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Sample records for e-test ab biodisk

  1. 21 CFR 862.1815 - Vitamin E test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin E test system. 862.1815 Section 862.1815....1815 Vitamin E test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin E test system is a device intended to measure vitamin E (tocopherol) in serum. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1815 - Vitamin E test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin E test system. 862.1815 Section 862.1815....1815 Vitamin E test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin E test system is a device intended to measure vitamin E (tocopherol) in serum. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1815 - Vitamin E test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin E test system. 862.1815 Section 862.1815....1815 Vitamin E test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin E test system is a device intended to measure vitamin E (tocopherol) in serum. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1815 - Vitamin E test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin E test system. 862.1815 Section 862.1815....1815 Vitamin E test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin E test system is a device intended to measure vitamin E (tocopherol) in serum. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and...

  5. Memories of AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, V. G.

    2013-06-01

    I had the good fortune to be a student of A. B. Migdal - AB, as we called him in person or in his absence - and to work in the sector he headed at the Kurchatov Institute, along with his other students and my friends, including Vitya Galitsky, Spartak Belyayev and Tolya Larkin. I was especially close with AB in the second half of the 1950s, the years most important for my formation, and AB's contribution to this formation was very great. To this day, I've often quoted AB on various occasions, as it's hard to put things better or more precisely than he did; I tell friends stories heard from AB, because these stories enhance life as AB himself enhanced it; my daughter is named Tanya after AB's wife Tatyana Lvovna, and so on. In what follows, I'll recount a few episodes in my life in which AB played an important or decisive role, and then will share some other memories of AB...

  6. FTA-ABS test

    MedlinePlus

    ... rule out a possible false-negative result. Normal Results A negative or nonreactive result means that you ... meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean A positive FTA-ABS is often a ...

  7. mAbs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The twenty two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently marketed in the U.S. have captured almost half of the top-20 U.S. therapeutic biotechnology sales for 2007. Eight of these products have annual sales each of more than $1 B, were developed in the relatively short average period of six years, qualified for FDA programs designed to accelerate drug approval, and their cost has been reimbursed liberally by payers. With growth of the product class driven primarily by advancements in protein engineering and the low probability of generic threats, mAbs are now the largest class of biological therapies under development. The high cost of these drugs and the lack of generic competition conflict with a financially stressed health system, setting reimbursement by payers as the major limiting factor to growth. Advances in mAb engineering are likely to result in more effective mAb drugs and an expansion of the therapeutic indications covered by the class. The parallel development of biomarkers for identifying the patient subpopulations most likely to respond to treatment may lead to a more cost-effective use of these drugs. To achieve the success of the current top-tier mAbs, companies developing new mAb products must adapt to a significantly more challenging commercial environment. PMID:20061824

  8. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system... Test Systems § 862.1090 Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. (a) Identification. An angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of angiotensin...

  9. Outburst in Mira AB?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2003-09-01

    The nearby system Mira AB composed of an aging AGB star (Mira A) and a WD companion (Mira B) offers a unique laboratory for studying wind accretion processes, a poorly understood phenomenon in many sources. Recent Chandra ACIS-S Obs.(70ks on 12/6/03; PI.M.Karovska) resolved for the first time the components (~0.6") in X-rays, and detected a new bright soft source (< 0.7 keV) in addition to the harder (1-4 keV) emission from Mira B. The new source is spatially and spectrally separated from Mira B and likely associated with Mira A. This is the first detection of X-rays from an AGB star. This source was not detected by ROSAT in 1993 or recently by XMM 8/03 (AAS/03,J.Kastner), and could be a transient phenomenon. Model fitting shows that the soft X-ray emission is likely several emission lines, rather then a continuum; with ACIS spectral resolution we cannot resolve or identify these lines. We propose a 40ks LETG+HRC-S obs. to identify the lines and determine the emission mechanism.

  10. Ab Interno Trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pantcheva, Mina B.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior chamber drainage angle surgery, namely trabeculotomy and goniotomy, has been commonly utilized in children for many years. Its’ reported success has ranged between 68% and 100% in infants and young children with congenital glaucoma. However, the long-term success of these procedures has been limited in adults presumably due to the formation of anterior synechiae (AS) in the postoperative phase. Recently, ab interno trabeculectomy with the Trabectome™ has emerged as a novel surgical approach to effectively and selectively remove and ablate the trabecular meshwork and the inner wall of the Schlemm’s canal in an attempt to avoid AS formation or other forms of wound healing with resultant closure of the cleft. This procedure seems to have an appealing safety profile with respect to early hypotony or infection if compared to trabeculectomy or glaucoma drainage device implantation. This might be advantageous in some of the impoverish regions of the Middle East and Africa where patients experience difficulties keeping up with their postoperative visits. It is important to note that no randomized trial comparing the Trabectome to other glaucoma procedures appears to have been published to date. Trabectome surgery is not a panacea, however, and it is associated with early postoperative intraocular pressure spikes that may require additional glaucoma surgery as well as a high incidence of hyphema. Reported results show that postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) remains, at best, in the mid-teen range making it undesirable in patients with low-target IOP goals. A major advantage of Trabectome surgery is that it does not preclude further glaucoma surgery involving the conjunctiva, such as a trabeculectomy or drainage device implantation. As prospective randomized long-term clinical data become available, we will be better positioned to elucidate the exact role of this technique in the glaucoma surgical armamentarium. PMID:21180426

  11. Ab initio vel ex eventu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiessen, P. A.; Treder, H.-J.

    Der gegenwärtige Stand der physikalischen Erkenntnis, in Sonderheit die Atomistik und die Quantentheorie, ermöglicht (in wohldefinierten Energie-Bereichen) eine ab initio-Berechnung aller physikalischen und chemischen Prozesse und Strukturen. Die Schrödinger-Gleichung erlaubt zusammen mit den Prinzipien der Quantenstatistik (Pauli-Prinzip) aus dem Planckschen Wirkungsquantum h und den atomischen Konstanten die Berechnung aller Energieumsätze, Zeitabläufe etc., die insbesondere die chemische Physik bestimmen. Die Rechenresultate gelten auch quantitativ bis auf die unvermeidliche Stochastik.Die ab initio-Berechnungen korrespondieren einerseits und sind andererseits komplementär zu den auf den Methoden der theoretischen Chemie und der klassischen Thermodynamik beruhenden Ergebnissen ex eventu. Die theoretische Behandlung ab initio führt zu mathematischen Experimenten, die die Laboratoriums-Experimente ergänzen oder auch substituieren.Translated AbstractAb initio vel ex eventuThe present state of physical knowledge, in peculiar atomistic and quantum theory, makes an ab initio calculation of all physical and chemical processes and structures possible (in well defined reaches of energy). The Schrödinger equation together with the principles of quantum statistics (Pauli principle) permits from the Planck and atomistic constants to calculate all exchanges of energy, courses of time, etc. which govern chemical physics. The calculated results are valid even quantitatively apart from the unavoidable stochastics.These ab initio calculations on the one hand correspond and are on the other complimentary to results ex eventu based on the methods of theoretical chemistry and classical thermodynamics. Theoretical treatment ab initio leads to mathematical experiments which add to or even substitute experiments in the laboratory.

  12. Diagnosing environmental allergies: Comparison of skin-prick, intradermal, and serum specific immunoglobulin E testing

    PubMed Central

    Shtessel, Maria; Lobell, Elizabeth; Hudes, Golda; Rosenstreich, David; de Vos, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Background: Allergists commonly perform intradermal skin testing (IDST) after negative skin-prick testing (SPT) to comprehensively diagnose environmental allergic sensitization. However, with the availability of modern methods to detect serum-specific immunoglobulin E (ssIgE), it is unclear if ssIgE testing could substitute for IDST. Objective: To determine the efficacy of ssIgE testing and IDST when added to SPT in diagnosing environmental allergic sensitizations. Methods: SPT, IDST, and ssIgE testing to nine common environmental allergens were analyzed in 75 patients with oculonasal symptoms who presented to our allergy clinics in the Bronx, New York, between January 2014 and May 2015. Results: A total of 651 SPT and 499 ssIgE tests were independently performed and revealed 162 (25%) and 127 (25%) sensitizations, respectively. When SPT results were negative, IDST results revealed 108 of 452 additional sensitizations (24%). In contrast, when SPT results were negative, ssIgE test results only revealed 9% additional sensitizations. When both SPT and IDST results were negative, ssIgE testing only detected 3% of additional sensitizations, and ssIgE levels were typically low in these cases (median, 1.25 kU/L; range, 0.357–4.47 kU/L). When both SPT and ssIgE test results were negative, IDST results detected 15% additional sensitizations. Conclusion: IDST detected more additional environmental sensitizations compared with ssIgE testing. IDST, therefore, may be useful when the SPT and/or ssIgE testing results were negative, but the exposure history indicated relevant allergic sensitization. Serology added only a little more information if both SPT and IDST results were negative but may be useful in combination with SPT if IDST cannot be performed. PMID:28583228

  13. Diagnosing environmental allergies: Comparison of skin-prick, intradermal, and serum specific immunoglobulin E testing.

    PubMed

    Ferastraoaru, Denisa; Shtessel, Maria; Lobell, Elizabeth; Hudes, Golda; Rosenstreich, David; de Vos, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    Allergists commonly perform intradermal skin testing (IDST) after negative skin-prick testing (SPT) to comprehensively diagnose environmental allergic sensitization. However, with the availability of modern methods to detect serum-specific immunoglobulin E (ssIgE), it is unclear if ssIgE testing could substitute for IDST. To determine the efficacy of ssIgE testing and IDST when added to SPT in diagnosing environmental allergic sensitizations. SPT, IDST, and ssIgE testing to nine common environmental allergens were analyzed in 75 patients with oculonasal symptoms who presented to our allergy clinics in the Bronx, New York, between January 2014 and May 2015. A total of 651 SPT and 499 ssIgE tests were independently performed and revealed 162 (25%) and 127 (25%) sensitizations, respectively. When SPT results were negative, IDST results revealed 108 of 452 additional sensitizations (24%). In contrast, when SPT results were negative, ssIgE test results only revealed 9% additional sensitizations. When both SPT and IDST results were negative, ssIgE testing only detected 3% of additional sensitizations, and ssIgE levels were typically low in these cases (median, 1.25 kU/L; range, 0.357-4.47 kU/L). When both SPT and ssIgE test results were negative, IDST results detected 15% additional sensitizations. IDST detected more additional environmental sensitizations compared with ssIgE testing. IDST, therefore, may be useful when the SPT and/or ssIgE testing results were negative, but the exposure history indicated relevant allergic sensitization. Serology added only a little more information if both SPT and IDST results were negative but may be useful in combination with SPT if IDST cannot be performed.

  14. AB 1725: A Comprehensive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Board of Governors.

    A summary and analysis is provided of California Assembly Bill (AB) 1725, a reform bill that provides new direction and support for the state's community colleges. The analysis addresses each of the eight sections of the bill: (1) mission, highlighting reforms related to mission statements, transfer core curriculum, remedial limits, articulation…

  15. Registration of nine sorghum seed parent (A/B) lines

    Nine sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] A1 cyto plasmic-genic male sterile seed parent (A) and their maintainer (B) lines [KS 133A/B, KS 134A/B, KS 135A/B, KS 136A/B, KS 137A/B, KS 138A/B, KS 139A/B, KS 140A/B and KS 141A/B] were released by the Kansas State University, Agricultural Research Cent...

  16. Timing of AB And eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyreva, V. S.; Ibrahimov, M. A.; Gaynullina, E. R.; Karimov, R. G.; Hafizov, B. M.; Satovskii, B. L.; Krushevska, V. N.; Kuznyetsova, Yu. G.; Bogomazov, A. I.; Irsmambetova, T. R.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims timing the eclipses of the short period low mass binary star AB And. The times of minima are taken from the literature and from our observations in October 2013 (22 times of minima) and in August 2014 (23 times of minima). We find and discuss an inaccuracy in the determination of the types of minima in the previous investigation by Li et al. (2014). We study the secular evolution of the central binary's orbital period and the possibility of the existence of third and fourth companions in the system.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1090 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Angiotensin converting enzyme (A.C.E.) test system. 862.1090 Section 862.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  1. Solvent (acetone-butanol: ab) production

    This article describes production of butanol [acetone-butanol-ethanol, (also called AB or ABE or solvent)] by fermentation using both traditional and current technologies. AB production from agricultural commodities, such as corn and molasses, was an important historical fermentation. Unfortunately,...

  2. Comparison of broth macrodilution, broth microdilution, and E test antifungal susceptibility tests for fluconazole.

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, D L; Pfaller, M A; Barry, A L

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of the E test, the broth microdilution test, and the reference broth macrodilution susceptibility test of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards for fluconazole susceptibility testing was performed with 238 clinical isolates of Candida species and Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata. An 80% inhibition endpoint MIC was determined by the reference broth macrodilution method after 48 h of incubation. The MICs obtained by the two study methods were read after 24 and 48 h of incubation. Overall, excellent agreement within 2 doubling dilutions was obtained between the broth microdilution and the broth macrodilution methods for the combined results for all species at both 24 h (93%) and 48 h (94%). The correlation of 24-h MIC endpoints between the E test and the broth macrodilution methods was 37% for T. glabrata, 56% for Candida tropicalis, 93% for Candida albicans, and 90% for other Candida species. The percent agreement at 48 h ranged from 34% for T. glabrata to 97% for Candida species other than C. albicans and C. tropicalis. These initial results support the further evaluation of the E test as an alternative method for fluconazole susceptibility testing of Candida species. PMID:7814531

  3. Topological Semimetals Studied by Ab Initio Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Motoaki; Okugawa, Ryo; Murakami, Shuichi

    2018-04-01

    In topological semimetals such as Weyl, Dirac, and nodal-line semimetals, the band gap closes at points or along lines in k space which are not necessarily located at high-symmetry positions in the Brillouin zone. Therefore, it is not straightforward to find these topological semimetals by ab initio calculations because the band structure is usually calculated only along high-symmetry lines. In this paper, we review recent studies on topological semimetals by ab initio calculations. We explain theoretical frameworks which can be used for the search for topological semimetal materials, and some numerical methods used in the ab initio calculations.

  4. Spectral monitoring of AB Aur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Díaz, L. F.; Oostra, B.

    2017-07-01

    The Astronomical Observatory of the Universidad de los Andes in Bogotá, Colombia, did a spectral monitoring during 2014 and 2015 to AB Aurigae, the brightest Herbig Ae/be star in the northern hemisphere. The aim of this project is applying spectral techniques, in order to identify specific features that could help us not only to understand how this star is forming, but also to establish a pattern to explain general star formation processes. We have recorded 19 legible spectra with a resolving power of R = 11,0000, using a 40 cm Meade telescope with an eShel spectrograph, coupled by a 50-micron optical fiber. We looked for the prominent absorption lines, the Sodium doublet at 5890Å and 5896Å, respectively and Magnesium II at 4481Å; to measure radial velocities of the star, but, we did not find a constant value. Instead, it ranges from 15 km/s to 32 km/s. This variability could be explained by means of an oscillation or pulsation of the external layers of the star. Other variabilities are observed in some emission lines: Hα, Hβ, He I at 5876Å and Fe II at 5018Å. It seems this phenomenon could be typical in stars that are forming and have a circumstellar disk around themselves. This variability is associated with the nonhomogeneous surface of the star and the interaction that it has with its disk. Results of this interaction could be seen also in the stellar wind ejected by the star. More data are required in order to look for a possible period in the changes of radial velocity of the star, the same for the variability of He I and Fe II, and phenomena present in Hα. We plan to take new data in January of 2017.

  5. Modeling study of the ABS relay valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Lin, Min; Guo, Bin; Luo, Zai; Xu, Weidong

    2011-05-01

    The ABS (anti-lock braking system) relay valve is the key component of anti-lock braking system in most commercial vehicles such as trucks, tractor-trailers, etc. In this paper, structure of ABS relay valve and its work theory were analyzed. Then a mathematical model of ABS relay valve, which was investigated by dividing into electronic part, magnetic part, pneumatic part and mechanical part, was set up. The displacement of spools and the response of pressure increasing, holding, releasing of ABS relay valve were simulated and analyzed under conditions of control pressure 500 KPa, braking pressure 600 KPa, atmospheric pressure 100 KPa and air temperature 310 K. Thisarticle provides reliable theory for improving the performance and efficiency of anti-lock braking system of vehicles.

  6. mAbs: a business perspective.

    PubMed

    Scolnik, Pablo A

    2009-01-01

    The twenty two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently marketed in the U.S. have captured almost half of the top-20 U.S. therapeutic biotechnology sales for 2007. Eight of these products have annual sales each of more than $1 B, were developed in the relatively short average period of six years, qualified for FDA programs designed to accelerate drug approval, and their cost has been reimbursed liberally by payers. With growth of the product class driven primarily by advancements in protein engineering and the low probability of generic threats, mAbs are now the largest class of biological therapies under development. The high cost of these drugs and the lack of generic competition conflict with a financially stressed health system, setting reimbursement by payers as the major limiting factor to growth. Advances in mAb engineering are likely to result in more effective mAb drugs and an expansion of the therapeutic indications covered by the class. The parallel development of biomarkers for identifying the patient subpopulations most likely to respond to treatment may lead to a more cost-effective use of these drugs. To achieve the success of the current top-tier mAbs, companies developing new mAb products must adapt to a significantly more challenging commercial environment.

  7. Ab initio theory and modeling of water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mohan; Ko, Hsin-Yu; Remsing, Richard C.; Calegari Andrade, Marcos F.; Santra, Biswajit; Sun, Zhaoru; Selloni, Annabella; Car, Roberto; Klein, Michael L.; Perdew, John P.; Wu, Xifan

    2017-01-01

    Water is of the utmost importance for life and technology. However, a genuinely predictive ab initio model of water has eluded scientists. We demonstrate that a fully ab initio approach, relying on the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) density functional, provides such a description of water. SCAN accurately describes the balance among covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions that dictates the structure and dynamics of liquid water. Notably, SCAN captures the density difference between water and ice Ih at ambient conditions, as well as many important structural, electronic, and dynamic properties of liquid water. These successful predictions of the versatile SCAN functional open the gates to study complex processes in aqueous phase chemistry and the interactions of water with other materials in an efficient, accurate, and predictive, ab initio manner. PMID:28973868

  8. Ab initio theory and modeling of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mohan; Ko, Hsin-Yu; Remsing, Richard C; Calegari Andrade, Marcos F; Santra, Biswajit; Sun, Zhaoru; Selloni, Annabella; Car, Roberto; Klein, Michael L; Perdew, John P; Wu, Xifan

    2017-10-10

    Water is of the utmost importance for life and technology. However, a genuinely predictive ab initio model of water has eluded scientists. We demonstrate that a fully ab initio approach, relying on the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) density functional, provides such a description of water. SCAN accurately describes the balance among covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions that dictates the structure and dynamics of liquid water. Notably, SCAN captures the density difference between water and ice I h at ambient conditions, as well as many important structural, electronic, and dynamic properties of liquid water. These successful predictions of the versatile SCAN functional open the gates to study complex processes in aqueous phase chemistry and the interactions of water with other materials in an efficient, accurate, and predictive, ab initio manner.

  9. In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Burkholderia mallei (Causative Agent of Glanders) Determined by Broth Microdilution and E-Test

    PubMed Central

    Heine, Henry S.; England, Marilyn J.; Waag, David M.; Byrne, W. Russell

    2001-01-01

    In vitro susceptibilities to 28 antibiotics were determined for 11 strains of Burkholderia mallei by the broth microdilution method. The B. mallei strains demonstrated susceptibility to aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones, doxycycline, piperacillin, ceftazidime, and imipenem. For comparison and evaluation, 17 antibiotic susceptibilities were also determined by the E-test. E-test values were always lower than the broth dilution values. Establishing and comparing antibiotic susceptibilities of specific B. mallei strains will provide reference information for assessing new antibiotic agents. PMID:11408233

  10. Diode laser surgery. Ab interno and ab externo versus conventional surgery in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Karp, C L; Higginbotham, E J; Edward, D P; Musch, D C

    1993-10-01

    Fibroblastic proliferation of subconjunctival tissues remains a primary mechanism of failure in filtration surgery. Minimizing the surgical manipulation of episcleral tissues may reduce scarring. Laser sclerostomy surgery involves minimal tissue dissection, and is gaining attention as a method of potentially improving filter duration in high-risk cases. Twenty-five New Zealand rabbits underwent filtration surgery in one eye, and the fellow eye remained as the unoperated control. Ten rabbits underwent ab externo diode laser sclerostomy surgery, ten underwent ab interno diode sclerostomy surgery, and five had posterior sclerostomy procedures. Filtration failure was defined as a less-than-4-mmHg intraocular pressure (IOP) difference between the operative and control eyes. The mean time to failure for the ab externo, ab interno, and conventional posterior sclerostomy techniques measured 17.4 +/- 11.5, 13.1 +/- 6.7, and 6.0 +/- 3.1 days, respectively. In a comparison of the laser-treated groups with the conventional procedure, the time to failure was significantly longer (P = 0.02) for the ab externo filter. The mean ab interno sclerostomy duration was longer than the posterior lip procedure, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.15). The overall level of IOP reduction was similar in the three groups. These data suggest that diode laser sclerostomy is a feasible technique in rabbits, and the ab externo approach resulted in longer filter duration than the conventional posterior lip procedure in this model.

  11. The AB Doradus system revisited: The dynamical mass of AB Dor A/C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azulay, R.; Guirado, J. C.; Marcaide, J. M.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Ros, E.; Tognelli, E.; Jauncey, D. L.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Reynolds, J. E.

    2017-10-01

    Context. The study of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars with model-independent measurements of their masses is essential to check the validity of theoretical models of stellar evolution. The well-known PMS binary AB Dor A/C is an important benchmark for this task, since it displays intense and compact radio emission, which makes possible the application of high-precision astrometric techniques to this system. Aims: We aim to revisit the dynamical masses of the components of AB Dor A/C to refine earlier comparisons between the measurements of stellar parameters and the predictions of stellar models. Methods: We observed in phase-reference mode the binary AB Dor A/C, 0.2'' separation, with the Australian Long Baseline Array at 8.4 GHz. The astrometric information resulting from our observations was analyzed along with previously reported VLBI, optical (Hipparcos), and infrared measurements. Results: The main star AB Dor A is clearly detected in all the VLBI observations, which allowed us to analyze the orbital motion of the system and to obtain model-independent dynamical masses of 0.90 ± 0.08 M⊙ and 0.090 ± 0.008 M⊙, for AB Dor A and AB Dor C, respectively. Comparisons with PMS stellar evolution models favor and age of 40-50 Myr for AB Dor A and of 25-120 Myr for AB Dor C. Conclusions: We show that the orbital motion of the AB Dor A/C system is remarkably well determined, leading to precise estimates of the dynamical masses. Comparison of our results with the prediction of evolutionary models support the observational evidence that theoretical models tend to slightly underestimate the mass of the low-mass stars.

  12. SEER Abstracting Tool (SEER*Abs)

    Cancer.gov

    With this customizable tool, registrars can collect and store data abstracted from medical records. Download the software and find technical support and reference manuals. SEER*Abs has features for creating records, managing abstracting work and data, accessing reference data, and integrating edits.

  13. Catheter-related sepsis due to Rhodotorula glutinis.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Po-Ren; Teng, Lee-Jene; Ho, Shen-Wu; Luh, Kwen-Tay

    2003-02-01

    We describe a central venous catheter-related (Port-A-Cath; Smiths Industries Medical Systems [SIMS] Deltec, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.) infection caused by Rhodotorula glutinis in a 51-year-old man with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. He was treated with fluconazole for 8 weeks and had the catheter removed. Two isolates of R. glutinis recovered from blood specimens (one obtained via peripheral veins and one via the catheter) before administration of fluconazole and one recovered from the removed catheter 17 days after initiation of fluconazole therapy exhibited high-level resistance to fluconazole (MICs, >256 microg/ml). These three isolates were found to belong to a single clone on the basis of identical antibiotypes determined by the E test (PDM Epsilometer; AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) and biotypes determined by API ID32 C (bioMerieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) and their identical random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns.

  14. Catheter-Related Sepsis Due to Rhodotorula glutinis

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Po-Ren; Teng, Lee-Jene; Ho, Shen-Wu; Luh, Kwen-Tay

    2003-01-01

    We describe a central venous catheter-related (Port-A-Cath; Smiths Industries Medical Systems [SIMS] Deltec, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.) infection caused by Rhodotorula glutinis in a 51-year-old man with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. He was treated with fluconazole for 8 weeks and had the catheter removed. Two isolates of R. glutinis recovered from blood specimens (one obtained via peripheral veins and one via the catheter) before administration of fluconazole and one recovered from the removed catheter 17 days after initiation of fluconazole therapy exhibited high-level resistance to fluconazole (MICs, >256 μg/ml). These three isolates were found to belong to a single clone on the basis of identical antibiotypes determined by the E test (PDM Epsilometer; AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) and biotypes determined by API ID32 C (bioMerieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) and their identical random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. PMID:12574300

  15. Recombinant allergen-based IgE testing to distinguish bee and wasp allergy.

    PubMed

    Mittermann, Irene; Zidarn, Mihaela; Silar, Mira; Markovic-Housley, Zora; Aberer, Werner; Korosec, Peter; Kosnik, Mitja; Valenta, Rudolf

    2010-06-01

    The identification of the disease-causing insect in venom allergy is often difficult. To establish recombinant allergen-based IgE tests to diagnose bee and yellow jacket wasp allergy. Sera from patients with bee and/or wasp allergy (n = 43) and patients with pollen allergy with false-positive IgE serology to venom extracts were tested for IgE reactivity in allergen extract-based tests or with purified allergens, including nonglycosylated Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant (r) Api m 1, rApi m 2, rVes v 5, and insect cell-expressed, glycosylated rApi m 2 as well as 2 natural plant glycoproteins (Phl p 4, bromelain). The patients with venom allergy could be diagnosed with a combination of E coli-expressed rApi m 1, rApi m 2, and rVes v 5 whereas patients with pollen allergy remained negative. For a group of 29 patients for whom the sensitizing venom could not be identified with natural allergen extracts, testing with nonglycosylated allergens allowed identification of the sensitizing venom. Recombinant nonglycosylated allergens also allowed definition of the sensitizing venom for those 14 patients who had reacted either with bee or wasp venom extracts. By IgE inhibition studies, it is shown that glycosylated Api m 2 contains carbohydrate epitopes that cross-react with natural Api m 1, Ves v 2, natural Phl p 4, and bromelain, thus identifying cross-reactive structures responsible for serologic false-positive test results or double-positivity to bee and wasp extracts. Nonglycosylated recombinant bee and wasp venom allergens allow the identification of patients with bee and wasp allergy and should facilitate accurate prescription of venom immunotherapy. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Masses and activity of AB Doradus B a/b. The age of the AB Dor quadruple system revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, U.; Czesla, S.; Fuhrmeister, B.; Robrade, J.; Engels, D.; Wieringa, M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the close binary AB Dor Ba/b (Rst137B). Our study comprises astrometric orbit measurements, optical spectroscopy, X-ray and radio observations. Using all available adaptive optics images of AB Dor B taken with VLT/NACO from 2004 to 2009, we tightly constrain its orbital period to 360.6 ± 1.5 days. We present the first orbital solution of Rst 137B and estimate the combined mass of AB Dor Ba+b as 0.69+0.02-0.24 M⊙, slightly exceeding previous estimates based on IR photometry. Our determined orbital inclination of Rst 137B is close to the axial inclination of AB Dor A inferred from Doppler imaging. Our VLT/UVES spectra yield high rotational velocities of ≥30 km s-1 for both components Ba and Bb, in accord with previous measurements, which corresponds to rotation periods significantly shorter than one day. Our combined spectral model, using PHOENIX spectra, yields an effective temperature of 3310 ± 50 K for the primary and approximately 60 K less for the secondary. The optical spectra presumably cover a chromospheric flare and show that at least one component of Rst 137B is significantly active. Activity and weak variations are also found in our simultaneous XMM-Newton observations, while our ATCA radio data yield constant fluxes at the level of previous measurements. Using evolutionary models, our newly determined stellar parameters confirm that the age of Rst 137B is between 50 and 100 Myr. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, 383.D-1002(A) and the ESO Science Archive Facility. Using data obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member states and NASA. Using data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) operated by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).

  17. Ab Initio Infrared and Raman Spectra.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    equilibrium and non -equilibrium systems. It b pointed out that a similar ab !ni- te QFC molecular dynamic approach could be used to compute other types of...applied to -2- equilibrium and non -equilibrium system. It is pointed out that a similar oh im- ib QFCT molecular dynamic approach could be used to...desire to be able to experimentally identify and understand transient species or states (such as those existing during the course of chemical

  18. CCD Observation of STF1169AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Colette; Anderson, David; Morales, Robin; Gerow, Thomas; Ramirez, Brandon; Whipp, Paul; Rowe, David; Freed, Rachel; Genet, Russell

    2018-01-01

    Binary star system STF1169AB was observed on April 9th, 2017 using the 17-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham, Optical Tube Assembly Astrograph Telescope at the Sierra Remote Observatory. Ten images were taken using a Charge-Coupled Device, allowing position angle and separation to be calculated to within 1.2% standard error. The position angle was recorded as 14.95 degrees and the separation as 20.73 arc seconds.

  19. Ab Initio Crystal Field for Lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F

    2017-03-13

    An ab initio methodology for the first-principle derivation of crystal-field (CF) parameters for lanthanides is described. The methodology is applied to the analysis of CF parameters in [Tb(Pc) 2 ] - (Pc=phthalocyanine) and Dy 4 K 2 ([Dy 4 K 2 O(OtBu) 12 ]) complexes, and compared with often used approximate and model descriptions. It is found that the application of geometry symmetrization, and the use of electrostatic point-charge and phenomenological CF models, lead to unacceptably large deviations from predictions based on ab initio calculations for experimental geometry. It is shown how the predictions of standard CASSCF (Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field) calculations (with 4f orbitals in the active space) can be systematically improved by including effects of dynamical electronic correlation (CASPT2 step) and by admixing electronic configurations of the 5d shell. This is exemplified for the well-studied Er-trensal complex (H 3 trensal=2,2',2"-tris(salicylideneimido)trimethylamine). The electrostatic contributions to CF parameters in this complex, calculated with true charge distributions in the ligands, yield less than half of the total CF splitting, thus pointing to the dominant role of covalent effects. This analysis allows the conclusion that ab initio crystal field is an essential tool for the decent description of lanthanides. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ab interno trabeculectomy: patient selection and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, Kateki; Gedde, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Ab interno trabeculectomy is one among several recently introduced minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries that avoid a conjunctival incision and full-thickness sclerostomy involved in traditional glaucoma surgery. Ablation of the trabecular meshwork and inner wall of Schlemm’s canal is performed in an arcuate fashion via a clear corneal incision, alone or in combination with phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Intraocular pressure reduction following ab interno trabeculectomy is limited by resistance in distal outflow pathways and generally stabilizes in the mid-to-high teens. Relief of medication burden has been demonstrated by some studies. A very low rate of complications, most commonly transient hyphema and intraocular pressure elevations in the immediate postoperative period, have been reported. However, available data are derived from small retrospective and prospective case series. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to better elucidate the potential merits of ab interno trabeculectomy in the combined setting versus phacoemulsification cataract surgery alone and to compare it with other minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries. PMID:27574396

  1. Data and Analysis of the Double Stars STFA 10AB and STFA 1744AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcilla, Marisa; Bowden, Sam; DeBlase, Jacqueline; Hall, Anthony; Hall, Corielyn; Hernandez, Alyssa; Renna, Danielle; Rodriguez, Fatima; Salazar, Cassandra; Sanchez, Andres; Teeter, Dayton; Brewer, Mark; Funk, Benjamin; Gillette, Travis; Sharpe, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Eighth grade students at Vanguard Preparatory School measured the double stars STFA 10AB and STFA 1744AB. A 22-inch Newtonian Alt/Az telescope and a 14-inch Celestron Schmidt Cassegrain telescope were used. The star Bellatrix was used as the calibration star to determine the scale constant of the 22-inch telescope to be 7.8 “/tick marks. The double star STFA 1744AB was used as the calibration star to determine the scale constant of the 14-inch telescope to be 5.1 “/tick marks. The separation and position angle of STFA 10AB was determined by the 22-inch telescope to be 347.9” and 339.3°. The separation and position angle of STFA 1744AB was determined by the 14-inch telescope to be 3.6” and 158.1°. The measurements that were calculated were compared to the most recent measurements listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog.

  2. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a...

  3. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a...

  4. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a...

  5. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a...

  6. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a...

  7. Undoing Gender Through Legislation and Schooling: the Case of AB 537 and AB 394 IN California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knotts, Greg

    2009-11-01

    This article investigates California laws AB 537: The Student Safety and Violence Prevention Act of 2000, and the recently enacted AB 394: Safe Place to Learn Act. Both demand that gender identity and sexual orientation be added to the lexicon of anti-harassment protection in public education. However, despite these progressive measures, schools have an unconscious acceptance of heteronormativity and gendered norms, which undermines both the spirit and language of these laws. This paper examines how California schools can both change standard practices and realise the transformative social change that laws like AB 537 and AB 394 can instigate. I assert that the systemic implementation of these laws, through the adoption, enforcement and evaluation of existing AB 537 Task Force Recommendations, is necessary for their success. My second assertion is that AB 537 and AB 394 have the potential to change and reconstitute gender-based and heteronormative standards at school sites.

  8. Ab initio quantum chemistry: methodology and applications.

    PubMed

    Friesner, Richard A

    2005-05-10

    This Perspective provides an overview of state-of-the-art ab initio quantum chemical methodology and applications. The methods that are discussed include coupled cluster theory, localized second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory, multireference perturbation approaches, and density functional theory. The accuracy of each approach for key chemical properties is summarized, and the computational performance is analyzed, emphasizing significant advances in algorithms and implementation over the past decade. Incorporation of a condensed-phase environment by means of mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics or self-consistent reaction field techniques, is presented. A wide range of illustrative applications, focusing on materials science and biology, are discussed briefly.

  9. Levofloxacin susceptibility testing against Helicobacter pylori: evaluation of a modified disk diffusion method compared to E test.

    PubMed

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Ilieva, Juliana; Gergova, Galina; Mitov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We compared levofloxacin (1 μg/disk) disk diffusion method to E test against 212 Helicobacter pylori strains. Using diameter breakpoints for susceptibility (≥15 mm) and resistance (≤9 mm), very major error, major error rate, and categoric agreement were 0.0%, 0.6%, and 93.9%, respectively. The method may be useful in low-resource laboratories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibiotic stewardship through the EU project "ABS International".

    PubMed

    Allerberger, Franz; Frank, Annegret; Gareis, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance requires implementation of antibiotic stewardship (ABS) programs. The project "ABS International--implementing antibiotic strategies for appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitals in member states of the European Union" was started in September 2006 in Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia. A training program for national ABS trainers was prepared and standard templates for ABS tools (antibiotic list, guides for antibiotic treatment and surgical prophylaxis, antibiotic-related organization) and valid process measures, as well as quality indicators for antibiotic use were developed. Specific ABS tools are being implemented in up to five healthcare facilities in each country. Although ABS International clearly focuses on healthcare institutions, future antimicrobial stewardship programs must also cover public education and antibiotic prescribing in primary care.

  11. Molecular Spectroscopy by Ab Initio Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Due to recent advances in methods and computers, the accuracy of ab calculations has reached a point where these methods can be used to provide accurate spectroscopic constants for small molecules; this will be illustrated with several examples. We will show how ab initio calculations where used to identify the Hermann infrared system in N2 and two band systems in CO. The identification of all three of these band systems relied on very accurate calculations of quintet states. The analysis of the infrared spectra of cool stars requires knowledge of the intensity of vibrational transitions in SiO for high nu and J levels. While experiment can supply very accurate dipole moments for nu = 0 to 3, this is insufficient to construct a global dipole moment function. We show how theory, combined by the experiment, can be used to generate the line intensities up to nu = 40 and J = 250. The spectroscopy of transition metal containing systems is very difficult for both theory and experiment. We will discuss the identification of the ground state of Ti2 and the spectroscopy of AlCu as examples of how theory can contribute to the understanding of these complex systems.

  12. Focused Wind Mass Accretion in Mira AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karovska, Margarita; de Val-Borro, M.; Hack, W.; Raymond, J.; Sasselov, D.; Lee, N. P.

    2011-05-01

    At a distance of about only 100pc, Mira AB is the nearest symbiotic system containing an Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star (Mira A), and a compact accreting companion (Mira B) at about 0.5" from Mira A. Symbiotic systems are interacting binaries with a key evolutionary importance as potential progenitors of a fraction of asymmetric Planetary Nebulae, and SN type Ia, cosmological distance indicators. The region of interaction has been studied using high-angular resolution, multiwavelength observations ranging from radio to X-ray wavelengths. Our results, including high-angular resolution Chandra imaging, show a "bridge" between Mira A and Mira B, indicating gravitational focusing of the Mira A wind, whereby components exchange matter directly in addition to the wind accretion. We carried out a study using 2-D hydrodynamical models of focused wind mass accretion to determine the region of wind acceleration and the characteristics of the accretion in Mira AB. We highlight some of our results and discuss the impact on our understanding of accretion processes in symbiotic systems and other detached and semidetached interacting systems.

  13. Ab Initio-Based Predictions of Hydrocarbon Combustion Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-15

    There are two prime objectives of the research. One is to develop and apply efficient methods for using ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs...31-Mar-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Ab Initio -Based Predictions of Hydrocarbon Combustion Chemistry The...Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 hydrocarbon combustion, ab initio quantum chemistry, potential energy surfaces, chemical

  14. Anti-GD2 mAbs and next-generation mAb-based agents for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Perez Horta, Zulmarie; Goldberg, Jacob L; Sondel, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated efficacy in the clinic, becoming an important approach for cancer immunotherapy. Due to its limited expression on normal tissue, the GD2 disialogangloside expressed on neuroblastoma cells is an excellent candidate for mAb therapy. In 2015, dinutuximab (an anti-GD2 mAb) was approved by the US FDA and is currently used in a combination immunotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of children with high-risk neuroblastoma. Here, we review the extensive preclinical and clinical development of anti-GD2 mAbs and the different mechanisms by which they mediate tumor cell killing. In addition, we discuss different mAb-based strategies that capitalize on the targeting ability of anti-GD2 mAbs to potentially deliver, as monotherapy, or in combination with other treatments, improved antitumor efficacy. PMID:27485082

  15. Ab Initio Reactive Computer Aided Molecular Design

    DOE PAGES

    Martínez, Todd J.

    2017-03-21

    Few would dispute that theoretical chemistry tools can now provide keen insights into chemical phenomena. Yet the holy grail of efficient and reliable prediction of complex reactivity has remained elusive. Fortunately, recent advances in electronic structure theory based on the concepts of both element- and rank-sparsity, coupled with the emergence of new highly parallel computer architectures, have led to a significant increase in the time and length scales which can be simulated using first principles molecular dynamics. This then opens the possibility of new discovery-based approaches to chemical reactivity, such as the recently proposed ab initio nanoreactor. Here, we arguemore » that due to these and other recent advances, the holy grail of computational discovery for complex chemical reactivity is rapidly coming within our reach.« less

  16. Ab Initio Reactive Computer Aided Molecular Design

    SciT

    Martínez, Todd J.

    Few would dispute that theoretical chemistry tools can now provide keen insights into chemical phenomena. Yet the holy grail of efficient and reliable prediction of complex reactivity has remained elusive. Fortunately, recent advances in electronic structure theory based on the concepts of both element- and rank-sparsity, coupled with the emergence of new highly parallel computer architectures, have led to a significant increase in the time and length scales which can be simulated using first principles molecular dynamics. This then opens the possibility of new discovery-based approaches to chemical reactivity, such as the recently proposed ab initio nanoreactor. Here, we arguemore » that due to these and other recent advances, the holy grail of computational discovery for complex chemical reactivity is rapidly coming within our reach.« less

  17. Ab Initio Modeling of Molecular Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Schwenke, David

    2014-01-01

    Radiative emission from excited states of atoms and molecules can comprise a significant fraction of the total heat flux experienced by spacecraft during atmospheric entry at hypersonic speeds. For spacecraft with ablating heat shields, some of this radiative flux can be absorbed by molecular constituents in the boundary layer that are formed by the ablation process. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are carried out to predict the strengths of these emission and absorption processes. This talk will describe the methods used in these calculations using, as examples, the 4th positive emission bands of CO and the 1g+ 1u+ absorption in C3. The results of these calculations are being used as input to NASA radiation modeling codes like NeqAir, HARA and HyperRad.

  18. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; ...

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less

  19. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    SciT

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less

  20. History of California's AB 1725 and Its Major Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Tab

    This paper addresses the history of California's Assembly Bill 1725 (AB 1725) legislation and describes its major provisions. Signed in 1988 by Governor George Deukmejian, AB 1725's focus is to emphasize the new role of California community colleges as postsecondary institutions committed to transferring students, offering remedial courses, and…

  1. 7 CFR Exhibits A-B to Subpart G... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false [Reserved] A Exhibits A-B to Subpart G to Part 1822 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS..., Procedures, and Authorizations Exhibits A-B to Subpart G to Part 1822 [Reserved] ...

  2. Towards Accurate Ab Initio Predictions of the Spectrum of Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have carried out extensive ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of methane, and these results are used to compute vibrational energy levels. We include basis set extrapolations, core-valence correlation, relativistic effects, and Born- Oppenheimer breakdown terms in our calculations. Our ab initio predictions of the lowest lying levels are superb.

  3. 34 CFR Appendixes A-B to Part 682 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] A Appendixes A-B to Part 682 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Appendixes A-B to Part 682 [Reserved] ...

