an O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety linked to the side chain hydroxyl of a serine or threonine residue. The E-cadherin/β-catenin system, an integral component of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)/mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET), is affected through O-GlcNAcylation. The current study examined the status of EMT/MET in both the tumor center and invasive front of the primary colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and metastatic nodal lesions, which were compared to O-GlcNAcylation expression levels in those areas. In addition, the cliniopathological significance of O-GlcNAcylation was studied Immunohistochemical staining for E-cadherin, β-catenin, Snail, O-GlcNAc and Ki67 was performed in 40 primary CRC tissues, 40 nonneoplastic colons, and 17 nodal metastatic lesions. Western blot was also conducted in primary CRC tissue Membranous E-cadherin expression was lowest in the invasive front, but showed greater increases in metastatic nodal lesions. Moreover, its expression level was negatively correlated with that of nuclear β-catenin and Snail. The Ki67 labeling index (LI) was lowest in the invasive front, and increased in metastatic nodal lesions. Primary CRC showed higher expression of O-GlcNAcylation and O-GlcNAc-transferase (OGT) than nonneoplastic colons. O-GlcNAcylation expression decreased in metastatic nodal lesions compared to the invasive front and tumor center, and was inversely correlated with Ki67 LI. However, O-GlcNAcylation expression was only slightly changed between tumor center and invasive front. In addition, there was no correlation between its expression and the level of nuclear β-catenin, membranous E-cadherin and Snail. No significant relationship was observed between O-GlcNAcylation level and cliniopathological parameters. Differential membranous E-cadherin expression, cell proliferation and O-GlcNAcylation in metastatic nodal lesion compared to primary CRC may play role in establishing its lesions

  20. Circadian locomotor output cycles kaput affects the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells by regulating the expression of E-cadherin via IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxue; Wang, Siyang; Yang, Shuhong; Ying, Junjie; Yu, Hang; Yang, Chunlei; Liu, Yanyou; Wang, Yuhui; Cheng, Shuting; Xiao, Jing; Guo, Huiling; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Zhengrong

    2018-05-01

    The circadian rhythm regulates numerous physiological activities, including sleep and wakefulness, behavior, immunity and metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that circadian rhythm disorder is associated with the occurrence of tumors. Responsible for regulating a number of functions, the Circadian locomotor output cycles kaput ( Clock ) gene is one of the core regulatory genes of circadian rhythm. The Clock gene has also been implicated in the occurrence and development of tumors in previously studies. The present study evaluated the role of the Clock gene in the proliferation and migration of mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells, and investigated its possible regulatory pathways and mechanisms. It was reported that downregulation of Clock facilitated the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Further investigation revealed the involvement of IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) protein expression in the Clock regulatory pathway, further influencing the expression of E-cadherin, a known proprietor of tumor cell migration and invasion. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report that Clock , acting through the regulation of the scaffolding protein IQGAP1, regulates the downstream expression of E-cadherin, thereby affecting tumor cell structure and motility. These results confirmed the role of Clock in breast cancer tumor etiology and provide insight regarding the molecular avenues of its regulatory nature, which may translate beyond breast cancer into other known functions of the gene.

  1. Allosteric Regulation of E-Cadherin Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Shashikanth, Nitesh; Petrova, Yuliya I; Park, Seongjin; Chekan, Jillian; Maiden, Stephanie; Spano, Martha; Ha, Taekjip; Gumbiner, Barry M; Leckband, Deborah E

    2015-08-28

    Cadherins are transmembrane adhesion proteins that maintain intercellular cohesion in all tissues, and their rapid regulation is essential for organized tissue remodeling. Despite some evidence that cadherin adhesion might be allosterically regulated, testing of this has been hindered by the difficulty of quantifying altered E-cadherin binding affinity caused by perturbations outside the ectodomain binding site. Here, measured kinetics of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion demonstrated quantitatively that treatment with activating, anti-E-cadherin antibodies or the dephosphorylation of a cytoplasmic binding partner, p120(ctn), increased the homophilic binding affinity of E-cadherin. Results obtained with Colo 205 cells, which express inactive E-cadherin and do not aggregate, demonstrated that four treatments, which induced Colo 205 aggregation and p120(ctn) dephosphorylation, triggered quantitatively similar increases in E-cadherin affinity. Several processes can alter cell aggregation, but these results directly demonstrated the allosteric regulation of cell surface E-cadherin by p120(ctn) dephosphorylation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: are potential prognostic markers?

    PubMed

    Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; Nonogaki, Suely; Nishimoto, Inês Nobuko; de Carli, Marina Lara; Landman, Gilles; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2014-06-03

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma presents with a preference for the head and neck region, and shows a distinct aggressive behavior, with frequent local recurrences, regional and distant metastasis. The alterations in the cadherin-catenin complex are fundamental requirements for the metastasis process, and this is the first study to evaluate the immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin in oral basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Seventeen cases of this tumor located exclusively in the mouth were compared to 26 cases of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and 28 cases of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma matched by stage and tumor site. The immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin were evaluated in the three groups and compared to their clinicopathological features and prognosis. For groups poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, reduction or absence of E-cadherin staining was observed in more than 80.0% of carcinomas, and it was statistically significant compared to well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p = .019). A strong expression of β-catenin was observed in 26.9% and 20.8% of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, respectively, and in 41.2% of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The 5-year and 10-year overall and disease-free survival rates demonstrated no significant differences among all three groups. The clinical and biological behavior of three groups of the oral cavity tumors evaluated are similar. E-cadherin and β-catenin immunostaining showed no prognostic value for basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinomas.

  3. Expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: are potential prognostic markers?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma presents with a preference for the head and neck region, and shows a distinct aggressive behavior, with frequent local recurrences, regional and distant metastasis. The alterations in the cadherin-catenin complex are fundamental requirements for the metastasis process, and this is the first study to evaluate the immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin in oral basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Methods Seventeen cases of this tumor located exclusively in the mouth were compared to 26 cases of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and 28 cases of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma matched by stage and tumor site. The immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin were evaluated in the three groups and compared to their clinicopathological features and prognosis. Results For groups poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, reduction or absence of E-cadherin staining was observed in more than 80.0% of carcinomas, and it was statistically significant compared to well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p = .019). A strong expression of β-catenin was observed in 26.9% and 20.8% of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, respectively, and in 41.2% of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The 5-year and 10-year overall and disease-free survival rates demonstrated no significant differences among all three groups. Conclusions The clinical and biological behavior of three groups of the oral cavity tumors evaluated are similar. E-cadherin and β-catenin immunostaining showed no prognostic value for basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:24893577

  4. Reduced expression of E-cadherin and p120-catenin and elevated expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE are associated with aggressiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Liao, Liyan; Shrestha, Chandrama; Ji, Shangli; Chen, Ying; Peng, Jian; Wang, Larry; Liao, Eryuan; Xie, Zhongjian

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most lethal malignant tumors. The cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion complex plays a major role in cancer development and progression. p120-catenin (p120) is a cytoplasmic molecule closely associated with E-cadherin which activates phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1). Our previous studies indicate that activation of PLC-γ1 plays a critical role in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration and proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) is highly expressed in SCC cells and mediates EGFR-dependent SCC cell proliferation. Our current study was to determine whether the expression of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE, is associated with OSCC. To address this issue, we assessed levels and localization of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE in specimen of 92 patients with OSCC by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of E-cadherin, and p120 negatively correlated with the tumor differentiation and the expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE positively correlated with the tumor differentiation. The expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC stage T3 + T4 or in OSCC with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that in OSCC stage T1 + T2 or in OSCC without lymph node metastasis. The expression of p120 positively correlated with levels of E-cadherin but negatively correlated with levels of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC. These data indicate that increased expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE and decreased expression of E-cadherin and p120 are associated with the aggressiveness of OSCC. PMID:26464646

  5. Influence of intra-tumoral heterogeneity on the evaluation of BCL2, E-cadherin, EGFR, EMMPRIN, and Ki-67 expression in tissue microarrays from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tramm, Trine; Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming B; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The influence of intra-tumoral heterogeneity on the evaluation of immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarker expression may affect the analytical validity of new biomarkers substantially and hence compromise the clinical utility. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of intra-tumoral heterogeneity as well as inter-observer variability on the evaluation of various IHC markers with potential prognostic impact in breast cancer (BCL2, E-cadherin, EGFR, EMMPRIN and Ki-67). From each of 27 breast cancer patients, two tumor-containing paraffin blocks were chosen. Intra-tumoral heterogeneity was evaluated (1) within a single tumor-containing paraffin block ('intra-block agreement') by comparing information from a central, a peripheral tissue microarray (TMA) core and a whole slide section (WS), (2) between two different tumor-containing blocks from the same primary tumor ('inter-block agreement') by comparing information from TMA cores (central/peripheral) and WS. IHC markers on WS and TMA cores were evaluated by two observers independently, and agreements were estimated by Kappa statistics. For BCL2, E-cadherin and EGFR, an almost perfect intra- and inter-block agreement was found. EMMPRIN and Ki-67 showed a more heterogeneous expression with moderate to substantial intra-block agreements. For both stainings, there was a moderate inter-block agreement that improved slightly for EMMPRIN, when using WS instead of TMA cores. Inter-observer agreements were found to be almost perfect for BCL2, E-cadherin and EGFR (WS: κ > 0.82, TMAs: κ > 0.90), substantial for EMMPRIN (κ > 0.63), but only fair to moderate for Ki-67 (WS: κ = 0.54, TMAs: κ = 0.33). BCL2, E-cadherin and EGFR were found to be homogeneously expressed, whereas EMMPRIN and Ki-67 showed a more pronounced degree of intra-tumoral heterogeneity. The results emphasize the importance of securing the analytical validity of new biomarkers by examining the intra-tumoral heterogeneity of

  6. E-cadherin in contact inhibition and cancer.

    PubMed

    Mendonsa, Alisha M; Na, Tae-Young; Gumbiner, Barry M

    2018-05-21

    E-cadherin is a key component of the adherens junctions that are integral in cell adhesion and maintaining epithelial phenotype of cells. Homophilic E-cadherin binding between cells is important in mediating contact inhibition of proliferation when cells reach confluence. Loss of E-cadherin expression results in loss of contact inhibition and is associated with increased cell motility and advanced stages of cancer. In this review we discuss the role of E-cadherin and its downstream signaling in regulation of contact inhibition and the development and progression of cancer.

  7. Thrombomodulin reduces tumorigenic and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells by up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of N-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nana; Huo, Zihe; Zhang, Bin; Meng, Mei; Cao, Zhifei; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Quansheng

    2016-08-05

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell membrane protein and plays critical roles in anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammation, vascular endothelial protection, and is traditionally regarded as a "vascular protection god". In recent years, although TM has been reported to be down-regulated in a variety of malignant tumors including lung cancer, the role and mechanism of TM in lung cancer are enigmatic. In this study, we found that induction of TM overexpression by cholesterol-reducing drug atorvastatin significantly diminished the tumorigenic capability of the lung cancer cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that TM overexpression caused G0/G1 phase arrest and markedly reduced the colony forming capability of the cells. Furthermore, overexpression of TM inhibited cell migration and invasion. Consistently, depletion of TM promoted cell growth, reduced the cell population at the G0/G1 phase, and enhanced cell migratory ability. Mechanistic study revealed that TM up-regulated E-cadherin but down-regulated N-cadherin expression, resulting in reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the lung cancer cells. Moreover, silencing TM expression led to decreased E-cadherin and increased N-cadherin. Taken together, our study suggests that TM functions as a tumor suppressive protein, providing a conceptual framework for inducing TM overexpression as a sensible strategy and approach for novel anti-lung cancer drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The N-Myc down regulated Gene1 (NDRG1) Is a Rab4a effector involved in vesicular recycling of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Kachhap, Sushant K; Faith, Dennis; Qian, David Z; Shabbeer, Shabana; Galloway, Nathan L; Pili, Roberto; Denmeade, Samuel R; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Carducci, Michael A

    2007-09-05

    Cell to cell adhesion is mediated by adhesion molecules present on the cell surface. Downregulation of molecules that form the adhesion complex is a characteristic of metastatic cancer cells. Downregulation of the N-myc down regulated gene1 (NDRG1) increases prostate and breast metastasis. The exact function of NDRG1 is not known. Here by using live cell confocal microscopy and in vitro reconstitution, we report that NDRG1 is involved in recycling the adhesion molecule E-cadherin thereby stabilizing it. Evidence is provided that NDRG1 recruits on recycling endosomes in the Trans Golgi network by binding to phosphotidylinositol 4-phosphate and interacts with membrane bound Rab4aGTPase. NDRG1 specifically interacts with constitutively active Rab4aQ67L mutant protein and not with GDP-bound Rab4aS22N mutant proving NDRG1 as a novel Rab4a effector. Transferrin recycling experiments reveals NDRG1 colocalizes with transferrin during the recycling phase. NDRG1 alters the kinetics of transferrin recycling in cells. NDRG1 knockdown cells show a delay in recycling transferrin, conversely NDRG1 overexpressing cells reveal an increase in rate of transferrin recycling. This novel finding of NDRG1 as a recycling protein involved with recycling of E-cadherin will aid in understanding NDRG1 role as a metastasis suppressor protein.

  9. E-cadherin determines Caveolin-1 tumor suppression or metastasis enhancing function in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lobos-González, L; Aguilar, L; Diaz, J; Diaz, N; Urra, H; Torres, V; Silva, V; Fitzpatrick, C; Lladser, A; Hoek, K.S.; Leyton, L; Quest, AFG

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The role of caveolin-1 (CAV1) in cancer is highly controversial. CAV1 suppresses genes that favor tumor development, yet also promotes focal adhesion turnover and migration of metastatic cells. How these contrasting observations relate to CAV1 function in vivo is unclear. Our previous studies implicate E-cadherin in CAV1-dependent tumor suppression. Here we use murine melanoma B16F10 cells, with low levels of endogenous CAV1 and E-cadherin, to unravel how CAV1 affects tumor growth and metastasis, and to assess how co-expression of E-cadherin modulates CAV1 function in vivo in C57BL/6 mice. We find that overexpression of CAV1 in B16F10(cav-1) cells reduces subcutaneous tumor formation, but enhances metastasis relative to control cells. Furthermore, E-cadherin expression in B16F10(E-cad) cells reduces subcutaneous tumor formation, and lung metastasis when intravenously injected. Importantly, co-expression of CAV1 and E-cadherin in B16F10(cav1/E-cad) cells abolishes tumor formation, lung metastasis, increased Rac-1 activity and cell migration observed with B16F10(cav-1) cells. Finally, consistent with the notion that CAV1 participates in switching human melanomas to a more malignant phenotype, elevated levels of CAV1 expression correlated with enhanced migration and Rac-1 activation in these cells. PMID:23470013

  10. Low PIP4K2B expression in human breast tumors correlates with reduced patient survival: A role for PIP4K2B in the regulation of E-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    Keune, Willem-Jan; Sims, Andrew H; Jones, David R; Bultsma, Yvette; Lynch, James T; Jirström, Karin; Landberg, Goran; Divecha, Nullin

    2013-12-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PtdIns5P) 4-kinase β (PIP4K2B) directly regulates the levels of two important phosphoinositide second messengers, PtdIns5P and phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. PIP4K2B has been linked to the regulation of gene transcription, to TP53 and AKT activation, and to the regulation of cellular reactive oxygen accumulation. However, its role in human tumor development and on patient survival is not known. Here, we have interrogated the expression of PIP4K2B in a cohort (489) of patients with breast tumor using immunohistochemical staining and by a meta-analysis of gene expression profiles from 2,999 breast tumors, both with associated clinical outcome data. Low PIP4K2B expression was associated with increased tumor size, high Nottingham histological grade, Ki67 expression, and distant metastasis, whereas high PIP4K2B expression strongly associated with ERBB2 expression. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that both high and low PIP4K2B expression correlated with poorer patient survival compared with intermediate expression. In normal (MCF10A) and tumor (MCF7) breast epithelial cell lines, mimicking low PIP4K2B expression, using short hairpin RNA interference-mediated knockdown, led to a decrease in the transcription and expression of the tumor suppressor protein E-cadherin (CDH1). In MCF10A cells, knockdown of PIP4K2B enhanced TGF-β-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process required during the development of metastasis. Analysis of gene expression datasets confirmed the association between low PIP4K2B and low CDH1expression. Decreased CDH1 expression and enhancement of TGF-β-induced EMT by reduced PIP4K2B expression might, in part, explain the association between low PIP4K2B expression and poor patient survival.

  11. Effects of CD44 and E-cadherin overexpression on the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Meiya; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Jin, Bohong; Zhang, Fubin; Zhu, Linyan; Cui, Lining

    2017-12-01

    CD44 is a prognostic indicator of shorter survival time in ovarian cancer. E-cadherin fragmentation promotes the progression of ovarian cancer. However, the effects of CD44 and E-cadherin overexpression on ovarian cancer cells have remained elusive. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin on cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin was achieved by transfecting SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells with viruses carrying the CD44 or E-cadherin gene, respectively. Expression of CD44 and E-cadherin was detected by western blot analysis. The proliferation of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was measured by a Cell Counting Kit-8 at 0, 24 and 48 h after viral transfection. The adhesion ability of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells to the endothelial layer was detected. A Transwell invasion assay was utilized to assess the invasion ability of the cells. Overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was confirmed by western blot. Compared with the blank or negative control groups, the CD44 overexpression groups of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells exhibited an increased cell proliferation rate at 24 and 48 h, whereas overexpression of E-cadherin did not alter the proliferation of these cells. Furthermore, compared with the blank and negative control groups, the cell adhesion and invasion ability in the CD44 overexpression groups of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was markedly higher. There were no significant differences in adhesion ability between the E-cadherin overexpression group and the blank/negative control group. Of note, overexpression of E-cadherin decreased the invasive ability of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. In conclusion, Overexpression of CD44 increased the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, while overexpression of E-cadherin decreased the invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

  12. EXPRESSION OF E-CADHERIN AND WNT PATHWAY PROTEINS BETACATENIN, APC, TCF-4 AND SURVIVIN IN GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA: CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL IMPLICATION.

    PubMed

    Lins, Rodrigo Rego; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Oliveira, Levindo Alves de; Silva, Marcelo Souza; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antonio; Waisberg, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.It has been reported that Wnt/ betacatenin pathway is activated in 30-50% of these tumors. However,the deregulation of this pathway has not been fully elucidated. To determine the expression of E-cadherin, betacatenin, APC, TCF-4 and survivin proteins in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and correlate with clinical and pathological parameters. Seventy-one patients with gastric adenocarcinoma undergoing gastrectomy were enrolled. The expression of E-cadherin, betacatenin, APC, TCF-4 and survivin proteins was detected by immunohistochemistryand related to the clinical and pathological parameters. The expression rates of E-cadherin in the membrane was 3%; betacatenin in the cytoplasm and nucleus were 23,4% and 3,1% respectively; APC in the cytoplasm was 94,6%; TCF-4 in the nucleus was 19,4%; and survivin in the nucleus 93,9%. The expression rate of E-cadherin was correlated with older patients (p=0,007), while betacatenin with tumors <5 cm (p=0,041) and APC with proximal tumors (p=0,047). Moreover, the expression of TCF-4 was significantly higher in the diffuse type (p=0,017) and T4 tumors (p=0,002). The Wnt/betacatenin is not involved in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the high frequency of survivin allows to suggest that other signaling pathways must be involved in the transformation of gastric tissue. O câncer gástrico encontra-se entre as principais neoplasias malignas do mundo sendo o quinto mais incidente e o terceiro em relação ao índice de mortalidade. Acredita-se que a via Wnt/betacatenina esteja ativada em 30-50% desses tumores, porém a desregulação dela ainda não está completamente esclarecida. Avaliar a imunoexpressão das proteínas E-caderina, betacatenina, APC, TCF-4 e survivina em tecidos de adenocarcinoma gástrico e correlacioná-las com as variáveis clínicas dos doentes e anatomopatológicas do tumor. Foram coletados os dados

  13. WNT7a induces E-cadherin in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tatsuo; Gemmill, Robert M; Ferguson, Kevin; Kusy, Sophie; Roche, Joëlle; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Zeng, Chan; Baron, Anna; Bemis, Lynne; Erickson, Paul; Wilder, Elizabeth; Rustgi, Anil; Kitajewski, Jan; Gabrielson, Edward; Bremnes, Roy; Franklin, Wilbur; Drabkin, Harry A

    2003-09-02

    E-cadherin loss in cancer is associated with de-differentiation, invasion, and metastasis. Drosophila DE-cadherin is regulated by Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, although this has not been demonstrated in mammalian cells. We previously reported that expression of WNT7a, encoded on 3p25, was frequently downregulated in lung cancer, and that loss of E-cadherin or beta-catenin was a poor prognostic feature. Here we show that WNT7a both activates E-cadherin expression via a beta-catenin specific mechanism in lung cancer cells and is involved in a positive feedback loop. Li+, a GSK3 beta inhibitor, led to E-cadherin induction in an inositol-independent manner. Similarly, exposure to mWNT7a specifically induced free beta-catenin and E-cadherin. Among known transcriptional suppressors of E-cadherin, ZEB1 was uniquely correlated with E-cadherin loss in lung cancer cell lines, and its inhibition by RNA interference resulted in E-cadherin induction. Pharmacologic reversal of E-cadherin and WNT7a losses was achieved with Li+, histone deacetylase inhibition, or in some cases only with combined inhibitors. Our findings provide support that E-cadherin induction by WNT/beta-catenin signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway operative in lung cancer cells, and that loss of WNT7a expression may be important in lung cancer development or progression by its effects on E-cadherin.

  14. DNA-methylation analysis identifies the E-cadherin gene as a potential marker of disease progression in patients with monoclonal gammopathies.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Sonja; Ackermann, Jutta; Kaufmann, Hannes; Keck, Andrea; Nösslinger, Thomas; Zielinski, Christoph C; Drach, Johannes; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine

    2004-06-15

    Silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) by aberrant methylation (referred to as methylation) contributes to the pathogenesis of various human malignancies. However, little is known about the methylation of known and putative TSGs in monoclonal gammopathies. Thus, the authors investigated the methylation frequencies of 10 genes in patients with monoclonal gammopathies. The methylation patterns of the genes p16(INK4a) (p16), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), p15(INK4b) (p15), E-cadherin (ECAD), death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), p73, RAS-association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), p14, O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), and retinoid acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta) were determined in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; n = 29), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM; n = 5), multiple myeloma (MM; n = 113), or plasma cell leukemia (PCL; n = 7) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. Methylation frequencies for p16, TIMP3, p15, ECAD, DAPK, p73, RASSF1A, p14, MGMT, and RARbeta were as follows: 28%, 35%, 10%, 0%, 17%, 21%, 14%, 14%, 7%, and 0%, respectively, in patients with MGUS and 36%, 29%, 27%, 27%, 22%, 15%, 15%, 9%, 4%, and 0%, respectively, in patients with MM. Methylation of at least 1 of these genes was detected in 79% of patients with MGUS and in 80% of patients with MM. Although methylation of ECAD was not detected in patients with MGUS, it was observed frequently in patients with MM and with even greater frequency in patients with PCL. It is noteworthy that an association was found between ECAD methylation and poor prognostic markers in patients with MM. Methylation of certain genes can be detected frequently in patients with monoclonal gammopathies. The current data suggest that methylation of ECAD is a marker of disease progression in patients with MM and PCL. Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.

  15. E-Cadherin As A Chemotherapy Resistance Mechanism On Metastatic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    chemotherapy. REPORTABLE OUTCOMES Publications 1. Chao Y, Wu Q, Shepard C, and Wells A. “Hepatocyte induced re-expression of E-cadherin in breast...Microenvironment (Appendix 2) 3. Chao Y*, Shepard CR*, Wells A (2010). Breast carcinoma cells re-express E-cadherin during mesenchymal to epithelial...Metastases.” Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists. Redondo Beach, PA. June 2009. 2. Chao Y, Shepard CR, Wells, A. “E-cadherin

  16. Synthetic Lethal Screens Identify Vulnerabilities in GPCR Signaling and Cytoskeletal Organization in E-Cadherin-Deficient Cells.

    PubMed

    Telford, Bryony J; Chen, Augustine; Beetham, Henry; Frick, James; Brew, Tom P; Gould, Cathryn M; Single, Andrew; Godwin, Tanis; Simpson, Kaylene J; Guilford, Parry

    2015-05-01

    The CDH1 gene, which encodes the cell-to-cell adhesion protein E-cadherin, is frequently mutated in lobular breast cancer (LBC) and diffuse gastric cancer (DGC). However, because E-cadherin is a tumor suppressor protein and lost from the cancer cell, it is not a conventional drug target. To overcome this, we have taken a synthetic lethal approach to determine whether the loss of E-cadherin creates druggable vulnerabilities. We first conducted a genome-wide siRNA screen of isogenic MCF10A cells with and without CDH1 expression. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated that G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling proteins were highly enriched among the synthetic lethal candidates. Diverse families of cytoskeletal proteins were also frequently represented. These broad classes of E-cadherin synthetic lethal hits were validated using both lentiviral-mediated shRNA knockdown and specific antagonists, including the JAK inhibitor LY2784544, Pertussis toxin, and the aurora kinase inhibitors alisertib and danusertib. Next, we conducted a 4,057 known drug screen and time course studies on the CDH1 isogenic MCF10A cell lines and identified additional drug classes with linkages to GPCR signaling and cytoskeletal function that showed evidence of E-cadherin synthetic lethality. These included multiple histone deacetylase inhibitors, including vorinostat and entinostat, PI3K inhibitors, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitors crizotinib and saracatinib. Together, these results demonstrate that E-cadherin loss creates druggable vulnerabilities that have the potential to improve the management of both sporadic and familial LBC and DGC. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Numb controls E-cadherin endocytosis through p120 catenin with aPKC

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Takashi; Wang, Shujie; Kakeno, Mai; Matsuzawa, Kenji; Matsui, Toshinori; Yokoi, Keiko; Murase, Kiyoko; Sugiyama, Ikuko; Ozawa, Masayuki; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    Cadherin trafficking controls tissue morphogenesis and cell polarity. The endocytic adaptor Numb participates in apicobasal polarity by acting on intercellular adhesions in epithelial cells. However, it remains largely unknown how Numb controls cadherin-based adhesion. Here, we found that Numb directly interacted with p120 catenin (p120), which is known to interact with E-cadherin and prevent its internalization. Numb accumulated at intercellular adhesion sites and the apical membrane in epithelial cells. Depletion of Numb impaired E-cadherin internalization, whereas depletion of p120 accelerated internalization. Expression of the Numb-binding fragment of p120 inhibited E-cadherin internalization in a dominant-negative fashion, indicating that Numb interacts with the E-cadherin/p120 complex and promotes E-cadherin endocytosis. Impairment of Numb induced mislocalization of E-cadherin from the lateral membrane to the apical membrane. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a member of the PAR complex, phosphorylated Numb and inhibited its association with p120 and α-adaptin. Depletion or inhibition of aPKC accelerated E-cadherin internalization. Wild-type Numb restored E-cadherin internalization in the Numb-depleted cells, whereas a phosphomimetic mutant or a mutant with defective α-adaptin-binding ability did not restore the internalization. Thus, we propose that aPKC phosphorylates Numb to prevent its binding to p120 and α-adaptin, thereby attenuating E-cadherin endocytosis to maintain apicobasal polarity. PMID:21775625

  18. Down-regulation of E-cadherin and catenins in human pituitary growth hormone-producing adenomas.

    PubMed

    Sano, Toshiaki; Rong, Qian Zhi; Kagawa, Noriko; Yamada, Shozo

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenomas can be ultrastructurally divided into two major types: densely granulated and sparsely granulated. The latter type of adenoma characteristically exhibits globular accumulations of cytokeratin filaments known as fibrous bodies, which are immunohistochemically identifiable as juxtanuclear dot-like immunoreactivity. We hypothesize that the formation of fibrous body might be related to dysfunction of adhesion molecules, because of the functional relationship between intermediate filaments and the cadherin-catenin complex and frequent observation of loss of cohesiveness of the adenoma cells. Our recent immunohistochemical study showed that expression of E-cadherin and its undercoat proteins, alpha-, beta- and gamma-catenin, in GH cell adenomas with prominent fibrous bodies was significantly reduced compared with GH cell adenomas without fibrous bodies and the normal adenohypophysial cells. Although no mutation of exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene was found in any GH cell adenomas with fibrous bodies, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the E-cadherin promoter region was methylated in 37.5% of these adenomas, two of which displayed total methylation, but not in GH cell adenomas without fibrous bodies. We conclude that the decreased expression of the E-cadherin-catenin complex and methylation of the E-cadherin gene promoter region are events associated with the formation of fibrous bodies in GH cell adenomas. It remains to be clarified to explain the mechanism by which down-regulation of adhesion molecules is involved in the abnormal assembly of intermediate filaments.

  19. Cooperativity of E-cadherin and Smad4 loss to promote diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Won; Jang, Seok Hoon; Park, Dong Min; Lim, Na Jung; Deng, Chuxia; Kim, Dae Yong; Green, Jeffrey E; Kim, Hark Kyun

    2014-08-01

    Loss of E-cadherin (CDH1), Smad4, and p53 has been shown to play an integral role in gastric, intestinal, and breast cancer formation. Compound conditional knockout mice for Smad4, p53, and E-cadherin were generated to define and compare the roles of these genes in gastric, intestinal, and breast cancer development by crossing with Pdx-1-Cre, Villin-Cre, and MMTV-Cre transgenic mice. Interestingly, gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly more frequent in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice than in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(+/+) mice, demonstrating that Cdh1 heterozygosity accelerates the development and progression of gastric adenocarcinoma, in combination with loss of Smad4 and p53. Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice developed gastric adenocarcinomas without E-cadherin expression. However, intestinal and mammary adenocarcinomas with the same genetic background retained E-cadherin expression and were phenotypically similar to mice with both wild-type Cdh1 alleles. Lung metastases were identified in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice, but not in the other genotypes. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation was identified at the invasive tumor front of gastric adenocarcinomas arising in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice. This phenotype was less prominent in mice with intact E-cadherin or Smad4, indicating that the inhibition of β-catenin signaling by E-cadherin or Smad4 downregulates signaling pathways involved in metastases in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice. Knockdown of β-catenin significantly inhibited the migratory activity of Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) cell lines. Thus, loss of E-cadherin and Smad4 cooperates with p53 loss to promote the development and metastatic progression of gastric adenocarcinomas, with similarities to human gastric adenocarcinoma. This study demonstrates that inhibition of β-catenin is a converging node for the antimetastatic signaling

  20. E-cadherin Mediates the Preventive Effect of Vitamin D3 in Colitis-associated Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yu; He, Longmei; Luan, Zijian; Lv, Hong; Yang, Hong; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Xinhua; Zhou, Weixun; Yu, Songlin; Tan, Bei; Wang, Hongying; Qian, Jiaming

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin D3 is beneficial in ameliorating or preventing inflammation and carcinogenesis. Here, we evaluated if vitamin D3 has a preventive effect on colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Administration of azoxymethane (AOM), followed with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), was used to simulate colitis-associated colon cancer in mice. The supplement of vitamin D3 at different dosages (15, 30, 60 IU·g·w), started before AOM or immediately after DSS treatment (post 60), was sustained to the end of the experiment. Dietary vitamin D3 significantly reduced the number of tumors and tumor burden in a dose-dependent manner. Of note, vitamin D3 in high doses showed significant preventive effects on carcinogenesis regardless of administration before or after AOM-DSS treatment. Cell proliferation decreased in vitamin D3 groups compared with the control group after inhibition of expression of β-catenin and its downstream target gene cyclin D1 in the colon. In vitro, vitamin D3 reduced the transcriptional activity and nuclear level of β-catenin, and it also increased E-cadherin expression and its binding affinity for β-catenin. Moreover, repression of E-cadherin was rescued by supplemental vitamin D3 in mouse colons. Taken together, our results indicate that vitamin D3 effectively suppressed colonic carcinogenesis in the AOM-DSS mouse model. Our findings further suggest that upregulation of E-cadherin contributes to the preventive effect of vitamin D3 on β-catenin activity.

  1. E-Cadherin/β-Catenin Complex: A Target for Anticancer and Antimetastasis Plants/Plant-derived Compounds.

    PubMed

    Tafrihi, Majid; Nakhaei Sistani, Roohollah

    2017-07-01

    Plants reputed to have cancer-inhibiting potential and putative active components derived from those plants have emerged as an exciting new field in cancer study. Some of these compounds have cancer-inhibiting potential in different clinical staging levels, especially metastasis. A few of them which stabilize cell-cell adhesions are controversial topics. This review article introduces some effective herbal compounds that target E-cadherin/β-catenin protein complex. In this article, at first, we briefly review the structure and function of E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins, Wnt signaling pathway, and its target genes. Then, effective compounds of the Teucrium persicum, Teucrium polium, Allium sativum (garlic), Glycine max (soy), and Brassica oleracea (broccoli) plants, which influence stability and cellular localization of E-cadherin/β-catenin complex, were studied. Based on literature review, there are some compounds in these plants, including genistein of soy, sulforaphane of broccoli, organosulfur compounds of garlic, and the total extract of Teucrium genus that change the expression of variety of Wnt target genes such as MMPs, E-cadherin, p21, p53, c-myc, and cyclin D1. So they may induce cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis and/or inhibition of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and metastasis.

  2. Abrogation of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contact in mouse embryonic stem cells results in reversible LIF-independent self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Soncin, Francesca; Mohamet, Lisa; Eckardt, Dominik; Ritson, Sarah; Eastham, Angela M; Bobola, Nicoletta; Russell, Angela; Davies, Steve; Kemler, Rolf; Merry, Catherine L R; Ward, Christopher M

    2009-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells is associated with downregulation of cell surface E-cadherin. In this study, we assessed the function of E-cadherin in mouse ES cell pluripotency and differentiation. We show that inhibition of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contact in ES cells using gene knockout (Ecad(-/-)), RNA interference (EcadRNAi), or a transhomodimerization-inhibiting peptide (CHAVC) results in cellular proliferation and maintenance of an undifferentiated phenotype in fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Re-expression of E-cadherin in Ecad(-/-), EcadRNAi, and CHAVC-treated ES cells restores cellular dependence to LIF supplementation. Although reversal of the LIF-independent phenotype in Ecad(-/-) ES cells is dependent on the beta-catenin binding domain of E-cadherin, we show that beta-catenin null (betacat(-/-)) ES cells also remain undifferentiated in the absence of LIF. This suggests that LIF-independent self-renewal of Ecad(-/-) ES cells is unlikely to be via beta-catenin signaling. Exposure of Ecad(-/-), EcadRNAi, and CHAVC-treated ES cells to the activin receptor-like kinase inhibitor SB431542 led to differentiation of the cells, which could be prevented by re-expression of E-cadherin. To confirm the role of transforming growth factor beta family signaling in the self-renewal of Ecad(-/-) ES cells, we show that these cells maintain an undifferentiated phenotype when cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with Activin A and Nodal, with fibroblast growth factor 2 required for cellular proliferation. We conclude that transhomodimerization of E-cadherin protein is required for LIF-dependent ES cell self-renewal and that multiple self-renewal signaling networks subsist in ES cells, with activity dependent upon the cellular context.

  3. Disruption of basement membrane, extracellular matrix metalloproteinases and E-cadherin in renal-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morell-Quadreny, L; Rubio, Jose; Lopez-Guerrero, Jose Antonio; Casanova, Juan; Ramos, D; Iborra, Inmaculada; Solsona, Eduardo; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine the prognostic value of Basement Membrane (BM) integrity, Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and E-Cadherin expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). An immunohistochemical study on laminin and collagen IV, MMPs 1 and 2, and E-Cadherin was carried out on 71 RCCs. BM fragmentation was considered taking 75% as a cut-off. MMP 1 and MMP2 immunostaining, as well as E-Cadherin was considered taking 25% as a cut-off. An inverse relationship was seen between E-Cadherin with laminin, collagen IV and MMPs. More than 75% loss of laminin, collagen IV and E-Cadherin, as well as higher expression of MMPs, were associated with symptoms, tumoral size and worse grade. Loss of collagen IV and E-Cadherin were of prognostic value. Both BM and E-Cadherin are good prognostic markers. MMPs patterns show a relationship between BM proteins and E-Cadherin, but evaluation is more time-consuming and provide no better prognostication; consequently they are not useful in routine clinical applications.

  4. Antioxidants Maintain E-Cadherin Levels to Limit Drosophila Prohemocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongjuan; Wu, Xiaorong; Simon, LaTonya; Fossett, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate a variety of biological processes by networking with signal transduction pathways to maintain homeostasis and support adaptation to stress. In this capacity, ROS have been shown to promote the differentiation of progenitor cells, including mammalian embryonic and hematopoietic stem cells and Drosophila hematopoietic progenitors (prohemocytes). However, many questions remain about how ROS alter the regulatory machinery to promote progenitor differentiation. Here, we provide evidence for the hypothesis that ROS reduce E-cadherin levels to promote Drosophila prohemocyte differentiation. Specifically, we show that knockdown of the antioxidants, Superoxide dismutatase 2 and Catalase reduce E-cadherin protein levels prior to the loss of Odd-skipped-expressing prohemocytes. Additionally, over-expression of E-cadherin limits prohemocyte differentiation resulting from paraquat-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, two established targets of ROS, Enhancer of Polycomb and FOS, control the level of E-cadherin protein expression. Finally, we show that knockdown of either Superoxide dismutatase 2 or Catalase leads to an increase in the E-cadherin repressor, Serpent. As a result, antioxidants and targets of ROS can control E-cadherin protein levels, and over-expression of E-cadherin can ameliorate the prohemocyte response to oxidative stress. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that ROS promote differentiation by reducing E-cadherin levels. In mammalian systems, ROS promote embryonic stem cell differentiation, whereas E-cadherin blocks differentiation. However, it is not known if elevated ROS reduce E-cadherin to promote embryonic stem cell differentiation. Thus, our findings may have identified an important mechanism by which ROS promote stem/progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:25226030

  5. E-cadherin and beta-catenin are down-regulated in prostatic bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Bryden, A A G; Hoyland, J A; Freemont, A J; Clarke, N W; Schembri Wismayer, D; George, N J R

    2002-03-01

    To determine the E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression phenotype in untreated primary prostate cancer and corresponding bone metastases. Paired bone metastasis and primary prostate specimens were obtained from 14 men with untreated metastatic prostate carcinoma. The tumours were histologically graded by an independent pathologist. Expression of mRNA for E-cadherin and beta-catenin was detected within the tumour cells using in-situ hybridization with a 35S-labelled cDNA probe. The expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin were graded as uniform, heterogeneous or negative. The mRNA for E-cadherin was expressed in 13 of 14 primary carcinomas and 11 bone metastases; beta-catenin was expressed by 13 and nine, respectively. Of the primary tumours, nine expressed E-cadherin and beta-catenin uniformly; in contrast, all metastases had down-regulated E-cadherin and/or beta-catenin. The down-regulation of E-cadherin and beta-catenin are a feature of the metastatic phenotype, which may be a significant factor in the genesis of bone metastases. However, this does not appear to be reflected in the expression of these molecules in the primary tumours.

  6. Colorectal laterally spreading tumors show characteristic expression of cell polarity factors, including atypical protein kinase C λ/ι, E-cadherin, β-catenin and basement membrane component.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Yasushi; Nagashima, Yoji; Morioka, Kaori; Akimoto, Kazunori; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Goto, Ayumu; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Fujii, Shoichi; Kawamata, Mayumi; Takagawa, Ryo; Kunizaki, Chikara; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin; Shimada, Hiroshi; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Ohno, Shigeo; Endo, Itaru

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal flat-type tumors include laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) and flat depressed-type tumors. The former of which shows a predominant lateral spreading growth rather than an invasive growth. The present study examined the morphological characteristics of LSTs, in comparison with polypoid- or flat depressed-type tumors, along with the expression of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) λ/ι, a pivotal cell polarity regulator, and the hallmarks of cell polarity, as well as with type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. In total, 37 flat-type (24 LSTs and 13 flat depressed-type tumors) and 20 polypoid-type colorectal tumors were examined. The LSTs were classified as 15 LST adenoma (LST-A) and nine LST cancer in adenoma (LST-CA). An immunohistochemical examination was performed on aPKC λ/ι, type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. The LST-A and -CA showed a superficial replacing growth pattern, with expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin in the basolateral membrane and type IV collagen along the basement membrane. In addition, 86.6% of LST-A and 55.6% of LST-CA showed aPKC λ/ι expression of 1+ (weak to normal intensity staining in the cytoplasm compared with the normal epithelium). Furthermore, ~45% of the polypoid-type adenomas showed 2+ (moderate intensity staining in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus) and 66.7% of the polypoid-type cancer in adenoma were 3+ (strong intensity staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus). A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the expression of aPKC λ/ι and β-catenin (r=0.842; P<0.001), or type IV collagen (r=0.823; P<0.001). The LSTs showed a unique growth pattern, different from the expanding growth pattern presented by a polypoid tumor and invasive cancer. The growth characteristics of LST appear to be caused by adequate coexpression of β-catenin, type IV collagen and aPKC λ/ι.

  7. The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) variants T340A and L599V in gastric and colorectal cancer patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H; Wheeler, J; Kim, J; Ilyas, M; Beck, N; Kim, B; Park, K; Bodmer, W

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION—Germline mutations in E-cadherin (CDH1) have been reported in families with early onset, diffuse gastric cancer. More recently, mutations in CDH1 have been described in colorectal cancer cell lines.
AIMS—We have investigated if germline mutations in CDH1 occur among different groups of Korean gastric and colorectal cancer patients, with and without a positive family history.
METHODS—We studied 131 patients and 168 normal controls (88 Korean and 80 non-Korean). Patients were divided into five groups: group I, 20 gastric cancer patients with a family history; group II, 26 colorectal cancer patients with a family history of gastric cancer (those from familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindred were excluded); group III, 16 HNPCC patients without identified germline mutations in hMLH1 and hMSH2; group IV, 35 gastric cancer patients without a family history; and group V, 34 colorectal cancer patients without a family history. Polymerase chain reaction, single strand conformational polymorphism analysis, direct sequencing, and genotyping for identified variants were performed.
RESULTS—Several germline changes in CDH1 were found. In addition to previously described polymorphisms, we found three novel changes, two of which were missense changes (T340A and L599V). T340A was present in one patient in group III and one in group V. L599V was present in one patient in group II, in two in group III, and in one in group IV. T340A was not found in normal controls while L599V was present in two of 88 Korean controls. Patients with these variants may appear to have a tendency to early onset cancer with a positive family history, although differences in frequencies did not reach statistical significance. Genotyping results suggest that these variants might have a common origin, particularly T340A.
CONCLUSION—We have described two new missense germline variants in CDH1 in various groups

  8. CD8 T-cells and E-cadherin in host responses against oropharyngeal candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Quimby, K.; Lilly, E.A.; Zacharek, M.; McNulty, K.; Leigh, J.E.; Vazquez, J.E.; Fidel, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is the most common oral infection in HIV+ persons. Previous studies suggest a role for CD8+ T-cells against OPC when CD4+ T-cells are lost, but enhanced susceptibility to infection occurs when CD8+ T-cell migration is inhibited by reduced tissue E-cadherin. Objective Conduct a longitudinal study of tissue CD8+ T-cells and E-cadherin expression before, during, and after episodes of OPC. Methods Oral fungal burden was monitored and tissue was evaluated for CD8+ T-cells and E-cadherin over a one-year period in HIV+ persons with a history of, or an acute episode of OPC. Results While longitudinal analyses precluded formal interpretations, point prevalence analyses of the dataset revealed that when patients experiencing OPC were successfully treated, tissue E-cadherin expression was similar to patients who had not experienced OPC, and higher numbers of CD8+ T-cells were distributed throughout OPC− tissue under normal expression of E-cadherin. Conclusion These results suggest that 1) reduction in tissue E-cadherin expression in OPC+ patients is not permanent, and 2) high numbers of CD8+ T-cells can be distributed throughout OPC− tissue under normal E-cadherin expression. Together these results extend our previous studies and continue to support a role for CD8+ T-cells in host defense against OPC. PMID:21958417

  9. Drosophila E-Cadherin Functions in Hematopoietic Progenitors to Maintain Multipotency and Block Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongjuan; Wu, Xiaorong; Fossett, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in stem cell biology concerns the regulatory strategies that control the choice between multipotency and differentiation. Drosophila blood progenitors or prohemocytes exhibit key stem cell characteristics, including multipotency, quiescence, and niche dependence. As a result, studies of Drosophila hematopoiesis have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms that control these processes. Here, we show that E-cadherin is an important regulator of prohemocyte fate choice, maintaining prohemocyte multipotency and blocking differentiation. These functions are reminiscent of the role of E-cadherin in mammalian embryonic stem cells. We also show that mis-expression of E-cadherin in differentiating hemocytes disrupts the boundary between these cells and undifferentiated prohemocytes. Additionally, upregulation of E-cadherin in differentiating hemocytes increases the number of intermediate cell types expressing the prohemocyte marker, Patched. Furthermore, our studies indicate that the Drosophila GATA transcriptional co-factor, U-shaped, is required for E-cadherin expression. Consequently, E-cadherin is a downstream target of U-shaped in the maintenance of prohemocyte multipotency. In contrast, we showed that forced expression of the U-shaped GATA-binding partner, Serpent, repressed E-cadherin expression and promoted lamellocyte differentiation. Thus, U-shaped may maintain E-cadherin expression by blocking the inhibitory activity of Serpent. Collectively, these observations suggest that GATA:FOG complex formation regulates E-cadherin levels and, thereby, the choice between multipotency and differentiation. The work presented in this report further defines the molecular basis of prohemocyte cell fate choice, which will provide important insights into the mechanisms that govern stem cell biology. PMID:24040319

  10. E-cadherin is required for cranial neural crest migration in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chaolie; Kratzer, Marie-Claire; Wedlich, Doris; Kashef, Jubin

    2016-03-15

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a highly motile and multipotent embryonic cell population, which migrates directionally on defined routes throughout the embryo, contributing to facial structures including cartilage, bone and ganglia. Cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion is known to play a crucial role in the directional migration of CNC cells. However, migrating CNC co-express different cadherin subtypes, and their individual roles have yet to be fully explored. In previous studies, the expression of individual cadherin subtypes has been analysed using different methods with varying sensitivities, preventing the direct comparison of expression levels. Here, we provide the first comprehensive and comparative analysis of the expression of six cadherin superfamily members during different phases of CNC cell migration in Xenopus. By applying a quantitative RT-qPCR approach, we can determine the copy number and abundance of each expressed cadherin through different phases of CNC migration. Using this approach, we show for the first time expression of E-cadherin and XB/C-cadherin in CNC cells, adding them as two new members of cadherins co-expressed during CNC migration. Cadherin co-expression during CNC migration in Xenopus, in particular the constant expression of E-cadherin, contradicts the classical epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) model postulating a switch in cadherin expression. Loss-of-function experiments further show that E-cadherin is required for proper CNC cell migration in vivo and also for cell protrusion formation in vitro. Knockdown of E-cadherin is not rescued by co-injection of other classical cadherins, pointing to a specific function of E-cadherin in mediating CNC cell migration. Finally, through reconstitution experiments with different E-cadherin deletion mutants in E-cadherin morphant embryos, we demonstrate that the extracellular domain, but not the cytoplasmic domain, of E-cadherin is sufficient to rescue CNC cell migration in vivo

  11. ZEB1 overexpression associated with E-cadherin and microRNA-200 downregulation is characteristic of undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pérez, Laura; López-García, M Ángeles; Díaz-Martín, Juan; Biscuola, Michele; Castilla, M Ángeles; Tafe, Laura J; Garg, Karuna; Oliva, Esther; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Soslow, Robert A; Palacios, José

    2013-11-01

    Undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are very aggressive high-grade endometrial carcinomas that are frequently under-recognized. This study aimed to analyze the molecular alterations underlying the development of these endometrial carcinomas, focusing on those related to dedifferentiation. We assessed a series of 120 tumors: 57 grade 1 and 2 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, 15 grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, 27 endometrial serous carcinomas, and 21 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas. We found a high frequency of DNA mismatch repair deficiency (38%) and moderate rate of p53 overexpression (∼33%) in undifferentiated carcinomas. In contrast to the characteristic endometrioid phenotype, there was a dramatic downregulation of E-cadherin expression in the undifferentiated subtype. Quantitative methylation studies dismissed CDH1 promoter hypermethylation as the mechanism responsible for this change in gene expression, while immunohistochemistry revealed that the E-cadherin repressor ZEB1 was frequently overexpressed (62%) in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas. This finding was accompanied by a sharp downregulation in the expression of the miR-200 family of microRNAs, well-known targets of ZEB1. Furthermore, there was enhanced expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, such as N-cadherin, cytoplasmic p120, and osteonectin. In addition, HMGA2, a regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that is expressed in aggressive endometrial tumors, such as endometrial serous carcinomas and carcinosarcomas, was expressed in >20% of undifferentiated carcinomas. These results suggest that ZEB1 overexpression, associated with E-cadherin and miR-200s downregulation, and the expression of mesenchymal markers might enhance the metastatic potential of undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, leading to a poor prognosis. In addition, our observations suggest that the immnohistochemical analysis

  12. E-Cadherin Acts as a Regulator of Transcripts Associated with a Wide Range of Cellular Processes in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Soncin, Francesca; Mohamet, Lisa; Ritson, Sarah; Hawkins, Kate; Bobola, Nicoletta; Zeef, Leo; Merry, Catherine L. R.; Ward, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Background We have recently shown that expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is required for LIF-dependent pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Methodology In this study, we have assessed global transcript expression in E-cadherin null (Ecad-/-) ES cells cultured in either the presence or absence of LIF and compared these to the parental cell line wtD3. Results We show that LIF has little effect on the transcript profile of Ecad-/- ES cells, with statistically significant transcript alterations observed only for Sp8 and Stat3. Comparison of Ecad-/- and wtD3 ES cells cultured in LIF demonstrated significant alterations in the transcript profile, with effects not only confined to cell adhesion and motility but also affecting, for example, primary metabolic processes, catabolism and genes associated with apoptosis. Ecad-/- ES cells share similar, although not identical, gene expression profiles to epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that E-cadherin expression may inhibit inner cell mass to epiblast transition. We further show that Ecad-/- ES cells maintain a functional β-catenin pool that is able to induce β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation but, contrary to previous findings, do not display endogenous β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation. We conclude that loss of E-cadherin in mouse ES cells leads to significant transcript alterations independently of β-catenin/TCF transactivation. PMID:21779327

  13. E-cadherin acts as a regulator of transcripts associated with a wide range of cellular processes in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Soncin, Francesca; Mohamet, Lisa; Ritson, Sarah; Hawkins, Kate; Bobola, Nicoletta; Zeef, Leo; Merry, Catherine L R; Ward, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is required for LIF-dependent pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. In this study, we have assessed global transcript expression in E-cadherin null (Ecad-/-) ES cells cultured in either the presence or absence of LIF and compared these to the parental cell line wtD3. We show that LIF has little effect on the transcript profile of Ecad-/- ES cells, with statistically significant transcript alterations observed only for Sp8 and Stat3. Comparison of Ecad-/- and wtD3 ES cells cultured in LIF demonstrated significant alterations in the transcript profile, with effects not only confined to cell adhesion and motility but also affecting, for example, primary metabolic processes, catabolism and genes associated with apoptosis. Ecad-/- ES cells share similar, although not identical, gene expression profiles to epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that E-cadherin expression may inhibit inner cell mass to epiblast transition. We further show that Ecad-/- ES cells maintain a functional β-catenin pool that is able to induce β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation but, contrary to previous findings, do not display endogenous β-catenin/TCF-mediated transactivation. We conclude that loss of E-cadherin in mouse ES cells leads to significant transcript alterations independently of β-catenin/TCF transactivation.

  14. E-cadherin suppression accelerates squamous cell carcinoma progression in three-dimensional, human tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Alexander; Zhang, Weitian; Alt-Holland, Addy; Crawford, Howard C; Fusenig, Norbert E; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2005-03-01

    We studied the link between loss of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion and acquisition of malignant properties in three-dimensional, human tissue constructs that mimicked the initial stages of squamous cell cancer progression. Suppression of E-cadherin expression in early-stage, skin-derived tumor cells (HaCaT-II-4) was induced by cytoplasmic sequestration of beta-catenin upon stable expression of a dominant-negative E-cadherin fusion protein (H-2Kd-Ecad). In monolayer cultures, expression of H-2Kd-Ecad resulted in decreased levels of E-cadherin, redistribution of beta-catenin to the cytoplasm, and complete loss of intercellular adhesion when compared with control II-4 cells. This was accompanied by a 7-fold decrease in beta-catenin-mediated transcription and a 12-fold increase in cell migration. In three-dimensional constructs, E-cadherin-deficient tissues showed disruption of architecture, loss of adherens junctional proteins from cell contacts, and focal tumor cell invasion. Invasion was linked to activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated degradation of basement membrane in H-2Kd-Ecad-expressing tissue constructs that was blocked by MMP inhibition (GM6001). Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed a 2.5-fold increase in MMP-2 and an 8-fold increase in MMP-9 in cells expressing the H-2Kd-Ecad fusion protein when compared with controls, and gel zymography showed increased MMP protein levels. Following surface transplantation of three-dimensional tissues, suppression of E-cadherin expression greatly accelerated tumorigenesis in vivo by inducing a switch to high-grade carcinomas that resulted in a 5-fold increase in tumor size after 4 weeks. Suppression of E-cadherin expression and loss of its function fundamentally modified squamous cell carcinoma progression by activating a highly invasive, aggressive tumor phenotype, whereas maintenance of E-cadherin prevented invasion in vitro and limited tumor progression in vivo.

  15. Reactive oxygen species promote ovarian cancer progression via the HIF-1α/LOX/E-cadherin pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ma, Jun; Shen, Haoran; Wang, Chengjie; Sun, Yueping; Howell, Stephen B; Lin, Xinjian

    2014-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can drive the de‑differentiation of tumor cells leading to the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to enhance invasion and metastasis. The invasive and metastatic phenotype of malignant cells is often linked to loss of E-cadherin expression, a hallmark of EMT. Recent studies have demonstrated that hypoxic exposure causes HIF-1-dependent repression of E-cadherin. However, the mechanism by which ROS and/or HIF suppresses E-cadherin expression remains less clear. In the present study, we found that ROS accumulation in ovarian carcinoma cells upregulated HIF-1α expression and subsequent transcriptional induction of lysyl oxidase (LOX) which repressed E-cadherin. Loss of E-cadherin facilitated ovarian cancer (OC) cell migration in vitro and promoted tumor growth in vivo. E-cadherin immunoreactivity correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, tumor differentiation and metastasis. Negative E-cadherin expression along with FIGO stage, tumor differentiation and metastasis significantly predicted for a lower 5-year survival rate. These findings suggest that ROS play an important role in the initiation of metastatic growth of OC cells and support a molecular pathway from ROS to aggressive transformation which involves upregulation of HIF-1α and its downstream target LOX to suppress E-cadherin expression leading to an increase in cell motility and invasiveness.