  4. Undoing Gender through Legislation and Schooling: The Case of AB 537 and AB 394 in California, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates California laws AB 537: The Student Safety and Violence Prevention Act of 2000, and the recently enacted AB 394: Safe Place to Learn Act. Both demand that gender identity and sexual orientation be added to the lexicon of anti-harassment protection in public education. However, despite these progressive measures, schools…

  5. Optimization of Antibiotic Use in Hospitals – Antimicrobial Stewardship and the EU Project ABS International

    PubMed Central

    Allerberger, Franz; Lechner, Arno; Wechsler-Fördös, Agnes; Gareis, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Background The problem of antimicrobial resistance requires common strategies at the European level. Methods We report on an EU initiative fostering antibiotic (AB) stewardship (ABS) in hospitals. Results The project ‘ABS International: implementing antibiotic strategies for appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitals in member states of the EU’ started in September 2006 in Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia. A training program for national ABS trainers was prepared and standard templates for ABS tools (AB list, guidelines for AB treatment and surgical prophylaxis, and AB-related organization) and valid process measures as well as quality indicators for AB use were developed. Specific ABS tools are being implemented in up to five health care facilities per country. Conclusion ABS International is the first EU-funded initiative focusing on the implementation of structural measures in hospitals to promote the prudent use of ABs. PMID:18667815

  6. Structural and Biophysical Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Proteins Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1

    PubMed Central

    Kelker, Matthew S.; Berry, Colin; Evans, Steven L.; Pai, Reetal; McCaskill, David G.; Wang, Nick X.; Russell, Joshua C.; Baker, Matthew D.; Yang, Cheng; Pflugrath, J. W.; Wade, Matthew; Wess, Tim J.; Narva, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis strains are well known for the production of insecticidal proteins upon sporulation and these proteins are deposited in parasporal crystalline inclusions. The majority of these insect-specific toxins exhibit three domains in the mature toxin sequence. However, other Cry toxins are structurally and evolutionarily unrelated to this three-domain family and little is known of their three dimensional structures, limiting our understanding of their mechanisms of action and our ability to engineer the proteins to enhance their function. Among the non-three domain Cry toxins, the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from B. thuringiensis strain PS149B1 are required to act together to produce toxicity to the western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte via a pore forming mechanism of action. Cry34Ab1 is a protein of ∼14 kDa with features of the aegerolysin family (Pfam06355) of proteins that have known membrane disrupting activity, while Cry35Ab1 is a ∼44 kDa member of the toxin_10 family (Pfam05431) that includes other insecticidal proteins such as the binary toxin BinA/BinB. The Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins represent an important seed trait technology having been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids for control of WCR. The structures of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 have been elucidated to 2.15 Å and 1.80 Å resolution, respectively. The solution structures of the toxins were further studied by small angle X-ray scattering and native electrospray ion mobility mass spectrometry. We present here the first published structure from the aegerolysin protein domain family and the structural comparisons of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 with other pore forming toxins. PMID:25390338

  7. SdAb heterodimer formation using leucine zippers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Ellen R.; Anderson, George P.; Brozozog-Lee, P. Audrey; Zabetakis, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Single domain antibodies (sdAb) are variable domains cloned from camel, llama, or shark heavy chain only antibodies, and are among the smallest known naturally derived antigen binding fragments. SdAb derived from immunized llamas are able to bind antigens with high affinity, and most are capable of refolding after heat or chemical denaturation to bind antigen again. We hypothesized that the ability to produce heterodimeric sdAb would enable reagents with the robust characteristics of component sdAb, but with dramatically improved overall affinity through increased avidity. Previously we had constructed multimeric sdAb by genetically linking sdAb that bind non-overlapping epitopes on the toxin, ricin. In this work we explored a more flexible approach; the construction of multivalent binding reagents using multimerization domains. We expressed anti-ricin sdAb that recognize different epitopes on the toxin as fusions with differently charged leucine zippers. When the initially produced homodimers are mixed the leucine zipper domains will pair to produce heterodimers. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to confirm heterodimer formation. Surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, and fluid array assays were used to characterize the multimer constructs, and evaluate their utility in toxin detection.

  8. Ab initio gene identification in metagenomic sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenhan; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for gene identification in DNA sequences derived from shotgun sequencing of microbial communities. Accurate ab initio gene prediction in a short nucleotide sequence of anonymous origin is hampered by uncertainty in model parameters. While several machine learning approaches could be proposed to bypass this difficulty, one effective method is to estimate parameters from dependencies, formed in evolution, between frequencies of oligonucleotides in protein-coding regions and genome nucleotide composition. Original version of the method was proposed in 1999 and has been used since for (i) reconstructing codon frequency vector needed for gene finding in viral genomes and (ii) initializing parameters of self-training gene finding algorithms. With advent of new prokaryotic genomes en masse it became possible to enhance the original approach by using direct polynomial and logistic approximations of oligonucleotide frequencies, as well as by separating models for bacteria and archaea. These advances have increased the accuracy of model reconstruction and, subsequently, gene prediction. We describe the refined method and assess its accuracy on known prokaryotic genomes split into short sequences. Also, we show that as a result of application of the new method, several thousands of new genes could be added to existing annotations of several human and mouse gut metagenomes. PMID:20403810

  9. Ab initio simulations of molten Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Christopher; Asta, Mark; Trinkle, Dallas R.; Lill, James; Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano

    2010-06-01

    Convective instabilities responsible for misoriented grains in directionally solidified turbine airfoils are produced by variations in liquid-metal density with composition and temperature across the solidification zone. Here, fundamental properties of molten Ni-based alloys, required for modeling these instabilities, are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Equations of state are derived from constant number-volume-temperature ensembles at 1830 and 1750 K for elemental, binary (Ni-X, X=Al, W, Re, and Ta) and ternary (Ni-Al-X, X=W, Re, and Ta) Ni alloys. Calculated molar volumes agree to within 0.6%-1.8% of available measurements. Predictions are used to investigate the range of accuracy of a parameterization of molar volumes with composition and temperature based on measurements of binary alloys. Structural analysis reveals a pronounced tendency for icosahedral short-range order for Ni-W and Ni-Re alloys and the calculations provide estimates of diffusion rates and their dependence on compositions and temperature.

  10. Ab Interno Trabeculectomy in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Seibold, Leonard K.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient. PMID:25624670

  11. Ab interno trabeculectomy in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Seibold, Leonard K; Kahook, Malik Y

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient.

  12. [Find your way in the jungle of mAbs].

    PubMed

    Watier, H

    2017-09-01

    The rapidly increasing number of approved monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and the huge number of mAbs in clinical development are a matter of concern for who wants to easily identify targets, indications, mechanisms of action and possible adverse effects. The current nomenclature being of limited interest, simple rationales will be presented for helping practitioners in rapidly classify mAbs depending on their structure-pharmacology relationship and in evaluating their potential effects, particularly in transfusion medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Kidney allotransplantation from the AB0-incompatible donors].

    PubMed

    Goriaĭnov, V A; Kaabak, M M; Babenko, N N; Shishlo, L A; Morozova, M M; Ragimov, A A; Dazhkova, N G; Salimov, E L

    2013-01-01

    The experience of 28 kidney allotransplantations from the AB0-incompatible donors was analyzed. The comparative group consisted of 38 patients, who received the AB0-compatible organ. The results were assessed using the following parameters: renal function, morphology of the biopsy samples of the transplanted kidney and actuary survival of the recipients with functioning transplants in both groups. The comparative analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups, giving the right to consider the kidney allotransplantation from the AB0-incompatible donors safe and effective.

  14. Revealing strategies of quorum sensing in Azospirillum brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Josiane; Abrantes, Julia Laura Fernandes; Del Cerro, Pablo; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Megías, Manuel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2018-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is an important plant-growth promoting bacterium (PGPB) that requires several critical steps for root colonization, including biofilm and exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis and cell motility. In several bacteria these mechanisms are mediated by quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the expression of specific genes mediated by the autoinducers N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). We investigated QS mechanisms in strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 of A. brasilense, which are broadly used in commercial inoculants in Brazil. Neither of these strains carries a luxI gene, but there are several luxR solos that might perceive AHL molecules. By adding external AHLs we verified that biofilm and EPS production and cell motility (swimming and swarming) were regulated via QS in Ab-V5, but not in Ab-V6. Differences were observed not only between strains, but also in the specificity of LuxR-type receptors to AHL molecules. However, Ab-V6 was outstanding in indole acetic acid (IAA) synthesis and this molecule might mimic AHL signals. We also applied the quorum quenching (QQ) strategy, obtaining transconjugants of Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 carrying a plasmid with acyl-homoserine lactonase. When maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with the wild-type and transconjugant strains, plant growth was decreased with the transconjugant of Ab-V5-confirming the importance of an AHL-mediated QS system-but did not affect plant growth promotion by Ab-V6.

  15. Ab Initio Calculations of Water Line Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry

    1998-01-01

    We report on the determination of a high quality ab initiu potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function for water. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base with J less than 6 for H2O. The changes in the PES are small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Using this adjusted PES, we can match 30,092 of the 30,117 transitions in the HITRAN 96 data base for H2O with theoretical lines. The 10,25,50,75, and 90 percentiles of the difference between the calculated and tabulated line positions are -0.11, -0.04, -0.01, 0.02, and 0.07 l/cm. Non-adiabatic effects are not explicitly included. About 3% of the tabulated line positions appear to be incorrect. Similar agreement using this adjusted PES is obtained for the oxygen 17 and oxygen 18 isotopes. For HDO, the agreement is not as good, with root-mean-square error of 0.25 l/cm for lines with J less than 6. This error is reduced to 0.02 l/cm by including a small asymmetric correction to the PES, which is parameterized by simultaneously fitting to HDO md D2O data. Scaling this correction by mass factors yields good results for T2O and HTO. The intensities summed over vibrational bands are usually in good agreement between the calculations and the tabulated results, but individual lines strengths can differ greatly. A high temperature list consisting of 307,721,352 lines is generated for H2O using our PES and dipole moment function.

  16. Creep Behavior of ABS Polymer in Temperature-Humidity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Teagen; Selvaraj, Ramya; Hong, Seokmoo; Kim, Naksoo

    2017-04-01

    Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), also known as a thermoplastic polymer, is extensively utilized for manufacturing home appliances products as it possess impressive mechanical properties, such as, resistance and toughness. However, the aforementioned properties are affected by operating temperature and atmosphere humidity due to the viscoelasticity property of an ABS polymer material. Moreover, the prediction of optimum working conditions are the little challenging task as it influences the final properties of product. This present study aims to develop the finite element (FE) models for predicting the creep behavior of an ABS polymeric material. In addition, the material constants, which represent the creep properties of an ABS polymer material, were predicted with the help of an interpolation function. Furthermore, a comparative study has been made with experiment and simulation results to verify the accuracy of developed FE model. The results showed that the predicted value from FE model could agree well with experimental data as well it can replicate the actual creep behavior flawlessly.

  17. Evolving trends in mAb production processes

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Leslie S.; Mostafa, Sigma S.; Norman, Carnley

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have established themselves as the leading biopharmaceutical therapeutic modality. The establishment of robust manufacturing platforms are key for antibody drug discovery efforts to seamlessly translate into clinical and commercial successes. Several drivers are influencing the design of mAb manufacturing processes. The advent of biosimilars is driving a desire to achieve lower cost of goods and globalize biologics manufacturing. High titers are now routinely achieved for mAbs in mammalian cell culture. These drivers have resulted in significant evolution in process platform approaches. Additionally, several new trends in bioprocessing have arisen in keeping with these needs. These include the consideration of alternative expression systems, continuous biomanufacturing and non‐chromatographic separation formats. This paper discusses these drivers in the context of the kinds of changes they are driving in mAb production processes. PMID:29313024

  18. AB toxins: a paradigm switch from deadly to desirable.

    PubMed

    Odumosu, Oludare; Nicholas, Dequina; Yano, Hiroshi; Langridge, William

    2010-07-01

    To ensure their survival, a number of bacterial and plant species have evolved a common strategy to capture energy from other biological systems. Being imperfect pathogens, organisms synthesizing multi-subunit AB toxins are responsible for the mortality of millions of people and animals annually. Vaccination against these organisms and their toxins has proved rather ineffective in providing long-term protection from disease. In response to the debilitating effects of AB toxins on epithelial cells of the digestive mucosa, mechanisms underlying toxin immunomodulation of immune responses have become the focus of increasing experimentation. The results of these studies reveal that AB toxins may have a beneficial application as adjuvants for the enhancement of immune protection against infection and autoimmunity. Here, we examine similarities and differences in the structure and function of bacterial and plant AB toxins that underlie their toxicity and their exceptional properties as immunomodulators for stimulating immune responses against infectious disease and for immune suppression of organ-specific autoimmunity.

  19. Ab Initio: And a New Era of Airline Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Laurence E.

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of air transportation and decreasing numbers seeking pilot training point to a shortage of qualified pilots. Ab initio training, in which candidates with no flight time are trained to air transport proficiency, could resolve the problem. (SK)

  20. Comparison of In Vitro Activity of Liposomal Nystatin against Aspergillus Species with Those of Nystatin, Amphotericin B (AB) Deoxycholate, AB Colloidal Dispersion, Liposomal AB, AB Lipid Complex, and Itraconazole

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Karen L.; Moore, Caroline B.; Denning, David W.

    1999-01-01

    We compared the in vitro activity of liposomal nystatin (Nyotran) with those of other antifungal agents against 60 Aspergillus isolates. Twelve isolates were itraconazole resistant. For all isolates, geometric mean (GM) MICs (micrograms per milliliter) were 2.30 for liposomal nystatin, 0.58 for itraconazole, 0.86 for amphotericin B (AB) deoxycholate, 9.51 for nystatin, 2.07 for liposomal AB, 2.57 for AB lipid complex, and 0.86 for AB colloidal dispersion. Aspergillus terreus (GM, 8.72 μg/ml; range, 8 to 16 μg/ml) was significantly less susceptible to all of the polyene drugs than all other species (P = 0.0001). PMID:10223948

  1. A note on AB INITIO semiconductor band structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentini, Vincenzo

    1992-09-01

    We point out that only the internal features of the DFT ab initio theoretical picture of a crystal should be used in a consistent ab initio calculation of the band structure. As a consequence, we show that ground-state band structure calculations should be performed for the system in equilibrium at zero pressure, i.e. at the computed equilibrium cell volume ω th. Examples of consequences of this attitude are considered.

  2. Correlation between skin-prick testing, individual specific IgE tests, and a multiallergen IgE assay for allergy detection in patients with chronic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Hoon; Suh, Jeffrey D; Kim, Jin Kook; Hong, Seok-Chan; Park, Il-Ho; Lee, Heung-Man

    2014-01-01

    Allergy test results can differ based on the method used. The most common tests include skin-prick testing (SPT) and in vitro tests to detect allergen-specific IgE. This study was designed to assess allergy test results using SPT, individual specific IgE tests, and a multiallergen IgE assay (multiple allergen simultaneous test) in patients with chronic rhinitis and controls. One hundred forty total patients were prospectively enrolled in the study, including 100 patients with chronic rhinitis and 40 control patients without atopy. All eligible patients underwent SPT, serum analysis using individual specific IgE test, and multiple allergen simultaneous test against 10 common allergens. Allergy test results were then compared to identify correlation and interest agreement. There was an 81-97% agreement between SPT and individual specific IgE test in allergen detection and an 80-98% agreement between SPT and multiple allergen simultaneous test. Individual specific IgE test and multiple allergen simultaneous test allergy detection prevalence was generally similar to SPT in patients with chronic rhinitis. All control patients had negative SPT (0/40), but low positive results were found with both individual specific IgE test (5-12.5%) and multiple allergen simultaneous test (2.5-7.5%) to some allergens, especially cockroach, Dermatophagoides farina, and ragweed. Agreement and correlation between individual specific IgE test and multiple allergen simultaneous test were good to excellent for a majority of tested allergens. This study shows good agreement and correlation between SPT with individual specific IgE test and multiple allergen simultaneous test on a majority of the tested allergens for patients with chronic rhinitis. Comparing the two in vitro tests, individual specific IgE test agrees with SPT better than multiple allergen simultaneous test.

  3. Ab-initio calculation of electronic structure and optical properties of AB-stacked bilayer α-graphyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzad, Somayeh

    2016-09-01

    Monolayer α-graphyne is a new two-dimensional carbon allotrope with many special features. In this work the electronic properties of AA- and AB-stacked bilayers of this material and then the optical properties are studied, using first principle plane wave method. The electronic spectrum has two Dirac cones for AA stacked bilayer α-graphyne. For AB-stacked bilayer, the interlayer interaction changes the linear bands into parabolic bands. The optical spectra of the most stable AB-stacked bilayer closely resemble to that of the monolayer, except for small shifts of peak positions and increasing of their intensity. For AB-stacked bilayer, a pronounced peak has been found at low energies under the perpendicular polarization. This peak can be clearly ascribed to the transitions at the Dirac point as a result of the small degeneracy lift in the band structure.

  4. [Increase in orders for specific IgE tests and more positive results in children in 1985-2003].

    PubMed

    Baatenburg de Jong, A; Dikkeschei, L D; Brand, P L P

    2008-08-09

    To describe changes over time in the number of allergy tests for specific IgE ordered and outcomes in children, to help address the question whether the increase in allergies is due to an actual increase in sensitisation or an increase in diagnostic awareness of allergies among physicians. Retrospective and descriptive. We reviewed the results of all specific IgE tests performed in our hospital's laboratory for children 0-18 years of age in the period 1985-2003. This included tests ordered by both general practitioners and hospital-based specialists. We analysed trends over time in the number of tests ordered (as an indicator ofdiagnostic awareness) and test results (as an indicator ofsensitisation). Between 1989 and 1995, the annual number of tests ordered increased from 1 per 10,000 children to 95 per 10,000 children and remained stable thereafter. Before 1990, more than 90% of tests were ordered by hospital-based specialists; after 1990, approximately 70% of the tests were ordered by general practitioners (p < 0.001). The proportion of positive tests remained stable at approximately 27% until 1991, after which it increased to more than 45% (p < 0.001). The increase in the proportion of positive tests suggests an increase in atopic sensitization between 1985 and 2000 which has stabilized since.

  5. Rapid detection and E-test antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood and environmental sources in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Othrubi, Saleh M; Hanafiah, Alfizah; Radu, Son; Neoh, Humin; Jamal, Rahaman

    2011-04-01

    To find out the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods and environmental sources. The study was carried out at the Center of Excellence for Food Safety Research, University Putra Malaysia; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Medical Molecular Biology Institute; and University Kebansaan Malaysia Hospital, Malaysia between January 2006 and August 2008. One hundred and forty-four isolates from 400 samples of seafood (122 isolates) and seawater sources (22 isolates) were investigated for the presence of thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh+) and TDH-related hemolysin (trh+) genes using the standard methods. The E-test method was used to test the antimicrobial susceptibility. The study indicates low occurrence of tdh+ (0.69%) and trh+ isolates (8.3%). None of the isolates tested posses both virulence genes. High sensitivity was observed against tetracycline (98%). The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the isolates toward ampicillin increased from 4 ug/ml in 2004 to 24 ug/ml in 2007. The current study demonstrates a low occurrence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the marine environment and seafood. Nonetheless, the potential risk of vibrio infection due to consumption of Vibrio parahaemolyticus contaminated seafood in Malaysia should not be neglected.

  6. Ab Initio Studies of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the current understanding of ozone depletion chemistry, particularly with regards the formation of the so-called Antarctic ozone hole, will be presented together with an outline as to how ab initio quantum chemistry can be used to further our understanding of stratospheric chemistry. The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. The ab initio results will be shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the theoretical results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve experimental controversies. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of halogen oxide species will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of experimental studies.

  7. ABS 3D printed solutions for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomé, E.; Bozzo, B.; Sevilla, P.; Martínez-Pasarell, O.; Puig, T.; Granados, X.

    2017-03-01

    3D printing has become a common, inexpensive and rapid prototyping technique, enabling the ad hoc fabrication of complex shapes. In this paper, we demonstrate that 3D printed objects in ABS can be used at cryogenic temperatures, offering flexible solutions in different fields. Firstly, a thermo-mechanical characterization of ABS 3D printed specimens at 77 K is reported, which allowed us to delimit the type of cryogenic uses where 3D printed pieces may be implemented. Secondly, we present three different examples where ABS 3D printed objects working at low temperatures have provided specific solutions: (i) SQUID inserts for angular magnetometry (low temperature material characterization field); (ii) a cage support for a metamaterial ;magnetic concentrator; (superconductivity application), and (iii) dedicated tools for cryopreservation in assisted reproductive techniques (medicine field).

  8. Lithium cluster anions: photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Alexandrova, Anastassia N; Boldyrev, Alexander I; Li, Xiang; Sarkas, Harry W; Hendricks, Jay H; Arnold, Susan T; Bowen, Kit H

    2011-01-28

    Structural and energetic properties of small, deceptively simple anionic clusters of lithium, Li(n)(-), n = 3-7, were determined using a combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. The most stable isomers of each of these anions, the ones most likely to contribute to the photoelectron spectra, were found using the gradient embedded genetic algorithm program. Subsequently, state-of-the-art ab initio techniques, including time-dependent density functional theory, coupled cluster, and multireference configurational interactions methods, were employed to interpret the experimental spectra.

  9. An ABS control logic based on wheel force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, D.; Galvagno, E.; Ondrak, V.; van Leeuwen, B.; Vigliani, A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an anti-lock braking system (ABS) control logic based on the measurement of the longitudinal forces at the hub bearings. The availability of force information allows to design a logic that does not rely on the estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient, since it continuously tries to exploit the maximum longitudinal tyre force. The logic is designed by means of computer simulation and then tested on a specific hardware in the loop test bench: the experimental results confirm that measured wheel force can lead to a significant improvement of the ABS performances in terms of stopping distance also in the presence of road with variable friction coefficient.

  10. Student Measurements of STFA 10AB (Theta Tauri)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Sean; Estrada, Chris; Estrada, Reed; Aguilera, Sophia; Chavez, Valerie; Givens, Jalynn; Lindorfer, Sarah; Michels, Kaylie; Mobley, Makenzie; Reder, Gabriel; Renteria, Kayla; Shattles, Jenna; Wilkin, Aiden; Woodbury, Maisy; Rhoades, Breauna; Rhoades, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Eighth grade students at Vanguard Preparatory School measured the double star STFA 10AB using a 22-inch Newtonian Alt/Az telescope and a Celestron Micro Guide eyepiece. Bellatrix was used as the calibration star. The calculated means of multiple observations of STFA 10AB resulted in a separation of 45.18,” a scale constant of 7.88 arcseconds per division, and position angle of 257.9°. These measurements were compared to the most recent values in the Washington Double Star Catalog.

  11. Ab initio calculation of one-nucleon halo states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodkin, D. M.; Tchuvil'sky, Yu M.

    2018-02-01

    We develop an approach to microscopic and ab initio description of clustered systems, states with halo nucleon and one-nucleon resonances. For these purposes a basis combining ordinary shell-model components and cluster-channel terms is built up. The transformation of clustered wave functions to the uniform Slater-determinant type is performed using the concept of cluster coefficients. The resulting basis of orthonormalized wave functions is used for calculating the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of Hamiltonians built in the framework of ab initio approaches. Calculations of resonance and halo states of 5He, 9Be and 9B nuclei demonstrate that the approach is workable and labor-saving.

  12. [In vitro activity of ertapenem against clinical bacterial isolates in 69 Spanish medical centers (E-test study)].

    PubMed

    Gobernado, M; Sanz-Rodríguez, C; Villanueva, R; Torroba, L; Redondo, E; González-Esteban, J

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess the in vitro activity of ertapenem against clinical bacterial isolates from patients with community-acquired intra-abdominal and lower tract respiratory infections in Spain in 2003. As the study was conducted before the marketing of ertapenem, it was also useful to define a baseline susceptibility pattern for ertapenem in each of the participating hospitals for later surveillance studies. Each partipating site identified a variable number of aerobic and facultative bacteria isolated from patients with community-acquired intra-abdominal infection or pneumonia using standard procedures. E-test strips were used for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ertapenem, while for other antimicrobials either quantitative dilution techniques or qualitative diffusion procedures were used according to each microbiology laboratory's routine practice. MIC breakpoints for categorization of susceptibility provided by the CLSI were used for interpreting MIC values. A total of 2,901 recent clinical isolates from patients with community-acquired intra-abdominal infection or pneumonia hospitalized in 69 Spanish medical centers were tested. These isolates included 2,039 Gram-negative bacteria (1,646 Enterobacteriaceae, 216 Haemophilus, 123 non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria [NFGNB] and 54 others) and 862 Gram-positive bacteria (556 pneumococci, 159 staphylococci, 96 streptococci other than S. pneumoniae, 44 enterococci and 7 others). Ertapenem was very active in vitro against Enterobacteriaceae (99.8% susceptible), Haemophilus (96.3% susceptible), pneumococci (99.6% susceptible, of which 31% were penicillin non-susceptible strains), streptococci other than S. pneumoniae (99.0% susceptible) and methicillin-susceptible staphylococci (94.8% susceptible). For other Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens for which ertapenem susceptible breakpoints have not been defined, MIC(90) values were 0.38 and 0.064 mg/l, respectively. As

  13. Leukocyte adhesion: High-speed cells with ABS.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, P A

    1999-06-03

    In order to decide where to exit blood vessels and enter tissues, leukocytes roll along endothelial surfaces. Recent studies suggest that an 'automatic braking system' (ABS), involving selectin cell-adhesion molecules, enables leukocytes to roll at a fairly constant velocity despite large variations in blood flow rate.

  14. AB Toxins: A Paradigm Switch from Deadly to Desirable

    PubMed Central

    Odumosu, Oludare; Nicholas, Dequina; Yano, Hiroshi; Langridge, William

    2010-01-01

    To ensure their survival, a number of bacterial and plant species have evolved a common strategy to capture energy from other biological systems. Being imperfect pathogens, organisms synthesizing multi-subunit AB toxins are responsible for the mortality of millions of people and animals annually. Vaccination against these organisms and their toxins has proved rather ineffective in providing long-term protection from disease. In response to the debilitating effects of AB toxins on epithelial cells of the digestive mucosa, mechanisms underlying toxin immunomodulation of immune responses have become the focus of increasing experimentation. The results of these studies reveal that AB toxins may have a beneficial application as adjuvants for the enhancement of immune protection against infection and autoimmunity. Here, we examine similarities and differences in the structure and function of bacterial and plant AB toxins that underlie their toxicity and their exceptional properties as immunomodulators for stimulating immune responses against infectious disease and for immune suppression of organ-specific autoimmunity. PMID:22069653

  15. Multiple time step integrators in ab initio molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Luehr, Nathan; Markland, Thomas E; Martínez, Todd J

    2014-02-28

    Multiple time-scale algorithms exploit the natural separation of time-scales in chemical systems to greatly accelerate the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations. Although the utility of these methods in systems where the interactions are described by empirical potentials is now well established, their application to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations has been limited by difficulties associated with splitting the ab initio potential into fast and slowly varying components. Here we present two schemes that enable efficient time-scale separation in ab initio calculations: one based on fragment decomposition and the other on range separation of the Coulomb operator in the electronic Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for both water clusters and a solvated hydroxide ion that multiple time-scale molecular dynamics allows for outer time steps of 2.5 fs, which are as large as those obtained when such schemes are applied to empirical potentials, while still allowing for bonds to be broken and reformed throughout the dynamics. This permits computational speedups of up to 4.4x, compared to standard Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics with a 0.5 fs time step, while maintaining the same energy conservation and accuracy.

  16. Ab initio interatomic potentials and the thermodynamic properties of fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasiuk, Maryna; Sadus, Richard J.

    2017-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations with accurate ab initio interatomic potentials are used to investigate the key thermodynamic properties of argon and krypton in both vapor and liquid phases. Data are reported for the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, the Joule-Thomson coefficient, and the speed of sound calculated using various two-body interatomic potentials and different combinations of two-body plus three-body terms. The results are compared to either experimental or reference data at state points between the triple and critical points. Using accurate two-body ab initio potentials, combined with three-body interaction terms such as the Axilrod-Teller-Muto and Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potentials, yields systematic improvements to the accuracy of thermodynamic predictions. The effect of three-body interactions is to lower the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities and increase both the Joule-Thomson coefficient and speed of sound. The Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potential is a computationally inexpensive way to utilize accurate two-body ab initio potentials for the prediction of thermodynamic properties. In particular, it provides a very effective way of extending two-body ab initio potentials to liquid phase properties.

  17. A walk through the approximations of ab initio multiple spawning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignolet, Benoit; Curchod, Basile F. E.

    2018-04-01

    Full multiple spawning offers an in principle exact framework for excited-state dynamics, where nuclear wavefunctions in different electronic states are represented by a set of coupled trajectory basis functions that follow classical trajectories. The couplings between trajectory basis functions can be approximated to treat molecular systems, leading to the ab initio multiple spawning method which has been successfully employed to study the photochemistry and photophysics of several molecules. However, a detailed investigation of its approximations and their consequences is currently missing in the literature. In this work, we simulate the explicit photoexcitation and subsequent excited-state dynamics of a simple system, LiH, and we analyze (i) the effect of the ab initio multiple spawning approximations on different observables and (ii) the convergence of the ab initio multiple spawning results towards numerically exact quantum dynamics upon a progressive relaxation of these approximations. We show that, despite the crude character of the approximations underlying ab initio multiple spawning for this low-dimensional system, the qualitative excited-state dynamics is adequately captured, and affordable corrections can further be applied to ameliorate the coupling between trajectory basis functions.

  18. A-B Distinction in a Sample of Prominent Psychotherapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Jesse D.; Berzins, Juris I.

    1976-01-01

    A sample of prominent psychotherapists were asked to fill out the A-B therapist "type" scale and comment on their possible differential effectiveness in treating schizoid/schizophrenic versus neurotic patients. The data suggest that B therapists desire and seek more complex and exciting sensory-cognitive inputs during therapy hours than A…

  19. Ab initio calculations of the lattice dynamics of silver halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, A. B.; Kravchenko, N. G.; Sedelnikov, A. N.

    2010-12-01

    Based on ab initio pseudopotential calculations, the results of investigations of the lattice dynamics of silver halides AgHal (Hal = Cl, Br, I) are presented. Equilibrium lattice parameters, phonon spectra, frequency densities and effective atomic-charge values are obtained for all types of crystals under study.

  20. Information Manual: Procedures, Planning Concepts, Subsystems. ABS Publication No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley.

    This report, the third in a series which presents the results of a systems analysis of the problem of providing science and engineering buildings at the university level, is a technical manual for using the Academic Building Systems (ABS) approach in programing, designing, and constructing such facilities. The document presents (1) planning…

  1. Food for Thought on the "ABS Academic Journal Quality Guide"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Simon

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses issues relating to the use of the Association of Business Schools' (ABS) "Academic Journal Quality Guide" within UK business schools. It also looks at several specific issues raised by the Chair of the British Accounting Association/British Accounting and Finance Association regarding the ratings for top…

  2. The application of ab initio calculations to molecular spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in ab initio molecular structure calculations is reviewed with an emphasis on recent developments, such as full configuration-interaction benchmark calculations and atomic natural orbital basis sets. It is found that new developments in methodology, combined with improvements in computer hardware, are leading to unprecedented accuracy in solving problems in spectroscopy.

  3. The application of ab initio calculations to molecular spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in ab initio molecular structure calculations is reviewed, with an emphasis on recent developments such as full configuration-interaction benchmark calculations and atomic natural orbital basis sets. It is shown that new developments in methodology combined with improvements in computer hardware are leading to unprecedented accuracy in solving problems in spectroscopy.

  4. Pseudosymmetric features of non-centrosymmetric AB type crystals

    SciT

    Gazhulina, A.P., E-mail: asyagazhulina@yandex.ru; Marychev, M.O.

    2016-07-15

    This work is supplement to our previous investigation (Gazhulina and Marychev, 2015) [1]. We have considered pseudosymmetric features with respect to the operation of inversion (pseudoinversion) for 340 non-centrosymmetric AB type crystals. Analysis of the features of particular structure types allowed us to determine the positions of pseudoinversion centers, subdivide them into separate types, and classify the entire set of crystals studied with respect to the types of pseudoinversion centers and peculiarities of the behavior of the degree of pseudoinversion depending on the ratio of atomic numbers of A and B components. For each group of crystals, average values andmore » lower boundaries of the maximum pseudoinversion are determined and distribution with respect to the degree of pseudoinversion is constructed. - Graphical abstract: A group of 340 non-centrosymmetric AB type crystals have been considered for their pseudosymmetry features with respect to the operation of inversion. Positions of pseudoinversion centers, subdivision of them into separate types, classification of the entire set of crystals studied with respect to the types of pseudoinversion centers and peculiarities of the behavior of the degree of pseudoinversion are established and discussed. Display Omitted - Highlights: • We consider pseudoinversion of 340 non-centrosymmetric AB type crystals. • AB type crystals are divided into three groups with respect to pseudoinversion. • Positions and types of pseudoinversion centers are determined. • Lower boundaries of the maximum pseudoinversion are determined.« less

  5. Further Food for Thought on the "ABS Guide"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper replies to points raised by the editors of the "ABS Guide", Huw Morris, Charles Harvey, Aidan Kelly and Michael Rowlinson (2011) "Accounting Education: an international journal", 20(6), pp. 561-573) in response to a paper published in a previous issue of "Accounting Education" (Hussain, S. (2011)…

  6. Bicanonical ab Initio Molecular Dynamics for Open Systems.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Johannes; Meyer, Bernd; Marx, Dominik

    2017-08-08

    Performing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of open systems, where the chemical potential rather than the number of both nuclei and electrons is fixed, still is a challenge. Here, drawing on bicanonical sampling ideas introduced two decades ago by Swope and Andersen [ J. Chem. Phys. 1995 , 102 , 2851 - 2863 ] to calculate chemical potentials of liquids and solids, an ab initio simulation technique is devised, which introduces a fictitious dynamics of two superimposed but otherwise independent periodic systems including full electronic structure, such that either the chemical potential or the average fractional particle number of a specific chemical species can be kept constant. As proof of concept, we demonstrate that solvation free energies can be computed from these bicanonical ab initio simulations upon directly superimposing pure bulk water and the respective aqueous solution being the two limiting systems. The method is useful in many circumstances, for instance for studying heterogeneous catalytic processes taking place on surfaces where the chemical potential of reactants rather than their number is controlled and opens a pathway toward ab initio simulations at constant electrochemical potential.

  7. A walk through the approximations of ab initio multiple spawning.

    PubMed

    Mignolet, Benoit; Curchod, Basile F E

    2018-04-07

    Full multiple spawning offers an in principle exact framework for excited-state dynamics, where nuclear wavefunctions in different electronic states are represented by a set of coupled trajectory basis functions that follow classical trajectories. The couplings between trajectory basis functions can be approximated to treat molecular systems, leading to the ab initio multiple spawning method which has been successfully employed to study the photochemistry and photophysics of several molecules. However, a detailed investigation of its approximations and their consequences is currently missing in the literature. In this work, we simulate the explicit photoexcitation and subsequent excited-state dynamics of a simple system, LiH, and we analyze (i) the effect of the ab initio multiple spawning approximations on different observables and (ii) the convergence of the ab initio multiple spawning results towards numerically exact quantum dynamics upon a progressive relaxation of these approximations. We show that, despite the crude character of the approximations underlying ab initio multiple spawning for this low-dimensional system, the qualitative excited-state dynamics is adequately captured, and affordable corrections can further be applied to ameliorate the coupling between trajectory basis functions.

  8. Ab initio interatomic potentials and the thermodynamic properties of fluids.

    PubMed

    Vlasiuk, Maryna; Sadus, Richard J

    2017-07-14

    Monte Carlo simulations with accurate ab initio interatomic potentials are used to investigate the key thermodynamic properties of argon and krypton in both vapor and liquid phases. Data are reported for the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, the Joule-Thomson coefficient, and the speed of sound calculated using various two-body interatomic potentials and different combinations of two-body plus three-body terms. The results are compared to either experimental or reference data at state points between the triple and critical points. Using accurate two-body ab initio potentials, combined with three-body interaction terms such as the Axilrod-Teller-Muto and Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potentials, yields systematic improvements to the accuracy of thermodynamic predictions. The effect of three-body interactions is to lower the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities and increase both the Joule-Thomson coefficient and speed of sound. The Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potential is a computationally inexpensive way to utilize accurate two-body ab initio potentials for the prediction of thermodynamic properties. In particular, it provides a very effective way of extending two-body ab initio potentials to liquid phase properties.

  9. An optimum A-B scale of psychotherapist effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Stephens, J H; Shaffer, J W; Zlotowitz, H I

    1975-04-01

    On the basis of the original Whitehorn-Betz data collected over a 16-year period, it is shown that all previously derived A-B scales of psychotherapist effectiveness using Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) items are deficient in terms of correlation with the original criterion and, frequently, in terms of reliability as well. The reasons for these deficiencies are discussed, and a new experimental A-B scale is formulated and tested for adequacy. This scale is shown to possess substantial internal consistency reliability and to have a high degree of correlation with the criterion even after the removal of possible contaminating factors such as use ofancillary teatments, differences in patient prognosis, and changing practices and interest over time. It is further shown that none of the A-B scales has any validity with respect to female therapists in the original data pool. Exploration of the factor-analytic structure of this new scale and two other widely used A-B measures in terms of the occupationa scales of the SVIB reveals differential loadings on four dimensions labeled verbal/comceptual vs. manual/practical, scientific vs. sales, social concern, and artistic vs. business-oriented. It is concluded that although male therapists' scores on the best of the A-B scales may , under certain circumstances,be related to short term judged improvement in patients treated, there is little evidence that high scoring therapists are more likey than low scoring ones to have a favorable, long range impact on diagnosed schizophrenics.

  10. Perspective: Ab initio force field methods derived from quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Guidez, Emilie B.; Bertoni, Colleen; Gordon, Mark S.

    2018-03-01

    It is often desirable to accurately and efficiently model the behavior of large molecular systems in the condensed phase (thousands to tens of thousands of atoms) over long time scales (from nanoseconds to milliseconds). In these cases, ab initio methods are difficult due to the increasing computational cost with the number of electrons. A more computationally attractive alternative is to perform the simulations at the atomic level using a parameterized function to model the electronic energy. Many empirical force fields have been developed for this purpose. However, the functions that are used to model interatomic and intermolecular interactions contain many fitted parameters obtained from selected model systems, and such classical force fields cannot properly simulate important electronic effects. Furthermore, while such force fields are computationally affordable, they are not reliable when applied to systems that differ significantly from those used in their parameterization. They also cannot provide the information necessary to analyze the interactions that occur in the system, making the systematic improvement of the functional forms that are used difficult. Ab initio force field methods aim to combine the merits of both types of methods. The ideal ab initio force fields are built on first principles and require no fitted parameters. Ab initio force field methods surveyed in this perspective are based on fragmentation approaches and intermolecular perturbation theory. This perspective summarizes their theoretical foundation, key components in their formulation, and discusses key aspects of these methods such as accuracy and formal computational cost. The ab initio force fields considered here were developed for different targets, and this perspective also aims to provide a balanced presentation of their strengths and shortcomings. Finally, this perspective suggests some future directions for this actively developing area.

  11. Comparison of real-time PCR with disk diffusion, agar screen and E-test methods for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Shariati, Laleh; Validi, Majid; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Karimi, Ali; Nafisi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial pathogen. Our main objective was to compare oxacillin disk test, oxacillin E-test, and oxacillin agar screen for detection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus, using real-time PCR for mecA as the "gold standard" comparison assay. 196 S. aureus isolates were identified out of 284 Staphylococcus isolates. These isolates were screened for MRSA with several methods: disk diffusion, agar screen (6.0 μg/ml), oxacillin E-test, and real-time PCR for detection of mecA gene. Of the 196 S. aureus isolates tested, 96 isolates (49%) were mecA-positive and 100 isolates (51%) mecA-negative. All methods tested had a statistically significant agreement with real-time PCR. E-test was 100% sensitive and specific for mecA presence. The sensitivity and specificity of oxacillin agar screen method were 98 and 99%, respectively and sensitivity and specificity of oxacillin disk diffusion method were 95 and 93%, respectively. In the present study, oxacillin E-test is proposed as the best phenotypic method. For economic reasons, the oxacillin agar screen method (6.0 μg/ml), which is suitable for the detection of MRSA, is recommended due to its accuracy and low cost.

  12. Susceptibility of 100 filamentous fungi: comparison of two diffusion methods, Neo-Sensitabs and E-test, for amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole.

    PubMed

    Colosi, Ioana A; Faure, Odile; Dessaigne, Bérangére; Bourdon, Cécile; Lebeau, Bernadette; Colosi, Horaţiu A; Pelloux, Hervé

    2012-05-01

    We compared the E-test method to that of the Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion assay for evaluating the in vitro susceptibility of 100 clinical isolates of filamentous fungi (Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp., zygomycetes and other molds) to amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, and posaconazole. We determined the categorical agreement level between E-test minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and tablet end-points, as opposed to the following disagreement parameters: very major error - resistant parameter (R) in E-test and susceptible (S) in tablet; major error - S by E-test and R by tablet; minor error - shifts between S and susceptible dose-dependent (S-DD) or S-DD and R. We also performed linear regression analyses and computed Pearson's correlation coefficients (R values) between the log transforms of MICs and the inhibition zone diameters of the five studied antifungal agents. For itraconazole we obtained 97% categorical agreement and R = -0.727. Categorical agreement for caspofungin and voriconazole was 96% and R =-0.821 and R = -0.789, respectively. For posaconazole the categorical agreement was 94% and R =-0.743. Amphotericin B exhibited a lower degree of agreement (76%, R = -0.672), especially in studies of Aspergillus spp. Our results suggest a potential value of the Neo-Sensitabs assay for in vitro susceptibility testing of molds to itraconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin and posaconazole, while amphotericin B exhibited an overall lower degree of agreement.

  13. Effect of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to class I and class II HLA antigens on lectin- and MoAb OKT3-induced lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Y; Zicht, R; Ferrone, S; Bonnard, G D; Herberman, R B

    1985-04-01

    We have examined the effect of several monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to monomorphic determinants of class II HLA antigens, and MoAb to monomorphic determinants of class I HLA antigens and to beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2-mu) on lectin- and MoAb OKT3-induced proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) and cultured T cells (CTC). Some, but not all, anti-class II HLA MoAb inhibited the proliferative response of PBMNC to MoAb OKT3 and pokeweed mitogen (PWM). The degree of inhibitory effect varied considerably. This effect was not limited to anti-class II HLA MoAb since anti-class I HLA MoAb and anti-beta 2-mu MoAb also inhibited MoAb OKT3- or PWM-induced proliferative responses. In contrast, the response of PBMNC to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) was not blocked by any anti-class II HLA MoAb. However, some anti-class II HLA MoAb also inhibited the proliferative response of CTC plus allogeneic peripheral blood adherent accessory cells (AC) to PHA or Con A as well as to MoAb OKT3 or PWM. This may be attributable to the substantially greater class II HLA antigen expression by CTC than by fresh lymphocytes. Pretreatment of either CTC or AC with anti-class II HLA MoAb inhibited OKT3-induced proliferation. In contrast, pretreatment of CTC, but not AC, with anti-class I HLA MoAb inhibited the proliferative response of CTC to OKT3. Pretreatment of CTC with anti-class I HLA MoAb inhibited PHA-, Con A and PWM-induced proliferation, to a greater degree than the anti-class II HLA MoAb. It appears as if lymphocyte activation by different mitogens exhibits variable requirements for the presence of cells expressing major histocompatibility determinants. Binding of Ab to membrane markers may interfere with lymphocyte-AC cooperation, perhaps by inhibiting binding of mitogens to their receptors or by interfering with lymphocyte and AC function. We also have examined the role of class II HLA antigens on CTC by depleting class II HLA-positive cells

  14. Protective mAbs and Cross-Reactive mAbs Raised by Immunization with Engineered Marburg Virus GPs.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Marnie L; Hashiguchi, Takao; Cassan, Robyn; Biggins, Julia E; Murin, Charles D; Warfield, Kelly L; Li, Sheng; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Olinger, Gene G; Kim, Do H; Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry; Ward, Andrew B; Nykiforuk, Cory; Aman, M Javad; Berry, Jody D; Berry, Jody; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2015-06-01

    The filoviruses, which include the marburg- and ebolaviruses, have caused multiple outbreaks among humans this decade. Antibodies against the filovirus surface glycoprotein (GP) have been shown to provide life-saving therapy in nonhuman primates, but such antibodies are generally virus-specific. Many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been described against Ebola virus. In contrast, relatively few have been described against Marburg virus. Here we present ten mAbs elicited by immunization of mice using recombinant mucin-deleted GPs from different Marburg virus (MARV) strains. Surprisingly, two of the mAbs raised against MARV GP also cross-react with the mucin-deleted GP cores of all tested ebolaviruses (Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, Reston), but these epitopes are masked differently by the mucin-like domains themselves. The most efficacious mAbs in this panel were found to recognize a novel "wing" feature on the GP2 subunit that is unique to Marburg and does not exist in Ebola. Two of these anti-wing antibodies confer 90 and 100% protection, respectively, one hour post-exposure in mice challenged with MARV.

  15. Phylogenetic and environmental diversity of DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductases

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Albert Leopold; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Rattei, Thomas; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The energy metabolism of essential microbial guilds in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle is based on a DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase that either catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide during anaerobic respiration of sulfate, sulfite and organosulfonates, or acts in reverse during sulfur oxidation. Common use of dsrAB as a functional marker showed that dsrAB richness in many environments is dominated by novel sequence variants and collectively represents an extensive, largely uncharted sequence assemblage. Here, we established a comprehensive, manually curated dsrAB/DsrAB database and used it to categorize the known dsrAB diversity, reanalyze the evolutionary history of dsrAB and evaluate the coverage of published dsrAB-targeted primers. Based on a DsrAB consensus phylogeny, we introduce an operational classification system for environmental dsrAB sequences that integrates established taxonomic groups with operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at multiple phylogenetic levels, ranging from DsrAB enzyme families that reflect reductive or oxidative DsrAB types of bacterial or archaeal origin, superclusters, uncultured family-level lineages to species-level OTUs. Environmental dsrAB sequences constituted at least 13 stable family-level lineages without any cultivated representatives, suggesting that major taxa of sulfite/sulfate-reducing microorganisms have not yet been identified. Three of these uncultured lineages occur mainly in marine environments, while specific habitat preferences are not evident for members of the other 10 uncultured lineages. In summary, our publically available dsrAB/DsrAB database, the phylogenetic framework, the multilevel classification system and a set of recommended primers provide a necessary foundation for large-scale dsrAB ecology studies with next-generation sequencing methods. PMID:25343514

  16. ABO Mistyping of cis-AB Blood Group by the Automated Microplate Technique.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sejong; Ryu, Mi Ra; Cha, Seung-Yeon; Seo, Ji-Young; Cho, Duck

    2018-01-01

    The cis -AB phenotype, although rare, is the relatively most frequent of ABO subgroups in Koreans. To prevent ABO mistyping of cis -AB samples, our hospital has applied a combination of the manual tile method with automated devices. Herein, we report cases of ABO mistyping detected by the combination testing system. Cases that showed discrepant results by automated devices and the manual tile method were evaluated. These samples were also tested by the standard tube method. The automated devices used in this study were a QWALYS-3 and Galileo NEO. Exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were sequenced. 13 cases that had the cis -AB allele showed results suggestive of the cis -AB subgroup by manual methods, but were interpreted as AB by either automated device. This happened in 87.5% of these cases by QWALYS-3 and 70.0% by Galileo NEO. Genotyping results showed that 12 cases were ABO*cis-AB01/ABO*O01 or ABO*cis-AB01/ABO*O02 , and one case was ABO*cis-AB01/ ABO*A102. Cis -AB samples were mistyped as AB by the automated microplate technique in some cases. We suggest that the manual tile method can be a simple supplemental test for the detection of the cis -AB phenotype, especially in countries with relatively high cis- AB prevalence.

  17. Ab initio theories for light nuclei and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezerlis, Alexandros

    2016-09-01

    In this talk I will touch upon several features of modern ab initio low-energy nuclear theory. I will start by discussing what ``ab initio'' means in this context. Specifically, I will spend some time going over nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions and their connections with the underlying theory of Quantum Chromodynamics. I will then show how these interactions are used to describe light nuclei using essentially exact few-body methods. I will then discuss heavier systems, especially those of astrophysical relevance, as well as the methods used to tackle them. This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI).

  18. Towards ab initio Calculations with the Dynamical Vertex Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galler, Anna; Kaufmann, Josef; Gunacker, Patrik; Pickem, Matthias; Thunström, Patrik; Tomczak, Jan M.; Held, Karsten

    2018-04-01

    While key effects of the many-body problem — such as Kondo and Mott physics — can be understood in terms of on-site correlations, non-local fluctuations of charge, spin, and pairing amplitudes are at the heart of the most fascinating and unresolved phenomena in condensed matter physics. Here, we review recent progress in diagrammatic extensions to dynamical mean-field theory for ab initio materials calculations. We first recapitulate the quantum field theoretical background behind the two-particle vertex. Next we discuss latest algorithmic advances in quantum Monte Carlo simulations for calculating such two-particle quantities using worm sampling and vertex asymptotics, before giving an introduction to the ab initio dynamical vertex approximation (AbinitioDΓA). Finally, we highlight the potential of AbinitioDΓA by detailing results for the prototypical correlated metal SrVO3.

  19. Soliton solutions for ABS lattice equations: I. Cauchy matrix approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijhoff, Frank; Atkinson, James; Hietarinta, Jarmo

    2009-10-01

    In recent years there have been new insights into the integrability of quadrilateral lattice equations, i.e. partial difference equations which are the natural discrete analogues of integrable partial differential equations in 1+1 dimensions. In the scalar (i.e. single-field) case, there now exist classification results by Adler, Bobenko and Suris (ABS) leading to some new examples in addition to the lattice equations 'of KdV type' that were known since the late 1970s and early 1980s. In this paper, we review the construction of soliton solutions for the KdV-type lattice equations and use those results to construct N-soliton solutions for all lattice equations in the ABS list except for the elliptic case of Q4, which is left to a separate treatment.

  20. Ab initio structures and polarizabilities of sodium clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronik, Leeor; Vasiliev, Igor; Jain, Manish; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2001-09-01

    We present quantitative ab initio calculations for Na cluster structures and polarizabilities, for all cluster sizes up to 20 atoms. Our calculations are performed by combining an ab initio core-corrected pseudopotential and a gradient-corrected density functional within a real space approach. We find the cluster bonding to be very floppy and catalog a host of low-energy quasi-degenerate isomers for all second-decade clusters. The existence of these isomers results in a band of polarizability values for each cluster size even at zero temperature. This eliminates any finer structure in the polarizability curve. We further show that the experimental polarizability values are consistently underestimated by calculations at zero temperature. By computing the effects of structure expansion and distortion due to a finite temperature we arrive at a quantitative agreement between theory and experiment.

  1. Hydrogen Ordering in Hexagonal Intermetallic AB5 Type Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, W.; Kuna, A.

    2008-04-01

    Intermetallic compounds AB5 type (A = rare-earth atoms, B = transition metal) are known to store reversibly large amounts of hydrogen and as that are discussed in this work. It was shown that the alloy cycling stability can be significantly improved by employing the so-called non-stoichiometric compounds AB5+x and that is why analysis of change of structure turned out to be interesting. A tendency for ordering of hydrogen atoms is one of the most intriguing problems for the unsaturated hydrides. The symmetry analysis method in the frame of the theory of space group and their representation gives opportunity to find all possible transformations of the parent structure. In this work symmetry analysis method was applied for AB5+x structure type (P6/mmm parent symmetry space group). There were investigated all possible ordering types and accompanying atom displacements in positions 1a, 2c, 3g (fully occupied in stoichiometric compounds AB5), in positions 2e, 6l (where atom B could appear in non-stoichiometric compounds) and also 4h, 6m, 6k, 12n, 12o, which could be partly occupied by hydrogen as a result of hydrides. An analysis was carried out of all possible structures of lower symmetry, following from P6/mmm for we k=(0, 0, 0). Also the way of getting the structure described by the P63mc space group with double cell along the z-axiswe k=(0, 0, 0.5), as it is suggested in the work of Latroche et al. is discussed by the symmetry analysis. The analysis was obtained by computer program MODY. The program calculates the so-called basis vectors of irreducible representations of a given symmetry group, which can be used for calculation of possible ordering modes.

  2. The study of molecular spectroscopy by ab initio methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    This review illustrates the potential of theory for solving spectroscopic problems. The accuracy of approximate techniques for including electron correlation have been calibrated by comparison with full configuration-interaction calculations. Examples of the application of ab initio calculations to vibrational, rotational, and electronic spectroscopy are given. It is shown that the state-averaged, complete active space self-consistent field, multireference configuration-interaction procedure provides a good approach for treating several electronic states accurately in a common molecular orbital basis.

  3. Cry1Ab toxin production of MON 810 transgenic maize.

    PubMed

    Székács, András; Lauber, Eva; Juracsek, Judit; Darvas, Béla

    2010-01-01

    Levels of Cry1Ab toxin were detected in genetically modified maize of genetic event MON 810 against near isogenic maize as negative control by two commercial immunoassays. The immunoassays were characterized for their cross-reactivity (CR) between Cry1Ab protoxin and activated toxin, and were compared with each other for toxin detection in a reference plant sample. Cry1Ab toxin levels, corrected for active toxin content using the CR values obtained, were monitored in maize DK-440 BTY through the entire vegetation period. The toxin concentration was found to show a rapid rise in the leaves to 17.15 +/- 1.66 microg/g by the end of the fifth week of cultivation, followed by a gradual decline to 9.61 +/- 2.07 microg/g by the 16th week and a slight increase again to 13.51 +/- 1.96 microg/g during the last 2 weeks due to partial desiccation. Similar but lesser fluctuation of toxin levels was seen in the roots between 5.32 +/- 0.49 microg/g at the less differentiated V1 stage and 2.25 +/- 0.30 microg/g during plant development. In contrast, Cry1Ab toxin levels appeared to be stably 1.36 +/- 0.45, 4.98 +/- 0.31, 0.47 +/- 0.03, and 0.83 +/- 0.15 microg/g in the stem, anther wall, pollen, and grain, respectively. Toxin concentrations produced at the VT-R4 phenological stages under actual cultivation conditions were compared with each other in three different years within an 8-year period.

  4. GAUSSIAN 76: An ab initio Molecular Orbital Program

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Binkley, J. S.; Whiteside, R.; Hariharan, P. C.; Seeger, R.; Hehre, W. J.; Lathan, W. A.; Newton, M. D.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Gaussian 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type Gaussian functions. Certain standard sets (STO-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G*, etc.) are stored internally for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or unrestricted open shell (UHF) wave functions can be obtained. Facilities are provided for geometry optimization to potential minima and for limited potential surface scans.

  5. Pressure tracking control of vehicle ABS using piezo valve modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a wheel slip control for the ABS(anti-lock brake system) of a passenger vehicle using a controllable piezo valve modulator. The ABS is designed to optimize for braking effectiveness and good steerability. As a first step, the principal design parameters of the piezo valve and pressure modulator are appropriately determined by considering the braking pressure variation during the ABS operation. The proposed piezo valve consists of a flapper, pneumatic circuit and a piezostack actuator. In order to get wide control range of the pressure, the pressure modulator is desired. The modulator consists of a dual-type cylinder filled with different substances (fluid and gas) and a piston rod moving vertical axis to transmit the force. Subsequently, a quarter car wheel slip model is formulated and integrated with the governing equation of the piezo valve modulator. A sliding mode controller to achieve the desired slip rate is then designed and implemented. Braking control performances such as brake pressure and slip rate are evaluated via computer simulations.

  6. Diffusion in liquid Germanium using ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, R. V.; Aulbur, W. G.; Stroud, D.

    1996-03-01

    We describe the results of calculations of the self-diffusion constant of liquid Ge over a range of temperatures. The calculations are carried out using an ab initio molecular dynamics scheme which combines an LDA model for the electronic structure with the Bachelet-Hamann-Schlüter norm-conserving pseudopotentials^1. The energies associated with electronic degrees of freedom are minimized using the Williams-Soler algorithm, and ionic moves are carried out using the Verlet algorithm. We use an energy cutoff of 10 Ry, which is sufficient to give results for the lattice constant and bulk modulus of crystalline Ge to within 1% and 12% of experiment. The program output includes not only the self-diffusion constant but also the structure factor, electronic density of states, and low-frequency electrical conductivity. We will compare our results with other ab initio and semi-empirical calculations, and discuss extension to impurity diffusion. ^1 We use the ab initio molecular dynamics code fhi94md, developed at 1cm the Fritz-Haber Institute, Berlin. ^2 Work supported by NASA, Grant NAG3-1437.

  7. A Complete and Accurate Ab Initio Repeat Finding Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lian, Shuaibin; Chen, Xinwu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoli; Dai, Xianhua

    2016-03-01

    It has become clear that repetitive sequences have played multiple roles in eukaryotic genome evolution including increasing genetic diversity through mutation, changes in gene expression and facilitating generation of novel genes. However, identification of repetitive elements can be difficult in the ab initio manner. Currently, some classical ab initio tools of finding repeats have already presented and compared. The completeness and accuracy of detecting repeats of them are little pool. To this end, we proposed a new ab initio repeat finding tool, named HashRepeatFinder, which is based on hash index and word counting. Furthermore, we assessed the performances of HashRepeatFinder with other two famous tools, such as RepeatScout and Repeatfinder, in human genome data hg19. The results indicated the following three conclusions: (1) The completeness of HashRepeatFinder is the best one among these three compared tools in almost all chromosomes, especially in chr9 (8 times of RepeatScout, 10 times of Repeatfinder); (2) in terms of detecting large repeats, HashRepeatFinder also performed best in all chromosomes, especially in chr3 (24 times of RepeatScout and 250 times of Repeatfinder) and chr19 (12 times of RepeatScout and 60 times of Repeatfinder); (3) in terms of accuracy, HashRepeatFinder can merge the abundant repeats with high accuracy.

  8. A highly accurate ab initio potential energy surface for methane.

    PubMed

    Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter

    2016-09-14

    A new nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for methane has been generated using state-of-the-art ab initio theory. The PES is based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and incorporates a range of higher-level additive energy corrections. These include core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms beyond perturbative triples, scalar relativistic effects, and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction. Sub-wavenumber accuracy is achieved for the majority of experimentally known vibrational energy levels with the four fundamentals of (12)CH4 reproduced with a root-mean-square error of 0.70 cm(-1). The computed ab initio equilibrium C-H bond length is in excellent agreement with previous values despite pure rotational energies displaying minor systematic errors as J (rotational excitation) increases. It is shown that these errors can be significantly reduced by adjusting the equilibrium geometry. The PES represents the most accurate ab initio surface to date and will serve as a good starting point for empirical refinement.

  9. Ab initio calculations for industrial materials engineering: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Erich; Najafabadi, Reza; Young, George A; Ballard, Jake D; Angeliu, Thomas M; Vollmer, James; Chambers, James J; Niimi, Hiroaki; Shaw, Judy B; Freeman, Clive; Christensen, Mikael; Wolf, Walter; Saxe, Paul

    2010-09-29

    Computational materials science based on ab initio calculations has become an important partner to experiment. This is demonstrated here for the effect of impurities and alloying elements on the strength of a Zr twist grain boundary, the dissociative adsorption and diffusion of iodine on a zirconium surface, the diffusion of oxygen atoms in a Ni twist grain boundary and in bulk Ni, and the dependence of the work function of a TiN-HfO(2) junction on the replacement of N by O atoms. In all of these cases, computations provide atomic-scale understanding as well as quantitative materials property data of value to industrial research and development. There are two key challenges in applying ab initio calculations, namely a higher accuracy in the electronic energy and the efficient exploration of large parts of the configurational space. While progress in these areas is fueled by advances in computer hardware, innovative theoretical concepts combined with systematic large-scale computations will be needed to realize the full potential of ab initio calculations for industrial applications.

  10. [Effects of bkdAB interruption on avermectin biosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hao-Jun; Liang, Yun-Xiang; Zhou, Jun-Chu; Zheng, Ying-Hua

    2004-03-01

    In this study, Streptomyces avermitilis Bjbm0006 which produces four avermectin B components was used as an original test strain. A replacement plasmid containing a gene cluster bkdAB (branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase gene) involved in the biosynthesis of avermectin B in S. avermitilis Bjbm0006 was constructed by means of PCR technique and then named as pHJ5821 (pHZ1358::bkdAB&erm). A recombinant strain Bjbm5821 was obtained after the gene cluster was interrupted by double crossover. This strain was tested in laboratory conditions and analysed by PCR using the total DNA as template. The HPLC analysis showed that the strain Bjbm5821 synthesized the same 'a' components Bla and B2a as the original strain did. However, It lost the ability for the production of 'b'components for example B1b and B2b. A novel compound was detected in fermentation products. The results of present study suggests that the production of gene cluster bkdAB may play a main role similar to alpha-ketoisovaleric acid dehydrogenase in the pathway of avermectin synthesis.

  11. Ab Initio Calculations of Transport in Titanium and Aluminum Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nicholas; Novak, Brian; Tam, Ka Ming; Moldovan, Dorel; Jarrell, Mark

    In classical molecular dynamics simulations, the self-diffusion and shear viscosity of titanium about the melting point have fallen within the ranges provided by experimental data. However, the experimental data is difficult to collect and has been rather scattered, making it of limited value for the validation of these calculations. By using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations within the density functional theory framework, the classical molecular dynamics data can be validated. The dynamical data from the ab initio molecular dynamics can also be used to calculate new potentials for use in classical molecular dynamics, allowing for more accurate classical dynamics simulations for the liquid phase. For metallic materials such as titanium and aluminum alloys, these calculations are very valuable due to an increasing demand for the knowledge of their thermophysical properties that drive the development of new materials. For example, alongside knowledge of the surface tension, viscosity is an important input for modeling the additive manufacturing process at the continuum level. We are developing calculations of the viscosity along with the self-diffusion for aluminum, titanium, and titanium-aluminum alloys with ab initio molecular dynamics. Supported by the National Science Foundation through cooperative agreement OIA-1541079 and the Louisiana Board of Regents.

  12. Determination of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae by Using the E Test with Mueller-Hinton Agar Supplemented with Sheep or Horse Blood May Be Unreliable

    PubMed Central

    Lovgren, M.; Dell’Acqua, L.; Palacio, R.; Echániz-Aviles, G.; Soto-Noguerón, A.; Castañeda, E.; Agudelo, C. I.; Heitmann, I.; Brandileone, M. C.; Zanella, R. C.; Rossi, A.; Pace, J.; Talbot, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    An international, multicenter study compared trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole MICs for 743 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (107 to 244 isolates per country) by E test, using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood or 5% defibrinated sheep blood, with MICs determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards broth microdilution reference method. Agreement within 1 log2 dilution and minor error rates were 69.3 and 15.5%, respectively, on sheep blood-supplemented agar and 76.9 and 13.6%, respectively, with horse blood as the supplement. Significant interlaboratory variability was observed. E test may not be a reliable method for determining the resistance of pneumococci to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:9854095

  13. Clinical evaluation of the BioFire FilmArray® BioThreat-E test for the diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Magassouba, N'Fally; Picot, Valentina; Phillips, Cynthia L; Peyrefitte, Christophe N; Dacosta, Brigitte; Doré, Ahmadou; Kourouma, Fode; Ligeon-Ligeonnet, Véronique; Gauby, Corentin; Longuet, Christophe; Scullion, Matt; Faye, Ousmane; Machuron, Jean Louis; Miller, Mark

    2017-07-01

    The recent West Africa Ebola outbreak highlighted the need to provide access to rapid, safe and reliable Ebola Virus Disease diagnostics. The objective of this field study was to assess the clinical performance of the FilmArray ® BioThreat-E test for the detection of Ebola Zaïre virus in whole blood in symptomatic patients suspected of Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry (Guinea) from March to July 2015. The BioThreat-E test was compared to the two RT-PCRs, using serum, implemented at Donka Hospital in the emergency context: an in-house developed quantitative one-step RT-PCR adapted from the Weidmann technique, and the RealStar ® Filovirus RT-PCR Kit 1.0 (Altona-Diagnostics). We also assessed the performance of this assay in noninvasive specimens (urine and saliva) to detect infected patients. Of 135 patients enrolled and eligible for performance assessment on whole blood, the sensitivity was 95.7% [95% CI: 85.5-99.5] and specificity 100% [95% CI: 95.9-100]. Of the 37 symptomatic infected patients able to provide saliva and/or urine samples, 34 of the 35 saliva samples and all 3 of the urine samples were positive with the BioThreat-E test. This study showed that the FilmArray BioThreat-E test performs comparably to conventional molecular tests under field conditions, providing results and interpretation in approximately 1h. Due to its operational characteristics, it can be easily deployed in the field during an epidemic and could also be a useful tool for post-outbreak surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Probing Inflationary Cosmology: The Atacama B-Mode Search (ABS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas

    Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) have provided compelling evidence for the Standard Model of Cosmology and have led to the most precise estimates of cosmological parameters to date. Through its sensitivity to gravitational waves, the CMB provides a glimpse into the state of the universe just 10-35 seconds after the Big Bang and of physics on grand-unification-theory (GUT) energy scales around 1016 GeV, some 13 orders of magnitude above the energies achievable by current terrestrial particle accelerators. A gravitational-wave background (GWB) in the early universe would leave a unique, odd-parity pattern of polarization in the CMB called B modes, the magnitude of which is characterized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r. A GWB is generically predicted to exist by inflationary theories, and the current generation of CMB polarization experiments will probe the interesting parameter space of r < 0.05 corresponding to single-field inflationary models at GUT scales. I detail the design and construction of the Atacama B-Mode Search (ABS), which aims to measure the polarization of the CMB at degree angular scales where the primordial B-mode signal is expected to peak. ABS is a 145-GHz polarimeter that will operate from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert of Chile, consisting of a 60-cm crossed-Dragone telescope with cryogenic primary and secondary reflectors; an array of 240 feedhorn-coupled, transition-edge-sensor, bolometric polarimeters; and, a continuously-rotating, warm, sapphire half-wave plate (HWP) that will provide modulation of the incoming polarization of light. In this thesis, I describe the optical, mechanical, and cryogenic design of the receiver, including the reflector design, focal-plane layout, HWP design, and free-space lowpass filters. I describe physical-optics modeling of the reflector and feedhorn to validate the optical design. A matrix model that allows the calculation of the Mueller matrix of the anti

  15. A novel cry2Ab gene from the indigenous isolate Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki.

    PubMed

    Sevim, Ali; Eryüzlü, Emine; Demirbağ, Zihni; Demir, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    A novel cry2Ab gene was cloned and sequenced from the indigenous isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. This gene was designated as cry2Ab25 and its sequence revealed an open reading frame of 1,902 bp encoding a 633 aa protein with calculated molecular mass of 70 kDa and pI value of 8.98. The amino acid sequence of the Cry2Ab25 protein was compared with previously known Cry2Ab toxins, and the phylogenetic relationships among them were determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Cry2Ab25 protein showed 99% homology to the known Cry2Ab proteins, except for Cry2Ab10 and Cry2Ab12 with 97% homology, and a variation in one amino acid residue in comparison with all known Cry2Ab proteins. The cry2Ab25 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed that the Cry2Ab25 protein is about 70 kDa. The toxin expressed in BL21(DE3) exhibited high toxicity against Malacosoma neustria and Rhagoletis cerasi with 73% and 75% mortality after 5 days of treatment, respectively.

  16. In Vitro Study of Bacteriophage AB3 Endolysin LysAB3 Activity Against Acinetobacter baumannii Biofilm and Biofilm-Bound A. baumannii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Xu, Lu-Lu; Gan, Dan; Zhang, Xingping

    2018-06-01

    The increase in the prevalence of drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a serious public health concern, which is closely linked to the formation of biofilm. It is reported that the bacteriophage and its endolysin have a good ability to degrade biofilms. The goals of this study were to compare the ability of A. baumannii bacteriophage AB3, its endolysin AB3, and three antibiotics to degrade A. baumannii biofilm and biofilm-bound A. baumannii and to understand the antibacterial mechanism of LysAB3. The 558-bp sequence of the LysAB3 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR); the fragment was cloned into pET28a (+) to construct the recombinant plasmid pET28a-LysAB3, which was then expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) to obtain the LysAB3. Differences in A. baumannii biofilm and biofilm-bound A. baumannii after treatment with bacteriophage AB3, LysAB3 or three antibiotics were examined using the crystal violet staining method and an MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Changes in biofilm morphology and thickness in each treatment group were observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. In addition, a LysAB3 construct with the amphiphilic peptide structural region removed (LysAB3-D) was assessed for its antibacterial activity. After 24-hour treatment with either bacteriophage AB3 and its LysAB3, A. baumannii biofilms were significantly degraded, and the number of viable biofilm-bound A. baumannii were also significantly decreased. After removing the amphiphilic peptide structure motif from LysAB3, the antibacterial activity decreased from 95.8% to 33.3%. Thus, LysAB3 can effectively degrade A. baumannii biofilm and biofilm-bound A. baumannii in vitro. The antibacterial mechanism of LysAB3 may be associated with the ability of the amphiphilic peptide structural region to enhance the permeability of cytoplasmic membrane of A. baumannii by degradation of bacterial wall peptidoglycan.

  17. Non Target Effect of Cry1 Ab and Cry Ab x Cry3 Bb1 Bt Transgenic Maize on Orius Insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Abundance

    Non-target effects of Cry1Ab x CP4 EPSPS and Cry1Ab + Cry3Bb1 x CP4 EPSPS Bt transgenic new maize hybrids on insidious flower bugs [Orius insidiosus (Say)] was studied in Nebraska (Mead, C lay Center, and Concord) during 2007 and 2008. The Bt effect was compared to CP4 EPSPS maize (isoline), convent...

  18. HHV-6A/B Integration and the Pathogenesis Associated with the Reactivation of Chromosomally Integrated HHV-6A/B.

    PubMed

    Collin, Vanessa; Flamand, Louis

    2017-06-26

    Unlike other human herpesviruses, human herpesvirus 6A and 6B (HHV-6A/B) infection can lead to integration of the viral genome in human chromosomes. When integration occurs in germinal cells, the integrated HHV-6A/B genome can be transmitted to 50% of descendants. Such individuals, carrying one copy of the HHV-6A/B genome in every cell, are referred to as having inherited chromosomally-integrated HHV-6A/B (iciHHV-6) and represent approximately 1% of the world's population. Interestingly, HHV-6A/B integrate their genomes in a specific region of the chromosomes known as telomeres. Telomeres are located at chromosomes' ends and play essential roles in chromosomal stability and the long-term proliferative potential of cells. Considering that the integrated HHV-6A/B genome is mostly intact without any gross rearrangements or deletions, integration is likely used for viral maintenance into host cells. Knowing the roles played by telomeres in cellular homeostasis, viral integration in such structure is not likely to be without consequences. At present, the mechanisms and factors involved in HHV-6A/B integration remain poorly defined. In this review, we detail the potential biological and medical impacts of HHV-6A/B integration as well as the possible chromosomal integration and viral excision processes.

  19. Ab initio molecular simulations with numeric atom-centered orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Volker; Gehrke, Ralf; Hanke, Felix; Havu, Paula; Havu, Ville; Ren, Xinguo; Reuter, Karsten; Scheffler, Matthias

    2009-11-01

    We describe a complete set of algorithms for ab initio molecular simulations based on numerically tabulated atom-centered orbitals (NAOs) to capture a wide range of molecular and materials properties from quantum-mechanical first principles. The full algorithmic framework described here is embodied in the Fritz Haber Institute "ab initio molecular simulations" (FHI-aims) computer program package. Its comprehensive description should be relevant to any other first-principles implementation based on NAOs. The focus here is on density-functional theory (DFT) in the local and semilocal (generalized gradient) approximations, but an extension to hybrid functionals, Hartree-Fock theory, and MP2/GW electron self-energies for total energies and excited states is possible within the same underlying algorithms. An all-electron/full-potential treatment that is both computationally efficient and accurate is achieved for periodic and cluster geometries on equal footing, including relaxation and ab initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate the construction of transferable, hierarchical basis sets, allowing the calculation to range from qualitative tight-binding like accuracy to meV-level total energy convergence with the basis set. Since all basis functions are strictly localized, the otherwise computationally dominant grid-based operations scale as O(N) with system size N. Together with a scalar-relativistic treatment, the basis sets provide access to all elements from light to heavy. Both low-communication parallelization of all real-space grid based algorithms and a ScaLapack-based, customized handling of the linear algebra for all matrix operations are possible, guaranteeing efficient scaling (CPU time and memory) up to massively parallel computer systems with thousands of CPUs.

  20. Young, active radio stars in the AB Doradus moving group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azulay, R.; Guirado, J. C.; Marcaide, J. M.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Ros, E.; Tognelli, E.; Hormuth, F.; Ortiz, J. L.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Precise determination of stellar masses is necessary to test the validity of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stellar evolutionary models, whose predictions are in disagreement with measurements for masses below 1.2 M⊙. To improve such a test, and based on our previous studies, we selected the AB Doradus moving group (AB Dor-MG) as the best-suited association on which to apply radio-based high-precision astrometric techniques to study binary systems. Aims: We seek to determine precise estimates of the masses of a set of stars belonging to the AB Dor-MG using radio and infrared observations. Methods: We observed in phase-reference mode with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 5 GHz and with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 8.4 GHz the stars HD 160934, EK Dra, PW And, and LO Peg. We also observed some of these stars with the near-infrared CCD AstraLux camera at the Calar Alto observatory to complement the radio observations. Results: We determine model-independent dynamical masses of both components of the star HD 160934, A and c, which are 0.70 ± 0.07 M⊙ and 0.45 ± 0.04 M⊙, respectively. We revised the orbital parameters of EK Dra and we determine a sum of the masses of the system of 1.38 ± 0.08 M⊙. We also explored the binarity of the stars LO Peg and PW And. Conclusions: We found observational evidence that PMS evolutionary models underpredict the mass of PMS stars by 10%-40%, as previously reported by other authors. We also inferred that the origin of the radio emission must be similar in all observed stars, that is, extreme magnetic activity of the stellar corona that triggers gyrosynchrotron emission from non-thermal, accelerated electrons.

  1. Macromolecular ab initio phasing enforcing secondary and tertiary structure.

    PubMed

    Millán, Claudia; Sammito, Massimo; Usón, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Ab initio phasing of macromolecular structures, from the native intensities alone with no experimental phase information or previous particular structural knowledge, has been the object of a long quest, limited by two main barriers: structure size and resolution of the data. Current approaches to extend the scope of ab initio phasing include use of the Patterson function, density modification and data extrapolation. The authors' approach relies on the combination of locating model fragments such as polyalanine α-helices with the program PHASER and density modification with the program SHELXE. Given the difficulties in discriminating correct small substructures, many putative groups of fragments have to be tested in parallel; thus calculations are performed in a grid or supercomputer. The method has been named after the Italian painter Arcimboldo, who used to compose portraits out of fruit and vegetables. With ARCIMBOLDO, most collections of fragments remain a 'still-life', but some are correct enough for density modification and main-chain tracing to reveal the protein's true portrait. Beyond α-helices, other fragments can be exploited in an analogous way: libraries of helices with modelled side chains, β-strands, predictable fragments such as DNA-binding folds or fragments selected from distant homologues up to libraries of small local folds that are used to enforce nonspecific tertiary structure; thus restoring the ab initio nature of the method. Using these methods, a number of unknown macromolecules with a few thousand atoms and resolutions around 2 Å have been solved. In the 2014 release, use of the program has been simplified. The software mediates the use of massive computing to automate the grid access required in difficult cases but may also run on a single multicore workstation (http://chango.ibmb.csic.es/ARCIMBOLDO_LITE) to solve straightforward cases.

  2. Cooperative effects in spherical spasers: Ab initio analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordo, V. G.

    2017-06-01

    A fully analytical semiclassical theory of cooperative optical processes which occur in an ensemble of molecules embedded in a spherical core-shell nanoparticle is developed from first principles. Both the plasmonic Dicke effect and spaser generation are investigated for the designs in which a shell/core contains an arbitrarily large number of active molecules in the vicinity of a metallic core/shell. An essential aspect of the theory is an ab initio account of the feedback from the core/shell boundaries which significantly modifies the molecular dynamics. The theory provides rigorous, albeit simple and physically transparent, criteria for both plasmonic superradiance and surface plasmon generation.

  3. Ab initio study of C + H3+ reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbi, D.; DeFrees, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction C + H3+ --> CH(+) + H2 is frequently used in models of dense interstellar cloud chemistry with the assumption that it is fast, i.e. there are no potential energy barriers inhibiting it. Ab initio molecular orbital study of the triplet CH3+ potential energy surface (triplet because the reactant carbon atom is a ground state triplet) supports this hypothesis. The reaction product is 3 pi CH+; the reaction is to exothermic even though the product is not in its electronic ground state. No path has been found on the potential energy surface for C + H3+ --> CH2(+) + H reaction.

  4. Ab Initio Calculations Applied to Problems in Metal Ion Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations can provide accurate spectroscopic data (such as molecular structures) vibrational frequencies, binding energies, etc.) that have been very useful in explaining trends in experimental data and in identifying incorrect experimental measurements. In addition, ab initio calculations. have given considerable insight into the many interactions that make the chemistry of transition metal systems so diverse. In this review we focus on cases where calculations and experiment have been used to solve interesting chemical problems involving metal ions. The examples include cases where theory was used to differentiate between disparate experimental values and cases where theory was used to explain unexpected experimental results.

  5. Graphitic nanofilms of zinc-blende materials: ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, San-Lue; Zhao, Li; Li, Yan-Li

    2017-12-01

    Ab initio calculations on ultra-thin nanofilms of 25 kinds of zinc-blende semiconductors demonstrate their stable geometry structures growth along (1 1 1) surface. Our results show that the (1 1 1) surfaces of 9 kinds of zinc-blende semiconductors can transform into a stable graphitelike structure within a certain thickness. The tensile strain effect on the thickness of graphitic films is not obvious. The band gaps of stable graphitic films can be tuned over a wide range by epitaxial tensile strain, which is important for applications in microelectronic devices, solar cells and light-emitting diodes.

  6. Gyroid structure via highly asymmetric ABC and AB blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Seonghyeon; Kwak, Jongheon; Choi, Chungryong; Kim, Jin Kon

    Gyroid structures are very important because of their co-continuous and network structures. However, a block copolymer shows gyroid structures only at 35 % volume fraction of one block. In this study, we designed ABC/AB blend system. B (polystyrene (PS)) is the matrix, while A (polyisoprene (PI)) and C (poly(2-vinyl pridine (P2VP)) are the core part. This blend shows gyroid structures at 20 % volume fraction, that is smaller than that observed at diblock copolymer. Morphologies of neat block copolymers and blends were characterized by TEM and small angle X-ray scattering.

  7. Pseudopotential for ab initio calculations of uranium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, G. S.; Pisarev, V. V.; Stegailov, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) is a research tool of the highest importance for electronic structure calculations. It is often the only affordable method for ab initio calculations of complex materials. The pseudopotential approach allows reducing the total number of electrons in the model that speeds up calculations. However, there is a lack of pseudopotentials for heavy elements suitable for condensed matter DFT models. In this work, we present a pseudopotential for uranium developed in the Goedecker-Teter-Hutter form. Its accuracy is illustrated using several molecular and solid-state calculations.

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics in a finite homogeneous electric field.

    PubMed

    Umari, P; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2002-10-07

    We treat homogeneous electric fields within density functional calculations with periodic boundary conditions. A nonlocal energy functional depending on the applied field is used within an ab initio molecular dynamics scheme. The reliability of the method is demonstrated in the case of bulk MgO for the Born effective charges, and the high- and low-frequency dielectric constants. We evaluate the static dielectric constant by performing a damped molecular dynamics in an electric field and avoiding the calculation of the dynamical matrix. Application of this method to vitreous silica shows good agreement with experiment and illustrates its potential for systems of large size.

  9. Ab initio quantum chemical study of electron transfer in carboranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Ranjit; Pineda, Andrew C.; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.

    2005-05-01

    The electron transfer (ET) properties of 10- and 12-vertex carboranes are investigated by the ab initio Hartree-Fock method within the Marcus-Hush (MH) two-state model and the Koopman theorem (KT) approach. The calculated value of the ET coupling matrix element, VAB, is consistently higher in the KT approach than in the MH two-state model. For the carborane molecules functionalized by -CH 2 groups at C-vertices, VAB strongly depends on the relative orientation of the planes containing the terminal -CH 2 groups. The predicted conformation dependence of VAB offers a molecular mechanism to control ET between two active centers in molecular systems.

  10. Hydrogen diffusion in liquid aluminum from ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.

    2014-05-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to describe the diffusion of hydrogen in liquid aluminum at different temperatures. Quasi-instantaneous jumps separating periods of localized vibrations around a mean position are found to characterize the hydrogen motion at the microscopic scale. The hydrogen motion is furthermore analyzed using the van Hove function. We highlight a non-Fickian behavior for the hydrogen diffusion due to a large spatial distribution of hydrogen jumps. We show that a generalized continuous time random walk (CTRW) model describes the experimental diffusion coefficients in a satisfactory manner. Finally, the impact of impurities and alloying elements on hydrogen diffusion in aluminum is discussed.

  11. Student Measurements of Double Star STF 747AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Grace; Funk, Benjamin; Gillette, Travis; Rhoades, Breauna; Rhoades, Mark; Schlosser, Ruth; Sharpe, Scott; Thompson, Leone

    2017-04-01

    Data gathered from a 22-Inch Newtonian Alt/Az telescope and a Celestron Micro Guide eyepiece were used to measure the double star STF 747AB. Students from Apple Valley High School determined the separation to be 39.97 arc sec and the position angle to be 227.91 degrees. The students also used data from the digitized sky survey and determined a separation of 39.99 arc sec and a position angle of 225 degrees. The research was semi-independent from the Vanguard Double Star Workshop 2016 in Apple Valley, California.

  12. Iterative projection algorithms for ab initio phasing in virus crystallography.

    PubMed

    Lo, Victor L; Kingston, Richard L; Millane, Rick P

    2016-12-01

    Iterative projection algorithms are proposed as a tool for ab initio phasing in virus crystallography. The good global convergence properties of these algorithms, coupled with the spherical shape and high structural redundancy of icosahedral viruses, allows high resolution phases to be determined with no initial phase information. This approach is demonstrated by determining the electron density of a virus crystal with 5-fold non-crystallographic symmetry, starting with only a spherical shell envelope. The electron density obtained is sufficiently accurate for model building. The results indicate that iterative projection algorithms should be routinely applicable in virus crystallography, without the need for ancillary phase information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Candida species to amphotericin B by E-test and previously proposed MIC breakpoints on two different media].

    PubMed

    Alp, Sehnaz; Sancak, Banu; Arikan, Sevtap

    2008-04-01

    Although much work has concentrated on defining a reliable and reproducible method for determining in vitro susceptibility of Candida species to amphotericin B, there still has been limitations of the proposed techniques. In this study, amphotericin B minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and susceptibility categories of 212 Candida strains (57 C. glabrata, 53 C. lusitaniae, 51 C. krusei and 51 C. tropicalis) were determined by E-test on RPMI agar (RPG) and antibiotic medium 3 agar (AM3) both supplemented with 2% glucose. The results were interpreted according to the proposed MIC breakpoints (> or = 0.38 microg/ml on RPG, >1 microg/ml on AM3) and discrepancies between susceptibility categories were investigated. While all Candida strains included in the study were determined to be susceptible on AM3 by amphotericin B E-test at 48h, 36.3% of the isolates were classified as resistant on RPG at 48 hours. On RPG, C. krusei strains showed the highest resistance rate (94.1% at 48 h), followed by C. tropicalis (35.3% at 48 h) and C. glabrata (17.5% at 48h). At 48h of incubation, 98.1% of C. lusitaniae isolates were found to be susceptible on RPG. The categorical agreement rates between the results obtained on two media and for C. lusitaniae and C. glabrata were 98.1% and 82.5% at 48 hours. For C. tropicalis and C. krusei, the rates of agreement were 64.7% and 5.9% at 48 hours. Conclusively, according to the previously proposed MIC breakpoints for amphotericin B E-test on RPG and AM3, discrepancies between susceptibility categories of Candida species were of remarkable significance.

  14. Choosing the correct empirical antibiotic for urinary tract infection in pediatric: Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli by E-Test method.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Iraj; Solgi, Abbas; Amanati, Ali; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef

    2014-12-01

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are of the most common bacterial diseases worldwide. We investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from pediatric patients with community acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) to find a clinical guidance for choosing a right empirical antibiotic in these patients. In this cross sectional study, 100 urine specimens which were positive for E. coli had been investigated for antibiotics susceptibility pattern. The susceptibility to Co-trimoxazol (25μg), Amikacin (30μg), Ceftriaxone (30μg), Nalidixic Acid (30μg), Cefixime (5μg), and Nitrofurantoin (300μg) tested with Disk diffusion agar and MIC determined with the E-test. Mean age of patients was 38 Months. Girls had greater proportion than boys (74 versus 26%). In Disk diffusion method, 26% of the isolates were susceptible to cotrimoxazole. Susceptibility to amikacin, ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and cefixime was 94%, 66%, 97%, 62% and 52%, respectively. By E-Test method and according to CLSI criteria susceptibility for co-trimoxazol, amikacin, ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid was 37%, 97%, 67% and 50%, respectively. The highest percentage of agreement between Disk diffusion and E-Test method was found for amikacin (96%) and the lowest percentage for co-trimoxazole (89%). Treatment failure, prolonged or repeated hospitalization, increased costs of care, and increased mortality are some consequence of bacterial resistance in UTIs. Misuse of antibiotics in each geographic location directly affects antibiotic resistance pattern. In the treatment of UTI, proper selection of antimicrobial agents should be relevant to the bacterial susceptibility testing surveillance. According to our results, amikacin as an injectable drug and nitrofurantoin as an oral agent could be used as a drug of choice in our region for children with UTIs.

  15. Three-cluster dynamics within an ab initio framework

    DOE PAGES

    Quaglioni, Sofia; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Navratil, Petr

    2013-09-26

    In this study, we introduce a fully antisymmetrized treatment of three-cluster dynamics within the ab initio framework of the no-core shell model/resonating-group method. Energy-independent nonlocal interactions among the three nuclear fragments are obtained from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and consistent ab initio many-body wave functions of the clusters. The three-cluster Schrödinger equation is solved with bound-state boundary conditions by means of the hyperspherical-harmonic method on a Lagrange mesh. We discuss the formalism in detail and give algebraic expressions for systems of two single nucleons plus a nucleus. Using a soft similarity-renormalization-group evolved chiral nucleon-nucleon potential, we apply the method to amore » 4He+n+n description of 6He and compare the results to experiment and to a six-body diagonalization of the Hamiltonian performed within the harmonic-oscillator expansions of the no-core shell model. Differences between the two calculations provide a measure of core ( 4He) polarization effects.« less

  16. Quantum Fragment Based ab Initio Molecular Dynamics for Proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Xianwei; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z H

    2015-12-08

    Developing ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods for practical application in protein dynamics is of significant interest. Due to the large size of biomolecules, applying standard quantum chemical methods to compute energies for dynamic simulation is computationally prohibitive. In this work, a fragment based ab initio molecular dynamics approach is presented for practical application in protein dynamics study. In this approach, the energy and forces of the protein are calculated by a recently developed electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps (EE-GMFCC) method. For simulation in explicit solvent, mechanical embedding is introduced to treat protein interaction with explicit water molecules. This AIMD approach has been applied to MD simulations of a small benchmark protein Trpcage (with 20 residues and 304 atoms) in both the gas phase and in solution. Comparison to the simulation result using the AMBER force field shows that the AIMD gives a more stable protein structure in the simulation, indicating that quantum chemical energy is more reliable. Importantly, the present fragment-based AIMD simulation captures quantum effects including electrostatic polarization and charge transfer that are missing in standard classical MD simulations. The current approach is linear-scaling, trivially parallel, and applicable to performing the AIMD simulation of proteins with a large size.