  16. E-cadherin: A determinant molecule associated with ovarian cancer progression, dissemination and aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Devis, Laura; Lapyckyj, Lara; Besso, María José; Llauradó, Marta; Abascal, María Florencia; Matos, María Laura; Lanau, Lucia; Castellví, Josep; Sánchez, José Luis; Pérez Benavente, Asunción; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Reventós, Jaume; Santamaria Margalef, Anna; Rigau, Marina; Vazquez-Levin, Mónica Hebe

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fifth cancer death cause in women worldwide. The malignant nature of this disease stems from its unique dissemination pattern. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported in OC and downregulation of Epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) is a hallmark of this process. However, findings on the relationship between E-cadherin levels and OC progression, dissemination and aggressiveness are controversial. In this study, the evaluation of E-cadherin expression in an OC tissue microarray revealed its prognostic value to discriminate between advanced- and early-stage tumors, as well as serous tumors from other histologies. Moreover, E-cadherin, Neural cadherin (N-cadherin), cytokeratins and vimentin expression was assessed in TOV-112, SKOV-3, OAW-42 and OV-90 OC cell lines grown in monolayers and under anchorage-independent conditions to mimic ovarian tumor cell dissemination, and results were associated with cell aggressiveness. According to these EMT-related markers, cell lines were classified as mesenchymal (M; TOV-112), intermediate mesenchymal (IM; SKOV-3), intermediate epithelial (IE; OAW-42) and epithelial (E; OV-90). M- and IM-cells depicted the highest migration capacity when grown in monolayers, and aggregates derived from M- and IM-cell lines showed lower cell death, higher adhesion to extracellular matrices and higher invasion capacity than E- and IE-aggregates. The analysis of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, cytokeratin 19 and vimentin mRNA levels in 20 advanced-stage high-grade serous human OC ascites showed an IM phenotype in all cases, characterized by higher proportions of N- to E-cadherin and vimentin to cytokeratin 19. In particular, higher E-cadherin mRNA levels were associated with cancer antigen 125 levels more than 500 U/mL and platinum-free intervals less than 6 months. Altogether, E-cadherin expression levels were found relevant for the assessment of OC progression and aggressiveness. PMID:28934230

  17. Lacking hypoxia-mediated downregulation of E-cadherin in cancers of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Mayer, A; Höckel, M; Schlischewsky, N; Schmidberger, H; Horn, L-C; Vaupel, P

    2013-02-05

    Experimental studies have established a causal connection between tumour hypoxia, hypoxia-associated proteome changes and downregulation of E-cadherin, the final common pathway of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our study aimed at elucidating the interrelationship of these processes in cancers of the uterine cervix in vivo. Tumour oxygenation was assessed in 48 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix using polarographic needle electrodes. The expression pattern of E-cadherin was investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and was compared with that of the hypoxia-inducible proteins glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX in biopsy specimens of the oxygenation measurement tracks. The majority of cervical cancers (52%) were E-cadherin positive, with a complete absence of the antigen in only 10% of the tumours. No correlation was found between the level of E-cadherin expression and the oxygenation status (mean pO(2), median pO(2) and hypoxic fractions). In patients showing partial expression of E-cadherin (38%), staining was not preferentially diminished in GLUT-1- or CA IX-positive areas, and loss of E-cadherin occurred independently of tumour cell scattering. Our data provide no evidence in favour of a hypoxia-induced EMT as a mechanistic basis of cervical cancer invasiveness.

  18. Lacking hypoxia-mediated downregulation of E-cadherin in cancers of the uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, A; Höckel, M; Schlischewsky, N; Schmidberger, H; Horn, L-C; Vaupel, P

    2013-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies have established a causal connection between tumour hypoxia, hypoxia-associated proteome changes and downregulation of E-cadherin, the final common pathway of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our study aimed at elucidating the interrelationship of these processes in cancers of the uterine cervix in vivo. Methods: Tumour oxygenation was assessed in 48 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix using polarographic needle electrodes. The expression pattern of E-cadherin was investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and was compared with that of the hypoxia-inducible proteins glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX in biopsy specimens of the oxygenation measurement tracks. Results: The majority of cervical cancers (52%) were E-cadherin positive, with a complete absence of the antigen in only 10% of the tumours. No correlation was found between the level of E-cadherin expression and the oxygenation status (mean pO2, median pO2 and hypoxic fractions). In patients showing partial expression of E-cadherin (38%), staining was not preferentially diminished in GLUT-1- or CA IX-positive areas, and loss of E-cadherin occurred independently of tumour cell scattering. Conclusion: Our data provide no evidence in favour of a hypoxia-induced EMT as a mechanistic basis of cervical cancer invasiveness. PMID:23322209

  19. Novel metastatic models of esophageal adenocarcinoma derived from FLO-1 cells highlight the importance of E-cadherin in cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liu, David S; Hoefnagel, Sanne J M; Fisher, Oliver M; Krishnadath, Kausilia K; Montgomery, Karen G; Busuttil, Rita A; Colebatch, Andrew J; Read, Matthew; Duong, Cuong P; Phillips, Wayne A; Clemons, Nicholas J

    2016-12-13

    There is currently a paucity of preclinical models available to study the metastatic process in esophageal cancer. Here we report FLO-1, and its isogenic derivative FLO-1LM, as two spontaneously metastatic cell line models of human esophageal adenocarcinoma. We show that FLO-1 has undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasizes following subcutaneous injection in mice. FLO-1LM, derived from a FLO-1 liver metastasis, has markedly enhanced proliferative, clonogenic, anti-apoptotic, invasive, immune-tolerant and metastatic potential. Genome-wide RNAseq profiling revealed a significant enrichment of metastasis-related pathways in FLO-1LM cells. Moreover, CDH1, which encodes the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, was the most significantly downregulated gene in FLO-1LM compared to FLO-1. Consistent with this, repression of E-cadherin expression in FLO-1 cells resulted in increased metastatic activity. Importantly, reduced E-cadherin expression is commonly reported in esophageal adenocarcinoma and independently predicts poor patient survival. Collectively, these findings highlight the biological importance of E-cadherin activity in the pathogenesis of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma and validate the utility of FLO-1 parental and FLO-1LM cells as preclinical models of metastasis in this disease.

  20. Matrilysin (Matrix Metalloproteinase-7) Mediates E-Cadherin Ectodomain Shedding in Injured Lung Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, John K.; Li, Qinglang; Parks, William C.

    2003-01-01

    Matrilysin (matrix metalloproteinase-7) is highly expressed in lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and other conditions associated with airway and alveolar injury. Although matrilysin is required for closure of epithelial wounds ex vivo, the mechanism of its action in repair is unknown. We demonstrate that matrilysin mediates shedding of E-cadherin ectodomain from injured lung epithelium both in vitro and in vivo. In alveolar-like epithelial cells, transfection of activated matrilysin resulted in shedding of E-cadherin and accelerated cell migration. In vivo, matrilysin co-localized with E-cadherin at the basolateral surfaces of migrating tracheal epithelium, and the reorganization of cell-cell junctions seen in wild-type injured tissue was absent in matrilysin-null samples. E-cadherin ectodomain was shed into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of bleomycin-injured wild-type mice, but was not shed in matrilysin-null mice. These findings identify E-cadherin as a novel substrate for matrilysin and indicate that shedding of E-cadherin ectodomain is required for epithelial repair. PMID:12759241

  1. Homophilic and heterophilic polycystin 1 interactions regulate E-cadherin recruitment and junction assembly in MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    Streets, Andrew J.; Wagner, Bart E.; Harris, Peter C.; Ward, Christopher J.; Ong, Albert C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited human renal disease and is caused by mutations in two genes, PKD1 (85%) and PKD2 (15%). Cyst epithelial cells are characterised by a complex cellular phenotype including changes in proliferation, apoptosis, basement membrane composition and apicobasal polarity. Since polycystin 1 (PC1), the PKD1 protein, has been located in the basolateral membrane of kidney epithelial cells, we hypothesised that it might have a key role in mediating or stabilising cell-cell interactions. In non-ciliated L929 cells, stable or transient surface expression of the PC1 extracellular domain was sufficient to confer an adhesive phenotype and stimulate junction formation. In MDCK cells, we found that PC1 was recruited to the lateral membranes coincident with E-cadherin within 30 minutes after a `calcium switch'. Recruitment of both proteins was significantly delayed when cells were treated with a PC1 blocking antibody raised to the PKD domains. Finally, PC1 and E-cadherin could be coimmunoprecipitated together from MDCK cells. We conclude that PC1 has a key role in initiating junction formation via initial homophilic interactions and facilitates junction assembly and the establishment of apicobasal polarity by E-cadherin recruitment. PMID:19351715

  2. Slug, Twist, and E-Cadherin as Immunohistochemical Biomarkers in Meningeal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nagaishi, Masaya; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Tanaka, Yuko; Ikota, Hayato; Yokoo, Hideaki; Nakazato, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    The overexpression of Twist and Slug and subsequent down-regulation of E-cadherin facilitate the acquirement of invasive growth properties in cancer cells. It is unclear which of these molecules are expressed in mesenchymal tumors in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated 10 cases each of hemangiopericytoma, solitary fibrous tumor, meningothelial, fibrous, angiomatous, and atypical meningiomas, and 5 cases of anaplastic meningioma for Slug, Twist, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin immunoexpression. Nuclear Slug expression was observed in 9/10 (90%) hemangiopericytomas and 5/10 (50%) solitary fibrous tumors, but not in any meningiomas, except for 1 case. Similarly, nuclear Twist expression was more extensive in hemangiopericytomas and solitary fibrous tumors than meningiomas. In contrast to Slug and Twist, the positive expression of E-cadherin was observed in 39/45 (87%) meningiomas, but not in any hemangiopericytomas or solitary fibrous tumors (P<0.0001). The fraction of tumor cells expressing E-cadherin in meningeal tumors was negatively correlated to those of Twist (P = 0.004) and Slug (P<0.0001). The overexpression of Slug and Twist with down-regulation of E-cadherin was characteristic findings in hemangiopericytomas and solitary fibrous tumors, but not in meningiomas. The immunohistochemical profiles of the two tumor groups may be useful as diagnostic markers in cases that present a differential diagnosis challenge. PMID:23029385

  3. Modulation of Sonic hedgehog-induced mouse embryonic stem cell behaviors through E-cadherin expression and Integrin β1-dependent F-actin formation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Young; Suh, Han Na; Choi, Gee Euhn; Lee, Hyun Jik; Jung, Young Hyun; Ko, So Hee; Kim, Jun Sung; Chae, Chang Woo; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Han, Ho Jae

    2018-06-22

    Sonic hedgehog pathway (Shh) plays a central role in maintaining stem cell function and behavior in various processes related to self-renewal and tissue regeneration. However, the therapeutic effect of Shh on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has not yet been clearly described. Thus, we investigated the effect of Shh on the regulation of mESC behaviors as well as the effect of Shh-pretreated mESCs in skin wound healing. The present study investigated the underlying mechanisms of Shh signaling pathway in growth and motility of mESCs using western blot analysis, cell proliferation assay, and cell migration assay. In addition, the effect of Shh-pretreated mESCs in skin wound healing was determined using mouse excisional wound splinting model. Shh induced adherens junction disruption through proteolysis by activating matrix metallopeptidases. In addition, the release of β-catenin from adherens junctions mediated by Shh led to cell cycle-dependent mESC proliferation. Shh-mediated Gli1 expression led to integrin β1 upregulation, followed by FAK and Src phosphorylation. Furthermore, among the Rho-GTPases, Rac1 and Cdc42 were activated in a Shh-dependent manner while F-actin expression was suppressed by Rac1 and Cdc42 siRNA transfection. Consistent with the in vitro results, skin wound healing assay revealed that Shh-treated mESCs induced angiogenesis and skin wound repair compared to that in Shh-treated mESCs transfected with integrin β1 siRNA in vivo. Our results imply that Shh induces adherens junction disruption and integrin β1-dependent F-actin formation involving FAK/Src and Rac1/Cdc42 signaling pathways in mESCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of APTES-Anti-E-cadherin film for early cancer monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ben Ismail, Manel; Carreiras, Franck; Agniel, Rémy; Mili, Donia; Sboui, Dejla; Zanina, Nahla; Othmane, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Cancer staging is a way to classify cancer according to the extent of the disease in the body. The stage is usually determined by several factors such as the location of the primary tumor, the tumor size, the degree of spread in the surrounding tissues, etc. The study of E-cadherin (EC) expression on cancerous cells of patients has revealed variations in the molecular expression patterns of primary tumors and metastatic tumors. The detection of these cells requires a long procedure involving conventional techniques, thus, the requirement for development of new rapid devices that permit direct and highly sensitive detection stimulates the sensing field progress. Here, we explore if E-cadherin could be used as a biomarker to bind and detect epithelial cancer cells. Hence, the sensitive and specific detection of E-cadherin expressed on epithelial cells is approached by immobilizing anti-E-cadherin antibody (AEC) onto aminosilanized indium-tin oxide (ITO) surface. The immunosensing surfaces have been characterized by electrochemical measurements, wettability and confocal microscopy and their performance has been assessed in the presence of cancer cell lines. Under optimal conditions, the resulting immunosensor displayed a selective detection of E-cadherin expressing cells, which could be detected either by fluorescence or electrochemical techniques. The developed immunosensing surface could provide a simple tool that can be applied to cancer staging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and nuclear β-catenin induced by conditional intestinal disruption of Cdh1 with Apc is E-cadherin EC1 domain dependent

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Emma J.; Barnes, David; Hoppe, Hans-Jürgen; Hughes, Jennifer; Cobbold, Stephen; Harper, James; Morreau, Hans; Surakhy, Mirvat; Hassan, A. Bassim

    2016-01-01

    Two important protein-protein interactions establish E-cadherin (Cdh1) in the adhesion complex; homophilic binding via the extra-cellular (EC1) domain and cytoplasmic tail binding to β-catenin. Here, we evaluate whether E-cadherin binding can inhibit β-catenin when there is loss of Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) from the β-catenin destruction complex. Combined conditional loss of Cdh1 and Apc were generated in the intestine, intestinal adenoma and adenoma organoids. Combined intestinal disruption (Cdh1fl/flApcfl/flVil-CreERT2) resulted in lethality, breakdown of the intestinal barrier, increased Wnt target gene expression and increased nuclear β-catenin localization, suggesting that E-cadherin inhibits β-catenin. Combination with an intestinal stem cell Cre (Lgr5CreERT2) resulted in ApcΔ/Δ recombination and adenoma, but intact Cdh1fl/fl alleles. Cultured ApcΔ/ΔCdh1fl/fl adenoma cells infected with adenovirus-Cre induced Cdh1fl/fl recombination (Cdh1Δ/Δ), disruption of organoid morphology, nuclear β-catenin localization, and cells with an epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype. Complementation with adenovirus expressing wild-type Cdh1 (Cdh1-WT) rescued adhesion and β-catenin membrane localization, yet an EC1 specific double mutant defective in homophilic adhesion (Cdh1-MutW2A, S78W) did not. These data suggest that E-cadherin inhibits β-catenin in the context of disruption of the APC-destruction complex, and that this function is also EC1 domain dependent. Both binding functions of E-cadherin may be required for its tumour suppressor activity. PMID:27566565

  6. Hypoxia induced E-cadherin involving regulators of Hippo pathway due to HIF-1α stabilization/nuclear translocation in bone metastasis from breast carcinoma

    SciT

    Maroni, Paola; Matteucci, Emanuela; Drago, Lorenzo

    The present study deals with the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of E-cadherin expression under hypoxia, because the adjustment of the amount of E-cadherin due to physical stimuli of the microenvironment might influence the colonization of metastasis to skeleton. We analyzed the effect of 1% oxygen tension, that is similar to that encountered in the bone marrow by metastatic cells spreading from breast carcinoma. The purpose was to evaluate the hypoxia-orchestrated control of E-cadherin transactivation via hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and the involvement of Hippo pathway members, as regulators of transcription factors. Tomore » give a translational significance to the study, we took into consideration human pair-matched ductal breast carcinoma and bone metastasis: E-cadherin and Wwox were expressed in bone metastasis but not in breast carcinoma, while HIF-1α and TAZ seemed localized principally in nuclei of metastasis and were found in all cell compartments of breast carcinoma. A close examination of the regulatory mechanisms underlying E-cadherin expression in bone metastasis was done in 1833 clone derived from MDA-MB231 cells. Hypoxia induced E-cadherin only in 1833 clone, but not in parental cells, through HIF-1 and PPARγ activities, while Wwox decreased. Since Wwox was highly expressed in bone metastasis, the effect of ectopic Wwox was evaluated, and we showed E-cadherin transactivation and enhanced invasiveness in WWOX transfected 1833 cells. Also, hypoxia was additive with ectopic Wwox remarkably enhancing HIF-1α nuclear shuttle and accumulation due to the lengthening of the half-life of HIF-1α protein; under this experimental condition HIF-1α appeared as a slower migrated band compared with control, in agreement with the phosphorylation state. The in vitro data strongly supported the almost exclusive presence of HIF-1α in nuclei of human-bone metastasis. Thus, we

  7. E-cadherin and β-catenin adhesion proteins correlate positively with connexins in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    KANCZUGA-KODA, LUIZA; WINCEWICZ, ANDRZEJ; FUDALA, ANDRZEJ; ABRYCKI, TOMASZ; FAMULSKI, WALDEMAR; BALTAZIAK, MAREK; SULKOWSKI, STANISLAW; KODA, MARIUSZ

    2014-01-01

    The majority of solid cancers present with qualitative and quantitative aberrations of adhesion proteins, including E-cadherin and β-catenin, and connexin (Cx) gap junction proteins, which is consistent with alterations in the expression and location of such proteins in neoplastic cells. Since there are no data on the correlation between adhesion proteins and Cxs in human colorectal cancer (CRC), the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and correlation between these proteins. Tissue specimens were obtained from 151 cases of surgically removed colorectal adenocarcinomas. The samples were examined by immunohistochemistry with the use of antibodies against E-cadherin, β-catenin and the three Cxs: Cx26, Cx32 and Cx43. The aberrant expression of the studied adhesion proteins (primarily cytoplasmic for E-cadherin and cytoplasmic and/or nuclear for β-catenin) was observed, whereas only a minority of cases revealed normal membranous distribution of the labeling. The present study is the first in the literature to reveal a correlation between the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin and the examined Cxs in CRC in humans. The positive correlation between the Cxs, particularly Cx26 and Cx32, and the adhesive proteins occurred in patients without lymph node metastases and in the moderately differentiated tumors (G2). Such a dependency was not observed in the analysis of the correlation between Cx43 and E-cadherin. However, a positive correlation between these proteins was observed in patients with lymph nodes metastases. Additionally, a link between the expression of these adhesion proteins was observed. The present study indicates, for the first time, that the expression of adhesion proteins, E-cadherin and β-catenin, is closely associated with the expression of three studied Cxs in CRC, and that this correlation may improve an understanding of the carcinogenic process in this cancer. PMID:24932249

  8. Preventing E-cadherin aberrant N-glycosylation at Asn-554 improves its critical function in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, S; Catarino, TA; Dias, AM; Kato, M; Almeida, A; Hessling, B; Figueiredo, J; Gärtner, F; Sanches, JM; Ruppert, T; Miyoshi, E; Pierce, M; Carneiro, F; Kolarich, D; Seruca, R; Yamaguchi, Y; Taniguchi, N; Reis, CA; Pinho, SS

    2016-01-01

    E-cadherin is a central molecule in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its posttranslational modifications by N-glycosylation have been described to induce a deleterious effect on cell adhesion associated with tumor cell invasion. However, the role that site-specific glycosylation of E-cadherin has in its defective function in gastric cancer cells needs to be determined. Using transgenic mice models and human clinical samples, we demonstrated that N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V)-mediated glycosylation causes an abnormal pattern of E-cadherin expression in the gastric mucosa. In vitro models further indicated that, among the four potential N-glycosylation sites of E-cadherin, Asn-554 is the key site that is selectively modified with β1,6 GlcNAc-branched N-glycans catalyzed by GnT-V. This aberrant glycan modification on this specific asparagine site of E-cadherin was demonstrated to affect its critical functions in gastric cancer cells by affecting E-cadherin cellular localization, cis-dimer formation, molecular assembly and stability of the adherens junctions and cell–cell aggregation, which was further observed in human gastric carcinomas. Interestingly, manipulating this site-specific glycosylation, by preventing Asn-554 from receiving the deleterious branched structures, either by a mutation or by silencing GnT-V, resulted in a protective effect on E-cadherin, precluding its functional dysregulation and contributing to tumor suppression. PMID:26189796

  9. E-Cadherin as a Chemotherapy Resistance Mechanism on Metastatic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Gold Kit (Zymo, San Diego, CA) per the manufacturer’s specifications. MSP was performed in the way of Corn et al [62] or using the CpG WIZ E-cadherin...Amplification Kit per the manufacturer’s instructions (Millipore, Temecula, CA). Briefly, in the method of Corn , a nested PCR method was used, in...cadherin gene promoter methylation in prostatic adenocarcinomas. Cancer 92(11): 2786-95. 29. Corn , PG, BD Smith, ES Ruckdeschel et al (2000) E-cadherin

  10. Induction of E-cadherin in lung cancer and interaction with growth suppression by histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Chan, Daniel; Webster, Robin B; Kato, Harubumi; Drabkin, Harry A; Gemmill, Robert M

    2009-12-01

    Loss of E-cadherin confers a poor prognosis in lung cancer patients and is associated with in vitro resistance to endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors. Zinc finger E box-binding homeobox (ZEB)-1, the predominant transcriptional suppressor of E-cadherin in lung tumor lines, recruits histone deacetylases (HDACs) as co-repressors. NSCLC cell lines were treated with HDAC inhibitors and analyzed for E-cadherin induction, growth inhibition and apoptosis. National Cancer Institute-H157 cells expressing ectopic E-cadherin were tested for tumorigenicity in murine xenografts. We found that treatment with MS-275, compared to vorinostat (SAHA), valproic acid or trichostatin A, was most effective in E-cadherin up-regulation and persistence in non-small cell lung cancers. As with other tumor types and HDAC inhibitors, MS-275 inhibited growth and induced apoptosis. Importantly, blocking E-cadherin induction by short hairpin RNA resulted in less inhibition by MS-275, implicating the epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype process as a contributing factor. In contrast to H460 and H661, H157 cells were resistant to E-cadherin up-regulation by HDAC inhibitors. However, E-cadherin was restored, in a synergistic manner, by combined knockdown of ZEB-1 and ZEB-2. In addition, H157 cells stably transfected with E-cadherin were markedly attenuated in their tumor forming ability. Lastly, combining MS-275 with the microtubule stabilizing agent, paclitaxel, or 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, resulted in synergistic growth inhibition. Since MS-275 has no reported activity against HDAC6, which regulates both microtubule and heat shock protein 90 functions, other mechanisms of synergy are anticipated. These results support the role of ZEB proteins and HDAC inhibitors in the pathogenesis and treatment of lung cancer.

  11. From the Cover: Exposure to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants Decreased p-β-Cateninser675 Expression and Its Interaction With E-Cadherin in the Mammary Glands of Lactating Rats.

    PubMed

    Dianati, Elham; Wade, Michael G; Hales, Barbara F; Robaire, Bernard; Plante, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Proper mammary gland development and function require precise hormonal regulation and bidirectional cross talk between cells provided by means of paracrine factors as well as intercellular junctions; exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can disturb these processes. Exposure to one such family of chemicals, the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is ubiquitous. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BFR exposures disrupt signaling pathways and intercellular junctions that control mammary gland development. Before mating, during pregnancy and throughout lactation, female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing that BFR mixture based on house dust, delivering nominal exposures of BFR of 0 (control), 0.06, 20, or 60 mg/kg/d. Dams were euthanized and mammary glands collected on postnatal day 21. BFR exposure had no significant effects on mammary gland/body weight ratios or the levels of proteins involved in milk synthesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell-cell interactions, or hormone signalling. However, BFR exposure (0.06 mg/kg/d) down-regulated phospho-ser675 β-catenin (p-β-catSer675) levels in the absence of any effect on total β-catenin levels. Levels of p-CREB were also down-regulated, suggesting that PKA inhibition plays a role. p-β-catSer675 co-localized with β-catenin at the mammary epithelial cell membrane, and its expression was decreased in animals from the 0.06 and 20 mg/kg/d BFR treatment groups. Although β-Catenin signaling was not affected by BFR exposure, the interaction between p-β-catSer675 and E-cadherin was significantly reduced. Together, our results demonstrate that exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of BFR during pregnancy and lactation decreases p-β-catser675 at cell adhesion sites, likely in a PKA-dependant manner, altering mammary gland signaling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  12. Insulin/IGF-I Signaling Pathways Enhances Tumor Cell Invasion through Bisecting GlcNAc N-glycans Modulation. An Interplay with E-Cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Ana M.; Oliveira, Patrícia; Cabral, Joana; Seruca, Raquel; Oliveira, Carla; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Reis, Celso A.; Pinho, Salomé S.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in glycosylation are considered a hallmark of cancer, and one of the key targets of glycosylation modifications is E-cadherin. We and others have previously demonstrated that E-cadherin has a role in the regulation of bisecting GlcNAc N-glycans expression, remaining to be determined the E-cadherin-dependent signaling pathway involved in this N-glycans expression regulation. In this study, we analysed the impact of E-cadherin expression in the activation profile of receptor tyrosine kinases such as insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR). We demonstrated that exogenous E-cadherin expression inhibits IR, IGF-IR and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Stimulation with insulin and IGF-I in MDA-MD-435 cancer cells overexpressing E-cadherin induces a decrease of bisecting GlcNAc N-glycans that was accompanied with alterations on E-cadherin cellular localization. Concomitantly, IR/IGF-IR signaling activation induced a mesenchymal-like phenotype of cancer cells together with an increased tumor cell invasion capability. Altogether, these results demonstrate an interplay between E-cadherin and IR/IGF-IR signaling as major networking players in the regulation of bisecting N-glycans expression, with important effects in the modulation of epithelial characteristics and tumor cell invasion. Here we provide new insights into the role that Insulin/IGF-I signaling play during cancer progression through glycosylation modifications. PMID:24282611

  13. Hyaluronan and Layilin Mediate Loss of Airway Epithelial Barrier Function Induced by Cigarette Smoke by Decreasing E-cadherin*

    PubMed Central

    Forteza, Rosanna Malbran; Casalino-Matsuda, S. Marina; Falcon, Nieves S.; Valencia Gattas, Monica; Monzon, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CigS) exposure is associated with increased bronchial epithelial permeability and impaired barrier function. Primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to CigS exhibit decreased E-cadherin expression and reduced transepithelial electrical resistance. These effects were mediated by hyaluronan (HA) because inhibition of its synthesis with 4-methylumbelliferone prevented these effects, and exposure to HA fragments of <70 kDa mimicked these effects. We show that the HA receptor layilin is expressed apically in human airway epithelium and that cells infected with lentivirus expressing layilin siRNAs were protected against increased permeability triggered by both CigS and HA. We identified RhoA/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) as the signaling effectors downstream layilin. We conclude that HA fragments generated by CigS bind to layilin and signal through Rho/ROCK to inhibit the E-cadherin gene and protein expression, leading to a loss of epithelial cell-cell contact. These studies suggest that HA functions as a master switch protecting or disrupting the epithelial barrier in its high versus low molecular weight form and that its depolymerization is a first and necessary step triggering the inflammatory response to CigS. PMID:23048036

  14. E-cadherin can replace N-cadherin during secretory-stage enamel development.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaomu; Bidlack, Felicitas B; Stokes, Nicole; Bartlett, John D

    2014-01-01

    N-cadherin is a cell-cell adhesion molecule and deletion of N-cadherin in mice is embryonic lethal. During the secretory stage of enamel development, E-cadherin is down-regulated and N-cadherin is specifically up-regulated in ameloblasts when groups of ameloblasts slide by one another to form the rodent decussating enamel rod pattern. Since N-cadherin promotes cell migration, we asked if N-cadherin is essential for ameloblast cell movement during enamel development. The enamel organ, including its ameloblasts, is an epithelial tissue and for this study a mouse strain with N-cadherin ablated from epithelium was generated. Enamel from wild-type (WT) and N-cadherin conditional knockout (cKO) mice was analyzed. μCT and scanning electron microscopy showed that thickness, surface structure, and prism pattern of the cKO enamel looked identical to WT. No significant difference in hardness was observed between WT and cKO enamel. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry revealed the WT and N-cadherin cKO secretory stage ameloblasts expressed approximately equal amounts of total cadherins. Strikingly, E-cadherin was not normally down-regulated during the secretory stage in the cKO mice suggesting that E-cadherin can compensate for the loss of N-cadherin. Previously it was demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) induces E- and N-cadherin expression in human calvaria osteoblasts and we show that the N-cadherin cKO enamel organ expressed significantly more BMP2 and significantly less of the BMP antagonist Noggin than did WT enamel organ. The E- to N-cadherin switch at the secretory stage is not essential for enamel development or for forming the decussating enamel rod pattern. E-cadherin can substitute for N-cadherin during these developmental processes. Bmp2 expression may compensate for the loss of N-cadherin by inducing or maintaining E-cadherin expression when E-cadherin is normally down-regulated. Notably, this is the first demonstration of a natural endogenous

  15. Betacellulin induces Slug-mediated down-regulation of E-cadherin and cell migration in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianfang; Klausen, Christian; Qiu, Xin; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological cancers. Previous studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands can induce ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin. Betacellulin is a unique member of the EGF family. It is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and is associated with reduced survival. However, the biological functions and clinical significance of betacellulin in ovarian cancer remain unknown. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that betacellulin induces ovarian cancer cell migration by suppressing E-cadherin expression. Treatment of SKOV3 and OVCAR5 ovarian cancer cell lines with betacellulin down-regulated E-cadherin, but not N-cadherin. In addition, betacellulin treatment increased the expression of Snail and Slug, and these effects were completely blocked by pre-treatment with EGFR inhibitor AG1478. Interestingly, only knockdown of Slug reversed the down-regulation of E-cadherin by betacellulin. Betacellulin treatment induced the activation of both the MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways, and it also significantly increased ovarian cancer cell migration. Importantly, the effects of betacellulin on E-cadherin, Slug and cell migration were attenuated by pre-treatment with either U0126 or LY294002. Our results suggest that betacellulin induces ovarian cancer migration and Slug-dependent E-cadherin down-regulation via EGFR-mediated MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling. PMID:27129169

  16. The Integrated Role of Wnt/β-Catenin, N-Glycosylation, and E-Cadherin-Mediated Adhesion in Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Diego A.; Sun, Meng; Sadykov, Khikmet; Kukuruzinska, Maria A.; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2016-01-01

    The cellular network composed of the evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathways of protein N-glycosylation, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion plays pivotal roles in determining the balance between cell proliferation and intercellular adhesion during development and in maintaining homeostasis in differentiated tissues. These pathways share a highly conserved regulatory molecule, β-catenin, which functions as both a structural component of E-cadherin junctions and as a co-transcriptional activator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, whose target is the N-glycosylation-regulating gene, DPAGT1. Whereas these pathways have been studied independently, little is known about the dynamics of their interaction. Here we present the first numerical model of this network in MDCK cells. Since the network comprises a large number of molecules with varying cell context and time-dependent levels of expression, it can give rise to a wide range of plausible cellular states that are difficult to track. Using known kinetic parameters for individual reactions in the component pathways, we have developed a theoretical framework and gained new insights into cellular regulation of the network. Specifically, we developed a mathematical model to quantify the fold-change in concentration of any molecule included in the mathematical representation of the network in response to a simulated activation of the Wnt/ β-catenin pathway with Wnt3a under different conditions. We quantified the importance of protein N-glycosylation and synthesis of the DPAGT1 encoded enzyme, GPT, in determining the abundance of cytoplasmic β-catenin. We confirmed the role of axin in β-catenin degradation. Finally, our data suggest that cell-cell adhesion is insensitive to E-cadherin recycling in the cell. We validate the model by inhibiting β-catenin-mediated activation of DPAGT1 expression and predicting changes in cytoplasmic β-catenin concentration and stability

  17. Pax-5 is a potent regulator of E-cadherin and breast cancer malignant processes

    PubMed Central

    Benzina, Sami; Beauregard, Annie-Pier; Guerrette, Roxann; Jean, Stéphanie; Faye, Mame Daro; Laflamme, Mark; Maïcas, Emmanuel; Crapoulet, Nicolas; Ouellette, Rodney J.; Robichaud, Gilles A.

    2017-01-01

    Pax-5, an essential transcription factor for B lymphocyte development, has been linked with the development and progression of lymphoid cancers and carcinoma. In contrast to B-cell cancer lesions, the specific expression signatures and roles of Pax-5 in breast cancer progression are relatively unknown. In the present study, we set out to profile Pax-5 expression in mammary tissues and elucidate the cellular and molecular roles of Pax-5 in breast cancer processes. Using immunohistology on mammary tissue arrays, Pax-5 was detected in a total of 298/306 (97.6%) samples tested. Interestingly, our studies reveal that Pax-5 inhibits aggressive features and confers anti-proliferative effects in breast carcinoma cells in contrast to its oncogenic properties in B cell cancers. More precisely, Pax-5 suppressed breast cancer cell migration, invasion and tumor spheroid formation while concomitantly promoting cell adhesion properties. We also observed that Pax-5 inhibited and reversed breast cancer epithelial to mesenchymal phenotypic transitioning. Mechanistically, we found that the Pax-5 transcription factor binds and induces gene expression of E-cadherin, a pivotal regulator of epithelialisation. Globally, we demonstrate that Pax-5 is predominant expressed factor in mammary epithelial cells. We also present an important role for Pax-5 in the phenotypic transitioning processes and aggressive features associated with breast cancer malignancy and disease progression. PMID:28076843

  18. Down regulation of E-Cadherin (ECAD) - a predictor for occult metastatic disease in sentinel node biopsy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Huber, Gerhard F; Züllig, Lena; Soltermann, Alex; Roessle, Matthias; Graf, Nicole; Haerle, Stephan K; Studer, Gabriela; Jochum, Wolfram; Moch, Holger; Stoeckli, Sandro J

    2011-06-03

    Prognostic factors in predicting occult lymph node metastasis in patients with head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are necessary to improve the results of the sentinel lymph node procedure in this tumour type. The E-Cadherin glycoprotein is an intercellular adhesion molecule in epithelial cells, which plays an important role in establishing and maintaining intercellular connections. To determine the value of the molecular marker E-Cadherin in predicting regional metastatic disease. E-Cadherin expression in tumour tissue of 120 patients with HNSCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were evaluated using the tissue microarray technique. 110 tumours were located in the oral cavity (91.7%; mostly tongue), 10 tumours in the oropharynx (8.3%). Intensity of E-Cadherin expression was quantified by the Intensity Reactivity Score (IRS). These results were correlated with the lymph node status of biopsied sentinel lymph nodes. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine statistical significance. pT-stage, gender, tumour side and location did not correlate with lymph node metastasis. Differentiation grade (p = 0.018) and down regulation of E-Cadherin expression significantly correlate with positive lymph node status (p = 0.005) in univariate and multivariate analysis. These data suggest that loss of E-cadherin expression is associated with increased lymhogeneous metastasis of HNSCC. E-cadherin immunohistochemistry may be used as a predictor for lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. 2b.

  19. Alterations induced by E-cadherin and beta-catenin antibodies during the development of Bufo arenarum (Anura-Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Izaguirre, M F; Adur, J F; Soler, A P; Casco, V H

    2001-10-01

    E(epithelial)-cadherin is a member of a calcium-dependent family of cell surface glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and morphogenesis. Catenins are a large family of proteins that connect the cadherins to the cytoskeleton. They are important for cadherin function and for transducing signals involved in specification of cell fate during embryogenesis. The best characterized catenins include alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and p120-catenin. Using specific antibodies, we studied the expression and distribution of E-cadherin, and alpha- and beta-catenin in developmental stages of Bufo arenarum toad. The three proteins were found co-localized in stages 19 to 41 of development. Surprisingly, E-cadherin was the only of these three proteins found earlier than stage 19. To test whether E-cadherin and beta-catenin have a functional role in Bufo arenarum embryogenesis, stage 17 whole embryos were incubated with anti-E-cadherin and beta-catenin antibodies. Both anti-E-cadherin and anti-beta-catenin antibodies induced severe morphological alterations. However, while alterations produced by the anti-beta-catenin antibody, showed some variability from the most severe (neural tube and notochord duplication) to a simple delay in development, the alterations with anti-E-cadherin were homogeneous. These observations suggest a critical role for E-cadherin and beta-catenin in the early embryonic development of the Bufo arenarum toad. Our results are consistent with the developmental role of these proteins in other species. One of the most surprising findings was the blockage with the anti-beta-catenin antibodies on later embryo stages, and we hypothesize that the partial axes duplication could be mediated by the notochord induction.

  20. Sip1 mediates an E-cadherin-to-N-cadherin switch during cranial neural crest EMT

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Crystal D.; Saxena, Ankur

    2013-01-01

    The neural crest, an embryonic stem cell population, initially resides within the dorsal neural tube but subsequently undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to commence migration. Although neural crest and cancer EMTs are morphologically similar, little is known regarding conservation of their underlying molecular mechanisms. We report that Sip1, which is involved in cancer EMT, plays a critical role in promoting the neural crest cell transition to a mesenchymal state. Sip1 transcripts are expressed in premigratory/migrating crest cells. After Sip1 loss, the neural crest specifier gene FoxD3 was abnormally retained in the dorsal neuroepithelium, whereas Sox10, which is normally required for emigration, was diminished. Subsequently, clumps of adherent neural crest cells remained adjacent to the neural tube and aberrantly expressed E-cadherin while lacking N-cadherin. These findings demonstrate two distinct phases of neural crest EMT, detachment and mesenchymalization, with the latter involving a novel requirement for Sip1 in regulation of cadherin expression during completion of neural crest EMT. PMID:24297751

  1. Involvement of microRNAs-MMPs-E-cadherin in the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongmei; Li, Xiaohui; Du, Jie; Yin, Youcong; Li, Yuanjian

    2018-06-15

    It has been found that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)is not only the main cause of gastric cancer, but also closely related to its metastasis. E-cadherin cleavage induced by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays an important role in the tumor metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the role of microRNAs-MMPs-E-cadherin in migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells treated with H. pylori. The results showed that H. pylori induced migration and invasion of SGC-7901 cells with a down-regulation of E-cadherin expression, which were abolished by MMPs knock down, E-cadherin overexpression, mimics of miR128 and miR148a. MiR128/miR148a inhibitors restored MMP-3/MMP-7 expression, down-regulated E-cadherin level, and accelerated cellular migration and invasion. This study suggests that H. pylori induces migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells through reduction of E-cadherin function by activation of MMP-3, - 7. The present results also suggest that the activated MMPs/E-cadherin pathway is related with down-regulation of miR128/miR148a in the human gastric cancer cells infected with H. pylori. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. O-mannosylation and N-glycosylation: two coordinated mechanisms regulating the tumour suppressor functions of E-cadherin in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Markus F.; Miyoshi, Eiji; Pierce, Michael; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Carneiro, Fátima; Seruca, Raquel; Reis, Celso A.; Strahl, Sabine; Pinho, Salomé S.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of tumor suppressor protein E-cadherin is an early molecular event in cancer. O-mannosylation profile of E-cadherin is a newly-described post-translational modification crucial for its adhesive functions in homeostasis. However, the role of O-mannosyl glycans in E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion in cancer and their interplay with N-glycans remains largely unknown. We herein demonstrated that human gastric carcinomas exhibiting a non-functional E-cadherin display a reduced expression of O-mannosyl glycans concomitantly with increased modification with branched complex N-glycans. Accordingly, overexpression of MGAT5-mediated branched N-glycans both in gastric cancer cells and transgenic mice models led to a significant decrease of O-mannosyl glycans attached to E-cadherin that was associated with impairment of its tumour suppressive functions. Importantly, overexpression of protein O-mannosyltransferase 2 (POMT2) induced a reduced expression of branched N-glycans which led to a protective effect of E-cadherin biological functions. Overall, our results reveal a newly identified mechanism of (dys)regulation of E-cadherin that occur through the interplay between O-mannosylation and N-glycosylation pathway. PMID:27533452

  3. An SPR based immunoassay for the sensitive detection of the soluble epithelial marker E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Daniele; Bianco, Monica; Pagano, Rosanna; Priore, Paola; Lunetti, Paola; Guerra, Flora; Bettini, Simona; Carallo, Sonia; Zizzari, Alessandra; Pitotti, Elena; Giotta, Livia; Capobianco, Loredana; Bucci, Cecilia; Valli, Ludovico; Maffia, Michele; Arima, Valentina; Gaballo, Antonio

    2018-06-11

    Protein biomarkers are important diagnostic tools for cancer and several other diseases. To be validated in a clinical context, a biomarker should satisfy some requirements including the ability to provide reliable information on a pathological state by measuring its expression levels. In parallel, the development of an approach capable of detecting biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity would be ideally suited for clinical applications. Here, we performed an immune-based label free assay using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based detection of the soluble form of E-cadherin, a cell-cell contact protein that is involved in the maintaining of tissue integrity. With this approach, we obtained a specific and quantitative detection of E-cadherin from a few hundred μl of serum of breast cancer patients by obtaining a 10-fold enhancement in the detection limit over a traditional colorimetric ELISA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ERβ1 inhibits the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells through upregulation of E-cadherin in a Id1-dependent manner

    SciT

    Zhou, Yan; Ming, Jia; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • Expression of ERβ1 was positively correlated with E-cadherin in breast cancer cell. • ERβ1 upregulates E-cadherin expression in breast cancer cell lines. • ERβ1 upregulates E-cadherin expression in a Id1-dependent manner. - Abstract: ERβ1 is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-regulated transcription factors. It plays an important role in regulating the progression of breast cancer. However, the mechanisms of ERβ1 in tumorigenesis, metastasis and prognosis are still not fully clear. In this study, we showed that the expression of ERβ1 was positively correlated with E-cadherin expression in breast cancer cell lines. In addition, we foundmore » that ERβ1 upregulates E-cadherin expression in breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we also found that ERβ1 inhibits the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and upregulated E-cadherin expression in a Id1-dependent manner. Taken together, our study provides further understanding of the molecular mechanism of ERβ1 in tumor metastasis and suggests the feasibility of developing novel therapeutic approaches to target Id1 to inhibit breast cancer metastasis.« less

  5. Correlation between E-cadherin-regulated cell adhesion and human osteosarcoma MG-63 cell anoikis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ding-Sheng; Cai, Le-Yi; Ding, Jian; Gao, Wei-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cell adhesion and anoikis evasion among human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63), and to further study the molecular mechanisms. Human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63) were assessed for apoptosis, and caspase-3, E-cadherin and β-catenin expression in EDTA and control non-EDTA groups. MG-63 cells were predominantly aggregated when in suspension, and the suspended cells were more dispersed in the EDTA group. Following culture in suspension for 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h, the rates of apoptosis were 34.88%±3.64%, 59.3%±7.22% and 78.5%±5.21% in the experimental group and 7.34%±2.13%, 14.7%±3.69%, and 21.4%±3.60% in the control group, respectively. Caspase-3 expression progressively increased and E-cadherin and β-catenin were decreased in the experimental group, whereas there was no change in the control group. MG-63 cells could avoid anoikis through cell adhesion, and E-cadherin might play a role in this process.

  6. E-cadherin genetic variants predict survival outcome in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Memni, Hager; Macherki, Yosra; Klayech, Zahra; Ben-Haj-Ayed, Ahlem; Farhat, Karim; Remadi, Yassmine; Gabbouj, Sallouha; Mahfoudh, Wijden; Bouzid, Nadia; Bouaouina, Noureddine; Chouchane, Lotfi; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Hassen, Elham

    2016-11-16

    E-cadherin is a major component of adherens junctions that regulates cell shape and maintains tissue integrity. A complete loss or any decrease in cell surface expression of E-cadherin will interfere with the cell-to-cell junctions' strength and leads to cell detachment and escape from the primary tumor site. In this prospective study, three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (-347G/GA, rs5030625; -160C/A, rs16260; +54C/T, rs1801026), were found to modulate E-cadherin expression. 577 DNA samples from breast cancer (BC) cases were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). We detected no significant correlations between each polymorphism and the clinical parameters of the patients whereas the GACC haplotype was significantly associated with low SBR grading. Overall survival analysis showed that both -347G/G and +54C/C wild (wt) genotypes had a significantly worse effect compared to the other genotypes (non-wt). Moreover, carrying simultaneously both the -347 and +54 wt genotypes confers a significantly higher risk of death. However, with metastatic recurrence, the death-rate was null in patients carrying the non-wt genotypes, and attained 37% in those carrying the wt genotype. A multivariate analysis showed that these two polymorphisms are independent prognostic factors for overall survival in BC patients. Our results support the fact that E-cadherin genetic variants control disease severity and progression and could be a marker of disease outcome. These findings could be useful in selecting patients that should be monitored differently.

  7. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 Restores intestinal Barrier Integrity by Regulation of E-cadherin Recycling.

    PubMed

    Terciolo, Chloé; Dobric, Aurélie; Ouaissi, Mehdi; Siret, Carole; Breuzard, Gilles; Silvy, Françoise; Marchiori, Bastien; Germain, Sébastien; Bonier, Renaté; Hama, Adel; Owens, Roisin; Lombardo, Dominique; Rigot, Véronique; André, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Alteration in intestinal permeability is the main factor underlying the pathogenesis of many diseases affecting the gut, such as inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Characterization of molecules targeting the restoration of intestinal barrier integrity is therefore vital for the development of alternative therapies. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 [Sb], used to prevent and treat antibiotic-associated infectious and functional diarrhea, may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of IBD. We analyzed the impact of Sb supernatant on tissue integrity and components of adherens junctions using cultured explants of colon from both IBD and healthy patients. To evaluate the pathways by which Sb regulates the expression of E-cadherin at the cell surface, we developed in vitro assays using human colonic cell lines, including cell aggregation, a calcium switch assay, real-time measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance [TEER] and pulse-chase experiments. We showed that Sb supernatant treatment of colonic explants protects the epithelial morphology and maintains E-cadherin expression at the cell surface. In vitro experiments revealed that Sb supernatant enhances E-cadherin delivery to the cell surface by re-routing endocytosed E-cadherin back to the plasma membrane. This process, involving Rab11A-dependent recycling endosome, leads to restoration of enterocyte adherens junctions, in addition to the overall restoration and strengthening of intestinal barrier function. These findings open new possibilities of discovering novel options for prevention and therapy of diseases that affect intestinal permeability. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Suppression of E-cadherin function drives the early stages of Ras-induced squamous cell carcinoma through up-regulation of FAK and Src

    PubMed Central

    Alt-Holland, Addy; Sowalsky, Adam; Szwec-Levin, Yonit; Shamis, Yulia; Hatch, Harold; Feig, Larry A.; Garlick, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced stages of epithelial carcinogenesis involve the loss of intercellular adhesion, but it remains unclear how proteins that regulate alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are deregulated to promote the early stages of cancer development. To address this, a three-dimensional human tissue model that mimics the incipient stages of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) was used to study how E-cadherin suppression promotes tumor progression in Ras-expressing human keratinocytes. We found that E-cadherin suppression triggered elevated mRNA and protein expression levels of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), and increased FAK and Src activities above the level seen in Ras-expressing E-cadherin-competent keratinocytes. sh-RNA-mediated depletion of FAK and Src restored E-cadherin expression levels by increasing its stability in the membrane, and blocked tumor cell invasion in tissues. Surface transplantation of these tissues to mice resulted in reversion of the tumor phenotype to low-grade tumor islands in contrast to control tissues that manifested an aggressive, high-grade SCC. These findings suggest that the tumor-promoting effect of E-cadherin suppression, a common event in SCC development, is exacerbated by enhanced E-cadherin degradation induced by elevated FAK and Src activities. Furthermore, they imply that targeting FAK or Src in human epithelial cells with neoplastic potential may inhibit the early stages of SCC. PMID:21716326

  9. Changes in E-cadherin rigidity sensing regulate cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Collins, Caitlin; Denisin, Aleksandra K; Pruitt, Beth L; Nelson, W James

    2017-07-18

    Mechanical cues are sensed and transduced by cell adhesion complexes to regulate diverse cell behaviors. Extracellular matrix (ECM) rigidity sensing by integrin adhesions has been well studied, but rigidity sensing by cadherins during cell adhesion is largely unexplored. Using mechanically tunable polyacrylamide (PA) gels functionalized with the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (Ecad-Fc), we showed that E-cadherin-dependent epithelial cell adhesion was sensitive to changes in PA gel elastic modulus that produced striking differences in cell morphology, actin organization, and membrane dynamics. Traction force microscopy (TFM) revealed that cells produced the greatest tractions at the cell periphery, where distinct types of actin-based membrane protrusions formed. Cells responded to substrate rigidity by reorganizing the distribution and size of high-traction-stress regions at the cell periphery. Differences in adhesion and protrusion dynamics were mediated by balancing the activities of specific signaling molecules. Cell adhesion to a 30-kPa Ecad-Fc PA gel required Cdc42- and formin-dependent filopodia formation, whereas adhesion to a 60-kPa Ecad-Fc PA gel induced Arp2/3-dependent lamellipodial protrusions. A quantitative 3D cell-cell adhesion assay and live cell imaging of cell-cell contact formation revealed that inhibition of Cdc42, formin, and Arp2/3 activities blocked the initiation, but not the maintenance of established cell-cell adhesions. These results indicate that the same signaling molecules activated by E-cadherin rigidity sensing on PA gels contribute to actin organization and membrane dynamics during cell-cell adhesion. We hypothesize that a transition in the stiffness of E-cadherin homotypic interactions regulates actin and membrane dynamics during initial stages of cell-cell adhesion.

  10. Nickel-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and E-cadherin Promoter Hypermethylation*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Hsien; Tang, Sheau-Chung; Wang, Po-Hui; Lee, Huei; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered a critical event in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and tumor metastasis. During EMT, the expression of differentiation markers switches from cell-cell junction proteins such as E-cadherin to mesenchymal markers such as fibronectin. Although nickel-containing compounds have been shown to be associated with lung carcinogenesis, the role of nickel in the EMT process in bronchial epithelial cells is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine whether nickel contributes to EMT in human bronchial epithelial cells. We also attempted to clarify the mechanisms involved in NiCl2-induced EMT. Our results showed that NiCl2 induced EMT phenotype marker alterations such as up-regulation of fibronectin and down-regulation of E-cadherin. In addition, the potent antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked EMT and expression of HIF-1α induced by NiCl2, whereas the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored the down-regulation of E-cadherin induced by NiCl2. Promoter hypermethylation of E-cadherin, determined by quantitative real time methyl-specific PCR and bisulfate sequencing, was also induced by NiCl2. These results shed new light on the contribution of NiCl2 to carcinogenesis. Specifically, NiCl2 induces down-regulation of E-cadherin by reactive oxygen species generation and promoter hypermethylation. This study demonstrates for the first time that nickel induces EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:22648416

  11. Down regulation of E-Cadherin (ECAD) - a predictor for occult metastatic disease in sentinel node biopsy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prognostic factors in predicting occult lymph node metastasis in patients with head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are necessary to improve the results of the sentinel lymph node procedure in this tumour type. The E-Cadherin glycoprotein is an intercellular adhesion molecule in epithelial cells, which plays an important role in establishing and maintaining intercellular connections. Objectives To determine the value of the molecular marker E-Cadherin in predicting regional metastatic disease. Methods E-Cadherin expression in tumour tissue of 120 patients with HNSCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were evaluated using the tissue microarray technique. 110 tumours were located in the oral cavity (91.7%; mostly tongue), 10 tumours in the oropharynx (8.3%). Intensity of E-Cadherin expression was quantified by the Intensity Reactivity Score (IRS). These results were correlated with the lymph node status of biopsied sentinel lymph nodes. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine statistical significance. Results pT-stage, gender, tumour side and location did not correlate with lymph node metastasis. Differentiation grade (p = 0.018) and down regulation of E-Cadherin expression significantly correlate with positive lymph node status (p = 0.005) in univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusion These data suggest that loss of E-cadherin expression is associated with increased lymhogeneous metastasis of HNSCC. E-cadherin immunohistochemistry may be used as a predictor for lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Level of evidence: 2b PMID:21639893

  12. Drosophila E-cadherin is required for the maintenance of ring canals anchoring to mechanically withstand tissue growth.

    PubMed

    Loyer, Nicolas; Kolotuev, Irina; Pinot, Mathieu; Le Borgne, Roland

    2015-10-13

    Intercellular bridges called "ring canals" (RCs) resulting from incomplete cytokinesis play an essential role in intercellular communication in somatic and germinal tissues. During Drosophila oogenesis, RCs connect the maturing oocyte to nurse cells supporting its growth. Despite numerous genetic screens aimed at identifying genes involved in RC biogenesis and maturation, how RCs anchor to the plasma membrane (PM) throughout development remains unexplained. In this study, we report that the clathrin adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) complex, although dispensable for the biogenesis of RCs, is required for the maintenance of the anchorage of RCs to the PM to withstand the increased membrane tension associated with the exponential tissue growth at the onset of vitellogenesis. Here we unravel the mechanisms by which AP-1 enables the maintenance of RCs' anchoring to the PM during size expansion. We show that AP-1 regulates the localization of the intercellular adhesion molecule E-cadherin and that loss of AP-1 causes the disappearance of the E-cadherin-containing adhesive clusters surrounding the RCs. E-cadherin itself is shown to be required for the maintenance of the RCs' anchorage, a function previously unrecognized because of functional compensation by N-cadherin. Scanning block-face EM combined with transmission EM analyses reveals the presence of interdigitated, actin- and Moesin-positive, microvilli-like structures wrapping the RCs. Thus, by modulating E-cadherin trafficking, we show that the sustained E-cadherin-dependent adhesion organizes the microvilli meshwork and ensures the proper attachment of RCs to the PM, thereby counteracting the increasing membrane tension induced by exponential tissue growth.