  17. A fragmentation and reassembly method for ab initio phasing.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Rojan; Zhang, Kam Y J

    2015-02-01

    Ab initio phasing with de novo models has become a viable approach for structural solution from protein crystallographic diffraction data. This approach takes advantage of the known protein sequence information, predicts de novo models and uses them for structure determination by molecular replacement. However, even the current state-of-the-art de novo modelling method has a limit as to the accuracy of the model predicted, which is sometimes insufficient to be used as a template for successful molecular replacement. A fragment-assembly phasing method has been developed that starts from an ensemble of low-accuracy de novo models, disassembles them into fragments, places them independently in the crystallographic unit cell by molecular replacement and then reassembles them into a whole structure that can provide sufficient phase information to enable complete structure determination by automated model building. Tests on ten protein targets showed that the method could solve structures for eight of these targets, although the predicted de novo models cannot be used as templates for successful molecular replacement since the best model for each target is on average more than 4.0 Å away from the native structure. The method has extended the applicability of the ab initio phasing by de novo models approach. The method can be used to solve structures when the best de novo models are still of low accuracy.

  18. Ab Initio and Analytic Intermolecular Potentials for Ar-CF₄

    SciT

    Vayner, Grigoriy; Alexeev, Yuri; Wang, Jiangping

    2006-03-09

    Ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T) level of theory are performed to characterize the Ar + CF ₄ intermolecular potential. Extensive calculations, with and without a correction for basis set superposition error (BSSE), are performed with the cc-pVTZ basis set. Additional calculations are performed with other correlation consistent (cc) basis sets to extrapolate the Ar---CF₄potential energy minimum to the complete basis set (CBS) limit. Both the size of the basis set and BSSE have substantial effects on the Ar + CF₄ potential. Calculations with the cc-pVTZ basis set and without a BSSE correction, appear to give a good representation ofmore » the potential at the CBS limit and with a BSSE correction. In addition, MP2 theory is found to give potential energies in very good agreement with those determined by the much higher level CCSD(T) theory. Two analytic potential energy functions were determined for Ar + CF₄by fitting the cc-pVTZ calculations both with and without a BSSE correction. These analytic functions were written as a sum of two body potentials and excellent fits to the ab initio potentials were obtained by representing each two body interaction as a Buckingham potential.« less

  19. Unified ab initio approaches to nuclear structure and reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Hupin, Guillaume; ...

    2016-04-13

    The description of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the realistic interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of the nuclear forces, with two-, three- and possibly higher many-nucleon components, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD-employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. After a brief overview of the field, we focus on ab initio many-body approaches—built upon the no-core shell model—that are capable of simultaneously describing both bound and scattering nuclear states, and present results for resonances in light nuclei, reactions important for astrophysics and fusion research. In particular, we review recent calculations of resonances in the 6He halo nucleus, of five- and six-nucleon scattering, and an investigation of the role of chiral three-nucleon interactions in the structure of 9Be. Further, we discuss applications to the 7Bemore » $${({\\rm{p}},\\gamma )}^{8}{\\rm{B}}$$ radiative capture. Lastly, we highlight our efforts to describe transfer reactions including the 3H$${({\\rm{d}},{\\rm{n}})}^{4}$$He fusion.« less

  20. Ab-initio calculations on melting of thorium

    SciT

    Mukherjee, D., E-mail: debojyoti@barc.gov.in; Sahoo, B. D.; Joshi, K. D.

    2016-05-23

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics study has been performed on face centered cubic structured thorium to determine its melting temperature at room pressure. The ion-electron interaction potential energy calculated as a function of temperature for three volumes (a{sub 0}){sup 3} and (1.02a{sub 0}){sup 3} and (1.04a{sub 0}){sup 3} increases gradually with temperature and undergoes a sharp jump at ~2200 K, ~2100 K and ~1800 K, respectively. Here, a{sub 0} = 5.043 Å is the equilibrium lattice parameter at 0 K obtained from ab-initio calculations. These jumps in interaction energy are treated as due to the onset of melting and corresponding temperatures asmore » melting point. The melting point of 2100 K is close to the experimental value of 2023 K. Further, the same has been verified by plotting the atomic arrangement evolved at various temperatures and corresponding pair correlation functions.« less

  1. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mm Hg and at least a 20% reduction from baseline on the same or fewer number of pretrephination medications, 30/40 eyes (75%) fit these criteria over the entire course of follow-up. Among all 40 eyes, there was a significant reduction of IOP from pretrephination to 3 months (P<.001). The percentage of patients requiring 2 or more medications declined from 90% pretrephination to 21% at 3 months (P<.0001), and was stable thereafter. Some patients were able to eliminate all medications. Patients who did not meet the criteria of success regained successful IOP control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  2. Ab initio thermodynamic model for magnesium carbonates and hydrates.

    PubMed

    Chaka, Anne M; Felmy, Andrew R

    2014-09-04

    An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first-principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogues of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite, which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.

  3. In vitro susceptibility of filamentous fungi to itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference method and E-test.

    PubMed

    Kondori, N; Svensson, E; Mattsby-Baltzer, I

    2011-09-01

    The use of anti-fungal agents has increased dramatically in recent years and new drugs have been developed. Several methods are available for determinations of their specific biological activities, i.e. the standard method for minimum inhibitory concentration-determination is described in M-38 [Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M-38 (CLSI M-38)]. However, alternative methods, such as the E-test, are currently available in Mycology laboratories. The susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. (n = 29), Fusarium spp. (n = 5), zygomycetes (n = 21) and Schizophyllum (n = 1) were determined for itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole, using the CLSI M-38-A broth dilution method and also by the E-test. A good overall agreement (83.7%) between the two methods for all drugs and organisms was observed. Analyses of voriconazole showed a better agreement (93%) between the methods than posaconazole and itraconazole (85% and 74% respectively). Aspergillus spp. were the most susceptible fungi to the anti-fungal agents tested in this study. Posaconazole was the most active drug against filamentous fungi in vitro, followed by itraconazole and voriconazole. The latter (voriconazole) demonstrated no significant in vitro activity against zygomycetes. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Comparative study of thiophilic functionalised matrices for polyclonal F(ab')2 purification.

    PubMed

    Kumpalume, Peter; Slater, Nigel K H

    2004-01-02

    Thiophilic adsorbents have been developed using divinyl sulfone or epoxy activated Streamline quartz base matrix. Their capacity and selectivity for binding polyclonal F(ab')2 fragments generated by whole serum proteolysis was tested. Except for epoxy activated guanidine, all the adsorbents displayed high selectivity for F(ab')2 with dynamic binding capacities ranging from 3 to 10 mg/ml of adsorbent. Thiol immobilised ligands adsorbed more F(ab')2 and the recovery was equal to or more than that from amino immobilised ligands. All adsorbents showed good selectivity for IgG and the dynamic binding capacities were better than for F(ab')2.

  5. Identification of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AbMod binding-proteins from Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Castro, Diana L; García-Gómez, Blanca I; Gómez, Isabel; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2017-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are currently used for pest control in transgenic crops but evolution of resistance by the insect pests threatens the use of this technology. The Cry1AbMod toxin was engineered to lack the alpha helix-1 of the parental Cry1Ab toxin and was shown to counter resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins in different insect species including the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. In addition, Cry1AbMod showed enhanced toxicity to Cry1Ab-susceptible S. frugiperda populations. To gain insights into the mechanisms of this Cry1AbMod-enhanced toxicity, we isolated the Cry1AbMod toxin binding proteins from S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), which were identified by pull-down assay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS results indicated that Cry1AbMod toxin could bind to four classes of aminopeptidase (N1, N3, N4 y N5) and actin, with the highest amino acid sequence coverage acquired for APN 1 and APN4. In addition to these proteins, we found other proteins not previously described as Cry toxin binding proteins. This is the first report that suggests the interaction between Cry1AbMod and APN in S. frugiperda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) for Vehicles Braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh, Vu Trieu; Oamen, Godwin; Vassiljeva, Kristina; Teder, Leo

    2016-11-01

    This paper develops a real laboratory of anti-lock braking system (ABS) for vehicle and conducts real experiments to verify the ability of this ABS to prevent the vehicle wheel from being locked while braking. Two controllers of PID and fuzzy logic are tested for analysis and comparison. This ABS laboratory is designed for bachelor and master students to simulate and analyze performances of ABS with different control techniques on various roads and load conditions. This paper provides educational theories and practices on the design of control for system dynamics.

  7. Cyclodialysis ab interno as a surgical approach to intractable glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jens F; Dietlein, Thomas S; Dinslage, Sven; Lüke, Christoph; Konen, Walter; Krieglstein, Günter K

    2007-08-01

    In glaucoma filtration surgery, the problem of subconjunctival scarring has still not been satisfactorily solved. Suprachoroidal drainage of aqueous humour offers a promising, alternative option for intractable glaucoma. We here present a clinical study on the surgical approach of gonioscopic cyclodialysis ab interno. Twenty-eight eyes of 20 patients with intractable glaucoma were included in this prospective, consecutive, case-control study. The eyes had had a mean of 4.4 +/- 2.4 previous antiglaucomatous interventions. Baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) was 34.3 +/- 10.5 mmHg despite maximum therapy. Under gonioscopic control, cyclodialysis ab interno was performed over two clock times to gain access to the suprachoroidal space. No additional trabecular meshwork surgery was performed. Success was defined as a lowering of IOP to below 21 mmHg without the need for further medication or intervention. Mean postoperative IOP was 14.6 +/- 12.4 mmHg. Mean follow-up (FU) for all eyes was 121.8 days. After a mean of 60 days, 21 eyes (75%) needed further surgical intervention. Qualified success was seen in four eyes (14.3%), with a mean FU of 383.6 days. Three eyes (10.7%) showed absolute success after a mean FU period of 202.7 days. In our series, we obtained the best results for phakic eyes, followed by pseudophakic and aphakic eyes. The results of this study do not provide convincing evidence of the functional efficacy of cyclodialysis ab interno. Nevertheless, the technique is easy to perform and offers safe and atraumatic access to the resorptive capability of the choroid. Conjunctival manipulation is avoided. Contrary to reports in the current literature, in our series, the best results were obtained for phakic eyes, though the small number of eyes included does not allow reliable statistics. Further studies will need to focus on the use of different space-retaining substances or a widening of the cyclodialysis cleft to improve surgical outcome.

  8. Deletion of nfnAB in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and Its Effect on Metabolism

    DOE PAGES

    Lo, Jonathan; Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; ...

    2015-06-29

    NfnAB catalyzes the reversible transfer of electrons from reduced ferredoxin and NADH to 2 NADP +. The NfnAB complex has been hypothesized to be the main enzyme for ferredoxin oxidization in strains of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum engineered for increased ethanol production. NfnAB complex activity was detectable in crude cell extracts of T. saccharolyticum. In this paper, activity was also detected using activity staining of native PAGE gels. The nfnAB gene was deleted in different strains of T. saccharolyticum to determine its effect on end product formation. In wild-type T. saccharolyticum, deletion of nfnAB resulted in a 46% increase in H 2more » formation but otherwise little change in other fermentation products. In two engineered strains with 80% theoretical ethanol yield, loss of nfnAB caused two different responses: in one strain, ethanol yield decreased to about 30% of the theoretical value, while another strain had no change in ethanol yield. Biochemical analysis of cell extracts showed that the ΔnfnAB strain with decreased ethanol yield had NADPH-linked alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity, while the ΔnfnAB strain with unchanged ethanol yield had NADH-linked ADH activity. Deletion of nfnAB caused loss of NADPH-linked ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity in all cell extracts. Significant NADH-linked ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity was seen in all cell extracts, including those that had lost nfnAB. This suggests that there is an unidentified NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (distinct from nfnAB) playing a role in ethanol formation. The NfnAB complex plays a key role in generating NADPH in a strain that had become reliant on NADPH-ADH activity. Importance: Thermophilic anaerobes that can convert biomass-derived sugars into ethanol have been investigated as candidates for biofuel formation. Many anaerobes have been genetically engineered to increase biofuel formation; however, key aspects of metabolism remain unknown and poorly understood. One

  9. Cell Culture Systems To Study Human Herpesvirus 6A/B Chromosomal Integration.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Annie; Dubuc, Isabelle; Wallaschek, Nina; Gilbert-Girard, Shella; Collin, Vanessa; Hall-Sedlak, Ruth; Jerome, Keith R; Mori, Yasuko; Carbonneau, Julie; Boivin, Guy; Kaufer, Benedikt B; Flamand, Louis

    2017-07-15

    Human herpesviruses 6A/B (HHV-6A/B) can integrate their viral genomes in the telomeres of human chromosomes. The viral and cellular factors contributing to HHV-6A/B integration remain largely unknown, mostly due to the lack of efficient and reproducible cell culture models to study HHV-6A/B integration. In this study, we characterized the HHV-6A/B integration efficiencies in several human cell lines using two different approaches. First, after a short-term infection (5 h), cells were processed for single-cell cloning and analyzed for chromosomally integrated HHV-6A/B (ciHHV-6A/B). Second, cells were infected with HHV-6A/B and allowed to grow in bulk for 4 weeks or longer and then analyzed for the presence of ciHHV-6. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), droplet digital PCR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization, we could demonstrate that HHV-6A/B integrated in most human cell lines tested, including telomerase-positive (HeLa, MCF-7, HCT-116, and HEK293T) and telomerase-negative cell lines (U2OS and GM847). Our results also indicate that inhibition of DNA replication, using phosphonoacetic acid, did not affect HHV-6A/B integration. Certain clones harboring ciHHV-6A/B spontaneously express viral genes and proteins. Treatment of cells with phorbol ester or histone deacetylase inhibitors triggered the expression of many viral genes, including U39 , U90 , and U100 , without the production of infectious virus, suggesting that the tested stimuli were not sufficient to trigger full reactivation. In summary, both integration models yielded comparable results and should enable the identification of viral and cellular factors contributing to HHV-6A/B integration and the screening of drugs influencing viral gene expression, as well as the release of infectious HHV-6A/B from the integrated state. IMPORTANCE The analysis and understanding of HHV-6A/B genome integration into host DNA is currently limited due to the lack of reproducible and efficient viral integration systems. In the

  10. Reactive Monte Carlo sampling with an ab initio potential

    DOE PAGES

    Leiding, Jeff; Coe, Joshua D.

    2016-05-04

    Here, we present the first application of reactive Monte Carlo in a first-principles context. The algorithm samples in a modified NVT ensemble in which the volume, temperature, and total number of atoms of a given type are held fixed, but molecular composition is allowed to evolve through stochastic variation of chemical connectivity. We also discuss general features of the method, as well as techniques needed to enhance the efficiency of Boltzmann sampling. Finally, we compare the results of simulation of NH 3 to those of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). Furthermore, we find that there are regions of state spacemore » for which RxMC sampling is much more efficient than AIMD due to the “rare-event” character of chemical reactions.« less

  11. Ab initio elastic properties and tensile strength of crystalline hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Ching, W Y; Rulis, Paul; Misra, A

    2009-10-01

    We report elastic constant calculation and a "theoretical" tensile experiment on stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystal using an ab initio technique. These results compare favorably with a variety of measured data. Theoretical tensile experiments are performed on the orthorhombic cell of HAP for both uniaxial and biaxial loading. The results show considerable anisotropy in the stress-strain behavior. It is shown that the failure behavior of the perfect HAP crystal is brittle for tension along the z-axis with a maximum stress of 9.6 GPa at 10% strain. Biaxial failure envelopes from six "theoretical" loading tests show a highly anisotropic pattern. Structural analysis of the crystal under various stages of tensile strain reveals that the deformation behavior manifests itself mainly in the rotation of the PO(4) tetrahedron with concomitant movements of both the columnar and axial Ca ions. These results are discussed in the context of mechanical properties of bioceramic composites relevant to mineralized tissues.

  12. Reactive Monte Carlo sampling with an ab initio potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiding, Jeff; Coe, Joshua D.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first application of reactive Monte Carlo in a first-principles context. The algorithm samples in a modified NVT ensemble in which the volume, temperature, and total number of atoms of a given type are held fixed, but molecular composition is allowed to evolve through stochastic variation of chemical connectivity. We discuss general features of the method, as well as techniques needed to enhance the efficiency of Boltzmann sampling. Finally, we compare the results of simulation of NH3 to those of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). We find that there are regions of state space for which RxMC sampling is much more efficient than AIMD due to the "rare-event" character of chemical reactions.

  13. Quantitative verification of ab initio self-consistent laser theory.

    PubMed

    Ge, Li; Tandy, Robert J; Stone, A D; Türeci, Hakan E

    2008-10-13

    We generalize and test the recent "ab initio" self-consistent (AISC) time-independent semiclassical laser theory. This self-consistent formalism generates all the stationary lasing properties in the multimode regime (frequencies, thresholds, internal and external fields, output power and emission pattern) from simple inputs: the dielectric function of the passive cavity, the atomic transition frequency, and the transverse relaxation time of the lasing transition.We find that the theory gives excellent quantitative agreement with full time-dependent simulations of the Maxwell-Bloch equations after it has been generalized to drop the slowly-varying envelope approximation. The theory is infinite order in the non-linear hole-burning interaction; the widely used third order approximation is shown to fail badly.

  14. Molybdenum-titanium phase diagram evaluated from ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzilai, Shmuel; Toher, Cormac; Curtarolo, Stefano; Levy, Ohad

    2017-07-01

    The design of next generation β -type titanium implants requires detailed knowledge of the relevant stable and metastable phases at temperatures where metallurgical heat treatments can be performed. Recently, a standard specification for surgical implant applications was established for Mo-Ti alloys. However, the thermodynamic properties of this binary system are not well known and two conflicting descriptions of the β -phase stability have been presented in the literature. In this study, we use ab initio calculations to investigate the Mo-Ti phase diagram. These calculations predict that the β phase is stable over a wide concentration range, in qualitative agreement with one of the reported phase diagrams. In addition, they predict stoichiometric compounds, stable at temperatures below 300 ∘C , which have not yet been detected by experiments. The resulting solvus, which defines the transition to the β -phase solid solution, therefore occurs at lower temperatures and is more complex than previously anticipated.

  15. Ab Initio energetics of SiO bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Hühn, Carolin; Erlebach, Andreas; Mey, Dorothea; Wondraczek, Lothar; Sierka, Marek

    2017-10-15

    A multilevel approach that combines high-level ab initio quantum chemical methods applied to a molecular model of a single, strain-free SiOSi bridge has been used to derive accurate energetics for SiO bond cleavage. The calculated SiO bond dissociation energy and the activation energy for water-assisted SiO bond cleavage of 624 and 163 kJ mol -1 , respectively, are in excellent agreement with values derived recently from experimental data. In addition, the activation energy for H 2 O-assisted SiO bond cleavage is found virtually independent of the amount of water molecules in the vicinity of the reaction site. The estimated reaction energy for this process including zero-point vibrational contribution is in the range of -5 to 19 kJ mol -1 . © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ab initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- (mu)E(sub h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(sub 0) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.

  17. Ab initio Eliashberg Theory: Making Genuine Predictions of Superconducting Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Antonio; Flores-Livas, José A.; Davydov, Arkadiy; Profeta, Gianni; Dewhurst, Kay; Sharma, Sangeeta; Gross, E. K. U.

    2018-04-01

    We present an application of Eliashberg theory of superconductivity to study a set of novel superconducting systems with a wide range of structural and chemical properties. The set includes three intercalated group-IV honeycomb layered structures, SH3 at 200 GPa (the superconductor with the highest measured critical temperature), the similar system SeH3 at 150 GPa, and a lithium doped mono-layer of black phosphorus. The theoretical approach we adopt is a recently developed, fully ab initio Eliashberg approach that takes into account the Coulomb interaction in a full energy-resolved fashion avoiding any free parameters like μ*. This method provides reasonable estimations of superconducting properties, including TC and the excitation spectra of superconductors.

  18. High-throughput ab-initio dilute solute diffusion database

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Henry; Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate automated generation of diffusion databases from high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A total of more than 230 dilute solute diffusion systems in Mg, Al, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt host lattices have been determined using multi-frequency diffusion models. We apply a correction method for solute diffusion in alloys using experimental and simulated values of host self-diffusivity. We find good agreement with experimental solute diffusion data, obtaining a weighted activation barrier RMS error of 0.176 eV when excluding magnetic solutes in non-magnetic alloys. The compiled database is the largest collection of consistently calculated ab-initio solute diffusion data in the world. PMID:27434308

  19. Simple calculation of ab initio melting curves: Application to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Robert, Grégory; Legrand, Philippe; Arnault, Philippe; Desbiens, Nicolas; Clérouin, Jean

    2015-03-01

    We present a simple, fast, and promising method to compute the melting curves of materials with ab initio molecular dynamics. It is based on the two-phase thermodynamic model of Lin et al [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11792 (2003)] and its improved version given by Desjarlais [Phys. Rev. E 88, 062145 (2013)]. In this model, the velocity autocorrelation function is utilized to calculate the contribution of the nuclei motion to the entropy of the solid and liquid phases. It is then possible to find the thermodynamic conditions of equal Gibbs free energy between these phases, defining the melting curve. The first benchmark on the face-centered cubic melting curve of aluminum from 0 to 300 GPa demonstrates how to obtain an accuracy of 5%-10%, comparable to the most sophisticated methods, for a much lower computational cost.

  20. Non-stoichiometric AB5 alloys for metal hydride electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, James J.; Adzic, Gordana D.; Johnson, John R.; Vogt, Thomas; McBreen, James

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a non-stoichiometric alloy comprising a composition having the formula AB.sub.5+X an atomic ratio wherein A is selected from the group consisting of the rare earth metals, yttrium, mischmetal, or a combination thereof; B is nickel and tin, or nickel and tin and at least a third element selected from the group consisting of the elements in group IVA of the periodic table, aluminum, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, antimony or a combination thereof; X is greater than 0 and less than or equal to about 2.0; and wherein at least one substituted A site is occupied by at least one of the B elements. An electrode incorporating said alloy and an electrochemical cell incorporating said electrode are also described.

  1. Ab Initio Multiple Spawning Photochemical Dynamics of DMABN Using GPUs

    DOE PAGES

    Curchod, Basile F. E.; Sisto, Aaron; Martinez, Todd J.

    2016-12-15

    The ultrafast decay dynamics of 4-( N,N-dimethylamino)benzonitrile (DMABN) following photoexcitation was studied with the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) method, combined with GPU-accelerated linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT). We validate the LR-TDDFT method for this case and then present a detailed analysis of the first ≈200 fs of DMABN excited-state dynamics. Almost complete nonadiabatic population transfer from S 2 (the initially populated bright state) to S 1 takes place in less than 50 fs, without significant torsion of the dimethylamino (DMA) group. Significant torsion of the DMA group is only observed after the nuclear wavepacket reaches S 1 andmore » acquires locally excited electronic character. Here, our results show that torsion of the DMA group is not prerequisite for nonadiabatic transitions in DMABN, although such motion is indeed relevant on the lowest excited state (S 1).« less

  2. Efficient Ab initio Modeling of Random Multicomponent Alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Chao; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2016-03-08

    Here, we present in this Letter a novel small set of ordered structures (SSOS) method that allows extremely efficient ab initio modeling of random multi-component alloys. Using inverse II-III spinel oxides and equiatomic quinary bcc (so-called high entropy) alloys as examples, we also demonstrate that a SSOS can achieve the same accuracy as a large supercell or a well-converged cluster expansion, but with significantly reduced computational cost. In particular, because of this efficiency, a large number of quinary alloy compositions can be quickly screened, leading to the identification of several new possible high entropy alloy chemistries. Furthermore, the SSOS methodmore » developed here can be broadly useful for the rapid computational design of multi-component materials, especially those with a large number of alloying elements, a challenging problem for other approaches.« less

  3. Ab initio study of II-(VI)2 dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Olsson, P; Vidal, J; Lincot, D

    2011-10-12

    The structural stabilities of the (Zn,Cd)(S,Se,Te)(2) dichalcogenides have been determined ab initio. These compounds are shown to be stable in the pyrite phase, in agreement with available experiments. Structural parameters for the ZnTe(2) pyrite semiconductor compound proposed here are presented. The opto-electronic properties of these dichalcogenide compounds have been calculated using quasiparticle GW theory. Bandgaps, band structures and effective masses are proposed as well as absorption coefficients and refraction indices. The compounds are all indirect semiconductors with very flat conduction band dispersion and high absorption coefficients. The work functions and surface properties are predicted. The Te and Se based compounds could be of interest as absorber materials in photovoltaic applications.

  4. The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group in practice.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Hu, Weifeng; Nakatani, Naoki; Sharma, Sandeep; Yang, Jun; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2015-01-21

    The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is a tool that can be applied to a wide variety of interesting problems in quantum chemistry. Here, we examine the density matrix renormalization group from the vantage point of the quantum chemistry user. What kinds of problems is the DMRG well-suited to? What are the largest systems that can be treated at practical cost? What sort of accuracies can be obtained, and how do we reason about the computational difficulty in different molecules? By examining a diverse benchmark set of molecules: π-electron systems, benchmark main-group and transition metal dimers, and the Mn-oxo-salen and Fe-porphine organometallic compounds, we provide some answers to these questions, and show how the density matrix renormalization group is used in practice.

  5. High-throughput ab-initio dilute solute diffusion database.

    PubMed

    Wu, Henry; Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane

    2016-07-19

    We demonstrate automated generation of diffusion databases from high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A total of more than 230 dilute solute diffusion systems in Mg, Al, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt host lattices have been determined using multi-frequency diffusion models. We apply a correction method for solute diffusion in alloys using experimental and simulated values of host self-diffusivity. We find good agreement with experimental solute diffusion data, obtaining a weighted activation barrier RMS error of 0.176 eV when excluding magnetic solutes in non-magnetic alloys. The compiled database is the largest collection of consistently calculated ab-initio solute diffusion data in the world.

  6. Ab Initio Analysis of Auger-Assisted Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Kim, Joonghan; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2015-01-15

    Quantum confinement in nanoscale materials allows Auger-type electron-hole energy exchange. We show by direct time-domain atomistic simulation and analytic theory that Auger processes give rise to a new mechanism of charge transfer (CT) on the nanoscale. Auger-assisted CT eliminates the renown Marcus inverted regime, rationalizing recent experiments on CT from quantum dots to molecular adsorbates. The ab initio simulation reveals a complex interplay of the electron-hole and charge-phonon channels of energy exchange, demonstrating a variety of CT scenarios. The developed Marcus rate theory for Auger-assisted CT describes, without adjustable parameters, the experimental plateau of the CT rate in the region of large donor-acceptor energy gap. The analytic theory and atomistic insights apply broadly to charge and energy transfer in nanoscale systems.

  7. Fabrication and ab initio study of downscaled graphene nanoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuta, Hiroshi; Moktadir, Zakaria; Boden, Stuart A.; Kalhor, Nima; Hang, Shuojin; Schmidt, Marek E.; Cuong, Nguyen Tien; Chi, Dam Hieu; Otsuka, Nobuo; Muruganathan, Manoharan; Tsuchiya, Yoshishige; Chong, Harold; Rutt, Harvey N.; Bagnall, Darren M.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we first present a new fabrication process of downscaled graphene nanodevices based on direct milling of graphene using an atomic-size helium ion beam. We address the issue of contamination caused by the electron-beam lithography process to pattern the contact metals prior to the ultrafine milling process in the helium ion microscope (HIM). We then present our recent experimental study of the effects of the helium ion exposure on the carrier transport properties. By varying the time of helium ion bombardment onto a bilayer graphene nanoribbon transistor, the change in the transfer characteristics is investigated along with underlying carrier scattering mechanisms. Finally we study the effects of various single defects introduced into extremely-scaled armchair graphene nanoribbons on the carrier transport properties using ab initio simulation.

  8. Type A-B carbonate chlorapatite synthesized at high pressure

    SciT

    Fleet, Michael E.; Liu, Xi

    2008-09-15

    Sodium-bearing type A-B carbonate chlorapatites {l_brace}CCLAP; Ca{sub 10-(y+z)}Na{sub y}{open_square}{sub z}[(PO{sub 4}){sub 6-(y+2z)}(CO{sub 3}){sub y+2z}][Cl{sub 2-=} 2{sub x}(CO{sub 3}){sub x}], with x{approx}y{approx}4z{approx}0.4{r_brace} have been synthesized from carbonate-rich melts at 1350-1000 deg. C and 1.0 GPa, and investigated by single-crystal X-ray structure and FTIR spectroscopy. Typical crystal and compositional data are: a=9.5321(4) A, c=6.8448(3) A, space group P6{sub 3}/m, R=0.027, R{sub w}=0.025, x=0.37(3), y=0.57(2). Crystal-chemical features and FTIR spectra are similar to Na-bearing type A-B carbonate hydroxyapatites (CHAP) and fluorapatites (CFAP) reported recently. The molar amounts of Na and channel (type A) carbonate maintain a near 1:1 ratio in all three compositionmore » series, confirming that the Na cation and A and B carbonate ion substituents exist as a defect cluster within the apatite matrix, to facilitate charge compensation and spatial accommodation. Uptake of carbonate is significantly lower in CCLAP than in CHAP for similar conditions of crystal synthesis. - Graphical abstract: Defect cluster (blue) of A carbonate ion in apatite channel, Na{sup +} cation, and B carbonate ion replacing phosphate group, in carbonate chlorapatite synthesized at high pressure.« less

  9. Expression of ESBL-like activity in infrequently encountered members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sharon L; Lidgard, Janice A; Cheung, Wendy K W; Obeso, Martha N; Berrada, Zenda L; Janda, J Michael

    2012-03-01

    A collection of 94 unusual members of the Enterobacteriaceae were screened for the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) using the MicroScan ESβL plus dried confirmation panel. Presumptively positive strains were then confirmed for the presence of an ESBL by double disk diffusion, E-test strips (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) and PCR for SHV, TEM, and CTX-M2 genes. Of the 18 strains initially positive on the ESβL panel only three strains (Leminorella grimontii, Klebsiella ozaenae, and Kluyvera ascorbata) were positive by confirmation methods. These results suggest laboratories should be cautious regarding the methodology employed in screening for the presence of ESBLs in enteric bacteria. However, it should be noted that of the 94 strains, 29 were found to be resistant to two or more of the antibiotics present in the MicroScan ESβL plus panel indicating that there are potential treatment issues with these organisms despite their lack of ESBLs.

  10. A survey on microorganisms and their sensitivity by E-test in ventilator-associated pneumonia at Toxicological-Intensive Care Unit of Loghman-Hakim Hospital.

    PubMed

    Talaie, Haleh; Sabeti, Shahram; Mahdavinejad, Arezou; Barari, Behjat; Kamalbeik, Sepideh

    2010-12-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection at ICUs, with high mortality and morbidity. The diagnostic method for VAP is based on the combination of clinical, radiological, and microbiological criteria. Lower respiratory tract culture results are useful to confirm the etiology of VAP and adjusted antibiotics. Endotracheal aspiration (EA) is the simplest noninvasive technique for performing lower respiratory tract culture, with high sensitivity and moderately high specificity. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the quantitative cultures of endotracheal aspirates in VAP patients and the sensitivity patterns of microorganisms through E-test. Among 582 ICU admitted patients who were under mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours, 72 suspected patients of VAP were prospectively evaluated during a 10 month period. Evaluation of our ICU standards by APACHE III scoring, and GCS were carried out on the first day of admission in all patients. Quantitative cultures of EA were performed on all 72 patients. Antibiotic resistance pattern of isolated pathogens was defined by E-test. VAP was confirmed in 46 out of 72 cases (50, 69.4% males and 22, 30.6% females - mean age was 33 +/- 12 years) through quantitative cultures of EA samples. The probable incidence of VAP was 7.9% (per ventilated patients > or = 48 hours). The mean APACHE III score was 31.28 +/- 16. GCS in most of the patients was between 8 and 12. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated organism (58.7%), with high sensitivity to Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Teicoplanin (>92%); Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the second most frequent organism (17.4 percent); Acinetobacter isolates were potentially drug resistant, and only Amikacin was effective. Tracheal aspirates in combination with clinical findings show important roles in the management of VAP and decrease inappropriate antimicrobial therapy. S. aureus is the main agent leading to VAP in the TICU of the Loghman

  11. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  12. 75 FR 70691 - International Game Technology (IGT), Machine Accounting and ABS (Bonusing and BEII), Engineering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,477] International Game..., applicable to workers of International Game Technology (IGT), Machine Accounting and ABS (Bonusing and BEII... International Game Technology (IGT), Machine Accounting and ABS (Bonusing and BEII), and Engineering. The...

  13. Therapeutic Relationship of A-B Therapists as Perceived by Client and Therapist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Richard L.

    1970-01-01

    Analysis of variance was employed to evaluate the therapeutic relationship offered to schizophrenic and psychoneurotic patients by A-B type therapists. Results are discussed in context of the Whitehorn-Betz original claim that the differential therapeutic success of A-B type therapists with schizophrenic and psychoneurotic clients are a function…

  14. Process for treating ab5 nickel-metal hydride battery scrap

    SciT

    Lyman, J.W.; Palmer, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    A process for treating an AB5 Ni-MH battery to recover purified positive and negative electrode components of the battery is disclosed. An AB5 Ni-MH battery is placed in a mineral acid leach solution to cause the positive and negative electrode components of the battery to separate.

  15. Explicit and Implicit Subject Bias in the "ABS Journal Quality Guide"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepner, Andreas G. F.; Unerman, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses issues raised in two recent papers published in this journal about the UK "Association of Business Schools' Journal Quality Guide (ABS Guide)". While much of the debate about journal rankings in general, and the "ABS Guide" in particular, has focused on the construction, power and (mis)use of these…

  16. Inhibition of cholera toxin and other AB toxins by polyphenolic compounds

    All AB-type protein toxins have intracellular targets despite an initial extracellular location. These toxins use different methods to reach the cytosol and have different effects on the target cell. Broad-spectrum inhibitors against AB toxins are therefore hard to develop because the toxins use dif...

  17. Radiator-induced erythema ab igne in 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Ismail, Samir; Chiriac, Anca

    2014-04-01

    The cutaneous lesion of erythema ab Igne are characterized by a reticulate erythema, hyperpigmentation, fine scaling, epidermal atrophy and telangiectasias, and reticulated erythema. We report a case of erythema ab igne on the hands of a 8-year-old girl, induced by classic homemade radiator.

  18. Towards accurate ab initio predictions of the vibrational spectrum of methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.

    2002-01-01

    We have carried out extensive ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of methane, and these results are used to compute vibrational energy levels. We include basis set extrapolations, core-valence correlation, relativistic effects, and Born-Oppenheimer breakdown terms in our calculations. Our ab initio predictions of the lowest lying levels are superb.

  19. The adnAB Locus, Encoding a Putative Helicase-Nuclease Activity, Is Essential in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lingli; Nguyen, Hoang Chuong; Chipot, Ludovic; Piotrowski, Emilie; Bertrand, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a crucial mechanism that repairs a wide range of DNA lesions, including the most deleterious ones, double-strand breaks (DSBs). This multistep process is initiated by the resection of the broken DNA ends by a multisubunit helicase-nuclease complex exemplified by Escherichia coli RecBCD, Bacillus subtilis AddAB, and newly discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis AdnAB. Here we show that in Streptomyces, neither recBCD nor addAB homologues could be detected. The only putative helicase-nuclease-encoding genes identified were homologous to M. tuberculosis adnAB genes. These genes are conserved as a single copy in all sequenced genomes of Streptomyces. The disruption of adnAB in Streptomyces ambofaciens and Streptomyces coelicolor could not be achieved unless an ectopic copy was provided, indicating that adnAB is essential for growth. Both adnA and adnB genes were shown to be inducible in response to DNA damage (mitomycin C) and to be independently transcribed. Introduction of S. ambofaciens adnAB genes in an E. coli recB mutant restored viability and resistance to UV light, suggesting that Streptomyces AdnAB could be a functional homologue of RecBCD and be involved in DNA damage resistance. PMID:24837284

  20. Ab interno trabeculectomy: ultrastructural evidence and early tissue response in a human eye.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ettore; Ortolani, Fulvia; Petrelli, Lucia; Contin, Magali; Pognuz, Derri Roman; Marchini, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2007-10-01

    To report the results of ultrastructural analysis of the postoperative effects of ab interno trabeculectomy in a human eye. Department of Ophthalmology, Palmanova Hospital, Palmanova, Udine, Italy. A 60-year-old woman with cataract and glaucoma had enucleation for a choroidal melanoma 10 days after ab interno trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification. A second ab interno trabeculectomy was performed after enucleation to evaluate the outcomes of the previous trabeculectomy. Light and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed on samples excised from areas (1) not subjected to a procedure (control samples), (2) that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, and (3) that had ab interno trabeculectomy immediately after enucleation. Control samples showed normal trabecular features. Semithin sections of all ab interno trabeculectomy samples showed full-thickness removal of trabeculum segments, with Schlemm's canal lumen opening into the anterior chamber and apparent preservation of the adjacent structures. On ultrathin sections of samples that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, the endothelium lining the outer wall of Schlemm's canal and other angle components showed intact ultrastructural features. In trabecular beams that were not removed, the extracellular matrix appeared to have maintained its fine texture and was free of activated fibroblasts or leucocyte infiltrates. Observations confirm that ab interno trabeculectomy causes direct communication between Schlemm's canal lumen and the anterior chamber in vivo and immediately after enucleation during the early postoperative period. The absence of an evident inflammatory reaction in the examined case should be considered with caution because of possible tumor-induced immune suppression.

  1. (abstract) Studies on AB(sub 5) Metal Hydride Alloys with Sn Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.; Stefano, S. Di; Halpert, G.; Witham, C.; Fultz, B.

    1994-01-01

    The use of metal hydrides as negative electrodes in alkaline rechargeable cells is becoming increasingly popular, due to several advantages offered by the metal hydrides over conventional anode materials (such as Zn, Cd) in terms of specific energy environmental cycle life and compatibility. Besides, the similarities in the cell voltage pressure characteristics, and charge control methods of the Ni-MH cells to the commonly used Ni-Cd point to a projected take over of 25% of the Ni-Cd market for consumer electronics by the Ni-MH cells in the next couple of years. Two classes of metal hydrides alloys based on rare earth metals (AB(sub 5)) and titanium (AB(sub 2)) are being currently developed at various laboratories. AB(sub 2) alloys exhibit higher specific energy than the AB(sub 5) alloys but the state of the art commercial Ni-MH cells are predominately manufactured using AB(sub 5) alloys.

  2. FTIR analysis on aging characteristics of ABS/PC blend under UV-irradiation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiarong; Chen, Fu; Yang, Long; Jiang, Long; Dan, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is adopted to study the aging characteristics of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)/polycarbonate (ABS/PC) blend under UV-irradiation in air by analyzing the variation of the three main absorbance at about 967 cm- 1, 1720 cm- 1 and 3420 cm- 1 associated with carbon-hydrogen bonds belonging to 1,4 butadiene, carbonyl and hydroxyl groups, respectively. Results indicate that, under UV-irradiation in air, the photo-oxidation of the blend is not a simple combination of the photo-oxidation of corresponding ABS and PC themselves and takes place predominantly at the ABS component. Due to the interaction between the two components and the Fries rearrangement taken place in the PC component during the UV-irradiation in air, the ABS/PC blends behave higher photo-stability than ABS has.

  3. Surface Segregation Energies of BCC Binaries from Ab Initio and Quantum Approximate Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian S.

    2003-01-01

    We compare dilute-limit segregation energies for selected BCC transition metal binaries computed using ab initio and quantum approximate energy method. Ab initio calculations are carried out using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential computer code, while quantum approximate results are computed using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method with the most recent parameterization. Quantum approximate segregation energies are computed with and without atomistic relaxation. The ab initio calculations are performed without relaxation for the most part, but predicted relaxations from quantum approximate calculations are used in selected cases to compute approximate relaxed ab initio segregation energies. Results are discussed within the context of segregation models driven by strain and bond-breaking effects. We compare our results with other quantum approximate and ab initio theoretical work, and available experimental results.

  4. Radiolytic Synthesis of Pt-Particle/ABS Catalysts for H₂O₂ Decomposition in Contact Lens Cleaning.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Yuji; Aoki, Tomonori; Seino, Satoshi; Mori, Osamu; Ito, Issaku; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2017-08-23

    A container used in contact lens cleaning requires a Pt plating weight of 1.5 mg for H₂O₂ decomposition although Pt is an expensive material. Techniques that decrease the amount of Pt are therefore needed. In this study, Pt nanoparticles instead of Pt plating film were supported on a substrate of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS). This was achieved by the reduction of Pt ions in an aqueous solution containing the ABS substrate using high-energy electron-beam irradiation. Pt nanoparticles supported on the ABS substrate (Pt-particle/ABS) had a size of 4-10 nm. The amount of Pt required for Pt-particle/ABS was 250 times less than that required for an ABS substrate covered with Pt plating film (Pt-film/ABS). The catalytic activity for H₂O₂ decomposition was estimated by measuring the residual H₂O₂ concentration after immersing the catalyst for 360 min. The Pt-particle/ABS catalyst had a considerably higher specific catalytic activity for H₂O₂ decomposition than the Pt-film/ABS catalyst. In addition, sterilization performance was estimated from the initial rate of H₂O₂ decomposition over 60 min. The Pt-particle/ABS catalyst demonstrated a better sterilization performance than the Pt-film/ABS catalyst. The difference between Pt-particle/ABS and Pt-film/ABS was shown to reflect the size of the O₂ bubbles formed during H₂O₂ decomposition.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms Induce Macrophage Dysfunction Through Leukocidin AB and Alpha-Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Scherr, Tyler D.; Hanke, Mark L.; Huang, Ouwen; James, David B. A.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Bayles, Kenneth W.; Fey, Paul D.; Torres, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The macrophage response to planktonic Staphylococcus aureus involves the induction of proinflammatory microbicidal activity. However, S. aureus biofilms can interfere with these responses in part by polarizing macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory profibrotic phenotype. Here we demonstrate that conditioned medium from mature S. aureus biofilms inhibited macrophage phagocytosis and induced cytotoxicity, suggesting the involvement of a secreted factor(s). Iterative testing found the active factor(s) to be proteinaceous and partially agr-dependent. Quantitative mass spectrometry identified alpha-toxin (Hla) and leukocidin AB (LukAB) as critical molecules secreted by S. aureus biofilms that inhibit murine macrophage phagocytosis and promote cytotoxicity. A role for Hla and LukAB was confirmed by using hla and lukAB mutants, and synergy between the two toxins was demonstrated with a lukAB hla double mutant and verified by complementation. Independent confirmation of the effects of Hla and LukAB on macrophage dysfunction was demonstrated by using an isogenic strain in which Hla was constitutively expressed, an Hla antibody to block toxin activity, and purified LukAB peptide. The importance of Hla and LukAB during S. aureus biofilm formation in vivo was assessed by using a murine orthopedic implant biofilm infection model in which the lukAB hla double mutant displayed significantly lower bacterial burdens and more macrophage infiltrates than each single mutant. Collectively, these findings reveal a critical synergistic role for Hla and LukAB in promoting macrophage dysfunction and facilitating S. aureus biofilm development in vivo. PMID:26307164

  6. Fluorescence dye-based detection of mAb aggregates in CHO culture supernatants.

    PubMed

    Paul, Albert Jesuran; Schwab, Karen; Prokoph, Nina; Haas, Elena; Handrick, René; Hesse, Friedemann

    2015-06-01

    Product yields, efficacy, and safety of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are reduced by the formation of higher molecular weight aggregates during upstream processing. In-process characterization of mAb aggregate formation is a challenge since there is a lack of a fast detection method to identify mAb aggregates in cell culture. In this work, we present a rapid method to characterize mAb aggregate-containing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture supernatants. The fluorescence dyes thioflavin T (ThT) and 4-4-bis-1-phenylamino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (Bis-ANS) enabled the detection of soluble as well as large mAb aggregates. Partial least square (PLS) regression models were used to evaluate the linearity of the dye-based mAb aggregate detection in buffer down to a mAb aggregate concentration of 2.4 μg mL(-1). Furthermore, mAb aggregates were detected in bioprocess medium using Bis-ANS and ThT. Dye binding to aggregates was stable for 60 min, making the method robust and reliable. Finally, the developed method using 10 μmol L(-1) Bis-ANS enabled discrimination between CHO cell culture supernatants containing different levels of mAb aggregates. The method can be adapted for high-throughput screening, e.g., to screen for cell culture conditions influencing mAb product quality, and hence can contribute to the improvement of production processes of biopharmaceuticals in mammalian cell culture.

  7. Ab initio calculation of the potential bubble nucleus 34Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguet, T.; Somà, V.; Lecluse, S.; Barbieri, C.; Navrátil, P.

    2017-03-01

    Background: The possibility that an unconventional depletion (referred to as a "bubble") occurs in the center of the charge density distribution of certain nuclei due to a purely quantum mechanical effect has attracted theoretical and experimental attention in recent years. Based on a mean-field rationale, a correlation between the occurrence of such a semibubble and an anomalously weak splitting between low angular-momentum spin-orbit partners has been further conjectured. Energy density functional and valence-space shell model calculations have been performed to identify and characterize the best candidates, among which 34Si appears as a particularly interesting case. While the experimental determination of the charge density distribution of the unstable 34Si is currently out of reach, (d ,p ) experiments on this nucleus have been performed recently to test the correlation between the presence of a bubble and an anomalously weak 1 /2--3 /2- splitting in the spectrum of 35Si as compared to 37S. Purpose: We study the potential bubble structure of 34Si on the basis of the state-of-the-art ab initio self-consistent Green's function many-body method. Methods: We perform the first ab initio calculations of 34Si and 36S. In addition to binding energies, the first observables of interest are the charge density distribution and the charge root-mean-square radius for which experimental data exist in 36S. The next observable of interest is the low-lying spectroscopy of 35Si and 37S obtained from (d ,p ) experiments along with the spectroscopy of 33Al and 35P obtained from knock-out experiments. The interpretation in terms of the evolution of the underlying shell structure is also provided. The study is repeated using several chiral effective field theory Hamiltonians as a way to test the robustness of the results with respect to input internucleon interactions. The convergence of the results with respect to the truncation of the many-body expansion, i.e., with respect to

  8. Clinical performance of the novel DiaSorin LIAISON(®) XL murex: HBsAg Quant, HCV-Ab, HIV-Ab/Ag assays.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Adalbert; Hintze, Christian; Ackermann, Jessica; Goitowski, Birgit; Trippler, Martin; Grüner, Nico; Neumann-Fraune, Maria; Verheyen, Jens; Fiedler, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The fully automated and closed LIAISON(®)XL platform was developed for reliable detection of infection markers like hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies (Ab) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-Ag/Ab. To date, less is known about the diagnostic performance of this system in direct comparison to the common Abbott ARCHITECT(®) platform. We compared the diagnostic performance and usability of the DiaSorin LIAISON(®)XL with the commonly used Abbott ARCHITECT(®) system. The qualitative performance of the above mentioned assays was compared in about 500 sera. Quantitative tests were performed for HBsAg-positive samples from patients under therapy (n=289) and in vitro expressed mutants (n=37). For HCV-Ab, a total number of 155 selected samples from patients chronically infected with different HCV genotypes were tested. The concordance between both systems was 99.4% for HBsAg, 98.81% for HCV-Ab, and 99.6% for HIV-Ab/Ag. The quantitative LIAISON(®)XL murex HBsAg assay detected all mutants in comparable amounts to the HBsAg wild type and yielded highly reliable HBsAg kinetics in patients treated with antiviral drugs. Dilution experiments using the 2nd International Standard for HBsAg (WHO) showed a high accuracy of this test. HCV-Ab from patients infected with genotypes 1-3 were equally detected in both systems. Interestingly, S/CO levels of HCV-Ab from patients infected with genotype 3 seem to be relatively low using both systems. The LIAISON(®)XL platform proved to be an excellent system for diagnostics of HBV, HCV, and HIV with equal performance compared to the ARCHITECT(®) system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ab Initio Protein Structure Prediction Using Chunk-TASSER

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hongyi; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    We have developed an ab initio protein structure prediction method called chunk-TASSER that uses ab initio folded supersecondary structure chunks of a given target as well as threading templates for obtaining contact potentials and distance restraints. The predicted chunks, selected on the basis of a new fragment comparison method, are folded by a fragment insertion method. Full-length models are built and refined by the TASSER methodology, which searches conformational space via parallel hyperbolic Monte Carlo. We employ an optimized reduced force field that includes knowledge-based statistical potentials and restraints derived from the chunks as well as threading templates. The method is tested on a dataset of 425 hard target proteins ≤250 amino acids in length. The average TM-scores of the best of top five models per target are 0.266, 0.336, and 0.362 by the threading algorithm SP3, original TASSER and chunk-TASSER, respectively. For a subset of 80 proteins with predicted α-helix content ≥50%, these averages are 0.284, 0.356, and 0.403, respectively. The percentages of proteins with the best of top five models having TM-score ≥0.4 (a statistically significant threshold for structural similarity) are 3.76, 20.94, and 28.94% by SP3, TASSER, and chunk-TASSER, respectively, overall, while for the subset of 80 predominantly helical proteins, these percentages are 2.50, 23.75, and 41.25%. Thus, chunk-TASSER shows a significant improvement over TASSER for modeling hard targets where no good template can be identified. We also tested chunk-TASSER on 21 medium/hard targets <200 amino-acids-long from CASP7. Chunk-TASSER is ∼11% (10%) better than TASSER for the total TM-score of the first (best of top five) models. Chunk-TASSER is fully automated and can be used in proteome scale protein structure prediction. PMID:17496016

  10. Towards an ab initio description of correlated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Chuck-Hou

    Strongly-correlated materials are a rich playground for physical phenomena, exhibiting complex phase diagrams with many competing orders. Ab initio insights into materials combined with physical ideas provide the ability to identify the organizing principles driving the correlated electronic behavior and pursue first-principles design of new compounds. Realistic modeling of correlated materials is an active area of research, especially with the recent merger of density functional theory (DFT) with dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). This thesis is structured in two parts. The first describes the methods and algorithmic developments which drive advances in DFT+DMFT. In Ch. 2 and 3, we provide an overview of the two foundational theories, DMFT and DFT. In the second half of Ch. 3, we describe some of the principles guiding the combination of the two theories to form DFT+DMFT. In Ch. 4, we describe the algorithm lying at the heart of modern DFT+DMFT implementations, the hybridization expansion formulation of continuous-time quantum monte carlo (CTQMC) for the general Anderson impurity problem, as well as a fast rejection algorithm for speeding-up the local trace evaluation. The final chapter in the methods section describes an algorithm for direct sampling of the partition function, and thus the free energy and entropy, of simple Anderson impurity models within CTQMC. The second part of the thesis is a collection of applications of our ab initio approach to key correlated materials. We first apply our method to plutonium binary alloys (Ch. 6), which when supplemented with slave-boson mean-field theory, allows us to understand the observed photoemission spectra. Ch. 7 describes the computation of spectra and optical conductivity for rare-earth nickelates grown as epitaxial thin films. In the final two chapters, we turn our attention to the high-temperature superconductors. In the first, we show that the charge-transfer energy is a key chemical variable which controls

  11. Ab initio molecular crystal structures, spectra, and phase diagrams.

    PubMed

    Hirata, So; Gilliard, Kandis; He, Xiao; Li, Jinjin; Sode, Olaseni

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Molecular crystals are chemists' solids in the sense that their structures and properties can be understood in terms of those of the constituent molecules merely perturbed by a crystalline environment. They form a large and important class of solids including ices of atmospheric species, drugs, explosives, and even some organic optoelectronic materials and supramolecular assemblies. Recently, surprisingly simple yet extremely efficient, versatile, easily implemented, and systematically accurate electronic structure methods for molecular crystals have been developed. The methods, collectively referred to as the embedded-fragment scheme, divide a crystal into monomers and overlapping dimers and apply modern molecular electronic structure methods and software to these fragments of the crystal that are embedded in a self-consistently determined crystalline electrostatic field. They enable facile applications of accurate but otherwise prohibitively expensive ab initio molecular orbital theories such as Møller-Plesset perturbation and coupled-cluster theories to a broad range of properties of solids such as internal energies, enthalpies, structures, equation of state, phonon dispersion curves and density of states, infrared and Raman spectra (including band intensities and sometimes anharmonic effects), inelastic neutron scattering spectra, heat capacities, Gibbs energies, and phase diagrams, while accounting for many-body electrostatic (namely, induction or polarization) effects as well as two-body exchange and dispersion interactions from first principles. They can fundamentally alter the role of computing in the studies of molecular crystals in the same way ab initio molecular orbital theories have transformed research practices in gas-phase physical chemistry and synthetic chemistry in the last half century. In this Account, after a brief summary of formalisms and algorithms, we discuss applications of these methods performed in our group as compelling

  12. A disk wind in AB Aurigae traced with Hα interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraut, K.; Dougados, C.; Lima, G. H. R. A.; Benisty, M.; Mourard, D.; Ligi, R.; Nardetto, N.; Tallon-Bosc, I.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Farrington, C.

    2016-11-01

    Context. A crucial issue in star formation is understanding the physical mechanism by which mass is accreted onto and ejected by a young star, then collimated into jets. Hydrogen lines are often used to trace mass accretion in young stars, but recent observations suggest that they could instead trace mass outflow in a disk wind. Aims: Obtaining direct constraints on the HI line formation regions is crucial in order to disentangle the different models. We present high angular and spectral resolution observations of the Hα line of the Herbig Ae star AB Aur to probe the origin of this line at sub-AU scales, and to place constraints on the geometry of the emitting region. Methods: We use the visible spectrograph VEGA at the CHARA long-baseline optical array to resolve the AB Aur circumstellar environment from spectrally resolved interferometric measurements across the Hα emission line. We developed a 2D radiative transfer model to fit the emission line profile and the spectro-interferometric observables. The model includes the combination of a Blandford & Payne magneto-centrifugal disk wind and a magnetospheric accretion flow. Results: We measure a visibility decrease within the Hα line, indicating that we clearly resolve the Hα formation region. We derive a Gaussian half width at half maximum between 0.05 and 0.15 AU in the core of the line, which indicates that the bulk of the Hα emission has a size scale intermediate between the disk inner truncation radius and the dusty disk inner rim. A clear asymmetric differential phase signal is found with a minimum of -30° ± 15° towards the core of the line. We show that these observations are in general agreement with predictions from a magneto-centrifugal disk wind arising from the innermost regions of the disk. Better agreement, in particular with the differential phases, is found when a compact magnetospheric accretion flow is included. Conclusions: We resolve the Hα formation region in a young accreting

  13. Evaluation of Etest MBL for Detection of blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-2 Allele-Positive Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyungwon; Yong, Dongeun; Yum, Jong Hwa; Lim, Yong Sik; Bolmström, Anne; Qwärnström, Anette; Karlsson, Åsa; Chong, Yunsop

    2005-01-01

    The Etest MBL (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) correctly differentiated all 57 isolates of Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the blaIMP-1 allele and 135 of 137 (98.5%) Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. isolates with the blaVIM-2 allele. The Etest MBL was reliable for detecting the IMP-1- and VIM-2-producing Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter isolates. PMID:15695713

  14. SU-E-J-25: End-To-End (E2E) Testing On TomoHDA System Using a Real Pig Head for Intracranial Radiosurgery

    SciT

    Corradini, N; Leick, M; Bonetti, M

    Purpose: To determine the MVCT imaging uncertainty on the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery treatments. To determine the end-to-end (E2E) overall accuracy of the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery. Methods: A pig head was obtained from the butcher, cut coronally through the brain, and preserved in formaldehyde. The base of the head was fixed to a positioning plate allowing precise movement, i.e. translation and rotation, in all 6 axes. A repeatability test was performed on the pig head to determine uncertainty in the image bone registration algorithm. Furthermore, the test studied images with MVCT slice thicknesses of 1 and 3more » mm in unison with differing scan lengths. A sensitivity test was performed to determine the registration algorithm’s ability to find the absolute position of known translations/rotations of the pig head. The algorithm’s ability to determine absolute position was compared against that of manual operators, i.e. a radiation therapist and radiation oncologist. Finally, E2E tests for intracranial radiosurgery were performed by measuring the delivered dose distributions within the pig head using Gafchromic films. Results: The repeatability test uncertainty was lowest for the MVCTs of 1-mm slice thickness, which measured less than 0.10 mm and 0.12 deg for all axes. For the sensitivity tests, the bone registration algorithm performed better than human eyes and a maximum difference of 0.3 mm and 0.4 deg was observed for the axes. E2E test results in absolute position difference measured 0.03 ± 0.21 mm in x-axis and 0.28 ± 0.18 mm in y-axis. A maximum difference of 0.32 and 0.66 mm was observed in x and y, respectively. The average peak dose difference between measured and calculated dose was 2.7 cGy or 0.4%. Conclusion: Our tests using a pig head phantom estimate the TomoHDA system to have a submillimeter overall accuracy for intracranial radiosurgery.« less

  15. eTEST: Developing a Smart Home HIV Testing Kit that Enables Active, Real-Time Follow-Up and Referral After Testing

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Philip A; Simpanen, Erik; Operario, Don

    2017-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group at highest risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States, but many do not test as frequently as recommended. Home-based self-testing (HBST) for HIV holds promise for promoting regular testing among these individuals, but currently available HBSTs have limited follow-up options, providing only a 1-800 number that participants can call. Failure to actively conduct follow-up counseling and referrals after HBST use could result in delays in seeking confirmatory testing and care among users receiving reactive (preliminary positive) test results. HBST also fails to connect users who test negative with other prevention services that can reduce their future risk for HIV. Objective The aim of our study was to use qualitative research methods with high-risk MSM to inform development of a “smart” HBST kit. The kit utilizes existing Internet-of-Things (IoT) technologies to monitor HBST use in real-time and enable delivery of timely, active follow-up counseling and referrals over the phone. Methods In phase 1, individual interviews (n=10) explored how participants might use HBST and their views and preferences for conducting counseling and referral after HBST. Based on these perspectives, we developed a smartphone app (iOS, Android) that uses data from light sensors on Bluetooth low energy (BLE) beacons to monitor when HBST kits are opened, facilitating timely follow-up phone contact with users. In phase 2, a usability study conducted among high-risk MSM (n=10) examined the acceptability and feasibility of this system and provided user perspectives after using the system along with HBST. Results Phase 1 themes suggested that MSM preferred HBST, that most thought active follow-up after HBST would be valuable, and that doing so over the phone within 24 h after testing was preferable. Phase 2 results showed that the eTEST system successfully detected HBST use in nearly all cases

  16. Stacking stability of MoS2 bilayer: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Peng; Guo, Huai-Hong; Yang, Teng; Zhang, Zhi-Dong

    2014-10-01

    The study of the stacking stability of bilayer MoS2 is essential since a bilayer has exhibited advantages over single layer MoS2 in many aspects for nanoelectronic applications. We explored the relative stability, optimal sliding path between different stacking orders of bilayer MoS2, and (especially) the effect of inter-layer stress, by combining first-principles density functional total energy calculations and the climbing-image nudge-elastic-band (CI-NEB) method. Among five typical stacking orders, which can be categorized into two kinds (I: AA, AB and II: AA', AB', A'B), we found that stacking orders with Mo and S superposing from both layers, such as AA' and AB, is more stable than the others. With smaller computational efforts than potential energy profile searching, we can study the effect of inter-layer stress on the stacking stability. Under isobaric condition, the sliding barrier increases by a few eV/(ucGPa) from AA' to AB', compared to 0.1 eV/(ucGPa) from AB to [AB]. Moreover, we found that interlayer compressive stress can help enhance the transport properties of AA'. This study can help understand why inter-layer stress by dielectric gating materials can be an effective means to improving MoS2 on nanoelectronic applications.

  17. Overexpression of the ABC transporter AvtAB increases avermectin production in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jingfan; Zhuo, Ying; Zhu, Dongqing; Zhou, Xiufen; Zhang, Lixin; Bai, Linquan; Deng, Zixin

    2011-10-01

    Avermectins are 16-membered macrocyclic polyketides with potent antiparasitic activities, produced by Streptomyces avermitilis. Upstream of the avermectin biosynthetic gene cluster, there is the avtAB operon encoding the ABC transporter AvtAB, which is highly homologous to the mammalian multidrug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Inactivation of avtAB had no effect, but increasing the concentration of avtAB mRNA 30-500-fold, using a multi-copy plasmid in S. avermitilis, enhanced avermectin production about two-fold both in the wild-type and in a high-yield producer strain on agar plates. In liquid industrial fermentation medium, the overall productivity of avermectin B1a in the engineered high-yield producer was improved for about 50%, from 3.3 to 4.8 g/l. In liquid YMG medium, moreover, the ratio of intracellular to extracellular accumulation of avermectin B1a was dropped from 6:1 to 4.5:1 in response to multiple copies of avtAB. Additionally, the overexpression of avtAB did not cause any increased expression of the avermectin biosynthetic genes through RT-PCR analysis. We propose that the AvtAB transporter exports avermectin, and thus reduces the feedback inhibition on avermectin production inside the cell. This strategy may be useful for enhancing the production of other antibiotics.

  18. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  19. [VDRL and FTA-ABS reactivity in cerebrospinal fluid: our experience].

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, J A; Martín-Sánchez, A M; Canut, A; García-García, L; Cacho, J

    1990-01-01

    The reactivity of 194 samples of CSF against VDRL and FTA-ABS was studied in patients attending the Clinical Hospital in Salamanca over a five years period. This laboratory was asked to rule out an etiology of syphilis. Twelve samples of CSF proved to be reactive (6.2%) against VDRL and/or FTA-ABS. Seven of these corresponded to six adults diagnosed as suffering from neurosyphilis and one to an infant with early congenital syphilis without neurological alterations; these had in common the presence of active syphilis and a reactive FTA-ABS in serum. In the CSF of the six cases of neurosyphilis, VDRL was reactive in two patients (33.3%) and FTA-ABS in five (83.3%). One minimally reactive VDRL and four FTA-ABS were detected in the remaining five patients, with no known previous history of syphilis, that were suffering from different neurological alterations and that had a nonreactive FTA-ABS in serum. The results obtained in this study point to inappropriate use in CSF of VDRL and FTA-ABS to exclude neurosyphilis in our hospital since only 3.6% of the CSF studied corresponded to patients diagnosed as suffering from neurosyphilis and also to the need for improving the criteria for patient selection.

  20. Occurrence, leaching, and degradation of Cry1Ab protein from transgenic maize detritus in agricultural streams

    SciT

    Griffiths, Natalie A.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Royer, Todd V.

    The insecticidal Cry1Ab protein expressed by transgenic (Bt) maize can enter adjacent water bodies via multiple pathways, but its fate in stream ecosystems is not as well studied as in terrestrial systems. In this study, we used a combination of field sampling and laboratory experiments to examine the occurrence, leaching, and degradation of soluble Cry1Ab protein derived from Bt maize in agricultural streams. We surveyed 11 agricultural streams in northwestern Indiana, USA, on 6 dates that encompassed the growing season, crop harvest, and snowmelt/spring flooding, and detected Cry1Ab protein in the water column and in flowing subsurface tile drains atmore » concentrations of 3–60 ng/L. In a series of laboratory experiments, submerged Bt maize leaves leached Cry1Ab into stream water with 1% of the protein remaining in leaves after 70 d. Laboratory experiments suggested that dissolved Cry1Ab protein degraded rapidly in microcosms containing water-column microorganisms, and light did not enhance breakdown by stimulating assimilatory uptake of the protein by autotrophs. Here, the common detection of Cry1Ab protein in streams sampled across an agricultural landscape, combined with laboratory studies showing rapid leaching and degradation, suggests that Cry1Ab may be pseudo-persistent at the watershed scale due to the multiple input pathways from the surrounding terrestrial environment.« less

  1. [In vitro hepatic targeting tendency of galactosyl-anti CD3 McAb-TILS].

    PubMed

    Jiang, P; He, S; Zhang, C

    1999-03-01

    This study was undertaken to enhance the hepatic targeting tendency of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and hence to lower the recurrence rate of primary liver cancer after hepatectomy. Galactosyl-anti CD3McAb-TILs were prepared and then were incubated together with hepatocytes. Their interaction through asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated mechanism was observed under the inverted phase contrast microscope. The carbohydrate density of galactosyl-anti CD3McAb and the combining rate of galactosyl-anti CD3McAb with TILs were measured. The results revealed that galactosyl-anti CD3 McAb-TIL obviously were adhered to hepatocytes. The carbohydrate density of galactosyl-anti CD3McAb was 62.18, and the combining rate of galactosyl-anti CD3McAb with TILs was 97.9%. The results suggested that in vitro hepatic targeting tendency of galactosyl-anti CD3McAb-TILs was satisfactory, and that the carbohydrate density of 62.18 and the combining rate of 97.9% ensured the effective use of TILs.

  2. Impact-induced fracture mechanisms of immiscible PC/ABS (50/50) blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machmud, M. N.; Omiya, M.; Inoue, H.; Kishimoto, K.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a study on fracture mechanisms of polycarbonate (PC)/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) (50/50) blends with different ABS types under a drop weight impact test (DWIT) using a circular sheet specimen. Formation of secondary crack indicated by a stress-whitening layer on the mid-plane of scattered specimens and secondary surface of fracture perpendicular to primary fracture surface were captured under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Although the both blends finally failed in brittle modes, SEM observation showed that their secondary fracture mechanisms were completely different. Observation through the thickness of the etched PC/ABS specimen samples using SEM also clearly showed that PC and ABS were immiscible. The immiscibility between PC and ABS was indicated by presence of their layer structures through the thickness of the blends. It was revealed that layer of ABS structure was influenced by size of rubber particle and this latter parameter then affected microstructure and fracture mechanisms of the blends. Impact-induced fracture mechanisms of the blends due to such microstructures are discussed in this paper. It was also pointed out that the secondary cracking was likely caused by interface delamination between PC and ABS layers in the core due to transverse shear stress generated during the impact test.

  3. Occurrence, leaching, and degradation of Cry1Ab protein from transgenic maize detritus in agricultural streams

    DOE PAGES

    Griffiths, Natalie A.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Royer, Todd V.; ...

    2017-03-15

    The insecticidal Cry1Ab protein expressed by transgenic (Bt) maize can enter adjacent water bodies via multiple pathways, but its fate in stream ecosystems is not as well studied as in terrestrial systems. In this study, we used a combination of field sampling and laboratory experiments to examine the occurrence, leaching, and degradation of soluble Cry1Ab protein derived from Bt maize in agricultural streams. We surveyed 11 agricultural streams in northwestern Indiana, USA, on 6 dates that encompassed the growing season, crop harvest, and snowmelt/spring flooding, and detected Cry1Ab protein in the water column and in flowing subsurface tile drains atmore » concentrations of 3–60 ng/L. In a series of laboratory experiments, submerged Bt maize leaves leached Cry1Ab into stream water with 1% of the protein remaining in leaves after 70 d. Laboratory experiments suggested that dissolved Cry1Ab protein degraded rapidly in microcosms containing water-column microorganisms, and light did not enhance breakdown by stimulating assimilatory uptake of the protein by autotrophs. Here, the common detection of Cry1Ab protein in streams sampled across an agricultural landscape, combined with laboratory studies showing rapid leaching and degradation, suggests that Cry1Ab may be pseudo-persistent at the watershed scale due to the multiple input pathways from the surrounding terrestrial environment.« less

  4. Ab initio description of p-shell hypernuclei.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Roland; Gazda, Daniel; Navrátil, Petr; Calci, Angelo; Langhammer, Joachim; Roth, Robert

    2014-11-07

    We present the first ab initio calculations for p-shell single-Λ hypernuclei. For the solution of the many-baryon problem, we develop two variants of the no-core shell model with explicit Λ and Σ(+),Σ(0),Σ(-) hyperons including Λ-Σ conversion, optionally supplemented by a similarity renormalization group transformation to accelerate model-space convergence. In addition to state-of-the-art chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions, we use leading-order chiral hyperon-nucleon interactions and a recent meson-exchange hyperon-nucleon interaction. We validate the approach for s-shell hypernuclei and apply it to p-shell hypernuclei, in particular to (Λ)(7)Li, (Λ)(9)Be, and (Λ)(13)C. We show that the chiral hyperon-nucleon interactions provide ground-state and excitation energies that generally agree with experiment within the cutoff dependence. At the same time we demonstrate that hypernuclear spectroscopy provides tight constraints on the hyperon-nucleon interactions.

  5. Ab initio calculation of infrared intensities for hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. D.; Hillman, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Results of an ab initio SCF quantum mechanical study are used to derive estimates for the infrared intensities of the fundamental vibrations of hydrogen peroxide. Atomic polar tensors (APTs) were calculated on the basis of a 4-31G basis set, and used to derive absolute intensities for the vibrational transitions. Comparison of the APTs calculated for H2O2 with those previously obtained for H2O and CH3OH, and of the absolute intensities derived from the H2O2 APTs with those derived from APTs transferred from H2O and CH3OH, reveals the sets of values to differ by no more than a factor of two, supporting the validity of the theoretical calculation. Values of the infrared intensities obtained correspond to A1 = 14.5 km/mol, A2 = 0.91 km/mol, A3 = 0.058 km/mol, A4 = 123 km/mol, A5 = 46.2 km/mol, and A6 = 101 km/mol. Charge, charge flux and overlap contributions to the dipole moment derivatives are also computed.

  6. Ab initio calculation of infrared intensities for hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. D.; Hillman, J. J.

    1982-04-01

    Results of an ab initio SCF quantum mechanical study are used to derive estimates for the infrared intensities of the fundamental vibrations of hydrogen peroxide. Atomic polar tensors (APTs) were calculated on the basis of a 4-31G basis set, and used to derive absolute intensities for the vibrational transitions. Comparison of the APTs calculated for H2O2 with those previously obtained for H2O and CH3OH, and of the absolute intensities derived from the H2O2 APTs with those derived from APTs transferred from H2O and CH3OH, reveals the sets of values to differ by no more than a factor of two, supporting the validity of the theoretical calculation. Values of the infrared intensities obtained correspond to A1 = 14.5 km/mol, A2 = 0.91 km/mol, A3 = 0.058 km/mol, A4 = 123 km/mol, A5 = 46.2 km/mol, and A6 = 101 km/mol. Charge, charge flux and overlap contributions to the dipole moment derivatives are also computed.

  7. Ab-Initio Interfacial Studies of Cobalt/Copper Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagonzalo, Cristine; Setty, Arun K.; Muratov, Leonid; Cooper, Bernard R.

    2002-03-01

    We present a study of the interface of cobalt/copper (Co/Cu) multilayrs. For its potential in giant magnetoresistance (GMR) device applications,(S.S.Parkin, et al.), Appl. Phys. Lett. 58 (1991) 2710 the Co/Cu system has been studied extensively. The magnitude of GMR is found to depend sensitively on the nature of the interface, however, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Therefore, we focus on the energy-configuration of Co/Cu multilayers (of 1-4 monolayers for each element) and on the effects of interpenetration. Using an ab-initio full-potential Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital (FP-LMTO) electronic structure method, we seek a stable interfacial structure. Unlike prior studies, our computations are for the experimentally relevant (111) direction. Our preliminary results indicate that Co impurities in bulk Cu are not energetically favorable, in accord with the experimentally observed immiscibility of Co and Cu. Studies in progress of interfacial relaxation in prelude to consideration of interdiffusion and lattice buckling will also be presented.

  8. Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- 3 micro E(h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces (25-70 kcal/mol above the H-H2 asymptote) at small interatomic separations; the Boothroyd, Keogh, Martin, and Peterson (BKMP) potential energy surface is found to agree with results of the present calculations within the expected uncertainty (+/- 1 kcal/mol) of the fit. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(0)) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.

  9. Ab initio solution of macromolecular crystal structures without direct methods.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Airlie J; Oeffner, Robert D; Wrobel, Antoni G; Ojala, Juha R M; Tryggvason, Karl; Lohkamp, Bernhard; Read, Randy J

    2017-04-04

    The majority of macromolecular crystal structures are determined using the method of molecular replacement, in which known related structures are rotated and translated to provide an initial atomic model for the new structure. A theoretical understanding of the signal-to-noise ratio in likelihood-based molecular replacement searches has been developed to account for the influence of model quality and completeness, as well as the resolution of the diffraction data. Here we show that, contrary to current belief, molecular replacement need not be restricted to the use of models comprising a substantial fraction of the unknown structure. Instead, likelihood-based methods allow a continuum of applications depending predictably on the quality of the model and the resolution of the data. Unexpectedly, our understanding of the signal-to-noise ratio in molecular replacement leads to the finding that, with data to sufficiently high resolution, fragments as small as single atoms of elements usually found in proteins can yield ab initio solutions of macromolecular structures, including some that elude traditional direct methods.

  10. Thermal, spectroscopic, and ab initio structural characterization of carprofen polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Giovanna; Gozzo, Fabia; Capsoni, Doretta; Bini, Marcella; Macchi, Piero; Simoncic, Petra; Berbenni, Vittorio; Milanese, Chiara; Girella, Alessandro; Ferrari, Stefania; Marini, Amedeo

    2011-06-01

    Commercial and recrystallized polycrystalline samples of carprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, were studied by thermal, spectroscopic, and structural techniques. Our investigations demonstrated that recrystallized sample, stable at room temperature (RT), is a single polymorphic form of carprofen (polymorph I) that undergoes an isostructural polymorphic transformation by heating (polymorph II). Polymorph II remains then metastable at ambient conditions. Commercial sample is instead a mixture of polymorphs I and II. The thermodynamic relationships between the two polymorphs were determined through the construction of an energy/temperature diagram. The ab initio structural determination performed on synchrotron X-Ray powder diffraction patterns recorded at RT on both polymorphs allowed us to elucidate, for the first time, their crystal structure. Both crystallize in the monoclinic space group type P2(1) /c, and the unit cell similarity index and the volumetric isostructurality index indicate that the temperature-induced polymorphic transformation I → II is isostructural. Polymorphs I and II are conformational polymorphs, sharing a very similar hydrogen bond network, but with different conformation of the propanoic skeleton, which produces two different packing. The small conformational change agrees with the low value of transition enthalpy obtained by differential scanning calorimetry measurements and the small internal energy computed with density functional methods. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Domain Wall Formation in Ferromagnetic Layers: An Ab Initio Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herper, Heike C.

    Domain walls are an inherent feature of ferromagnetic (FM) films consisting of layers with different magnetic orientations. Since FM films are used in electrical devices the question of the influence of domain walls on, e.g., the magnetoresistance has attracted much interest. Besides discussing the resistance contribution of domain walls, it is appropriate to study different types of domain walls and their energy of formation. The behaviour of domain walls is usually discussed within model calculations. In the present paper it is done within an ab initio Green's function technique for layered systems, i.e., the fully relativistic, spin-polarized screened Korringa-Kohn Rostoker method. Results are presented for fcc Co layers covered by two semi-infinite fcc Pt(001) bulk systems or by bulk fcc Co(001), respectively. The resistance, which is caused by the different types of domain walls is discussed within a Kubo-Greenwood approach considering Co(001)/Co24/Co(001) as an example.

  12. A coupled "AB" system: Rogue waves and modulation instabilities.

    PubMed

    Wu, C F; Grimshaw, R H J; Chow, K W; Chan, H N

    2015-10-01

    Rogue waves are unexpectedly large and localized displacements from an equilibrium position or an otherwise calm background. For the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model widely used in fluid mechanics and optics, these waves can occur only when dispersion and nonlinearity are of the same sign, a regime of modulation instability. For coupled NLS equations, rogue waves will arise even if dispersion and nonlinearity are of opposite signs in each component as new regimes of modulation instability will appear in the coupled system. The same phenomenon will be demonstrated here for a coupled "AB" system, a wave-current interaction model describing baroclinic instability processes in geophysical flows. Indeed, the onset of modulation instability correlates precisely with the existence criterion for rogue waves for this system. Transitions from "elevation" rogue waves to "depression" rogue waves are elucidated analytically. The dispersion relation as a polynomial of the fourth order may possess double pairs of complex roots, leading to multiple configurations of rogue waves for a given set of input parameters. For special parameter regimes, the dispersion relation reduces to a cubic polynomial, allowing the existence criterion for rogue waves to be computed explicitly. Numerical tests correlating modulation instability and evolution of rogue waves were conducted.

  13. Ab Initio Study of KCl and AgCl Clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, James; Hira, Ajit; Cathey, Tommy; Valdez, Alexandra

    This paper presents a theoretical study of molecular clusters that examines the chemical and physical properties of small KnCln and AgnCln clusters (n = 2 - 24). Due to combinations of attractive and repulsive long-range forces, such clusters exhibit structural and dynamical behavior different from that of homogeneous clusters. The potentially important role of these molecular species in biochemical and medicinal processes is widely known. This work applies the hybrid ab initio methods to derive the different alkali-halide (MnHn) geometries. Of particular interest is the competition between hexagonal ring geometries and rock salt structures. Electronic energies, rotational constants, dipole moments, and vibrational frequencies for these geometries are calculated. Magic numbers for cluster stability are identified and are related to the property of cluster compactness. Mapping of the singlet, triplet, and quintet, potential energy surfaces is performed. Calculations were performed to examine the interactions of these clusters with some atoms and molecules of biological interest, including O, O2, and Fe. Potential design of new medicinal drugs is explored. We will also investigate model and material dependence of the results. AMP program of the National Science Foundation.

  14. Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Graphene Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, S.; Balchev, I.; Cvetkov, K.; Tinchev, S.; Milenov, T.

    2017-01-01

    The study of graphene is important because it is a promising material for a variety of applications in the electronic industry. In the present work, the properties of а 2D periodic graphene sheet are studied with the use of ab initio molecular dynamics. DFT in the generalized gradient approximation is used in order to carry out the dynamical simulations. The PBE functional and DZVP-MOLOPT basis set are implemented in the CP2K/Quickstep package. A periodic box, consisting of 288 carbon atoms is chosen for the simulations. After geometry optimization it has dimensions 2964 x 2964 x 1500 pm and form angles of 90, 90, 60 degrees. The dynamical simulation is run for 1 ps in the NPT ensemble, at temperature T = 298.15 K. The radial distribution function shows a first peak at 142 pm, marking the bond length between carbon atoms. The density of states for the periodic systems is simulated as occupied orbitals represent the valence band and unoccupied ones the conduction band. The calculated bandgap, as expected is close to 0 eV.

  15. Engineering Room-temperature Superconductors Via ab-initio Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulian, Mamikon; Melkonyan, Gurgen; Gulian, Armen

    The BCS, or bosonic model of superconductivity, as Little and Ginzburg have first argued, can bring in superconductivity at room temperatures in the case of high-enough frequency of bosonic mode. It was further elucidated by Kirzhnitset al., that the condition for existence of high-temperature superconductivity is closely related to negative values of the real part of the dielectric function at finite values of the reciprocal lattice vectors. In view of these findings, the task is to calculate the dielectric function for real materials. Then the poles of this function will indicate the existence of bosonic excitations which can serve as a "glue" for Cooper pairing, and if the frequency is high enough, and the dielectric matrix is simultaneously negative, this material is a good candidate for very high-Tc superconductivity. Thus, our approach is to elaborate a methodology of ab-initio calculation of the dielectric function of various materials, and then point out appropriate candidates. We used the powerful codes (TDDF with the DP package in conjunction with ABINIT) for computing dielectric responses at finite values of the wave vectors in the reciprocal lattice space. Though our report is concerned with the particular problem of superconductivity, the application range of the data processing methodology is much wider. The ability to compute the dielectric function of existing and still non-existing (though being predicted!) materials will have many more repercussions not only in fundamental sciences but also in technology and industry.

  16. Double-walled silicon nanotubes: an ab initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Matheus P.

    2018-02-01

    The synthesis of silicon nanotubes realized in the last decade demonstrates multi-walled tubular structures consisting of Si atoms in {{sp}}2 and the {{sp}}3 hybridizations. However, most of the theoretical models were elaborated taking as the starting point {{sp}}2 structures analogous to carbon nanotubes. These structures are unfavorable due to the natural tendency of the Si atoms to undergo {{sp}}3. In this work, through ab initio simulations based on density functional theory, we investigated double-walled silicon nanotubes proposing layered tubes possessing most of the Si atoms in an {{sp}}3 hybridization, and with few {{sp}}2 atoms localized at the outer wall. The lowest-energy structures have metallic behavior. Furthermore, the possibility to tune the band structure with the application of a strain was demonstrated, inducing a metal-semiconductor transition. Thus, the behavior of silicon nanotubes differs significantly from carbon nanotubes, and the main source of the differences is the distortions in the lattice associated with the tendency of Si to make four chemical bonds.

  17. Ab initio predictions of the symmetry energy and recent constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammarruca, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    The symmetry energy plays a crucial role in the structure and the dynamics of neutron-rich systems, including the formation of neutron skins, the location of neutron drip lines, as well as intriguing correlations with the structure of compact stars. With experimental efforts in progress or being planned to shed light on the less known aspects of the nuclear chart, microscopic predictions based on ab initio approaches are very important. In recent years, chiral effective field theory has become popular because of its firm connection with quantum chromodynamics and its systematic approach to the development of nuclear forces. Predictions of the symmetry energy obtained from modern chiral interactions will be discussed in the light of recent empirical constraints extracted from heavy ion collisions at 400 MeV per nucleon at GSI. Applications of our equations of state to neutron-rich systems will also be discussed, with particular emphasis on neutron skins, which are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy.

  18. Predicting lattice thermal conductivity with help from ab initio methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broido, David

    2015-03-01

    The lattice thermal conductivity is a fundamental transport parameter that determines the utility a material for specific thermal management applications. Materials with low thermal conductivity find applicability in thermoelectric cooling and energy harvesting. High thermal conductivity materials are urgently needed to help address the ever-growing heat dissipation problem in microelectronic devices. Predictive computational approaches can provide critical guidance in the search and development of new materials for such applications. Ab initio methods for calculating lattice thermal conductivity have demonstrated predictive capability, but while they are becoming increasingly efficient, they are still computationally expensive particularly for complex crystals with large unit cells . In this talk, I will review our work on first principles phonon transport for which the intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity is limited only by phonon-phonon scattering arising from anharmonicity. I will examine use of the phase space for anharmonic phonon scattering and the Grüneisen parameters as measures of the thermal conductivities for a range of materials and compare these to the widely used guidelines stemming from the theory of Liebfried and Schölmann. This research was supported primarily by the NSF under Grant CBET-1402949, and by the S3TEC, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE, office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-SC0001299.

  19. Experimental and ab initio structure of BrNO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwabia Tchana, F.; Orphal, J.; Kleiner, I.; Rudolph, H. D.; Willner, H.; Garcia, P.; Bouba, O.; Demaison, J.; Redlich, B.

    The ν2 fundamental bands of different isotopomers of BrNO2 (79Br15N16O2, 81Br15N16O2, 79Br14N18O2 and 79Br14N16O18O) located around 13 µm were recorded using high-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. More than 8000 lines of all these isotopomers were reproduced using a Watson-type A-reduced Hamiltonian with a root-mean-square deviation of better than 7 × 10-4 cm-1 for the four isotopomers. Rotational and centrifugal distortion constants for the ν2 = 1 states as well as for the vibrational ground states of these isotopomers were determined. For the first time, an analysis of the ground-state rotational constants obtained in this study combined with the constants obtained in our previous work on the ν2 bands of 79Br14N16O2 and 81Br14N16O2 has allowed us to calculate the rm structure of nitryl bromide. The structural parameters obtained were rm(Br-N) = 2.0118(16) Å, rm(N-O) = 1.1956(12) Å and α(O-N-O) = 131.02(12) Å. A new ab initio structure of nitryl bromide calculated at the CCSD(T)/SDB-aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory is presented and was found to be in fair agreement with the experimental structure.

  20. Ab initio calculations of the absorption spectrum of chalcone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumi, Manabu; Maurice, David; Head-Gordon, Martin

    1999-03-01

    The excitation energies and excited states of trans-chalcone ( trans-( s-cis)-1,3-diphenylpropenone), and several related molecules ( trans-( s-cis)-3-phenylpropenal, s-cis-1-phenylpropenone, propenal, trans-( s-cis)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylpropenone, trans-( s-cis)3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenylpropenone) have been calculated using single reference ab initio molecular orbital methods, and characterized by attachment-detachment density analysis. The results suggest assignments for the lowest three electronic transitions observed experimentally for trans-( s-cis)-chalcone in solution. The extent of localization of the electronic transitions is established by calculations on the excited states of trans-( s-cis)-3-phenylpropenal, s-cis-1-phenylpropenone and propenal, as well as analysis of the chalcone calculations. Contrary to some previous work, none of these excitations are strongly delocalized over the entire molecule. Calculated substituent shifts for the hydroxy chalcones are in qualitative agreement with experimental data, and support the localized interpretation of the main π→ π* transition.

  1. Ab initio correlated calculations of rare-gas dimer quadrupoles

    SciT

    Donchev, Alexander G.

    2007-10-15

    This paper reports ab initio calculations of rare gas (RG=Kr, Ar, Ne, and He) dimer quadrupoles at the second order of Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). The study reveals the crucial role of the dispersion contribution to the RG{sub 2} quadrupole in the neighborhood of the equilibrium dimer separation. The magnitude of the dispersion quadrupole is found to be much larger than that predicted by the approximate model of Hunt. As a result, the total MP2 quadrupole moment is significantly smaller than was assumed in virtually all previous related studies. An analytical model for the distance dependence of the RG{sub 2}more » quadrupole is proposed. The model is based on the effective-electron approach of Jansen, but replaces the original Gaussian approximation to the electron density in an RG atom by an exponential one. The role of the nonadditive contribution in RG{sub 3} quadrupoles is discussed.« less

  2. Ab initio thermodynamic results for warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Warm dense matter (WDM) - an exotic state where electrons are quantum degenerate and ions may be strongly correlated - is ubiquitous in dense astrophysical plasmas and highly compressed laboratory systems including inertial fusion. Accurate theoretical predictions require precision thermodynamic data for the electron gas at high density and finite temperature around the Fermi temperature. First such data have been obtained by restricted path integral Monte Carlo (restricted PIMC) simulations and transformed into analytical fits for the free energy. Such results are also key input for novel finite temperature density functional theory. However, the RPIMC data of Ref. 1 are limited to moderate densities, and even there turned out to be surprisingly inaccurate, which is a consequence of the fermion sign problem. These problems were recently overcome by the development of alternative QMC approaches in Kiel (configuration PIMC and permutation blocking PIMC) and Imperial College (Density matrix QMC). The three methods have their strengths and limitations in complementary parameter regions and provide highly accurate thermodynamic data for the electronic contributions in WDM. While the original results were obtained for small particle numbers, recently accurate finite size corrections were derived allowing to compute ab initio thermodynamic data with an unprecedented accuracy of better than 0.3 percent. This provides the final step for the use as benchmark data for experiments and models of Warm dense matter. Co-authors: T. Schoof, S. Groth, T. Dornheim, F. D. Malone, M. Foulkes, and T. Sjostroem, Funded by: DFG via SFB-TR24 and project BO1366-10.