  13. The Anoikis Effector Bit1 Inhibits EMT through Attenuation of TLE1-Mediated Repression of E-Cadherin in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xin; Pham, Tri; Temple, Brandi; Gray, Selena; Cannon, Cornita; Chen, Renwei; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Biliran, Hector

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial Bcl-2 inhibitor of transcription 1 (Bit1) protein is part of an anoikis-regulating pathway that is selectively dependent on integrins. We previously demonstrated that the caspase-independent apoptotic effector Bit1 exerts tumor suppressive function in lung cancer in part by inhibiting anoikis resistance and anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Herein we show a novel function of Bit1 as an inhibitor cell migration and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line. Suppression of endogenous Bit1 expression via siRNA and shRNA strategies promoted mesenchymal phenotypes, including enhanced fibroblastoid morphology and cell migratory potential with concomitant downregulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin expression. Conversely, ectopic Bit1 expression in A549 cells promoted epithelial transition characterized by cuboidal-like epithelial cell phenotype, reduced cell motility, and upregulated E-cadherin expression. Specific downregulation of E-cadherin in Bit1-transfected cells was sufficient to block Bit1-mediated inhibition of cell motility while forced expression of E-cadherin alone attenuated the enhanced migration of Bit1 knockdown cells, indicating that E-cadherin is a downstream target of Bit1 in regulating cell motility. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR and reporter analyses revealed that Bit1 upregulates E-cadherin expression at the transcriptional level through the transcriptional regulator Amino-terminal Enhancer of Split (AES) protein. Importantly, the Bit1/AES pathway induction of E-cadherin expression involves inhibition of the TLE1-mediated repression of E-cadherin, by decreasing TLE1 corepressor occupancy at the E-cadherin promoter as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Consistent with its EMT inhibitory function, exogenous Bit1 expression significantly suppressed the formation of lung metastases of A549 cells in an in vivo experimental

  14. Estrogen Deficiency Promotes Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture by Upregulation of Th17 Cells and Interleukin-17A Which Downregulates E-Cadherin.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Brian L; Rojas, Kelley; Lin, Li; Fazal, Hanain Z; Hourani, Siham; Nowicki, Kamil W; Schneider, Matheus B; Hosaka, Koji

    2018-04-13

    Estrogen deficiency is associated with the development of cerebral aneurysms; however, the mechanism remains unknown. We explored the pathway of cerebral aneurysm development by investigating the potential link between estrogen deficiency and inflammatory factors. First, we established the role of interleukin-17 (IL-17)A. We performed a cytokine screen demonstrating that IL-17A is significantly expressed in mouse and human aneurysms ( P =0.03). Likewise, IL-17A inhibition was shown to prevent aneurysm formation by 42% ( P =0.02) and rupture by 34% ( P <0.05). Second, we found that estrogen deficiency upregulates T helper 17 cells and IL-17A and promotes aneurysm rupture. Estrogen-deficient mice had more ruptures than control mice (47% versus 7%; P =0.04). Estradiol supplementation or IL-17A inhibition decreased the number of ruptures in estrogen-deficient mice (estradiol 6% versus 37%; P =0.04; IL-17A inhibition 18% versus 47%; P =0.018). Third, we found that IL-17A-blockade protects against aneurysm formation and rupture by increased E-cadherin expression. IL-17-inhibited mice had increased E-cadherin expression ( P =0.003). E-cadherin inhibition reversed the protective effect of IL-17A inhibition and increased the rate of aneurysm formation (65% versus 28%; P =0.04) and rupture (12% versus 0%; P =0.22). However, E-cadherin inhibition alone does not significantly increase aneurysm formation in normal mice or in estrogen-deficient mice. In cell migration assays, E-cadherin inhibition promoted macrophage infiltration across endothelial cells ( P <0.05), which may be the mechanism for the estrogen deficiency/IL-17/E-cadherin aneurysm pathway. Our data suggest that estrogen deficiency promotes cerebral aneurysm rupture by upregulating IL-17A, which downregulates E-cadherin, encouraging macrophage infiltration in the aneurysm vessel wall. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  15. Changes in E-cadherin rigidity sensing regulate cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Caitlin; Pruitt, Beth L.; Nelson, W. James

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical cues are sensed and transduced by cell adhesion complexes to regulate diverse cell behaviors. Extracellular matrix (ECM) rigidity sensing by integrin adhesions has been well studied, but rigidity sensing by cadherins during cell adhesion is largely unexplored. Using mechanically tunable polyacrylamide (PA) gels functionalized with the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (Ecad-Fc), we showed that E-cadherin–dependent epithelial cell adhesion was sensitive to changes in PA gel elastic modulus that produced striking differences in cell morphology, actin organization, and membrane dynamics. Traction force microscopy (TFM) revealed that cells produced the greatest tractions at the cell periphery, where distinct types of actin-based membrane protrusions formed. Cells responded to substrate rigidity by reorganizing the distribution and size of high-traction-stress regions at the cell periphery. Differences in adhesion and protrusion dynamics were mediated by balancing the activities of specific signaling molecules. Cell adhesion to a 30-kPa Ecad-Fc PA gel required Cdc42- and formin-dependent filopodia formation, whereas adhesion to a 60-kPa Ecad-Fc PA gel induced Arp2/3-dependent lamellipodial protrusions. A quantitative 3D cell–cell adhesion assay and live cell imaging of cell–cell contact formation revealed that inhibition of Cdc42, formin, and Arp2/3 activities blocked the initiation, but not the maintenance of established cell–cell adhesions. These results indicate that the same signaling molecules activated by E-cadherin rigidity sensing on PA gels contribute to actin organization and membrane dynamics during cell–cell adhesion. We hypothesize that a transition in the stiffness of E-cadherin homotypic interactions regulates actin and membrane dynamics during initial stages of cell–cell adhesion. PMID:28674019

  16. Association of extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin mediated by MMP-7 with HGF-induced in vitro invasion in human stomach cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Choi, E Y; Hyun, M S; Jang, B I; Kim, T N; Kim, S W; Song, S K; Kim, J H; Kim, J-R

    2007-01-01

    Proteolytic shedding of the ectodomain of a variety of transmembrane proteins, including cell-to-cell adhesion molecules, has been observed in solid cancers. We have investigated whether extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is involved in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced in vitro invasion in stomach cancer cells. The effects of HGF on the expression of E-cadherin/beta-catenin and MMP-7 at both the protein and mRNA levels were assessed in stomach cancer cells, NUGC-3 and MKN-28, and in cells in which the expression of MMP-7 was downregulated by transfection with a MMP-7 short hairpin RNA plasmid. Treatment with HGF increased the extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin and the release of MMP-7 and reduced the level of E-cadherin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HGF treatment repressed the phosphorylation of beta-catenin in a Triton-soluble fraction, but enhanced this phosphorylation in a Triton-insoluble fraction. The association of E-cadherin with beta-catenin was decreased by HGF treatment in the Triton-soluble fraction. In addition, treatment of MMP-7 short hairpin RNA transfected NUGC-3 cells with HGF resulted in no extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin and also decreased the in vitro cell invasion. These results suggest that incubation with HGF mediated the release of MMP-7, resulting in extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin from stomach cancer cells. This might be a key mechanism in HGF-induced in vitro invasion and metastasis. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Le(x) glycan mediates homotypic adhesion of embryonal cells independently from E-cadherin: a preliminary note.

    PubMed

    Handa, Kazuko; Takatani-Nakase, Tomoka; Larue, Lionel; Stemmler, Marc P; Kemler, Rolf; Hakomori, Sen-itiroh

    2007-06-22

    Le(x) glycan and E-cadherin (Ecad) are co-expressed at embryonal stem (ES) cells and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. While the structure and function of Ecad mediating homotypic adhesion of these cells have been well established, evidence that Le(x) glycan also mediates such adhesion is weak, despite the fact that Le(x) oligosaccharide inhibits the compaction process. To provide stronger evidence, we knocked out Ecad gene in EC and ES cells to establish F9 Ecad (-/-) and D3M Ecad (-/-) cells, which highly express Le(x) glycan but do not express Ecad at all. Both F9 Ecad (-/-) and D3M Ecad (-/-) cells displayed strong autoaggregation in the presence of Ca(2+), while PYS-2 cells, which express trace amount of Ecad and undetectable level of Le(x) glycan, did not display autoaggregation. In addition, F9 Ecad (-/-) and D3M Ecad (-/-) cells displayed strong adhesion to plates coated with Le(x) glycosphingolipid (III(3)FucnLc4Cer), in dose-dependent manner, in the presence of Ca(2+). Thus, ES or EC cells display autoaggregation and strong adhesion to Le(x)-coated plates in the absence of Ecad, further supporting the notion of Le(x) self-recognition (i.e., Le(x)-to-Le(x) interaction) in cell adhesion.

  18. Rab11 in Recycling Endosomes Regulates the Sorting and Basolateral Transport of E-CadherinV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lock, John G.; Stow, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    E-cadherin plays an essential role in cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion; however, the pathway for delivery of E-cadherin to the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells has not been fully characterized. We first traced the post-Golgi, exocytic transport of GFP-tagged E-cadherin (Ecad-GFP) in unpolarized cells. In live cells, Ecad-GFP was found to exit the Golgi complex in pleiomorphic tubulovesicular carriers, which, instead of moving directly to the cell surface, most frequently fused with an intermediate compartment, subsequently identified as a Rab11-positive recycling endosome. In MDCK cells, basolateral targeting of E-cadherin relies on a dileucine motif. Both E-cadherin and a targeting mutant, ΔS1-E-cadherin, colocalized with Rab11 and fused with the recycling endosome before diverging to basolateral or apical membranes, respectively. In polarized and unpolarized cells, coexpression of Rab11 mutants disrupted the cell surface delivery of E-cadherin and caused its mistargeting to the apical membrane, whereas apical ΔS1-E-cadherin was unaffected. We thus demonstrate a novel pathway for Rab11 dependent, dileucine-mediated, μ1B-independent sorting and basolateral trafficking, exemplified by E-cadherin. The recycling endosome is identified as an intermediate compartment for the post-Golgi trafficking and exocytosis of E-cadherin, with a potentially important role in establishing and maintaining cadherin-based adhesion. PMID:15689490

  19. Direct regulation of E-cadherin by targeted histone methylation of TALE-SET fusion protein in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Soo; Kang, Jeong Gu; Lee, Jae-Hye; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Jeon, Seong Kook; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Dae-Soo; Park, Kun-Hyang; Kim, Yong-Sam; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2015-09-15

    TALE-nuclease chimeras (TALENs) can bind to and cleave specific genomic loci and, are used to engineer gene knockouts and additions. Recently, instead of using the FokI domain, epigenetically active domains, such as TET1 and LSD1, have been combined with TAL effector domains to regulate targeted gene expression via DNA and histone demethylation. However, studies of histone methylation in the TALE system have not been performed. Therefore, in this study, we established a novel targeted regulation system with a TAL effector domain and a histone methylation domain. To construct a TALE-methylation fusion protein, we combined a TAL effector domain containing an E-Box region to act as a Snail binding site and the SET domain of EHMT 2 to allow for histone methylation. The constructed TALE-SET module (TSET) repressed the expression of E-cadherin via by increasing H3K9 dimethylation. Moreover, the cells that overexpressed TSET showed increased cell migration and invasion. This is the first phenotype-based study of targeted histone methylation by the TALE module, and this new system can be applied in new cancer therapies to reduce side effects.

  20. Elevated Src family kinase activity stabilizes E-cadherin-based junctions and collective movement of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Veracini, Laurence; Grall, Dominique; Schaub, Sébastien; Divonne, Stéphanie Beghelli-de la Forest; Etienne-Grimaldi, Marie-Christine; Milano, Gérard; Bozec, Alexandre; Babin, Emmanuel; Sudaka, Anne; Thariat, Juliette; Van Obberghen-Schilling, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    EGF receptor (EGFR) overexpression is thought to drive head and neck carcinogenesis however clinical responses to EGFR-targeting agents have been modest and alternate targets are actively sought to improve results. Src family kinases (SFKs), reported to act downstream of EGFR are among the alternative targets for which increased expression or activity in epithelial tumors is commonly associated to the dissolution of E-cadherin-based junctions and acquisition of a mesenchymal-like phenotype. Robust expression of total and activated Src was observed in advanced stage head and neck tumors (N=60) and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma lines. In cultured cancer cells Src co-localized with E-cadherin in cell-cell junctions and its phosphorylation on Y419 was both constitutive and independent of EGFR activation. Selective inhibition of SFKs with SU6656 delocalized E-cadherin and disrupted cellular junctions without affecting E-cadherin expression and this effect was phenocopied by knockdown of Src or Yes. These findings reveal an EGFR-independent role for SFKs in the maintenance of intercellular junctions, which likely contributes to the cohesive invasion E-cadherin-positive cells in advanced tumors. Further, they highlight the need for a deeper comprehension of molecular pathways that drive collective cell invasion, in absence of mesenchymal transition, in order to combat tumor spread. PMID:25779657

  1. A Pathway for the Control of Anoikis Sensitivity by E-Cadherin and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition▿‡

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Park, Sun Hee; Cieply, Benjamin; Schupp, Jane; Killiam, Elizabeth; Zhang, Fan; Rimm, David L.; Frisch, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Detachment of epithelial cells from matrix or attachment to an inappropriate matrix engages an apoptotic response known as anoikis, which prevents metastasis. Cellular sensitivity to anoikis is compromised during the oncogenic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), through unknown mechanisms. We report here a pathway through which EMT confers anoikis resistance. NRAGE (neurotrophin receptor-interacting melanoma antigen) interacted with a component of the E-cadherin complex, ankyrin-G, maintaining NRAGE in the cytoplasm. Oncogenic EMT downregulated ankyrin-G, enhancing the nuclear localization of NRAGE. The oncogenic transcriptional repressor protein TBX2 interacted with NRAGE, repressing the tumor suppressor gene p14ARF. P14ARF sensitized cells to anoikis; conversely, the TBX2/NRAGE complex protected cells against anoikis by downregulating this gene. This represents a novel pathway for the regulation of anoikis by EMT and E-cadherin. PMID:21746881

  2. MicroRNA-9 up-regulates E-cadherin through inhibition of NF-κB1-Snail1 pathway in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujing; Kumar, Suresh M; Lu, Hezhe; Liu, Aihua; Yang, Ruifeng; Pushparajan, Anitha; Guo, Wei; Xu, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Hsa-miR-9 has been shown to have opposite functions in different tumour types; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we show that hsa-miR-9 is down-regulated in metastatic melanomas compared to primary melanomas. Overexpression of miR-9 in melanoma cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation and migratory capacity with decreased F-actin polymerization and down-regulation of multiple GTPases involved in cytoskeleton remodelling. miR-9 overexpression induced significant down-regulation of Snail1 with a concomitant increase in E-cadherin expression. In contrast, knockdown of miR-9 increased Snail1 expression as well as melanoma cell proliferation and migration capacity. Mechanistically, miR-9 expression down-regulated NF-κB1 in melanoma and the effect was abolished by mutations in the putative miR-9 binding sites within the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of NF-κB1. Anti-miR-9 miRNA inhibitor also increased the expression of NF-κB1. The effects of miR-9 on Snail1 expression and melanoma cell proliferation and migration were rescued by overexpression of NF-κB1 in these cells. Furthermore, miR-9 overexpression resulted in significantly decreased melanoma growth and metastasis in vivo. In summary, miR-9 inhibits melanoma proliferation and metastasis through down-regulation of the NF-κB1-Snail1 pathway. This study finds a new mechanism that miR-9 utilizes to decrease E-cadherin expression and inhibit melanoma progression. The results suggest that function of microRNAs is context and tumour type-specific. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. E-cadherin germline mutation carriers: clinical management and genetic implications.

    PubMed

    Corso, Giovanni; Figueiredo, Joana; Biffi, Roberto; Trentin, Chiara; Bonanni, Bernardo; Feroce, Irene; Serrano, Davide; Cassano, Enrico; Annibale, Bruno; Melo, Soraia; Seruca, Raquel; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Ferrara, Francesco; Piagnerelli, Riccardo; Roviello, Franco; Galimberti, Viviana

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is an autosomic dominant syndrome associated with E-cadherin protein (CDH1) gene germline mutations. Clinical criteria for genetic screening were revised in 2010 by the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium at the Cambridge meeting. About 40 % of families fulfilling clinical criteria for this inherited disease present deleterious CDH1 germline mutations. Lobular breast cancer is a neoplastic condition associated with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome. E-cadherin constitutional mutations have been described in both settings, in gastric and breast cancers. The management of CDH1 asymptomatic mutation carriers requires a multidisciplinary approach; the only life-saving procedure is the prophylactic total gastrectomy after thorough genetic counselling. Several prophylactic gastrectomies have been performed to date; conversely, no prophylactic mastectomies have been described in CDH1 mutant carriers. However, the recent discovery of novel germline alterations in pedigree clustering only for lobular breast cancer opens up a new debate in the management of these individuals. In this critical review, we describe the clinical management of CDH1 germline mutant carriers providing specific recommendations for genetic counselling, clinical criteria, surveillance and/ or prophylactic surgery.

  4. There are four dynamically and functionally distinct populations of E-cadherin in cell junctions

    PubMed Central

    Erami, Zahra; Timpson, Paul; Yao, Wu; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Anderson, Kurt I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT E-cadherin is a trans-membrane tumor suppressor responsible for epithelial cell adhesion. E-cadherin forms adhesive clusters through combined extra-cellular cis- and trans-interactions and intracellular interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. Here we identify four populations of E-cadherin within cell junctions based on the molecular interactions which determine their mobility and adhesive properties. Adhesive and non-adhesive populations of E-cadherin each consist of mobile and immobile fractions. Up to half of the E-cadherin immobilized in cell junctions is non-adhesive. Incorporation of E-cadherin into functional adhesions require all three adhesive interactions, with deletion of any one resulting in loss of effective cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, the only interaction which could independently slow the diffusion of E-cadherin was the tail-mediated intra-cellular interaction. The adhesive and non-adhesive mobile fractions of E-cadherin can be distinguished by their sensitivity to chemical cross-linking with adhesive clusters. Our data define the size, mobility, and adhesive properties of four distinct populations of E-cadherin within cell junctions, and support association with the actin cytoskeleton as the first step in adhesion formation. PMID:26471767

  5. Targeting and crossing of the human maternofetal barrier by Listeria monocytogenes: role of internalin interaction with trophoblast E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Lecuit, Marc; Nelson, D Michael; Smith, Steve D; Khun, Huot; Huerre, Michel; Vacher-Lavenu, Marie-Cécile; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Cossart, Pascale

    2004-04-20

    Listeria monocytogenes produces severe fetoplacental infections in humans. How it targets and crosses the maternofetal barrier is unknown. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the location of L. monocytogenes in placental and amniotic tissue samples obtained from women with fetoplacental listeriosis. The results raised the possibility that L. monocytogenes crosses the maternofetal barrier through the villous syncytiotrophoblast, with secondary infection occurring via the amniotic epithelium. Because epidemiological studies indicate that the bacterial surface protein, internalin (InlA), may play a role in human fetoplacental listeriosis, we investigated the cellular patterns of expression of its host receptor, E-cadherin, at the maternofetal interface. E-cadherin was found on the basal and apical plasma membranes of syncytiotrophoblasts and in villous cytotrophoblasts. Established trophoblastic cell lines, primary trophoblast cultures, and placental villous explants were each exposed to isogenic InlA+ or InlA- strains of L. monocytogenes, and to L. innocua expressing or not InlA. Quantitative assays of cellular invasion demonstrated that bacterial entry into syncytiotrophoblasts occurs via the apical membrane in an InlA-E-cadherin dependent manner. In human placental villous explants, bacterial invasion of the syncytiotrophoblast barrier and underlying villous tissue and subsequent replication produces histopathological lesions that mimic those seen in placentas of women with listeriosis. Thus, the InlA-E-cadherin interaction that plays a key role in the crossing of the intestinal barrier in humans is also exploited by L. monocytogenes to target and cross the placental barrier. Such a ligand-receptor interaction allowing a pathogen to specifically cross the placental villous trophoblast barrier has not been reported previously.

  6. Targeting and crossing of the human maternofetal barrier by Listeria monocytogenes: Role of internalin interaction with trophoblast E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Lecuit, Marc; Nelson, D. Michael; Smith, Steve D.; Khun, Huot; Huerre, Michel; Vacher-Lavenu, Marie-Cécile; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Cossart, Pascale

    2004-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes produces severe fetoplacental infections in humans. How it targets and crosses the maternofetal barrier is unknown. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the location of L. monocytogenes in placental and amniotic tissue samples obtained from women with fetoplacental listeriosis. The results raised the possibility that L. monocytogenes crosses the maternofetal barrier through the villous syncytiotrophoblast, with secondary infection occurring via the amniotic epithelium. Because epidemiological studies indicate that the bacterial surface protein, internalin (InlA), may play a role in human fetoplacental listeriosis, we investigated the cellular patterns of expression of its host receptor, E-cadherin, at the maternofetal interface. E-cadherin was found on the basal and apical plasma membranes of syncytiotrophoblasts and in villous cytotrophoblasts. Established trophoblastic cell lines, primary trophoblast cultures, and placental villous explants were each exposed to isogenic InlA+ or InlA- strains of L. monocytogenes, and to L. innocua expressing or not InlA. Quantitative assays of cellular invasion demonstrated that bacterial entry into syncytiotrophoblasts occurs via the apical membrane in an InlA–E-cadherin dependent manner. In human placental villous explants, bacterial invasion of the syncytiotrophoblast barrier and underlying villous tissue and subsequent replication produces histopathological lesions that mimic those seen in placentas of women with listeriosis. Thus, the InlA–E-cadherin interaction that plays a key role in the crossing of the intestinal barrier in humans is also exploited by L. monocytogenes to target and cross the placental barrier. Such a ligand–receptor interaction allowing a pathogen to specifically cross the placental villous trophoblast barrier has not been reported previously. PMID:15073336

  7. The prognostic role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers E-cadherin and Slug in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cappellesso, Rocco; Marioni, Gino; Crescenzi, Marika; Giacomelli, Luciano; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Mussato, Alessio; Staffieri, Alberto; Martini, Alessandro; Blandamura, Stella; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2015-10-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) prognosis is definitely related to lymph node metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows neoplastic cells to gain the plasticity and motility required for tumour progression and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of EMT in the prognosis of LSCC. Immunohistochemical analysis of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, ZEB1, and ZEB2 was performed in 37 consecutive LSCC cases. Low E-cadherin levels and high Slug levels correlated with both disease recurrence (P = 0.02 and P =0.01, respectively) and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). Relative expression levels of CDH1, SNAI2, miR-1 and the miR-200 family were also evaluated. CDH1, miR-200a and miR-200c down-regulation and SNAI2 overexpression were significantly associated with disease recurrence (P = 0.03, P = 0.02, P = 0.04, and P = 0.04, respectively). EMT increases tumour recurrence risk and shortens DFS in LSCC. E-cadherin and Slug immunohistochemical analysis could be useful for identifying patients requiring more aggressive treatment after surgery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Relevance of MET activation and genetic alterations of KRAS and E-cadherin for cetuximab sensitivity of gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Heindl, Stefan; Eggenstein, Evelyn; Keller, Simone; Kneissl, Julia; Keller, Gisela; Mutze, Kathrin; Rauser, Sandra; Gasteiger, Georg; Drexler, Ingo; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Höfler, Heinz; Luber, Birgit

    2012-05-01

    The therapeutic activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-directed monoclonal antibody cetuximab in gastric cancer is currently being investigated. Reliable biomarkers for the identification of patients who are likely to benefit from the treatment are not available. The aim of the study was to examine the drug sensitivity of five gastric cancer cell lines towards cetuximab as a single agent and to establish predictive markers for chemosensitivity in this cell culture model. The effect of a combination of cetuximab with chemotherapy was compared between a sensitive and a nonsensitive cell line. EGFR expression, activation and localisation, the presence and subcellular localisation of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin as well as MET activation were examined by Western blot analysis, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining. Cells were treated with varying concentrations of cetuximab and cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in tumour-relevant concentrations. The biological endpoint was cell viability, which was measured by XTT cell proliferation assay. Response to treatment was evaluated using statistical methods. We assessed the activity of cetuximab in five gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, KATOIII, MKN1, MKN28 and MKN45). The viability of two cell lines, MKN1 and MKN28, was significantly reduced by cetuximab treatment. High EGFR expression and low levels of receptor activation were associated with cetuximab responsiveness. MET activation as well as mutations of KRAS and CDH1 (gene encoding E-cadherin) was associated with cetuximab resistance. These data indicate that our examinations may be clinically relevant, and the candidate markers should therefore be tested in clinical studies.

  9. PhotoMorphs™: A Novel Light-Activated Reagent for Controlling Gene Expression in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini, Amber J.; Schuler, Aaron D.; Zebala, John A.; Mayer, Alan N.

    2009-01-01

    Manipulating gene expression in zebrafish is critical for exploiting the full potential of this vertebrate model organism. Morpholino oligos are the most commonly employed antisense technology for knocking down gene expression. However, morpholinos suffer from a lack of control over the timing and location of knockdown. In this report, we describe a novel light-activatable knockdown reagent called PhotoMorph™. PhotoMorphs can be generated from existing morpholinos by hybridization with a complementary caging strand containing a photocleavable linkage. The caging strand neutralizes the morpholino activity until irradiation of the PhotoMorph with UV light releases the morpholino. We generated PhotoMorphs to target genes encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), No tail, and E-cadherin to illustrate the utility of this approach. Temporal control of gene expression with PhotoMorphs permitted us to circumvent the early lethal phenotype of E-cadherin knockdown. A splice-blocking PhotoMorph directed to the rheb gene showed light-dependent gene knockdown up to 72 hpf. PhotoMorphs thus offer a new class of laboratory reagents suitable for the spatiotemporal control of gene expression in the zebrafish. PMID:19644983

  10. Serum soluble E-cadherin is a potential prognostic marker in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y; Law, S; Kwong, D L W; Luk, J M

    2011-01-01

    E-cadherin is a well-documented tumor suppressor with downregulated expression in many cancer types. Upon proteolytic cleavage, a soluble form of 80-kDa degradation fragment, known as soluble E-cadherin (s-Ecad), is present in circulation; its level in sera of cancer patients is significantly associated with metastasis, recurrence, and prognosis in some malignancies. The present study investigated the association of s-Ecad with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its prognostic significance. A cohort of 97 patients who underwent surgery alone (n= 56) or neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and surgery (CRT) (n= 41) was recruited for this study. Serum samples were collected at operation (surgery group) and pre- and post-CRT treatment (CRT group) for measurement of s-Ecad protein by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Serum s-Ecad levels were correlated with clinicopathological parameters as well as survival. Univariate analysis showed no significant relationship between serum s-Ecad level and clinicopathological parameters for all sets of samples. Survival analysis showed that in patients who had surgical resection only, those with s-Ecad levels equal to or below the median value survived significantly longer than those with levels above the median (median survival 25.6 vs. 14.1 months, P= 0.012). Multivariate analysis showed that pathological N stage, M stage, R category, and serum s-Ecad level were significant independent prognostic factors for ESCC patients who underwent surgery only. The hazard ratio for s-Ecad was 1.104 (95% CI: 1.026-1.187) and P= 0.008. Serum s-Ecad was detected in ESCC patients and its potential as an independent prognostic marker requires further investigation. © 2010 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  11. Arf6 regulates EGF-induced internalization of E-cadherin in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Zhang, Yujie; Gu, Luo; Zheng, Jianchao; Cui, Jie; Dong, Jing; Du, Jun

    2015-01-01

    E-cadherin internalization facilitates dissolution of adherens junctions and promotes tumor cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration. Our previous results have shown that Arf6 exerts pro-migratory action in breast cancer cells after EGF stimulation. Despite the fact that EGF signaling stimulates EMT of breast cancer cells, the effect of Arf6 on internalization of E-cadherin of breast cancer cells under EGF treatment remains to be determined. Here, we showed that EGF dose-dependently stimulated E-cadherin internalization by MCF-7 cells with the maximal effect at 50 ng/ml. Meanwhile, EGF treatment markedly increased Arf6 activation. Arf6 was involved in complexes of E-cadherin, and more E-cadherin was pulled down with Arf6 when the activity of the latter was increased. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays showed that transfection breast cancer cells with Arf6-T27N or Arf6 siRNA suppressed EGF-induced E-cadherin internalization. Taken together, our study demonstrated that Arf6 activation plays a potential role in EGF-induced E-cadherin internalization, providing new mechanism underlying the effect of Arf6 on promoting breast cancer cell metastasis.

  12. Cleavage and shedding of E-cadherin after induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Steinhusen, U; Weiske, J; Badock, V; Tauber, R; Bommert, K; Huber, O

    2001-02-16

    Apoptotic cell death induces dramatic molecular changes in cells, becoming apparent on the structural level as membrane blebbing, condensation of the cytoplasm and nucleus, and loss of cell-cell contacts. The activation of caspases is one of the fundamental steps during programmed cell death. Here we report a detailed analysis of the fate of the Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin in apoptotic epithelial cells and show that during apoptosis fragments of E-cadherin with apparent molecular masses of 24, 29, and 84 kDa are generated by two distinct proteolytic activities. In addition to a caspase-3-mediated cleavage releasing the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin, a metalloproteinase sheds the extracellular domain from the cell surface during apoptosis. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that concomitant with the disappearance of E-cadherin staining at the cell surface, the E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain accumulates in the cytosol. In the presence of inhibitors of caspase-3 and/or metalloproteinases, cleavage of E-cadherin was almost completely blocked. The simultaneous cleavage of the intracellular and extracellular domains of E-cadherin may provide a highly efficient mechanism to disrupt cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts in apoptotic cells, a prerequisite for cell rounding and exit from the epithelium.

  13. E-cadherin interactions regulate beta-cell proliferation in islet-like structures.

    PubMed

    Carvell, Melanie J; Marsh, Phil J; Persaud, Shanta J; Jones, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Islet function is dependent on cells within the islet interacting with each other. E-cadherin (ECAD) mediates Ca(2+)-dependent homophilic cell adhesion between b-cells within islets and has been identified as a tumour suppressor. We generated clones of the MIN6 beta-cell line that stably over- (S) and under-express (alphaS) ECAD. Modified expression of ECAD was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Preproinsulin mRNA, insulin content and basal rates of insulin secretion were higher in S cells compared to aS and control (V) cells. However, stimulated insulin secretory responses were unaffected by ECAD expression levels. ECAD expression did affect proliferation, with enhanced ECAD expression being associated with reduced proliferation and vice versa. Formation of islet-like structures was associated with a significant reduction in proliferation of V and S cells but not alphaS cells. These data suggest that ECAD expression levels do not modulate insulin secretory function but are consistent with a role for ECAD in the regulation of beta-cell proliferation. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Gene expression analysis of pancreatic cell lines reveals genes overexpressed in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Alldinger, Ingo; Dittert, Dag; Peiper, Matthias; Fusco, Alberto; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Staub, Eike; Lohr, Matthias; Jesnowski, Ralf; Baretton, Gustavo; Ockert, Detlef; Saeger, Hans-Detlev; Grützmann, Robert; Pilarsky, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Using DNA gene expression analysis based on a custom made Affymetrix cancer array, we investigated the expression pattern of both primary and established pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. We analyzed the gene expression of 5 established pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Capan-1, Capan-2 and HPAF II) and 5 primary isolates, 1 of them derived from benign pancreatic duct cells. Out of 1,540 genes which were expressed in at least 3 experiments, we found 122 genes upregulated and 18 downregulated in tumor cell lines compared to benign cells with a fold change >3. Several of the upregulated genes (like Prefoldin 5, ADAM9 and E-cadherin) have been associated with pancreatic cancer before. The other differentially regulated genes, however, play a so far unknown role in the course of human pancreatic carcinoma. By means of immunohistochemistry we could show that thymosin beta-10 (TMSB10), upregulated in tumor cell lines, is expressed in human pancreatic carcinoma, but not in non-neoplastic pancreatic tissue, suggesting a role for TMSB10 in the carcinogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma. Using gene expression profiling of pancreatic cell lines we were able to identify genes differentially expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which might contribute to pancreatic cancer development. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Dimethoxy Curcumin Induces Apoptosis by Suppressing Survivin and Inhibits Invasion by Enhancing E-Cadherin in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Dai, Fang; Chen, Zhehang; Wang, Saisai; Cheng, Xiaobin; Sheng, Qinsong; Lin, Jianjiang; Chen, Wenbin

    2016-09-11

    BACKGROUND Dimethoxy curcumin (DMC) is a kind of lipophilic analog of curcumin with great improvement in chemical and metabolic stability. DMC has been studied in breast and renal cancer, but no research in colon cancer has been found yet. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two colon cancer cells (HT-29 and SW480) and one normal human colon mucosal epithelial cell (NCM460) were used in this study. We studied the effect of DMC on the proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Transwell migration assay was used to estimate the inhibition of DMC on invasion. Moreover, the expressions of PARP, caspase-3, survivin and E-cadherin were detected to uncover the related signaling pathways by western blotting assay both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS DMC significantly inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells in dose-dependent manner; IC50 for DMC was calculated to be 43.4, 28.2 and 454.8µM on HT-29, SW480 and NCM460. DMC significantly increased the apoptosis in both HT-29 (p=0.0051) and SW480 (p=0.0013) cells in vitro, and significantly suppressed the growth of both cell lines in vivo. Moreover, DMC reduced the number of migrated cells in both HT-29 (p=0.007) and SW480 (p=0.004) cells. By western blotting analysis, the cleavage of pro-caspases-3 and PARP were clearly induced by DMC to their active form, while the expression of survivin was reduced and E-cadherin was enhanced in both cells in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS DMC may exert an effective anti-tumor effect in colon cancer cells by down-regulating survivin and upregulating E-cadherin.

  16. Drosophila E-cadherin is required for the maintenance of ring canals anchoring to mechanically withstand tissue growth

    PubMed Central

    Loyer, Nicolas; Kolotuev, Irina; Pinot, Mathieu; Le Borgne, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Intercellular bridges called “ring canals” (RCs) resulting from incomplete cytokinesis play an essential role in intercellular communication in somatic and germinal tissues. During Drosophila oogenesis, RCs connect the maturing oocyte to nurse cells supporting its growth. Despite numerous genetic screens aimed at identifying genes involved in RC biogenesis and maturation, how RCs anchor to the plasma membrane (PM) throughout development remains unexplained. In this study, we report that the clathrin adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) complex, although dispensable for the biogenesis of RCs, is required for the maintenance of the anchorage of RCs to the PM to withstand the increased membrane tension associated with the exponential tissue growth at the onset of vitellogenesis. Here we unravel the mechanisms by which AP-1 enables the maintenance of RCs’ anchoring to the PM during size expansion. We show that AP-1 regulates the localization of the intercellular adhesion molecule E-cadherin and that loss of AP-1 causes the disappearance of the E-cadherin–containing adhesive clusters surrounding the RCs. E-cadherin itself is shown to be required for the maintenance of the RCs’ anchorage, a function previously unrecognized because of functional compensation by N-cadherin. Scanning block-face EM combined with transmission EM analyses reveals the presence of interdigitated, actin- and Moesin-positive, microvilli-like structures wrapping the RCs. Thus, by modulating E-cadherin trafficking, we show that the sustained E-cadherin–dependent adhesion organizes the microvilli meshwork and ensures the proper attachment of RCs to the PM, thereby counteracting the increasing membrane tension induced by exponential tissue growth. PMID:26424451

  17. Therapeutic potential of Dickkopf-1 in wild-type BRAF papillary thyroid cancer via regulation of β-catenin/E-cadherin signaling.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Young A; Sun, Hyun Jin; Ahn, Hwa Young; Lee, Eun Kyung; Yi, Ka Hee; Oh, Byung-Chul; Park, Do Joon; Cho, Bo Youn; Park, Young Joo

    2014-09-01

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a common pathogenesis of various human cancers. We investigated the role of the Wnt inhibitor, Dkk-1, in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Immunohistochemical β-catenin staining was performed in tissue microarray containing 148 PTCs and five normal thyroid tissues. In vivo effects of Dkk-1 were explored using ectopic tumors with BHP10-3SC cells. In 27 PTC patients, 60% of patients showed β-catenin up-regulation and Dkk-1 down-regulation in tumor vs normal tissues. Tissue microarray analysis showed that 14 of 148 PTC samples exhibited cytoplasmic-dominant β-catenin expression compared to membranous-dominant expression in normal tissues. Aberrant β-catenin expression was significantly correlated with higher rates of the loss of membranous E-cadherin expression and poor disease-free survival than that in the normal membranous expression group over a median follow-up period of 14 years. Implantation of Dkk-1-overexpressing BHP10-3SC cells revealed delayed tumor growth, resulting from the rescue of membranous β-catenin and E-cadherin expressions. Furthermore, tissue microarray analysis demonstrated that BRAF(WT) patients had higher rates of aberrant expressions of β-catenin and E-cadherin than BRAF(V600E) patients. Indeed, the inhibitory effects of Dkk-1 on cell survival were more sensitive in BRAF(WT) (BHP10-3SC and TPC-1) than in BRAF(V600E) (SNU-790 and BCPAP) cells. Overexpression of BRAF(V600E) in normal thyroid epithelial (H tori) cells also reduced the effects of Dkk-1 on cell survival. A subset of PTC patients showed aberrant expression of β-catenin/E-cadherin signaling and poor disease-free survival. Dkk-1 might have a therapeutic role, particularly in BRAF(WT) patients.

  18. Nephron segment-specific gene expression using AAV vectors.

    PubMed

    Asico, Laureano D; Cuevas, Santiago; Ma, Xiaobo; Jose, Pedro A; Armando, Ines; Konkalmatt, Prasad R

    2018-02-26

    AAV9 vector provides efficient gene transfer in all segments of the renal nephron, with minimum expression in non-renal cells, when administered retrogradely via the ureter. It is important to restrict the transgene expression to the desired cell type within the kidney, so that the physiological endpoints represent the function of the transgene expressed in that specific cell type within kidney. We hypothesized that segment-specific gene expression within the kidney can be accomplished using the highly efficient AAV9 vectors carrying the promoters of genes that are expressed exclusively in the desired segment of the nephron in combination with administration by retrograde infusion into the kidney via the ureter. We constructed AAV vectors carrying eGFP under the control of: kidney-specific cadherin (KSPC) gene promoter for expression in the entire nephron; Na + /glucose co-transporter (SGLT2) gene promoter for expression in the S1 and S2 segments of the proximal tubule; sodium, potassium, 2 chloride co-transporter (NKCC2) gene promoter for expression in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH); E-cadherin (ECAD) gene promoter for expression in the collecting duct (CD); and cytomegalovirus (CMV) early promoter that provides expression in most of the mammalian cells, as control. We tested the specificity of the promoter constructs in vitro for cell type-specific expression in mouse kidney cells in primary culture, followed by retrograde infusion of the AAV vectors via the ureter in the mouse. Our data show that AAV9 vector, in combination with the segment-specific promoters administered by retrograde infusion via the ureter, provides renal nephron segment-specific gene expression. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Altered E-Cadherin Levels and Distribution in Melanocytes Precede Clinical Manifestations of Vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Roselyne Y; Luciani, Flavie; Cario-André, Muriel; Rubod, Alain; Petit, Valérie; Benzekri, Laila; Ezzedine, Khaled; Lepreux, Sébastien; Steingrimsson, Eirikur; Taieb, A; Gauthier, Yvon; Larue, Lionel; Delmas, Véronique

    2015-07-01

    Vitiligo is the most common depigmenting disorder resulting from the loss of melanocytes from the basal epidermal layer. The pathogenesis of the disease is likely multifactorial and involves autoimmune causes, as well as oxidative and mechanical stress. It is important to identify early events in vitiligo to clarify pathogenesis, improve diagnosis, and inform therapy. Here, we show that E-cadherin (Ecad), which mediates the adhesion between melanocytes and keratinocytes in the epidermis, is absent from or discontinuously distributed across melanocyte membranes of vitiligo patients long before clinical lesions appear. This abnormality is associated with the detachment of the melanocytes from the basal to the suprabasal layers in the epidermis. Using human epidermal reconstructed skin and mouse models with normal or defective Ecad expression in melanocytes, we demonstrated that Ecad is required for melanocyte adhesiveness to the basal layer under oxidative and mechanical stress, establishing a link between silent/preclinical, cell-autonomous defects in vitiligo melanocytes and known environmental stressors accelerating disease expression. Our results implicate a primary predisposing skin defect affecting melanocyte adhesiveness that, under stress conditions, leads to disappearance of melanocytes and clinical vitiligo. Melanocyte adhesiveness is thus a potential target for therapy aiming at disease stabilization.

  20. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng-han; Harrison, Oliver J.; Song, Hang; Smith, Adam W.; Huang, William Y. C.; Lin, Wan-Chen; Guo, Zhenhuan; Padmanabhan, Anup; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.; Dustin, Michael L.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Groves, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell−cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin (E-cad-ECD) in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest that the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role. PMID:26290581

  1. E-cadherin-mediated force transduction signals regulate global cell mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Muhamed, Ismaeel; Wu, Jun; Sehgal, Poonam; Kong, Xinyu; Tajik, Arash; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This report elucidates an E-cadherin-based force-transduction pathway that triggers changes in cell mechanics through a mechanism requiring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and the downstream formation of new integrin adhesions. This mechanism operates in addition to local cytoskeletal remodeling triggered by conformational changes in the E-cadherin-associated protein α-catenin, at sites of mechanical perturbation. Studies using magnetic twisting cytometry (MTC), together with traction force microscopy (TFM) and confocal imaging identified force-activated E-cadherin-specific signals that integrate cadherin force transduction, integrin activation and cell contractility. EGFR is required for the downstream activation of PI3K and myosin-II-dependent cell stiffening. Our findings also demonstrated that α-catenin-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling at perturbed E-cadherin adhesions does not require cell stiffening. These results broaden the repertoire of E-cadherin-based force transduction mechanisms, and define the force-sensitive signaling network underlying the mechano-chemical integration of spatially segregated adhesion receptors. PMID:26966187

  2. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    DOE PAGES

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng -han; ...

    2015-08-19

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell–cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest thatmore » the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role.« less

  3. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    SciT

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng -han

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell–cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest thatmore » the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role.« less

  4. Molecular basis for disruption of E-cadherin adhesion by botulinum neurotoxin A complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwangkook; Zhong, Xiaofen; Gu, Shenyan; Kruel, Anna Magdalena; Dorner, Martin B; Perry, Kay; Rummel, Andreas; Dong, Min; Jin, Rongsheng

    2014-06-20

    How botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cross the host intestinal epithelial barrier in foodborne botulism is poorly understood. Here, we present the crystal structure of a clostridial hemagglutinin (HA) complex of serotype BoNT/A bound to the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin at 2.4 angstroms. The HA complex recognizes E-cadherin with high specificity involving extensive intermolecular interactions and also binds to carbohydrates on the cell surface. Binding of the HA complex sequesters E-cadherin in the monomeric state, compromising the E-cadherin-mediated intercellular barrier and facilitating paracellular absorption of BoNT/A. We reconstituted the complete 14-subunit BoNT/A complex using recombinantly produced components and demonstrated that abolishing either E-cadherin- or carbohydrate-binding of the HA complex drastically reduces oral toxicity of BoNT/A complex in vivo. Together, these studies establish the molecular mechanism of how HAs contribute to the oral toxicity of BoNT/A. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. A Regulatory Network Involving β-Catenin, e-Cadherin, PI3k/Akt, and Slug Balances Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells In Response to Wnt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tyng-Shyan; Li, Li; Moalim-Nour, Lilian; Jia, Deyong; Bai, Jian; Yao, Zemin; Bennett, Steffany A L; Figeys, Daniel; Wang, Lisheng

    2015-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying disparate roles of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in maintaining self-renewal or inducing differentiation and lineage specification in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are not clear. In this study, we provide the first demonstration that self-renewal versus differentiation of human ESCs (hESCs) in response to Wnt signaling is predominantly determined by a two-layer regulatory circuit involving β-catenin, E-cadherin, PI3K/Akt, and Slug in a time-dependent manner. Short-term upregulation of β-catenin does not lead to the activation of T-cell factor (TCF)-eGFP Wnt reporter in hESCs. Instead, it enhances E-cadherin expression on the cell membrane, thereby enhancing hESC self-renewal through E-cadherin-associated PI3K/Akt signaling. Conversely, long-term Wnt activation or loss of E-cadherin intracellular β-catenin binding domain induces TCF-eGFP activity and promotes hESC differentiation through β-catenin-induced upregulation of Slug. Enhanced expression of Slug leads to a further reduction of E-cadherin that serves as a β-catenin "sink" sequestering free cytoplasmic β-catenin. The formation of such a framework reinforces hESCs to switch from a state of temporal self-renewal associated with short-term Wnt/β-catenin activation to definitive differentiation. Stem Cells 2015;33:1419-1433. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Prognostic value of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, CD44v6, and HER2/neu in metastatic cutaneous adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakova, Olga; Hoang, Mai M P; Dresser, Karen A; Mahalingam, Meera

    2009-08-01

    Our recent experience with a patient developing cutaneous metastases within 3 months of diagnosis of esophageal adenocarcinoma suggests that altered expression of the cellular adhesion molecules, E-cadherin and CD44v6, may have had a role to play in the rapid onset of metastases. To corroborate these findings, we designed a cross-sectional study to investigate the expression of select molecules involved in the metastatic cascade. E-cadherin, beta-catenin, CD44v6, and HER2/neu immunohistochemical stains were performed on archival materials of metastatic adenocarcinoma to the skin from 27 patients and the available corresponding primary tumors in 10 patients. The primary sites included breast (n = 10; 37%), gastrointestinal tract (n = 10; 37%), ovary (n = 1; 4%), thyroid (n = 2; 7%), lung (n = 1; 4%), and unknown primary (n = 3; 11%). Expression of all markers was noted with the most significant increases observed in beta-catenin (26 of 27 cases; 96%), followed by CD44v6 (24 of 27 cases; 89%), E-cadherin (22 of 27 cases; 82%), and HER2/neu (11 of 27 cases; 41%). Contrasting expression of these molecules in the primary versus the metastatic tumors, enhanced expression of CD44v6 was observed in the cutaneous metastases relative to the primary in 6 of 10 (60%) cases. Of interest, 2 of these 6 cases (33%) also showed reduction in E-cadherin--a member of the cadherin family functioning as an invasion suppressor molecule. These findings reinforce the complexities of the metastatic cascade and imply that the variation in adhesive properties of tumor cells is, perhaps, a consequence of the difference in density of the molecules mediating this process.

  7. Epidermal E-Cadherin Dependent β-Catenin Pathway Is Phytochemical Inducible and Accelerates Anagen Hair Cycling.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Noha S; Ghatak, Subhadip; El Masry, Mohamed S; Gnyawali, Surya C; Roy, Sashwati; Amer, Mohamed; Everts, Helen; Sen, Chandan K; Khanna, Savita

    2017-11-01

    Unlike the epidermis, which regenerates continually, hair follicles anchored in the subcutis periodically regenerate by spontaneous repetitive cycles of growth (anagen), degeneration (catagen), and rest (telogen). The loss of hair follicles in response to injuries or pathologies such as alopecia endangers certain inherent functions of the skin. Thus, it is of interest to understand mechanisms underlying follicular regeneration in adults. In this work, a phytochemical rich in the natural vitamin E tocotrienol (TRF) served as a productive tool to unveil a novel epidermal pathway of hair follicular regeneration. Topical TRF application markedly induced epidermal hair follicle development akin to that during fetal skin development. This was observed in the skin of healthy as well as diabetic mice, which are known to be resistant to anagen hair cycling. TRF suppressed epidermal E-cadherin followed by 4-fold induction of β-catenin and its nuclear translocation. Nuclear β-catenin interacted with Tcf3. Such sequestration of Tcf3 from its otherwise known function to repress pluripotent factors induced the plasticity factors Oct4, Sox9, Klf4, c-Myc, and Nanog. Pharmacological inhibition of β-catenin arrested anagen hair cycling by TRF. This work reports epidermal E-cadherin/β-catenin as a novel pathway capable of inducing developmental folliculogenesis in the adult skin. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Normal Fibroblasts Induce E-Cadherin Loss and Increase Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen; Hu, Xinlei; Chen, Zhongting; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chenjing; Wang, Gang; Chen, Yu; Zhou, Xinglu; Tang, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Laisheng; Xu, Xiang; Pan, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Background A tumor is considered a heterogeneous complex in a three-dimensional environment that is flush with pathophysiological and biomechanical signals. Cell-stroma interactions guide the development and generation of tumors. Here, we evaluate the contributions of normal fibroblasts to gastric cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings By coculturing normal fibroblasts in monolayers of BGC-823 gastric cancer cells, tumor cells sporadically developed short, spindle-like morphological characteristics and demonstrated enhanced proliferation and invasive potential. Furthermore, the transformed tumor cells demonstrated decreased tumor formation and increased lymphomatic and intestinal metastatic potential. Non-transformed BGC-823 cells, in contrast, demonstrated primary tumor formation and delayed intestinal and lymph node invasion. We also observed E-cadherin loss and the upregulation of vimentin expression in the transformed tumor cells, which suggested that the increase in metastasis was induced by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Conclusion Collectively, our data indicated that normal fibroblasts sufficiently induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells, thereby leading to metastasis. PMID:24845259

  9. Reevaluating αE-catenin monomer and homodimer functions by characterizing E-cadherin/αE-catenin chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Julie M.; Kitt, Khameeka N.; Gloerich, Martijn; Pokutta, Sabine; Weis, William I.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the E-cadherin–β-catenin–αE-catenin complex (CCC), mammalian αE-catenin binds F-actin weakly in the absence of force, whereas cytosolic αE-catenin forms a homodimer that interacts more strongly with F-actin. It has been concluded that cytosolic αE-catenin homodimer is not important for intercellular adhesion because E-cadherin/αE-catenin chimeras thought to mimic the CCC are sufficient to induce cell–cell adhesion. We show that, unlike αE-catenin in the CCC, these chimeras homodimerize, bind F-actin strongly, and inhibit the Arp2/3 complex, all of which are properties of the αE-catenin homodimer. To more accurately mimic the junctional CCC, we designed a constitutively monomeric chimera, and show that E-cadherin–dependent cell adhesion is weaker in cells expressing this chimera compared with cells in which αE-catenin homodimers are present. Our results demonstrate that E-cadherin/αE-catenin chimeras used previously do not mimic αE-catenin in the native CCC, and imply that both CCC-bound monomer and cytosolic homodimer αE-catenin are required for strong cell–cell adhesion. PMID:26416960

  10. The soluble extracellular domain of E-cadherin interferes with EPEC adherence via interaction with the Tir:intimin complex.

    PubMed

    Login, Frédéric H; Jensen, Helene H; Pedersen, Gitte A; Amieva, Manuel R; Nejsum, Lene N

    2018-06-19

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) causes watery diarrhea when colonizing the surface of enterocytes. The translocated intimin receptor (Tir):intimin receptor complex facilitates tight adherence to epithelial cells and formation of actin pedestals beneath EPEC. We found that the host cell adherens junction protein E-cadherin (Ecad) was recruited to EPEC microcolonies. Live-cell and confocal imaging revealed that Ecad recruitment depends on, and occurs after, formation of the Tir:intimin complex. Combinatorial binding experiments using wild-type EPEC, isogenic mutants lacking Tir or intimin, and E. coli expressing intimin showed that the extracellular domain of Ecad binds the bacterial surface in a Tir:intimin-dependent manner. Finally, addition of the soluble extracellular domain of Ecad to the infection medium or depletion of Ecad extracellular domain from the cell surface reduced EPEC adhesion to host cells. Thus, the soluble extracellular domain of Ecad may be used in the design of intervention strategies targeting EPEC adherence to host cells.-Login, F. H., Jensen, H. H., Pedersen, G. A., Amieva, M. R., Nejsum, L. N. The soluble extracellular domain of E-cadherin interferes with EPEC adherence via interaction with the Tir:intimin complex.

  11. Single molecule imaging of green fluorescent proteins in living cells: E-cadherin forms oligomers on the free cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Iino, R; Koyama, I; Kusumi, A

    2001-01-01

    Single green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules were successfully imaged for the first time in living cells. GFP linked to the cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus of E-cadherin (E-cad-GFP) was expressed in mouse fibroblast L cells, and observed using an objective-type total internal reflection fluorescence microscope. Based on the fluorescence intensity of individual fluorescent spots, the majority of E-cad-GFP molecules on the free cell surface were found to be oligomers of various sizes, many of them greater than dimers, suggesting that oligomerization of E-cadherin takes place before its assembly at cell-cell adhesion sites. The translational diffusion coefficient of E-cad-GFP is reduced by a factor of 10 to 40 upon oligomerization. Because such large decreases in translational mobility cannot be explained solely by increases in radius upon oligomerization, an oligomerization-induced trapping model is proposed in which, when oligomers are formed, they are trapped in place due to greatly enhanced tethering and corralling effects of the membrane skeleton on oligomers (compared with monomers). The presence of many oligomers greater than dimers on the free surface suggests that these greater oligomers are the basic building blocks for the two-dimensional cell adhesion structures (adherens junctions). PMID:11371443

  12. Thiazolidinedione, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand, modulates the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system in a human pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tetsuo; Elnemr, Ayman; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Nishimura, Gen-Ichi; Fujimura, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Kayahara, Masato; Shimizu, Koichi; Yi, Shuangqin; Miwa, Koichi

    2002-07-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma induces terminal differentiation and growth inhibition associated with G1 cell cycle arrest in some cancer cells. The multifunctional molecule beta-catenin performs important roles in intercellular adhesion and signal transduction. However, no report has focused on actions of PPAR-gamma in regulating the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system. We examined whether thiazolidinedione (TZD), a potent PPAR-gamma ligand, could modulate the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system in a human pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC-3, that has been found to express PPAR-gamma. According to Western blotting, TZD markedly increased differentiation markers including E-cadherin and carcinoembryonic antigen, while beta-catenin did not change significantly. In untreated cells, fluorescence immunostaining demonstrated beta-catenin predominantly in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus; in TZD-treated cells, beta-catenin localization had dramatically shifted to the plasma membrane, in association with increased E-cadherin at this site. Thus, a PPAR-gamma ligand appears to participate not only in induction of differentiation in pancreatic cancer cells, but also in the regulation of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin system. Such ligands may prove clinically useful as cytostatic anticancer agents.

  13. The invasive phenotype of placenta accreta extravillous trophoblasts associates with loss of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Duzyj, C M; Buhimschi, I A; Motawea, H; Laky, C A; Cozzini, G; Zhao, G; Funai, E F; Buhimschi, C S

    2015-06-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process of molecular and phenotypic epithelial cell alteration promoting invasiveness. Loss of E-cadherin (E-CAD), a transmembrane protein involved in cell adhesion, is a marker of EMT. Proteolysis into N- and C-terminus fragments by ADAM10 and presenilin-1 (PSEN-1) generates soluble (sE-CAD) and transcriptionally active forms. We studied the protein expression patterns of E-CAD in the serum and placenta of women with histologically-confirmed over-invasive placentation. The patterns of expression and levels of sE-CAD were analyzed by Western blot, immunoassay, and immunoprecipitation. Tissue immunostaining for E-CAD, cytokeratin-7 (epithelial marker), vimentin (mesenchymal marker), ADAM10, PSEN-1 and β-catenin expression were investigated in parallel. N-terminus cleaved 80 kDa sE-CAD fragments were present in serum of pregnant women with gestational age regulation of the circulatory levels. Women with advanced trophoblast invasion did not display circulatory levels of sE-CAD different from those of women with normal placentation. Histologically, extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) closer to the placental-myometrial interface demonstrated less E-CAD staining than those found deeper in the myometrium. These cells expressed both vimentin and cytokeratin, an additional feature of EMT. EVT of placentas with advanced invasion displayed intracellular E-CAD C-terminus immunoreactivity predominating over that of the extracellular N-terminus, a pattern consistent with preferential PSEN-1 processing. Local processing of E-CAD may be an important molecular mechanism controlling the invasive phenotype of accreta EVT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. E-cadherin roles in animal biology: A perspective on thyroid hormone-influence.

    PubMed

    Izaguirre, María Fernanda; Casco, Victor Hugo

    2016-11-04

    The establishment, remodeling and maintenance of tissular architecture during animal development, and even across juvenile to adult life, are deeply regulated by a delicate interplay of extracellular signals, cell membrane receptors and intracellular signal messengers. It is well known that cell adhesion molecules (cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix) play a critical role in these processes. Particularly, adherens junctions (AJs) mediated by E-cadherin and catenins determine cell-cell contact survival and epithelia function. Consequently, this review seeks to encompass the complex and prolific knowledge about E-cadherin roles during physiological and pathological states, particularly focusing on the influence exerted by the thyroid hormone (TH).

  15. Abrogation of E-cadherin-mediated cellular aggregation allows proliferation of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells in shake flask bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mohamet, Lisa; Lea, Michelle L; Ward, Christopher M

    2010-09-23

    A fundamental requirement for the exploitation of embryonic stem (ES) cells in regenerative medicine is the ability to reproducibly derive sufficient numbers of cells of a consistent quality in a cost-effective manner. However, undifferentiated ES cells are not ideally suited to suspension culture due to the formation of cellular aggregates, ultimately limiting scalability. Significant advances have been made in recent years in the culture of ES cells, including automated adherent culture and suspension microcarrier or embryoid body bioreactor culture. However, each of these methods exhibits specific disadvantages, such as high cost, additional downstream processes or reduced cell doubling times. Here we show that abrogation of the cell surface protein E-cadherin, using either gene knockout (Ecad-/-) or the neutralising antibody DECMA-1 (EcadAb), allows culture of mouse ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in scalable shake flask culture over prolonged periods without additional media supplements. Both Ecad-/- and EcadAb ES cells exhibited adaptation phases in suspension culture, with optimal doubling times of 7.3 h±0.9 and 15.6 h±4.7 respectively and mean-fold increase in viable cell number of 95.1±2.0 and 16±0.9-fold over 48 h. EcadAb ES cells propagated as a dispersed cell suspension for 15 d maintained expression of pluripotent markers, exhibited a normal karyotype and high viability. Subsequent differentiation of EcadAb ES cells resulted in expression of transcripts and proteins associated with the three primary germ layers. This is the first demonstration of the culture of pluripotent ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in a manual fed-batch shake flask bioreactor and represents a significant improvement on current ES cell culture techniques. Whilst this proof-of-principle method would be useful for the culture of human ES and iPS cells, further steps are necessary to increase cell viability of hES cells in suspension.

  16. Identification of E-cadherin signature motifs functioning as cleavage sites for Helicobacter pylori HtrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Thomas P.; Perna, Anna M.; Fugmann, Tim; Böhm, Manja; Jan Hiss; Haller, Sarah; Götz, Camilla; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Hoy, Benjamin; Rau, Tilman T.; Neri, Dario; Backert, Steffen; Schneider, Gisbert; Wessler, Silja

    2016-03-01

    The cell adhesion protein and tumour suppressor E-cadherin exhibits important functions in the prevention of gastric cancer. As a class-I carcinogen, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has developed a unique strategy to interfere with E-cadherin functions. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that H. pylori secretes the protease high temperature requirement A (HtrA) which cleaves off the E-cadherin ectodomain (NTF) on epithelial cells. This opens cell-to-cell junctions, allowing bacterial transmigration across the polarised epithelium. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the HtrA-E-cadherin interaction and identified E-cadherin cleavage sites for HtrA. Mass-spectrometry-based proteomics and Edman degradation revealed three signature motifs containing the [VITA]-[VITA]-x-x-D-[DN] sequence pattern, which were preferentially cleaved by HtrA. Based on these sites, we developed a substrate-derived peptide inhibitor that selectively bound and inhibited HtrA, thereby blocking transmigration of H. pylori. The discovery of HtrA-targeted signature sites might further explain why we detected a stable 90 kDa NTF fragment during H. pylori infection, but also additional E-cadherin fragments ranging from 105 kDa to 48 kDa in in vitro cleavage experiments. In conclusion, HtrA targets E-cadherin signature sites that are accessible in in vitro reactions, but might be partially masked on epithelial cells through functional homophilic E-cadherin interactions.

  17. Comparative study of angiostatic and anti-invasive gene expressions as prognostic factors in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Koh, J T; Shin, B A; Ahn, K Y; Roh, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, K K

    2001-02-01

    Genes involving angiogenesis and metastasis play an important role in the progression and infiltration of cancer. We examined the expressions of various angiostatic and potential invasion/metastasis suppressor genes through RT-PCR analyses in 32 gastric cancer specimens with or without distant metastasis. The expressions of the invasion/metastasis suppressor, nm23 and E-cadherin increased much more in the cancer tissue (CT) and metastatic lymph node (MLN) than in the extraneoplastic mucosa (EM) and non-metastatic lymph node (NLN), respectively. The expressions of the angiostatic factor, angiopoietin 2 and thrombospondin 2 increased in the CT and MLN as compared with the EM and NLN, respectively. The newly cloned angiostatic factor, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) decreased much more in the CT and MLN than the EM and NLN, respectively. However, BAI1 increased in the CT compared with the EM among the patients with poor prognosis and distant metastasis, such as liver or peritoneum. The expressions of the invasive factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its suppressor, tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) increased in the CM as compared with the EM, but the increased expression pattern of these genes in the CT became blunted among the patients with good prognosis. Our results indicate that BAI1 and TIMP-2 expressions in the extraneoplastic mucosa and non-metastatic lymph nodes were not suppressed in the patients with good prognosis, but increased expressions of angiopoietin 2, thrombospondin 2, TIMP-2, nm23 and E-cadherin in the tumor tissue did not lead to a long survival after operation. It is suggested that the extent of BAI1 and TIMP-2 expression in the gastric mucosa may be an important prognostic factor for predicting survival in gastric cancer.

  18. Promotion of Metastasis-associated Gene Expression in Survived PANC-1 Cells Following Trichostatin A Treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zongjing; Yang, Yunxiu; Liu, Biao; Wang, Benquan; Sun, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Bicheng; You, Heyi; Zhou, Mengtao

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors represent a promising class of potential anticancer agents for the treatment of human malignancies. In this study, the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) on apoptosis, metastasis-associated gene expression, and activation of the Notch pathway in human pancreatic cancer cell lines were investigated. After treatment with TSA, cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthia-zol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, and flow cytometry. Moreover, RT-PCR and western blot analyses were performed to measure the expression levels of apoptosis-associated genes (Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3), metastasis-associated genes (E-cadherin, vimentin, and matrix metalloproteinases), and Notch pathway activation (Notch intracellular domain, NICD). The levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and NICD were also semi-quantified by immunoassay. Following treatment with TSA for 24 h, PANC-1, SW1990, and MIATACA-2 cells exhibited cell death. The MTT assay revealed that TSA significantly decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in PANC-1 cells. The Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry results evidenced a significant increase in PANC-1 cell apoptosis following TSA treatment. The expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 were increased significantly, whereas Bcl-2 was down-regulated after TSA treatment. In the PANC-1 cells that survived after TSA treatment, the expression levels of vimentin, E-cadherin, and MMP genes were altered by the promotion of potential metastasis and increased expression of NICD. TSA can induce apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, the up-regulation of metastasis-related genes and the activation of the Notch pathway in the survived PANC-1 cells may be associated with a too-low level of TSA or resistance to TSA.

  19. Maintenance and induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation using E-cadherin-Fc substrata without colony formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-Yuan; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2013-03-01

    Induced embryonic stem (ES) cells are expected to be promising cell resources for the observation of the cell behaviors in developmental biology as well as the implantation in cell treatments in human diseases. A recombinant E-cadherin substratum was developed as a cell recognizable substratum to maintain the ES cells' self-renewal and pluripotency at single cell level. Furthermore, the generation of various cell lineages in different germ layers, including hepatic or neural cells, was achieved on the chimeric protein layer precisely and effectively. The induction and isolation of specific cell population was carried out with the enhancing effect of other artificial extracellular matrices (ECMs) in enzyme-free process. The murine ES cell-derived cells showed highly morphological similarities and functional expressions to matured hepatocytes or neural progenitor cells.

  20. E-cadherin Is Critical for Collective Sheet Migration and Is Regulated by the Chemokine CXCL12 Protein During Restitution*

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Soonyean; Zimmerman, Noah P.; Agle, Kimberle A.; Turner, Jerrold R.; Kumar, Suresh N.; Dwinell, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Chemokines and other immune mediators enhance epithelial barrier repair. The intestinal barrier is established by highly regulated cell-cell contacts between epithelial cells. The goal of these studies was to define the role for the chemokine CXCL12 in regulating E-cadherin during collective sheet migration during epithelial restitution. Mechanisms regulating E-cadherin were investigated using Caco2BBE and IEC-6 model epithelia. Genetic knockdown confirmed a critical role for E-cadherin in in vitro restitution and in vivo wound repair. During restitution, both CXCL12 and TGF-β1 tightened the monolayer by decreasing the paracellular space between migrating epithelial cells. However, CXCL12 differed from TGF-β1 by stimulating the significant increase in E-cadherin membrane localization during restitution. Chemokine-stimulated relocalization of E-cadherin was paralleled by an increase in barrier integrity of polarized epithelium during restitution. CXCL12 activation of its cognate receptor CXCR4 stimulated E-cadherin localization and monolayer tightening through Rho-associated protein kinase activation and F-actin reorganization. These data demonstrate a key role for E-cadherin in intestinal epithelial restitution. PMID:22549778

  1. Molecular basis for the regulation of islet beta cell mass in mice: the role of E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Wakae-Takada, N.; Xuan, S.; Watanabe, K.; Meda, P.; Leibel, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis In rodents and humans, the rate of beta cell proliferation declines rapidly after birth; formation of the islets of Langerhans begins perinatally and continues after birth. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of E-cadherin during islet formation mediate the decline in beta cell proliferation rate by contributing to a reduction of nuclear β-catenin and D-cyclins. Methods We examined E-cadherin, nuclear β-catenin, and D-cyclin levels, as well as cell proliferation during in vitro and in vivo formation of islet cell aggregates, using β-TC6 cells and transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled beta cells, respectively. We tested the role of E-cadherin using antisense-mediated reductions of E-cadherin in β-TC6 cells, and mice segregating for a beta cell-specific E-cadherin knockout (Ecad [also known as Cdh1] βKO). Results In vitro, pseudo-islets of β-TC6 cells displayed increased E-cadherin but decreased nuclear β-catenin and cyclin D2, and reduced rates of cell proliferation, compared with monolayers. Antisense knockdown of E-cadherin increased cell proliferation and levels of cyclins D1 and D2. After birth, beta cells showed increased levels of E-cadherin, but decreased levels of D-cyclin, whereas islets of Ecad βKO mice showed increased levels of D-cyclins and nuclear β-catenin, as well as increased beta cell proliferation. These islets were significantly larger than those of control mice and displayed reduced levels of connexin 36. These changes correlated with reduced insulin response to ambient glucose, both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions/interpretation The findings support our hypothesis by indicating an important role of E-cadherin in the control of beta cell mass and function. PMID:23354125

  2. Molecular basis for the regulation of islet beta cell mass in mice: the role of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Wakae-Takada, N; Xuan, S; Watanabe, K; Meda, P; Leibel, R L

    2013-04-01

    In rodents and humans, the rate of beta cell proliferation declines rapidly after birth; formation of the islets of Langerhans begins perinatally and continues after birth. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of E-cadherin during islet formation mediate the decline in beta cell proliferation rate by contributing to a reduction of nuclear β-catenin and D-cyclins. We examined E-cadherin, nuclear β-catenin, and D-cyclin levels, as well as cell proliferation during in vitro and in vivo formation of islet cell aggregates, using β-TC6 cells and transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled beta cells, respectively. We tested the role of E-cadherin using antisense-mediated reductions of E-cadherin in β-TC6 cells, and mice segregating for a beta cell-specific E-cadherin knockout (Ecad [also known as Cdh1] βKO). In vitro, pseudo-islets of β-TC6 cells displayed increased E-cadherin but decreased nuclear β-catenin and cyclin D2, and reduced rates of cell proliferation, compared with monolayers. Antisense knockdown of E-cadherin increased cell proliferation and levels of cyclins D1 and D2. After birth, beta cells showed increased levels of E-cadherin, but decreased levels of D-cyclin, whereas islets of Ecad βKO mice showed increased levels of D-cyclins and nuclear β-catenin, as well as increased beta cell proliferation. These islets were significantly larger than those of control mice and displayed reduced levels of connexin 36. These changes correlated with reduced insulin response to ambient glucose, both in vitro and in vivo. The findings support our hypothesis by indicating an important role of E-cadherin in the control of beta cell mass and function.

  3. Epithelial self-healing is recapitulated by a 3D biomimetic E-cadherin junction.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Daniel J; Gloerich, Martijn; Nelson, W James

    2016-12-20

    Epithelial monolayers undergo self-healing when wounded. During healing, cells collectively migrate into the wound site, and the converging tissue fronts collide and form a stable interface. To heal, migrating tissues must form cell-cell adhesions and reorganize from the front-rear polarity characteristic of cell migration to the apical-basal polarity of an epithelium. However, identifying the "stop signal" that induces colliding tissues to cease migrating and heal remains an open question. Epithelial cells form integrin-based adhesions to the basal extracellular matrix (ECM) and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesions on the orthogonal, lateral surfaces between cells. Current biological tools have been unable to probe this multicellular 3D interface to determine the stop signal. We addressed this problem by developing a unique biointerface that mimicked the 3D organization of epithelial cell adhesions. This "minimal tissue mimic" (MTM) comprised a basal ECM substrate and a vertical surface coated with purified extracellular domain of E-cadherin, and was designed for collision with the healing edge of an epithelial monolayer. Three-dimensional imaging showed that adhesions formed between cells, and the E-cadherin-coated MTM resembled the morphology and dynamics of native epithelial cell-cell junctions and induced the same polarity transition that occurs during epithelial self-healing. These results indicate that E-cadherin presented in the proper 3D context constitutes a minimum essential stop signal to induce self-healing. That the Ecad:Fc MTM stably integrated into an epithelial tissue and reduced migration at the interface suggests that this biointerface is a complimentary approach to existing tissue-material interfaces.

  4. E-Cadherin-Dependent Stimulation of Traction Force at Focal Adhesions via the Src and PI3K Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jasaitis, Audrius; Estevez, Maruxa; Heysch, Julie; Ladoux, Benoit; Dufour, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between cadherin- and integrin-dependent signals controls cell behavior, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the strength of adhesion to the extracellular matrix remains poorly understood. We deposited cells expressing a defined repertoire of cadherins and integrins on fibronectin (FN)-coated polyacrylamide gels (FN-PAG) and on FN-coated pillars used as a micro-force sensor array (μFSA), and analyzed the functional relationship between these adhesion receptors to determine how it regulates cell traction force. We found that cadherin-mediated adhesion stimulated cell spreading on FN-PAG, and this was modulated by the substrate stiffness. We compared S180 cells with cells stably expressing different cadherins on μFSA and found that traction forces were stronger in cells expressing cadherins than in parental cells. E-cadherin-mediated contact and mechanical coupling between cells are required for this increase in cell-FN traction force, which was not observed in isolated cells, and required Src and PI3K activities. Traction forces were stronger in cells expressing type I cadherins than in cells expressing type II cadherins, which correlates with our previous observation of a higher intercellular adhesion strength developed by type I compared with type II cadherins. Our results reveal one of the mechanisms whereby molecular cross talk between cadherins and integrins upregulates traction forces at cell-FN adhesion sites, and thus provide additional insight into the molecular control of cell behavior. PMID:22853894

  5. GENE EXPRESSION NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Gene expression network" is the term used to describe the interplay, simple or complex, between two or more gene products in performing a specific cellular function. Although the delineation of such networks is complicated by the existence of multiple and subtle types of intera...

  6. High Glucose-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Stimulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration Through Snail and EZH2-Dependent E-Cadherin Repression.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Young; Choi, Gee Euhn; Lee, Hyun Jik; Jung, Young Hyun; Ko, So Hee; Chae, Chang Woo; Kim, Jun Sung; Kim, Seo Yihl; Lim, Jae Ryong; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Han, Ho Jae

    2018-01-01

    Glucose plays an important role in stem cell fate determination and behaviors. However, it is still not known how glucose contributes to the precise molecular mechanisms responsible for stem cell migration. Thus, we investigate the effect of glucose on the regulation of the human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hUCB-MSC) migration, and analyze the mechanism accompanied by this effect. Western blot analysis, wound healing migration assays, immunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were performed to investigate the effect of high glucose on hUCB-MSC migration. Additionally, hUCB-MSC transplantation was performed in the mouse excisional wound splinting model. High concentration glucose (25 mM) elicits hUCB-MSC migration compared to normal glucose and high glucose-pretreated hUCB-MSC transplantation into the wound sites in mice also accelerates skin wound repair. We therefore elucidated the detailed mechanisms how high glucose induces hUCB-MSC migration. We showed that high glucose regulates E-cadherin repression through increased Snail and EZH2 expressions. And, we found high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes two signaling; JNK which regulates γ-secretase leading to the cleavage of Notch proteins and PI3K/Akt signaling which enhances GSK-3β phosphorylation. High glucose-mediated JNK/Notch pathway regulates the expression of EZH2, and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway stimulates Snail stabilization, respectively. High glucose enhances the formation of EZH2/Snail/HDAC1 complex in the nucleus, which in turn causes E-cadherin repression. This study reveals that high glucose-induced ROS stimulates the migration of hUCB-MSC through E-cadherin repression via Snail and EZH2 signaling pathways. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. HOXA5 determines cell fate transition and impedes tumor initiation and progression in breast cancer through regulation of E-cadherin and CD24

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Wei Wen; Merino, Vanessa F.; Cho, Soonweng; Korangath, Preethi; Liang, Xiaohui; Wu, Ren-chin; Neumann, Neil M.; Ewald, Andrew J.; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2016-01-01

    Loss of HOXA5 expression occurs frequently in breast cancer and correlates with higher pathological grade and poorer disease outcome. However, how HOX proteins drive differentiation in mammalian cells is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigated cellular and molecular consequences of loss of HOXA5 in breast cancer, and the role played by retinoic acid in HOXA5 function. Analysis of global gene expression data from HOXA5-depleted MCF10A breast epithelial cells, followed by validation, pointed to a role for HOXA5 in maintaining several molecular traits typical of the epithelial lineage such as cell-cell adhesion, tight junctions and markers of differentiation. Depleting HOXA5 in immortalized MCF10A or transformed MCF10A-Kras cells reduced their CD24+/CD44lo population, enhanced self-renewal capacity, and reduced expression of E-cadherin (CDH1) and CD24. In the case of MCF10A-Kras, HOXA5 loss increased branching and protrusive morphology in Matrigel, all features suggestive of epithelial to basal transition. Further, orthotopically implanted xenografts of MCF10A-Kras-scr grew as well-differentiated pseudo-luminal carcinomas, while MCF10A-Kras-shHOXA5 cells formed aggressive, poorly differentiated carcinomas. Conversely, ectopic expression of HOXA5 in aggressive SUM149 or SUM159 breast cancer cells reversed the cellular and molecular alterations observed in the HOXA5-depleted cells. Retinoic acid is a known upstream regulator of HOXA5 expression. HOXA5 depletion in MCF10A cells engineered to express doxycycline-induced shHOXA5 slowed transition of cells from a less differentiated CD24−/CD44+ to the more differentiated CD24+/CD44+ state. This transition was promoted by retinal treatment which upregulated endogenous HOXA5 expression, and caused re-expression of, Occludin, and claudin-7 (CLDN7). Expression of CDH1 and CD24 was transcriptionally upregulated by direct binding of HOXA5 to their promoter sequences as demonstrated by luciferase and ChIP analyses

  8. Thermo-chemotherapy Induced miR-218 upregulation inhibits the invasion of gastric cancer via targeting Gli2 and E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Qiang; Fang, Zhi-Yuan; Cui, Shu-Zhong; Zhang, Xiang-Liang; Wu, Yin-Bing; Tang, Hong-Sheng; Tu, Yi-Nuo; Ding, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Thermo-chemotherapy has been proven to reduce the invasion capability of cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this anti-invasion effect is still unclear. In this study, the role of thermo-chemotherapy in the inhibition of tumor invasion was studied. The results demonstrated that expression of miR-218 was downregulated in gastric cancer tissues, which had a positive correlation with tumor invasion and metastasis. In vitro thermo-chemotherapy increased miR-218 expression in SGC7901 cells and inhibited both proliferation and invasion of cancer cells. Gli2 was identified as a downstream target of miR-218, and its expression was negatively regulated by miR-218. The thermo-chemotherapy induced miR-218 upregulation was also accompanied by increasing of E-cadherin expression. In conclusion, the present study indicates that thermo-chemotherapy can effectively decrease the invasion capability of cancer cells and increase cell-cell adhesion. miR-218 and its downstream target Gli2, as well as E-cadherin, participate in the anti-invasion process.

  9. CD147 Induces Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition by Disassembling Cellular Apoptosis Susceptibility Protein/E-Cadherin/β-Catenin Complex in Human Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoqun; Zhang, Jieting; Fok, Kin Lam; Tsang, Lai Ling; Ye, Mei; Liu, Jianni; Li, Fanghong; Zhao, Allan Zijian; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Chen, Hao

    2018-04-06

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is postulated to be a prerequisite for the establishment of endometriosis (EMS), a common reproductive disorder in women. Our previous studies have demonstrated the elevated expression of transmembrane glycoprotein CD147 and its prosurvival effect on abnormal cells in endometriosis. Intriguingly, CD147 is known to promote EMT in cancers. However, the involvement of CD147 in EMT during the establishment of endometriosis remains incompletely understood. We found that CD147 promotes EMT in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. We identified a novel CD147-interacting partner, cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS), which stabilized the interaction between E-cadherin (E-cad) and β-catenin (β-cat) by forming the CAS/E-cad/β-cat complex. Down-regulation of CAS led to the release and nuclear translocation of β-cat from E-cad, resulting in the overexpression of the EMT-promoting gene SNAIL. Interestingly, overexpression of CD147 impaired the interaction between CAS and E-cad and triggered the release of β-cat from the CAS/E-cad/β-cat complex, which in turn led to EMT. Furthermore, CAS was down-regulated in EMS, with elevated levels of CD147 and nuclear β-cat. These findings suggest a previously undefined role of CAS in regulating EMT and reveal the involvement of a CD147-induced EMT signaling pathway in pathogenic progression of EMS. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Epithelial self-healing is recapitulated by a 3D biomimetic E-cadherin junction

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel J.; Gloerich, Martijn; Nelson, W. James

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial monolayers undergo self-healing when wounded. During healing, cells collectively migrate into the wound site, and the converging tissue fronts collide and form a stable interface. To heal, migrating tissues must form cell–cell adhesions and reorganize from the front-rear polarity characteristic of cell migration to the apical-basal polarity of an epithelium. However, identifying the "stop signal" that induces colliding tissues to cease migrating and heal remains an open question. Epithelial cells form integrin-based adhesions to the basal extracellular matrix (ECM) and E-cadherin–mediated cell–cell adhesions on the orthogonal, lateral surfaces between cells. Current biological tools have been unable to probe this multicellular 3D interface to determine the stop signal. We addressed this problem by developing a unique biointerface that mimicked the 3D organization of epithelial cell adhesions. This "minimal tissue mimic" (MTM) comprised a basal ECM substrate and a vertical surface coated with purified extracellular domain of E-cadherin, and was designed for collision with the healing edge of an epithelial monolayer. Three-dimensional imaging showed that adhesions formed between cells, and the E-cadherin-coated MTM resembled the morphology and dynamics of native epithelial cell–cell junctions and induced the same polarity transition that occurs during epithelial self-healing. These results indicate that E-cadherin presented in the proper 3D context constitutes a minimum essential stop signal to induce self-healing. That the Ecad:Fc MTM stably integrated into an epithelial tissue and reduced migration at the interface suggests that this biointerface is a complimentary approach to existing tissue–material interfaces. PMID:27930308

  11. Fragments of e-Cadherin as Biomarkers of Non-erosive Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Jovov, Biljana; Reed, Craig C; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Pruitt, Amy; Ferrell, Kathleen; Orlando, Geraldine S; Djukic, Zorka; Orlando, Roy C

    2018-03-01

    Approximately, 20% of patients with heartburn and normal endoscopic findings do not symptomatically improve on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy making diagnosis and treatment uncertain. A biomarker distinguishing PPI-responsive from PPI-refractory heartburn is desirable. We performed a pilot study assessing whether carboxy(C)-terminal fragments (CTFs) of e-cadherin in esophageal biopsies or amino(N)-terminal fragments (NTFs) of e-cadherin in serum could serve this purpose. Twenty-nine patients with endoscopy-negative heartburn had esophageal biopsies for CTFs on Western blot and blood for serum NTFs on ELISA. All patients received dexlansoprazole 30 mg daily for 4 weeks, and heartburn was assessed by daily diary entry. Post-treatment blood samples were obtained for serum NTFs. A control group without GERD symptoms (n = 6) had biopsies for CTFs and a second control group (n = 20) blood serum for serum NTFs. Twenty-seven of 29 patients (93.1%) with endoscopy-negative heartburn, but 0 of 6 controls, were positive for CTFs. All patients and controls had measureable serum NTFs, but mean NTFs were significantly higher in those with PPI-responsive heartburn compared to those with PPI-refractory heartburn and controls. Following treatment, 24 of 29 (82.8) patients had relief of heartburn, which associated with a decline in mean NTFs compared to controls. NTFs in PPI-refractory patients (n = 5) were similar to controls before and after PPI therapy. When heartburn responds to PPI, elevated serum NTFs decline to normal. These data suggest that cleaved products of e-cadherin may serve as biomarkers of NERD. Further data are needed to assess and confirm this concept.

  12. Soluble E-cadherin is an independent pretherapeutic factor for long-term survival in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Annie On-On; Chu, Kent-Man; Lam, Shiu-Kum; Wong, Benjamin Chun-Yu; Kwok, Ka-Fai; Law, Simon; Ko, Samuel; Hui, Wai-Mo; Yueng, Yui-Hung; Wong, John

    2003-06-15

    To evaluate whether pretherapeutic serum soluble E-cadherin is an independent factor predicting long-term survival in gastric cancer. Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, but a satisfactory tumor marker is currently unavailable for gastric cancer. Soluble E-cadherin has recently been found to have prognostic value in gastric cancer. One hundred sixteen patients with histologically proven gastric adenocarcinoma were included in the trial. Pretherapeutic serum was collected, and soluble E-cadherin was assayed using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The patients were followed up prospectively at the outpatient clinic. There were 75 men and 41 women, with a mean (+/- SD) age of 66 +/- 14 years. Forty-eight percent of tumors were located in the gastric antrum. The median survival time was 11 months. The mean pretherapeutic value of soluble E-cadherin was 9,159 ng/mL (range, 6,002 to 10,025 ng/mL), and the mean pretherapeutic level of carcinoembryonic antigen was 11 ng/mL (range, 0.3 to 4,895 ng/mL). On multivariate analysis, soluble E-cadherin is an independent factor predicting long-term survival. Ninety percent of patients with a serum level of E-cadherin greater than 10,000 ng/mL had a survival time of less than 3 years (P =.009). Soluble E-cadherin is a potentially valuable pretherapeutic prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer.

  13. Epidermal growth factor receptor and integrins control force-dependent vinculin recruitment to E-cadherin junctions.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Poonam; Kong, Xinyu; Wu, Jun; Sunyer, Raimon; Trepat, Xavier; Leckband, Deborah

    2018-03-20

    This study reports novel findings that link E-cadherin (also known as CDH1)-mediated force-transduction signaling to vinculin targeting to intercellular junctions via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrins. These results build on previous findings that demonstrated that mechanically perturbed E-cadherin receptors activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase and downstream integrins in an EGFR-dependent manner. Results of this study show that this EGFR-mediated kinase cascade controls the force-dependent recruitment of vinculin to stressed E-cadherin complexes - a key early signature of cadherin-based mechanotransduction. Vinculin targeting requires its phosphorylation at tyrosine 822 by Abl family kinases (hereafter Abl), but the origin of force-dependent Abl activation had not been identified. We now present evidence that integrin activation, which is downstream of EGFR signaling, controls Abl activation, thus linking E-cadherin to Abl through a mechanosensitive signaling network. These findings place EGFR and integrins at the center of a positive-feedback loop, through which force-activated E-cadherin signals regulate vinculin recruitment to cadherin complexes in response to increased intercellular tension.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. SASH1 regulates melanocyte transepithelial migration through a novel Gαs-SASH1-IQGAP1-E-Cadherin dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ding'an; Wei, Zhiyun; Deng, Shanshan; Wang, Teng; Zai, Meiqing; Wang, Honglian; Guo, Luo; Zhang, Junyu; Zhong, Hailei; He, Lin; Xing, Qinghe

    2013-06-01

    One important function of melanocytes (MCs) is to produce and transfer melanin to neighbouring keratinocytes (KCs) to protect epithelial cells from UV radiation. The mechanisms regulating the specific migration and localisation of the MC lineage remain unknown. We have found three heterozygous mutations that cause amino acid substitutions in the SASH1 gene in individuals with a kind of dyschromatosis. In epidermal tissues from an affected individual, we observed the increased transepithelial migration of melanocytes. Functional analyses indicate that these SASH1 mutations not only cause the increased migration of A375 cells and but also induce intensive bindings with two novel cell adhesion partners IQGAP1 and Gαs. Further, SASH1 mutations induce uniform loss of E-Cadherin in human A375 cells. Our findings suggest a new scaffold protein SASH1 to regulate IQGAP1-E-Cadherin signalling and demonstrate a novel crosstalking between GPCR signalling, calmodulin signalling for the modulation of MCs invasion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. EVALUATION OF P53, E-CADHERIN, COX-2, AND EGFR PROTEIN IMUNNOEXPRESSION ON PROGNOSTIC OF RESECTED GALLBLADDER CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    PAIS-COSTA, Sergio Renato; FARAH, José Francisco de Matos; ARTIGIANI-NETO, Ricardo; MARTINS, Sandro José; GOLDENBERG, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Gallbladder carcinoma presents a dismal prognosis. Choice treatment is surgical resection that is associated a high levels of both morbidity and mortality. Best knowledgement of prognostic factors may result a better selection of patients either for surgical or multimodal treatment. Aim To evaluate tecidual immunoexpression of P53, E-cadherin, Cox-2, and EGFR proteins and to correlate these findings with resected gallbladder adenocarcinoma survival. Methods Clinical, laboratorial, surgical, and anatomopathological reports of a series of gallbladder adenocarcinoma patients were collected by individualized questionary. Total sample was 42 patients. Median of age was 72 years (35-87). There were seven men and 35 women. Lesion distribuition in according TNM state was the following: T1 (n=2), T2 (n=5), T3 (n=31), T4 (n=4). Twenty-three patients underwent radical resection (R0), while 19 palliative surgery (R1-R2). A block of tissue microarray with neoplasic tissue of each patient was confected. It was performed evaluation of P53, E-Caderine, COX-2, and EGFR proteins imunoexpression. These findings were correlated with overall survival. Results Five-year survival was 28%. The median of global survival was eight months. Only immunoexpression of EGFR protein was considered independent variable at multivariated analysis. Conclusion Final prognosis was influenced by over-expression of EGFR protein in tumoral tissue. PMID:25004291

  16. P120-Catenin Protects Endplate Chondrocytes From Intermittent Cyclic Mechanical Tension Induced Degeneration by Inhibiting the Expression of RhoA/ROCK-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Guang; Ma, Ming-Ming; Zheng, Quan; Shen, Xiang; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Shu-Feng; Xu, Jia-Jia; Wang, Chuan-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Ling

    2016-08-15

    The changes of endplate chondrocytes induced by intermittent cyclic mechanical tension (ICMT) were observed by realtime reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis. To investigate the role of RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway and E-cadherin/P120-catenin complex in endplate chondrocytes degeneration induced by ICMT. ICMT can induce the endplate chondrocyte degeneration. However, the relationship between P120-catenin or RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway and endplate chondrocytes degeneration induced by ICMT is not clear. ICMT (strain at 0.5 Hz sinusoidal curve at 8% elongation) was applied to rat endplate chondrocytes for 6 days, 16 hours a day. The cell viability and apoptosis were examined by the LIVE/DEAD assay and flow cytometry. Histological staining was used to examine the lumbar disc tissue morphology and extracellular matrix. To regulate RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway and the expression of E-cadherin and P120-catenin, RhoA/ROCK-1 pathway-specific inhibitors, E-cadherin, and p120-catenin plasmid were applied. Coimmunoprecipitation was employed to examine the interaction between E-cadherin and P120-catenin, P120-catenin, and RhoA. The related gene expression and protein location was examined by realtime reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. There was no change of viability verified by LIVE/DEAD assay and flow cytometry after ICMT loading. ICMT loading led to RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling activation and the loss of the chondrogenic phenotype of endplate chondrocytes. Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway significantly ameliorated the degeneration induced by ICMT. The expression of P120-catenin and E-cadherin were inhibited by ICMT. ICMT reduced the interaction between P120-catenin and E-cadherin. Furthermore, over-expression of P120-catenin and E-cadherin can suppress the expression of chondrogenic gene, over-expression of P120-catenin can suppress the RhoA/ROCK-1

  17. Effects of Cd{sup 2+} on cis-dimer structure of E-cadherin in living cells

    SciT

    Takeda, Hiroshi, E-mail: hirotake@sapmed.ac.jp

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • The effects of Cd on the dimer of cadherin in living cells was analyzed. • Cd induced cadherin dimer formation was not detected in living cell with low Ca. • Ca mediated structural cooperativity and allostery in the native cadherin. • Ca concentration-dependent competitive displacement of Cd from cadherin is proposed. - Abstract: E-cadherin, a calcium (Ca{sup 2+})-dependent cell–cell adhesion molecule, plays a key role in the maintenance of tissue integrity. We have previously demonstrated that E-cadherin functions in vivo as a cis-dimer through chemical cross-linking reagents. Ca{sup 2+} plays an important role in the cis-dimer formation ofmore » cadherin. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Ca{sup 2+} interacts with the binding sites that regulate cis-dimer structures have not been completely elucidated. As expected for a Ca{sup 2+} antagonist, cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) disrupts cadherin function by displacing Ca{sup 2+} from its binding sites on the cadherin molecules. We used Cd{sup 2+} as a probe for investigating the role of Ca{sup 2+} in the dynamics of the E-cadherin extracellular region that involve cis-dimer formation and adhesion. While cell–cell adhesion assembly was completely disrupted in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, the amount of cis-dimers of E-cadherin that formed at the cell surface was not affected. In our “Cd{sup 2+}-switch” experiments, we did not find that Cd{sup 2+}-induced E-cadherin cis-dimer formation in EL cells when they were incubated in low-Ca{sup 2+} medium. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time the effects of Cd{sup 2+} on the cis-dimer structure of E-cadherin in living cells using a chemical cross-link analysis.« less

  18. DNAJB4 molecular chaperone distinguishes WT from mutant E-cadherin, determining their fate in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Simões-Correia, Joana; Silva, Diana I; Melo, Soraia; Figueiredo, Joana; Caldeira, Joana; Pinto, Marta T; Girão, Henrique; Pereira, Paulo; Seruca, Raquel

    2014-04-15

    E-cadherin (Ecad) is a well-known invasion suppressor and its loss of expression is common in invasive carcinomas. Germline Ecad mutations are the only known genetic cause of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), demonstrating the causative role of Ecad impairment in gastric cancer. HDGC-associated Ecad missense mutations can lead to folding defects and premature proteasome-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), but the molecular determinants for this fate were unidentified. Using a Drosophila-based genetic screen, we found that Drosophila DnaJ-1 interacts with wild type (WT) and mutant human Ecad in vivo. DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 4 (DNAJB4), the human homolog of DnaJ-1, influences Ecad localization and stability even in the absence of Ecad endogenous promoter, suggesting a post-transcriptional level of regulation. Increased expression of DNAJB4 leads to stabilization of WT Ecad in the plasma membrane, while it induces premature degradation of unfolded HDGC mutants in the proteasome. The interaction between DNAJB4 and Ecad is direct, and is increased in the context of the unfolded mutant E757K, especially when proteasome degradation is inhibited, suggesting that DNAJB4 is a molecular mediator of ERAD. Post-translational regulation of native Ecad by DNAJB4 molecular chaperone is sufficient to influence cell adhesion in vitro. Using a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay with gastric cancer derived cells, we demonstrate that DNAJB4 stimulates the anti-invasive function of WT Ecad in vivo. Additionally, the expression of DNAJB4 and Ecad is concomitantly decreased in human gastric carcinomas. Altogether, we demonstrate that DNAJB4 is a sensor of Ecad structural features that might contribute to gastric cancer progression.

  19. Relationship among mismatch repair deficiency, CDX2 loss, p53 and E-cadherin in colon carcinoma and suitability of using a double panel of mismatch repair proteins by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Ilyas; Akbas, Emin Murat; Isik, Arda; Gokce, Aysun; Peker, Kemal; Demirtas, Levent; Gürbüzel, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Biomarkers such as mismatch repair proteins, CDX2, p53, and E-cadherin are blamed for colon cancers, but the relationships of these biomarkers with each other and with pathological risk factors in colon carcinoma are still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of these biomarkers with each other by using immunohistochemical staining and to compare their expression with pathological risk factors for colonic adenocarcinoma. We also aimed to study the usability of a double panel of mismatch repair proteins. One hundred and eleven cases with colonic adenocarcinoma were examined. There was a statistically significant relationship between tumor histological differentiation and perineural invasion, vascular invasion, mismatch repair deficiency, p53, CDX2, and E-cadherin (p < 0.05). PMS2 and MSH6 loss covered 100% of cases with mismatch repair deficiency. Mismatch repair deficiency was correlated with CDX2 loss and E-cadherin expression (p < 0.05). It was also observed that cases with PMS2 loss covered all the cases with CDX2 loss. In conclusion, this double panel may be used instead of a quadruple panel for detecting mismatch repair deficiency. Association of CDX2 and PMS2 in the present study is necessary to conduct further genetic and pathological studies focusing on these two markers together.

  20. Decreased expression of MUC1 induces apoptosis and inhibits migration in pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells via regulation of Slug pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Meng, Meng; Xu, Bin; Dong, Aiping; Ni, Guangzhen; Lu, Lianfang

    2017-12-06

    MUC1, a membrane tethered mucin glycoprotein, is overexpressed in > 60% of human pancreatic cancers (PCs), and is associated with poor prognosis and enhanced metastasis. Here, we report the effect of silencing MUC1 expression on the growth, migration and invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells, and explored its mechanisms. We observed that siRNA mediated suppression of the MUC1 expression significantly reduced invasive and migrative capability and induced apoptosis of the pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. We found that Slug was inhibited in the MUC1 siRNA transfected PANC-1 cells (MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells). Expression of PUMA and E-cadherin was increased in the MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells. PANC-1 cells overexpressing full long Slug gene (when transfected with Slug cDNA plasmid) significantly inhibited PUMA and E-cadherin expression in the MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells. Silencing PUMA expression inhibited apoptosis in the MUC1 siRNA transfected PANC-1 cells (MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells). Silencing E-cadherin expression restored the invasion and migration ability in the MUC1 siRNA/PANC-1 cells. We therefore concluded that silencing MUC1 expression inhibited migration and invasion, and induced apoptosis of PANC-1 cells via downregulation of Slug and upregulation of Slug dependent PUMA and E-cadherin expression. MUC1 could serve as a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.

  1. Leptin acts on neoplastic behavior and expression levels of genes related to hypoxia, angiogenesis, and invasiveness in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sobrinho Santos, Eliane Macedo; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Cangussu, Lilian Mendes Borborema; de Jesus, Sabrina Ferreira; Fraga, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho; Cardoso, Claudio Marcelo; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2017-05-01

    Leptin, one of the main hormones controlling energy homeostasis, has been associated with different cancer types. In oral cancer, its effect is not well understood. We investigated, through in vitro and in vivo assays, whether leptin can affect the neoplastic behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of genes possibly linked to the leptin pathway was assessed in leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and also in tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral mucosa, including leptin, leptin receptor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, Col1A1, Ki67, and mir-210. Leptin treatment favored higher rates of cell proliferation and migration, and reduced apoptosis. Accordingly, leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells show decreased messenger RNA caspase-3 expression, and increased levels of E-cadherin, Col1A1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and mir-210. In tissue samples, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha messenger RNA and protein expression of leptin and leptin receptor were high in oral squamous cell carcinoma cases. Serum leptin levels were increased in first clinical stages of the disease. In animal model, oral squamous cell carcinoma-induced mice show higher leptin receptor expression, and serum leptin level was increased in dysplasia group. Our findings suggest that leptin seems to exert an effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma cells behavior and also on molecular markers related to cell proliferation, migration, and tumor angiogenesis.

  2. Gene Expression in Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrogio, A.

    Skeletal system has two main functions, to provide mechanical integrity for both locomotion and protection and to play an important role in mineral homeostasis. There is extensive evidence showing loss of bone mass during long-term Space-Flights. The loss is due to a break in the equilibrium between the activity of osteoblasts (the cells that forms bone) and the activity of osteoclasts (the cells that resorbs bone). Surprisingly, there is scanty information about the possible altered gene expression occurring in cells that form bone in microgravity.(Just 69 articles result from a "gene expression in microgravity" MedLine query.) Gene-chip or microarray technology allows to screen thousands of genes at the same time: the use of this technology on samples coming from cells exposed to microgravity could provide us with many important informations. For example, the identification of the molecules or structures which are the first sensors of the mechanical stress derived from lack of gravity, could help in understanding which is the first event leading to bone loss due to long-term exposure to microgravity. Consequently, this structure could become a target for a custom-designed drug. It is evident that bone mass loss, observed during long-time stay in Space, represents an accelerated model of what happens in aging osteoporosis. Therefore, the discovery and design of drugs able to interfere with the bone-loss process, could help also in preventing negative physiological processes normally observed on Earth. Considering the aims stated above, my research is designed to:

  3. E-cadherin transport from the trans-Golgi network in tubulovesicular carriers is selectively regulated by golgin-97.

    PubMed

    Lock, John G; Hammond, Luke A; Houghton, Fiona; Gleeson, Paul A; Stow, Jennifer L

    2005-12-01

    E-cadherin is a cell-cell adhesion protein that is trafficked and delivered to the basolateral cell surface. Membrane-bound carriers for the post-Golgi exocytosis of E-cadherin have not been characterized. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged E-cadherin (Ecad-GFP) is transported from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the recycling endosome on its way to the cell surface in tubulovesicular carriers that resemble TGN tubules labeled by members of the golgin family of tethering proteins. Here, we examine the association of golgins with tubular carriers containing E-cadherin as cargo. Fluorescent GRIP domains from golgin proteins replicate the membrane binding of the full-length proteins and were coexpressed with Ecad-GFP. The GRIP domains of p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97 had overlapping but nonidentical distributions on the TGN; both domains were on TGN-derived tubules but only the golgin-97 GRIP domain coincided with Ecad-GFP tubules in live cells. When the Arl1-binding endogenous golgins, p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97 were displaced from Golgi membranes by overexpression of the p230 GRIP domain, trafficking of Ecad-GFP was inhibited. siRNA knockdown of golgin-97 also inhibited trafficking of Ecad-GFP. Thus, the GRIP domains of p230/golgin-245 and golgin-97 bind discriminately to distinct membrane subdomains of the TGN. Golgin-97 is identified as a selective and essential component of the tubulovesicular carriers transporting E-cadherin out of the TGN.

  4. Tre1 GPCR initiates germ cell transepithelial migration by regulating Drosophila melanogaster E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Prabhat S.; Sano, Hiroko; Renault, Andrew D.; Barbosa, Vitor; Fuse, Naoyuki; Lehmann, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant progress in identifying the guidance pathways that control cell migration, how a cell starts to move within an intact organism, acquires motility, and loses contact with its neighbors is poorly understood. We show that activation of the G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) trapped in endoderm 1 (Tre1) directs the redistribution of the G protein Gβ as well as adherens junction proteins and Rho guanosine triphosphatase from the cell periphery to the lagging tail of germ cells at the onset of Drosophila melanogaster germ cell migration. Subsequently, Tre1 activity triggers germ cell dispersal and orients them toward the midgut for directed transepithelial migration. A transition toward invasive migration is also a prerequisite for metastasis formation, which often correlates with down-regulation of adhesion proteins. We show that uniform down-regulation of E-cadherin causes germ cell dispersal but is not sufficient for transepithelial migration in the absence of Tre1. Our findings therefore suggest a new mechanism for GPCR function that links cell polarity, modulation of cell adhesion, and invasion. PMID:18824569

  5. Of mice and men: Dissecting the interaction between Listeria monocytogenes Internalin A and E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A

    2013-01-01

    We report a study of the interaction between internalin A (inlA) and human or murine E-cadherin (Ecad). inlA is used by Listeria monocytogenes to internalize itself into host cell, but the bacterium is unable to invade murine cells, which has been attributed to the difference in sequence between hEcad and mEcad. Using molecular dynamics simulations, MM/GBSA free energy calculations, hydrogen bond analysis, water characterization and umbrella sampling, we provide a complete atomistic picture of the binding between inlA and Ecad. We dissect key residues in the protein–protein interface and analyze the energetics using MM/GBSA. From this analysis it is clear that the binding of inlA–mEcad is weaker than inlA–hEcad, on par with the experimentally observed inability of inlA to bind to mEcad. However, extended MD simulations of 200 ns in length show no destabilization of the inlA–mEcad complex and the estimation of the potential of mean force (PMF) using umbrella sampling corroborates this conclusion. The binding strength computed from the PMFs show no significant difference between the two protein complexes. Hence, our study suggests that the inability of L. monocytogenes to invade murine cells cannot be explained by processes at the nanosecond to sub-microsecond time scale probed by the simulations performed here. PMID:24688730

  6. Role of E-cadherin in membrane-cortex interaction probed by nanotube extrusion.

    PubMed

    Tabdanov, Erdem; Borghi, Nicolas; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Dufour, Sylvie; Thiery, Jean-Paul

    2009-03-18

    This study aims to define the role of E-cadherin (Ecad) engagement in cell-cell contact during membrane-cortex interaction. As a tool, we used a hydrodynamic membrane tube extrusion technique to characterize the mechanical interaction between the plasma membrane and the underlying cortical cytoskeleton. Cells were anchored on 4.5 microm beads coated with polylysine (PL) to obtain nonspecific cell adhesion or with an antibody against Ecad to mimic specific Ecad-mediated cell adhesion. We investigated tube length dynamics L(t) over time and through successive extrusions applied to the cell at regular time intervals. A constant slow velocity was observed for the first extrusion, for PL-attached cells. Subsequent extrusions had two phases: an initial high-velocity regime followed by a low-velocity regime. Successive extrusions gradually weakened the binding of the membrane around the tube neck to the underlying cortical cytoskeleton. Cells specifically attached via Ecad first exhibited a very low extrusion velocity regime followed by a faster extrusion regime similar to nonspecific extrusion. This indicates that Ecad strengthens the membrane-cortical cytoskeleton interaction, but only in a restricted area corresponding to the site of contact between the cell and the bead. Occasional giant "cortex" tubes were extruded with specifically anchored cells, demonstrating that the cortex remained tightly bound to the membrane through Ecad-mediated adhesion at the contact site.

  7. Of mice and men: Dissecting the interaction between Listeria monocytogenes Internalin A and E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A

    2013-01-01

    We report a study of the interaction between internalin A (inlA) and human or murine E-cadherin (Ecad). inlA is used by Listeria monocytogenes to internalize itself into host cell, but the bacterium is unable to invade murine cells, which has been attributed to the difference in sequence between hEcad and mEcad. Using molecular dynamics simulations, MM/GBSA free energy calculations, hydrogen bond analysis, water characterization and umbrella sampling, we provide a complete atomistic picture of the binding between inlA and Ecad. We dissect key residues in the protein-protein interface and analyze the energetics using MM/GBSA. From this analysis it is clear that the binding of inlA-mEcad is weaker than inlA-hEcad, on par with the experimentally observed inability of inlA to bind to mEcad. However, extended MD simulations of 200 ns in length show no destabilization of the inlA-mEcad complex and the estimation of the potential of mean force (PMF) using umbrella sampling corroborates this conclusion. The binding strength computed from the PMFs show no significant difference between the two protein complexes. Hence, our study suggests that the inability of L. monocytogenes to invade murine cells cannot be explained by processes at the nanosecond to sub-microsecond time scale probed by the simulations performed here.

  8. Role of E-Cadherin in Membrane-Cortex Interaction Probed by Nanotube Extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Tabdanov, Erdem; Borghi, Nicolas; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Dufour, Sylvie; Thiery, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to define the role of E-cadherin (Ecad) engagement in cell-cell contact during membrane-cortex interaction. As a tool, we used a hydrodynamic membrane tube extrusion technique to characterize the mechanical interaction between the plasma membrane and the underlying cortical cytoskeleton. Cells were anchored on 4.5 μm beads coated with polylysine (PL) to obtain nonspecific cell adhesion or with an antibody against Ecad to mimic specific Ecad-mediated cell adhesion. We investigated tube length dynamics L(t) over time and through successive extrusions applied to the cell at regular time intervals. A constant slow velocity was observed for the first extrusion, for PL-attached cells. Subsequent extrusions had two phases: an initial high-velocity regime followed by a low-velocity regime. Successive extrusions gradually weakened the binding of the membrane around the tube neck to the underlying cortical cytoskeleton. Cells specifically attached via Ecad first exhibited a very low extrusion velocity regime followed by a faster extrusion regime similar to nonspecific extrusion. This indicates that Ecad strengthens the membrane-cortical cytoskeleton interaction, but only in a restricted area corresponding to the site of contact between the cell and the bead. Occasional giant “cortex” tubes were extruded with specifically anchored cells, demonstrating that the cortex remained tightly bound to the membrane through Ecad-mediated adhesion at the contact site. PMID:19289070

  9. E-cadherin and cell adhesion: a role in architecture and function in the pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Gareth J; Hodgkin, Matthew N; Squires, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    The efficient secretion of insulin from beta-cells requires extensive intra-islet communication. The cell surface adhesion protein epithelial (E)-cadherin (ECAD) establishes and maintains epithelial tissues such as the islets of Langerhans. In this study, the role of ECAD in regulating insulin secretion from pseudoislets was investigated. The effect of an immuno-neutralising ECAD on gross morphology, cytosolic calcium signalling, direct cell-to-cell communication and insulin secretion was assessed by fura-2 microfluorimetry, Lucifer Yellow dye injection and insulin ELISA in an insulin-secreting model system. Antibody blockade of ECAD reduces glucose-evoked changes in [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion. Neutralisation of ECAD causes a breakdown in the glucose-stimulated synchronicity of calcium oscillations between discrete regions within the pseudoislet, and the transfer of dye from an individual cell within a cell cluster is attenuated in the absence of ECAD ligation, demonstrating that gap junction communication is disrupted. The functional consequence of neutralising ECAD is a significant reduction in insulin secretion. Cell adhesion via ECAD has distinct roles in the regulation of intercellular communication between beta-cells within islets, with potential repercussions for insulin secretion.

  10. Junctional E-cadherin/p120-catenin Is Correlated with the Absence of Supporting Cells to Hair Cells Conversion in Postnatal Mice Cochleae.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen-Wei; Wang, Xin-Wei; Ma, Rui; Chi, Fang-Lu; Chen, Ping; Cong, Ning; Gu, Yu-Yan; Ren, Dong-Dong; Yang, Juan-Mei

    2018-01-01

    Notch inhibition is known to generate supernumerary hair cells (HCs) at the expense of supporting cells (SCs) in the mammalian inner ear. However, inhibition of Notch activity becomes progressively less effective at inducing SC-to-HC conversion in the postnatal cochlea and balance organs as the animal ages. It has been suggested that the SC-to-HC conversion capacity is inversely correlated with E-cadherin accumulation in postnatal mammalian utricles. However, whether E-cadherin localization is linked to the SC-to-HC conversion capacity in the mammalian inner ear is poorly understood. In the present study, we treated cochleae from postnatal day 0 (P0) with the Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT and observed apparent SC-to-HC conversion along with E-cadherin/p120ctn disruption in the sensory region. In addition, the SC-to-HC conversion capacity and E-cadherin/p120ctn disorganization were robust in the apex but decreased toward the base. We further demonstrated that the ability to regenerate HCs and the disruption of E-cadherin/p120ctn concomitantly decreased with age and ceased at P7, even after extended DAPT treatments. This timing is consistent with E-cadherin/p120ctn accumulation in the postnatal cochleae. These results suggest that the decreasing capacity of SCs to transdifferentiate into HCs correlates with E-cadherin/p120ctn localization in the postnatal cochleae, which might account for the absence of SC-to-HC conversion in the mammalian cochlea.

  11. Aberrant Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Cai, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating

  12. Method of controlling gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Norman K.; Frost, John W.; Long, Sharon R.

    1991-12-03

    A method of controlling expression of a DNA segment under the control of a nod gene promoter which comprises administering to a host containing a nod gene promoter an amount sufficient to control expression of the DNA segment of a compound of the formula: ##STR1## in which each R is independently H or OH, is described.

  13. Comparison of the global gene expression profiles in the bovine endometrium between summer and autumn

    PubMed Central

    SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; HAYASHI, Ken-Go; SAITO, Shiori; KANAHARA, Hiroko; KIZAKI, Keiichiro; IGA, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress compromises fertility during summer in dairy and beef cows by causing nutritional, physiological and reproductive damages. To examine the difference in endometrial conditions in cows between summer and autumn, gene expression profiles were compared using a 15 K bovine oligo DNA microarray. The trial was conducted in the summer (early in September) and autumn (mid-November) seasons of two consecutive years (2013–2014) in Morioka, Japan. Endometrial samples were collected from the cows using a biopsy technique. The expressions of 268 genes were significantly higher in the endometrium collected in summer than those collected in autumn, whereas the expressions of 369 genes were lower (P<0.05 or lower). Messenger RNA expressions of glycoprotein 2 (GP2), neurotensin (NTS),E-cadherin (CDH1) and heat shock 105kDa/110kDa protein 1 (HSPH1) were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Transcripts of GP2 and NTS were more abundant in the endometrium from summer than in the endometrium from autumn (P < 0.05). In contrast, the mRNA expressions of CDH1 were lower (P < 0.05) and those of HSPH1 tended to be low (P = 0.09) in the endometrium from summer. Immunohistochemical staining showed that GP2, NTS and HSPH1 were expressed in the endometrial epithelial or glandular epithelial cells. The serum concentrations of NTS collected from the cows in summer were higher than those collected from cows in autumn (P < 0.05). Collectively, the different gene expression profiles may contribute to functional differences in the endometrium between summer and autumn, and the increases in GP2 and NTS may have a relationship with the endometrial deficiency that causes infertility of cows in summer. PMID:25994242

  14. Comparison of the global gene expression profiles in the bovine endometrium between summer and autumn.

    PubMed

    Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Ken-Go; Saito, Shiori; Kanahara, Hiroko; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Iga, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress compromises fertility during summer in dairy and beef cows by causing nutritional, physiological and reproductive damages. To examine the difference in endometrial conditions in cows between summer and autumn, gene expression profiles were compared using a 15 K bovine oligo DNA microarray. The trial was conducted in the summer (early in September) and autumn (mid-November) seasons of two consecutive years (2013-2014) in Morioka, Japan. Endometrial samples were collected from the cows using a biopsy technique. The expressions of 268 genes were significantly higher in the endometrium collected in summer than those collected in autumn, whereas the expressions of 369 genes were lower (P<0.05 or lower). Messenger RNA expressions of glycoprotein 2 (GP2), neurotensin (NTS),E-cadherin (CDH1) and heat shock 105kDa/110kDa protein 1 (HSPH1) were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Transcripts of GP2 and NTS were more abundant in the endometrium from summer than in the endometrium from autumn (P < 0.05). In contrast, the mRNA expressions of CDH1 were lower (P < 0.05) and those of HSPH1 tended to be low (P = 0.09) in the endometrium from summer. Immunohistochemical staining showed that GP2, NTS and HSPH1 were expressed in the endometrial epithelial or glandular epithelial cells. The serum concentrations of NTS collected from the cows in summer were higher than those collected from cows in autumn (P < 0.05). Collectively, the different gene expression profiles may contribute to functional differences in the endometrium between summer and autumn, and the increases in GP2 and NTS may have a relationship with the endometrial deficiency that causes infertility of cows in summer.