  3. Exploring the free energy surface using ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Amit; Morales, Miguel A.; Schwegler, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Efficient exploration of configuration space and identification of metastable structures in condensed phase systems are challenging from both computational and algorithmic perspectives. In this regard, schemes that utilize a set of pre-defined order parameters to sample the relevant parts of the configuration space [L. Maragliano and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 168 (2006); J. B. Abrams and M. E. Tuckerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 15742 (2008)] have proved useful. Here, we demonstrate how these order-parameter aided temperature accelerated sampling schemes can be used within the Born-Oppenheimer and the Car-Parrinello frameworks of ab initio molecular dynamics to efficiently and systematically explore free energy surfaces, and search for metastable states and reaction pathways. We have used these methods to identify the metastable structures and reaction pathways in SiO2 and Ti. In addition, we have used the string method [W. E, W. Ren, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Phys. Rev. B 66, 052301 (2002); L. Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)] within the density functional theory to study the melting pathways in the high pressure cotunnite phase of SiO2 and the hexagonal closed packed to face centered cubic phase transition in Ti.

  4. Carbene-aerogen bonds: an ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Sabouri, Ayda

    2017-04-01

    Through the use of ab initio calculations, the possibility of formation of σ-hole interaction between ZO3 (Z = Ar, Kr and Xe) and carbene species is investigated. Since singlet carbenes show a negative electrostatic potential on their divalent carbon atom, they can favourably interact with the positive electrostatic potential generated by the σ-hole of Z atom of ZO3. The characteristic of this interaction, termed as 'carbene-aerogen' bond, is analysed in terms of geometric, interaction energies and electronic features. The energy decomposition analysis indicates that for all complexes analysed here, the electrostatic energy is more negative than the polarisation or dispersion energy term. According to the electron density analysis, some partial covalent character can be ascribed to XeṡṡṡC interactions. In addition, the carbene-aerogen bond exhibits cooperative effects with the HṡṡṡO hydrogen-bonding interaction in ternary complexes where both interactions coexist. For a given carbene, the amount of these cooperative effects increases with the size of the Z atom. The results obtained in this work may be helpful for the extension and future application of σ-hole intermolecular interactions as well as coordination chemistry.

  5. Fatigue Characteristics of 3D Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padzi, M. M.; Bazin, M. M.; Muhamad, W. M. W.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, the use of 3D printer technology has become significant to industries, especially when involving the new product development. 3D printing is a technology, which produces the 3D product or prototype using a layer-by-layer technique. However, there becomes less research on the mechanical performance of the 3D printed component. In the present work, fatigue characteristics of 3D printed specimen have been studied. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) has been chosen as a material research due to its wide applications. Two types of specimen used, which is the 3D printing and moulding specimens. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique was used to produce the specimens. The dog bone shape part was produced based on ASTM D638 standard and the tensile test has been carried out to get the mechanical properties. Fatigue test was carried out at 40%, 60% and 80% of the tensile strength. The moulded part shows higher fatigue cycles compared to 3D printed part for all loading percentages. Fatigue lives for 40%, 60% and 80%, were 911, 2645 and 26948 cycles, respectively. The results indicated that 3D printed part has a lower fatigue life, which may not suitable for industrial applications. However, the 3D printed part could be improved by using various parameters and may be introduced in low strength application.

  6. An Ab Initio Study of Alkali-C60 Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Nathan; Hira, A. S.; Ray, A. K.

    2003-03-01

    We extend our previous work on fullerene-alkali complexes1-2 by presenting the results of an ab initio theoretical study of the alkali LiC60+, LiC60, NaC60+, NaC60, KC60+, and KC60 complexes. In the endohedral complexes for Li and Na, there is displacement of the adatom from the center. Of the ions, exohedral Li+ will sit closest to the cage, and among the neutrals, exohedral K remains closest. Bond lengths are consistently longer for the fivefold and threefold approaches. Adsorbates inside the fullerene donate negative charge to the carbons, but ions outside obtain a small amount, resulting in a polarization of the molecule. In the ion complexes, there is lowering of the orbital energy levels by 3 to 4 eV, resulting in an increase in the number of bound, but unoccupied, electronic orbitals. The HOMO-LUMO gap, of interest in superconductivity studies, is reduced by about 50 1. A.S. Hira and A.K. Ray, Phys. Rev. A 52, 141(1995); A 54, 2205(1996). 2. Ajit Hira and A. K. Ray, "An Initio Modeling of the Endohedral and Exohedral Complexes of C60Na2+ Complexes", Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 47 (March 2002).

  7. The AB Initio Mia Method: Theoretical Development and Practical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Anik

    The bottleneck in conventional ab initio Hartree -Fock calculations is the storage of the electron repulsion integrals because their number increases with the fourth power of the number of basis functions. This problem can be solved by a combination of the multiplicative integral approximation (MIA) and the direct SCF method. The MIA approach was successfully applied in the geometry optimisation of some biologically interesting compounds like the neurolepticum Haloperidol and two TIBO derivatives, inactivators of HIV1. In this thesis the potency of the MIA-method is shown by the application of this method in the calculation of the forces on the nuclei. In addition, the MIA method enabled the development of a new model for performing crystal field studies: the supermolecule model. The results for this model are in better agreement with experimental data than the results for the point charge model. This is illustrated by the study of some small molecules in the solid state: 2,3-diketopiperazine, formamide oxime and two polymorphic forms of glycine, alpha-glycine and beta-glycine.

  8. Physical properties of molybdenum monoboride: Ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpoot, Priyanka; Rastogi, Anugya; Verma, U. P.

    2018-02-01

    The Ab initio investigations on structural, electronic, optical and thermal properties of MoB have been reported using full potential linearised-augmented plane wave method within the framework of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation potentials were calculated using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof-Sol generalised gradient approximation. The calculated equilibrium lattice constants and cell volume are in excellent agreement with the experimental results as compared to the available theoretical data. Electronic band structure shows that MoB is metallic in nature. From the partial densities of states of MoB it has been found that major contribution on the Fermi level is due to Mo-4d states. Among the reported optical parameters the large value of reflectivity at low energy shows that MoB can be used as a coating material in IR region. Maximum absorption in extreme UV region shows that it can be used in production of electricity through solar power in space vehicles. Various thermal properties have been calculated in a wide temperature range at high pressures. Change in thermal expansion coefficient with respect to temperature shows that anharmonic effect in MoB is very weak at high temperature. The optical and thermal properties of MoB are presented for the first time in this work.

  9. An Ab Initio Based Potential Energy Surface for Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Schwenke, David W.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We report a new determination of the water potential energy surface. A high quality ab initio potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function of water have been computed. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base. The adjustment is small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Of the 27,245 assigned transitions in the HITRAN 92 data base for H2(O-16), the overall root mean square (rms) deviation between the computed and observed line positions is 0.125/cm. However the deviations do not correspond to a normal distribution: 69% of the lines have errors less than 0.05/cm. Overall, the agreement between the line intensities computed in the present work and those contained in the data base is quite good, however there are a significant number of line strengths which differ greatly.

  10. Ab initio calculations of ionic hydrocarbon compounds with heptacoordinate carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, George; Rahman, A K Fazlur; Wang, Bin

    2018-04-25

    Ionic hydrocarbon compounds that contain hypercarbon atoms, which bond to five or more atoms, are important intermediates in chemical synthesis and may also find applications in hydrogen storage. Extensive investigations have identified hydrocarbon compounds that contain a five- or six-coordinated hypercarbon atom, such as the pentagonal-pyramidal hexamethylbenzene, C 6 (CH 3 ) 6 2+ , in which a hexacoordinate carbon atom is involved. It remains challenging to search for further higher-coordinated carbon in ionic hydrocarbon compounds, such as seven- and eight-coordinated carbon. Here, we report ab initio density functional calculations that show a stable 3D hexagonal-pyramidal configuration of tropylium trication, (C 7 H 7 ) 3+ , in which a heptacoordinate carbon atom is involved. We show that this tropylium trication is stable against deprotonation, dissociation, and structural deformation. In contrast, the pyramidal configurations of ionic C 8 H 8 compounds, which would contain an octacoordinate carbon atom, are unstable. These results provide insights for developing new molecular structures containing hypercarbon atoms, which may have potential applications in chemical synthesis and in hydrogen storage. Graphical abstract Possible structural transformations of stable configurations of (C 7 H 7 ) 3+ , which may result in the formation of the pyramidal structure that involves a heptacoordinate hypercarbon atom.

  11. FeP(Im)–AB Bonding Energies Evaluated with A Large Number of Density Functionals (P = porphine, Im = imidazole, AB = CO, NO, and O2)

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Meng-Sheng; Huang, Ming-Ju; Watts, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Sixty-four (64) density functionals, ranging from GGA, meta-GGA, hybrid GGA to hybrid meta-GGA, were tested to evaluate the FeP(Im)-AB bonding energies (Ebond) in the heme model complexes FeP(Im)(AB) (P = porphine, Im = imidazole, AB = CO, NO, and O2). The results indicate that an accurate prediction of Ebond for the various ligands to heme is difficult with the DFT methods; usually a functional successful for one system does not perform equally well for the other system(s). Relatively satisfactory results for the various FeP(Im)-AB bonding energies are obtained with the meta-GGA funtionals BLAP3 and Bmτ1; they yield Ebond values of ca.1.1, 1.2, and 0.4 eV for AB = CO, NO, and O2, respectively, which are in reasonable agreement with experimental data (0.78 – 0.85 eV for CO, 0.99 eV for NO, and 0.44 – 0.53 eV for O2). The other functionals show more or less deficiency for one or two of the systems. The performances of the various functionals in describing the spin-state energetics of the five-coordinate FeP(Im) complex were also examined. PMID:22228914

  12. Neutron Reflection Study of Surface Adsorption of Fc, Fab, and the Whole mAb.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongyi; Li, Ruiheng; Smith, Charles; Pan, Fang; Campana, Mario; Webster, John R P; van der Walle, Christopher F; Uddin, Shahid; Bishop, Steve M; Narwal, Rojaramani; Warwicker, Jim; Lu, Jian Ren

    2017-07-12

    Characterizing the influence of fragment crystallization (Fc) and antigen-binding fragment (Fab) on monoclonal antibody (mAb) adsorption at the air/water interface is an important step to understanding liquid mAb drug product stability during manufacture, shipping, and storage. Here, neutron reflection is used to study the air/water adsorption of a mAb and its Fc and Fab fragments. By varying the isotopic contrast, the adsorbed amount, thickness, orientation, and immersion of the adsorbed layers could be determined unambiguously. While Fc adsorption reached saturation within the hour, its surface adsorbed amount showed little variation with bulk concentration. In contrast, Fab adsorption was slower and the adsorbed amount was concentration dependent. The much higher Fc adsorption, as compared to Fab, was linked to its lower surface charge. Time and concentration dependence of mAb adsorption was dominated by Fab behavior, although both Fab and Fc behaviors contributed to the amount of mAb adsorbed. Changing the pH from 5.5 to 8.8 did not much perturb the adsorbed amount of Fc, Fab, or mAb. However, a small decrease in adsorption was observed for the Fc over pH 8-8.8 and vice versa for the Fab and mAb, consistent with a dominant Fab behavior. As bulk concentration increased from 5 to 50 ppm, the thicknesses of the Fc layers were almost constant at 40 Å, while Fab and mAb layers increased from 45 to 50 Å. These results imply that the adsorbed mAb, Fc, and Fab all retained their globular structures and were oriented with their short axial lengths perpendicular to the interface.

  13. Monoclonal antibody, mAb 4C13, an effective detoxicant antibody against ricin poisoning.

    PubMed

    Dong, Na; Luo, Longlong; Wu, Junhua; Jia, Peiyuan; Li, Qian; Wang, Yuxia; Gao, Zhongcai; Peng, Hui; Lv, Ming; Huang, Chunqian; Feng, Jiannan; Li, Hua; Shan, Junjie; Han, Gang; Shen, Beifen

    2015-07-31

    Ricin is a glycoprotein produced in castor seeds and consists of two polypeptide chains named Ricin Toxin A Chain (RTA) and Ricin Toxin B Chain (RTB), linked via a disulfide bridge. Due to its high toxicity, ricin is regarded as a high terrorist risk for the public. However, antibodies can play a pivotal role in neutralizing the toxin. In this research, the anti-toxicant effect of mAb 4C13, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) established using detoxicated ricin as the immunized antigen, was evaluated. Compared with mAb 4F2 and mAb 5G6, the effective mechanism of mAb 4C13 was analyzed by experiments relating to its cytotoxicity, epitope on ricin, binding kinetics with the toxin, its blockage on the protein synthesis inhibition induced by ricin and the intracelluar tracing of its complex with ricin. Our result indicated that mAb 4C13 could recognize and bind to RTA, RTB and exert its high affinity to the holotoxin. Both cytotoxicity and animal toxicity of ricin were well blocked by pre-incubating the toxin with mAb 4C13. By intravenous injection, mAb 4C13 could rescue the mouse intraperitoneally (ip) injected with a lethal dose of ricin (20μg/kg) even at 6h after the intoxication and its efficacy was dependent on its dosage. This research indicated that mAb 4C13 could be an excellent candidate for therapeutic antibodies. Its potent antitoxic efficiency was related to its recognition on the specific epitope with very high affinity and its blockage of protein synthesis inhibition in cytoplasm followed by cellular internalization with ricin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Macrolide resistance in Legionella pneumophila: the role of LpeAB efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Massip, Clémence; Descours, Ghislaine; Ginevra, Christophe; Doublet, Patricia; Jarraud, Sophie; Gilbert, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    A previous study on 12 in vitro -selected azithromycin-resistant Legionella pneumophila lineages showed that ribosomal mutations were major macrolide resistance determinants. In addition to these mechanisms that have been well described in many species, mutations upstream of lpeAB operon, homologous to acrAB in Escherichia coli , were identified in two lineages. In this study, we investigated the role of LpeAB and of these mutations in macrolide resistance of L. pneumophila . The role of LpeAB was studied by testing the antibiotic susceptibility of WT, deleted and complemented L. pneumophila Paris strains. Translational fusion experiments using GFP as a reporter were conducted to investigate the consequences of the mutations observed in the upstream sequence of lpeAB operon. We demonstrated the involvement of LpeAB in an efflux pump responsible for a macrolide-specific reduced susceptibility of L. pneumophila Paris strain. Mutations in the upstream sequence of lpeAB operon were associated with an increased protein expression. Increased expression was also observed under sub-inhibitory macrolide concentrations in strains with both mutated and WT promoting regions. LpeAB are components of an efflux pump, which is a macrolide resistance determinant in L. pneumophila Paris strain. Mutations observed in the upstream sequence of lpeAB operon in resistant lineages led to an overexpression of this efflux pump. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of macrolides themselves participated in upregulating this efflux and could constitute a first step in the acquisition of a high macrolide resistance level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. An operational multispectral scanner for bathymetric surveys - The ABS NORDA scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimbach, Stephen P.; Joy, Richard T.; Hickman, G. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    The Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) is developing the Airborne Bathymetric Survey (ABS) system, which will take shallow water depth soundings from a Navy P-3 aircraft. The system combines active and passive sensors to obtain optical measurements of water depth. The ABS NORDA Scanner is the systems passive multispectral scanner whose design goal is to provide 100 percent coverage of the seafloor, to depths of 20 m in average coastal waters. The ABS NORDA Scanner hardware and operational environment is discussed in detail. The optical model providing the basis for depth extraction is reviewed and the proposed data processing routine discussed.

  16. SatR Is a Repressor of Fluoroquinolone Efflux Pump SatAB

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Jose Antonio; San Millan, Alvaro; Montero, Natalia; Gutierrez, Belen; Ovejero, Cristina Martinez; Carrilero, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic agent responsible for high-mortality outbreaks among the human population in China. In this species, the ABC transporter SatAB mediates fluoroquinolone resistance when overexpressed. Here, we describe and characterize satR, an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a MarR superfamily regulator that acts as a repressor of satAB. satR is cotranscribed with satAB, and its interruption entails the overexpression of the pump, leading to a clinically relevant increase in resistance to fluoroquinolones. PMID:23650171

  17. Heats of Segregation of BCC Binaries from ab Initio and Quantum Approximate Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian S.

    2004-01-01

    We compare dilute-limit heats of segregation for selected BCC transition metal binaries computed using ab initio and quantum approximate energy methods. Ab initio calculations are carried out using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential computer code, while quantum approximate results are computed using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method with the most recent LMTO-based parameters. Quantum approximate segregation energies are computed with and without atomistic relaxation, while the ab initio calculations are performed without relaxation. Results are discussed within the context of a segregation model driven by strain and bond-breaking effects. We compare our results with full-potential quantum calculations and with available experimental results.

  18. Hospital antibiotic management in Austria--results of the ABS maturity survey of the ABS International group.

    PubMed

    Burgmann, Heinz; Janata, Oskar; Allerberger, Franz; Frank, Annegret

    2008-01-01

    The ABS International group conducted a survey to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of country-specific hospital antibiotic management programs. This paper summarizes the results for Austria. The survey was conducted in April and May 2007. A questionnaire with various items related to hospital antibiotic management was sent to 160 Austrian hospitals. Of 160 questionnaires sent, 80 were returned and evaluable. The mean total score for all items and all hospitals was 3.29 (median: 3.42; range 1.35-4.74). The larger the hospital the higher were the reported scores concerning diagnostics, antibiotic-related organization and antibiotic-consumption control, but the lower the scores for antibiotic-related personnel development and antibiotic-related relationships to relevant environments. The maturity figure for large hospitals (>500 beds) was 3.57, for medium hospitals 3.34, and for small hospitals (<200 beds) 3.01. The self-reported results of our questionnaire-based survey clearly show that there is still need for improvement. In all five categories surveyed, Austrian hospitals scored their antibiotic maturity lower than the international averages. The establishment of an antibiotic officer enables the development of antibiotic stewardship tools such as antibiotic lists. Such tools can be seen as quality indicators.

  19. MicroRNA-23a/b and microRNA-27a/b suppress Apaf-1 protein and alleviate hypoxia-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Xu, J; Li, L; Li, H; Mao, S; Zhang, F; Zen, K; Zhang, C-Y; Zhang, Q

    2014-03-20

    Expression of apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) gradually decreases during brain development, and this decrease is likely responsible for the decreased sensitivity of brain tissue to apoptosis. However, the mechanism by which Apaf-1 expression is decreased remains elusive. In the present study, we found that four microRNAs (miR-23a/b and miR-27a/b) of miR-23a-27a-24 and miR-23b-27b-24 clusters play key roles in modulating the expression of Apaf-1. First, we found that miR-23a/b and miR-27a/b suppressed the expression of Apaf-1 in vitro. Interestingly, the expression of the miR-23-27-24 clusters in the mouse cortex gradually increased in a manner that was inversely correlated with the pattern of Apaf-1 expression. Second, hypoxic injuries during fetal distress caused reduced expression of the miR-23b and miR-27b that was inversely correlated with an elevation of Apaf-1 expression during neuronal apoptosis. Third, we made neuronal-specific transgenic mice and found that overexpressing the miR-23b and miR-27b in mouse neurons inhibited the neuronal apoptosis induced by intrauterine hypoxia. In conclusion, our results demonstrate, in central neural system, that miR-23a/b and miR-27a/b are endogenous inhibitory factors of Apaf-1 expression and regulate the sensitivity of neurons to apoptosis. Our findings may also have implications for the potential target role of microRNAs in the treatment of neuronal apoptosis-related diseases.

  20. AB-CHMINACA, AB-PINACA, and FUBIMINA: Affinity and Potency of Novel Synthetic Cannabinoids in Producing Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol–Like Effects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marusich, Julie A.; Lefever, Timothy W.; Antonazzo, Kateland R.; Wallgren, Michael T.; Cortes, Ricardo A.; Patel, Purvi R.; Grabenauer, Megan; Moore, Katherine N.

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of synthetic cannabinoids for abuse began in the early 2000s. Despite legislation banning compounds currently on the drug market, illicit manufacturers continue to release new compounds for recreational use. This study examined new synthetic cannabinoids, AB-CHMINACA (N-[1-amino-3-methyl-oxobutan-2-yl]-1-[cyclohexylmethyl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide), AB-PINACA [N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide], and FUBIMINA [(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-benzo[d]imadazol-2-yl)(naphthalen-1-yl)methanone], with the hypothesis that these compounds, like those before them, would be highly susceptible to abuse. Cannabinoids were examined in vitro for binding and activation of CB1 receptors, and in vivo for pharmacological effects in mice and in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) discrimination. AB-CHMINACA, AB-PINACA, and FUBIMINA bound to and activated CB1 and CB2 receptors, and produced locomotor suppression, antinociception, hypothermia, and catalepsy. Furthermore, these compounds, along with JWH-018 [1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole], CP47,497 [rel-5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol], and WIN55,212-2 ([(3R)-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenyl-methanone, monomethanesulfonate), substituted for Δ9-THC in Δ9-THC discrimination. Rank order of potency correlated with CB1 receptor-binding affinity, and all three compounds were full agonists in [35S]GTPγS binding, as compared with the partial agonist Δ9-THC. Indeed, AB-CHMINACA and AB-PINACA exhibited higher efficacy than most known full agonists of the CB1 receptor. Preliminary analysis of urinary metabolites of the compounds revealed the expected hydroxylation. AB-PINACA and AB-CHMINACA are of potential interest as research tools due to their unique chemical structures and high CB1 receptor efficacies. Further studies on these chemicals are likely to include research on understanding cannabinoid receptors

  1. Machine Learning Force Field Parameters from Ab Initio Data

    SciT

    Li, Ying; Li, Hui; Pickard, Frank C.

    Machine learning (ML) techniques with the genetic algorithm (GA) have been applied to determine a polarizable force field parameters using only ab initio data from quantum mechanics (QM) calculations of molecular clusters at the MP2/6-31G(d,p), DFMP2(fc)/jul-cc-pVDZ, and DFMP2(fc)/jul-cc-pVTZ levels to predict experimental condensed phase properties (i.e., density and heat of vaporization). The performance of this ML/GA approach is demonstrated on 4943 dimer electrostatic potentials and 1250 cluster interaction energies for methanol. Excellent agreement between the training data set from QM calculations and the optimized force field model was achieved. The results were further improved by introducing an offset factor duringmore » the machine learning process to compensate for the discrepancy between the QM calculated energy and the energy reproduced by optimized force field, while maintaining the local “shape” of the QM energy surface. Throughout the machine learning process, experimental observables were not involved in the objective function, but were only used for model validation. The best model, optimized from the QM data at the DFMP2(fc)/jul-cc-pVTZ level, appears to perform even better than the original AMOEBA force field (amoeba09.prm), which was optimized empirically to match liquid properties. The present effort shows the possibility of using machine learning techniques to develop descriptive polarizable force field using only QM data. The ML/GA strategy to optimize force fields parameters described here could easily be extended to other molecular systems.« less

  2. Optical properties of highly compressed polystyrene: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Colgan, J. P.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kilcrease, D. P.

    2017-10-01

    Using all-electron density functional theory, we have performed an ab initio study on x-ray absorption spectra of highly compressed polystyrene (CH). We found that the K -edge shifts in strongly coupled, degenerate polystyrene cannot be explained by existing continuum-lowering models adopted in traditional plasma physics. To gain insights into the K -edge shift in warm, dense CH, we have developed a model designated as "single mixture in a box" (SMIAB), which incorporates both the lowering of the continuum and the rising of the Fermi surface resulting from high compression. This simple SMIAB model correctly predicts the K -edge shift of carbon in highly compressed CH in good agreement with results from quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) calculations. Traditional opacity models failed to give the proper K -edge shifts as the CH density increased. Based on QMD calculations, we have established a first-principles opacity table (FPOT) for CH in a wide range of densities and temperatures [ρ =0.1 -100 g /c m3 and T =2000 -1 000 000 K ]. The FPOT gives much higher Rosseland mean opacity compared to the cold-opacity-patched astrophysics opacity table for warm, dense CH and favorably compares to the newly improved Los Alamos atomic model for moderately compressed CH (ρCH≤10 g /c m3 ), but remains a factor of 2 to 3 higher at extremely high densities (ρCH≥50 g /c m3 ). We anticipate the established FPOT of CH will find important applications to reliable designs of high-energy-density experiments. Moreover, the understanding of K -edge shifting revealed in this study could provide guides for improving the traditional opacity models to properly handle the strongly coupled and degenerate conditions.

  3. Optical properties of highly compressed polystyrene: An ab initio study

    SciT

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Colgan, J. P.

    Using all-electron density functional theory, we have performed an ab initio study on x ray absorption spectra of highly compressed polystyrene (CH). Here, we found that the K-edge shifts in strongly coupled, degenerate polystyrene cannot be explained by existing continuum-lowering models adopted in traditional plasma physics. To gain insights into the K edge shift in warm, dense CH, we have developed a model designated as “single-mixture-in-a-box” (SMIAB), which incorporates both the lowering of continuum and the rising of Fermi surface resulting from high compression. This simple SMIAB model correctly predicts the K-edge shift of carbon in highly compressed CH inmore » good agreement with results from quantum-molecular-dynamics (QMD) calculations. Traditional opacity models failed to give the proper K-edge shifts as the CH density increased. Based on QMD calculations, we have established a first-principles opacity table (FPOT) for CH in a wide range of densities and temperatures [p = 0.1 to 100 g/cm 3 and T = 2000 to 1,000,000 K]. The FPOT gives much higher Rosseland mean opacity compared to the cold-opacity–patched astrophysics opacity table for warm, dense CH and favorably compares to the newly improved Los Alamos ATOMIC model for moderately compressed CH (pCH ≤10 g/cm 3) but remains a factor of 2 to 3 higher at extremely high densities (pCH ≥ 50 g/cm 3). We anticipate the established FPOT of CH will find important applications to reliable designs of high-energy-density experiments. Moreover, the understanding of K-edge shifting revealed in this study could provide guides for improving the traditional opacity models to properly handle the strongly coupled and degenerate conditions.« less

  4. Atmospheric characterization of the hot Jupiter Kepler-13Ab

    SciT

    Shporer, Avi; O'Rourke, Joseph G.; Knutson, Heather A.

    Kepler-13Ab (= KOI-13.01) is a unique transiting hot Jupiter. It is one of very few known short-period planets orbiting a hot A-type star, making it one of the hottest planets currently known. The availability of Kepler data allows us to measure the planet's occultation (secondary eclipse) and phase curve in the optical, which we combine with occultations observed by warm Spitzer at 4.5 μm and 3.6 μm and a ground-based occultation observation in the K{sub s} band (2.1 μm). We derive a day-side hemisphere temperature of 2750 ± 160 K as the effective temperature of a black body showing themore » same occultation depths. Comparing the occultation depths with one-dimensional planetary atmosphere models suggests the presence of an atmospheric temperature inversion. Our analysis shows evidence for a relatively high geometric albedo, A {sub g} = 0.33{sub −0.06}{sup +0.04}. While measured with a simplistic method, a high A {sub g} is supported also by the fact that the one-dimensional atmosphere models underestimate the occultation depth in the optical. We use stellar spectra to determine the dilution, in the four wide bands where occultation was measured, due to the visual stellar binary companion 1.''15 ± 0.''05 away. The revised stellar parameters measured using these spectra are combined with other measurements, leading to revised planetary mass and radius estimates of M{sub p} = 4.94-8.09 M {sub J} and R{sub p} = 1.406 ± 0.038 R {sub J}. Finally, we measure a Kepler midoccultation time that is 34.0 ± 6.9 s earlier than expected based on the midtransit time and the delay due to light-travel time and discuss possible scenarios.« less

  5. Optical properties of highly compressed polystyrene: An ab initio study

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Colgan, J. P.; ...

    2017-10-16

    Using all-electron density functional theory, we have performed an ab initio study on x ray absorption spectra of highly compressed polystyrene (CH). Here, we found that the K-edge shifts in strongly coupled, degenerate polystyrene cannot be explained by existing continuum-lowering models adopted in traditional plasma physics. To gain insights into the K edge shift in warm, dense CH, we have developed a model designated as “single-mixture-in-a-box” (SMIAB), which incorporates both the lowering of continuum and the rising of Fermi surface resulting from high compression. This simple SMIAB model correctly predicts the K-edge shift of carbon in highly compressed CH inmore » good agreement with results from quantum-molecular-dynamics (QMD) calculations. Traditional opacity models failed to give the proper K-edge shifts as the CH density increased. Based on QMD calculations, we have established a first-principles opacity table (FPOT) for CH in a wide range of densities and temperatures [p = 0.1 to 100 g/cm 3 and T = 2000 to 1,000,000 K]. The FPOT gives much higher Rosseland mean opacity compared to the cold-opacity–patched astrophysics opacity table for warm, dense CH and favorably compares to the newly improved Los Alamos ATOMIC model for moderately compressed CH (pCH ≤10 g/cm 3) but remains a factor of 2 to 3 higher at extremely high densities (pCH ≥ 50 g/cm 3). We anticipate the established FPOT of CH will find important applications to reliable designs of high-energy-density experiments. Moreover, the understanding of K-edge shifting revealed in this study could provide guides for improving the traditional opacity models to properly handle the strongly coupled and degenerate conditions.« less

  6. Efficient conformational space exploration in ab initio protein folding simulation.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Ahammed; Ahmed, Nasif; Pappu, Subrata Dey; Shatabda, Swakkhar; Ullah, A Z M Dayem; Rahman, M Sohel

    2015-08-01

    Ab initio protein folding simulation largely depends on knowledge-based energy functions that are derived from known protein structures using statistical methods. These knowledge-based energy functions provide us with a good approximation of real protein energetics. However, these energy functions are not very informative for search algorithms and fail to distinguish the types of amino acid interactions that contribute largely to the energy function from those that do not. As a result, search algorithms frequently get trapped into the local minima. On the other hand, the hydrophobic-polar (HP) model considers hydrophobic interactions only. The simplified nature of HP energy function makes it limited only to a low-resolution model. In this paper, we present a strategy to derive a non-uniform scaled version of the real 20×20 pairwise energy function. The non-uniform scaling helps tackle the difficulty faced by a real energy function, whereas the integration of 20×20 pairwise information overcomes the limitations faced by the HP energy function. Here, we have applied a derived energy function with a genetic algorithm on discrete lattices. On a standard set of benchmark protein sequences, our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for similar models. Our approach has been able to explore regions of the conformational space which all the previous methods have failed to explore. Effectiveness of the derived energy function is presented by showing qualitative differences and similarities of the sampled structures to the native structures. Number of objective function evaluation in a single run of the algorithm is used as a comparison metric to demonstrate efficiency.

  7. Synthetic approach to the AB ring system of ouabain.

    PubMed

    Jung, Michael E; Piizzi, Grazia

    2003-04-04

    Several novel hydroxylated cis-decalin derivatives, potential intermediates for the synthesis of the AB ring system of the important cardiotonic steroid ouabain, have been synthesized from commercially available starting materials. The first step in the preparation of these highly functionalized intermediates is a Robinson annulation of the beta-keto ester 6 and the 4-silyl-3-buten-2-one 5 to furnish the octalone 4 with good diastereoselectivity in fair yield (due to competition with a novel silicon-to-carbon phenyl migration). Reduction of the epoxy alcohol 3 (derived from 4 in two high-yielding steps) with LiAlH(4) gave a mixture of the desired triol 11 along with the product of an unusual reductive opening at the tertiary carbon, namely the triol 12. A plausible mechanism for this unusual reduction is presented as are possible methods for avoiding it. In particular, reduction of the corrresponding epoxy ketone 15 with aluminum amalgam proceeded in good yield to give the hydroxy ketone 16. Also reduction of the epoxide ester having the inverted stereochemistry at C3 afforded the desired tertiary alcohol 33 in good yield. Another approach using the beta,gamma-unsaturated ketal 38 permitted the formation of the tertiary alcohol 40. Fleming oxidation of the related, very functionalized silane 39 afforded the desired 1beta-alcohol 41 in fair yield. Finally a novel rearrangement was observed when the epoxy alcohol 24 was treated with DIBAL to effect loss of the angular hydroxymethyl group to produce the tetrasubstitued alkene 29 in high yield.

  8. AB Dor Moving Group Stars Resolved with the CHARA Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, G. H.; White, R. J.; Baines, E. K.; Boyajian, T. S.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Farrington, C. D.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N. H.

    2018-05-01

    We present interferometric measurements obtained with the CHARA Array of 13 adolescent-age stars in nearby moving groups. The motivation was to spatially resolve the largest stars and to search for binary companions. Nine stars have diameters smaller than the resolution limit and no evidence for companions within 0.5–50 mas and ΔH < 2.0 mag. The diameters of three stars were spatially resolved: GJ 159 (0.582 ± 0.016 mas) and GJ 393 (0.564 ± 0.021 mas) in the AB Dor moving group, and former member HD 89744 (0.556 ± 0.032 mas). Combining the angular diameters with their distances and bolometric fluxes, we measured radii and effective temperatures. The temperatures of GJ 159 (6286 ± 123 K) and GJ 393 (3515 ± 68 K) are consistent with spectroscopic measurements. Comparisons with evolutionary models show that HD 89744 has evolved off the main sequence. GJ 159 and GJ 393 lie within 1.5σ of the zero-age main sequence, complicating their age estimates because it is unclear whether the stars are contracting or expanding. GJ 159 has a mass of 1.2 ± 0.1 {M}ȯ with an age spanning 0.021–3.0 Gyr. Its debris disk and lithium abundance favor a young age. GJ 393 has a mass of 0.42 ± 0.03 {M}ȯ and a lower limit on its age 0.06 Gyr. This overlaps with the age of the moving group; however, an older age would be more consistent with its slow rotation, low activity, and luminosity, suggesting that GJ 393 is a kinematic interloper.

  9. Adjuvant Ab Interno Tumor Treatment After Proton Beam Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Seibel, Ira; Riechardt, Aline I; Heufelder, Jens; Cordini, Dino; Joussen, Antonia M

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to show long-term outcomes concerning globe preservation in uveal melanoma patients after proton beam therapy with the main focus on outcomes according to different adjuvant ab interno surgical procedures. Retrospective cohort study. All patients treated with primary proton beam therapy for choroidal or ciliary body melanoma between June 1998 and June 2015 were included. A total of 2499 patients underwent primary proton beam therapy, with local tumor control and globe preservation rates of 95.9% and 94.8% after 5 years, respectively. A total of 110 (4.4%) patients required secondary enucleation. Unresponsive neovascular glaucoma was the leading cause of secondary enucleation in 78 of the 2499 patients (3.1%). The 5-year enucleation-free survival rate was 94.8% in the endoresection group, 94.3% in the endodrainage group, and 93.5% in the comparator group. The log-rank test showed P = .014 (comparator group vs endoresection group) and P = .06 (comparator group vs endodrainage-vitrectomy group). Patients treated with endoresection or endodrainage-vitrectomy developed less radiation retinopathy (30.5% and 37.4% after 5 years, P = .001 and P = .048 [Kaplan-Meier], respectively) and less neovascular glaucoma (11.6% and 21.3% after 5 years, P = .001 and P = .01 [Kaplan-Meier], respectively) compared with the comparator group (52.3% radiation retinopathy and 57.8% neovascular glaucoma after 5 years). This study suggests that in larger tumors the enucleation and neovascular glaucoma rates might be reduced by adjuvant surgical procedures. Although endoresection is the most promising adjuvant treatment option, the endodrainage-vitrectomy is recommended in patients who are ineligible for endoresection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ab initio kinetics of gas phase decomposition reactions.

    PubMed

    Sharia, Onise; Kuklja, Maija M

    2010-12-09

    The thermal and kinetic aspects of gas phase decomposition reactions can be extremely complex due to a large number of parameters, a variety of possible intermediates, and an overlap in thermal decomposition traces. The experimental determination of the activation energies is particularly difficult when several possible reaction pathways coexist in the thermal decomposition. Ab initio calculations intended to provide an interpretation of the experiment are often of little help if they produce only the activation barriers and ignore the kinetics of the decomposition process. To overcome this ambiguity, a theoretical study of a complete picture of gas phase thermo-decomposition, including reaction energies, activation barriers, and reaction rates, is illustrated with the example of the β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) molecule by means of quantum-chemical calculations. We study three types of major decomposition reactions characteristic of nitramines: the HONO elimination, the NONO rearrangement, and the N-NO(2) homolysis. The reaction rates were determined using the conventional transition state theory for the HONO and NONO decompositions and the variational transition state theory for the N-NO(2) homolysis. Our calculations show that the HMX decomposition process is more complex than it was previously believed to be and is defined by a combination of reactions at any given temperature. At all temperatures, the direct N-NO(2) homolysis prevails with the activation barrier at 38.1 kcal/mol. The nitro-nitrite isomerization and the HONO elimination, with the activation barriers at 46.3 and 39.4 kcal/mol, respectively, are slow reactions at all temperatures. The obtained conclusions provide a consistent interpretation for the reported experimental data.

  11. Ab Initio Studies of Halogen and Nitrogen Oxide Species of Interest in Stratospheric Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. The ab initio results are shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the theoretical results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve experimental controversies. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of halogen oxide species will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of experimental studies.

  12. eTEST: Developing a Smart Home HIV Testing Kit that Enables Active, Real-Time Follow-Up and Referral After Testing.

    PubMed

    Wray, Tyler; Chan, Philip A; Simpanen, Erik; Operario, Don

    2017-05-08

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group at highest risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States, but many do not test as frequently as recommended. Home-based self-testing (HBST) for HIV holds promise for promoting regular testing among these individuals, but currently available HBSTs have limited follow-up options, providing only a 1-800 number that participants can call. Failure to actively conduct follow-up counseling and referrals after HBST use could result in delays in seeking confirmatory testing and care among users receiving reactive (preliminary positive) test results. HBST also fails to connect users who test negative with other prevention services that can reduce their future risk for HIV. The aim of our study was to use qualitative research methods with high-risk MSM to inform development of a "smart" HBST kit. The kit utilizes existing Internet-of-Things (IoT) technologies to monitor HBST use in real-time and enable delivery of timely, active follow-up counseling and referrals over the phone. In phase 1, individual interviews (n=10) explored how participants might use HBST and their views and preferences for conducting counseling and referral after HBST. Based on these perspectives, we developed a smartphone app (iOS, Android) that uses data from light sensors on Bluetooth low energy (BLE) beacons to monitor when HBST kits are opened, facilitating timely follow-up phone contact with users. In phase 2, a usability study conducted among high-risk MSM (n=10) examined the acceptability and feasibility of this system and provided user perspectives after using the system along with HBST. Phase 1 themes suggested that MSM preferred HBST, that most thought active follow-up after HBST would be valuable, and that doing so over the phone within 24 h after testing was preferable. Phase 2 results showed that the eTEST system successfully detected HBST use in nearly all cases. Participant perspectives also suggested that the

  13. Radioiodine Labeled Anti-MIF McAb: A Potential Agent for Inflammation Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Hou, Gui-hua; Han, Jian-kui; Song, Jing; Liang, Ting

    2007-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that may play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. Radiolabeled anti-MIF McAb can be used to detect in vivo inflammatory changes. The objective of this study was to investigate in vivo biology of radioiodinated anti-MIF McAb using the inflammation model mice. Anti-MIF McAb was radioiodinated with NaI125 by Iodogen method. Animal models were induced in the mice by intramuscular injection of S. aureus, E. coli, and turpentine oil. The biodistribution studies with radioiodinated anti-MIF McAb were performed on inflammation mice. The relationship between inflammatory lesions and anti-MIF McAb binding was investigated using the percent of injected dose per gram tissue (% ID/g) of tissue samples and whole-body autoradiography. The radioactivity of I125-anti-MIF McAb in the inflammatory tissue increased gradually for three inflammation models. The highest uptake was found in S. aureus group and the lowest was in E. coli group. The uptake in turpentine oil group was average. Whole-body autoradiography showed that all inflammation foci could be visualized clearly from 24 hours after injection, but 48 hours images were much clearer in accordance with the high T/NT ratio. These results demonstrate the ability of radioiodinated anti-MIF McAb to measure in vivo inflammatory events represented by high expression of MIF and suggests that radiolabeled anti-MIF McAb warrants further investigation as a potential inflammation-seeking agent for imaging to detect inflammatory disorders. PMID:18317509

  14. A Kine-chemical Investigation of the AB Dor Moving Group "Stream"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Bubar, Eric J.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Young, Patrick A.

    2013-03-01

    The AB Dor Moving Group consists of a "nucleus" of ~10 stars at d ~= 20 pc, along with dozens of purported "stream" members distributed across the sky. We perform a chemical and kinematic analysis of a subsample of AB Dor stream stars to test whether they constitute a physical stellar group. We use the NEMO Galactic kinematic code to investigate the orbits of the stream members, and perform a chemical abundance analysis using high resolution spectra taken with the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope. Using a χ2 test with the measured abundances for 10 different elements, we find that only half of the purported AB Dor stream members could possibly constitute a statistically chemically homogeneous sample. Some stream members with three-dimensional velocities were hundreds of parsecs from the AB Dor nucleus ~108 yr ago, and hence were unlikely to share a common origin. We conclude that the published lists of AB Dor moving group stream members are unlikely to represent the dispersed remnant of a single star formation episode. A subsample of the stream stars appears to be both statistically chemically homogeneous and in the vicinity of the AB Dor nucleus at birth. Their mean metallicity is [Fe/H] = 0.02 ± 0.02 dex, which we consider representative for the AB Dor group. Finally, we report a strong lower limit on the age of the AB Dor nucleus of >110 Myr based on the pre-main sequence contraction times for K-type members which have reached the main sequence.

  15. Ab initio Quantum Chemical and Experimental Reaction Kinetics Studies in the Combustion of Bipropellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-24

    NUMBER (Include area code) 24 March 2017 Briefing Charts 01 March 2017 - 31 March 2017 Ab initio Quantum Chemical and Experimental Reaction Kinetics...Laboratory AFRL/RQRS 1 Ara Road Edwards AFB, CA 93524 *Email: ghanshyam.vaghjiani@us.af.mil Ab initio Quantum Chemical and Experimental Reaction ...Clearance 17161 Zador et al., Prog. Energ. Combust. Sci., 37 371 (2011) Why Quantum Chemical Reaction Kinetics Studies? DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for

  16. A KINE-CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE AB DOR MOVING GROUP 'STREAM'

    SciT

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Bubar, Eric J.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2013-03-20

    The AB Dor Moving Group consists of a 'nucleus' of {approx}10 stars at d {approx_equal} 20 pc, along with dozens of purported 'stream' members distributed across the sky. We perform a chemical and kinematic analysis of a subsample of AB Dor stream stars to test whether they constitute a physical stellar group. We use the NEMO Galactic kinematic code to investigate the orbits of the stream members, and perform a chemical abundance analysis using high resolution spectra taken with the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope. Using a {chi}{sup 2} test with the measured abundances for 10 different elements, we findmore » that only half of the purported AB Dor stream members could possibly constitute a statistically chemically homogeneous sample. Some stream members with three-dimensional velocities were hundreds of parsecs from the AB Dor nucleus {approx}10{sup 8} yr ago, and hence were unlikely to share a common origin. We conclude that the published lists of AB Dor moving group stream members are unlikely to represent the dispersed remnant of a single star formation episode. A subsample of the stream stars appears to be both statistically chemically homogeneous and in the vicinity of the AB Dor nucleus at birth. Their mean metallicity is [Fe/H] = 0.02 {+-} 0.02 dex, which we consider representative for the AB Dor group. Finally, we report a strong lower limit on the age of the AB Dor nucleus of >110 Myr based on the pre-main sequence contraction times for K-type members which have reached the main sequence.« less

  17. Resolving components of wind accreting systems: a case study of Mira AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karovska, M.

    2004-12-01

    Mass transfer in many systems occurs by wind interaction rather then by tidal interaction, because the primary does not fill its Roche surface. The nearby detached binary Mira AB provides a unique laboratory for studying wind accretion processes because this system can be resolved and the interacting components can be studied individually, which is not possible in most accreting systems. The study of Mira AB wind accretion and mass transfer may therefore help understand the accretion processes in many other astronomical systems.