  15. Influence of E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion on mouse embryonic stem cells derivation from isolated blastomeres.

    PubMed

    González, Sheyla; Ibáñez, Elena; Santaló, Josep

    2011-09-01

    Efforts to efficiently derive embryonic stem cells (ESC) from isolated blastomeres have been done to minimize ethical concerns about human embryo destruction. Previous studies in our laboratory indicated a poor derivation efficiency of mouse ESC lines from isolated blastomeres at the 8-cell stage (1/8 blastomeres) due, in part, to a low division rate of the single blastomeres in comparison to their counterparts with a higher number of blastomeres (2/8, 3/8 and 4/8 blastomeres). Communication and adhesion between blastomeres from which the derivation process begins could be important aspects to efficiently derive ESC lines. In the present study, an approach consisting in the adhesion of a chimeric E-cadherin (E-cad-Fc) to the blastomere surface was devised to recreate the signaling produced by native E-cadherin between neighboring blastomeres inside the embryo. By this approach, the division rate of 1/8 blastomeres increased from 44.6% to 88.8% and a short exposure of 24 h to the E-cad-Fc produced an ESC derivation efficiency of 33.6%, significantly higher than the 2.2% obtained from the control group without E-cad-Fc. By contrast, a longer exposure to the same chimeric protein resulted in higher proportions of trophoblastic vesicles. Thus, we establish an important role of E-cadherin-mediated adherens junctions in promoting both the division of single 1/8 blastomeres and the efficiency of the ESC derivation process.

  16. Enhanced Biological Functions of Human Mesenchymal Stem-Cell Aggregates Incorporating E-Cadherin-Modified PLGA Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Mao, Hongli; Gao, Chao; Li, Suhua; Shuai, Qizhi; Xu, Jianbin; Xu, Ke; Cao, Lei; Lang, Ren; Gu, Zhongwei; Akaike, Toshihiro; Yang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising source of multipotent cells for various cell-based therapies due to their unique properties, and formation of 3D MSC aggregates has been explored as a potential strategy to enhance therapeutic efficacy. In this study, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles modified with human E-cadherin fusion protein (hE-cad-PLGA microparticles) have been fabricated and integrated with human MSCs to form 3D cell aggregates. The results show that, compared with the plain PLGA, the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles distribute within the aggregates more evenly and further result in a more significant improvement of cellular proliferation and secretion of a series of bioactive factors due to the synergistic effects from the bioactive E-cadherin fragments and the PLGA microparticles. Meanwhile, the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles incorporated in the aggregates upregulate the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activate the AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the MSCs. Additionally, the E-cadherin/β-catenin cellular membrane complex in the MSCs is markedly stimulated by the hE-cad-PLGA microparticles. Therefore, engineering 3D cell aggregates with hE-cad-PLGA microparticles can be a promising method for ex vivo multipotent stem-cell expansion with enhanced biological functions and may offer a novel route to expand multipotent stem-cell-based clinical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The juxtamembrane domain of the E-cadherin cytoplasmic tail contributes to its interaction with Myosin VI

    PubMed Central

    Mangold, Sabine; Norwood, Suzanne J.; Yap, Alpha S.; Collins, Brett M.

    2012-01-01

    We recently identified the atypical myosin, Myosin VI, as a component of epithelial cell-cell junctions that interacts with E-cadherin. Recombinant proteins bearing the cargo-binding domain of Myosin VI (Myo VI-CBD) or the cytoplasmic tail of E-cadherin can interact directly with one another. In this report we further investigate the molecular requirements of the interaction between Myo VI-CBD and E-cadherin combining truncation mutation analysis with in vitro binding assays. We report that a short (28 amino acid) juxtamembrane region of the cadherin cytoplasmic tail is sufficient to bind Myo VI-CBD. However, central regions of the cadherin tail adjacent to the juxtamembrane sequence also display binding activity for Myo VI-CBD. It is therefore possible that the cadherin tail bears two binding sites for Myosin VI, or an extended binding site that includes the juxtamembrane region. Nevertheless, our biochemical data highlight the capacity for the juxtamembrane region to interact with functionally-significant cytoplasmic proteins. PMID:23007415

  18. Diffusion and intermembrane distance: case study of avidin and E-cadherin mediated adhesion.

    PubMed

    Fenz, Susanne F; Merkel, Rudolf; Sengupta, Kheya

    2009-01-20

    We present a biomimetic model system for cell-cell adhesion consisting of a giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) adhering via specific ligand-receptor interactions to a supported lipid bilayer (SLB). The modification of in-plane diffusion of tracer lipids and receptors in the SLB membrane due to adhesion to the GUV is reported. Adhesion was mediated by either biotin-neutravidin (an avidin analogue) or the extracellular domains of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin (Ecad). In the strong interaction (biotin-avidin) case, binding of soluble receptors to the SLB alone led to reduced diffusion of tracer lipids. From theoretical considerations, this could be attributed partially to introduction of obstacles and partially to viscous effects. Further specific binding of a GUV membrane caused additional slowing down of tracers (up to 15%) and immobilization of receptors, and led to accumulation of receptors in the adhesion zone until full coverage was achieved. The intermembrane distance was measured to be 7 nm from microinterferometry (RICM). We show that a crowding effect due to the accumulated receptors alone is not sufficient to account for the slowing downan additional friction from the membrane also plays a role. In the weak binding case (Ecad), the intermembrane distance was about 50 nm, corresponding to partial overlap of the Ecad domains. No significant change in diffusion of tracer lipids was observed upon either protein binding or subsequent vesicle binding. The former was probably due to very small effective size of the obstacles introduced into the bilayer by Ecad binding, whereas the latter was due to the fact that, with such high intermembrane distance, the resulting friction is negligible. We conclude that the effect of intermembrane adhesion on diffusion depends strongly on the choice of the receptors.

  19. Gene expression systems in corynebacteria.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Preeti; Deb, J K

    2005-04-01

    Corynebacterium belongs to a group of gram-positive bacteria having moderate to high G+C content, the other members being Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus. Considerable information is now available on the plasmids, gene regulatory elements, and gene expression in corynebacteria, especially in soil corynebacteria such as Corynebacterium glutamicum. These bacteria are non-pathogenic and, unlike Bacillus and Streptomyces, are low in proteolytic activity and thus have the potential of becoming attractive systems for expression of heterologous proteins. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the organization of various regulatory elements, such as promoters, transcription terminators, and development of vectors for cloning and gene expression.

  20. Monoallelic Gene Expression in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Chess, Andrew

    2016-11-23

    Monoallelic expression not due to cis-regulatory sequence polymorphism poses an intriguing problem in epigenetics because it requires the unequal treatment of two segments of DNA that are present in the same nucleus and that can indeed have absolutely identical sequences. Here, I focus on a few recent developments in the field of monoallelic expression that are of particular interest and raise interesting questions for future work. One development is regarding analyses of imprinted genes, in which recent work suggests the possibility that intriguing networks of imprinted genes exist and are important for genetic and physiological studies. Another issue that has been raised in recent years by a number of publications is the question of how skewed allelic expression should be for it to be designated as monoallelic expression and, further, what methods are appropriate or inappropriate for analyzing genomic data to examine allele-specific expression. Perhaps the most exciting recent development in mammalian monoallelic expression is a clever and carefully executed analysis of genetic diversity of autosomal genes subject to random monoallelic expression (RMAE), which provides compelling evidence for distinct evolutionary forces acting on random monoallelically expressed genes.

  1. Connective tissue growth factor enhances the migration of gastric cancer through downregulation of E-cadherin via the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhengfa; Ma, Xiaoyan; Rong, Yefei; Cui, Lei; Wang, Xuqing; Wu, Wenchuan; Zhang, Jianxin; Jin, Dayong

    2011-01-01

    Local invasion and distant metastasis are difficult problems for surgical intervention and treatment in gastric cancer. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) was considered to have an important role in this process. In this study, we demonstrated that expression of CTGF was significantly upregulated in clinical tissue samples of gastric carcinoma (GC) samples. Forced expression of CTGF in AGS GC cells promoted their migration in culture and significantly increased tumor metastasis in nude mice, whereas RNA interference-mediated knockdown of CTGF in GC cells significantly inhibited cell migration in vitro. We disclose that CTGF downregulated the expression of E-cadherin through activation of the nuclear factor-κappa B (NF-κB) pathway. The effects of CTGF in GC cells were abolished by dominant negative IκappaB. Collectively, these data reported here demonstrate CTGF could modulate the NF-κappaB pathway and perhaps be a promising therapeutic target for gastric cancer invasion and metastasis. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. EGF promotes the shedding of soluble E-cadherin in an ADAM10-dependent manner in prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Magdalena M; Sandhu, Brindar; Day, Mark L

    2012-02-01

    During the progression of prostate cancer, the epithelial adhesion molecule E-cadherin is cleaved from the cell surface by ADAM15 proteolytic processing, generating an extracellular 80kDa fragment referred to as soluble E-cadherin (sE-cad). Contrary to observations in cancer, the generation of sE-cad appears to correlate with ADAM10 activity in benign prostatic epithelium. The ADAM10-specific inhibitor INCB8765 and the ADAM10 prodomain inhibit the generation of sE-cad, as well as downstream signaling and cell proliferation. Addition of EGF or amphiregulin (AREG) to these untransformed cell lines increases the amount of sE-cad shed into the conditioned media, as well as sE-cad bound to EGFR. EGF-associated shedding appears to be mediated by ADAM10 as shRNA knockdown of ADAM10 results in reduced shedding of sE-cad. To examine the physiologic role of sE-cad on benign prostatic epithelium, we treated BPH-1 and large T immortalized prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) with an sE-cad chimera comprised of the human Fc domain of IgG(1), fused to the extracellular domains of E-cadherin (Fc-Ecad). The treatment of untransformed prostate epithelial cells with Fc-Ecad resulted in phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream signaling through ERK and increased cell proliferation. Pre-treating BPH-1 and PrEC cells with cetuximab, a therapeutic monoclonal antibody against EGFR, decreased the ability of Fc-Ecad to induce EGFR phosphorylation, downstream signaling, and proliferation. These data suggest that ADAM10-generated sE-cad may have a role in EGFR signaling independent of traditional EGFR ligands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. p63 expression defines a lethal subset of muscle-invasive bladder cancers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woonyoung; Shah, Jay B; Tran, Mai; Svatek, Robert; Marquis, Lauren; Lee, I-Ling; Yu, Dasom; Adam, Liana; Wen, Sijin; Shen, Yu; Dinney, Colin; McConkey, David J; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    p63 is a member of the p53 family that has been implicated in maintenance of epithelial stem cell compartments. Previous studies demonstrated that p63 is downregulated in muscle-invasive bladder cancers, but the relationship between p63 expression and survival is not clear. We used real-time PCR to characterize p63 expression and several genes implicated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bladder cancer cell lines (n = 15) and primary tumors (n = 101). We correlated tumor marker expression with stage, disease-specific (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Expression of E-cadherin and p63 correlated directly with one another and inversely with expression of the mesenchymal markers Zeb-1, Zeb-2, and vimentin. Non-muscle-invasive (Ta and T1) bladder cancers uniformly expressed high levels of E-cadherin and p63 and low levels of the mesenchymal markers. Interestingly, a subset of muscle-invasive (T2-T4) tumors maintained high levels of E-cadherin and p63 expression. As expected, there was a strongly significant correlation between EMT marker expression and muscle invasion (p<0.0001). However, OS was shorter in patients with muscle-invasive tumors that retained p63 (p = 0.007). Our data confirm that molecular markers of EMT are elevated in muscle-invasive bladder cancers, but interestingly, retention of the "epithelial" marker p63 in muscle-invasive tumors is associated with a worse outcome.

  4. 3-Deazaneplanocin A suppresses aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    SciT

    Hatta, Mitsutoki, E-mail: hatta@college.fdcnet.ac.jp; Naganuma, Kaori; Kato, Kenichi

    In tumor tissues, alterations of gene expression caused by aberrant epigenetic modifications confer phenotypic diversity on malignant cells. Although 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) has been shown to reactivate tumor suppressor genes in several cancer cells, it remains unclear whether DZNep attenuates the malignant phenotypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of DZNep on the expression of genes related to aggressive phenotypes, such as epithelial–mesenchymal transition, in OSCC cells. We found that DZNep reduced the cellular levels of polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, BMI1, and RING1A) and the associated trimethylation of Lys27 on histonemore » H3 and monoubiquitination of Lys119 on histone H2A in the poorly differentiated OSCC cell line SAS. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated that DZNep induced the reorganization of filamentous actin and the membrane localization of E-cadherin associated with cell–cell adhesions. We also found an inhibitory effect of DZNep on cell proliferation using a WST assay. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that genes involved in the aggressive phenotypes (TWIST2, EGFR, ACTA2, TGFB1, WNT5B, and APLIN) were down-regulated, whereas epithelial phenotype genes (CDH1, CLDN4, IVL, and TGM1) were up-regulated in SAS cells treated with DZNep. Collectively, our findings suggest that DZNep reverses the aggressive characteristics of OSCC cells through the dynamic regulation of epithelial plasticity via the reprogramming of gene expression patterns. - Highlights: • DZNep reduced PcG proteins and associated histone modifications in OSCC cells. • DZNep enhanced cell–cell adhesion indicative of epithelial phenotype in OSCC cells. • DZNep suppressed the aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in OSCC cells. • DZNep activated the gene expression of epithelial markers in OSCC cells.« less

  5. Differential expression patterns of metastasis suppressor proteins in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bozdogan, Onder; Yulug, Isik G; Vargel, Ibrahim; Cavusoglu, Tarik; Karabulut, Ayse A; Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer

    2015-08-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are common malignant skin tumors. Despite having a significant invasion capacity, they metastasize only rarely. Our aim in this study was to detect the expression patterns of the NM23-H1, NDRG1, E-cadherin, RHOGDI2, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 metastasis suppressor proteins in BCCs. A total of 96 BCC and 10 normal skin samples were included for the immunohistochemical study. Eleven frozen BCC samples were also studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect the gene expression profile. NM23-H1 was strongly and diffusely expressed in all types of BCC. Significant cytoplasmic expression of NDRG1 and E-cadherin was also detected. However, AKAP12 and CD82/KAI1 expression was significantly decreased. The expressions of the other proteins were somewhere between the two extremes. Similarly, qRT-PCR analysis showed down-regulation of AKAP12 and up-regulation of NM23-H1 and NDRG1 in BCC. Morphologically aggressive BCCs showed significantly higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression scores and lower CD82/KAI1 scores than non-aggressive BCCs. The relatively preserved levels of NM23-H1, NDRG1, and E-cadherin proteins may have a positive effect on the non-metastasizing features of these tumors. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. Hematopoietic progenitors express neural genes

    PubMed Central

    Goolsby, James; Marty, Marie C.; Heletz, Dafna; Chiappelli, Joshua; Tashko, Gerti; Yarnell, Deborah; Fishman, Paul S.; Dhib-Jalbut, Suhayl; Bever, Christopher T.; Pessac, Bernard; Trisler, David

    2003-01-01

    Bone marrow, or cells selected from bone marrow, were reported recently to give rise to cells with a neural phenotype after in vitro treatment with neural-inducing factors or after delivery into the brain. However, we showed previously that untreated bone marrow cells express products of the neural myelin basic protein gene, and we demonstrate here that a subset of ex vivo bone marrow cells expresses the neurogenic transcription factor Pax-6 as well as neuronal genes encoding neurofilament H, NeuN (neuronal nuclear protein), HuC/HuD (Hu-antigen C/Hu-antigen D), and GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65), as well as the oligodendroglial gene encoding CNPase (2′,3′ cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphohydrolase). In contrast, astroglial glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was not detected. These cells also were CD34+, a marker of hematopoietic stem cells. Cultures of these highly proliferative CD34+ cells, derived from adult mouse bone marrow, uniformly displayed a phenotype comparable with that of hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD45+, CD34+, Sca-1+, AA4.1+, cKit+, GATA-2+, and LMO-2+). The neuronal and oligodendroglial genes expressed in ex vivo bone marrow also were expressed in all cultured CD34+ cells, and GFAP was not observed. After CD34+ cell transplantation into adult brain, neuronal or oligodendroglial markers segregated into distinct nonoverlapping cell populations, whereas astroglial GFAP appeared, in the absence of other neural markers, in a separate set of implanted cells. Thus, neuronal and oligodendroglial gene products are present in a subset of bone marrow cells, and the expression of these genes can be regulated in brain. The fact that these CD34+ cells also express transcription factors (Rex-1 and Oct-4) that are found in early development elicits the hypothesis that they may be pluripotent embryonic-like stem cells. PMID:14634211

  7. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  8. Zipf's Law in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2003-02-01

    Using data from gene expression databases on various organisms and tissues, including yeast, nematodes, human normal and cancer tissues, and embryonic stem cells, we found that the abundances of expressed genes exhibit a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1; i.e., they obey Zipf’s law. Furthermore, by simulations of a simple model with an intracellular reaction network, we found that Zipf’s law of chemical abundance is a universal feature of cells where such a network optimizes the efficiency and faithfulness of self-reproduction. These findings provide novel insights into the nature of the organization of reaction dynamics in living cells.

  9. P21, COX-2, and E-cadherin are potential prognostic factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yao; Shen, Lu-Yan; Fu, Hao; Dong, Bin; Yang, He-Li; Yan, Wan-Pu; Kang, Xiao-Zheng; Dai, Liang; Zhou, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yong-Bo; Liang, Zhen; Chen, Ke-Neng

    2017-02-01

    Much research effort has been devoted to identifying prognostic factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by immunohistochemistry; however, no conclusive findings have been reached thus far. We hypothesized that certain molecules identified in previous studies might serve as useful prognostic markers for ESCC. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to validate the most relevant markers showing potential for ESCC prognosis in our prospective esophageal cancer database. A literature search was performed using the PubMed database for papers published between 1980 and 2015 using the following key words: 'esophageal cancer,' 'prognosis,' and 'immunohistochemistry.' Literature selection criteria were established to identify the most widely studied markers, and we further validated the selected markers in a cohort from our single-surgeon team, including 153 esophageal cancer patients treated from 2000 to 2010. A total of 1799 articles were identified, 82 of which met the selection criteria. Twelve markers were found to be the most widely studied, and the validation results indicated that only P21, COX-2, and E-cadherin were independent prognostic factors for ESCC patients in this series. The systemic review and cohort validation suggest that P21, COX-2, and E-cadherin are potential prognostic factors for ESCC, paving the way for more targeted prospective validation in the future. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  10. Control of E-cadherin apical localisation and morphogenesis by a SOAP-1/AP-1/clathrin pathway in C. elegans epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Ghislain; Shafaq-Zadah, Massiullah; Nicolle, Ophélie; Damaj, Raghida; Pécréaux, Jacques; Michaux, Grégoire

    2015-05-01

    E-cadherin (E-cad) is the main component of epithelial junctions in multicellular organisms, where it is essential for cell-cell adhesion. The localisation of E-cad is often strongly polarised in the apico-basal axis. However, the mechanisms required for its polarised distribution are still largely unknown. We performed a systematic RNAi screen in vivo to identify genes required for the strict E-cad apical localisation in C. elegans epithelial epidermal cells. We found that the loss of clathrin, its adaptor AP-1 and the AP-1 interactor SOAP-1 induced a basolateral localisation of E-cad without affecting the apico-basal diffusion barrier. We further found that SOAP-1 controls AP-1 localisation, and that AP-1 is required for clathrin recruitment. Finally, we also show that AP-1 controls E-cad apical delivery and actin organisation during embryonic elongation, the final morphogenetic step of embryogenesis. We therefore propose that a molecular pathway, containing SOAP-1, AP-1 and clathrin, controls the apical delivery of E-cad and morphogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Comparative study of the Ar and He atmospheric pressure plasmas on E-cadherin protein regulation for plasma-mediated transdermal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Young; Hae Choi, Jeong; Hong, Jin Woo; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Lee, Hae June

    2018-05-01

    The effects of argon plasma (ArP) and helium plasma (HeP) jets on E-cadherin protein function have been tested in order to choose the working gas for a better plasma-mediated transdermal drug delivery. The plasma-mediated changes of the E-cadherin function and the skin penetration efficacies of epidermal growth factor (EGF) were monitored in vitro using HaCaT human keratinocytes and in vivo using hairless mice. The ArP showed higher efficacy for E-cadherin regulation and EGF absorption than HeP under the same applied voltage and the same gas flow rate. The ArP generates higher volume power density, higher discharge current peak, and more reactive species than HeP, especially for OH with the same operating parameters. Moreover, the effect of ArP on E-cadherin function was blocked by the use of a grounded metal mesh. Taken together, this study presents the possibility that the synergetic effect of negative charges with radicals plays an important role in plasma-mediated E-cadherin regulation, which leads to enhanced transdermal drug delivery.

  12. Dual pulse-chase microscopy reveals early divergence in the biosynthetic trafficking of the Na,K-ATPase and E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Glen A.; Hull, Michael; Stoops, Emily H.; Bateson, Rosalie; Caplan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that newly synthesized membrane proteins that share the same distributions in the plasma membranes of polarized epithelial cells can pursue a variety of distinct trafficking routes as they travel from the Golgi complex to their common destination at the cell surface. In most polarized epithelial cells, both the Na,K-ATPase and E-cadherin are localized to the basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. To examine the itineraries pursued by newly synthesized Na,K-ATPase and E-cadherin in polarized MDCK epithelial cells, we used the SNAP and CLIP labeling systems to fluorescently tag temporally defined cohorts of these proteins and observe their behaviors simultaneously as they traverse the secretory pathway. These experiments reveal that E-cadherin is delivered to the cell surface substantially faster than is the Na,K-ATPase. Furthermore, the surface delivery of newly synthesized E-cadherin to the plasma membrane was not prevented by the 19°C temperature block that inhibits the trafficking of most proteins, including the Na,K-ATPase, out of the trans-Golgi network. Consistent with these distinct behaviors, populations of newly synthesized E-cadherin and Na,K-ATPase become separated from one another within the trans-Golgi network, suggesting that they are sorted into different carrier vesicles that mediate their post-Golgi trafficking. PMID:26424804

  13. Mammary-specific inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 impairs functional gland development and leads to pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Derksen, Patrick W B; Braumuller, Tanya M; van der Burg, Eline; Hornsveld, Marten; Mesman, Elly; Wesseling, Jelle; Krimpenfort, Paul; Jonkers, Jos

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women of the Western world. Even though a large percentage of breast cancer patients show pathological complete remission after standard treatment regimes, approximately 30-40% are non-responsive and ultimately develop metastatic disease. To generate a good preclinical model of invasive breast cancer, we have taken a tissue-specific approach to somatically inactivate p53 and E-cadherin, the cardinal cell-cell adhesion receptor that is strongly associated with tumor invasiveness. In breast cancer, E-cadherin is found mutated or otherwise functionally silenced in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), which accounts for 10-15% of all breast cancers. We show that mammary-specific stochastic inactivation of conditional E-cadherin and p53 results in impaired mammary gland function during pregnancy through the induction of anoikis resistance of mammary epithelium, resulting in loss of epithelial organization and a dysfunctional mammary gland. Moreover, combined inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 induced lactation-independent development of invasive and metastatic mammary carcinomas, which showed strong resemblance to human pleomorphic ILC. Dissemination patterns of mouse ILC mimic the human malignancy, showing metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lung, lymph nodes and bone. Our results confirm that loss of E-cadherin contributes to both mammary tumor initiation and metastasis, and establish a preclinical mouse model of human ILC that can be used for the development of novel intervention strategies to treat invasive breast cancer.

  14. Soluble fragments of e-cadherin cell-adhesion molecule increase in urinary-excretion of cancer-patients, potentially indicating its shedding from epithelial tumor-cells.

    PubMed

    Katayama, M; Hirai, S; Yasumoto, M; Nishikawa, K; Nagata, S; Otsuka, M; Kamihagi, K; Kato, I

    1994-11-01

    E-cadherin (Ecad) is well known to be a calcium-ion-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule expressed mostly in epithelial tissues. Previous immunohistochemical studies suggested that this cell adhesion molecule acts as an invasion suppressor and is negligibly detected in cancer metastatic regions. Soluble Ecad fragments derived from the proteolysed membrane-associated form were detected in culture supernatants of two cell lines, COLO 205 and A-431, with normal distribution of cell surface Ecad. Soluble Ecad levels released into culture of COLO 205 exhibiting reduced cell-cell adhesion were apparently elevated above those of A-431 with tight cell-cell adhesion. Furthermore, human circulation and urine continuously contain soluble Ecad which consists mainly of homogeneous 75-85 kDa extracellular domains. Soluble Ecad urinary level per urinary creatinine level was found to be significantly elevated in 53% of patients suffering from various types of cancers including lung, liver, stomach, colon and rectal cancers, as compared with those in the age-matched healthy subjects. These results suggest that dysfunction of cell surface Ecad is responsible for its enhanced proteolytic shedding in tumorigenesis, which may lead to the decrease of cell surface Ecads. Furthermore, excretion of high levels of soluble Ecad fragments potentially indicates the progression of epithelial tumors excessively degrading cell surface Ecad in clinical subjects.

  15. CRISPR/Cas9n-Mediated Deletion of the Snail 1Gene (SNAI1) Reveals Its Role in Regulating Cell Morphology, Cell-Cell Interactions, and Gene Expression in Ovarian Cancer (RMG-1) Cells.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Misako; Sato, Masahiro; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Snail1 is a transcription factor that induces the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT, epithelial cells lose their junctions, reorganize their cytoskeletons, and reprogram gene expression. Although Snail1 is a prominent repressor of E-cadherin transcription, its precise roles in each of the phenomena of EMT are not completely understood, particularly in cytoskeletal changes. Previous studies have employed gene knockdown systems to determine the functions of Snail1. However, incomplete protein knockdown is often associated with these systems, which may cause incorrect interpretation of the data. To more precisely evaluate the functions of Snail1, we generated a stable cell line with a targeted ablation of Snail1 (Snail1 KO) by using the CRISPR/Cas9n system. Snail1 KO cells show increased cell-cell adhesion, decreased cell-substrate adhesion and cell migration, changes to their cytoskeletal organization that include few stress fibers and abundant cortical actin, and upregulation of epithelial marker genes such as E-cadherin, occludin, and claudin-1. However, morphological changes were induced by treatment of Snail1 KO cells with TGF-beta. Other transcription factors that induce EMT were also induced by treatment with TGF-beta. The precise deletion of Snail1 by the CRISPR/Cas9n system provides clear evidence that loss of Snail1 causes changes in the actin cytoskeleton, decreases cell-substrate adhesion, and increases cell-cell adhesion. Treatment of RMG1 cells with TGF-beta suggests redundancy among the transcription factors that induce EMT.

  16. Models of stochastic gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsson, Johan

    2005-06-01

    Gene expression is an inherently stochastic process: Genes are activated and inactivated by random association and dissociation events, transcription is typically rare, and many proteins are present in low numbers per cell. The last few years have seen an explosion in the stochastic modeling of these processes, predicting protein fluctuations in terms of the frequencies of the probabilistic events. Here I discuss commonalities between theoretical descriptions, focusing on a gene-mRNA-protein model that includes most published studies as special cases. I also show how expression bursts can be explained as simplistic time-averaging, and how generic approximations can allow for concrete interpretations without requiring concrete assumptions. Measures and nomenclature are discussed to some extent and the modeling literature is briefly reviewed.

  17. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-01-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene’s expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (<100 kb) but extends much further. Sex-specific expression change is also genomically clustered. As genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. PMID:25743543

  18. Vascular gene expression: a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Navarro, Angélica C.; Galván-Gordillo, Santiago V.; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a “primitive” vascular tissue (a lycophyte), as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte), and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non-vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT, and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants. PMID:23882276

  19. Ikaros gene expression and leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tonnelle, Cécile; Calmels, Boris; Maroc, Christine; Gabert, Jean; Chabannon, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The Ikaros (Ik) protein, or LyF1, was initially described as a protein binding to regulatory sequences of a number of genes expressed in murine lymphoid cells. Ikaros is a critical regulator of normal hematopoietic stem cell differentiation, as evidenced by dramatic defects in the lymphoid compartments, in homozygous animals with gene inactivation. Because differential splicing produces multiple isoforms with potentially different functions, Ikaros provides a unique model to study how post-transcriptional mechanisms may be involved in neoplastic processes. Indeed, several groups including ours have underlined evidences that expression of different Ikaros isoforms vary among different types of leukemias. The predominance of short isoforms in certain subsets is intriguing. Here, additional observations reinforced the hypothesis that Ikaros expression may be deregulated in human leukemias. Whether this is a cause or a consequence of the leukemic process remains speculative. Other human diseases however, provide examples of abnormal post-transcriptional regulations that have been further characterized.

  20. Systems Biophysics of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Jose M.G.; Saiz, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is a process central to any form of life. It involves multiple temporal and functional scales that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the coordinated regulation of multiple genes in response to intracellular and extracellular changes. This diversity in scales poses fundamental challenges to the use of traditional approaches to fully understand even the simplest gene expression systems. Recent advances in computational systems biophysics have provided promising avenues to reliably integrate the molecular detail of biophysical process into the system behavior. Here, we review recent advances in the description of gene regulation as a system of biophysical processes that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the combinatorial assembly of nucleoprotein complexes. There is now basic mechanistic understanding on how promoters controlled by multiple, local and distal, DNA binding sites for transcription factors can actively control transcriptional noise, cell-to-cell variability, and other properties of gene regulation, including precision and flexibility of the transcriptional responses. PMID:23790365

  1. A short-term intervention with selenium affects expression of genes implicated in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Dieuwertje E.G.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.L.M.; Verhaegh, Gerald W.; Schalken, Jack A.; van Lin, Emile N.J.T.; Michiel Sedelaar, J.P.; Alfred Witjes, J.; Hulsbergen - van de Kaa, Christina A.; van't Veer, Pieter; Kampman, Ellen; Afman, Lydia A.

    2017-01-01

    In parallel with the inconsistency in observational studies and chemoprevention trials, the mechanisms by which selenium affects prostate cancer risk have not been elucidated. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of a short-term intervention with selenium on gene expression in non-malignant prostate tissue. Twenty-three men received 300 μg selenium per day in the form of selenized yeast (n=12) or a placebo (n=11) during 5 weeks. Prostate biopsies collected from the transition zone before and after intervention were analysed for 15 participants (n=8 selenium, n=7 placebo). Pathway analyses revealed that the intervention with selenium was associated with down-regulated expression of genes involved in cellular migration, invasion, remodeling and immune responses. Specifically, expression of well-established epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and epithelial cell adhesion molecule EPCAM, was up-regulated, while the mesenchymal markers vimentin and fibronectin were down-regulated after intervention with selenium. This implies an inhibitory effect of selenium on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, selenium was associated with down-regulated expression of genes involved in wound healing and inflammation; processes which are both related to EMT. In conclusion, our explorative data showed that selenium affected expression of genes implicated in EMT in the transition zone of the prostate. PMID:28076331

  2. A short-term intervention with selenium affects expression of genes implicated in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the prostate.

    PubMed

    Kok, Dieuwertje E G; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Verhaegh, Gerald W; Schalken, Jack A; van Lin, Emile N J T; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Witjes, J Alfred; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; van 't Veer, Pieter; Kampman, Ellen; Afman, Lydia A

    2017-02-07

    In parallel with the inconsistency in observational studies and chemoprevention trials, the mechanisms by which selenium affects prostate cancer risk have not been elucidated. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of a short-term intervention with selenium on gene expression in non-malignant prostate tissue. Twenty-three men received 300 µg selenium per day in the form of selenized yeast (n=12) or a placebo (n=11) during 5 weeks. Prostate biopsies collected from the transition zone before and after intervention were analysed for 15 participants (n=8 selenium, n=7 placebo). Pathway analyses revealed that the intervention with selenium was associated with down-regulated expression of genes involved in cellular migration, invasion, remodeling and immune responses. Specifically, expression of well-established epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and epithelial cell adhesion molecule EPCAM, was up-regulated, while the mesenchymal markers vimentin and fibronectin were down-regulated after intervention with selenium. This implies an inhibitory effect of selenium on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, selenium was associated with down-regulated expression of genes involved in wound healing and inflammation; processes which are both related to EMT. In conclusion, our explorative data showed that selenium affected expression of genes implicated in EMT in the transition zone of the prostate.

  3. The Gene Expression Omnibus Database.

    PubMed

    Clough, Emily; Barrett, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database is an international public repository that archives and freely distributes high-throughput gene expression and other functional genomics data sets. Created in 2000 as a worldwide resource for gene expression studies, GEO has evolved with rapidly changing technologies and now accepts high-throughput data for many other data applications, including those that examine genome methylation, chromatin structure, and genome-protein interactions. GEO supports community-derived reporting standards that specify provision of several critical study elements including raw data, processed data, and descriptive metadata. The database not only provides access to data for tens of thousands of studies, but also offers various Web-based tools and strategies that enable users to locate data relevant to their specific interests, as well as to visualize and analyze the data. This chapter includes detailed descriptions of methods to query and download GEO data and use the analysis and visualization tools. The GEO homepage is at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/.

  4. The Gene Expression Omnibus database

    PubMed Central

    Clough, Emily; Barrett, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database is an international public repository that archives and freely distributes high-throughput gene expression and other functional genomics data sets. Created in 2000 as a worldwide resource for gene expression studies, GEO has evolved with rapidly changing technologies and now accepts high-throughput data for many other data applications, including those that examine genome methylation, chromatin structure, and genome–protein interactions. GEO supports community-derived reporting standards that specify provision of several critical study elements including raw data, processed data, and descriptive metadata. The database not only provides access to data for tens of thousands of studies, but also offers various Web-based tools and strategies that enable users to locate data relevant to their specific interests, as well as to visualize and analyze the data. This chapter includes detailed descriptions of methods to query and download GEO data and use the analysis and visualization tools. The GEO homepage is at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/. PMID:27008011

  5. Gallic acid modulates phenotypic behavior and gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway.

    PubMed

    Santos, Eliane Macedo Sobrinho; da Rocha, Rogério Gonçalves; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; da Silveira, Luiz Henrique; Batista, Paulo Ricardo; de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes; Melo, Geraldo Aclécio; Santos, Sérgio Henrique; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2018-01-01

    Gallic acid is a polyphenolic compost appointed to interfere with neoplastic cells behavior. Evidence suggests an important role of leptin in carcinogenesis pathways, inducing a proliferative phenotype. We investigated the potential of gallic acid to modulate leptin-induced cell proliferation and migration of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The gallic acid effect on leptin secretion by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, was also assessed. For this, we performed proliferation, migration, immunocytochemical and qPCR assays. The expression levels of cell migration-related genes (MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, and E-cadherin), angiogenesis (HIF-1α, mir210), leptin signaling (LepR, p44/42 MAPK), apoptosis (casp-3), and secreted leptin levels by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells were also measured. Gallic acid decreased proliferation and migration of leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, and reduced mRNA expression of MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, mir210, but did not change HIF-1α. Gallic acid decreased levels of leptin secreted by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, accordingly with downregulation of p44/42 MAPK expression. Thus, gallic acid appears to break down neoplastic phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. SPHK1 (sphingosine kinase 1) induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by promoting the autophagy-linked lysosomal degradation of CDH1/E-cadherin in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Ma, Yan; He, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Wu-Li; Shao, Rong-Guang

    2017-05-04

    SPHK1 (sphingosine kinase 1), a regulator of sphingolipid metabolites, plays a causal role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through augmenting HCC invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which SPHK1 signaling promotes invasion and metastasis in HCC remains to be clarified. Here, we reported that SPHK1 induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by accelerating CDH1/E-cadherin lysosomal degradation and facilitating the invasion and metastasis of HepG2 cells. Initially, we found that SPHK1 promoted cell migration and invasion and induced the EMT process through decreasing the expression of CDH1, which is an epithelial marker. Furthermore, SPHK1 accelerated the lysosomal degradation of CDH1 to induce EMT, which depended on TRAF2 (TNF receptor associated factor 2)-mediated macroautophagy/autophagy activation. In addition, the inhibition of autophagy recovered CDH1 expression and reduced cell migration and invasion through delaying the degradation of CDH1 in SPHK1-overexpressing cells. Moreover, the overexpression of SPHK1 produced intracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). In response to S1P stimulation, TRAF2 bound to BECN1/Beclin 1 and catalyzed the lysine 63-linked ubiquitination of BECN1 for triggering autophagy. The deletion of the RING domain of TRAF2 inhibited autophagy and the interaction of BECN1 and TRAF2. Our findings define a novel mechanism responsible for the regulation of the EMT via SPHK1-TRAF2-BECN1-CDH1 signal cascades in HCC cells. Our work indicates that the blockage of SPHK1 activity to attenuate autophagy may be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of HCC.

  7. Purification of fetal mouse hepatoblasts by magnetic beads coated with monoclonal anti-e-cadherin antibodies and their in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Nitou, Miho; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Katsutoshi; Shiojiri, Nobuyoshi

    2002-10-01

    A simple, rapid, and reproducible method of fetal hepatoblast purification was established to investigate mechanisms controlling interactions between hepatoblasts and nonparenchymal cells during liver development. Because E-cadherin is exclusively expressed on the cell membrane of hepatoblasts, magnetic beads coated with monoclonal antibodies to an extracellular epitope of its molecule were used to purify hepatoblasts from a cell suspension prepared from 12.5-day fetal mouse livers. The purity and yield in the hepatoblast fraction prepared in our protocol were more than 90% and approximately 30%, respectively. The nonparenchymal fraction rarely contained hepatoblasts; the rate of hepatoblast contamination in this fraction was less than 1%. Separate cultures of these two fractions were compared with cocultures of both fractions. In culture of the hepatoblast fraction, hepatoblasts formed aggregates similar to a bunch of grapes via their loose adhesion, floating in the medium after 24 h, and dissociated into single cells from the aggregates after 120 h of culture. By contrast, in the mixed culture, the majority of hepatoblasts formed multicellular spheroids after 24 h, and these spheroids changed into monolayer cell sheets after 120 h of culture. The cells comprising these monolayer sheets abundantly expressed albumin and carbamoylphosphate synthase I. In the mixed culture, fibroblastic cells also proliferated extensively with spreading on glass slides and surrounded the hepatoblast or hepatocyte colonies. On the other hand, fibroblastic cells spreading on glass slides decreased gradually in cultures of the nonparenchymal cell fraction alone. These findings indicated that the coexistence of hepatoblasts and nonparenchymal cells may be essential for their mutual survival, proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis. The conditioned medium of fetal liver cell cultures could partially replace the effects of the nonparenchymal cells on hepatoblasts in vitro. Our

  8. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Hurst, Laurence D

    2015-07-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene's expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (<100 kb) but extends much further. Sex-specific expression change is also genomically clustered. As genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Urtica dioica extract suppresses miR-21 and metastasis-related genes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ali; Hashemzadeh, Shahriar; Shirjang, Solmaz; Baradaran, Ali; Asadi, Milad; Doustvandi, Mohammad Amin; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer has a high prevalence among women worldwide. Tumor invasion and metastasis still remains an open issue that causes most of the therapeutic failures and remains the prime cause of patient mortality. Hence, there is an unmet need to develop the most effective therapeutic approach with the lowest side effects and highest cytotoxicity that will effectively arrest or eradicate metastasis. An MTT assay and scratch test were used to assess the cytotoxicity and migration effects of Urtica dioica on the breast cancer cells. The QRT-PCR was used to study the expression levels of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, CXCR4, vimentin, and E-cadherin. The results of gene expression in tumoral groups confirmed the overexpression of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4, and the lower expression of E-cadherin compared to control groups (P<0.05). Moreover, the results of the MTT assay show that Urtica dioica significantly inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, findings from the scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica on the migration of breast cancer cell lines. Urtica dioica extract could inhibit cancer cell migration by regulating miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, CXCR4, and E-Cadherin. Moreover, our findings demonstrated that the extract could decrease miR-21 expression, which substantially lessens the overexpressed MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4 and increases E-cadherin in the tumoral group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. E-cadherin-defective gastric cancer cells depend on Laminin to survive and invade.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Joana; Figueiredo, Joana; Brás-Pereira, Catarina; Carneiro, Patrícia; Moreira, Ana M; Pinto, Marta T; Relvas, João B; Carneiro, Fátima; Barbosa, Mário; Casares, Fernando; Janody, Florence; Seruca, Raquel

    2015-10-15

    Epithelial-cadherin (Ecad) deregulation affects cell-cell adhesion and results in increased invasiveness of distinct human carcinomas. In gastric cancer, loss of Ecad expression is a common event and is associated with disease aggressiveness and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the invasive process associated to Ecad dysfunction are far from understood. We hypothesized that deregulation of cell-matrix interactions could play an important role during this process. Thus, we focussed on LM-332, which is a major matrix component, and in Ecad/LM-332 crosstalk in the process of Ecad-dependent invasion. To verify whether matrix deregulation was triggered by Ecad loss, we used the Drosophila model. To dissect the key molecules involved and unveil their functional significance, we used gastric cancer cell lines. The relevance of this relationship was then confirmed in human primary tumours. In vivo, Ecad knockdown induced apoptosis; nonetheless, at the invasive front, cells ectopically expressed Laminin A and βPS integrin. In vitro, we demonstrated that, in two different gastric cancer cell models, Ecad-defective cells overexpressed Laminin γ2 (LM-γ2), β1 and β4 integrin, when compared with Ecad-competent ones. We showed that LM-γ2 silencing impaired invasion and enhanced cell death, most likely via pSrc and pAkt reduction, and JNK activation. In human gastric carcinomas, we found a concomitant decrease in Ecad and increase in LM-γ2. This is the first evidence that ectopic Laminin expression depends on Ecad loss and allows Ecad-dysfunctional cells to survive and invade. This opens new avenues for using LM-γ2 signalling regulators as molecular targets to impair gastric cancer progression. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. E-cadherin-defective gastric cancer cells depend on Laminin to survive and invade

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, Joana; Figueiredo, Joana; Brás-Pereira, Catarina; Carneiro, Patrícia; Moreira, Ana M.; Pinto, Marta T.; Relvas, João B.; Carneiro, Fátima; Barbosa, Mário; Casares, Fernando; Janody, Florence; Seruca, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-cadherin (Ecad) deregulation affects cell–cell adhesion and results in increased invasiveness of distinct human carcinomas. In gastric cancer, loss of Ecad expression is a common event and is associated with disease aggressiveness and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the invasive process associated to Ecad dysfunction are far from understood. We hypothesized that deregulation of cell–matrix interactions could play an important role during this process. Thus, we focussed on LM-332, which is a major matrix component, and in Ecad/LM-332 crosstalk in the process of Ecad-dependent invasion. To verify whether matrix deregulation was triggered by Ecad loss, we used the Drosophila model. To dissect the key molecules involved and unveil their functional significance, we used gastric cancer cell lines. The relevance of this relationship was then confirmed in human primary tumours. In vivo, Ecad knockdown induced apoptosis; nonetheless, at the invasive front, cells ectopically expressed Laminin A and βPS integrin. In vitro, we demonstrated that, in two different gastric cancer cell models, Ecad-defective cells overexpressed Laminin γ2 (LM-γ2), β1 and β4 integrin, when compared with Ecad-competent ones. We showed that LM-γ2 silencing impaired invasion and enhanced cell death, most likely via pSrc and pAkt reduction, and JNK activation. In human gastric carcinomas, we found a concomitant decrease in Ecad and increase in LM-γ2. This is the first evidence that ectopic Laminin expression depends on Ecad loss and allows Ecad-dysfunctional cells to survive and invade. This opens new avenues for using LM-γ2 signalling regulators as molecular targets to impair gastric cancer progression. PMID:26246502

  12. Gene expression in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rosane; Araripe, Júlia R; Rondinelli, Edson; Urményi, Turán P

    2004-03-31

    The repertoire of 4,431 open reading frames (ORFs), eight rRNA operons and 98 tRNA genes of Chromobacterium violaceum must be expressed in a regulated manner for successful adaptation to a wide variety of environmental conditions. To accomplish this feat, the organism relies on protein machineries involved in transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of the C. violaceum genome showed that transcription initiation, elongation and termination are performed by the five well-known RNA polymerase subunits, five categories of sigma 70 factors, one sigma 54 factor, as well as six auxiliary elongation and termination factors. RNA processing is performed by a variety of endonucleases and exonucleases, such as ribonuclease H, ribonuclease E, ribonuclease P, and ribonuclease III, in addition to poly(A) polymerase and specific methyltransferases and pseudouridine synthases. ORFs for all ribosomal proteins, except S22, were found. Only 19 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases were found, in addition to three aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-related proteins. Asparaginyl-tRNA (Asn) is probably obtained by enzymatic modification of a mischarged aminoacyl-tRNA. The translation factors IF-1, IF-2, IF-3, EF-Ts, EF-Tu, EF-G, RF-1, RF-2 and RF-3 are all present in the C. violaceum genome, although the absence of selB suggests that C. violaceum does not synthesize selenoproteins. The components of trans-translation, tmRNA and associated proteins, are present in the C. violaceum genome. Finally, a large number of ORFs related to regulation of gene expression were also found, which was expected, considering the apparent adaptability of this bacterium.

  13. Transcytosis of Listeria monocytogenes across the intestinal barrier upon specific targeting of goblet cell accessible E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Nikitas, Georgios; Deschamps, Chantal; Disson, Olivier; Niault, Théodora; Cossart, Pascale; Lecuit, Marc

    2011-10-24

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier upon interaction between its surface protein InlA and its species-specific host receptor E-cadherin (Ecad). Ecad, the key constituent of adherens junctions, is typically situated below tight junctions and therefore considered inaccessible from the intestinal lumen. In this study, we investigated how Lm specifically targets its receptor on intestinal villi and crosses the intestinal epithelium to disseminate systemically. We demonstrate that Ecad is luminally accessible around mucus-expelling goblet cells (GCs), around extruding enterocytes at the tip and lateral sides of villi, and in villus epithelial folds. We show that upon preferential adherence to accessible Ecad on GCs, Lm is internalized, rapidly transcytosed across the intestinal epithelium, and released in the lamina propria by exocytosis from where it disseminates systemically. Together, these results show that Lm exploits intrinsic tissue heterogeneity to access its receptor and reveal transcytosis as a novel and unanticipated pathway that is hijacked by Lm to breach the intestinal epithelium and cause systemic infection.

  14. Transcytosis of Listeria monocytogenes across the intestinal barrier upon specific targeting of goblet cell accessible E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Nikitas, Georgios; Deschamps, Chantal; Disson, Olivier; Niault, Théodora; Cossart, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier upon interaction between its surface protein InlA and its species-specific host receptor E-cadherin (Ecad). Ecad, the key constituent of adherens junctions, is typically situated below tight junctions and therefore considered inaccessible from the intestinal lumen. In this study, we investigated how Lm specifically targets its receptor on intestinal villi and crosses the intestinal epithelium to disseminate systemically. We demonstrate that Ecad is luminally accessible around mucus-expelling goblet cells (GCs), around extruding enterocytes at the tip and lateral sides of villi, and in villus epithelial folds. We show that upon preferential adherence to accessible Ecad on GCs, Lm is internalized, rapidly transcytosed across the intestinal epithelium, and released in the lamina propria by exocytosis from where it disseminates systemically. Together, these results show that Lm exploits intrinsic tissue heterogeneity to access its receptor and reveal transcytosis as a novel and unanticipated pathway that is hijacked by Lm to breach the intestinal epithelium and cause systemic infection. PMID:21967767

  15. Detecting cell-in-cell structures in human tumor samples by E-cadherin/CD68/CD45 triple staining

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manna; Ning, Xiangkai; He, Meifang; Hu, Yazhuo; Yuan, Long; Li, Shichong; Wang, Qiwei; Liu, Hong; Chen, Zhaolie; Ren, Jun; Sun, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Although Cell-in-cell structures (CICs) had been documented in human tumors for decades, it is unclear what types of CICs were formed largely due to low resolution of traditional way such as H&E staining. In this work, we employed immunofluorescent method to stain a panel of human tumor samples simultaneously with antibodies against E-cadherin for Epithelium, CD68 for Macrophage and CD45 for Leukocytes, which we termed as “EML method” based on the cells detected. Detail analysis revealed four types of CICs, with tumor cells or macrophage engulfing tumor cells or leukocytes respectively. Interestingly, tumor cells seem to be dominant over macrophage (93% vs 7%) as the engulfer cells in all CICs detected, whereas the overall amount of internalized tumor cells is comparable to that of internalized CD45+ leukocytes (57% vs 43%). The CICs profiles vary from tumor to tumor, which may indicate different malignant stages and/or inflammatory conditions. Given the potential impacts different types of CICs might have on tumor growth, we therefore recommend EML analysis of tumor samples to clarify the correlation of CICs subtypes with clinical prognosis in future researches. PMID:26109430

  16. Detecting cell-in-cell structures in human tumor samples by E-cadherin/CD68/CD45 triple staining.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongyan; Chen, Ang; Wang, Ting; Wang, Manna; Ning, Xiangkai; He, Meifang; Hu, Yazhuo; Yuan, Long; Li, Shichong; Wang, Qiwei; Liu, Hong; Chen, Zhaolie; Ren, Jun; Sun, Qiang

    2015-08-21

    Although Cell-in-cell structures (CICs) had been documented in human tumors for decades, it is unclear what types of CICs were formed largely due to low resolution of traditional way such as H&E staining. In this work, we employed immunofluorescent method to stain a panel of human tumor samples simultaneously with antibodies against E-cadherin for Epithelium, CD68 for Macrophage and CD45 for Leukocytes, which we termed as "EML method" based on the cells detected. Detail analysis revealed four types of CICs, with tumor cells or macrophage engulfing tumor cells or leukocytes respectively. Interestingly, tumor cells seem to be dominant over macrophage (93% vs 7%) as the engulfer cells in all CICs detected, whereas the overall amount of internalized tumor cells is comparable to that of internalized CD45+ leukocytes (57% vs 43%). The CICs profiles vary from tumor to tumor, which may indicate different malignant stages and/or inflammatory conditions. Given the potential impacts different types of CICs might have on tumor growth, we therefore recommend EML analysis of tumor samples to clarify the correlation of CICs subtypes with clinical prognosis in future researches.

  17. Gene Expression: Sizing it all up

    Genomic architecture appears to be a largely unexplored component of gene expression. Although surely not the end of the story, we are learning that when it comes to gene expression, size is important. We have been surprised to find that certain patterns of expression, tissue-specific versus constit...

  18. Familial aggregation analysis of gene expressions

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shao-Qi; Xu, Liang-De; Zhang, Guang-Mei; Li, Xia; Li, Lin; Shen, Gong-Qing; Jiang, Yang; Yang, Yue-Ying; Gong, Bin-Sheng; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Fan; Xiao, Yun; Wang, Qing K

    2007-01-01

    Traditional studies of familial aggregation are aimed at defining the genetic (and non-genetic) causes of a disease from physiological or clinical traits. However, there has been little attempt to use genome-wide gene expressions, the direct phenotypic measures of genes, as the traits to investigate several extended issues regarding the distributions of familially aggregated genes on chromosomes or in functions. In this study we conducted a genome-wide familial aggregation analysis by using the in vitro cell gene expressions of 3300 human autosome genes (Problem 1 data provided to Genetic Analysis Workshop 15) in order to answer three basic genetics questions. First, we investigated how gene expressions aggregate among different types (degrees) of relative pairs. Second, we conducted a bioinformatics analysis of highly familially aggregated genes to see how they are distributed on chromosomes. Third, we performed a gene ontology enrichment test of familially aggregated genes to find evidence to support their functional consensus. The results indicated that 1) gene expressions did aggregate in families, especially between sibs. Of 3300 human genes analyzed, there were a total of 1105 genes with one or more significant (empirical p < 0.05) familial correlation; 2) there were several genomic hot spots where highly familially aggregated genes (e.g., the chromosome 6 HLA genes cluster) were clustered; 3) as we expected, gene ontology enrichment tests revealed that the 1105 genes were aggregating not only in families but also in functional categories. PMID:18466548

  19. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  20. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy [Davis, CA; Bachkirova, Elena [Davis, CA; Rey, Michael [Davis, CA

    2012-05-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  1. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy [Davis, CA; Bachkirova, Elena [Davis, CA; Rey, Michael [Davis, CA

    2008-06-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  2. Gene expression inference with deep learning

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yi; Narayan, Rajiv; Subramanian, Aravind; Xie, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Large-scale gene expression profiling has been widely used to characterize cellular states in response to various disease conditions, genetic perturbations, etc. Although the cost of whole-genome expression profiles has been dropping steadily, generating a compendium of expression profiling over thousands of samples is still very expensive. Recognizing that gene expressions are often highly correlated, researchers from the NIH LINCS program have developed a cost-effective strategy of profiling only ∼1000 carefully selected landmark genes and relying on computational methods to infer the expression of remaining target genes. However, the computational approach adopted by the LINCS program is currently based on linear regression (LR), limiting its accuracy since it does not capture complex nonlinear relationship between expressions of genes. Results: We present a deep learning method (abbreviated as D-GEX) to infer the expression of target genes from the expression of landmark genes. We used the microarray-based Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, consisting of 111K expression profiles, to train our model and compare its performance to those from other methods. In terms of mean absolute error averaged across all genes, deep learning significantly outperforms LR with 15.33% relative improvement. A gene-wise comparative analysis shows that deep learning achieves lower error than LR in 99.97% of the target genes. We also tested the performance of our learned model on an independent RNA-Seq-based GTEx dataset, which consists of 2921 expression profiles. Deep learning still outperforms LR with 6.57% relative improvement, and achieves lower error in 81.31% of the target genes. Availability and implementation: D-GEX is available at https://github.com/uci-cbcl/D-GEX. Contact: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26873929

  3. Gene expression inference with deep learning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yi; Narayan, Rajiv; Subramanian, Aravind; Xie, Xiaohui

    2016-06-15

    Large-scale gene expression profiling has been widely used to characterize cellular states in response to various disease conditions, genetic perturbations, etc. Although the cost of whole-genome expression profiles has been dropping steadily, generating a compendium of expression profiling over thousands of samples is still very expensive. Recognizing that gene expressions are often highly correlated, researchers from the NIH LINCS program have developed a cost-effective strategy of profiling only ∼1000 carefully selected landmark genes and relying on computational methods to infer the expression of remaining target genes. However, the computational approach adopted by the LINCS program is currently based on linear regression (LR), limiting its accuracy since it does not capture complex nonlinear relationship between expressions of genes. We present a deep learning method (abbreviated as D-GEX) to infer the expression of target genes from the expression of landmark genes. We used the microarray-based Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, consisting of 111K expression profiles, to train our model and compare its performance to those from other methods. In terms of mean absolute error averaged across all genes, deep learning significantly outperforms LR with 15.33% relative improvement. A gene-wise comparative analysis shows that deep learning achieves lower error than LR in 99.97% of the target genes. We also tested the performance of our learned model on an independent RNA-Seq-based GTEx dataset, which consists of 2921 expression profiles. Deep learning still outperforms LR with 6.57% relative improvement, and achieves lower error in 81.31% of the target genes. D-GEX is available at https://github.com/uci-cbcl/D-GEX CONTACT: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Altered Gene Expression Patterns During the Initiation and Promotion Stages of Neonatally Diethylstilbestrol-Induced Hyperplasia/Dysplasia/Neoplasia in the Hamster Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, William J.; Hariri, Hussam Y.; Alwis, Imala D.; Gunewardena, Sumedha S.; Hendry, Isabel R.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal treatment of hamsters with diethylstilbestrol (DES) induces uterine hyperplasia/dysplasia/neoplasia (endometrial adenocarcinoma) in adult animals. We subsequently determined that the neonatal DES exposure event directly and permanently disrupts the developing hamster uterus (initiation stage) so that it responds abnormally when it is stimulated with estrogen in adulthood (promotion stage). To identify candidate molecular elements involved in progression of the disruption/neoplastic process, we performed: 1) immunoblot analyses and 2) microarray profiling (Affymetrix Gene Chip System) on sets of uterine protein and RNA extracts, respectively, and 3) immunohistochemical analysis on uterine sections; all from both initiation stage and promotion stage groups of animals. Here we report that: 1) progression of the neonatal DES-induced hyperplasia/dysplasia/neoplasia phenomenon in the hamster uterus involves a wide spectrum of specific gene expression alterations and 2) the gene products involved and their manner of altered expression differ dramatically during the initiation vs. promotion stages of the phenomenon. Particularly interesting changes included members in the functional categories of nuclear receptors (progesterone receptor), cell-cell interactions (E-cadherin, connexins), cytokine action (IRF-1, Stat5A), growth factor action (IRS-1), extracellular matrix component (tenascin-C), transcription factors (Nrf2, Sp1), and multi-functional nuclear protein (SAFB1). PMID:25242112

  5. HOXB homeobox gene expression in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    López, R; Garrido, E; Piña, P; Hidalgo, A; Lazos, M; Ochoa, R; Salcedo, M

    2006-01-01

    The homeobox (HOX) genes are a family of transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences in target genes regulating gene expression. Thirty-nine HOX genes have been mapped in four conserved clusters: A, B, C, and D; they act as master genes regulating the identity of body segments along the anteroposterior axis of the embryo. The role played by HOX genes in adult cell differentiation is unclear to date, but growing evidence suggests that they may play an important role in the development of cancer. To study the role played by HOX genes in cervical cancer, in the present work, we analyzed the expression of HOXB genes and the localization of their transcripts in human cervical tissues. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and nonradioactive RNA in situ hybridization were used to detect HOXB expression in 11 normal cervical tissues and 17 cervical carcinomas. It was determined that HOXB1, B3, B5, B6, B7, B8, and B9 genes are expressed in normal adult cervical epithelium and squamous cervical carcinomas. Interestingly, HOXB2, HOXB4, and HOXB13 gene expression was found only in tumor tissues. Our findings suggest that the new expression of HOXB2, HOXB4, and B13 genes is involved in cervical cancer.

  6. Gene Expression Profiling of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Jacob, Harrys K.C.; Jakharia, Aniruddha; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Kashyap, Manoj Kumar; Goel, Renu; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Dwivedi, Sutopa; Pathare, Swapnali; Dikshit, Jyoti Bajpai; Maharudraiah, Jagadeesha; Singh, Sujay; Sameer Kumar, Ghantasala S; Vijayakumar, M.; Veerendra Kumar, Kariyanakatte Veeraiah; Premalatha, Chennagiri Shrinivasamurthy; Tata, Pramila; Hariharan, Ramesh; Roa, Juan Carlos; Prasad, T.S.K; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Kumar, Rekha Vijay; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, both in men and women. A genomewide gene expression analysis was carried out to identify differentially expressed genes in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues as compared to adjacent normal tissues. We used Agilent’s whole human genome oligonucleotide microarray platform representing ~41,000 genes to carry out gene expression analysis. Two-color microarray analysis was employed to directly compare the expression of genes between tumor and normal tissues. Through this approach, we identified several previously known candidate genes along with a number of novel candidate genes in gastric cancer. Testican-1 (SPOCK1) was one of the novel molecules that was 10-fold upregulated in tumors. Using tissue microarrays, we validated the expression of testican-1 by immunohistochemical staining. It was overexpressed in 56% (160/282) of the cases tested. Pathway analysis led to the identification of several networks in which SPOCK1 was among the topmost networks of interacting genes. By gene enrichment analysis, we identified several genes involved in cell adhesion and cell proliferation to be significantly upregulated while those corresponding to metabolic pathways were significantly downregulated. The differentially expressed genes identified in this study are candidate biomarkers for gastric adenoacarcinoma. PMID:27030788

  7. Polycistronic gene expression in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Tabea; Meyer, Vera

    2017-09-25

    Genome mining approaches predict dozens of biosynthetic gene clusters in each of the filamentous fungal genomes sequenced so far. However, the majority of these gene clusters still remain cryptic because they are not expressed in their natural host. Simultaneous expression of all genes belonging to a biosynthetic pathway in a heterologous host is one approach to activate biosynthetic gene clusters and to screen the metabolites produced for bioactivities. Polycistronic expression of all pathway genes under control of a single and tunable promoter would be the method of choice, as this does not only simplify cloning procedures, but also offers control on timing and strength of expression. However, polycistronic gene expression is a feature not commonly found in eukaryotic host systems, such as Aspergillus niger. In this study, we tested the suitability of the viral P2A peptide for co-expression of three genes in A. niger. Two genes descend from Fusarium oxysporum and are essential to produce the secondary metabolite enniatin (esyn1, ekivR). The third gene (luc) encodes the reporter luciferase which was included to study position effects. Expression of the polycistronic gene cassette was put under control of the Tet-On system to ensure tunable gene expression in A. niger. In total, three polycistronic expression cassettes which differed in the position of luc were constructed and targeted to the pyrG locus in A. niger. This allowed direct comparison of the luciferase activity based on the position of the luciferase gene. Doxycycline-mediated induction of the Tet-On expression cassettes resulted in the production of one long polycistronic mRNA as proven by Northern analyses, and ensured comparable production of enniatin in all three strains. Notably, gene position within the polycistronic expression cassette matters, as, luciferase activity was lowest at position one and had a comparable activity at positions two and three. The P2A peptide can be used to express at

  8. A complex of α6 integrin and E-cadherin drives liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells through hepatic angiopoietin-like 6.

    PubMed

    Marchiò, Serena; Soster, Marco; Cardaci, Sabrina; Muratore, Andrea; Bartolini, Alice; Barone, Vanessa; Ribero, Dario; Monti, Maria; Bovino, Paola; Sun, Jessica; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Asioli, Sofia; Cassoni, Paola; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Pucci, Piero; Bugatti, Antonella; Rusnati, Marco; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Bussolino, Federico

    2012-11-01

    Homing of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to the liver is a non-random process driven by a crosstalk between tumour cells and components of the host tissue. Here we report the isolation of a liver metastasis-specific peptide ligand (CGIYRLRSC) that binds a complex of E-cadherin and α(6) integrin on the surface of CRC cells. We identify angiopoietin-like 6 protein as a peptide-mimicked natural ligand enriched in hepatic blood vessels of CRC patients. We demonstrate that an interaction between hepatic angiopoietin-like 6 and tumoural α(6) integrin/E-cadherin drives liver homing and colonization by CRC cells, and that CGIYRLRSC inhibits liver metastasis through interference with this ligand/receptor system. Our results indicate a mechanism for metastasis whereby a soluble factor accumulated in normal vessels functions as a specific ligand for circulating cancer cells. Consistently, we show that high amounts of coexpressed α(6) integrin and E-cadherin in primary tumours represent a poor prognostic factor for patients with advanced CRC. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  9. A complex of α6 integrin and E-cadherin drives liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells through hepatic angiopoietin-like 6

    PubMed Central

    Marchiò, Serena; Soster, Marco; Cardaci, Sabrina; Muratore, Andrea; Bartolini, Alice; Barone, Vanessa; Ribero, Dario; Monti, Maria; Bovino, Paola; Sun, Jessica; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Asioli, Sofia; Cassoni, Paola; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Pucci, Piero; Bugatti, Antonella; Rusnati, Marco; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Bussolino, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Homing of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to the liver is a non-random process driven by a crosstalk between tumour cells and components of the host tissue. Here we report the isolation of a liver metastasis-specific peptide ligand (CGIYRLRSC) that binds a complex of E-cadherin and α6 integrin on the surface of CRC cells. We identify angiopoietin-like 6 protein as a peptide-mimicked natural ligand enriched in hepatic blood vessels of CRC patients. We demonstrate that an interaction between hepatic angiopoietin-like 6 and tumoural α6 integrin/E-cadherin drives liver homing and colonization by CRC cells, and that CGIYRLRSC inhibits liver metastasis through interference with this ligand/receptor system. Our results indicate a mechanism for metastasis whereby a soluble factor accumulated in normal vessels functions as a specific ligand for circulating cancer cells. Consistently, we show that high amounts of coexpressed α6 integrin and E-cadherin in primary tumours represent a poor prognostic factor for patients with advanced CRC. PMID:23070965

  10. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments resulted in the differential expression of hundreds of genes. A 5 day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β -Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on two fronts. First, expression patterns visualized with the Adh/GUS transgene were used to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response, and to assess whether any spaceflight response was similar to control terrestrial hypoxia-induced gene expression patterns. (Paul et al., Plant Physiol. 2001, 126:613). Second, genome-wide patterns of native gene expression were evaluated utilizing the Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip? array of 8,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes identified with the arrays was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - TaqmanTM). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays of hybridized with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to the control arrays revealed hundreds of genes that were differentially expressed in response to spaceflight, yet most genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were unaffected. These results will be discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment, and with regard to potential future flight opportunities.

  11. Gene Expression Studies in Lygus lineolaris

    Genes are expressed in insect cells, as in all living organisms, by transcription of DNA into RNA followed by translation of RNA into proteins. The intricate patterns of differential gene expression in time and space directly influence the development and function of every aspect of the organism. Wh...

  12. Reconstructing directed gene regulatory network by only gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Feng, Xi Kang; Ng, Yen Kaow; Li, Shuai Cheng

    2016-08-18

    Accurately identifying gene regulatory network is an important task in understanding in vivo biological activities. The inference of such networks is often accomplished through the use of gene expression data. Many methods have been developed to evaluate gene expression dependencies between transcription factor and its target genes, and some methods also eliminate transitive interactions. The regulatory (or edge) direction is undetermined if the target gene is also a transcription factor. Some methods predict the regulatory directions in the gene regulatory networks by locating the eQTL single nucleotide polymorphism, or by observing the gene expression changes when knocking out/down the candidate transcript factors; regrettably, these additional data are usually unavailable, especially for the samples deriving from human tissues. In this study, we propose the Context Based Dependency Network (CBDN), a method that is able to infer gene regulatory networks with the regulatory directions from gene expression data only. To determine the regulatory direction, CBDN computes the influence of source to target by evaluating the magnitude changes of expression dependencies between the target gene and the others with conditioning on the source gene. CBDN extends the data processing inequality by involving the dependency direction to distinguish between direct and transitive relationship between genes. We also define two types of important regulators which can influence a majority of the genes in the network directly or indirectly. CBDN can detect both of these two types of important regulators by averaging the influence functions of candidate regulator to the other genes. In our experiments with simulated and real data, even with the regulatory direction taken into account, CBDN outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches for inferring gene regulatory network. CBDN identifies the important regulators in the predicted network: 1. TYROBP influences a batch of genes that are

  13. Gene Architectures that Minimize Cost of Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Idan; Schirman, Dvir; Rotman, Aviv; Li, Fangfei; Zahavi, Liron; Mordret, Ernest; Asraf, Omer; Wu, Song; Levy, Sasha F; Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2017-01-05

    Gene expression burdens cells by consuming resources and energy. While numerous studies have investigated regulation of expression level, little is known about gene design elements that govern expression costs. Here, we ask how cells minimize production costs while maintaining a given protein expression level and whether there are gene architectures that optimize this process. We measured fitness of ∼14,000 E. coli strains, each expressing a reporter gene with a unique 5' architecture. By comparing cost-effective and ineffective architectures, we found that cost per protein molecule could be minimized by lowering transcription levels, regulating translation speeds, and utilizing amino acids that are cheap to synthesize and that are less hydrophobic. We then examined natural E. coli genes and found that highly expressed genes have evolved more forcefully to minimize costs associated with their expression. Our study thus elucidates gene design elements that improve the economy of protein expression in natural and heterologous systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene Expression Noise, Fitness Landscapes, and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlebois, Daniel

    The stochastic (or noisy) process of gene expression can have fitness consequences for living organisms. For example, gene expression noise facilitates the development of drug resistance by increasing the time scale at which beneficial phenotypic states can be maintained. The present work investigates the relationship between gene expression noise and the fitness landscape. By incorporating the costs and benefits of gene expression, we track how the fluctuation magnitude and timescale of expression noise evolve in simulations of cell populations under stress. We find that properties of expression noise evolve to maximize fitness on the fitness landscape, and that low levels of expression noise emerge when the fitness benefits of gene expression exceed the fitness costs (and that high levels of noise emerge when the costs of expression exceed the benefits). The findings from our theoretical/computational work offer new hypotheses on the development of drug resistance, some of which are now being investigated in evolution experiments in our laboratory using well-characterized synthetic gene regulatory networks in budding yeast. Nserc Postdoctoral Fellowship (Grant No. PDF-453977-2014).

  15. [Effect of Golgi α-mannosidase 2 (GM2) gene knockdown on adhesion abilities of human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC-823 and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bo; Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Chang; Yang, Yaying

    2017-06-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Golgi α-mannosidase II (GM2) gene knockdown on adhesion abilities of BGC-823 human gastric carcinoma cells. Methods Three plasmid vectors expressing GM2 shRNAs and a negative control plasmid vector were designed, constructed and then transfected into BGC-823 cells by Lipofectamine TM 2000. After transfection, the mRNA and protein levels of GM2 in BGC-823 cells were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting to evaluate the transfection efficacy. The best plasmid for GM2 gene knockdown was selected and stably transfected into BGC-823 cells. Adhesion abilities of BGC-823 cells after GM2 gene silencing were observed by cell-cell, cell-matrix and cell-endothelial cell adhesion assays. At the same time, the expressions of E-cadherin, P-selectin, CD44v6 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) proteins were detected by Western blotting after GM2 gene knockdown. Results The expression of GM2 was effectively knockdown in GM2-shRNA-2-transfected BGC-823 cells. Compared with the blank control group and the negative control group, the intercellular adhesion ability of the GM2-shRNA-2-transfected cells increased significantly, while their cell-matrix and cell-endothelium adhesion abilities markedly decreased. In GM2-shRNA-2 transfection group, E-cadherin expression was significantly elevated and the P-selectin expression was significantly reduced, while the expression levels of CD44v6 and ICAM-1 were not obviously changed. Conclusion After GM2 gene knockdown, the intercellular adhesion ability of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cells is enhanced, while the adhesion abilities with the extracellular matrix and endothelial cells are weakened. The changes might be related to the up-regulated expression of E-cadherin and the down-regulation of P-selectin.

  16. Stochastic gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ilka Schultheiß; Pietsch, Jessica Magdalena; Keizer, Emma Mathilde; Greese, Bettina; Balkunde, Rachappa; Fleck, Christian; Hülskamp, Martin

    2017-12-14

    Although plant development is highly reproducible, some stochasticity exists. This developmental stochasticity may be caused by noisy gene expression. Here we analyze the fluctuation of protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the photoconvertible KikGR marker, we show that the protein expressions of individual cells fluctuate over time. A dual reporter system was used to study extrinsic and intrinsic noise of marker gene expression. We report that extrinsic noise is higher than intrinsic noise and that extrinsic noise in stomata is clearly lower in comparison to several other tissues/cell types. Finally, we show that cells are coupled with respect to stochastic protein expression in young leaves, hypocotyls and roots but not in mature leaves. Our data indicate that stochasticity of gene expression can vary between tissues/cell types and that it can be coupled in a non-cell-autonomous manner.

  17. Regulation of gene expression in protozoa parasites.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Consuelo; Esther Ramirez, M; Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes; Medel, Olivia; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  18. Nanos genes and their role in development and beyond.

    PubMed

    De Keuckelaere, Evi; Hulpiau, Paco; Saeys, Yvan; Berx, Geert; van Roy, Frans

    2018-06-01

    The hallmark of Nanos proteins is their typical (CCHC) 2 zinc finger motif (zf-nanos). Animals have one to four nanos genes. For example, the fruit fly and demosponge have only one nanos gene, zebrafish and humans have three, and Fugu rubripes has four. Nanos genes are mainly known for their evolutionarily preserved role in germ cell survival and pluripotency. Nanos proteins have been reported to bind the C-terminal RNA-binding domain of Pumilio to form a post-transcriptional repressor complex. Several observations point to a link between the miRNA-mediated repression complex and the Nanos/Pumilio complex. Repression of the E2F3 oncogene product is, indeed, mediated by cooperation between the Nanos/Pumilio complex and miRNAs. Another important interaction partner of Nanos is the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex. Besides the tissue-specific contribution of Nanos proteins to normal development, their ectopic expression has been observed in several cancer cell lines and various human cancers. An inverse correlation between the expression levels of human Nanos1 and Nanos3 and E-cadherin was observed in several cancer cell lines. Loss of E-cadherin, an important cell-cell adhesion protein, contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis. Overexpression of Nanos3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cell lines partly by repressing E-cadherin. Other than some most interesting data from Nanos knockout mice, little is known about mammalian Nanos proteins, and further research is needed. In this review, we summarize the main roles of Nanos proteins and discuss the emerging concept of Nanos proteins as oncofetal antigens.

  19. Candidate genes for panhypopituitarism identified by gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Amanda H.; MacDonald, James W.; Ghosh, Debashis

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the transcription factors PROP1 and PIT1 (POU1F1) lead to pituitary hormone deficiency and hypopituitarism in mice and humans. The dysmorphology of developing Prop1 mutant pituitaries readily distinguishes them from those of Pit1 mutants and normal mice. This and other features suggest that Prop1 controls the expression of genes besides Pit1 that are important for pituitary cell migration, survival, and differentiation. To identify genes involved in these processes we used microarray analysis of gene expression to compare pituitary RNA from newborn Prop1 and Pit1 mutants and wild-type littermates. Significant differences in gene expression were noted between each mutant and their normal littermates, as well as between Prop1 and Pit1 mutants. Otx2, a gene critical for normal eye and pituitary development in humans and mice, exhibited elevated expression specifically in Prop1 mutant pituitaries. We report the spatial and temporal regulation of Otx2 in normal mice and Prop1 mutants, and the results suggest Otx2 could influence pituitary development by affecting signaling from the ventral diencephalon and regulation of gene expression in Rathke's pouch. The discovery that Otx2 expression is affected by Prop1 deficiency provides support for our hypothesis that identifying molecular differences in mutants will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms that control pituitary organogenesis and lead to human pituitary disease. PMID:21828248

  20. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis. PMID:26393928

  1. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis.

  2. Reggies/flotillins interact with Rab11a and SNX4 at the tubulovesicular recycling compartment and function in transferrin receptor and E-cadherin trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Gonzalo P.; Hülsbusch, Nikola; Radon, Yvonne; Katanaev, Vladimir L.; Plattner, Helmut; Stuermer, Claudia A. O.

    2013-01-01

    The lipid raft proteins reggie-1 and -2 (flotillins) are implicated in membrane protein trafficking but exactly how has been elusive. We find that reggie-1 and -2 associate with the Rab11a, SNX4, and EHD1–decorated tubulovesicular recycling compartment in HeLa cells and that reggie-1 directly interacts with Rab11a and SNX4. Short hairpin RNA–mediated down-regulation of reggie-1 (and -2) in HeLa cells reduces association of Rab11a with tubular structures and impairs recycling of the transferrin–transferrin receptor (TfR) complex to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of constitutively active Rab11a rescues TfR recycling in reggie-deficient HeLa cells. Similarly, in a Ca2+ switch assay in reggie-depleted A431 cells, internalized E-cadherin is not efficiently recycled to the plasma membrane upon Ca2+ repletion. E-cadherin recycling is rescued, however, by overexpression of constitutively active Rab11a or SNX4 in reggie-deficient A431 cells. This suggests that the function of reggie-1 in sorting and recycling occurs in association with Rab11a and SNX4. Of interest, impaired recycling in reggie-deficient cells leads to de novo E-cadherin biosynthesis and cell contact reformation, showing that cells have ways to compensate the loss of reggies. Together our results identify reggie-1 as a regulator of the Rab11a/SNX4-controlled sorting and recycling pathway, which is, like reggies, evolutionarily conserved. PMID:23825023

  3. Perspectives: Gene Expression in Fisheries Management

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Pavey, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional genes and gene expression have been connected to physiological traits linked to effective production and broodstock selection in aquaculture, selective implications of commercial fish harvest, and adaptive changes reflected in non-commercial fish populations subject to human disturbance and climate change. Gene mapping using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify functional genes, gene expression (analogue microarrays and real-time PCR), and digital sequencing technologies looking at RNA transcripts present new concepts and opportunities in support of effective and sustainable fisheries. Genomic tools have been rapidly growing in aquaculture research addressing aspects of fish health, toxicology, and early development. Genomic technologies linking effects in functional genes involved in growth, maturation and life history development have been tied to selection resulting from harvest practices. Incorporating new and ever-increasing knowledge of fish genomes is opening a different perspective on local adaptation that will prove invaluable in wild fish conservation and management. Conservation of fish stocks is rapidly incorporating research on critical adaptive responses directed at the effects of human disturbance and climate change through gene expression studies. Genomic studies of fish populations can be generally grouped into three broad categories: 1) evolutionary genomics and biodiversity; 2) adaptive physiological responses to a changing environment; and 3) adaptive behavioral genomics and life history diversity. We review current genomic research in fisheries focusing on those that use microarrays to explore differences in gene expression among phenotypes and within or across populations, information that is critically important to the conservation of fish and their relationship to humans.

  4. Chemical Approaches to Control Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Turner, James M.; Dervan, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    A current goal in molecular medicine is the development of new strategies to interfere with gene expression in living cells in the hope that novel therapies for human disease will result from these efforts. This review focuses on small-molecule or chemical approaches to manipulate gene expression by modulating either transcription of messenger RNA-coding genes or protein translation. The molecules under study include natural products, designed ligands, and compounds identified through functional screens of combinatorial libraries. The cellular targets for these molecules include DNA, messenger RNA, and the protein components of the transcription, RNA processing, and translational machinery. Studies with model systems have shown promise in the inhibition of both cellular and viral gene transcription and mRNA utilization. Moreover, strategies for both repression and activation of gene transcription have been described. These studies offer promise for treatment of diseases of pathogenic (viral, bacterial, etc.) and cellular origin (cancer, genetic diseases, etc.). PMID:11097426

  5. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been carried out through life stages in any species. RESULTS: Using full-genome arrays, the mRNA expression of all XMETs and their regulatory proteins was examined during fetal (gestation day (GD) 19), neonatal (postnatal day (PND) 7), prepubescent (PND32), middle age (12 months), and old age (18 and 24 months) in the C57BL/6J (C57) mouse liver and compared to adults. Fetal and neonatal life stages exhibited dramatic differences in XMET mRNA expression compared to the relatively minor effects of old age. The total number of XMET probe sets that differed from adults was 636, 500, 84, 5, 43, and 102 for GD19, PND7, PND32, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, respectively. At all life stages except PND32, under-expressed genes outnumbered over-expressed genes. The altered XMETs included those in all of the major metabolic and transport phases including introduction of reactive or polar groups (Phase I), conjugation (Phase II) and excretion (Phase III). In the fetus and neonate, parallel increases in expression were noted in the dioxin receptor, Nrf2 components and their regulated genes while nuclear receptors and regulated genes were generally down-regulated. Suppression of male-specific XMETs w

  6. Methylomics of gene expression in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongmei; Ding, Jingzhong; Reynolds, Lindsay M.; Lohman, Kurt; Register, Thomas C.; De La Fuente, Alberto; Howard, Timothy D.; Hawkins, Greg A.; Cui, Wei; Morris, Jessica; Smith, Shelly G.; Barr, R. Graham; Kaufman, Joel D.; Burke, Gregory L.; Post, Wendy; Shea, Steven; Mccall, Charles E.; Siscovick, David; Jacobs, David R.; Tracy, Russell P.; Herrington, David M.; Hoeschele, Ina

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of several epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of gene expression; however, the extent to which methylation of CpG dinucleotides correlates with gene expression at the genome-wide level is still largely unknown. Using purified primary monocytes from subjects in a large community-based cohort (n = 1264), we characterized methylation (>485 000 CpG sites) and mRNA expression (>48K transcripts) and carried out genome-wide association analyses of 8370 expression phenotypes. We identified 11 203 potential cis-acting CpG loci whose degree of methylation was associated with gene expression (eMS) at a false discovery rate threshold of 0.001. Most of the associations were consistent in effect size and direction of effect across sex and three ethnicities. Contrary to expectation, these eMS were not predominately enriched in promoter regions, or CpG islands, but rather in the 3′ UTR, gene bodies, CpG shores or ‘offshore’ sites, and both positive and negative correlations between methylation and expression were observed across all locations. eMS were enriched for regions predicted to be regulatory by ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data in multiple cell types, particularly enhancers. One of the strongest association signals detected (P < 2.2 × 10−308) was a methylation probe (cg17005068) in the promoter/enhancer region of the glutathione S-transferase theta 1 gene (GSTT1, encoding the detoxification enzyme) with GSTT1 mRNA expression. Our study provides a detailed description of the epigenetic architecture in human monocytes and its relationship to gene expression. These data may help prioritize interrogation of biologically relevant methylation loci and provide new insights into the epigenetic basis of human health and diseases. PMID:23900078

  7. Human AZU-1 gene, variants thereof and expressed gene products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Bissell, Mina

    2004-06-22

    A human AZU-1 gene, mutants, variants and fragments thereof. Protein products encoded by the AZU-1 gene and homologs encoded by the variants of AZU-1 gene acting as tumor suppressors or markers of malignancy progression and tumorigenicity reversion. Identification, isolation and characterization of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes localized to a tumor suppressive locus at chromosome 10q26, highly expressed in nonmalignant and premalignant cells derived from a human breast tumor progression model. A recombinant full length protein sequences encoded by the AZU-1 gene and nucleotide sequences of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes and variant and fragments thereof. Monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific to AZU-1, AZU-2 encoded protein and to AZU-1, or AZU-2 encoded protein homologs.

  8. The effects of artificial E-cadherin matrix-induced embryonic stem cell scattering on paxillin and RhoA activation via α-catenin.

    PubMed

    Mattias, Leino; Haque, Amranul; Adnan, Nihad; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2014-02-01

    Mechanical forces have been shown to affect stem cell behavior in a large array of ways. However, our understanding of how these mechanical cues may regulate the behavior of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains in its infancy. Here, we aim to clarify the effect of cell scattering on the regulation of Rho family GTPases Rac1 and RhoA as well as paxillin. Allowing ESCs to spread and scatter on a synthetically designed E-cadherin substratum causes phosphorylation of paxillin on consensus phosphorylation sites leading to activation of Rac1 and inactivation of RhoA. By culturing cells in presence of RhoA activator or growing cells to a highly confluent state reverses the effect of cell scattering phenotype. Knockdown of E-cadherin-adapter protein α-catenin revealed that it negatively affects paxillin phosphorylation and up-regulates RhoA activity in compact cellular aggregates. Collectively these results indicate that cell scattering might cause a conformational change of α-catenin limiting its capacity to inhibit paxillin phosphorylation that causes an increase in Rac1 activation and RhoA deactivation. Understanding how synthetically designed extracellular matrix affect ESC signaling through mechanical cues brings a new aspect for stem cell engineers to develop technologies for controlling cell function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dlx homeobox gene family expression in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Lézot, F; Thomas, B L; Blin-Wakkach, C; Castaneda, B; Bolanos, A; Hotton, D; Sharpe, P T; Heymann, D; Carles, G F; Grigoriadis, A E; Berdal, A

    2010-06-01

    Skeletal growth and homeostasis require the finely orchestrated secretion of mineralized tissue matrices by highly specialized cells, balanced with their degradation by osteoclasts. Time- and site-specific expression of Dlx and Msx homeobox genes in the cells secreting these matrices have been identified as important elements in the regulation of skeletal morphology. Such specific expression patterns have also been reported in osteoclasts for Msx genes. The aim of the present study was to establish the expression patterns of Dlx genes in osteoclasts and identify their function in regulating skeletal morphology. The expression patterns of all Dlx genes were examined during the whole osteoclastogenesis using different in vitro models. The results revealed that Dlx1 and Dlx2 are the only Dlx family members with a possible function in osteoclastogenesis as well as in mature osteoclasts. Dlx5 and Dlx6 were detected in the cultures but appear to be markers of monocytes and their derivatives. In vivo, Dlx2 expression in osteoclasts was examined using a Dlx2/LacZ transgenic mouse. Dlx2 is expressed in a subpopulation of osteoclasts in association with tooth, brain, nerve, and bone marrow volumetric growths. Altogether the present data suggest a role for Dlx2 in regulation of skeletal morphogenesis via functions within osteoclasts. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Alternative-splicing-mediated gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianliang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental process during gene expression and has been found to be ubiquitous in eukaryotes. However, how AS impacts gene expression levels both quantitatively and qualitatively remains to be fully explored. Here, we analyze two common models of gene expression, each incorporating a simple splice mechanism that a pre-mRNA is spliced into two mature mRNA isoforms in a probabilistic manner. In the constitutive expression case, we show that the steady-state molecular numbers of two mature mRNA isoforms follow mutually independent Poisson distributions. In the bursting expression case, we demonstrate that the tail decay of the steady-state distribution for both mature mRNA isoforms that in general are not mutually independent can be characterized by the product of mean burst size and splicing probability. In both cases, we find that AS can efficiently modulate both the variability (measured by variance) and the noise level of the total mature mRNA, and in particular, the latter is always lower than the noise level of the pre-mRNA, implying that AS always reduces the noise. These results altogether reveal that AS is a mechanism of efficiently controlling the gene expression noise.

  11. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages) seed coats (globular and torpedo stages) and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages) and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST) (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011) were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152) had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid clones that comprise

  12. Regulation of gene expression in plasmid ColE1: delayed expression of the kil gene.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S P; Yan, L F; Zubay, G

    1988-01-01

    cea, imm, and kil are a cluster of three functionally related genes of the plasmid ColE1. The cea and kil genes are in the same inducible operon, with transcription being initiated from a promoter adjacent to the cea gene. The imm gene is located between the cea and kil genes, but it is transcribed in the opposite direction. Complementary interaction between the imm mRNA and the anti-imm sequences in the middle of the cea-kil transcript causes a pronounced delay in expression of the kil gene when the cea-kil operon is induced. A segment in the overlapping region between the cea and imm genes causes delayed expression of the kil gene in the absence of imm gene transcription. This delay effect increases the yields of colicin synthesized in induced cells. Images PMID:3142845

  13. Polyandry and sex-specific gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Mank, Judith E.; Wedell, Nina; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Polyandry is widespread in nature, and has important evolutionary consequences for the evolution of sexual dimorphism and sexual conflict. Although many of the phenotypic consequences of polyandry have been elucidated, our understanding of the impacts of polyandry and mating systems on the genome is in its infancy. Polyandry can intensify selection on sexual characters and generate more intense sexual conflict. This has consequences for sequence evolution, but also for sex-biased gene expression, which acts as a link between mating systems, sex-specific selection and the evolution of sexual dimorphism. We discuss this and the remarkable confluence of sexual-conflict theory and patterns of gene expression, while also making predictions about transcription patterns, mating systems and sexual conflict. Gene expression is a key link in the genotype–phenotype chain, and although in its early stages, understanding the sexual selection–transcription relationship will provide significant insights into this critical association. PMID:23339238

  14. Evolutionary Approach for Relative Gene Expression Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    A Relative Expression Analysis (RXA) uses ordering relationships in a small collection of genes and is successfully applied to classiffication using microarray data. As checking all possible subsets of genes is computationally infeasible, the RXA algorithms require feature selection and multiple restrictive assumptions. Our main contribution is a specialized evolutionary algorithm (EA) for top-scoring pairs called EvoTSP which allows finding more advanced gene relations. We managed to unify the major variants of relative expression algorithms through EA and introduce weights to the top-scoring pairs. Experimental validation of EvoTSP on public available microarray datasets showed that the proposed solution significantly outperforms in terms of accuracy other relative expression algorithms and allows exploring much larger solution space. PMID:24790574

  15. Anti-sense suppression of epidermal growth factor receptor expression alters cellular proliferation, cell-adhesion and tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Alper, O; De Santis, M L; Stromberg, K; Hacker, N F; Cho-Chung, Y S; Salomon, D S

    2000-11-15

    Over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in ovarian cancer has been well documented. Human NIH:OVCAR-8 ovarian carcinoma cells were transfected with an expression vector containing the anti-sense orientation of truncated human EGFR cDNA. EGFR anti-sense over-expression resulted in decreased EGFR protein and mRNA expression, cell proliferation and tumor formation in nude mice. In accordance with the reduced levels of EGFR in EGFR anti-sense-expressing cells, tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR was decreased compared to untransfected parental cells treated with EGF. In EGFR anti-sense-transfected cells, expression of erbB-3, but not erbB-2, was increased. In addition, basal and heregulin-beta 1-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of erbB-3 was higher in EGFR anti-sense vector-transfected cells. A morphological alteration in EGFR anti-sense gene-expressing cells was correlated with a decrease in the expression of E-cadherin, alpha-catenin and, to a lesser extent, beta-catenin. Changes in the expression of these proteins were associated with a reduction in complex formation among E-cadherin, beta-catenin and alpha-catenin and between beta-catenin and EGFR in EGFR anti-sense-expressing cells compared to sense-transfected control cells. These results demonstrate that EGFR expression in ovarian carcinoma cells regulates expression of cell adhesion proteins that may enhance cell growth and invasiveness. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Availability and implementation: Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. Database URL: http://rged.wall-eva.net PMID:25252782

  17. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. http://rged.wall-eva.net. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Mechanical Feedback and Arrest in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevier, Stuart; Levine, Herbert

    The ability to watch biochemical events at the single-molecule level has increasingly revealed that stochasticity plays a leading role in many biological phenomena. One important and well know example is the noisy, ``bursty'' manner of transcription. Recent experiments have revealed relationships between the level and noise in gene expression hinting at deeper stochastic connections. In this talk we will discuss how the mechanical nature of transcription can explain this relationship and examine the limits that the physical aspects of transcription place on gene expression.

  19. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  20. The low noise limit in gene expression

    DOE PAGES

    Dar, Roy D.; Weinberger, Leor S.; Cox, Chris D.; ...

    2015-10-21

    Protein noise measurements are increasingly used to elucidate biophysical parameters. Unfortunately noise analyses are often at odds with directly measured parameters. Here we show that these inconsistencies arise from two problematic analytical choices: (i) the assumption that protein translation rate is invariant for different proteins of different abundances, which has inadvertently led to (ii) the assumption that a large constitutive extrinsic noise sets the low noise limit in gene expression. While growing evidence suggests that transcriptional bursting may set the low noise limit, variability in translational bursting has been largely ignored. We show that genome-wide systematic variation in translational efficiencymore » can-and in the case of E. coli does-control the low noise limit in gene expression. Therefore constitutive extrinsic noise is small and only plays a role in the absence of a systematic variation in translational efficiency. Lastly, these results show the existence of two distinct expression noise patterns: (1) a global noise floor uniformly imposed on all genes by expression bursting; and (2) high noise distributed to only a select group of genes.« less

  1. Annotation of gene function in citrus using gene expression information and co-expression networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Citrus encompasses major cultivated plants such as sweet orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit, among the world’s most economically important fruit crops. With increasing volumes of transcriptomics data available for these species, Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) analysis is a viable option for predicting gene function at a genome-wide scale. GCN analysis is based on a “guilt-by-association” principle whereby genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit similar expression patterns across diverse sets of experimental conditions. While bioinformatics resources such as GCN analysis are widely available for efficient gene function prediction in model plant species including Arabidopsis, soybean and rice, in citrus these tools are not yet developed. Results We have constructed a comprehensive GCN for citrus inferred from 297 publicly available Affymetrix Genechip Citrus Genome microarray datasets, providing gene co-expression relationships at a genome-wide scale (33,000 transcripts). The comprehensive citrus GCN consists of a global GCN (condition-independent) and four condition-dependent GCNs that survey the sweet orange species only, all citrus fruit tissues, all citrus leaf tissues, or stress-exposed plants. All of these GCNs are clustered using genome-wide, gene-centric (guide) and graph clustering algorithms for flexibility of gene function prediction. For each putative cluster, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and gene expression specificity analyses were performed to enhance gene function, expression and regulation pattern prediction. The guide-gene approach was used to infer novel roles of genes involved in disease susceptibility and vitamin C metabolism, and graph-clustering approaches were used to investigate isoprenoid/phenylpropanoid metabolism in citrus peel, and citric acid catabolism via the GABA shunt in citrus fruit. Conclusions Integration of citrus gene co-expression networks

  2. Fluid Mechanics, Arterial Disease, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Tarbell, John M; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Dunn, Jessilyn; Jo, Hanjoong

    2014-01-01

    This review places modern research developments in vascular mechanobiology in the context of hemodynamic phenomena in the cardiovascular system and the discrete localization of vascular disease. The modern origins of this field are traced, beginning in the 1960s when associations between flow characteristics, particularly blood flow-induced wall shear stress, and the localization of atherosclerotic plaques were uncovered, and continuing to fluid shear stress effects on the vascular lining endothelial) cells (ECs), including their effects on EC morphology, biochemical production, and gene expression. The earliest single-gene studies and genome-wide analyses are considered. The final section moves from the ECs lining the vessel wall to the smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts within the wall that are fluid me chanically activated by interstitial flow that imposes shear stresses on their surfaces comparable with those of flowing blood on EC surfaces. Interstitial flow stimulates biochemical production and gene expression, much like blood flow on ECs.

  3. MEPD: a Medaka gene expression pattern database

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Thorsten; Ramialison, Mirana; Quiring, Rebecca; Wittbrodt, Beate; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Kondoh, Hisato

    2003-01-01

    The Medaka Expression Pattern Database (MEPD) stores and integrates information of gene expression during embryonic development of the small freshwater fish Medaka (Oryzias latipes). Expression patterns of genes identified by ESTs are documented by images and by descriptions through parameters such as staining intensity, category and comments and through a comprehensive, hierarchically organized dictionary of anatomical terms. Sequences of the ESTs are available and searchable through BLAST. ESTs in the database are clustered upon entry and have been blasted against public data-bases. The BLAST results are updated regularly, stored within the database and searchable. The MEPD is a project within the Medaka Genome Initiative (MGI) and entries will be interconnected to integrated genomic map databases. MEPD is accessible through the WWW at http://medaka.dsp.jst.go.jp/MEPD. PMID:12519950

  4. The human phospholamban gene: structure and expression.

    PubMed

    McTiernan, C F; Frye, C S; Lemster, B H; Kinder, E A; Ogletree-Hughes, M L; Moravec, C S; Feldman, A M

    1999-03-01

    Phospholamban, through modulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase activity, is a key regulator of cardiac diastolic function. Alterations in phospholamban expression may define parameters of muscle relaxation. In experimental animals, phospholamban is differentially expressed in various striated and smooth muscles, and within the four chambers of the heart. Decreased phospholamban expression within the heart during heart failure has also been observed. Furthermore, regulatory elements of mammalian phospholamban genes remain poorly defined. To extend these studies to humans, we (1) characterized phospholamban expression in various human organs, (2) isolated genomic clones encoding the human phospholamban gene, and (3) prepared human phospholamban promoter/luciferase reporter constructs and performed transient transfection assays to begin identification of regulatory elements. We observed that human ventricle and quadriceps displayed high levels of phospholamban transcripts and proteins, with markedly lower expression observed in smooth muscles, while the right atria also expressed low levels of phospholamban. The human phospholamban gene structure closely resembles that reported for chicken, rabbit, rat, and mouse. Comparison of the human to other mammalian phospholamban genes indicates a marked conservation of sequence for at least 217 bp upstream of the transcription start site, which contains conserved motifs for GATA, CP1/NFY, M-CAT-like, and E-box elements. Transient transfection assays with a series of plasmids containing deleted 5' flanking regions (between -2530 and -66 through +85) showed that sequences between -169 and the CP1-box at -93 were required for maximal promoter activity in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Activity of these reporters in HeLa cells was markedly lower than that observed in rat cardiomyocytes, suggesting at least a partial tissue selectivity of these reporter constructs.

  5. Digital gene expression analysis of gene expression differences within Brassica diploids and allopolyploids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Bao; Fang, Tingting; Fang, Yujie; Wang, Youping

    2015-01-27

    Brassica includes many successfully cultivated crop species of polyploid origin, either by ancestral genome triplication or by hybridization between two diploid progenitors, displaying complex repetitive sequences and transposons. The U's triangle, which consists of three diploids and three amphidiploids, is optimal for the analysis of complicated genomes after polyploidization. Next-generation sequencing enables the transcriptome profiling of polyploids on a global scale. We examined the gene expression patterns of three diploids (Brassica rapa, B. nigra, and B. oleracea) and three amphidiploids (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. carinata) via digital gene expression analysis. In total, the libraries generated between 5.7 and 6.1 million raw reads, and the clean tags of each library were mapped to 18547-21995 genes of B. rapa genome. The unambiguous tag-mapped genes in the libraries were compared. Moreover, the majority of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were explored among diploids as well as between diploids and amphidiploids. Gene ontological analysis was performed to functionally categorize these DEGs into different classes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis was performed to assign these DEGs into approximately 120 pathways, among which the metabolic pathway, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and peroxisomal pathway were enriched. The non-additive genes in Brassica amphidiploids were analyzed, and the results indicated that orthologous genes in polyploids are frequently expressed in a non-additive pattern. Methyltransferase genes showed differential expression pattern in Brassica species. Our results provided an understanding of the transcriptome complexity of natural Brassica species. The gene expression changes in diploids and allopolyploids may help elucidate the morphological and physiological differences among Brassica species.

  6. Determining Physical Mechanisms of Gene Expression Regulation from Single Cell Gene Expression Data.

    PubMed

    Ezer, Daphne; Moignard, Victoria; Göttgens, Berthold; Adryan, Boris

    2016-08-01

    Many genes are expressed in bursts, which can contribute to cell-to-cell heterogeneity. It is now possible to measure this heterogeneity with high throughput single cell gene expression assays (single cell qPCR and RNA-seq). These experimental approaches generate gene expression distributions which can be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of gene expression bursting, namely the rate that genes turn on, the rate that genes turn off, and the rate of transcription. We construct a complete pipeline for the analysis of single cell qPCR data that uses the mathematics behind bursty expression to develop more accurate and robust algorithms for analyzing the origin of heterogeneity in experimental samples, specifically an algorithm for clustering cells by their bursting behavior (Simulated Annealing for Bursty Expression Clustering, SABEC) and a statistical tool for comparing the kinetic parameters of bursty expression across populations of cells (Estimation of Parameter changes in Kinetics, EPiK). We applied these methods to hematopoiesis, including a new single cell dataset in which transcription factors (TFs) involved in the earliest branchpoint of blood differentiation were individually up- and down-regulated. We could identify two unique sub-populations within a seemingly homogenous group of hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, we could predict regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression levels of eighteen key hematopoietic transcription factors throughout differentiation. Detailed information about gene regulatory mechanisms can therefore be obtained simply from high throughput single cell gene expression data, which should be widely applicable given the rapid expansion of single cell genomics.

  7. Transcriptome-Level Signatures in Gene Expression and Gene Expression Variability during Bacterial Adaptive Evolution.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Keesha E; Otoupal, Peter B; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasingly serious public health concern, as strains emerge that demonstrate resistance to almost all available treatments. One factor that contributes to the crisis is the adaptive ability of bacteria, which exhibit remarkable phenotypic and gene expression heterogeneity in order to gain a survival advantage in damaging environments. This high degree of variability in gene expression across biological populations makes it a challenging task to identify key regulators of bacterial adaptation. Here, we research the regulation of adaptive resistance by investigating transcriptome profiles of Escherichia coli upon adaptation to disparate toxins, including antibiotics and biofuels. We locate potential target genes via conventional gene expression analysis as well as using a new analysis technique examining differential gene expression variability. By investigating trends across the diverse adaptation conditions, we identify a focused set of genes with conserved behavior, including those involved in cell motility, metabolism, membrane structure, and transport, and several genes of unknown function. To validate the biological relevance of the observed changes, we synthetically perturb gene expression using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-dCas9. Manipulation of select genes in combination with antibiotic treatment promotes adaptive resistance as demonstrated by an increased degree of antibiotic tolerance and heterogeneity in MICs. We study the mechanisms by which identified genes influence adaptation and find that select differentially variable genes have the potential to impact metabolic rates, mutation rates, and motility. Overall, this work provides evidence for a complex nongenetic response, encompassing shifts in gene expression and gene expression variability, which underlies adaptive resistance. IMPORTANCE Even initially sensitive bacteria can rapidly thwart antibiotic treatment through stress

  8. T-cell lymphomas associated gene expression signature: Bioinformatics analysis based on gene expression Omnibus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei-Lei; Xu, Xiao-Yue; Ni, Jie; Zhao, Xia; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Feng, Ji-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Due to the low incidence and the heterogeneity of subtypes, the biological process of T-cell lymphomas is largely unknown. Although many genes have been detected in T-cell lymphomas, the role of these genes in biological process of T-cell lymphomas was not further analyzed. Two qualified datasets were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The biological functions of differentially expressed genes were evaluated by gene ontology enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis. The network for intersection genes was constructed by the cytoscape v3.0 software. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank test were employed to assess the association between differentially expressed genes and clinical characters. The intersection mRNAs were proved to be associated with fundamental processes of T-cell lymphoma cells. These intersection mRNAs were involved in the activation of some cancer-related pathways, including PI3K/AKT, Ras, JAK-STAT, and NF-kappa B signaling pathway. PDGFRA, CXCL12, and CCL19 were the most significant central genes in the signal-net analysis. The results of survival analysis are not entirely credible. Our findings uncovered aberrantly expressed genes and a complex RNA signal network in T-cell lymphomas and indicated cancer-related pathways involved in disease initiation and progression, providing a new insight for biotargeted therapy in T-cell lymphomas. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Molecular iodine impairs chemoresistance mechanisms, enhances doxorubicin retention and induces downregulation of the CD44+/CD24+ and E-cadherin+/vimentin+ subpopulations in MCF-7 cells resistant to low doses of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Bontempo, Alexander; Ugalde-Villanueva, Brenda; Delgado-González, Evangelina; Rodríguez, Ángel Luis; Aceves, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    One of the most dreaded clinical events for an oncology patient is resistance to treatment. Chemoresistance is a complex phenomenon based on alterations in apoptosis, the cell cycle and drug metabolism, and it correlates with the cancer stem cell phenotype and/or epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Molecular iodine (I2) exerts an antitumor effect on different types of iodine-capturing neoplasms by its oxidant/antioxidant properties and formation of iodolipids. In the present study, wild-type breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7/W) were treated chronically with 10 nM doxorubicin (DOX) to establish a low-dose DOX-resistant mammary cancer model (MCF-7/D). MCF-7/D cells were established after 30 days of treatment when the culture showed a proliferation rate similar to that of MCF-7/W. These DOX-resistant cells also showed increases in p21, Bcl-2 and MDR-1 expression. Supplementation with 200 µM I2 exerted similar effects in both cell lines: it decreased the proliferation rate by ~40%, and I2 co-administration with DOX significantly increased the inhibitory effect (to ~60%) and also increased apoptosis (BAX/Bcl-2 index), principally by inhibiting Bcl-2 expression. The inhibition by I2 + DOX was also accompanied by impaired MDR-1 induction as well as by a significant increase in PPARγ expression. All of these changes could be attributed to enhanced DOX retention and differential down-selection of CD44+/CD24+ and E-cadherin+/vimentin+ subpopulations. I2 + DOX-selected cells showed a weak induction of xenografts in Foxn1nu/nu mice, indicating that the iodine supplements reversed the tumorogenic capacity of the MCF-7/D cells. In conclusion, I2 is able to reduce the drug resistance and invasive capacity of mammary cancer cells exposed to DOX and represents an anti-chemoresistance agent with clinical potential.

  10. Core epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition interactome gene-expression signature is associated with claudin-low and metaplastic breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Taube, Joseph H; Herschkowitz, Jason I; Komurov, Kakajan; Zhou, Alicia Y; Gupta, Supriya; Yang, Jing; Hartwell, Kimberly; Onder, Tamer T; Gupta, Piyush B; Evans, Kurt W; Hollier, Brett G; Ram, Prahlad T; Lander, Eric S; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Weinberg, Robert A; Mani, Sendurai A

    2010-08-31

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) produces cancer cells that are invasive, migratory, and exhibit stem cell characteristics, hallmarks of cells that have the potential to generate metastases. Inducers of the EMT include several transcription factors (TFs), such as Goosecoid, Snail, and Twist, as well as the secreted TGF-beta1. Each of these factors is capable, on its own, of inducing an EMT in the human mammary epithelial (HMLE) cell line. However, the interactions between these regulators are poorly understood. Overexpression of each of the above EMT inducers up-regulates a subset of other EMT-inducing TFs, with Twist, Zeb1, Zeb2, TGF-beta1, and FOXC2 being commonly induced. Up-regulation of Slug and FOXC2 by either Snail or Twist does not depend on TGF-beta1 signaling. Gene expression signatures (GESs) derived by overexpressing EMT-inducing TFs reveal that the Twist GES and Snail GES are the most similar, although the Goosecoid GES is the least similar to the others. An EMT core signature was derived from the changes in gene expression shared by up-regulation of Gsc, Snail, Twist, and TGF-beta1 and by down-regulation of E-cadherin, loss of which can also trigger an EMT in certain cell types. The EMT core signature associates closely with the claudin-low and metaplastic breast cancer subtypes and correlates negatively with pathological complete response. Additionally, the expression level of FOXC1, another EMT inducer, correlates strongly with poor survival of breast cancer patients.

  11. Core epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition interactome gene-expression signature is associated with claudin-low and metaplastic breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Joseph H.; Herschkowitz, Jason I.; Komurov, Kakajan; Zhou, Alicia Y.; Gupta, Supriya; Yang, Jing; Hartwell, Kimberly; Onder, Tamer T.; Gupta, Piyush B.; Evans, Kurt W.; Hollier, Brett G.; Ram, Prahlad T.; Lander, Eric S.; Rosen, Jeffrey M.; Weinberg, Robert A.; Mani, Sendurai A.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) produces cancer cells that are invasive, migratory, and exhibit stem cell characteristics, hallmarks of cells that have the potential to generate metastases. Inducers of the EMT include several transcription factors (TFs), such as Goosecoid, Snail, and Twist, as well as the secreted TGF-β1. Each of these factors is capable, on its own, of inducing an EMT in the human mammary epithelial (HMLE) cell line. However, the interactions between these regulators are poorly understood. Overexpression of each of the above EMT inducers up-regulates a subset of other EMT-inducing TFs, with Twist, Zeb1, Zeb2, TGF-β1, and FOXC2 being commonly induced. Up-regulation of Slug and FOXC2 by either Snail or Twist does not depend on TGF-β1 signaling. Gene expression signatures (GESs) derived by overexpressing EMT-inducing TFs reveal that the Twist GES and Snail GES are the most similar, although the Goosecoid GES is the least similar to the others. An EMT core signature was derived from the changes in gene expression shared by up-regulation of Gsc, Snail, Twist, and TGF-β1 and by down-regulation of E-cadherin, loss of which can also trigger an EMT in certain cell types. The EMT core signature associates closely with the claudin-low and metaplastic breast cancer subtypes and correlates negatively with pathological complete response. Additionally, the expression level of FOXC1, another EMT inducer, correlates strongly with poor survival of breast cancer patients. PMID:20713713

  12. FARO server: Meta-analysis of gene expression by matching gene expression signatures to a compendium of public gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Manijak, Mieszko P; Nielsen, Henrik B

    2011-06-11

    Although, systematic analysis of gene annotation is a powerful tool for interpreting gene expression data, it sometimes is blurred by incomplete gene annotation, missing expression response of key genes and secondary gene expression responses. These shortcomings may be partially circumvented by instead matching gene expression signatures to signatures of other experiments. To facilitate this we present the Functional Association Response by Overlap (FARO) server, that match input signatures to a compendium of 242 gene expression signatures, extracted from more than 1700 Arabidopsis microarray experiments. Hereby we present a publicly available tool for robust characterization of Arabidopsis gene expression experiments which can point to similar experimental factors in other experiments. The server is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/faro/.

  13. African Americans with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma exhibit gender differences in Kaiso expression

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Angana; Jones, Jacqueline; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Davis, Melissa; Jaynes, Jesse; Reams, R. Renee; Dean-Colomb, Windy; Yates, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Kaiso, a bi-modal transcription factor, regulates gene expression, and is elevated in breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Depletion of Kaiso in other cancer types leads to a reduction in markers for the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) (Jones et al., 2014), however its clinical implications in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDCA) have not been widely explored. PDCA is rarely detected at an early stage but is characterized by rapid progression and invasiveness. We now report the significance of the subcellular localization of Kaiso in PDCAs from African Americans. Kaiso expression is higher in the cytoplasm of invasive and metastatic pancreatic cancers. In males, cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso correlates with cancer grade and lymph node positivity. In male and female patients, cytoplasmic Kaiso expression correlates with invasiveness. Also, nuclear expression of Kaiso increases with increased invasiveness and lymph node positivity. Further, analysis of the largest PDCA dataset available on ONCOMINE shows that as Kaiso increases, there is an overall increase in Zeb1, which is the inverse for E-cadherin. Hence, these findings suggest a role for Kaiso in the progression of PDCAs, involving the EMT markers, E-cadherin and Zeb1. PMID:27424525

  14. Programming gene expression with combinatorial promoters

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Robert Sidney; Surette, Michael G; Elowitz, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    Promoters control the expression of genes in response to one or more transcription factors (TFs). The architecture of a promoter is the arrangement and type of binding sites within it. To understand natural genetic circuits and to design promoters for synthetic biology, it is essential to understand the relationship between promoter function and architecture. We constructed a combinatorial library of random promoter architectures. We characterized 288 promoters in Escherichia coli, each containing up to three inputs from four different TFs. The library design allowed for multiple −10 and −35 boxes, and we observed varied promoter strength over five decades. To further analyze the functional repertoire, we defined a representation of promoter function in terms of regulatory range, logic type, and symmetry. Using these results, we identified heuristic rules for programming gene expression with combinatorial promoters. PMID:18004278

  15. Cell-Free Optogenetic Gene Expression System.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Premkumar; Yeoh, Jing Wui; Jayaraman, Sudhaghar; Teh, Ai Ying; Zhang, Jingyun; Poh, Chueh Loo

    2018-04-20

    Optogenetic tools provide a new and efficient way to dynamically program gene expression with unmatched spatiotemporal precision. To date, their vast potential remains untapped in the field of cell-free synthetic biology, largely due to the lack of simple and efficient light-switchable systems. Here, to bridge the gap between cell-free systems and optogenetics, we studied our previously engineered one component-based blue light-inducible Escherichia coli promoter in a cell-free environment through experimental characterization and mathematical modeling. We achieved >10-fold dynamic expression and demonstrated rapid and reversible activation of the target gene to generate oscillatory response. The deterministic model developed was able to recapitulate the system behavior and helped to provide quantitative insights to optimize dynamic response. This in vitro optogenetic approach could be a powerful new high-throughput screening technology for rapid prototyping of complex biological networks in both space and time without the need for chemical induction.