  18. Refuting S 825AB System Classification through Astrometry and Gaia Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, Noah; Musegades, Lila; Davis, Edward; Briney, Micah; Francis, Aaron; Niebuhr, Cole; Rowe, David; Harshaw, Richard; Genet, Russell

    2018-04-01

    A student-led team of researchers studied double star S 825AB (WDS 23100+3651). Analysis of ten CCD images obtained by the Sierra Research Observatory yielded an average position angle of 318.37º and an average separation of 67.38". Comparing these results to published findings in the Washington Double Star Catalog and measurements taken from the European Space Agency's Gaia astrometry satellite, the team concluded that S 825AB is not a binary system.

  19. Isolation of Candida Species from Gastroesophageal Lesions among Pediatrics in Isfahan, Iran: Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Clinical Isolates by E-test

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Fatemeh; Esmaeili, Mehran; Mohammadi, Rasoul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Candida species can become opportunistic pathogens causing local or systemic invasive infections. Gastroesophageal candidiasis may depend on the Candida colonization and local damage of the mucosal barrier. Risk factors are gastric acid suppression, diabetes mellitus, chronic debilitating states such as carcinomas, and the use of systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids. The aim of this study is collection and molecular identification of Candida species from gastroesophageal lesions among pediatrics in Isfahan, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges for clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients underwent endoscopy (130 specimens from gastritis and 70 samples from esophagitis) were included in this study between April 2015 and November 2015. All specimens were subcultured on sabouraud dextrose agar, and genomic DNA of all strains was extracted using boiling method. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing of the ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 region were used for the identification of all Candida strains. MIC ranges were determined for itraconazole (ITC), amphotericin B (AmB), and fluconazole (FLU) by E-test. Results: Twenty of 200 suspected patients (10%) were positive by direct microscopy and culture. Candida albicans was the most common species (60%) followed by Candida glabrata (30%), Candida parapsilosis (5%), and Candida kefyr (5%). MIC ranges were determined for FLU (0.125–8 μg/mL), ITC (0.008–0.75 μg/mL), and AmB (0.008–0.75 μg/mL), respectively. Conclusion: Every colonization of Candida species should be considered as a potentially factor of mucocutaneous candidiasis and should be treated with antifungal drugs. PMID:28904931

  20. The activin-βA/BMP-2 chimera AB204 is a strong stimulator of adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Meejung; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum; Choe, Senyon

    2017-05-01

    Several of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been reported to induce white as well as brown adipogenesis. Here, we characterized the adipogenic potential of AB204, a recombinant chimeric protein of activin-βA and BMP-2, in in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo settings. BMP-2 is generally known to promote adipogenesis. When compared with BMP-2, which previously showed varying degrees of adipogenesis, AB204 displayed superior in vitro adipogenic differentiation of mouse 3 T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Surprisingly, implantation of hASCs, preconditioned with AB204 for as short a time as 48 h, into the subcutaneous space of athymic nude mice effectively produced fat pads, but not with BMP-2. When BMP-2 and AB204 were injected intraperitoneally, AB204 promoted dramatic systemic adipogenesis of C57BL/6 mice on a high-fat diet very effectively. The results implicate the novel clinical potential of AB204, including induction of fat tissue ex vivo or in vivo for tissue re-engineering and regenerative medicinal purposes, more than any known natural protein ligand. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Evidence That the Directly Imaged Planet HD 131399 Ab Is a Background Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Eric L.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Rameau, Julien; Wang, Jason J.; Esposito, Thomas M.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Marois, Christian; Vigan, Arthur; Ammons, S. Mark; Artigau, Etienne; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Blunt, Sarah; Bulger, Joanna; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Cotten, Tara; Doyon, René; Duchêne, Gaspard; Fabrycky, Daniel; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Follette, Katherine B.; Gerard, Benjamin L.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Graham, James R.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hibon, Pascale; Hinkley, Sasha; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Macintosh, Bruce; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Metchev, Stanimir; Morzinski, Katie M.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rafikov, Roman R.; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2017-12-01

    We present evidence that the recently discovered, directly imaged planet HD 131399 Ab is a background star with nonzero proper motion. From new JHK1L‧ photometry and spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager, VLT/SPHERE, and Keck/NIRC2, and a reanalysis of the discovery data obtained with VLT/SPHERE, we derive colors, spectra, and astrometry for HD 131399 Ab. The broader wavelength coverage and higher data quality allow us to reinvestigate its status. Its near-infrared spectral energy distribution excludes spectral types later than L0 and is consistent with a K or M dwarf, which are the most likely candidates for a background object in this direction at the apparent magnitude observed. If it were a physically associated object, the projected velocity of HD 131399 Ab would exceed escape velocity given the mass and distance to HD 131399 A. We show that HD 131399 Ab is also not following the expected track for a stationary background star at infinite distance. Solving for the proper motion and parallax required to explain the relative motion of HD 131399 Ab, we find a proper motion of 12.3 mas yr-1. When compared to predicted background objects drawn from a galactic model, we find this proper motion to be high but consistent with the top 4% fastest-moving background stars. From our analysis, we conclude that HD 131399 Ab is a background K or M dwarf.

  2. Optimal immunization cocktails can promote induction of broadly neutralizing Abs against highly mutable pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, J Scott; Moore, Penny L; Kardar, Mehran; Chakraborty, Arup K

    2016-10-24

    Strategies to elicit Abs that can neutralize diverse strains of a highly mutable pathogen are likely to result in a potent vaccine. Broadly neutralizing Abs (bnAbs) against HIV have been isolated from patients, proving that the human immune system can evolve them. Using computer simulations and theory, we study immunization with diverse mixtures of variant antigens (Ags). Our results show that particular choices for the number of variant Ags and the mutational distances separating them maximize the probability of inducing bnAbs. The variant Ags represent potentially conflicting selection forces that can frustrate the Darwinian evolutionary process of affinity maturation. An intermediate level of frustration maximizes the chance of evolving bnAbs. A simple model makes vivid the origin of this principle of optimal frustration. Our results, combined with past studies, suggest that an appropriately chosen permutation of immunization with an optimally designed mixture (using the principles that we describe) and sequential immunization with variant Ags that are separated by relatively large mutational distances may best promote the evolution of bnAbs.

  3. A caged Ab reveals an immediate/instructive effect of BDNF during hippocampal synaptic potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kossel, Albrecht H.; Cambridge, Sidney B.; Wagner, Uta; Bonhoeffer, Tobias

    2001-01-01

    Neurotrophins have been shown to be involved in functional strengthening of central nervous system synapses. Although their general importance in this process is undisputed, it remains unresolved whether neurotrophins are truly mediators of synaptic strengthening or merely important cofactors. To address this question, we have devised a method to inactivate endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with high time resolution by “caging” a function-blocking mAb against BDNF with a photosensitive protecting compound. Different assays were used to show that this inactivation of the Ab is reversible by UV light. Synaptic potentiation after τ-burst stimulation in the CA1 region of acute hippocampal slices was significantly less when applying the unmodified Ab compared with the caged Ab. Importantly, photoactivation of the caged Ab during the time of induction of synaptic enhancement led to a marked decrease in potentiation. Our experiments therefore strengthen the view that endogenous BDNF has fast effects during induction of synaptic plasticity. The results additionally show that caged Abs can provide a tool for precise spatiotemporal control over endogenous protein levels. PMID:11724927

  4. Adsorption of transgenic insecticidal Cry1Ab protein to silica particles. Effects on transport and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Madliger, Michael; Gasser, Christoph A; Schwarzenbach, René P; Sander, Michael

    2011-05-15

    Bt crops are genetically modified to be resistant against insect pests by expressing insecticidal Cry proteins. The processes governing the fate and bioavailability of the expressed transgenic Cry proteins in soils are poorly understood. We studied adsorption of Cry1Ab to negatively charged silica (SiO(2)) particles, a major soil constituent and a model for negatively charged mineral surfaces, at pH 5 to 10 and ionic strengths I = 10 mM to 250 mM, both in solution depletion and saturated column transport experiments. Cry1Ab-SiO(2) interactions were dominated by patch-controlled electrostatic attraction (PCEA), as evident from increasing Cry1Ab attraction to SiO(2) with decreasing I at pH at which both Cry1Ab and SiO(2) were net negatively charged. Experimental and modeling evidence is provided that the surface heterogeneity of SiO(2) particles modulated PCEA, leading to a fraction of adsorption sites with slow Cry1Ab desorption kinetics. Desorption rates from these sites increased upon increasing the solution pH. In toxicity bioassays, we demonstrated that Cry1Ab retained insecticidal activity when adsorbed to SiO(2), suggesting high protein conformational stability during adsorption-desorption cycles. Models predicting Cry1A protein adsorption in soils therefore need to account for combined effects of the nonuniform protein surface charge distribution and of sorbent surface heterogeneity.

  5. Beyond Simple AB Diblock Copolymers: Application of Bifunctional and Trifunctional RAFT Agents to PISA in Water.

    PubMed

    Mellot, Gaëlle; Beaunier, Patricia; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bouteiller, Laurent; Rieger, Jutta; Stoffelbach, François

    2018-06-20

    The influence of the macromolecular reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (macro-RAFT) agent architecture on the morphology of the self-assemblies obtained by aqueous RAFT dispersion polymerization in polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) is studied by comparing amphiphilic AB diblock, (AB) 2 triblock, and triarm star-shaped (AB) 3 copolymers, constituted of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAc = A) and diacetone acrylamide (DAAm = B). Symmetrical triarm (AB) 3 copolymers could be synthesized for the first time in a PISA process. Spheres and higher order morphologies, such as worms or vesicles, could be obtained for all types of architectures and the parameters that determine their formation have been studied. In particular, we found that the total DP n of the PDMAc and the PDAAm segments, i.e., the same overall molar mass, at the same M n (PDMAc)/M n (PDAAm) ratio, rather than the individual length of the arms determined the morphologies for the linear (AB) 2 and star shaped (AB) 3 copolymers obtained by using the bi- and trifunctional macro-RAFT agents. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Optimal immunization cocktails can promote induction of broadly neutralizing Abs against highly mutable pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, J. Scott; Moore, Penny L.; Kardar, Mehran; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2016-01-01

    Strategies to elicit Abs that can neutralize diverse strains of a highly mutable pathogen are likely to result in a potent vaccine. Broadly neutralizing Abs (bnAbs) against HIV have been isolated from patients, proving that the human immune system can evolve them. Using computer simulations and theory, we study immunization with diverse mixtures of variant antigens (Ags). Our results show that particular choices for the number of variant Ags and the mutational distances separating them maximize the probability of inducing bnAbs. The variant Ags represent potentially conflicting selection forces that can frustrate the Darwinian evolutionary process of affinity maturation. An intermediate level of frustration maximizes the chance of evolving bnAbs. A simple model makes vivid the origin of this principle of optimal frustration. Our results, combined with past studies, suggest that an appropriately chosen permutation of immunization with an optimally designed mixture (using the principles that we describe) and sequential immunization with variant Ags that are separated by relatively large mutational distances may best promote the evolution of bnAbs. PMID:27791170

  7. Production and characterization of anti-human IgG F(ab')2 antibody fragment.

    PubMed

    Valedkarimi, Zahra; Nasiri, Hadi; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Esparvarinha, Mojghan; Majidi, Jafar

    2018-04-10

    In present study an optimized protocol for the separation of antibodies into antigen-binding fragments F(ab')2 using pepsin digestion was investigated. The production of these fragments is a consequential step in the development of medical research, treatment and diagnosis. For production of polyclonal antibody rabbit received antigen in four steps. The rabbit serum at 1/128000 dilution showed high absorbance in reaction with human IgG at the designed ELISA method. Rabbit IgG was purified by Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) method. Purity was assessed by SDS-PAGE method. In non-reduced condition only one band was seen in about 150 kDa MW position and in reduced form, two bands were seen in 50 and 25 kDa MW positions. Rabbit IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme. The antibody fragments solution was applied to Gel filtration column to isolate the F(ab')2. Non-reduced SDS-PAGE for determining the purity of F(ab')2 fragment resulted in one band in 100 kDa corresponds to F(ab')2 fragment and a band in 150 kDa MW position corresponds to undigested IgG antibodies. The activities of FITC conjugated F(ab')2 fragment and commercial ones were compared using flowcytometry method. The activity results implied that the FITC conjugated- anti human F(ab')2 fragment worked as efficiently as the commercial one.

  8. Unique synergism in flame retardancy in ABS based composites through blending PVDF and halloysite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remanan, Sanjay; Sharma, Maya; Jayashree, Priyadarshini; Parameswaranpillai, Jyotishkumar; Fabian, Thomas; Shih, Julie; Shankarappa, Prasad; Nuggehalli, Bharath; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2017-06-01

    This study demonstrates flame retardant materials designed using bi-phasic polymer blends of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) containing halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and Cloisite 30B nanoclay. The prepared blends with and without nanoparticles were extensively characterized. The nanoparticles were added in different weight concentrations to improve the flame retardancy. It was observed that prepared ABS/PVDF blends showed better flame retardancy than ABS based composites. The flame resistance was further improved by the addition of nanoparticles in the blends. The microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) test showed better flame resistance in ABS/PVDF blends filled with 5 wt% HNTs than other composites. The total heat release of ABS/PVDF blend filled with 5 wt% HNTs decreased by 31% and also the heat of combustion decreased by 26% as compared to neat ABS. When compared with nanoparticles, the addition of PVDF reduced the peak heat release rate (PHRR) and increased the char residue more effectively. A synergistic improvement was observed from both PVDF and HNTs on the flame resistance properties.

  9. Bridging the gap: facilities and technologies for development of early stage therapeutic mAb candidates.

    PubMed

    Munro, Trent P; Mahler, Stephen M; Huang, Edwin P; Chin, David Y; Gray, Peter P

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) currently dominate the biologics marketplace. Development of a new therapeutic mAb candidate is a complex, multistep process and early stages of development typically begin in an academic research environment. Recently, a number of facilities and initiatives have been launched to aid researchers along this difficult path and facilitate progression of the next mAb blockbuster. Complementing this, there has been a renewed interest from the pharmaceutical industry to reconnect with academia in order to boost dwindling pipelines and encourage innovation. In this review, we examine the steps required to take a therapeutic mAb from discovery through early stage preclinical development and toward becoming a feasible clinical candidate. Discussion of the technologies used for mAb discovery, production in mammalian cells and innovations in single-use bioprocessing is included. We also examine regulatory requirements for product quality and characterization that should be considered at the earliest stages of mAb development. We provide details on the facilities available to help researchers and small-biotech build value into early stage product development, and include examples from within our own facility of how technologies are utilized and an analysis of our client base.

  10. Report on Distance Education and AB606 Funding Prepared for the 70th Nevada Legislature (in Accordance with AB 606, 1997 Session).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ. and Community Coll. System, Reno. Office of the Chancellor.

    In 1997 the Nevada State Legislature approved Assembly Bill 606 (AB606), which appropriated funds to the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN) for the purchase of computer hardware and software, and communication services. In July of that year, the K-16 Partnership for Distance Learning adopted three priorities that have guided…

  11. Ab Initio Computation of Dynamical Properties: Pressure Broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Drouin, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Rotational spectroscopy of polar molecules is the main observational tool in many areas of astrophysics, for gases of low densities (n ˜ 102 - 108 cm-3). Spectral line shapes in astrophysical media are largely dominated by turbulence-induced Doppler effects and natural line broadening are negligible. However line broadening remains an important tool for denser gases, like planetary high atmospheres. Understanding the excitation schemes of polar molecules requires the knowledge of excitation transfer rate due to collisional excitation, between the polar molecule and the ambient gas, usually H2. Transport properties in ionized media also require a precise knowledge of momentum transfer rates by elastic collisions. In order to assess the theoretically computed cross section and energy/momentum transfer rates, direct absolute experiments are scarce. The best way is to measure not individual scattering events but rather the global effect of the buffer gas, thanks to the pressure broadening cross sections, whose magnitude can be measured without any scaling parameters. At low temperatures, both elastic and inelastic scattering amplitudes are tested. At higher temperature, depending on the interaction strength, only inelastic scattering cross section are shown to play a significant role 1 ,2. Thanks to the advances of computer capabilities, it has become practical to compute spectral line parameters fromab initio quantum chemistry. In particular, the theory of rotational line broadening is readily incorporated into scattering quantum dynamical theory, like close-coupling schemes. The only approximations used in the computation are the isolated collision/isolated line approximations. We compute the non-binding interaction potential with high precision quantum chemistry and fit the resulting ab initio points onto a suitable functional. We have recently computed several such systems, for molecules in H2 buffer gas: H2O,3 H2CO,4 HCO+ .5 Detailed computations taking into

  12. ab initio MD simulations of geomaterials with ~1000 atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G. B.; Kirtman, B.; Spera, F. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the last two decades, ab initio studies of materials using Density Functional Theory (DFT) have increased exponentially in popularity. DFT codes are now used routinely to simulate properties of geomaterials--mainly silicates and geochemically important metals such as Fe. These materials are ubiquitous in the Earth’s mantle and core and in terrestrial exoplanets. Because of computational limitations, most First Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) calculations are done on systems of only ~100 atoms for a few picoseconds. While this approach can be useful for calculating physical quantities related to crystal structure, vibrational frequency, and other lattice-scale properties (especially in crystals), it is statistically marginal for duplicating physical properties of the liquid state like transport and structure. In MD simulations in the NEV ensemble, temperature (T), and pressure (P) fluctuations scale as N-1/2; small particle number (N) systems are therefore characterized by greater statistical state point location uncertainty than large N systems. Previous studies have used codes such as VASP where CPU time increases with N2, making calculations with N much greater than 100 impractical. SIESTA (Soler, et al. 2002) is a DFT code that enables electronic structure and MD computations on larger systems (N~103) by making some approximations, such as localized numerical orbitals, that would be useful in modeling some properties of geomaterials. Here we test the applicability of SIESTA to simulate geosilicates, both hydrous and anhydrous, in the solid and liquid state. We have used SIESTA for lattice calculations of brucite, Mg(OH)2, that compare very well to experiment and calculations using CRYSTAL, another DFT code. Good agreement between more classical DFT calculations and SIESTA is needed to justify study of geosilicates using SIESTA across a range of pressures and temperatures relevant to the Earth’s interior. Thus, it is useful to adjust parameters in

  13. Effectiveness of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing crashes, the first cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Matteo; Strandroth, Johan; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Fildes, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing real-life crashes. Since the European Parliament has voted on legislation making ABS mandatory on all new motorcycles over 125 cc from 2016, the fitment rate in Europe is likely to increase in the coming years. Though previous research has focused on mostly large displacement motorcycles, this study used police reports from Spain (2006-2009), Italy (2009), and Sweden (2003-2012) in order to analyze a wide range of motorcycles, including scooters, and compare countries with different motorcycling habits. The statistical analysis used odds ratio calculations with an induced exposure approach. Previous research found that head-on crashes were the least ABS-affected crash type and was therefore used as the nonsensitive crash type for ABS in these calculations. The same motorcycle models, with and without ABS, were compared and the calculations were carried out for each country separately. Crashes involving only scooters were further analyzed. The effectiveness of motorcycle ABS in reducing injury crashes ranged from 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12-36) in Italy to 29% (95% CI, 20-38) in Spain, and 34% (95% CI, 16-52) in Sweden. The reductions in severe and fatal crashes were even greater, at 34% (95% CI, 24-44) in Spain and 42% (95% CI, 23-61) in Sweden. The overall reductions of crashes involving ABS-equipped scooters (at least 250 cc) were 27% (95% CI, 12-42) in Italy and 22% (95% CI, 2-42) in Spain. ABS on scooters with at least a 250 cc engine reduced severe and fatal crashes by 31% (95% CI, 12-50), based on Spanish data alone. At this stage, there is more than sufficient scientific-based evidence to support the implementation of ABS on all motorcycles, even light ones. Further research should aim at understanding the injury mitigating effects of motorcycle ABS, possibly in combination with combined braking systems.

  14. Field Trial Performance of Herculex XTRA (Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) and SmartStax (Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 + Cry3Bb1) Hybrids and Soil Insecticides Against Western and Northern Corn Rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, K D; Campbell, L A; Lepping, M D; Rule, D M

    2017-06-01

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are important insect pests in corn, Zea mays L. For more than a decade, growers have been using transgenic plants expressing proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to protect corn roots from feeding. In 2011, western corn rootworm populations were reported to have developed resistance to Bt hybrids expressing Cry3Bb1 and later found to be cross-resistant to hybrids expressing mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab. The identification of resistance to Cry3 (Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, and eCry3.1Ab) hybrids led to concerns about durability and efficacy of products with single traits and of products containing a pyramid of a Cry3 protein and the binary Bt proteins Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1. From 2012 to 2014, 43 field trials were conducted across the central United States to estimate root protection provided by plants expressing Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 alone (Herculex RW) or pyramided with Cry3Bb1 (SmartStax). These technologies were evaluated with and without soil-applied insecticides to determine if additional management measures provided benefit where Cry3 performance was reduced. Trials were categorized for analysis based on rootworm damage levels on Cry3-expressing hybrids and rootworm feeding pressure within each trial. Across scenarios, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 hybrids provided excellent root protection. Pyramided traits provided greater root and yield protection than non-Bt plus a soil-applied insecticide, and only in trials where larval feeding pressure exceeded two nodes of damage did Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 single-trait hybrids and pyramided hybrids show greater root protection from the addition of soil-applied insecticides. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. [Identification of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens and determination of antibiotic resistance profiles with E-test methods].

    PubMed

    Demir, Cengiz; Keşli, Recep

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens that were obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles by using the antibiotic concentration gradient method. The study was performed in Afyon Kocatepe University Ahmet Necdet Sezer Research and Practice Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory between 1 November 2014 and 30 October 2015. Two hundred and seventyeight clinical specimens accepted for anaerobic culture were enrolled in the study. All the samples were cultivated anaerobically by using Schaedler agar with 5% defibrinated sheep blood and Schaedler broth. The isolated anaerobic gram-negative bacilli were identified by using both the conventional methods and automated identification system (VITEK 2, bioMerieux, France). Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed with antibiotic concentration gradient method (E-test, bioMerieux, France); against penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem for each isolate. Of the 28 isolated anaerobic gram-negative bacilli; 14 were identified as Bacteroides fragilis group, 9 were Prevotella spp., and 5 were Fusobacterium spp. The highest resistance rate was found against penicillin (78.5%) and resistance rates against clindamycin and cefoxitin were found as 17.8% and 21.4%, respectively. No resistance was found against metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem. As a result, isolation and identification of anaerobic bacteria are difficult, time-consuming and more expensive when compared with the cost of aerobic culture. The rate of anaerobic bacteria isolation may be increased by obtaining the appropriate clinical specimen and appropriate transportation of these specimens. We believe that the data obtained from the study in our center may offer benefits for the follow up and treatment of infections

  16. Living with an imperfect cell wall: compensation of femAB inactivation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Hübscher, Judith; Jansen, Andrea; Kotte, Oliver; Schäfer, Juliane; Majcherczyk, Paul A; Harris, Llinos G; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Heinemann, Matthias; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte

    2007-09-04

    Synthesis of the Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan pentaglycine interpeptide bridge is catalyzed by the nonribosomal peptidyl transferases FemX, FemA and FemB. Inactivation of the femAB operon reduces the interpeptide to a monoglycine, leading to a poorly crosslinked peptidoglycan. femAB mutants show a reduced growth rate and are hypersusceptible to virtually all antibiotics, including methicillin, making FemAB a potential target to restore beta-lactam susceptibility in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Cis-complementation with wild type femAB only restores synthesis of the pentaglycine interpeptide and methicillin resistance, but the growth rate remains low. This study characterizes the adaptations that ensured survival of the cells after femAB inactivation. In addition to slow growth, the cis-complemented femAB mutant showed temperature sensitivity and a higher methicillin resistance than the wild type. Transcriptional profiling paired with reporter metabolite analysis revealed multiple changes in the global transcriptome. A number of transporters for sugars, glycerol, and glycine betaine, some of which could serve as osmoprotectants, were upregulated. Striking differences were found in the transcription of several genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and the arginine-deiminase pathway, an alternative for ATP production. In addition, microarray data indicated enhanced expression of virulence factors that correlated with premature expression of the global regulators sae, sarA, and agr. Survival under conditions preventing normal cell wall formation triggered complex adaptations that incurred a fitness cost, showing the remarkable flexibility of S. aureus to circumvent cell wall damage. Potential FemAB inhibitors would have to be used in combination with other antibiotics to prevent selection of resistant survivors.

  17. Living with an imperfect cell wall: compensation of femAB inactivation in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Hübscher, Judith; Jansen, Andrea; Kotte, Oliver; Schäfer, Juliane; Majcherczyk, Paul A; Harris, Llinos G; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Heinemann, Matthias; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Background Synthesis of the Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan pentaglycine interpeptide bridge is catalyzed by the nonribosomal peptidyl transferases FemX, FemA and FemB. Inactivation of the femAB operon reduces the interpeptide to a monoglycine, leading to a poorly crosslinked peptidoglycan. femAB mutants show a reduced growth rate and are hypersusceptible to virtually all antibiotics, including methicillin, making FemAB a potential target to restore β-lactam susceptibility in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Cis-complementation with wild type femAB only restores synthesis of the pentaglycine interpeptide and methicillin resistance, but the growth rate remains low. This study characterizes the adaptations that ensured survival of the cells after femAB inactivation. Results In addition to slow growth, the cis-complemented femAB mutant showed temperature sensitivity and a higher methicillin resistance than the wild type. Transcriptional profiling paired with reporter metabolite analysis revealed multiple changes in the global transcriptome. A number of transporters for sugars, glycerol, and glycine betaine, some of which could serve as osmoprotectants, were upregulated. Striking differences were found in the transcription of several genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and the arginine-deiminase pathway, an alternative for ATP production. In addition, microarray data indicated enhanced expression of virulence factors that correlated with premature expression of the global regulators sae, sarA, and agr. Conclusion Survival under conditions preventing normal cell wall formation triggered complex adaptations that incurred a fitness cost, showing the remarkable flexibility of S. aureus to circumvent cell wall damage. Potential FemAB inhibitors would have to be used in combination with other antibiotics to prevent selection of resistant survivors. PMID:17784943

  18. An Absolute Index (Ab-index) to Measure a Researcher’s Useful Contributions and Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Akshaya Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Bibliographic analysis has been a very powerful tool in evaluating the effective contributions of a researcher and determining his/her future research potential. The lack of an absolute quantification of the author’s scientific contributions by the existing measurement system hampers the decision-making process. In this paper, a new metric system, Absolute index (Ab-index), has been proposed that allows a more objective comparison of the contributions of a researcher. The Ab-index takes into account the impact of research findings while keeping in mind the physical and intellectual contributions of the author(s) in accomplishing the task. The Ab-index and h-index were calculated for 10 highly cited geneticists and molecular biologist and 10 young researchers of biological sciences and compared for their relationship to the researchers input as a primary author. This is the first report of a measuring method clarifying the contributions of the first author, corresponding author, and other co-authors and the sharing of credit in a logical ratio. A java application has been developed for the easy calculation of the Ab-index. It can be used as a yardstick for comparing the credibility of different scientists competing for the same resources while the Productivity index (Pr-index), which is the rate of change in the Ab-index per year, can be used for comparing scientists of different age groups. The Ab-index has clear advantage over other popular metric systems in comparing scientific credibility of young scientists. The sum of the Ab-indices earned by individual researchers of an institute per year can be referred to as Pr-index of the institute. PMID:24391941

  19. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against F(ab')2 fragment of human immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Hadi; Valedkarimi, Zahra; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Kazemi, Tohid; Esparvarinha, Mojghan; Majidi, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies are essential tools of biomedical and biochemical researches. Polyclonal antibodies are produced against different epitopes of antigens. Purified F(ab')2 can be used for animal’s immunization to produce polyclonal antibodies. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified by ion exchange chromatography method. In all stages verification method of the purified antibodies was sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Purified IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme and F(ab')2 fragment was purified by gel filtration separation method. For production of polyclonal antibody, rabbit was immunized by purified F(ab')2 and antibody production was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Purified anti-IgG F(ab')2 was conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Ion exchange chromatography purification yielded 38 mg of human IgG antibody. The results of SDS-PAGE in reduced and non-reduced conditions showed bands with 25-30 kDa molecular weight (MW) and 50-kDa respectively and a distinct band with 150 kDa MW. The results of non-reduced SDS-PAGE for determining the purity of F(ab')2 fragment showed one band in 90 kDa and a band in 150 kDa MW position. Purification by Ion exchange chromatography method resulted about 12 mg rabbit polyclonal antibody. Flow cytometry showed generated polyclonal antibody had an acceptable activity compared to commercial antibody. Taking together, purified IgG F(ab')2 and polyclonal anti-IgG F(ab')2 are useful tools in biomedical and biochemical researches and diagnostic kits. PMID:29326789

  20. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against F(ab')2 fragment of human immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Hadi; Valedkarimi, Zahra; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Kazemi, Tohid; Esparvarinha, Mojghan; Majidi, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies are essential tools of biomedical and biochemical researches. Polyclonal antibodies are produced against different epitopes of antigens. Purified F(ab') 2 can be used for animal's immunization to produce polyclonal antibodies. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified by ion exchange chromatography method. In all stages verification method of the purified antibodies was sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Purified IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme and F(ab') 2 fragment was purified by gel filtration separation method. For production of polyclonal antibody, rabbit was immunized by purified F(ab') 2 and antibody production was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Purified anti-IgG F(ab') 2 was conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Ion exchange chromatography purification yielded 38 mg of human IgG antibody. The results of SDS-PAGE in reduced and non-reduced conditions showed bands with 25-30 kDa molecular weight (MW) and 50-kDa respectively and a distinct band with 150 kDa MW. The results of non-reduced SDS-PAGE for determining the purity of F(ab') 2 fragment showed one band in 90 kDa and a band in 150 kDa MW position. Purification by Ion exchange chromatography method resulted about 12 mg rabbit polyclonal antibody. Flow cytometry showed generated polyclonal antibody had an acceptable activity compared to commercial antibody. Taking together, purified IgG F(ab') 2 and polyclonal anti-IgG F(ab') 2 are useful tools in biomedical and biochemical researches and diagnostic kits.

  1. Molecular Characterization of abLIM, a Novel Actin-binding and Double Zinc Finger Protein

    PubMed Central

    Roof, Dorothy J.; Hayes, Annmarie; Adamian, Michael; Chishti, Athar H.; Li, Tiansen

    1997-01-01

    Molecules that couple the actin-based cytoskeleton to intracellular signaling pathways are central to the processes of cellular morphogenesis and differentiation. We have characterized a novel protein, the actin-binding LIM (abLIM) protein, which could mediate such interactions between actin filaments and cytoplasmic targets. abLIM protein consists of a COOH-terminal cytoskeletal domain that is fused to an NH2-terminal domain consisting of four double zinc finger motifs. The cytoskeletal domain is ∼50% identical to erythrocyte dematin, an actin-bundling protein of the red cell membrane skeleton, while the zinc finger domains conform to the LIM motif consensus sequence. In vitro expression studies demonstrate that abLIM protein can bind to F-actin through the dematin-like domain. Transcripts corresponding to three distinct isoforms have a widespread tissue distribution. However, a polypeptide corresponding to the full-length isoform is found exclusively in the retina and is enriched in biochemical extracts of retinal rod inner segments. abLIM protein also undergoes extensive phosphorylation in light-adapted retinas in vivo, and its developmental expression in the retina coincides with the elaboration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments. Based on the composite primary structure of abLIM protein, actin-binding capacity, potential regulation via phosphorylation, and isoform expression pattern, we speculate that abLIM may play a general role in bridging the actin-based cytoskeleton with an array of potential LIM protein-binding partners. The developmental time course of abLIM expression in the retina suggests that the retina-specific isoform may have a specialized role in the development or elaboration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments. PMID:9245787

  2. Synthesis of an A'B' Precursor to Angelmicin B: Product Diversification in the Suárez Lactol Fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jialiang; Todaro, Louis; Mootoo, David R

    2011-11-01

    We describe a synthetic strategy for the angelimicin family of anthraquinoid natural products that involves converting a central highly oxygenated decalin intermediate to the AB and A'B' subunits. Herein, we report the synthesis of the bicyclic A'B' subunit that complements our earlier route to the tricyclic AB framework. The differentiating tact in the two syntheses focused on controlling the Suárez radical fragmentation of lactol precursors by modulating the substrate's structural rigidity. A more flexible lactol gave the tricyclic AB framework, whereas a more rigid substrate led to the bicyclic A'B' precursor, presumably through divergent pathways from the radical produced in the initial fragmentation step. These results establish a versatile advanced synthetic precursor for the angelimicins, and on a more general note, illustrate strategies for applying the Suárez fragmentation to diverse and complex molecular frameworks.

  3. The NISTmAb Reference Material 8671 lifecycle management and quality plan.

    PubMed

    Schiel, John E; Turner, Abigail

    2018-03-01

    Comprehensive analysis of monoclonal antibody therapeutics involves an ever expanding cadre of technologies. Lifecycle-appropriate application of current and emerging techniques requires rigorous testing followed by discussion between industry and regulators in a pre-competitive space, an effort that may be facilitated by a widely available test metric. Biopharmaceutical quality materials, however, are often difficult to access and/or are protected by intellectual property rights. The NISTmAb, humanized IgG1κ Reference Material 8671 (RM 8671), has been established with the intent of filling that void. The NISTmAb embodies the quality and characteristics of a typical biopharmaceutical product, is widely available to the biopharmaceutical community, and is an open innovation tool for development and dissemination of results. The NISTmAb lifecyle management plan described herein provides a hierarchical strategy for maintenance of quality over time through rigorous method qualification detailed in additional submissions in the current publication series. The NISTmAb RM 8671 is a representative monoclonal antibody material and provides a means to continually evaluate current best practices, promote innovative approaches, and inform regulatory paradigms as technology advances. Graphical abstract The NISTmAb Reference Material (RM) 8671 is intended to be an industry standard monoclonal antibody for pre-competitive harmonization of best practices and designing next generation characterization technologies for identity, quality, and stability testing.

  4. N-Sulfonyl-β-lactam hapten as an effective labeling reagent for aldolase mAb.

    PubMed

    Inokuma, Tsubasa; Fuller, Roberta P; Barbas, Carlos F

    2015-04-15

    Utilization of chemically programmed antibodies (cpAbs) is regarded to be one of the most efficient methods for the development of therapeutic systems. cpAbs can extend the half-life of programming reagents, activate immune systems via the Fc region of antibodies and achieve universal vaccination by attaching varieties of small, programmed molecules. In the current study, we aimed to develop a novel labeling reagent for the preparation of cpAbs and found that N-sulfonyl-β-lactams (NSBLs) were optimal. NSBL can be synthesized from readily available 4-(bromomethyl)benzenesulfonyl chloride via few simple manipulations and can label the aldolase monoclonal antibody (mAb) 84G3, which could not be labeled effectively by the conventional labeling reagent, N-acyl-β-lactam (NABL). We also demonstrated that the conjugate, which consists of mAb 84G3 and an NSBL bearing a biotin moiety, maintained strong binding activity to streptavidin. In addition, the stability assay of NSBL revealed that NSBLs can tolerate aqueous media without significant decomposition over 24h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New insights into mechanistic photoisomerization of ethylene-bridged azobenzene from ab initio multiple spawning simulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Wang, Yating; Fang, Qiu

    2017-02-14

    Ethylene-bridged azobenzene (br-AB) has aroused broad interests due to its unique photoswitching properties. Numerous dynamical simulations have been performed for the br-AB photoisomerization, which focused mainly on the conformational effect and the funnel role of minimum-energy conical intersection (MECI) on the mechanism. In the present work, we use the "full quantum" ab initio multiple spawning method to simulate the br-AB photoisomerization, which provides new insights into the mechanism. Upon irradiation of br-AB to the first excited singlet state (S 1 ), most of the excess energies are trapped in the azo-moiety. Since the intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution is slower than the S 1 relaxation processes, the nonadiabatic transition from S 1 to the ground state (S 0 ) occurs in the vicinity of high-energy crossing seam and even the largest probabilities of the S 1 → S 0 transition are not distributed in the MECI regions. Once decaying to the S 0 state through the high-energy region, the subsequent isomerization and re-formation of the initial isomer are ultrafast processes in the S 0 state. It is the nonergodic behavior of the S 1 and S 0 dynamics that is mainly responsible for the unique photoswitching properties of the ethylene-bridged azobenzene, which will be discussed in detail.

  6. Early Results from the First Year of Observations by the Atacama B-mode Search (ABS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sara M.; ABS Collaboration

    2013-06-01

    The Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) instrument, which began observation in February of 2012, is a crossed-Dragone telescope located at an elevation of 5100 m in the Atacama Desert in Chile. The primary scientific goal of ABS is to measure the B-mode polarization spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from multipole moments of about l=50 to l=500, a range that includes the primordial B-mode peak. Unlike most current polarization experiments, ABS features a cryogenic telescope and a warm half-wave plate used to modulate the polarization of the incoming light. The ABS focal plane array consists of 240 pixels designed for observation at 150 GHz by the TRUCE collaboration. Each pixel has its own individual, single-moded feedhorn and contains two transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers sensitive to orthogonal polarizations. The detectors are read out using time domain multiplexing so that the thermal loading of the readout electronics does not heat the focal plane. I will present early results from the first year of ABS data.

  7. HicAB toxin-antitoxin complex from Escherichia coli: expression and crystallization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingsi; Xu, Bingshuang; Gao, Zengqiang; Zhou, Ke; Liu, Peng; Dong, Yuhui; Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Quansheng

    2017-09-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are widespread in both bacteria and archaea, where they enable cells to adapt to environmental cues. TA systems play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as programmed cell death, cell growth, persistence and virulence. Here, two distinct forms of the type II toxin-antitoxin complex HicAB were identified and characterized in Escherichia coli K-12, and both were successfully overexpressed and purified. The two proposed forms, HicAB L and HicAB S , differed in the presence or absence of a seven-amino-acid segment at the N-terminus in the antitoxin HicB. The short form HicAB S readily crystallized under the conditions 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 20%(w/v) PEG 6000, 0.2 M ammonium sulfate. The HicAB S crystal diffracted and data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group I222 or I2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 67.04, b = 66.31, c = 120.78 Å. Matthews coefficient calculation suggested the presence of two molecules each of HicA and HicB S in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 55.28% and a Matthews coefficient (V M ) of 2.75 Å 3  Da -1 .

  8. A Force Balanced Fragmentation Method for ab Initio Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Protein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingyuan; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, John Z H

    2018-01-01

    A force balanced generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps (FB-GMFCC) method is proposed for ab initio molecular dynamic simulation of proteins. In this approach, the energy of the protein is computed by a linear combination of the QM energies of individual residues and molecular fragments that account for the two-body interaction of hydrogen bond between backbone peptides. The atomic forces on the caped H atoms were corrected to conserve the total force of the protein. Using this approach, ab initio molecular dynamic simulation of an Ace-(ALA) 9 -NME linear peptide showed the conservation of the total energy of the system throughout the simulation. Further a more robust 110 ps ab initio molecular dynamic simulation was performed for a protein with 56 residues and 862 atoms in explicit water. Compared with the classical force field, the ab initio molecular dynamic simulations gave better description of the geometry of peptide bonds. Although further development is still needed, the current approach is highly efficient, trivially parallel, and can be applied to ab initio molecular dynamic simulation study of large proteins.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Molecular Bonding Structures by ab initio Quasi-Atomic Orbital Analyses.

    PubMed

    West, Aaron C; Duchimaza-Heredia, Juan J; Gordon, Mark S; Ruedenberg, Klaus

    2017-11-22

    The quasi-atomic analysis of ab initio electronic wave functions in full valence spaces, which was developed in preceding papers, yields oriented quasi-atomic orbitals in terms of which the ab initio molecular wave function and energy can be expressed. These oriented quasi-atomic orbitals are the rigorous ab initio counterparts to the conceptual bond forming atomic hybrid orbitals of qualitative chemical reasoning. In the present work, the quasi-atomic orbitals are identified as bonding orbitals, lone pair orbitals, radical orbitals, vacant orbitals and orbitals with intermediate character. A program determines the bonding characteristics of all quasi-atomic orbitals in a molecule on the basis of their occupations, bond orders, kinetic bond orders, hybridizations and local symmetries. These data are collected in a record and provide the information for a comprehensive understanding of the synergism that generates the bonding structure that holds the molecule together. Applications to a series of molecules exhibit the complete bonding structures that are embedded in their ab initio wave functions. For the strong bonds in a molecule, the quasi-atomic orbitals provide quantitative ab initio amplifications of the Lewis dot symbols. Beyond characterizing strong bonds, the quasi-atomic analysis also yields an understanding of the weak interactions, such as vicinal, hyperconjugative and radical stabilizations, which can make substantial contributions to the molecular bonding structure.

  10. Bioinformatic analysis of phage AB3, a phiKMV-like virus infecting Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Liu, X; Li, X-J

    2015-01-16

    The phages of Acinetobacter baumannii has drawn increasing attention because of the multi-drug resistance of A. baumanni. The aim of this study was to sequence Acinetobacter baumannii phage AB3 and conduct bioinformatic analysis to lay a foundation for genome remodeling and phage therapy. We isolated and sequenced A. baumannii phage AB3 and attempted to annotate and analyze its genome. The results showed that the genome is a double-stranded DNA with a total length of 31,185 base pairs (bp) and 97 open reading frames greater than 100 bp. The genome includes 28 predicted genes, of which 24 are homologous to phage AB1. The entire coding sequence is located on the negative strand, representing 90.8% of the total length. The G+C mol% was 39.18%, without areas of high G+C content over 200 bp in length. No GC island, tRNA gene, or repeated sequence was identified. Gene lengths were 120-3099 bp, with an average of 1011 bp. Six genes were found to be greater than 2000 bp in length. Genomic alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the RNA polymerase gene showed that similar to phage AB1, phage AB3 is a phiKMV-like virus in the T7 phage family.

  11. Evaluation of different phenotypic tests for detection of metallo-β-lactamases in imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Rohit; Sharma, Babita; Sharma, Rajni

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes a wide spectrum of infections including bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, etc., Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing P. aeruginosa is an emerging threat and cause of concern as they have emerged as one of the most feared resistance mechanisms. This study was designed to know the prevalence of MBL production in P. aeruginosa and to evaluate the four phenotypic tests for detection of MBL production in imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa . Totally, 800 isolates of P. aeruginosa isolated from various clinical samples were evaluated for carbapenem resistance and MBL production. All imipenem-resistant strains were tested for carabapenemase production by modified Hodge test. Screening for MBL production was done by double-disc synergy test and combined disc test (CDT). Confirmation of MBL production was done by the E-test (Ab BioDisk, Solna, Sweden). Out of the 800 isolates of P. aeruginosa , 250 isolates were found resistant to imipenem. Based on the results of E-test, 147 (18.37%) isolates of P. aeruginosa were positive for MBL production. The CDT has the highest sensitivity and specificity for the detection of MBL production as compared to other tests. The results of this study are indicative that MBL production is an important mechanism of carbapenem resistance among P. aeruginosa . Use of simple screening test like CDT will be crucial step toward large-scale monitoring of these emerging resistant determinants. Phenotypic test for MBL production has to be standardized, and all the isolates should be routinely screened for MBL production.