  16. Blood Gene Expression Predicts Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Danger, Richard; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Reboulleau, Damien; Durand, Eugénie; Loy, Jennifer; Tissot, Adrien; Lacoste, Philippe; Roux, Antoine; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Gomez, Carine; Kessler, Romain; Mussot, Sacha; Dromer, Claire; Brugière, Olivier; Mornex, Jean-François; Guillemain, Romain; Dahan, Marcel; Knoop, Christiane; Botturi, Karine; Foureau, Aurore; Pison, Christophe; Koutsokera, Angela; Nicod, Laurent P.; Brouard, Sophie; Magnan, Antoine; Jougon, J.

    2018-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), the main manifestation of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, leads to poor long-term survival after lung transplantation. Identifying predictors of BOS is essential to prevent the progression of dysfunction before irreversible damage occurs. By using a large set of 107 samples from lung recipients, we performed microarray gene expression profiling of whole blood to identify early biomarkers of BOS, including samples from 49 patients with stable function for at least 3 years, 32 samples collected at least 6 months before BOS diagnosis (prediction group), and 26 samples at or after BOS diagnosis (diagnosis group). An independent set from 25 lung recipients was used for validation by quantitative PCR (13 stables, 11 in the prediction group, and 8 in the diagnosis group). We identified 50 transcripts differentially expressed between stable and BOS recipients. Three genes, namely POU class 2 associating factor 1 (POU2AF1), T-cell leukemia/lymphoma protein 1A (TCL1A), and B cell lymphocyte kinase, were validated as predictive biomarkers of BOS more than 6 months before diagnosis, with areas under the curve of 0.83, 0.77, and 0.78 respectively. These genes allow stratification based on BOS risk (log-rank test p < 0.01) and are not associated with time posttransplantation. This is the first published large-scale gene expression analysis of blood after lung transplantation. The three-gene blood signature could provide clinicians with new tools to improve follow-up and adapt treatment of patients likely to develop BOS. PMID:29375549

  17. Expression of foreign genes in filamentous cyanobacteria

    SciT

    Kuritz, T.; Wolk, C.P.

    1993-06-01

    Several advantages make cyanobacteria attractive hosts for biodegradative genes and possibly for other exogenous genes that have practical uses. The authors have obtained expression in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 and Nostoc ellipsosporum of a dechlorination operon, fcbAB, from Arthrobacter globiformis, and have also developed a simple method for qualitative assessment of dechlorination by microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria, whose metabolism is dependent on the presence of chloride in the medium. Transcription of fcbAB under the control of a variety of promoters was monitored by placing luxAB (encoding luciferase) downstream from fcbAB, and by measuring light emission from luciferase. They believemore » that the system that they have described has value as a means to screen for factors influencing transcription of foreign genes in cyanobacteria.« less

  18. A gene expression biomarker accurately predicts estrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA’s vision for the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) in the 21st Century (EDSP21) includes utilization of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays coupled with computational modeling to prioritize chemicals with the goal of eventually replacing current Tier 1 screening tests. The ToxCast program currently includes 18 HTS in vitro assays that evaluate the ability of chemicals to modulate estrogen receptor α (ERα), an important endocrine target. We propose microarray-based gene expression profiling as a complementary approach to predict ERα modulation and have developed computational methods to identify ERα modulators in an existing database of whole-genome microarray data. The ERα biomarker consisted of 46 ERα-regulated genes with consistent expression patterns across 7 known ER agonists and 3 known ER antagonists. The biomarker was evaluated as a predictive tool using the fold-change rank-based Running Fisher algorithm by comparison to annotated gene expression data sets from experiments in MCF-7 cells. Using 141 comparisons from chemical- and hormone-treated cells, the biomarker gave a balanced accuracy for prediction of ERα activation or suppression of 94% or 93%, respectively. The biomarker was able to correctly classify 18 out of 21 (86%) OECD ER reference chemicals including “very weak” agonists and replicated predictions based on 18 in vitro ER-associated HTS assays. For 114 chemicals present in both the HTS data and the MCF-7 c

  19. Global gene expression analysis by combinatorial optimization.

    PubMed

    Ameur, Adam; Aurell, Erik; Carlsson, Mats; Westholm, Jakub Orzechowski

    2004-01-01

    Generally, there is a trade-off between methods of gene expression analysis that are precise but labor-intensive, e.g. RT-PCR, and methods that scale up to global coverage but are not quite as quantitative, e.g. microarrays. In the present paper, we show how how a known method of gene expression profiling (K. Kato, Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 3685-3690 (1995)), which relies on a fairly small number of steps, can be turned into a global gene expression measurement by advanced data post-processing, with potentially little loss of accuracy. Post-processing here entails solving an ancillary combinatorial optimization problem. Validation is performed on in silico experiments generated from the FANTOM data base of full-length mouse cDNA. We present two variants of the method. One uses state-of-the-art commercial software for solving problems of this kind, the other a code developed by us specifically for this purpose, released in the public domain under GPL license.

  20. Modulating prime molecular expressions and in vitro wound healing rate in keratinocyte (HaCaT) population under characteristic honey dilutions.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Amrita; Bag, Swarnendu; Mandal, Mousumi; Krishna Karri, Sri Phani; Barui, Ananya; Rajput, Monika; Banerjee, Provas; Sheet, Debdoot; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-05-26

    In traditional medicines honey is known for healing efficacy and vividly used as "Anupan" in Ayurvedic medicines appreciating roles in dilutions. Validating efficacy of physico-chemically characterized honey in dilutions, studies on in vitro wound healing and attainment of cellular confluence epithelial cells including expressions of cardinal genes is crucial. To evaluate effects of characterized honey in varied dilutions on cellular viability, in vitro wound healing and modulation of prime epithelial gene expressions. Six Indian honey-samples from different sources were physico-chemically characterized and optimal one was explored in dilutions (v/v%) through in vitro studies on human epithelial (HaCaT) cells for viability, wound healing and expressions of genes p63, E-cadherin, β-catenin, GnT-III and GnT-V. Studied honey samples (i.e. A-F) depicted range of pH (2-4), water (12.48-23.95), electrical conductivity (2.57-14.34), carbohydrate (68.73-98.65), protein (.316-5.36) and antioxidant potential. Though sample A and F showed physico-chemical proximity, but overall bio-impact of the earlier was better, thus studied in 8-.1% (v/v) dilution range. Four dilutions (.01, .04, .1, .25 v/v%) augmented cellular viability but in vitro wound healing was fastest (p<.05) under .1%. Such efficacy was further documented for p63 up-regulation by immunocytochemistry and mRNA studies. The E-cadherin and β-catenin mRNA-expressions were also up-regulated and their proteins were predominantly cytoplasmic. E-cadherin up-regulation was corroborative with down-regulation and up-regulation of GnT-III and GnT-V respectively. Present study illustrated efficacy of particular honey dilution (.1%) with characteristic free radical scavenging activity in facilitating cell proliferation and attainment of confluence towards faster wound healing and modulation of cardinal epithelial genes (viz. p63, E-cadherin, β-catenin, Gnt-III and V). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  1. Three gene expression vector sets for concurrently expressing multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Takashi; Makino, Harumi; Ogura, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-05-01

    Yeast has the potential to be used in bulk-scale fermentative production of fuels and chemicals due to its tolerance for low pH and robustness for autolysis. However, expression of multiple external genes in one host yeast strain is considerably labor-intensive due to the lack of polycistronic transcription. To promote the metabolic engineering of yeast, we generated systematic and convenient genetic engineering tools to express multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a series of multi-copy and integration vector sets for concurrently expressing two or three genes in S. cerevisiae by embedding three classical promoters. The comparative expression capabilities of the constructed vectors were monitored with green fluorescent protein, and the concurrent expression of genes was monitored with three different fluorescent proteins. Our multiple gene expression tool will be helpful to the advanced construction of genetically engineered yeast strains in a variety of research fields other than metabolic engineering. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of the cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-2 in developing rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Syaidah, Rahimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ramadhani, Dini; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    In the anterior pituitary gland, folliculo-stellate cells and five types of hormone-producing cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM) essential for these cells to perform their respective roles. Syndecans-type I transmembrane cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as major ECM coreceptors via their respective heparan sulfate chains and efficiently transduce intracellular signals through the convergent action of their transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The syndecans comprise four family members in vertebrates: syndecan-1, -2, -3 and -4. However, whether syndecans are produced in the pituitary gland or whether they have a role as a coreceptor is not known. We therefore used (1) reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of syndecan genes and (2) immunohistochemical techniques to identify the cells that produce the syndecans in the anterior pituitary gland of adult rat. Syndecan-2 mRNA expression was clearly detected in the corticotropes of the anterior pituitary gland. Moreover, the expression of syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland had a distinct temporospatial pattern. To identify the cells expressing syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland, we used double-immunohistochemistry for syndecan-2 and the cell markers E-cadherin (immature cells) and Ki-67 (proliferating cells). Some E-cadherin- and Ki-67-immunopositive cells expressed syndecan-2. Therefore, syndecan-2 expression occurs in developmentally regulated patterns and syndecan-2 probably has different roles in adult and developing anterior pituitary glands.

  3. Digital gene expression analysis of the zebra finch genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to understand patterns of adaptation and molecular evolution it is important to quantify both variation in gene expression and nucleotide sequence divergence. Gene expression profiling in non-model organisms has recently been facilitated by the advent of massively parallel sequencing technology. Here we investigate tissue specific gene expression patterns in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) with special emphasis on the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Results Almost 2 million 454-sequencing reads from cDNA of six different tissues were assembled and analysed. A total of 11,793 zebra finch transcripts were represented in this EST data, indicating a transcriptome coverage of about 65%. There was a positive correlation between the tissue specificity of gene expression and non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution ratio of genes, suggesting that genes with a specialised function are evolving at a higher rate (or with less constraint) than genes with a more general function. In line with this, there was also a negative correlation between overall expression levels and expression specificity of contigs. We found evidence for expression of 10 different genes related to the MHC. MHC genes showed relatively tissue specific expression levels and were in general primarily expressed in spleen. Several MHC genes, including MHC class I also showed expression in brain. Furthermore, for all genes with highest levels of expression in spleen there was an overrepresentation of several gene ontology terms related to immune function. Conclusions Our study highlights the usefulness of next-generation sequence data for quantifying gene expression in the genome as a whole as well as in specific candidate genes. Overall, the data show predicted patterns of gene expression profiles and molecular evolution in the zebra finch genome. Expression of MHC genes in particular, corresponds well with expression patterns in other vertebrates

  4. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    PubMed Central

    Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon genotype with a similar

  5. Molecular mechanisms of curcumin action: gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shishodia, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin derived from the tropical plant Curcuma longa has a long history of use as a dietary agent, food preservative, and in traditional Asian medicine. It has been used for centuries to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism, and sinusitis. The preventive and therapeutic properties of curcumin are associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Extensive research over several decades has attempted to identify the molecular mechanisms of curcumin action. Curcumin modulates numerous molecular targets by altering their gene expression, signaling pathways, or through direct interaction. Curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1), growth factors (e.g., VEGF, EGF, FGF), growth factor receptors (e.g., EGFR, HER-2, AR), enzymes (e.g., COX-2, LOX, MMP9, MAPK, mTOR, Akt), adhesion molecules (e.g., ELAM-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1), apoptosis related proteins (e.g., Bcl-2, caspases, DR, Fas), and cell cycle proteins (e.g., cyclin D1). Curcumin modulates the activity of several transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, AP-1, STAT) and their signaling pathways. Based on its ability to affect multiple targets, curcumin has the potential for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including cancers, arthritis, allergies, atherosclerosis, aging, neurodegenerative disease, hepatic disorders, obesity, diabetes, psoriasis, and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of modulation of gene expression by curcumin. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. GPR48 Increases Mineralocorticoid Receptor Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiqiu; Li, Xiaoying; Ke, Yingying; Lu, Yan; Wang, Feng; Fan, Nengguang; Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Huijie; Liu, Ruixin; Yang, Jun; Ye, Lei; Liu, Mingyao

    2012-01-01

    Aldosterone and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are critical to the maintenance of electrolyte and BP homeostasis. Mutations in the MR cause aldosterone resistance known as pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1); however, some cases consistent with PHA1 do not exhibit known gene mutations, suggesting the possibility of alternative genetic variants. We observed that G protein–coupled receptor 48 (Gpr48/Lgr4) hypomorphic mutant (Gpr48m/m) mice had hyperkalemia and increased water loss and salt excretion despite elevated plasma aldosterone levels, suggesting aldosterone resistance. When we challenged the mice with a low-sodium diet, these features became more obvious; the mice also developed hyponatremia and increased renin expression and activity, resembling a mild state of PHA1. There was marked renal downregulation of MR and its downstream targets (e.g., the α-subunit of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel), which could provide a mechanism for the aldosterone resistance. We identified a noncanonical cAMP-responsive element located in the MR promoter and demonstrated that GPR48 upregulates MR expression via the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in vitro. Taken together, our data demonstrate that GPR48 enhances aldosterone responsiveness by activating MR expression, suggesting that GPR48 contributes to homeostasis of electrolytes and BP and may be a candidate gene for PHA1. PMID:22135314

  7. Covariance Structure Models for Gene Expression Microarray Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Jun; Bentler, Peter M.

    2003-01-01

    Covariance structure models are applied to gene expression data using a factor model, a path model, and their combination. The factor model is based on a few factors that capture most of the expression information. A common factor of a group of genes may represent a common protein factor for the transcript of the co-expressed genes, and hence, it…

  8. Nicotine suppresses bone sialoprotein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Y; Mezawa, M; Araki, S; Sasaki, Y; Wang, S; Han, J; Li, X; Takai, H; Ogata, Y

    2009-10-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for periodontitis and osteoporosis. Nicotine is a major component of tobacco, and has been reported to inhibit proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized tissue-specific protein expressed by differentiated osteoblasts that appears to function in the initial mineralization of bone. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of nicotine on bone metabolism. We used rat osteobast-like UMR106 and ROS 17/2.8 cells and rat stromal bone marrow RBMC-D8 cells. To determine the molecular basis of the transcriptional regulation of the BSP gene by nicotine, we conducted Northern hybridization, transient transfection analyses with chimeric constructs of the BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene and gel mobility shift assays. Nicotine (250 microg/mL) decreased the BSP mRNA levels at 12 and 24 h in UMR106 and ROS 17/2.8 cells. From transient transfection assays using various sized BSP promoter-luciferase constructs, nicotine decreased the luciferase activities of the construct, including the promoter sequence nucleotides -116 to +60, in UMR106 and RBMC-D8 cells. Nicotine decreased the nuclear protein binding to the cAMP response element (CRE), fibroblast growth factor 2 response element (FRE) and homeodomain protein-binding site (HOX) at 12 and 24 h. This study indicates that nicotine suppresses BSP transcription mediated through CRE, FRE and HOX elements in the proximal promoter of the rat BSP gene.

  9. Retrotransposons as regulators of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Elbarbary, Reyad A; Lucas, Bronwyn A; Maquat, Lynne E

    2016-02-12

    Transposable elements (TEs) are both a boon and a bane to eukaryotic organisms, depending on where they integrate into the genome and how their sequences function once integrated. We focus on two types of TEs: long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs). LINEs and SINEs are retrotransposons; that is, they transpose via an RNA intermediate. We discuss how LINEs and SINEs have expanded in eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution. An emerging body of evidence indicates that LINEs and SINEs function to regulate gene expression by affecting chromatin structure, gene transcription, pre-mRNA processing, or aspects of mRNA metabolism. We also describe how adenosine-to-inosine editing influences SINE function and how ongoing retrotransposition is countered by the body's defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Retrotransposons as regulators of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Elbarbary, Reyad A.; Lucas, Bronwyn A.; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are both a boon and a bane to eukaryotic organisms, depending on where they integrate into the genome and how their sequences function once integrated. We focus on two types of TEs: long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs). LINEs and SINEs are retrotransposons; that is, they transpose via an RNA intermediate. We discuss how LINEs and SINEs have expanded in eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution. An emerging body of evidence indicates that LINEs and SINEs function to regulate gene expression by affecting chromatin structure, gene transcription, pre-mRNA processing, or aspects of mRNA metabolism. We also describe how adenosine-to-inosine editing influences SINE function and how ongoing retrotransposition is countered by the body’s defense mechanisms. PMID:26912865

  11. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) inhibits cancer cell growth and expression of key molecules in inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M; Acevedo, Raysa Rosario; Otero-Franqui, Elisa; Cubano, Luis A; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal and least understood form of advanced breast cancer. Its lethality originates from its nature of invading the lymphatic system and absence of a palpable tumor mass. Different from other metastatic breast cancer cells, IBC cells invade by forming tumor spheroids that retain E-cadherin-based cell-cell adhesions. Herein we describe the potential of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy. Reishi contains biological compounds that are cytotoxic against cancer cells. We report the effects of Reishi on viability, apoptosis, invasion, and its mechanism of action in IBC cells (SUM-149). Results show that Reishi selectively inhibits cancer cell viability although it does not affect the viability of noncancerous mammary epithelial cells. Apoptosis induction is consistent with decreased cell viability. Reishi inhibits cell invasion and disrupts the cell spheroids that are characteristic of the IBC invasive pathology. Reishi decreases the expression of genes involved in cancer cell survival and proliferation (BCL-2, TERT, PDGFB), and invasion and metastasis (MMP-9), whereas it increases the expression of IL8. Reishi reduces BCL-2, BCL-XL, E-cadherin, eIF4G, p120-catenin, and c-Myc protein expression and gelatinase activity. These findings suggest that Reishi is an effective anti-IBC therapeutic.

  12. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth and Expression of Key Molecules in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M.; Acevedo, Raysa Rosario; Otero-Franqui, Elisa; Cubano, Luis. A.; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal and least understood form of advanced breast cancer. Its lethality originates from its nature of invading the lymphatic system and absence of a palpable tumor mass. Different from other metastatic breast cancer cells, IBC cells invade by forming tumor spheroids that retain E-cadherin-based cell–cell adhesions. Herein we describe the potential of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy. Reishi contains biological compounds that are cytotoxic against cancer cells. We report the effects of Reishi on viability, apoptosis, invasion, and its mechanism of action in IBC cells (SUM-149). Results show that Reishi selectively inhibits cancer cell viability although it does not affect the viability of noncancerous mammary epithelial cells. Apoptosis induction is consistent with decreased cell viability. Reishi inhibits cell invasion and disrupts the cell spheroids that are characteristic of the IBC invasive pathology. Reishi decreases the expression of genes involved in cancer cell survival and proliferation (BCL-2, TERT, PDGFB), and invasion and metastasis (MMP-9), whereas it increases the expression of IL8. Reishi reduces BCL-2, BCL-XL, E-cadherin, eIF4G, p120-catenin, and c-Myc protein expression and gelatinase activity. These findings suggest that Reishi is an effective anti-IBC therapeutic. PMID:21888505

  13. The Effects of Hallucinogens on Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Martin, David A; Nichols, Charles D

    2018-01-01

    The classic serotonergic hallucinogens, or psychedelics, have the ability to profoundly alter perception and behavior. These can include visual distortions, hallucinations, detachment from reality, and mystical experiences. Some psychedelics, like LSD, are able to produce these effects with remarkably low doses of drug. Others, like psilocybin, have recently been demonstrated to have significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and addiction that persist for at least several months after only a single therapeutic session. How does this occur? Much work has recently been published from imaging studies showing that psychedelics alter brain network connectivity. They facilitate a disintegration of the default mode network, producing a hyperconnectivity between brain regions that allow centers that do not normally communicate with each other to do so. The immediate and acute effects on both behaviors and network connectivity are likely mediated by effector pathways downstream of serotonin 5-HT2A receptor activation. These acute molecular processes also influence gene expression changes, which likely influence synaptic plasticity and facilitate more long-term changes in brain neurochemistry ultimately underlying the therapeutic efficacy of a single administration to achieve long-lasting effects. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the molecular genetic responses to psychedelics within the brain and discuss how gene expression changes may contribute to altered cellular physiology and behaviors.

  14. Gene transfer and expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Argelia; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, agriculture and plant breeding relied solely on the accumulated experience of generations of farmers and breeders that is, on sexual transfer of genes between plant species. However, recent developments in plant molecular biology and genomics now give us access to knowledge and understanding of plant genomes and the possibility of modifying them. This chapter presents an updated overview of the two most powerful technologies for transferring genetic material (DNA) into plants: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and microparticle bombardment (biolistics). Some of the topics that are discussed in detail are the main variables controlling the transformation efficiency that can be achieved using each one of these approaches; the advantages and limitations of each methodology; transient versus stable transformation approaches; the potential of some in planta transformation systems; alternatives to developing transgenic plants without selection markers; the availability of diverse genetic tools generated as part of the genome sequencing of different plant species; transgene expression, gene silencing, and their association with regulatory elements; and prospects and ways to possibly overcome some transgene expression difficulties, in particular the use of matrix-attachment regions (MARs).

  15. Identification of Human HK Genes and Gene Expression Regulation Study in Cancer from Transcriptomics Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Jiayan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is essential for eukaryotes, as it drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides researchers with a powerful toolbox for characterization and quantification of transcriptome. Many different human tissue/cell transcriptome datasets coming from RNA-Seq technology are available on public data resource. The fundamental issue here is how to develop an effective analysis method to estimate expression pattern similarities between different tumor tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. We define the gene expression pattern from three directions: 1) expression breadth, which reflects gene expression on/off status, and mainly concerns ubiquitously expressed genes; 2) low/high or constant/variable expression genes, based on gene expression level and variation; and 3) the regulation of gene expression at the gene structure level. The cluster analysis indicates that gene expression pattern is higher related to physiological condition rather than tissue spatial distance. Two sets of human housekeeping (HK) genes are defined according to cell/tissue types, respectively. To characterize the gene expression pattern in gene expression level and variation, we firstly apply improved K-means algorithm and a gene expression variance model. We find that cancer-associated HK genes (a HK gene is specific in cancer group, while not in normal group) are expressed higher and more variable in cancer condition than in normal condition. Cancer-associated HK genes prefer to AT-rich genes, and they are enriched in cell cycle regulation related functions and constitute some cancer signatures. The expression of large genes is also avoided in cancer group. These studies will help us understand which cell type-specific patterns of gene expression differ among different cell types, and particularly for cancer. PMID:23382867

  16. Probing the interaction between cHAVc3 peptide and the EC1 domain of E-cadherin using NMR and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Alaofi, Ahmed; Farokhi, Elinaz; Prasasty, Vivitri D; Anbanandam, Asokan; Kuczera, Krzysztof; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to probe the interaction between cyclic cHAVc3 peptide and the EC1 domain of human E-cadherin protein. Cyclic cHAVc3 peptide (cyclo(1,6)Ac-CSHAVC-NH 2 ) binds to the EC1 domain as shown by chemical shift perturbations in the 2D 1 H,- 15 N-HSQC NMR spectrum. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the EC1 domain showed folding of the C-terminal tail region into the main head region of the EC1 domain. For cHAVc3 peptide, replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations generated five structural clusters of cHAVc3 peptide. Representative structures of cHAVc3 and the EC1 structure from MD simulations were used in molecular docking experiments with NMR constraints to determine the binding site of the peptide on EC1. The results suggest that cHAVc3 binds to EC1 around residues Y36, S37, I38, I53, F77, S78, H79, and I94. The dissociation constants (K d values) of cHAVc3 peptide to EC1 were estimated using the NMR chemical shifts data and the estimated K d s are in the range of .5 × 10 -5 -7.0 × 10 -5  M.

  17. Probing the Interaction between Cyclic ADTC1 Ac-CADTPPVC-NH2) Peptide with EC1-EC2 domain of E-cadherin using Molecular Docking Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, P.; Wuning, S.; Manna, A.; Prasasty, V. D.; Hudiyanti, D.

    2018-04-01

    Deeply understanding that intermolecular interaction between molecules on the paracellular pathway has given insight to its microscopic and macroscopic properties. In the paracellular pathway, synthetic cyclic ADTC1 (Ac-CADTPPVC-NH2) peptide has been studied to modulate EC1-EC2 domain, computationally using molecular docking method. The aim of this research is to probe the effect of amino acid alanine (A) of ADTC1 on its interaction properties. The study carried out in two steps: 1. the optimization using GROMACS v4.6.5 program and; 2. Determination of the interaction properties using AutoDock 4.2 program. The interaction was done for A-J box, and the best position of the binding site and binding energy on the OC and CC ADTC1 peptides against the EC1-EC2 domain of E-cadherin was selected. The result showed that the CC of the F box ADTC1 has the best interaction with binding energy of - 26.36 kJ/mol and its energy was lower than ADTC5 without alanine amino acid. ADTC1 interacted with EC1 of EC1-EC2 on Asp1, Trp2, Val3, Ile4, Ile24, Lys25, Ser26, Asn27, and Met92 residues.

  18. Expressing genes do not forget their LINEs: transposable elements and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Kines, Kristine J.; Belancio, Victoria P.

    2012-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT Historically the accumulated mass of mammalian transposable elements (TEs), particularly those located within gene boundaries, was viewed as a genetic burden potentially detrimental to the genomic landscape. This notion has been strengthened by the discovery that transposable sequences can alter the architecture of the transcriptome, not only through insertion, but also long after the integration process is completed. Insertions previously considered harmless are now known to impact the expression of host genes via modification of the transcript quality or quantity, transcriptional interference, or by the control of pathways that affect the mRNA life-cycle. Conversely, several examples of the evolutionary advantageous impact of TEs on the host gene structure that diversified the cellular transcriptome are reported. TE-induced changes in gene expression can be tissue-or disease-specific, raising the possibility that the impact of TE sequences may vary during development, among normal cell types, and between normal and disease-affected tissues. The understanding of the rules and abundance of TE-interference with gene expression is in its infancy, and its contribution to human disease and/or evolution remains largely unexplored. PMID:22201807

  19. Analysis of multiplex gene expression maps obtained by voxelation.

    PubMed

    An, Li; Xie, Hongbo; Chin, Mark H; Obradovic, Zoran; Smith, Desmond J; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2009-04-29

    Gene expression signatures in the mammalian brain hold the key to understanding neural development and neurological disease. Researchers have previously used voxelation in combination with microarrays for acquisition of genome-wide atlases of expression patterns in the mouse brain. On the other hand, some work has been performed on studying gene functions, without taking into account the location information of a gene's expression in a mouse brain. In this paper, we present an approach for identifying the relation between gene expression maps obtained by voxelation and gene functions. To analyze the dataset, we chose typical genes as queries and aimed at discovering similar gene groups. Gene similarity was determined by using the wavelet features extracted from the left and right hemispheres averaged gene expression maps, and by the Euclidean distance between each pair of feature vectors. We also performed a multiple clustering approach on the gene expression maps, combined with hierarchical clustering. Among each group of similar genes and clusters, the gene function similarity was measured by calculating the average gene function distances in the gene ontology structure. By applying our methodology to find similar genes to certain target genes we were able to improve our understanding of gene expression patterns and gene functions. By applying the clustering analysis method, we obtained significant clusters, which have both very similar gene expression maps and very similar gene functions respectively to their corresponding gene ontologies. The cellular component ontology resulted in prominent clusters expressed in cortex and corpus callosum. The molecular function ontology gave prominent clusters in cortex, corpus callosum and hypothalamus. The biological process ontology resulted in clusters in cortex, hypothalamus and choroid plexus. Clusters from all three ontologies combined were most prominently expressed in cortex and corpus callosum. The experimental

  20. hNaa10p contributes to tumorigenesis by facilitating DNMT1-mediated tumor suppressor gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung-Fan; Ou, Derick S.-C.; Lee, Sung-Bau; Chang, Liang-Hao; Lin, Ruo-Kai; Li, Ying-Shiuan; Upadhyay, Anup K.; Cheng, Xiaodong; Wang, Yi-Ching; Hsu, Han-Shui; Hsiao, Michael; Wu, Cheng-Wen; Juan, Li-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Hypermethylation-mediated tumor suppressor gene silencing plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis. Understanding its underlying mechanism is essential for cancer treatment. Previous studies on human N-α-acetyltransferase 10, NatA catalytic subunit (hNaa10p; also known as human arrest-defective 1 [hARD1]), have generated conflicting results with regard to its role in tumorigenesis. Here we provide multiple lines of evidence indicating that it is oncogenic. We have shown that hNaa10p overexpression correlated with poor survival of human lung cancer patients. In vitro, enforced expression of hNaa10p was sufficient to cause cellular transformation, and siRNA-mediated depletion of hNaa10p impaired cancer cell proliferation in colony assays and xenograft studies. The oncogenic potential of hNaa10p depended on its interaction with DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Mechanistically, hNaa10p positively regulated DNMT1 enzymatic activity by facilitating its binding to DNA in vitro and its recruitment to promoters of tumor suppressor genes, such as E-cadherin, in vivo. Consistent with this, interaction between hNaa10p and DNMT1 was required for E-cadherin silencing through promoter CpG methylation, and E-cadherin repression contributed to the oncogenic effects of hNaa10p. Together, our data not only establish hNaa10p as an oncoprotein, but also reveal that it contributes to oncogenesis through modulation of DNMT1 function. PMID:20592467

  1. Anxa5 mediates the in vitro malignant behaviours of murine hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cells with high lymph node metastasis potential preferentially via ERK2/p-ERK2/c-Jun/p-c-Jun(Ser73) and E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xujuan; Wei, Bin; Liu, Shuqing; Guo, Chunmei; Wu, Na; Liu, Qinlong; Sun, Ming-Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Annexin A5 (Anxa5) is associated with the progression of some cancers, while its role and regulation mechanism in tumor lymphatic metastasis is rarely reported. This study aims to investigate the influence of Anxa5 knockdown on the malignant behaviours of murine hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line with high lymph node metastatic (LNM) potential and the underlying regulation mechanism. RNA interfering was performed to silence Anxa5 in Hca-F. Monoclonal shRNA-Anxa5- Hca-F cells were obtained via G418 screening by limited dilution method. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting (WB) were applied to measure Anxa5 expression levels. CCK-8, Boyden transwell-chamber and in situ LN adhesion assays were performed to explore the effects of Anxa5 on the proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion capacities of Hca-F. WB and qRT-PCR were used to detect the level changes of key molecules in corresponding signal pathways. We obtained two monoclonal shRNA-Anxa5-transfected Hca-F cell lines with stable knockdowns of Anxa5. Anxa5 knockdown resulted in significantly reduced proliferation, migration, invasion and in situ LN adhesion potentials of Hca-F in proportion to its knockdown extent. Anxa5 downregulation enhanced E-cadherin levels in Hca-F. Moreover, Anxa5 affected Hca-F behaviours specifically via ERK2/p-ERK2/c-Jun/p-c-Jun(Ser73) instead of p38MAPK/c-Jun, Jnk/c-Jun and AKT/c-Jun pathways. Anxa5 mediates the in vitro malignant behaviours of murine hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cells via ERK2/c-Jun/p-c-Jun(Ser73) and ERK2/E-cadherin pathways. It is an important molecule in metastasis (especially LNM) and a potential therapeutic target for hepatocarcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Codon usage and amino acid usage influence genes expression level.

    PubMed

    Paul, Prosenjit; Malakar, Arup Kumar; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-02-01

    Highly expressed genes in any species differ in the usage frequency of synonymous codons. The relative recurrence of an event of the favored codon pair (amino acid pairs) varies between gene and genomes due to varying gene expression and different base composition. Here we propose a new measure for predicting the gene expression level, i.e., codon plus amino bias index (CABI). Our approach is based on the relative bias of the favored codon pair inclination among the genes, illustrated by analyzing the CABI score of the Medicago truncatula genes. CABI showed strong correlation with all other widely used measures (CAI, RCBS, SCUO) for gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, CABI outperforms all other measures by showing better correlation with the wet-lab data. This emphasizes the importance of the neighboring codons of the favored codon in a synonymous group while estimating the expression level of a gene.

  3. Evaluating Fumonisin Gene Expression in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Visentin, Ivan; Cardinale, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Transcript levels of key genes in a biosynthetic pathway are often taken as a proxy for metabolite production. This is the case of FUM1, encoding the first dedicated enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading to the production of the mycotoxins Fumonisins by fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium. FUM1 expression can be quantified by different methods; here, we detail a protocol based on quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), by which relative or absolute transcript abundance can be estimated in Fusaria grown in vitro or in planta. As very seldom commercial kits for RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis are optimized for fungal samples, we developed a protocol tailored for these organisms, which stands alone but can be also easily integrated with specific reagents and kits commercially available.

  4. Peak flood estimation using gene expression programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorn, Conrad R.; Shamseldin, Asaad Y.

    2015-12-01

    As a case study for the Auckland Region of New Zealand, this paper investigates the potential use of gene-expression programming (GEP) in predicting specific return period events in comparison to the established and widely used Regional Flood Estimation (RFE) method. Initially calibrated to 14 gauged sites, the GEP derived model was further validated to 10 and 100 year flood events with a relative errors of 29% and 18%, respectively. This is compared to the RFE method providing 48% and 44% errors for the same flood events. While the effectiveness of GEP in predicting specific return period events is made apparent, it is argued that the derived equations should be used in conjunction with those existing methodologies rather than as a replacement.

  5. RNA-Seq for Bacterial Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Vinther, Jeppe

    2018-06-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has become the preferred method for global quantification of bacterial gene expression. With the continued improvements in sequencing technology and data analysis tools, the most labor-intensive and expensive part of an RNA-seq experiment is the preparation of sequencing libraries, which is also essential for the quality of the data obtained. Here, we present a straightforward and inexpensive basic protocol for preparation of strand-specific RNA-seq libraries from bacterial RNA as well as a computational pipeline for the data analysis of sequencing reads. The protocol is based on the Illumina platform and allows easy multiplexing of samples and the removal of sequencing reads that are PCR duplicates. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Conditional deletion of MSX homeobox genes in the uterus inhibits blastocyst implantation by altering uterine receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Daikoku, Takiko; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Tranguch, Susanne; Xie, Huirong; Fujita, Tomoko; Hirota, Yasushi; Lydon, John; DeMayo, Francesco; Maxson, Robert; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2011-01-01

    An effective bidirectional communication between an implantation-competent blastocyst and the receptive uterus is a prerequisite for mammalian reproduction. The blastocyst will implant only when this molecular cross-talk is established. Here we show that the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msh) family members Msx1 and Msx2, which are two highly conserved genes critical for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during development, also play crucial roles in embryo implantation. Loss of Msx1/Msx2 expression correlates with altered uterine luminal epithelial cell polarity and affects E-cadherin/β-catenin complex formation through the control of Wnt5a expression. Application of Wnt5a in vitro compromised blastocyst invasion and trophoblast outgrowth on cultured uterine epithelial cells. The finding that Msx1/Msx2 genes are critical for conferring uterine receptivity and readiness to implantation could have clinical significance, because compromised uterine receptivity is a major cause of pregnancy failure in IVF programs. PMID:22100262

  7. Evolution under monogamy feminizes gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Brian; Houle, David; Yan, Zheng; Kawecki, Tadeusz J; Keller, Laurent

    2014-03-18

    Many genes have evolved sexually dimorphic expression as a consequence of divergent selection on males and females. However, because the sexes share a genome, the extent to which evolution can shape gene expression independently in each sex is controversial. Here, we use experimental evolution to reveal suboptimal sex-specific expression for much of the genome. By enforcing a monogamous mating system in populations of Drosophila melanogaster for over 100 generations, we eliminated major components of selection on males: female choice and male-male competition. If gene expression is subject to sexually antagonistic selection, relaxed selection on males should cause evolution towards female optima. Monogamous males and females show this pattern of feminization in both the whole-body and head transcriptomes. Genes with male-biased expression patterns evolved decreased expression under monogamy, while genes with female-biased expression evolved increased expression, relative to polygamous populations. Our results demonstrate persistent and widespread evolutionary tension between male and female adaptation.

  8. The metastasis-associated gene MTA3, a component of the Mi-2/NuRD transcriptional repression complex, predicts prognosis of gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongmei; Guo, Hong; Xie, Liangxi; Wang, Geng; Zhong, Xueyun; Khoury, Thaer; Tan, Dongfeng; Zhang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma carries a poor prognosis that is largely attributable to early and frequent metastasis. The acquisition of metastatic potential in cancer involves epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The metastasis-associated gene MTA3, a novel component of the Mi-2/NuRD transcriptional repression complex, was identified as master regulator of EMT through inhibition of Snail to increase E-cadherin expression in breast cancer. Here, we evaluated the expression pattern of the components of MTA3 pathway and the corresponding prognostic significance in GEJ adenocarcinoma. MTA3 expression was decreased at both protein and mRNA levels in tumor tissues compared to the non-tumorous and lowed MTA3 levels were noted in tumor cell lines with stronger metastatic potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of a cohort of 128 cases exhibited that patients with lower expression of MTA3 had poorer outcomes. Combined misexpression of MTA3, Snail and E-cadherin had stronger correlation with malignant properties. Collectively, results suggest that the MTA3-regulated EMT pathway is altered to favor EMT and, therefore, disease progression and that MTA3 expression was an independent prognostic factor in patients with GEJ adenocarcinoma.

  9. Reference genes for measuring mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Dundas, Jitesh; Ling, Maurice

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this review is to find answers to some of the questions surrounding reference genes and their reliability for quantitative experiments. Reference genes are assumed to be at a constant expression level, over a range of conditions such as temperature. These genes, such as GADPH and beta-actin, are used extensively for gene expression studies using techniques like quantitative PCR. There have been several studies carried out on identifying reference genes. However, a lot of evidence indicates issues to the general suitability of these genes. Recent studies had shown that different factors, including the environment and methods, play an important role in changing the expression levels of the reference genes. Thus, we conclude that there is no reference gene that can deemed suitable for all the experimental conditions. In addition, we believe that every experiment will require the scientific evaluation and selection of the best candidate gene for use as a reference gene to obtain reliable scientific results.

  10. Monoallelic expression of the human FOXP2 speech gene

    PubMed Central

    Adegbola, Abidemi A.; Cox, Gerald F.; Bradshaw, Elizabeth M.; Hafler, David A.; Gimelbrant, Alexander; Chess, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The recent descriptions of widespread random monoallelic expression (RMAE) of genes distributed throughout the autosomal genome indicate that there are more genes subject to RMAE on autosomes than the number of genes on the X chromosome where X-inactivation dictates RMAE of X-linked genes. Several of the autosomal genes that undergo RMAE have independently been implicated in human Mendelian disorders. Thus, parsing the relationship between allele-specific expression of these genes and disease is of interest. Mutations in the human forkhead box P2 gene, FOXP2, cause developmental verbal dyspraxia with profound speech and language deficits. Here, we show that the human FOXP2 gene undergoes RMAE. Studying an individual with developmental verbal dyspraxia, we identify a deletion 3 Mb away from the FOXP2 gene, which impacts FOXP2 gene expression in cis. Together these data suggest the intriguing possibility that RMAE impacts the haploinsufficiency phenotypes observed for FOXP2 mutations. PMID:25422445

  11. Monoallelic expression of the human FOXP2 speech gene.

    PubMed

    Adegbola, Abidemi A; Cox, Gerald F; Bradshaw, Elizabeth M; Hafler, David A; Gimelbrant, Alexander; Chess, Andrew

    2015-06-02

    The recent descriptions of widespread random monoallelic expression (RMAE) of genes distributed throughout the autosomal genome indicate that there are more genes subject to RMAE on autosomes than the number of genes on the X chromosome where X-inactivation dictates RMAE of X-linked genes. Several of the autosomal genes that undergo RMAE have independently been implicated in human Mendelian disorders. Thus, parsing the relationship between allele-specific expression of these genes and disease is of interest. Mutations in the human forkhead box P2 gene, FOXP2, cause developmental verbal dyspraxia with profound speech and language deficits. Here, we show that the human FOXP2 gene undergoes RMAE. Studying an individual with developmental verbal dyspraxia, we identify a deletion 3 Mb away from the FOXP2 gene, which impacts FOXP2 gene expression in cis. Together these data suggest the intriguing possibility that RMAE impacts the haploinsufficiency phenotypes observed for FOXP2 mutations.

  12. Validating internal controls for quantitative plant gene expression studies

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Amy M; Yakovlev, Igor A; Strauss, Steven H

    2004-01-01

    Background Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) has greatly improved the ease and sensitivity of quantitative gene expression studies. However, accurate measurement of gene expression with this method relies on the choice of a valid reference for data normalization. Studies rarely verify that gene expression levels for reference genes are adequately consistent among the samples used, nor compare alternative genes to assess which are most reliable for the experimental conditions analyzed. Results Using real-time RT-PCR to study the expression of 10 poplar (genus Populus) housekeeping genes, we demonstrate a simple method for determining the degree of stability of gene expression over a set of experimental conditions. Based on a traditional method for analyzing the stability of varieties in plant breeding, it defines measures of gene expression stability from analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression. We found that the potential internal control genes differed widely in their expression stability over the different tissues, developmental stages and environmental conditions studied. Conclusion Our results support that quantitative comparisons of candidate reference genes are an important part of real-time RT-PCR studies that seek to precisely evaluate variation in gene expression. The method we demonstrated facilitates statistical and graphical evaluation of gene expression stability. Selection of the best reference gene for a given set of experimental conditions should enable detection of biologically significant changes in gene expression that are too small to be revealed by less precise methods, or when highly variable reference genes are unknowingly used in real-time RT-PCR experiments. PMID:15317655

  13. Validating internal controls for quantitative plant gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Amy M; Yakovlev, Igor A; Strauss, Steven H

    2004-08-18

    Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) has greatly improved the ease and sensitivity of quantitative gene expression studies. However, accurate measurement of gene expression with this method relies on the choice of a valid reference for data normalization. Studies rarely verify that gene expression levels for reference genes are adequately consistent among the samples used, nor compare alternative genes to assess which are most reliable for the experimental conditions analyzed. Using real-time RT-PCR to study the expression of 10 poplar (genus Populus) housekeeping genes, we demonstrate a simple method for determining the degree of stability of gene expression over a set of experimental conditions. Based on a traditional method for analyzing the stability of varieties in plant breeding, it defines measures of gene expression stability from analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression. We found that the potential internal control genes differed widely in their expression stability over the different tissues, developmental stages and environmental conditions studied. Our results support that quantitative comparisons of candidate reference genes are an important part of real-time RT-PCR studies that seek to precisely evaluate variation in gene expression. The method we demonstrated facilitates statistical and graphical evaluation of gene expression stability. Selection of the best reference gene for a given set of experimental conditions should enable detection of biologically significant changes in gene expression that are too small to be revealed by less precise methods, or when highly variable reference genes are unknowingly used in real-time RT-PCR experiments.

  14. Gene Expression Profiling in Pachyonychia Congenita Skin

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu-An; Hickerson, Robyn P.; Seegmiller, Brandon L.; Grapov, Dmitry; Gross, Maren M.; Bessette, Marc R.; Phinney, Brett S.; Flores, Manuel A.; Speaker, Tycho J.; Vermeulen, Annaleen; Bravo, Albert A.; Bruckner, Anna L.; Milstone, Leonard M.; Schwartz, Mary E.; Rice, Robert H.; Kaspar, Roger L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a skin disorder resulting from mutations in keratin (K) proteins including K6a, K6b, K16, and K17. One of the major symptoms is painful plantar keratoderma. The pathogenic sequelae resulting from the keratin mutations remain unclear. Objective To better understand PC pathogenesis. Methods RNA profiling was performed on biopsies taken from PC-involved and uninvolved plantar skin of seven genotyped PC patients (two K6a, one K6b, three K16, and one K17) as well as from control volunteers. Protein profiling was generated from tape-stripping samples. Results A comparison of PC-involved skin biopsies to adjacent uninvolved plantar skin identified 112 differentially-expressed mRNAs common to patient groups harboring K6 (i.e., both K6a and K6b) and K16 mutations. Among these mRNAs, 25 encode structural proteins including keratins, small proline-rich and late cornified envelope proteins, 20 are related to metabolism and 16 encode proteases, peptidases, and their inhibitors including kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs), and serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs). mRNAs were also identified to be differentially expressed only in K6 (81) or K16 (141) patient samples. Furthermore, 13 mRNAs were identified that may be involved in pain including nociception and neuropathy. Protein profiling, comparing three K6a plantar tape-stripping samples to non-PC controls, showed changes in the PC corneocytes similar, but not identical, to the mRNA analysis. Conclusion Many differentially-expressed genes identified in PC-involved skin encode components critical for skin barrier homeostasis including keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, cornification, and desquamation. The profiling data provide a foundation for unraveling the pathogenesis of PC and identifying targets for developing effective PC therapeutics. PMID:25656049

  15. Using RNA-Seq data to select refence genes for normalizing gene expression in apple roots

    Gene expression in apple roots in response to various stress conditions is a less-explored research subject. Reliable reference genes for normalizing quantitative gene expression data have not been carefully investigated. In this study, the suitability of a set of 15 apple genes were evaluated for t...

  16. High expression of P-cadherin is significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Imai, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Masashi; Takasaki, Chihiro; Ishibashi, Hironori; Okubo, Kenichi

    2018-04-01

    Placental (P)-cadherin expression is associated with malignant phenotype of cancer cell. The loss of E-cadherin has been thought to play a key role in tumor progression in several cancers. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of P-cadherin expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC patients (n = 172) were enrolled in this study; among them, 107 harbored adenocarcinomas, and 65 had squamous cell carcinomas. We examined P-cadherin and E-cadherin expression by immunohistochemical analysis and assessed the associations between each cadherin expression and both cadherin expression patterns with clinicopathological factors and prognosis. To investigate the pathway to acquire tumor progression associated with P-cadherin and E-cadherin, we examined p120 catenin localization by immunohistochemical analysis. High P-cadherin expression was significantly associated with lymphatic metastasis, pathological stage, and Ki-67 proliferation index (P < .05, respectively). Low E-cadherin expression was significantly associated with maximum standardized uptake value, lymphatic metastasis, and pathological stage (P < .05, respectively). The cytoplasmic p120 catenin localization was associated with the low E-cadherin and high P-cadherin expression group (P < .001). High P-cadherin expression was associated with shorter disease-free survival (P = .044) and shorter overall survival (OS; P = .044). The low E-cadherin and high P-cadherin expression group was associated with shorter OS (P = .024). High P-cadherin expression was associated with tumor progression and poor patient survival in NSCLC. In these patients, the low E-cadherin expression might be associated with tumor progression involving cytoplasmic p120 catenin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Discovering causal signaling pathways through gene-expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Jignesh R.; Klinger, Bertram; Xia, Yu; Marto, Jarrod A.; Blüthgen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput gene-expression studies result in lists of differentially expressed genes. Most current meta-analyses of these gene lists include searching for significant membership of the translated proteins in various signaling pathways. However, such membership enrichment algorithms do not provide insight into which pathways caused the genes to be differentially expressed in the first place. Here, we present an intuitive approach for discovering upstream signaling pathways responsible for regulating these differentially expressed genes. We identify consistently regulated signature genes specific for signal transduction pathways from a panel of single-pathway perturbation experiments. An algorithm that detects overrepresentation of these signature genes in a gene group of interest is used to infer the signaling pathway responsible for regulation. We expose our novel resource and algorithm through a web server called SPEED: Signaling Pathway Enrichment using Experimental Data sets. SPEED can be freely accessed at http://speed.sys-bio.net/. PMID:20494976

  18. [Differential expression genes of bone tissues surrounding implants in diabetic rats by gene chip].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-xin; Ma, Yue; Li, Qing; Jiang, Bao-qi; Lan, Jing

    2012-10-01

    To compare mRNA expression profiles of bone tissues surrounding implants between normal rats and rats with diabetes using microarray technology. Six Wistar rats were randomly selected and divided into normal model group and diabetic group. Diabetic model condition was established by injecting Streptozotocin into peritoneal space. Titanium implants were implanted into the epiphyseal end of the rats' tibia. Bone tissues surrounding implant were harvested and sampled after 3 months to perform comprehensive RNA gene expression profiling, including 17983 for genome-wide association study.GO analysis was used to compare different gene expression and real-time PCR was used to confirm the results on core samples. The results indicated that there were 1084 differential gene expression. In the diabetic model, there were 352 enhanced expression genes, 732 suppressed expression genes. GO analysis involved 1154 different functional type. Osteoblast related gene expressions in bone tissue samples of diabetic rats were decreased, and lipid metabolism pathway related gene expression was increased.

  19. Mechanical Unloading of Mouse Bone in Microgravity Significantly Alters Cell Cycle Gene Set Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, Elizabeth; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo; Kaplan, Warren; Burns, Brnedan

    2012-07-01

    unloading in spaceflight, we conducted genome wide microarray analysis of total RNA isolated from the mouse pelvis. Specifically, 16 week old mice were subjected to 15 days spaceflight onboard NASA's STS-131 space shuttle mission. The pelvis of the mice was dissected, the bone marrow was flushed and the bones were briefly stored in RNAlater. The pelvii were then homogenized, and RNA was isolated using TRIzol. RNA concentration and quality was measured using a Nanodrop spectrometer, and 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis. Samples of cDNA were analyzed using an Affymetrix GeneChip\\S Gene 1.0 ST (Sense Target) Array System for Mouse and GenePattern Software. We normalized the ST gene arrays using Robust Multichip Average (RMA) normalization, which summarizes perfectly matched spots on the array through the median polish algorithm, rather than normalizing according to mismatched spots. We also used Limma for statistical analysis, using the BioConductor Limma Library by Gordon Smyth, and differential expression analysis to identify genes with significant changes in expression between the two experimental conditions. Finally we used GSEApreRanked for Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), with Kolmogorov-Smirnov style statistics to identify groups of genes that are regulated together using the t-statistics derived from Limma. Preliminary results show that 6,603 genes expressed in pelvic bone had statistically significant alterations in spaceflight compared to ground controls. These prominently included cell cycle arrest molecules p21, and p18, cell survival molecule Crbp1, and cell cycle molecules cyclin D1, and Cdk1. Additionally, GSEA results indicated alterations in molecular targets of cyclin D1 and Cdk4, senescence pathways resulting from abnormal laminin maturation, cell-cell contacts via E-cadherin, and several pathways relating to protein translation and metabolism. In total 111 gene sets out of 2,488, about 4%, showed statistically significant set alterations. These

  20. GSEH: A Novel Approach to Select Prostate Cancer-Associated Genes Using Gene Expression Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjin; Choi, Sang-Min; Park, Sanghyun

    2018-01-01

    When a gene shows varying levels of expression among normal people but similar levels in disease patients or shows similar levels of expression among normal people but different levels in disease patients, we can assume that the gene is associated with the disease. By utilizing this gene expression heterogeneity, we can obtain additional information that abets discovery of disease-associated genes. In this study, we used collaborative filtering to calculate the degree of gene expression heterogeneity between classes and then scored the genes on the basis of the degree of gene expression heterogeneity to find "differentially predicted" genes. Through the proposed method, we discovered more prostate cancer-associated genes than 10 comparable methods. The genes prioritized by the proposed method are potentially significant to biological processes of a disease and can provide insight into them.

  1. Automated Discovery of Functional Generality of Human Gene Expression Programs

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Georg K; Dowell, Robin D; Jaakkola, Tommi S; Gifford, David K

    2007-01-01

    An important research problem in computational biology is the identification of expression programs, sets of co-expressed genes orchestrating normal or pathological processes, and the characterization of the functional breadth of these programs. The use of human expression data compendia for discovery of such programs presents several challenges including cellular inhomogeneity within samples, genetic and environmental variation across samples, uncertainty in the numbers of programs and sample populations, and temporal behavior. We developed GeneProgram, a new unsupervised computational framework based on Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes that addresses each of the above challenges. GeneProgram uses expression data to simultaneously organize tissues into groups and genes into overlapping programs with consistent temporal behavior, to produce maps of expression programs, which are sorted by generality scores that exploit the automatically learned groupings. Using synthetic and real gene expression data, we showed that GeneProgram outperformed several popular expression analysis methods. We applied GeneProgram to a compendium of 62 short time-series gene expression datasets exploring the responses of human cells to infectious agents and immune-modulating molecules. GeneProgram produced a map of 104 expression programs, a substantial number of which were significantly enriched for genes involved in key signaling pathways and/or bound by NF-κB transcription factors in genome-wide experiments. Further, GeneProgram discovered expression programs that appear to implicate surprising signaling pathways or receptor types in the response to infection, including Wnt signaling and neurotransmitter receptors. We believe the discovered map of expression programs involved in the response to infection will be useful for guiding future biological experiments; genes from programs with low generality scores might serve as new drug targets that exhibit minimal “cross-talk,” and

  2. Carcinogen-induced trans activation of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinberger, T; Flint, Y B; Blank, M; Etkin, S; Lavi, S

    1988-01-01

    We report a new mechanism of carcinogen action by which the expression of several genes was concomitantly enhanced. This mechanism involved the altered activity of cellular factors which modulate the expression of genes under their control. The increased expression was regulated at least in part on the transcriptional level and did not require amplification of the overexpressed genes. This phenomenon was transient; it was apparent as early as 24 h after carcinogen treatment and declined a few days later. Images PMID:2835673

  3. Clustering cancer gene expression data by projective clustering ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xianxue; Yu, Guoxian

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression data analysis has paramount implications for gene treatments, cancer diagnosis and other domains. Clustering is an important and promising tool to analyze gene expression data. Gene expression data is often characterized by a large amount of genes but with limited samples, thus various projective clustering techniques and ensemble techniques have been suggested to combat with these challenges. However, it is rather challenging to synergy these two kinds of techniques together to avoid the curse of dimensionality problem and to boost the performance of gene expression data clustering. In this paper, we employ a projective clustering ensemble (PCE) to integrate the advantages of projective clustering and ensemble clustering, and to avoid the dilemma of combining multiple projective clusterings. Our experimental results on publicly available cancer gene expression data show PCE can improve the quality of clustering gene expression data by at least 4.5% (on average) than other related techniques, including dimensionality reduction based single clustering and ensemble approaches. The empirical study demonstrates that, to further boost the performance of clustering cancer gene expression data, it is necessary and promising to synergy projective clustering with ensemble clustering. PCE can serve as an effective alternative technique for clustering gene expression data. PMID:28234920

  4. Partitioning of functional gene expression data using principal points.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehee; Kim, Haseong

    2017-10-12

    DNA microarrays offer motivation and hope for the simultaneous study of variations in multiple genes. Gene expression is a temporal process that allows variations in expression levels with a characterized gene function over a period of time. Temporal gene expression curves can be treated as functional data since they are considered as independent realizations of a stochastic process. This process requires appropriate models to identify patterns of gene functions. The partitioning of the functional data can find homogeneous subgroups of entities for the massive genes within the inherent biological networks. Therefor it can be a useful technique for the analysis of time-course gene expression data. We propose a new self-consistent partitioning method of functional coefficients for individual expression profiles based on the orthonormal basis system. A principal points based functional partitioning method is proposed for time-course gene expression data. The method explores the relationship between genes using Legendre coefficients as principal points to extract the features of gene functions. Our proposed method provides high connectivity in connectedness after clustering for simulated data and finds a significant subsets of genes with the increased connectivity. Our approach has comparative advantages that fewer coefficients are used from the functional data and self-consistency of principal points for partitioning. As real data applications, we are able to find partitioned genes through the gene expressions found in budding yeast data and Escherichia coli data. The proposed method benefitted from the use of principal points, dimension reduction, and choice of orthogonal basis system as well as provides appropriately connected genes in the resulting subsets. We illustrate our method by applying with each set of cell-cycle-regulated time-course yeast genes and E. coli genes. The proposed method is able to identify highly connected genes and to explore the complex

  5. The complexity of gene expression dynamics revealed by permutation entropy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High complexity is considered a hallmark of living systems. Here we investigate the complexity of temporal gene expression patterns using the concept of Permutation Entropy (PE) first introduced in dynamical systems theory. The analysis of gene expression data has so far focused primarily on the identification of differentially expressed genes, or on the elucidation of pathway and regulatory relationships. We aim to study gene expression time series data from the viewpoint of complexity. Results Applying the PE complexity metric to abiotic stress response time series data in Arabidopsis thaliana, genes involved in stress response and signaling were found to be associated with the highest complexity not only under stress, but surprisingly, also under reference, non-stress conditions. Genes with house-keeping functions exhibited lower PE complexity. Compared to reference conditions, the PE of temporal gene expression patterns generally increased upon stress exposure. High-complexity genes were found to have longer upstream intergenic regions and more cis-regulatory motifs in their promoter regions indicative of a more complex regulatory apparatus needed to orchestrate their expression, and to be associated with higher correlation network connectivity degree. Arabidopsis genes also present in other plant species were observed to exhibit decreased PE complexity compared to Arabidopsis specific genes. Conclusions We show that Permutation Entropy is a simple yet robust and powerful approach to identify temporal gene expression profiles of varying complexity that is equally applicable to other types of molecular profile data. PMID:21176199

  6. Changes in Gene Expression with Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Thimgan, Matthew S.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Shaw, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    There is general agreement within the sleep community and among public health officials of the need for an accessible biomarker of sleepiness. As the foregoing discussions emphasize, however, it may be more difficult to reach consensus on how to define such a biomarker than to identify candidate molecules that can be then evaluated to determine if they might be useful to solve a variety of real-world problems related to insufficient sleep. With that in mind, a goal of our laboratories has been to develop a rational strategy to expedite the identification of candidate biomarkers. 1 We began with the assumption that since both the genetic and environmental context of a gene can influence its behavior, an effective test of sleep loss will likely be composed of a panel of multiple biomarkers. That is, we believe that it is premature to exclude a candidate analyte simply because it might also be modulated in response to other conditions (e.g., illness, metabolism, sympathetic tone, etc.). Our next assumption was that an easily accessible biomarker would be more useful in real-world settings. Thus, we have focused on saliva, as opposed to urine or blood, as a rich source of biological analytes that can be mined to optimize the chances of bringing a biomarker out into the field. Finally, we recognize that conducting validation studies in humans can be expensive and time consuming. Thus, we have exploited genetic and pharmacological tools in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster to more fully characterize the behavior of the most exciting candidate biomarkers. Citation: Thimgan MS; Duntley SP; Shaw PJ. Changes in gene expression with sleep. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(5):Supplement S26-S27. PMID:22003326

  7. Transient, Inducible, Placenta-Specific Gene Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiujun; Petitt, Matthew; Gamboa, Matthew; Huang, Mei; Dhal, Sabita; Druzin, Maurice L.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular understanding of placental functions and pregnancy disorders is limited by the absence of methods for placenta-specific gene manipulation. Although persistent placenta-specific gene expression has been achieved by lentivirus-based gene delivery methods, developmentally and physiologically important placental genes have highly stage-specific functions, requiring controllable, transient expression systems for functional analysis. Here, we describe an inducible, placenta-specific gene expression system that enables high-level, transient transgene expression and monitoring of gene expression by live bioluminescence imaging in mouse placenta at different stages of pregnancy. We used the third generation tetracycline-responsive tranactivator protein Tet-On 3G, with 10- to 100-fold increased sensitivity to doxycycline (Dox) compared with previous versions, enabling unusually sensitive on-off control of gene expression in vivo. Transgenic mice expressing Tet-On 3G were created using a new integrase-based, site-specific approach, yielding high-level transgene expression driven by a ubiquitous promoter. Blastocysts from these mice were transduced with the Tet-On 3G-response element promoter-driving firefly luciferase using lentivirus-mediated placenta-specific gene delivery and transferred into wild-type pseudopregnant recipients for placenta-specific, Dox-inducible gene expression. Systemic Dox administration at various time points during pregnancy led to transient, placenta-specific firefly luciferase expression as early as d 5 of pregnancy in a Dox dose-dependent manner. This system enables, for the first time, reliable pregnancy stage-specific induction of gene expression in the placenta and live monitoring of gene expression during pregnancy. It will be widely applicable to studies of both placental development and pregnancy, and the site-specific Tet-On G3 mouse will be valuable for studies in a broad range of tissues. PMID:23011919

  8. Gene and enhancer trap tagging of vascular-expressed genes in poplar trees

    Andrew Groover; Joseph R. Fontana; Gayle Dupper; Caiping Ma; Robert Martienssen; Steven Strauss; Richard Meilan

    2004-01-01

    We report a gene discovery system for poplar trees based on gene and enhancer traps. Gene and enhancer trap vectors carrying the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were inserted into the poplar genome via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation, where they reveal the expression pattern of genes at or near the insertion sites. Because GUS...

  9. Faster-X Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Richard P.; Malone, John H.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequences on X chromosomes often have a faster rate of evolution when compared to similar loci on the autosomes, and well articulated models provide reasons why the X-linked mode of inheritance may be responsible for the faster evolution of X-linked genes. We analyzed microarray and RNA–seq data collected from females and males of six Drosophila species and found that the expression levels of X-linked genes also diverge faster than autosomal gene expression, similar to the “faster-X” effect often observed in DNA sequence evolution. Faster-X evolution of gene expression was recently described in mammals, but it was limited to the evolutionary lineages shortly following the creation of the therian X chromosome. In contrast, we detect a faster-X effect along both deep lineages and those on the tips of the Drosophila phylogeny. In Drosophila males, the dosage compensation complex (DCC) binds the X chromosome, creating a unique chromatin environment that promotes the hyper-expression of X-linked genes. We find that DCC binding, chromatin environment, and breadth of expression are all predictive of the rate of gene expression evolution. In addition, estimates of the intraspecific genetic polymorphism underlying gene expression variation suggest that X-linked expression levels are not under relaxed selective constraints. We therefore hypothesize that the faster-X evolution of gene expression is the result of the adaptive fixation of beneficial mutations at X-linked loci that change expression level in cis. This adaptive faster-X evolution of gene expression is limited to genes that are narrowly expressed in a single tissue, suggesting that relaxed pleiotropic constraints permit a faster response to selection. Finally, we present a conceptional framework to explain faster-X expression evolution, and we use this framework to examine differences in the faster-X effect between Drosophila and mammals. PMID:23071459

  10. Cell cycle gene expression under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) are main regulators of the cell cycle of eukaryotes. It's assumes a significant change of their level in cells under microgravity conditions and by other physical factors actions. The clinorotation use enables to determine the influence of gravity on simulated events in the cell during the cell cycle - exit from the state of quiet stage and promotion presynthetic phase (G1) and DNA synthesis phase (S) of the cell cycle. For the clinorotation effect study on cell proliferation activity is the necessary studies of molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation and development of plants under altered gravity condition. The activity of cyclin D, which is responsible for the events of the cell cycle in presynthetic phase can be controlled by the action of endogenous as well as exogenous factors, but clinorotation is one of the factors that influence on genes expression that regulate the cell cycle.These data can be used as a model for further research of cyclin - CDK complex for study of molecular mechanisms regulation of growth and proliferation. In this investigation we tried to summarize and analyze known literature and own data we obtained relatively the main regulators of the cell cycle in altered gravity condition.

  11. Diatoms morphology and gene expression in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iudicone, D.; Amato, A.; Ferrante, M. I.; Ribera, M.

    2016-02-01

    Diatoms are an ecologically important algal group that prospers in turbulent environments. Despite previous efforts, a general scenario that explains mesocosm and in situ observations is missing. Importantly, according to the present theories, the main effect of microscale turbulence is the increase of nutrient uptake efficiency in nutrient-depleted conditions and for very large cells. We will present evidences from laboratory experiments in nutrient-repleted conditions that chain-forming diatoms sense and respond to turbulence by varying their chain length spectra and tuning their metabolism. Further, we compared growth and gene expressions of small-sized cells in turbulent and in still conditions and found that turbulence sensing activates a series of pathways suggesting a partial metabolic switch in response to agitation. In addition, a long-time exposure experiment showed that when silicates become depleted these same diatoms take up other nutrients differently than in still condition. This implies that in natural environment prolonged turbulence would shape the phytoplankton community structure and succession.

  12. 5-Lipoxygenase gene expression in the thymus.

    PubMed

    Hostein, I; Dorion-Bonnet, F; Bloch, B; Vaillier, D; Juzan, M; Gualde, N

    1992-09-01

    Eicosanoids are arachidonic acid metabolites issued both the cyclooxygenase and the lipoxygenase pathways. Many of these products were reported to modulate the immune response. Since most of eicosanoids have a short half life they are considered as local immunomodulators. Interactions between eicosanoids and thymocytes appear to be complex within the thymus. It was reported that cyclooxegenase derivatives of arachidonic acid are produced in this primary lymphoid organ mostly by cells of the thymic microenvironment. On the other hand it is not yet clearly established (1) what is the location of the lipoxygenase-positive cells within the gland and (2) what is the ratio of cells producing lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid when compared to the whole thymocyte population. Using two oligonucleotides complementary to the rat 5-lipoxygenase mRNA we demonstrated (by both hybridization on Northern blots and in situ hybridization) the expression of the 5-lipoxygenase gene in the thymus. 5-lipoxygenase positive cells appear to be associated in "clusters" and are mostly located in the thymic cortex. It is likely that they belong to the thymic microenvironment.

  13. Unstable Expression of Commonly Used Reference Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Kosinová, Lucie; Cahová, Monika; Fábryová, Eva; Týcová, Irena; Koblas, Tomáš; Leontovyč, Ivan; Saudek, František; Kříž, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable reference genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many commonly used reference genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate reference genes and one gene of interest (F3) in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most commonly used reference genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0-120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48-120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of reference genes. However, this method could provide reliable information from 48 hrs onwards.

  14. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - a fully automated, miniaturized instrument for measuring gene expression in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio; Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kianoosh

    2012-07-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecrafts opens the doors to a large number of experiments on the influence of space environment on biological systems that will profoundly impact our ability to conduct safe and effective space travel, and might also shed light on terrestrial physiology or biological function and human disease and aging processes. Measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, determine metabolic basis of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance, test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration, and monitor both the spacecraft environment and crew health. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology and medicine. Accordingly, supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measuring microbial expression of thousands of genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing it on a microarray and (4) providing electrochemical readout, all in a microfluidics cartridge. The prototype under development is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by the NASA Small Spacecraft Office. The first target application is to cultivate and measure gene expression of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, i.e. a cyanobacterium known to exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions

  15. GeneSigDB—a curated database of gene expression signatures

    PubMed Central

    Culhane, Aedín C.; Schwarzl, Thomas; Sultana, Razvan; Picard, Kermshlise C.; Picard, Shaita C.; Lu, Tim H.; Franklin, Katherine R.; French, Simon J.; Papenhausen, Gerald; Correll, Mick; Quackenbush, John

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of most gene expression studies is the identification of one or more gene signatures; lists of genes whose transcriptional levels are uniquely associated with a specific biological phenotype. Whilst thousands of experimentally derived gene signatures are published, their potential value to the community is limited by their computational inaccessibility. Gene signatures are embedded in published article figures, tables or in supplementary materials, and are frequently presented using non-standard gene or probeset nomenclature. We present GeneSigDB (http://compbio.dfci.harvard.edu/genesigdb) a manually curated database of gene expression signatures. GeneSigDB release 1.0 focuses on cancer and stem cells gene signatures and was constructed from more than 850 publications from which we manually transcribed 575 gene signatures. Most gene signatures (n = 560) were successfully mapped to the genome to extract standardized lists of EnsEMBL gene identifiers. GeneSigDB provides the original gene signature, the standardized gene list and a fully traceable gene mapping history for each gene from the original transcribed data table through to the standardized list of genes. The GeneSigDB web portal is easy to search, allows users to compare their own gene list to those in the database, and download gene signatures in most common gene identifier formats. PMID:19934259

  16. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns are altered during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Popp, Michael P.; Gurley, William B.; Guy, Charles; Norwood, Kelly L.; Ferl, Robert J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments results in differential gene expression. A 5-day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β-Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on gene expression patterns initially by using the Adh/GUS transgene to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response (Paul, A.L., Daugherty, C.J., Bihn, E.A., Chapman, D.K., Norwood, K.L., Ferl, R.J., 2001. Transgene expression patterns indicate that spaceflight affects stress signal perception and transduction in arabidopsis, Plant Physiol. 126, 613-621). As a follow-on to the reporter gene analysis, we report here the evaluation of genome-wide patterns of native gene expression within Arabidopsis shoots utilizing the Agilent DNA array of 21,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - Taqman®). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays probed with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to RNA isolated from ground control plants revealed 182 genes that were differentially expressed in response to the spaceflight mission by more than 4-fold, and of those only 50 genes were expressed at levels chosen to support a conservative change call. None of the genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were induced to this level. However, genes related to heat shock were dramatically induced - but in a pattern and under growth conditions that are not easily explained by elevated temperatures. These gene expression data are discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment and with regard to potential future spaceflight experiment

  17. The Role of Multiple Transcription Factors In Archaeal Gene Expression

    SciT

    Charles J. Daniels

    2008-09-23

    Since the inception of this research program, the project has focused on two central questions: What is the relationship between the 'eukaryal-like' transcription machinery of archaeal cells and its counterparts in eukaryal cells? And, how does the archaeal cell control gene expression using its mosaic of eukaryal core transcription machinery and its bacterial-like transcription regulatory proteins? During the grant period we have addressed these questions using a variety of in vivo approaches and have sought to specifically define the roles of the multiple TATA binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB-like (TFB) proteins in controlling gene expression in Haloferax volcanii. H. volcaniimore » was initially chosen as a model for the Archaea based on the availability of suitable genetic tools; however, later studies showed that all haloarchaea possessed multiple tbp and tfb genes, which led to the proposal that multiple TBP and TFB proteins may function in a manner similar to alternative sigma factors in bacterial cells. In vivo transcription and promoter analysis established a clear relationship between the promoter requirements of haloarchaeal genes and those of the eukaryal RNA polymerase II promoter. Studies on heat shock gene promoters, and the demonstration that specific tfb genes were induced by heat shock, provided the first indication that TFB proteins may direct expression of specific gene families. The construction of strains lacking tbp or tfb genes, coupled with the finding that many of these genes are differentially expressed under varying growth conditions, provided further support for this model. Genetic tools were also developed that led to the construction of insertion and deletion mutants, and a novel gene expression scheme was designed that allowed the controlled expression of these genes in vivo. More recent studies have used a whole genome array to examine the expression of these genes and we have established a linkage between the expression of

  18. Using differential gene expression to study Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, Carol A.; Petri, William A.

    2010-01-01

    The release of the Entamoeba histolytica genome has facilitated the development of techniques to survey rapidly and to relate gene expression with biology. The association and potential contribution of differential gene expression to the life cycle and the virulence of this protozoan parasite of humans are reviewed here. PMID:19217826

  19. An Exercise to Estimate Differential Gene Expression in Human Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, M. Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    The expression of genes in cells of various tissue types varies considerably and is correlated with the function of a particular organ. The pattern of gene expression changes in diseased tissues, in response to therapy or infection and exposure to environmental mutagens, chemicals, ultraviolet light, and ionizing radiation. To better understand…

  20. Gene expression in cerebral ischemia: a new approach for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Millán, Mónica; Arenillas, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is one of the strongest stimuli for gene induction in the brain. Hundreds of genes have been found to be induced by brain ischemia. Many genes are involved in neurodestructive functions such as excitotoxicity, inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis. However, cerebral ischemia is also a powerful reformatting and reprogramming stimulus for the brain through neuroprotective gene expression. Several genes may participate in both cellular responses. Thus, isolation of candidate genes for neuroprotection strategies and interpretation of expression changes have been proven difficult. Nevertheless, many studies are being carried out to improve the knowledge of the gene activation and protein expression following ischemic stroke, as well as in the development of new therapies that modify biochemical, molecular and genetic changes underlying cerebral ischemia. Owing to the complexity of the process involving numerous critical genes expressed differentially in time, space and concentration, ongoing therapeutic efforts should be based on multiple interventions at different levels. By modification of the acute gene expression induced by ischemia or the apoptotic gene program, gene therapy is a promising treatment but is still in a very experimental phase. Some hurdles will have to be overcome before these therapies can be introduced into human clinical stroke trials. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Direct Introduction of Genes into Rats and Expression of the Genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenisty, Nissim; Reshef, Lea

    1986-12-01

    A method of introducing actively expressed genes into intact mammals is described. DNA precipitated with calcium phosphate has been injected intraperitoneally into newborn rats. The injected genes have been taken up and expressed by the animal tissues. To examine the generality of the method we have injected newborn rats with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase prokaryotic gene fused with various viral and cellular gene promoters and the gene for hepatitis B surface antigen, and we observed appearance of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity and hepatitis B surface antigen in liver and spleen. In addition, administration of genes coding for hormones (insulin or growth hormone) resulted in their expression.

  2. Dimensionality of Data Matrices with Applications to Gene Expression Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Xingdong

    2009-01-01

    Probe-level microarray data are usually stored in matrices. Take a given probe set (gene), for example, each row of the matrix corresponds to an array, and each column corresponds to a probe. Often, people summarize each array by the gene expression level. Is one number sufficient to summarize a whole probe set for a specific gene in an array?…

  3. Evaluating the consistency of gene sets used in the analysis of bacterial gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Tintle, Nathan L; Sitarik, Alexandra; Boerema, Benjamin; Young, Kylie; Best, Aaron A; Dejongh, Matthew

    2012-08-08

    Statistical analyses of whole genome expression data require functional information about genes in order to yield meaningful biological conclusions. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) are common sources of functionally grouped gene sets. For bacteria, the SEED and MicrobesOnline provide alternative, complementary sources of gene sets. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the data obtained from these resources has been performed. We define a series of gene set consistency metrics directly related to the most common classes of statistical analyses for gene expression data, and then perform a comprehensive analysis of 3581 Affymetrix® gene expression arrays across 17 diverse bacteria. We find that gene sets obtained from GO and KEGG demonstrate lower consistency than those obtained from the SEED and MicrobesOnline, regardless of gene set size. Despite the widespread use of GO and KEGG gene sets in bacterial gene expression data analysis, the SEED and MicrobesOnline provide more consistent sets for a wide variety of statistical analyses. Increased use of the SEED and MicrobesOnline gene sets in the analysis of bacterial gene expression data may improve statistical power and utility of expression data.

  4. Rethinking cell-cycle-dependent gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    Three studies of gene expression during the division cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe led to the proposal that a large number of genes are expressed at particular times during the S. pombe cell cycle. Yet only a small fraction of genes proposed to be expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner are reproducible in all three published studies. In addition to reproducibility problems, questions about expression amplitudes, cell-cycle timing of expression, synchronization artifacts, and the problem with methods for synchronizing cells must be considered. These problems and complications prompt the idea that caution should be used before accepting the conclusion that there are a large number of genes expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner in S. pombe.

  5. Chamber Specific Gene Expression Landscape of the Zebrafish Heart

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Angom Ramcharan; Sivadas, Ambily; Sabharwal, Ankit; Vellarikal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Jayarajan, Rijith; Verma, Ankit; Kapoor, Shruti; Joshi, Adita; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    The organization of structure and function of cardiac chambers in vertebrates is defined by chamber-specific distinct gene expression. This peculiarity and uniqueness of the genetic signatures demonstrates functional resolution attributed to the different chambers of the heart. Altered expression of the cardiac chamber genes can lead to individual chamber related dysfunctions and disease patho-physiologies. Information on transcriptional repertoire of cardiac compartments is important to understand the spectrum of chamber specific anomalies. We have carried out a genome wide transcriptome profiling study of the three cardiac chambers in the zebrafish heart using RNA sequencing. We have captured the gene expression patterns of 13,396 protein coding genes in the three cardiac chambers—atrium, ventricle and bulbus arteriosus. Of these, 7,260 known protein coding genes are highly expressed (≥10 FPKM) in the zebrafish heart. Thus, this study represents nearly an all-inclusive information on the zebrafish cardiac transcriptome. In this study, a total of 96 differentially expressed genes across the three cardiac chambers in zebrafish were identified. The atrium, ventricle and bulbus arteriosus displayed 20, 32 and 44 uniquely expressing genes respectively. We validated the expression of predicted chamber-restricted genes using independent semi-quantitative and qualitative experimental techniques. In addition, we identified 23 putative novel protein coding genes that are specifically restricted to the ventricle and not in the atrium or bulbus arteriosus. In our knowledge, these 23 novel genes have either not been investigated in detail or are sparsely studied. The transcriptome identified in this study includes 68 differentially expressing zebrafish cardiac chamber genes that have a human ortholog. We also carried out spatiotemporal gene expression profiling of the 96 differentially expressed genes throughout the three cardiac chambers in 11 developmental stages and 6

  6. Dynamic changes in gene expression during human trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Handwerger, Stuart; Aronow, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    The genetic program that directs human placental differentiation is poorly understood. In a recent study, we used DNA microarray analyses to determine genes that are dynamically regulated during human placental development in an in vitro model system in which highly purified cytotrophoblast cells aggregate spontaneously and fuse to form a multinucleated syncytium that expresses placental lactogen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and other proteins normally expressed by fully differentiated syncytiotrophoblast cells. Of the 6918 genes present on the Incyte Human GEM V microarray that we analyzed over a 9-day period, 141 were induced and 256 were downregulated by more than 2-fold. The dynamically regulated genes fell into nine distinct kinetic patterns of induction or repression, as detected by the K-means algorithm. Classifying the genes according to functional characteristics, the regulated genes could be divided into six overall categories: cell and tissue structural dynamics, cell cycle and apoptosis, intercellular communication, metabolism, regulation of gene expression, and expressed sequence tags and function unknown. Gene expression changes within key functional categories were tightly coupled to the morphological changes that occurred during trophoblast differentiation. Within several key gene categories (e.g., cell and tissue structure), many genes were strongly activated, while others with related function were strongly repressed. These findings suggest that trophoblast differentiation is augmented by "categorical reprogramming" in which the ability of induced genes to function is enhanced by diminished synthesis of other genes within the same category. We also observed categorical reprogramming in human decidual fibroblasts decidualized in vitro in response to progesterone, estradiol, and cyclic AMP. While there was little overlap between genes that are dynamically regulated during trophoblast differentiation versus decidualization, many of the categories

  7. Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF- α genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW) cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. IL-10 gene expression was higher in the group of BW and Gyr cows with mastitis compared to animals free of infection from both breeds (p < 0.05). It was also higher in BW Holstein animals with clinical mastitis (p < 0.001), but it was not significant when Gyr cows with and without mastitis were compared (0.05 < p < 0.10). Among healthy cows, BW Holstein animals tended to present a higher expression of all genes studied, with a significant difference for the IL-2 and IFN- γ genes (p < 0.001). For animals with mastitis no significant difference in gene expression was observed between the two breeds. These findings suggest that animals with mastitis develop a preferentially cell-mediated immune response. Further studies including larger samples are necessary to better characterize the gene expression profile in cows with mastitis. PMID:21637453

  8. Magnetic field-controlled gene expression in encapsulated cells

    PubMed Central

    Ortner, Viktoria; Kaspar, Cornelius; Halter, Christian; Töllner, Lars; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Walzer, Johann; Günzburg, Walter H.; Dangerfield, John A.; Hohenadl, Christine; Czerny, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cell and gene therapies have an enormous range of potential applications, but as for most other therapies, dosing is a critical issue, which makes regulated gene expression a prerequisite for advanced strategies. Several inducible expression systems have been established, which mainly rely on small molecules as inducers, such as hormones or antibiotics. The application of these inducers is difficult to control and the effects on gene regulation are slow. Here we describe a novel system for induction of gene expression in encapsulated cells. This involves the modification of cells to express potential therapeutic genes under the control of a heat inducible promoter and the co-encapsulation of these cells with magnetic nanoparticles. These nanoparticles produce heat when subjected to an alternating magnetic field; the elevated temperatures in the capsules then induce gene expression. In the present study we define the parameters of such systems and provide proof-of-principle using reporter gene constructs. The fine-tuned heating of nanoparticles in the magnetic field allows regulation of gene expression from the outside over a broad range and within short time. Such a system has great potential for advancement of cell and gene therapy approaches. PMID:22197778

  9. Clustering Algorithms: Their Application to Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Oyelade, Jelili; Isewon, Itunuoluwa; Oladipupo, Funke; Aromolaran, Olufemi; Uwoghiren, Efosa; Ameh, Faridah; Achas, Moses; Adebiyi, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression data hide vital information required to understand the biological process that takes place in a particular organism in relation to its environment. Deciphering the hidden patterns in gene expression data proffers a prodigious preference to strengthen the understanding of functional genomics. The complexity of biological networks and the volume of genes present increase the challenges of comprehending and interpretation of the resulting mass of data, which consists of millions of measurements; these data also inhibit vagueness, imprecision, and noise. Therefore, the use of clustering techniques is a first step toward addressing these challenges, which is essential in the data mining process to reveal natural structures and identify interesting patterns in the underlying data. The clustering of gene expression data has been proven to be useful in making known the natural structure inherent in gene expression data, understanding gene functions, cellular processes, and subtypes of cells, mining useful information from noisy data, and understanding gene regulation. The other benefit of clustering gene expression data is the identification of homology, which is very important in vaccine design. This review examines the various clustering algorithms applicable to the gene expression data in order to discover and provide useful knowledge of the appropriate clustering technique that will guarantee stability and high degree of accuracy in its analysis procedure. PMID:27932867

  10. Transposon Variants and Their Effects on Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi; Weigel, Detlef; Smith, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) make up the majority of many plant genomes. Their transcription and transposition is controlled through siRNAs and epigenetic marks including DNA methylation. To dissect the interplay of siRNA–mediated regulation and TE evolution, and to examine how TE differences affect nearby gene expression, we investigated genome-wide differences in TEs, siRNAs, and gene expression among three Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. Both TE sequence polymorphisms and presence of linked TEs are positively correlated with intraspecific variation in gene expression. The expression of genes within 2 kb of conserved TEs is more stable than that of genes next to variant TEs harboring sequence polymorphisms. Polymorphism levels of TEs and closely linked adjacent genes are positively correlated as well. We also investigated the distribution of 24-nt-long siRNAs, which mediate TE repression. TEs targeted by uniquely mapping siRNAs are on average farther from coding genes, apparently because they more strongly suppress expression of adjacent genes. Furthermore, siRNAs, and especially uniquely mapping siRNAs, are enriched in TE regions missing in other accessions. Thus, targeting by uniquely mapping siRNAs appears to promote sequence deletions in TEs. Overall, our work indicates that siRNA–targeting of TEs may influence removal of sequences from the genome and hence evolution of gene expression in plants. PMID:23408902

  11. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  12. Decreased Expression of EHD2 Promotes Tumor Metastasis and Indicates Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxia; Ni, Wenkai; Qu, Lishuai; Cui, Xiaopeng; Lin, Zhipeng; Liu, Qingqing; Zhou, Huiling; Ni, Runzhou

    2016-09-01

    Metastasis remains the most common cause of lethal outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. Understanding molecular mechanisms that regulate metastasis process is crucial for improving treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this article, we examined whether Eps15 homology domain-containing 2 (EHD2) played a critical role in hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis and explored the possible mechanism. EHD2 and E-cadherin expression levels in hepatocellular carcinoma patients were examined using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The cell migration and invasion were evaluated by wound-healing assay and trans-well assay. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition was analyzed by immunofluorescence, and the vital markers were detected by Western blotting. The correlation of EHD2 and E-cadherin was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. EHD2 expression, along with the epithelial marker E-cadherin, was markedly reduced in tumor tissues than in adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, EHD2 was positively correlated with E-cadherin, histological grade, tumor metastasis, and microvascular invasion. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that hepatocellular carcinoma patients with decreased EHD2 expression had shorter overall survival times than those with higher EHD2 expression. Knockdown of EHD2 induced an increase in cell invasion and changes characteristic of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, while overexpression of EHD2 inhibited these processes. Molecular data indicated that EHD2 inhibited migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma probably by interacting with E-cadherin and it might be an independent, significant risk factor for survival after curative resection.

  13. [Up regulation of phenylacetate to glioma homeobox gene expression].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Yang, Chaohua; Zhao, Conghai

    2002-03-01

    Even though phenylacetate (PA) bas been shown to inhibit the growth and induce differentiation in rat C6 glioma cell line, its mechanisms are still poorly understood. This study is aimed to identify which Hox gene is related to glioma and to observe the change in expression on mRNA level as treated by phenylasetate. Twenty-two kinds of Hox gene were divided into 3 groups according to their primer sequence. Semiquantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to investigate the mRNA expression of Hox gene groups and some Hox gene in rat C6 glioma cell line following differentiation induced by PA. The level of Hox gene expression was expressed as ratio expression rate (RER) of Hox gene/beta-actin according to computer image analysis and the difference between C6 cells and PA treated C6 cells was analyzed by student t-test. It was found that Hox genes matching to primers P2 were mildly expressed in C6 cells and the expression of HoxB2 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in PA treated C6 cells (P < 0.001). The weak expression of HoxB2 may be involved in glioma origin and the mechanisms of PA action are correlated with transcription process in the glioma cells.

  14. Gene Expression by Mouse Inner Ear Hair Cells during Development

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Déborah I.; Shen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells of the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance. As a consequence, pathogenic variants in genes specifically expressed in hair cells often cause hereditary deafness. Hair cells are few in number and not easily isolated from the adjacent supporting cells, so the biochemistry and molecular biology of hair cells can be difficult to study. To study gene expression in hair cells, we developed a protocol for hair cell isolation by FACS. With nearly pure hair cells and surrounding cells, from cochlea and utricle and from E16 to P7, we performed a comprehensive cell type-specific RNA-Seq study of gene expression during mouse inner ear development. Expression profiling revealed new hair cell genes with distinct expression patterns: some are specific for vestibular hair cells, others for cochlear hair cells, and some are expressed just before or after maturation of mechanosensitivity. We found that many of the known hereditary deafness genes are much more highly expressed in hair cells than surrounding cells, suggesting that genes preferentially expressed in hair cells are good candidates for unknown deafness genes. PMID:25904789

  15. An internal regulatory element controls troponin I gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Yutzey, K E; Kline, R L; Konieczny, S F

    1989-01-01

    During skeletal myogenesis, approximately 20 contractile proteins and related gene products temporally accumulate as the cells fuse to form multinucleated muscle fibers. In most instances, the contractile protein genes are regulated transcriptionally, which suggests that a common molecular mechanism may coordinate the expression of this diverse and evolutionarily unrelated gene set. Recent studies have examined the muscle-specific cis-acting elements associated with numerous contractile protein genes. All of the identified regulatory elements are positioned in the 5'-flanking regions, usually within 1,500 base pairs of the transcription start site. Surprisingly, a DNA consensus sequence that is common to each contractile protein gene has not been identified. In contrast to the results of these earlier studies, we have found that the 5'-flanking region of the quail troponin I (TnI) gene is not sufficient to permit the normal myofiber transcriptional activation of the gene. Instead, the TnI gene utilizes a unique internal regulatory element that is responsible for the correct myofiber-specific expression pattern associated with the TnI gene. This is the first example in which a contractile protein gene has been shown to rely primarily on an internal regulatory element to elicit transcriptional activation during myogenesis. The diversity of regulatory elements associated with the contractile protein genes suggests that the temporal expression of the genes may involve individual cis-trans regulatory components specific for each gene. Images PMID:2725509

  16. Soybean kinome: functional classification and gene expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyi; Chen, Nana; Grant, Joshua N.; Cheng, Zong-Ming (Max); Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    The protein kinase (PK) gene family is one of the largest and most highly conserved gene families in plants and plays a role in nearly all biological functions. While a large number of genes have been predicted to encode PKs in soybean, a comprehensive functional classification and global analysis of expression patterns of this large gene family is lacking. In this study, we identified the entire soybean PK repertoire or kinome, which comprised 2166 putative PK genes, representing 4.67% of all soybean protein-coding genes. The soybean kinome was classified into 19 groups, 81 families, and 122 subfamilies. The receptor-like kinase (RLK) group was remarkably large, containing 1418 genes. Collinearity analysis indicated that whole-genome segmental duplication events may have played a key role in the expansion of the soybean kinome, whereas tandem duplications might have contributed to the expansion of specific subfamilies. Gene structure, subcellular localization prediction, and gene expression patterns indicated extensive functional divergence of PK subfamilies. Global gene expression analysis of soybean PK subfamilies revealed tissue- and stress-specific expression patterns, implying regulatory functions over a wide range of developmental and physiological processes. In addition, tissue and stress co-expression network analysis uncovered specific subfamilies with narrow or wide interconnected relationships, indicative of their association with particular or broad signalling pathways, respectively. Taken together, our analyses provide a foundation for further functional studies to reveal the biological and molecular functions of PKs in soybean. PMID:25614662

  17. An atlas of gene expression and gene co-regulation in the human retina.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Michele; Carissimo, Annamaria; Cutillo, Luisa; Lai, Ching-Hung; Mutarelli, Margherita; Moretti, Maria Nicoletta; Singh, Marwah Veer; Karali, Marianthi; Carrella, Diego; Pizzo, Mariateresa; Russo, Francesco; Ferrari, Stefano; Ponzin, Diego; Angelini, Claudia; Banfi, Sandro; di Bernardo, Diego

    2016-07-08

    The human retina is a specialized tissue involved in light stimulus transduction. Despite its unique biology, an accurate reference transcriptome is still missing. Here, we performed gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) of 50 retinal samples from non-visually impaired post-mortem donors. We identified novel transcripts with high confidence (Observed Transcriptome (ObsT)) and quantified the expression level of known transcripts (Reference Transcriptome (RefT)). The ObsT included 77 623 transcripts (23 960 genes) covering 137 Mb (35 Mb new transcribed genome). Most of the transcripts (92%) were multi-exonic: 81% with known isoforms, 16% with new isoforms and 3% belonging to new genes. The RefT included 13 792 genes across 94 521 known transcripts. Mitochondrial genes were among the most highly expressed, accounting for about 10% of the reads. Of all the protein-coding genes in Gencode, 65% are expressed in the retina. We exploited inter-individual variability in gene expression to infer a gene co-expression network and to identify genes specifically expressed in photoreceptor cells. We experimentally validated the photoreceptors localization of three genes in human retina that had not been previously reported. RNA-seq data and the gene co-expression network are available online (http://retina.tigem.it). © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Dynamic association rules for gene expression data analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chung, Cheng-Han; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-10-14

    The purpose of gene expression analysis is to look for the association between regulation of gene expression levels and phenotypic variations. This association based on gene expression profile has been used to determine whether the induction/repression of genes correspond to phenotypic variations including cell regulations, clinical diagnoses and drug development. Statistical analyses on microarray data have been developed to resolve gene selection issue. However, these methods do not inform us of causality between genes and phenotypes. In this paper, we propose the dynamic association rule algorithm (DAR algorithm) which helps ones to efficiently select a subset of significant genes for subsequent analysis. The DAR algorithm is based on association rules from market basket analysis in marketing. We first propose a statistical way, based on constructing a one-sided confidence interval and hypothesis testing, to determine if an association rule is meaningful. Based on the proposed statistical method, we then developed the DAR algorithm for gene expression data analysis. The method was applied to analyze four microarray datasets and one Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) dataset: the Mice Apo A1 dataset, the whole genome expression dataset of mouse embryonic stem cells, expression profiling of the bone marrow of Leukemia patients, Microarray Quality Control (MAQC) data set and the RNA-seq dataset of a mouse genomic imprinting study. A comparison of the proposed method with the t-test on the expression profiling of the bone marrow of Leukemia patients was conducted. We developed a statistical way, based on the concept of confidence interval, to determine the minimum support and minimum confidence for mining association relationships among items. With the minimum support and minimum confidence, one can find significant rules in one single step. The DAR algorithm was then developed for gene expression data analysis. Four gene expression datasets showed that the proposed

  19. Pre-gastrula expression of zebrafish extraembryonic genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many species form extraembryonic tissues during embryogenesis, such as the placenta of humans and other viviparous mammals. Extraembryonic tissues have various roles in protecting, nourishing and patterning embryos. Prior to gastrulation in zebrafish, the yolk syncytial layer - an extraembryonic nuclear syncytium - produces signals that induce mesoderm and endoderm formation. Mesoderm and endoderm precursor cells are situated in the embryonic margin, an external ring of cells along the embryo-yolk interface. The yolk syncytial layer initially forms below the margin, in a domain called the external yolk syncytial layer (E-YSL). Results We hypothesize that key components of the yolk syncytial layer's mesoderm and endoderm inducing activity are expressed as mRNAs in the E-YSL. To identify genes expressed in the E-YSL, we used microarrays to compare the transcription profiles of intact pre-gastrula embryos with pre-gastrula embryonic cells that we had separated from the yolk and yolk syncytial layer. This identified a cohort of genes with enriched expression in intact embryos. Here we describe our whole mount in situ hybridization analysis of sixty-eight of them. This includes ten genes with E-YSL expression (camsap1l1, gata3, znf503, hnf1ba, slc26a1, slc40a1, gata6, gpr137bb, otop1 and cebpa), four genes with expression in the enveloping layer (EVL), a superficial epithelium that protects the embryo (zgc:136817, zgc:152778, slc14a2 and elovl6l), three EVL genes whose expression is transiently confined to the animal pole (elovl6l, zgc:136359 and clica), and six genes with transient maternal expression (mtf1, wu:fj59f04, mospd2, rftn2, arrdc1a and pho). We also assessed the requirement of Nodal signaling for the expression of selected genes in the E-YSL, EVL and margin. Margin expression was Nodal dependent for all genes we tested, including the concentrated margin expression of an EVL gene: zgc:110712. All other instances of EVL and E-YSL expression that we

  20. Regulatory systems for hypoxia-inducible gene expression in ischemic heart disease gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ah; Rhim, Taiyoun; Lee, Minhyung

    2011-07-18

    Ischemic heart diseases are caused by narrowed coronary arteries that decrease the blood supply to the myocardium. In the ischemic myocardium, hypoxia-responsive genes are up-regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). Gene therapy for ischemic heart diseases uses genes encoding angiogenic growth factors and anti-apoptotic proteins as therapeutic genes. These genes increase blood supply into the myocardium by angiogenesis and protect cardiomyocytes from cell death. However, non-specific expression of these genes in normal tissues may be harmful, since growth factors and anti-apoptotic proteins may induce tumor growth. Therefore, tight gene regulation is required to limit gene expression to ischemic tissues, to avoid unwanted side effects. For this purpose, various gene expression strategies have been developed for ischemic-specific gene expression. Transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational regulatory strategies have been developed and evaluated in ischemic heart disease animal models. The regulatory systems can limit therapeutic gene expression to ischemic tissues and increase the efficiency of gene therapy. In this review, recent progresses in ischemic-specific gene expression systems are presented, and their applications to ischemic heart diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifying potential maternal genes of Bombyx mori using digital gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingzhen

    2018-01-01

    Maternal genes present in mature oocytes play a crucial role in the early development of silkworm. Although maternal genes have been widely studied in many other species, there has been limited research in Bombyx mori. High-throughput next generation sequencing provides a practical method for gene discovery on a genome-wide level. Herein, a transcriptome study was used to identify maternal-related genes from silkworm eggs. Unfertilized eggs from five different stages of early development were used to detect the changing situation of gene expression. The expressed genes showed different patterns over time. Seventy-six maternal genes were annotated according to homology analysis with Drosophila melanogaster. More than half of the differentially expressed maternal genes fell into four expression patterns, while the expression patterns showed a downward trend over time. The functional annotation of these material genes was mainly related to transcription factor activity, growth factor activity, nucleic acid binding, RNA binding, ATP binding, and ion binding. Additionally, twenty-two gene clusters including maternal genes were identified from 18 scaffolds. Altogether, we plotted a profile for the maternal genes of Bombyx mori using a digital gene expression profiling method. This will provide the basis for maternal-specific signature research and improve the understanding of the early development of silkworm. PMID:29462160

  2. Using RNA-seq data to select reference genes for normalizing gene expression in apple roots.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhe; Cong, Peihua; Tian, Yi; Zhu, Yanmin

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression in apple roots in response to various stress conditions is a less-explored research subject. Reliable reference genes for normalizing quantitative gene expression data have not been carefully investigated. In this study, the suitability of a set of 15 apple genes were evaluated for their potential use as reliable reference genes. These genes were selected based on their low variance of gene expression in apple root tissues from a recent RNA-seq data set, and a few previously reported apple reference genes for other tissue types. Four methods, Delta Ct, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were used to evaluate their stability in apple root tissues of various genotypes and under different experimental conditions. A small panel of stably expressed genes, MDP0000095375, MDP0000147424, MDP0000233640, MDP0000326399 and MDP0000173025 were recommended for normalizing quantitative gene expression data in apple roots under various abiotic or biotic stresses. When the most stable and least stable reference genes were used for data normalization, significant differences were observed on the expression patterns of two target genes, MdLecRLK5 (MDP0000228426, a gene encoding a lectin receptor like kinase) and MdMAPK3 (MDP0000187103, a gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase). Our data also indicated that for those carefully validated reference genes, a single reference gene is sufficient for reliable normalization of the quantitative gene expression. Depending on the experimental conditions, the most suitable reference genes can be specific to the sample of interest for more reliable RT-qPCR data normalization.

  3. Using RNA-seq data to select reference genes for normalizing gene expression in apple roots

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhe; Cong, Peihua; Tian, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression in apple roots in response to various stress conditions is a less-explored research subject. Reliable reference genes for normalizing quantitative gene expression data have not been carefully investigated. In this study, the suitability of a set of 15 apple genes were evaluated for their potential use as reliable reference genes. These genes were selected based on their low variance of gene expression in apple root tissues from a recent RNA-seq data set, and a few previously reported apple reference genes for other tissue types. Four methods, Delta Ct, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were used to evaluate their stability in apple root tissues of various genotypes and under different experimental conditions. A small panel of stably expressed genes, MDP0000095375, MDP0000147424, MDP0000233640, MDP0000326399 and MDP0000173025 were recommended for normalizing quantitative gene expression data in apple roots under various abiotic or biotic stresses. When the most stable and least stable reference genes were used for data normalization, significant differences were observed on the expression patterns of two target genes, MdLecRLK5 (MDP0000228426, a gene encoding a lectin receptor like kinase) and MdMAPK3 (MDP0000187103, a gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase). Our data also indicated that for those carefully validated reference genes, a single reference gene is sufficient for reliable normalization of the quantitative gene expression. Depending on the experimental conditions, the most suitable reference genes can be specific to the sample of interest for more reliable RT-qPCR data normalization. PMID:28934340

  4. Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression Exposure to many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals can cause adverse outcomes. These adverse outcomes, such as cancer, have been linked to mol...

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT GENES USING A DATABASE OF RAT LIVER AND KIDNEY BASELINE GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray data from independent labs and studies can be compared to potentially identify toxicologically and biologically relevant genes. The Baseline Animal Database working group of HESI was formed to assess baseline gene expression from microarray data derived from control or...

  6. Noise in gene expression is coupled to growth rate.

    PubMed

    Keren, Leeat; van Dijk, David; Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Davidi, Dan; Jona, Ghil; Weinberger, Adina; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2015-12-01

    Genetically identical cells exposed to the same environment display variability in gene expression (noise), with important consequences for the fidelity of cellular regulation and biological function. Although population average gene expression is tightly coupled to growth rate, the effects of changes in environmental conditions on expression variability are not known. Here, we measure the single-cell expression distributions of approximately 900 Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters across four environmental conditions using flow cytometry, and find that gene expression noise is tightly coupled to the environment and is generally higher at lower growth rates. Nutrient-poor conditions, which support lower growth rates, display elevated levels of noise for most promoters, regardless of their specific expression values. We present a simple model of noise in expression that results from having an asynchronous population, with cells at different cell-cycle stages, and with different partitioning of the cells between the stages at different growth rates. This model predicts non-monotonic global changes in noise at different growth rates as well as overall higher variability in expression for cell-cycle-regulated genes in all conditions. The consistency between this model and our data, as well as with noise measurements of cells growing in a chemostat at well-defined growth rates, suggests that cell-cycle heterogeneity is a major contributor to gene expression noise. Finally, we identify gene and promoter features that play a role in gene expression noise across conditions. Our results show the existence of growth-related global changes in gene expression noise and suggest their potential phenotypic implications. © 2015 Keren et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Noise in gene expression is coupled to growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Leeat; van Dijk, David; Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Davidi, Dan; Jona, Ghil; Weinberger, Adina; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Genetically identical cells exposed to the same environment display variability in gene expression (noise), with important consequences for the fidelity of cellular regulation and biological function. Although population average gene expression is tightly coupled to growth rate, the effects of changes in environmental conditions on expression variability are not known. Here, we measure the single-cell expression distributions of approximately 900 Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters across four environmental conditions using flow cytometry, and find that gene expression noise is tightly coupled to the environment and is generally higher at lower growth rates. Nutrient-poor conditions, which support lower growth rates, display elevated levels of noise for most promoters, regardless of their specific expression values. We present a simple model of noise in expression that results from having an asynchronous population, with cells at different cell-cycle stages, and with different partitioning of the cells between the stages at different growth rates. This model predicts non-monotonic global changes in noise at different growth rates as well as overall higher variability in expression for cell-cycle–regulated genes in all conditions. The consistency between this model and our data, as well as with noise measurements of cells growing in a chemostat at well-defined growth rates, suggests that cell-cycle heterogeneity is a major contributor to gene expression noise. Finally, we identify gene and promoter features that play a role in gene expression noise across conditions. Our results show the existence of growth-related global changes in gene expression noise and suggest their potential phenotypic implications. PMID:26355006

  8. Validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis in experimental epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sadangi, Chinmaya; Rosenow, Felix; Norwood, Braxton A

    2017-12-01

    To grasp the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying epilepsy development (epileptogenesis) and epilepsy itself, it is important to understand the gene expression changes that occur during these phases. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a technique that rapidly and accurately determines gene expression changes. It is crucial, however, that stable reference genes are selected for each experimental condition to ensure that accurate values are obtained for genes of interest. If reference genes are unstably expressed, this can lead to inaccurate data and erroneous conclusions. To date, epilepsy studies have used mostly single, nonvalidated reference genes. This is the first study to systematically evaluate reference genes in male Sprague-Dawley rat models of epilepsy. We assessed 15 potential reference genes in hippocampal tissue obtained from 2 different models during epileptogenesis, 1 model during chronic epilepsy, and a model of noninjurious seizures. Reference gene ranking varied between models and also differed between epileptogenesis and chronic epilepsy time points. There was also some variance between the four mathematical models used to rank reference genes. Notably, we found novel reference genes to be more stably expressed than those most often used in experimental epilepsy studies. The consequence of these findings is that reference genes suitable for one epilepsy model may not be appropriate for others and that reference genes can change over time. It is, therefore, critically important to validate potential reference genes before using them as normalizing factors in expression analysis in order to ensure accurate, valid results. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Integrated analysis of gene expression and methylation profiles of 48 candidate genes in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Zibo; Heng, Jianfu; Yan, Jinhua; Guo, Xinwu; Tang, Lili; Chen, Ming; Peng, Limin; Wu, Yepeng; Wang, Shouman; Xiao, Zhi; Deng, Zhongping; Dai, Lizhong; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Gene-specific methylation and expression have shown biological and clinical importance for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Integrated analysis of gene methylation and gene expression may identify genes associated with biology mechanism and clinical outcome of breast cancer and aid in clinical management. Using high-throughput microfluidic quantitative PCR, we analyzed the expression profiles of 48 candidate genes in 96 Chinese breast cancer patients and investigated their correlation with gene methylation and associations with breast cancer clinical parameters. Breast cancer-specific gene expression alternation was found in 25 genes with significant expression difference between paired tumor and normal tissues. A total of 9 genes (CCND2, EGFR, GSTP1, PGR, PTGS2, RECK, SOX17, TNFRSF10D, and WIF1) showed significant negative correlation between methylation and gene expression, which were validated in the TCGA database. Total 23 genes (ACADL, APC, BRCA2, CADM1, CAV1, CCND2, CST6, EGFR, ESR2, GSTP1, ICAM5, NPY, PGR, PTGS2, RECK, RUNX3, SFRP1, SOX17, SYK, TGFBR2, TNFRSF10D, WIF1, and WRN) annotated with potential TFBSs in the promoter regions showed negative correlation between methylation and expression. In logistics regression analysis, 31 of the 48 genes showed improved performance in disease prediction with combination of methylation and expression coefficient. Our results demonstrated the complex correlation and the possible regulatory mechanisms between DNA methylation and gene expression. Integration analysis of methylation and expression of candidate genes could improve performance in breast cancer prediction. These findings would contribute to molecular characterization and identification of biomarkers for potential clinical applications.

  10. Nuclear p120-catenin regulates the anoikis resistance of mouse lobular breast cancer cells through Kaiso-dependent Wnt11 expression

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Robert A. H.; Tenhagen, Milou; Meuleman, Wouter; van Riel, Jeske J. G.; Schackmann, Ron C. J.; Derksen, Patrick W. B.

    2015-01-01

    E-cadherin inactivation underpins the progression of invasive lobular breast carcinoma (ILC). In ILC, p120-catenin (p120) translocates to the cytosol where it controls anchorage independence through the Rho-Rock signaling pathway, a key mechanism driving tumor growth and metastasis. We now demonstrate that anchorage-independent ILC cells show an increase in nuclear p120, which results in relief of transcriptional repression by Kaiso. To identify the Kaiso target genes that control anchorage independence we performed genome-wide mRNA profiling on anoikis-resistant mouse ILC cells, and identified 29 candidate target genes, including the established Kaiso target Wnt11. Our data indicate that anchorage-independent upregulation of Wnt11 in ILC cells is controlled by nuclear p120 through inhibition of Kaiso-mediated transcriptional repression. Finally, we show that Wnt11 promotes activation of RhoA, which causes ILC anoikis resistance. Our findings thereby establish a mechanistic link between E-cadherin loss and subsequent control of Rho-driven anoikis resistance through p120- and Kaiso-dependent expression of Wnt11. PMID:25713299

  11. Promoting gene expression in plants by permissive histone lysine methylation

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Tony; Finnegan, E Jean

    2009-01-01

    Plants utilize sophisticated epigenetic regulatory mechanisms to coordinate changes in gene expression during development and in response to environmental stimuli. Epigenetics refers to the modification of DNA and chromatin associated proteins, which affect gene expression and cell function, without changing the DNA sequence. Such modifications are inherited through mitosis, and in rare instances through meiosis, although it can be reversible and thus regulatory. Epigenetic modifications are controlled by groups of proteins, such as the family of histone lysine methytransferases (HKMTs). The catalytic core known as the SET domain encodes HKMT activity and either promotes or represses gene expression. A large family of SET domain proteins is present in Arabidopsis where there is growing evidence that two classes of these genes are involved in promoting gene expression in a diverse range of developmental processes. This review will focus on the function of these two classes and the processes that they control, highlighting the huge potential this regulatory mechanism has in plants. PMID:19816124

  12. Adipose Gene Expression Profile Changes With Lung Allograft Reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Joshua M; Arcasoy, Selim; McDonnough, Jamiela A; Sonett, Joshua R; Bacchetta, Matthew; D'Ovidio, Frank; Cantu, Edward; Bermudez, Christian A; McBurnie, Amika; Rushefski, Melanie; Kalman, Laurel H; Oyster, Michelle; D'Errico, Carly; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Giles, Jon T; Ferrante, Anthony; Lippel, Matthew; Singh, Gopal; Lederer, David J; Christie, Jason D

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for primary graft dysfunction (PGD), a form of lung injury resulting from ischemia-reperfusion after lung transplantation, but the impact of ischemia-reperfusion on adipose tissue is unknown. We evaluated differential gene expression in thoracic visceral adipose tissue (VAT) before and after lung reperfusion. Total RNA was isolated from thoracic VAT sampled from six subjects enrolled in the Lung Transplant Body Composition study before and after allograft reperfusion and quantified using the Human Gene 2.0 ST array. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed enrichment for genes involved in complement and coagulation cascades and Jak-STAT signaling pathways. Overall, 72 genes were upregulated and 56 genes were downregulated in the postreperfusion time compared with baseline. Long pentraxin-3, a gene and plasma protein previously associated with PGD, was the most upregulated gene (19.5-fold increase, p = 0.04). Fibronectin leucine-rich transmembrane protein-3, a gene associated with cell adhesion and receptor signaling, was the most downregulated gene (4.3-fold decrease, p = 0.04). Ischemia-reperfusion has a demonstrable impact on gene expression in visceral adipose tissue in our pilot study of nonobese, non-PGD lung transplant recipients. Future evaluation will focus on differential adipose tissue gene expression and the development of PGD after transplant. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. An internal regulatory element controls troponin I gene expression

    SciT

    Yutzey, K.E.; Kline, R.L.; Konieczmy, S.F.

    1989-04-01

    During skeletal myogenesis, approximately 20 contractile proteins and related gene products temporally accumulate as the cells fuse to form multinucleated muscle fibers. In most instances, the contractile protein genes are regulated transcriptionally, which suggests that a common molecular mechanism may coordinate the expression of this diverse and evolutionarily unrelated gene set. Recent studies have examined the muscle-specific cis-acting elements associated with numerous contractile protein genes. All of the identified regulatory elements are positioned in the 5'-flanking regions, usually within 1,500 base pairs of the transcription start site. Surprisingly, a DNA consensus sequence that is common to each contractile protein genemore » has not been identified. In contrast to the results of these earlier studies, the authors have found that the 5'-flanking region of the quail troponin I (TnI) gene is not sufficient to permit the normal myofiber transcriptional activation of the gene. Instead, the TnI gene utilizes a unique internal regulatory element that is responsible for the correct myofiber-specific expression pattern associated with the TnI gene. This is the first example in which a contractile protein gene