  12. Evaluation of different phenotypic tests for detection of metallo-β-lactamases in imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Rohit; Sharma, Babita; Sharma, Rajni

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes a wide spectrum of infections including bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, etc., Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing P. aeruginosa is an emerging threat and cause of concern as they have emerged as one of the most feared resistance mechanisms. This study was designed to know the prevalence of MBL production in P. aeruginosa and to evaluate the four phenotypic tests for detection of MBL production in imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. METHODS: Totally, 800 isolates of P. aeruginosa isolated from various clinical samples were evaluated for carbapenem resistance and MBL production. All imipenem-resistant strains were tested for carabapenemase production by modified Hodge test. Screening for MBL production was done by double-disc synergy test and combined disc test (CDT). Confirmation of MBL production was done by the E-test (Ab BioDisk, Solna, Sweden). RESULTS: Out of the 800 isolates of P. aeruginosa, 250 isolates were found resistant to imipenem. Based on the results of E-test, 147 (18.37%) isolates of P. aeruginosa were positive for MBL production. The CDT has the highest sensitivity and specificity for the detection of MBL production as compared to other tests. CONCLUSION: The results of this study are indicative that MBL production is an important mechanism of carbapenem resistance among P. aeruginosa. Use of simple screening test like CDT will be crucial step toward large-scale monitoring of these emerging resistant determinants. Phenotypic test for MBL production has to be standardized, and all the isolates should be routinely screened for MBL production. PMID:28966485

  13. [Evaluation of methods for studying susceptibility to oxacillin and penicillin in 60 Staphylococcus lugdunensis isolates].

    PubMed

    Batista, Nínive; Fernández, M Paula; Lara, Magdalena; Laich, Federico; Méndez, Sebastián

    2009-03-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus associated with a variety of clinical infections. In this paper we present the results of a comparative study using 4 methods to determine antimicrobial susceptibility to oxacillin and penicillin in 60 S. lugdunensis isolates. We studied 60 S. lugdunensis isolates obtained from clinical specimens sent to our laboratory over an 8-year period. All isolates were free coagulase-negative and DNase-negative, and biochemically identified by API ID 32 STAPH (bioMérieux). Presence of mecA and ss-lactamase production were studied in all cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the Vitek 2 System (bioMérieux) and broth microdilution (Wider) (Soria Melguizo) for penicillin and oxacillin, and the E-test (AB Biodisk) and cefoxitin disk diffusion test (BD BBLTM) for oxacillin. All isolates lacked the mecA gene and were susceptible to oxacillin by broth microdilution, E-test, and cefoxitin disk diffusion test. Only two isolates were oxacillin-resistant by the Vitek 2 System. Twenty-four isolates (40%) were ss-lactamase-positive, 4 after induction. Susceptibility testing to penicillin determined that 48 isolates showed concordance between the results obtained by broth microdilution and Vitek 2, but 12 isolates (20%), showed divergent results. We detected no resistance to oxacillin in S. lugdunensis. All the methods evaluated were adequate for determining oxacillin resistance. The Vitek 2 System is useful for detecting penicillin resistance, but the ss-lactamase test should be applied to isolates with a MIC=0.25microg/ml to avoid the interpretation of false resistance to this antibiotic.

  14. Family distribution of anti-F(ab')2 antibodies in relatives of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Silvestris, F; Searles, R P; Bankhurst, A D; Williams, R C

    1985-01-01

    Recently we reported an inverse relationship between the levels of anti-F(ab')2 antibodies and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study focused on anti-F(ab')2 antibodies in unaffected relatives of SLE patients. Sixty sera from first degree family members from 11 SLE families and 49 sera from 8 control families were studied. Percentage of SLE family members with anti-DNA antibodies (15%) was higher than than control family sera (8%, P less than 0.05). Anti-F(ab')2 antibodies were measured using ELISA assays. The SLE family sera had higher amounts of anti-F(ab')2 antibodies than the normal control family group (P = 0.0051). In an effort to determine if anti-F(ab')2 antibodies found in high titres in the sera of some SLE family members had specificity for the F(ab')2 fragment of anti-DNA antibodies of the SLE relative patients, DNA-anti-DNA inhibition experiments were performed using anti-F(ab')2 prepared from the relative in parallel with anti-F(ab')2 prepared from normal controls with equivalent high titres of serum anti-F(ab')2. Inhibition exhibited by anti-F(ab')2 of first degree relatives was higher than that obtained from control normal donors (P less than 0.02). Such differences in inhibition were not recorded using a control tetanus toxoid-anti-tetanus toxoid assay. In direct binding ELISA experiments, peroxidase-conjugated anti-F(ab')2 antibodies from the same first degree relative showed high relative specificity against purified anti-DNA antibodies of his SLE proband when compared to those obtained against different anti-DNA antibodies isolated from unrelated SLE patients (P less than 0.001). Such a substantial difference was not observed in parallel experiments using peroxidase conjugated anti-F(ab')2 antibodies from normal controls unrelated to SLE subjects. PMID:3874025

  15. Radiolabeled F(ab')2-cetuximab for theranostic purposes in colorectal and skin tumor-bearing mice models.

    PubMed

    Bellaye, P-S; Moreau, M; Raguin, O; Oudot, A; Bernhard, C; Vrigneaud, J-M; Dumont, L; Vandroux, D; Denat, F; Cochet, A; Brunotte, F; Collin, B

    2018-05-17

    This study aimed to investigate theranostic strategies in colorectal and skin cancer based on fragments of cetuximab, an anti-EGFR mAb, labeled with radionuclide with imaging and therapeutic properties, 111 In and 177 Lu, respectively. We designed F(ab') 2 -fragments of cetuximab radiolabeled with 111 In and 177 Lu. 111 In-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab tumor targeting and biodistribution were evaluated by SPECT in BalbC nude mice bearing primary colorectal tumors. The efficacy of 111 In-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab to assess therapy efficacy was performed on BalbC nude mice bearing colorectal tumors receiving 17-DMAG, an HSP90 inhibitor. Therapeutic efficacy of the radioimmunotherapy based on 177 Lu-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab was evaluated in SWISS nude mice bearing A431 tumors. Radiolabeling procedure did not change F(ab') 2 -cetuximab and cetuximab immunoreactivity nor affinity for HER1 in vitro. 111 In-DOTAGA-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab exhibited a peak tumor uptake at 24 h post-injection and showed a high tumor specificity determined by a significant decrease in tumor uptake after the addition of an excess of unlabeled-DOTAGA-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab. SPECT imaging of 111 In-DOTAGA-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab allowed an accurate evaluation of tumor growth and successfully predicted the decrease in tumor growth induced by 17-DMAG. Finally, 177 Lu-DOTAGA-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab radioimmunotherapy showed a significant reduction of tumor growth at 4 and 8 MBq doses. 111 In-DOTAGA-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab is a reliable and stable tool for specific in vivo tumor targeting and is suitable for therapy efficacy assessment. 177 Lu-DOTAGA-F(ab') 2 -cetuximab is an interesting theranostic tool allowing therapy and imaging.

  16. Single-ion 4f element magnetism: an ab-initio look at Ln(COT)2(-).

    PubMed

    Gendron, Frédéric; Pritchard, Benjamin; Bolvin, Hélène; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-12-14

    The electron densities associated with the Ln 4f shell, and spin and orbital magnetizations ('magnetic moment densities'), are investigated for the Ln(COT)2(-) series. The densities are obtained from ab-initio calculations including spin-orbit coupling. For Ln = Ce, Pr the magnetizations are also derived from crystal field models and shown to agree with the ab-initio results. Analysis of magnetizations from ab-initio calculations may be useful in assisting research on single molecule magnets.

  17. Sustainability of Recycled ABS and PA6 by Banana Fiber Reinforcement: Thermal, Mechanical and Morphological Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rupinder; Kumar, Ranvijay; Ranjan, Nishant

    2018-01-01

    In the present study efforts have been made to prepare functional prototypes with improved thermal, mechanical and morphological properties from polymeric waste for sustainability. The primary recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polyamide 6 (PA6) has been selected as matrix material with bio-degradable and bio-compatible banana fibers (BF) as reinforcement. The blend (in form of feed stock filament wire) of ABS/PA6 and BF was prepared in house by conventional twin screw extrusion (TSE) process. Finally feed stock filament of ABS/PA6 reinforced with BF was put to run on open source fused deposition modelling based three dimensional printer (without any change in hardware/software of the system) for printing of functional prototypes with improved thermal/mechanical/morphological properties. The results are supported by photomicrographs, thermographs and mechanical testing.

  18. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab')₂ Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-12-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab')₂ fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab')₂ fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab')₂ passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  19. Optimal Analyses for 3×n AB Games in the Worst Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Te; Lin, Shun-Shii

    The past decades have witnessed a growing interest in research on deductive games such as Mastermind and AB game. Because of the complicated behavior of deductive games, tree-search approaches are often adopted to find their optimal strategies. In this paper, a generalized version of deductive games, called 3×n AB games, is introduced. However, traditional tree-search approaches are not appropriate for solving this problem since it can only solve instances with smaller n. For larger values of n, a systematic approach is necessary. Therefore, intensive analyses of playing 3×n AB games in the worst case optimally are conducted and a sophisticated method, called structural reduction, which aims at explaining the worst situation in this game is developed in the study. Furthermore, a worthwhile formula for calculating the optimal numbers of guesses required for arbitrary values of n is derived and proven to be final.

  20. Virtual synthesis of crystals using ab initio MD: Case study on LiFePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. B.; Nanda, B. R. K.

    2017-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation technique is fairly successful in studying the structural aspects and dynamics of fluids. Here we study the ability of ab initio molecular dynamics (ab initio MD) to carry out virtual experiments to synthesize new crystalline materials and to predict their structures. For this purpose the olivine phosphate LiFePO4 (LFPO) is used as an example. As transition metal oxides in general are stabilized with layered geometry, we carried out ab initio MD simulations over a hypothetical layered configuration consisting of alternate LiPO2 and FeO2 layers. With intermittent steps of electron minimization, the resulted equilibrium lattice consist of PO4 tetrahedra and distorted Fe-O complexes similar to the one observed in the experimental lattice.

  1. Many-body optimization using an ab initio monte carlo method.

    PubMed

    Haubein, Ned C; McMillan, Scott A; Broadbelt, Linda J

    2003-01-01

    Advances in computing power have made it possible to study solvated molecules using ab initio quantum chemistry. Inclusion of discrete solvent molecules is required to determine geometric information about solute/solvent clusters. Monte Carlo methods are well suited to finding minima in many-body systems, and ab initio methods are applicable to the widest range of systems. A first principles Monte Carlo (FPMC) method was developed to find minima in many-body systems, and emphasis was placed on implementing moves that increase the likelihood of finding minimum energy structures. Partial optimization and molecular interchange moves aid in finding minima and overcome the incomplete sampling that is unavoidable when using ab initio methods. FPMC was validated by studying the boron trifluoride-water system, and then the method was used to examine the methyl carbenium ion in water to demonstrate its application to solvation problems.

  2. Well-characterized sequence features of eukaryote genomes and implications for ab initio gene prediction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Chen, Shi-Yi; Deng, Feilong

    2016-01-01

    In silico analysis of DNA sequences is an important area of computational biology in the post-genomic era. Over the past two decades, computational approaches for ab initio prediction of gene structure from genome sequence alone have largely facilitated our understanding on a variety of biological questions. Although the computational prediction of protein-coding genes has already been well-established, we are also facing challenges to robustly find the non-coding RNA genes, such as miRNA and lncRNA. Two main aspects of ab initio gene prediction include the computed values for describing sequence features and used algorithm for training the discriminant function, and by which different combinations are employed into various bioinformatic tools. Herein, we briefly review these well-characterized sequence features in eukaryote genomes and applications to ab initio gene prediction. The main purpose of this article is to provide an overview to beginners who aim to develop the related bioinformatic tools.

  3. An ab initio study of the conformational energy map of acetylcholine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, M. D.; Payne, M. C.; Boyes, R. N.

    An ab initio density functional theory study is reported of the conformational energy map of acetylcholine, with respect to the two central dihedral angles of the molecule. The acetylcholine molecule pays a central role in neurotransmission and has been studied widely using semi-empirical computational modelling. The ab initio results are compared with a number of previous investigations and with experiment. The ab initio data indicate that the most stable conformation of acetylcholine is the trans , gauche arrangement of the central dihedral angles. Furthermore, Mulliken population analysis of the electronic structure of the molecule in this conformation indicates that the positive charge of the molecule is spread over the exterior of the cationic head of the molecule.

  4. Investigations for Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of ABS-Graphene Blended Prototypes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rupinder; Sandhu, Gurleen S.; Penna, Rosa; Farina, Ilenia

    2017-01-01

    The thermoplastic materials such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and Nylon have large applications in three-dimensional printing of functional/non-functional prototypes. Usually these polymer-based prototypes are lacking in thermal and electrical conductivity. Graphene (Gr) has attracted impressive enthusiasm in the recent past due to its natural mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. This paper presents the step by step procedure (as a case study) for development of an in-house ABS-Gr blended composite feedstock filament for fused deposition modelling (FDM) applications. The feedstock filament has been prepared by two different methods (mechanical and chemical mixing). For mechanical mixing, a twin screw extrusion (TSE) process has been used, and for chemical mixing, the composite of Gr in an ABS matrix has been set by chemical dissolution, followed by mechanical blending through TSE. Finally, the electrical and thermal conductivity of functional prototypes prepared from composite feedstock filaments have been optimized. PMID:28773244

  5. ORBITAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE σ Ori Aa, Ab, B TRIPLE SYSTEM

    SciT

    Simón-Díaz, S.; Caballero, J. A.; Apellániz, J. Maíz

    2015-02-01

    We provide a complete characterization of the astrophysical properties of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B hierarchical triple system and an improved set of orbital parameters for the highly eccentric σ Ori Aa, Ab spectroscopic binary. We compiled a spectroscopic data set comprising 90 high-resolution spectra covering a total time span of 1963 days. We applied the Lehman-Filhés method for a detailed orbital analysis of the radial velocity curves and performed a combined quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B system by means of the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND. We used our own plus other available information onmore » photometry and distance to the system for measuring the radii, luminosities, and spectroscopic masses of the three components. We also inferred evolutionary masses and stellar ages using the Bayesian code BONNSAI. The orbital analysis of the new radial velocity curves led to a very accurate orbital solution of the σ Ori Aa, Ab pair. We provided indirect arguments indicating that σ Ori B is a fast-rotating early B dwarf. The FASTWIND+BONNSAI analysis showed that the Aa, Ab pair contains the hottest and most massive components of the triple system while σ Ori B is a bit cooler and less massive. The derived stellar ages of the inner pair are intriguingly younger than the one widely accepted for the σ Orionis cluster, at 3 ± 1 Ma. The outcome of this study will be of key importance for a precise determination of the distance to the σ Orionis cluster, the interpretation of the strong X-ray emission detected for σ Ori Aa, Ab, B, and the investigation of the formation and evolution of multiple massive stellar systems and substellar objects.« less

  6. The Mechanochemical Cycle of Mammalian Kinesin-2 KIF3A/B under Load.

    PubMed

    Andreasson, Johan O L; Shastry, Shankar; Hancock, William O; Block, Steven M

    2015-05-04

    The response of motor proteins to external loads underlies their ability to work in teams and determines the net speed and directionality of cargo transport. The mammalian kinesin-2, KIF3A/B, is a heterotrimeric motor involved in intraflagellar transport and vesicle motility in neurons. Bidirectional cargo transport is known to result from the opposing activities of KIF3A/B and dynein bound to the same cargo, but the load-dependent properties of kinesin-2 are poorly understood. We used a feedback-controlled optical trap to probe the velocity, run length, and unbinding kinetics of mouse KIF3A/B under various loads and nucleotide conditions. The kinesin-2 motor velocity is less sensitive than kinesin-1 to external forces, but its processivity diminishes steeply with load, and the motor was observed occasionally to slip and reattach. Each motor domain was characterized by studying homodimeric constructs, and a global fit to the data resulted in a comprehensive pathway that quantifies the principal force-dependent kinetic transitions. The properties of the KIF3A/B heterodimer are intermediate between the two homodimers, and the distinct load-dependent behavior is attributable to the properties of the motor domains and not to the neck linkers or the coiled-coil stalk. We conclude that the force-dependent movement of KIF3A/B differs significantly from conventional kinesin-1. Against opposing dynein forces, KIF3A/B motors are predicted to rapidly unbind and rebind, resulting in qualitatively different transport behavior from kinesin-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Directigen Flu A+B with Real Time PCR in the Diagnosis of Influenza.

    PubMed

    Bosevska, Golubinka; Panovski, Nikola; Janceska, Elizabeta; Mikik, Vladimir; Topuzovska, Irena Kondova; Milenkovik, Zvonko

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of patients with influenza is the reason why physicians need rapid high-sensitivity influenza diagnostic tests that require no complex lab equipment and can be performed and interpreted within 15 min. The Aim of this study was to compare the rapid Directigen Flu A+B test with real time PCR for detection of influenza viruses in the Republic of Macedonia. One-hundred-eight respiratory samples (combined nose and throat swabs) were routinely collected for detection of influenza virus during influenza seasons. Forty-one patients were pediatric cases and 59 were adult. Their mean age was 23 years. The patients were allocated into 6 age groups: 0-4 yrs, 5-9 yrs, 10-14 yrs, 15-19 yrs, 20-64 yrs and > 65 yrs. Each sample was tested with Directigen Flu A+B and CDC real time PCR kit for detection and typisation/subtypisation of influenza according to the lab diagnostic protocol. Directigen Flu A+B identified influenza A virus in 20 (18.5%) samples and influenza B virus in two 2 (1.9%) samples. The high specificity (100%) and PPV of Directigen Flu A+B we found in our study shows that the positive results do not need to be confirmed. The overall sensitivity of Directigen Flu A+B is 35.1% for influenza A virus and 33.0% for influenza B virus. The sensitivity for influenza A is higher among children hospitalized (45.0%) and outpatients (40.0%) versus adults. Directigen Flu A+B has relatively low sensitivity for detection of influenza viruses in combined nose and throat swabs. Negative results must be confirmed.

  8. Biodistribution of charged F(ab')2 photoimmunoconjugates in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Duska, L R; Hamblin, M R; Bamberg, M P; Hasan, T

    1997-01-01

    The effect of charge modification of photoimmunoconjugates (PICs) on their biodistribution in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer was investigated. Chlorin(e6)c(e6) was attached site specifically to the F(ab')2 fragment of the murine monoclonal antibody OC125, directed against human ovarian cancer cells, via poly-1-lysine linkers carrying cationic or anionic charges. Preservation of immunoreactivity was checked by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PICs were radiolabelled with 125I and compared with non-specific rabbit IgG PICs after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection into nude mice. Samples were taken from normal organs and tumour at 3 h and 24 h. Tumour to normal 125I ratios showed that the cationic OC125F(ab')2 PIC had the highest tumour selectivity. Ratios for c(e6) were uniformly higher than for 125I, indicating that c(e6) became separated from 125I. OC125F(ab')2 gave highest tissue values of 125I, followed by cationic OC125F(ab')2 PIC; other species were much lower. The amounts of c(e6) delivered per gram of tumour were much higher for cationic OC125F(ab')2 PIC than for other species. The results indicate that cationic charge stimulates the endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the OC125F(ab')2-pl-c(e6) that has bound to the i.p. tumour. Positively charged PICs may have applications in the i.p. photoimmunotherapy of minimal residual ovarian cancer.

  9. Biodistribution of charged F(ab')2 photoimmunoconjugates in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Duska, L. R.; Hamblin, M. R.; Bamberg, M. P.; Hasan, T.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of charge modification of photoimmunoconjugates (PICs) on their biodistribution in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer was investigated. Chlorin(e6)c(e6) was attached site specifically to the F(ab')2 fragment of the murine monoclonal antibody OC125, directed against human ovarian cancer cells, via poly-1-lysine linkers carrying cationic or anionic charges. Preservation of immunoreactivity was checked by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PICs were radiolabelled with 125I and compared with non-specific rabbit IgG PICs after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection into nude mice. Samples were taken from normal organs and tumour at 3 h and 24 h. Tumour to normal 125I ratios showed that the cationic OC125F(ab')2 PIC had the highest tumour selectivity. Ratios for c(e6) were uniformly higher than for 125I, indicating that c(e6) became separated from 125I. OC125F(ab')2 gave highest tissue values of 125I, followed by cationic OC125F(ab')2 PIC; other species were much lower. The amounts of c(e6) delivered per gram of tumour were much higher for cationic OC125F(ab')2 PIC than for other species. The results indicate that cationic charge stimulates the endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the OC125F(ab')2-pl-c(e6) that has bound to the i.p. tumour. Positively charged PICs may have applications in the i.p. photoimmunotherapy of minimal residual ovarian cancer. PMID:9062404

  10. The mechanochemical cycle of mammalian kinesin-2 KIF3A/B under load

    PubMed Central

    Andreasson, Johan O.L.; Shastry, Shankar; Hancock, William O.; Block, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The response of motor proteins to external loads underlies their ability to work in teams and determines the net speed and directionality of cargo transport. The mammalian kinesin-2, KIF3A/B, is a heterotrimeric motor involved in intraflagellar transport and vesicle motility in neurons. Bidirectional cargo transport is known to result from the opposing activities of KIF3A/B and dynein bound to the same cargo, but the load-dependent properties of kinesin-2 are poorly understood. We used a feedback-controlled optical trap to probe the velocity, run length and unbinding kinetics of mouse KIF3A/B under various loads and nucleotide conditions. The kinesin-2 motor velocity is less sensitive than kinesin-1 to external forces, but its processivity diminishes steeply with load, and the motor was observed occasionally to slip and reattach. Each motor domain was characterized by studying homodimeric constructs, and a global fit to the data resulted in a comprehensive pathway that quantifies the principal force-dependent kinetic transitions. The properties of the KIF3A/B heterodimer are intermediate between the two homodimers, and the distinct load-dependent behavior is attributable to the properties of the motor domains, and not to the neck-linkers or the coiled-coil stalk. We conclude that the force-dependent movement of KIF3A/B differs significantly from conventional kinesin-1. Against opposing dynein forces, KIF3A/B motors are predicted to rapidly unbind and rebind, resulting in qualitatively different transport behavior from kinesin-1. PMID:25866395

  11. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithm with many tables for purely ab initio protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Christiane Regina Soares; Delbem, Alexandre Claudio Botazzo; da Silva, Fernando Luís Barroso

    2013-07-30

    This article focuses on the development of an approach for ab initio protein structure prediction (PSP) without using any earlier knowledge from similar protein structures, as fragment-based statistics or inference of secondary structures. Such an approach is called purely ab initio prediction. The article shows that well-designed multiobjective evolutionary algorithms can predict relevant protein structures in a purely ab initio way. One challenge for purely ab initio PSP is the prediction of structures with β-sheets. To work with such proteins, this research has also developed procedures to efficiently estimate hydrogen bond and solvation contribution energies. Considering van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bond, and solvation contribution energies, the PSP is a problem with four energetic terms to be minimized. Each interaction energy term can be considered an objective of an optimization method. Combinatorial problems with four objectives have been considered too complex for the available multiobjective optimization (MOO) methods. The proposed approach, called "Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms with many tables" (MEAMT), can efficiently deal with four objectives through the combination thereof, performing a more adequate sampling of the objective space. Therefore, this method can better map the promising regions in this space, predicting structures in a purely ab initio way. In other words, MEAMT is an efficient optimization method for MOO, which explores simultaneously the search space as well as the objective space. MEAMT can predict structures with one or two domains with RMSDs comparable to values obtained by recently developed ab initio methods (GAPFCG , I-PAES, and Quark) that use different levels of earlier knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Applicability of Type A/B alcohol dependence in the general population.

    PubMed

    Tam, Tammy W; Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the concurrent and predictive validity of Type A/B alcohol dependence in the general population-a typology developed in clinical populations to gauge severity of dependence. Data were drawn from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The sample included 1,172 alcohol-dependent drinkers at baseline who were reinterviewed three years later. Latent class analysis was used to derive Type A/B classification using variables replicating the original Type A/B typology. Predictive validity of the Type A/B classification was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regressions. A two-class solution consistent with Babor's original Type A/B typology adequately fit the data. Type B alcoholics in the general population, compared to Type As, had higher alcohol severity and more co-occurring drug, mental, and physical health problems. In the absence of treatment services utilization, Type B drinkers had two times the odds of being alcohol dependent three years later. Among those who utilized alcohol treatment services, Type B membership was predictive of heavy drinking and drug dependence, but not alcohol dependence, three years later. Findings suggest that Type A/B classification is both generalizable to, and valid within, the US general population of alcohol dependent drinkers. Results highlight the value of treatment for mitigating the persistence of dependence among Type B alcoholics in the general population. Screening for markers of vulnerability to Type B dependence could be of clinical value for health care providers to determine appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab maize by Spodoptera frugiperda in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Celso; Bernardi, Oderlei; Salmeron, Eloisa; Sorgatto, Rodrigo J; Dourado, Patrick M; Crivellari, Augusto; Carvalho, Renato A; Willse, Alan; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P

    2016-09-01

    The first Bt maize in Brazil was launched in 2008 and contained the MON 810 event, which expresses Cry1Ab protein. Although the Cry1Ab dose in MON 810 is not high against fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), MON 810 provided commercial levels of control. To support insect resistance management in Brazil, the baseline and ongoing susceptibility of FAW was examined using protein bioassays, and the level of control and life history parameters of FAW were evaluated on MON 810 maize. Baseline diet overlay assays with Cry1Ab (16 µg cm(-2) ) caused 76.3% mortality to field FAW populations sampled in 2009. Moderate mortality (48.8%) and significant growth inhibition (88.4%) were verified in leaf-disc bioassays. In greenhouse trials, MON 810 had significantly less damage than non-Bt maize. The surviving FAW larvae on MON 810 (22.4%) had a 5.5 day increase in life cycle time and a 24% reduction in population growth rate. Resistance monitoring (2010-2015) showed a significant reduction in Cry1Ab susceptibility of FAW over time. Additionally, a significant reduction in the field efficacy of MON 810 maize against FAW was observed in different regions from crop season 2009 to 2013. The decrease in susceptibility to Cry1Ab was expected, but the specific contributions to this resistance by MON 810 maize cannot be distinguished from cross-resistance to Cry1Ab caused by exposure to Cry1F maize. Technologies combining multiple novel insecticidal traits with no cross-resistance to the current Cry1 proteins and high activity against the same target pests should be pursued in Brazil and similar environments. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Combined glaucoma and cataract surgery: Comparison of viscocanalostomy, endocyclophotocoagulation, and ab interno trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Sasan; Hamzeh, Nikoo; Mohammadi, Massood; Khatibi, Nassim; Bowd, Christopher; Weinreb, Robert N

    2018-05-01

    To compare outcomes of phacoemulsification combined with viscocanalostomy, endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP), or ab interno trabulectomy for intraocular pressure (IOP) control and safety in eyes with open-angle glaucoma and visually significant cataract. Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Retrospective case series. Medical records of patients who had combined surgery and were followed for at least 1 year were reviewed. Complete success, postoperative IOP, number of medications at each visit, and complications were evaluated and compared before and after adjustments for confounders. Forty-six eyes had combined phacoviscocanalostomy, 35 had phaco-ECP, and 28 eyes phaco-ab interno trabulectomy. The groups were matched for baseline IOP (P = .24). At the final follow-up (mean 17.2 months ± 5.5 [SD]), the phacoviscocanalostomy group had the lowest mean IOP (13.5 ± 4.7 mm Hg, 29% decrease) (P = .01). There was no significant difference in the final IOP between phaco-ECP and phaco-ab interno trabulectomy (16.4 ± 3.9 mm Hg, 20% decrease versus 15.8 ± 4.2 mm Hg, 15% decrease) (P = .88). The reduction in the number of medications was greater with phacoviscocanalostomy (77%) than with phaco-ECP (40%) and phaco-ab interno trabulectomy (44%) (P = .01). Phacoemulsification-ab interno trabulectomy had the fewest complications. Intraocular pressure spikes were more frequent in the phaco-ECP group (20%) than in the other groups (4%) (P = .05). All procedures significantly lowered IOP. Phacoemulsification-ab interno trabulectomy resulted in fewest complications and phacoviscocanalostomy led to the largest IOP drop and largest reduction of medications. Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. First detection of oqxAB in Salmonella spp. isolated from food.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marcus Ho Yin; Chen, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Food-borne salmonellosis is an important public health problem worldwide and the second leading cause of food-borne illnesses in Hong Kong. In this study, the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in meat products in Hong Kong were determined. Interestingly, a plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene combination, oqxAB, which mediates resistance to nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, and olaquindox, was for the first time detectable on the chromosomes of two Salmonella enterica serovar Derby isolates. Further surveillance of oqxAB in Salmonella will be needed.

  16. Accurate ab initio quartic force fields for borane and BeH2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. M. L.; Lee, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    The quartic force fields of BH3 and BeH2 have been computed ab initio using an augmented coupled cluster (CCSD(T)) method and basis sets of spdf and spdfg quality. For BH3, the computed spectroscopic constants are in very good agreement with recent experimental data, and definitively confirm misassignments in some older work, in agreement with recent ab initio studies. Using the computed spectroscopic constants, the rovibrational partition function for both molecules has been constructed using a modified direct numerical summation algorithm, and JANAF-style thermochemical tables are presented.

  17. AB INITIO Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water Under Static and Shock Compressed Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Nir; Fried, Laurence E.; Mundy, Christopher J.; Kuo, I.-F. William; Curioni, Alessandro; Reed, Evan J.

    2007-12-01

    We report herein a series of ab initio simulations of water under both static and shocked conditions. We have calculated the coherent x-ray scattering intensity of several phases of water under high pressure, using ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT). We provide new atomic scattering form factors for water at extreme conditions, which take into account frequently neglected changes in ionic charge and electron delocalization. We have also simulated liquid water undergoing shock loading of velocities from 5-11 km/s using the Multi-Scale Shock Technique (MSST). We show that Density Functional Theory (DFT) molecular dynamics results compare extremely well to experiments on the water shock Hugoniot.

  18. Exploring the speed and performance of molecular replacement with AMPLE using QUARK ab initio protein models.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Ronan M; Bibby, Jaclyn; Thomas, Jens; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yang; Mayans, Olga; Winn, Martyn D; Rigden, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    AMPLE clusters and truncates ab initio protein structure predictions, producing search models for molecular replacement. Here, an interesting degree of complementarity is shown between targets solved using the different ab initio modelling programs QUARK and ROSETTA. Search models derived from either program collectively solve almost all of the all-helical targets in the test set. Initial solutions produced by Phaser after only 5 min perform surprisingly well, improving the prospects for in situ structure solution by AMPLE during synchrotron visits. Taken together, the results show the potential for AMPLE to run more quickly and successfully solve more targets than previously suspected.

  19. Research and development of therapeutic mAbs: An analysis based on pipeline projects.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiaomei; Kong, Xiangjun; Hu, Hao; Chen, Jiayu; Yang, Fengqing; Liang, Hongyu; Chen, Xin; Hu, Yuanjia

    2015-01-01

    As the subject of active research and development (R&D) in recent decades, monoclonal antibodies have emerged among the major classes of therapeutic agents for treatment of many human diseases, especially cancers, infections, and immunological disorders. This article surveys the landscape of R&D projects of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which are mostly used for disease immunotherapy, from a number of perspectives, including therapeutic indications, development phases, participants, and citation of related patents. The results of this research can be used as a reference resource for pharmaceutical researchers, investors, and policymakers in the field of therapeutic mAbs.

  20. Thule AB, Greenland. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-12

    0 THULE AB GL MSC # 042020 N 76 32 W 068 45 ELEV 251 FT BGTL y PARTS A - F HOURS SUMMARIZED 0000 - 2300 LST H PERIOD OF RECORD: HOURLY OBSERVATIONS...SNnW UFPTH USAFLTAC (FROM DAILY OBSERVATIUNSI AIR WEATHER SERVICL/MAC STATION NUMBER: 042020 STATION NAME: THULF AB GL P[|OU OF P[ COPD : SI-R6 DAILY...F IOM HOIU4LY ORSFVVATII0NS A14 s[A1H[ SERVICL/MAC S AIION NUMHRP: 01-2021 S341 AII NAM[ : THUL 74 5GL CC8100 oF P[ COPD : 77-46 MONTH: NOV 40U l(ILSTI

  1. The coherent interlayer resistance of a single, rotated interface between two stacks of AB graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, K. M. Masum; Sylvia, Somaia S.; Ge, Supeng; Neupane, Mahesh; Lake, Roger K.

    2013-12-01

    The coherent, interlayer resistance of a misoriented, rotated interface between two stacks of AB graphite is determined for a variety of misorientation angles. The quantum-resistance of the ideal AB stack is on the order of 1 to 10 mΩ μm2. For small rotation angles, the coherent interlayer resistance exponentially approaches the ideal quantum resistance at energies away from the charge neutrality point. Over a range of intermediate angles, the resistance increases exponentially with cell size for minimum size unit cells. Larger cell sizes, of similar angles, may not follow this trend. The energy dependence of the interlayer transmission is described.

  2. Concentration dependence of electrical resistivity of binary liquid alloy HgZn: Ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2013-06-01

    The electrical resistivity of HgZn liquid alloy has been made calculated using Troullier and Martins ab-initio pseudopotential as a function of concentration. Hard sphere diameters of Hg and Zn are obtained through the inter-ionic pair potential have been used to calculate partial structure factors. Considering the liquid alloy to be a ternary mixture Ziman's formula for calculating the resistivity of binary liquid alloys, modified for complex formation, has been used. These results suggest that ab-initio approach for calculating electrical resistivity is quite successful in explaining the electronic transport properties of binary Liquid alloys.

  3. Spectroscopic signatures of AA' and AB stacking of chemical vapor deposited bilayer MoS 2

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Ming; Li, Bo; Yin, Kuibo; ...

    2015-11-04

    We discuss prominent resonance Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopic differences between AA'and AB stacked bilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2) grown by chemical vapor deposition are reported. Bilayer MoS 2 islands consisting of the two stacking orders were obtained under identical growth conditions. Also, resonance Raman and photoluminescence spectra of AA' and AB stacked bilayer MoS 2 were obtained on Au nanopyramid surfaces under strong plasmon resonance. Both resonance Raman and photoluminescence spectra show distinct features indicating clear differences in interlayer interaction between these two phases. The implication of these findings on device applications based on spin and valley degrees of freedom.

  4. AB 327 A Look At Renewable Energy in Los Angeles County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schevker, Marla

    AB 327 was passed in the California State Assembly in October of 2013. This affected not only the way that investor-owned utility companies but also consumers who are interested in or have already invested in solar or other electricity efficiency efforts. This project looks at the way that AB 327 affects consumers and power companies, who supported it and who is against it and what consumers are doing to make their homes more environmentally friendly. Please note this project is intended to be viewed on the web and can be seen at: http://marla.schevker.com/marla/USC_Thesis/index.html.

  5. Exploring the speed and performance of molecular replacement with AMPLE using QUARK ab initio protein models

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Ronan M.; Bibby, Jaclyn; Thomas, Jens; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yang; Mayans, Olga; Winn, Martyn D.; Rigden, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    AMPLE clusters and truncates ab initio protein structure predictions, producing search models for molecular replacement. Here, an interesting degree of complementarity is shown between targets solved using the different ab initio modelling programs QUARK and ROSETTA. Search models derived from either program collectively solve almost all of the all-helical targets in the test set. Initial solutions produced by Phaser after only 5 min perform surprisingly well, improving the prospects for in situ structure solution by AMPLE during synchrotron visits. Taken together, the results show the potential for AMPLE to run more quickly and successfully solve more targets than previously suspected. PMID:25664744

  6. Astrometric Measurements of Triple Star System 15379+3006 STF 1963AB, STF 1963AC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Harker; Miller, Lindsey; Beltzer-Sweeney, Alexander; Shilts, Trey; Stojimirovic, Irena

    2018-04-01

    Research team PRSM reports astrometric measurements of the double star system WDS 15379+3006 (STF 1963AB, STF 1963AC) obtained using the iTelescope Network. By performing CCD astrometry, the team determined a position angle of 298.4° ± 0.1° with an angular separation of 05. 28" ± 0.1" for STF 1963AB, and a position angle of 116.1° ± 0.1° with an angular separation of 32.35" ± 0.1" for STF 1963AC. The angular separation and position angle have changed from previous measurements.

  7. Research and development of therapeutic mAbs: An analysis based on pipeline projects

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiaomei; Kong, Xiangjun; Hu, Hao; Chen, Jiayu; Yang, Fengqing; Liang, Hongyu; Chen, Xin; Hu, Yuanjia

    2015-01-01

    As the subject of active research and development (R&D) in recent decades, monoclonal antibodies have emerged among the major classes of therapeutic agents for treatment of many human diseases, especially cancers, infections, and immunological disorders. This article surveys the landscape of R&D projects of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which are mostly used for disease immunotherapy, from a number of perspectives, including therapeutic indications, development phases, participants, and citation of related patents. The results of this research can be used as a reference resource for pharmaceutical researchers, investors, and policymakers in the field of therapeutic mAbs PMID:26211701

  8. Ab initio study of collective excitations in a disparate mass molten salt.

    PubMed

    Bryk, Taras; Klevets, Ivan

    2012-12-14

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and the approach of generalized collective modes are applied for calculations of spectra of longitudinal and transverse collective excitations in molten LiBr. Dispersion and damping of low- and high-frequency branches of collective excitations as well as wave-number dependent relaxing modes were calculated. The main mode contributions to partial, total, and concentration dynamic structure factors were estimated in a wide region of wave numbers. A role of polarization effects is discussed from comparison of mode contributions to concentration dynamic structure factors calculated for molten LiBr from ab initio and classical rigid ion simulations.

  9. Ab initio study of H + + H 2 collisions: Elastic/inelastic and charge transfer processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saieswari, A.; Kumar, Sanjay

    2007-12-01

    An ab initio full configuration interaction study has been undertaken to obtain the global potential energy surfaces for the ground and the first excited electronic state of the H + + H 2 system employing Dunning's cc-pVQZ basis set. Using the ab initio approach the corresponding quasi-diabatic potential energy surfaces and coupling potentials have been obtained. A time-independent quantum mechanical study has been also undertaken for both the inelastic and charge transfer processes at the experimental collision energy Ec.m. = 20.0 eV and the preliminary results show better agreement with the experimental data as compared to the earlier available theoretical studies.

  10. Heats of Segregation of BCC Binaries from Ab Initio and Quantum Approximate Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian S.

    2003-01-01

    We compare dilute-limit segregation energies for selected BCC transition metal binaries computed using ab initio and quantum approximate energy methods. Ab initio calculations are carried out using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential computer code, while quantum approximate results are computed using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method with the most recent parameters. Quantum approximate segregation energies are computed with and without atomistic relaxation. Results are discussed within the context of segregation models driven by strain and bond-breaking effects. We compare our results with full-potential quantum calculations and with available experimental results.

  11. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab in Trichoplusia ni Is Conferred by a Novel Genetic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaozhao; Kain, Wendy; Cassidy, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry2Ab in a greenhouse-originated Trichoplusia ni strain resistant to both Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab was characterized. Biological assays determined that the Cry2Ab resistance in the T. ni strain was a monogenic recessive trait independent of Cry1Ac resistance, and there existed no significant cross-resistance between Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in T. ni. From the dual-toxin-resistant T. ni strain, a strain resistant to Cry2Ab only was isolated, and the Cry2Ab resistance trait was introgressed into a susceptible laboratory strain to facilitate comparative analysis of the Cry2Ab resistance with the susceptible T. ni strain. Results from biochemical analysis showed no significant difference between the Cry2Ab-resistant and -susceptible T. ni larvae in midgut proteases, including caseinolytic proteolytic activity and zymogram profile and serine protease activities, in midgut aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activity, and in midgut esterases and hemolymph plasma melanization activity. For analysis of genetic linkage of Cry2Ab resistance with potential Cry toxin receptor genes, molecular markers for the midgut cadherin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aminopeptidase N (APN) genes were identified between the original greenhouse-derived dual-toxin-resistant and the susceptible laboratory T. ni strains. Genetic linkage analysis showed that the Cry2Ab resistance in T. ni was not genetically associated with the midgut genes coding for the cadherin, ALP, and 6 APNs (APN1 to APN6) nor associated with the ABC transporter gene ABCC2. Therefore, the Cry2Ab resistance in T. ni is conferred by a novel but unknown genetic mechanism. PMID:26025894

  12. Characterization of virulence factor regulation by SrrAB, a two-component system in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Pragman, Alexa A; Yarwood, Jeremy M; Tripp, Timothy J; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2004-04-01

    Workers in our laboratory have previously identified the staphylococcal respiratory response AB (SrrAB), a Staphylococcus aureus two-component system that acts in the global regulation of virulence factors. This system down-regulates production of agr RNAIII, protein A, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), particularly under low-oxygen conditions. In this study we investigated the localization and membrane orientation of SrrA and SrrB, transcription of the srrAB operon, the DNA-binding properties of SrrA, and the effect of SrrAB expression on S. aureus virulence. We found that SrrA is localized to the S. aureus cytoplasm, while SrrB is localized to the membrane and is properly oriented to function as a histidine kinase. srrAB has one transcriptional start site which results in either an srrA transcript or a full-length srrAB transcript; srrB must be cotranscribed with srrA. Gel shift assays of the agr P2, agr P3, protein A (spa), TSST-1 (tst), and srr promoters revealed SrrA binding at each of these promoters. Analysis of SrrAB-overexpressing strains by using the rabbit model of bacterial endocarditis demonstrated that overexpression of SrrAB decreased the virulence of the organisms compared to the virulence of isogenic strains that do not overexpress SrrAB. We concluded that SrrAB is properly localized and oriented to function as a two-component system. Overexpression of SrrAB, which represses agr RNAIII, TSST-1, and protein A in vitro, decreases virulence in the rabbit endocarditis model. Repression of these virulence factors is likely due to a direct interaction between SrrA and the agr, tst, and spa promoters.

  13. Adsorption of transgenic insecticidal Cry1Ab protein to SiO2. 2. Patch-controlled electrostatic attraction.

    PubMed

    Madliger, Michael; Sander, Michael; Schwarzenbach, René P

    2010-12-01

    Adsorption governs the fate of Cry proteins from genetically modified Bt crops in soils. The effect of ionic strength (I) on the adsorption of Cry1Ab (isoelectric point IEP(Cry1Ab) ≈ 6) to negatively charged quartz (SiO(2)) and positively charged poly-L-lysine (PLL) was investigated at pH 5 to 8, using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy. Cry1Ab adsorbed via positively and negatively charged surface patches to SiO(2) and PLL, respectively. This patch controlled electrostatic attraction (PCEA) explains the observed increase in Cry1Ab adsorption to sorbents that carried the same net charge as the protein (SiO(2) at pH > IEP(Cry1Ab) and PLL at pH < IEP(Cry1Ab)) with decreasing I. In contrast, the adsorption of two reference proteins, BSA and HEWL, with different adsorption mechanism, were little affected by similar changes of I. Consistent with PCEA, Cry1Ab desorption from SiO(2) at pH > IEP(Cry1Ab) increased with increasing I and pH. Weak Cry1Ab-SiO(2) PCEA above pH 7 resulted in reversible, concentration dependent adsorption. Solution depletion experiments showed that PCEA also governed Cry1Ab adsorption to SiO(2) particles at environmentally relevant concentrations (a few ng mL(-1)). These results imply that models describing Cry1Ab adsorption to charged surfaces in soils need to account for the nonuniform surface charge distribution of the protein.

  14. Thermal behavior of vehicle plastic blends contained acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) in pyrolysis using TG-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guicai; Liao, Yanfen; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-03-01

    As important plastic blends in End-of-Life vehicles (ELV), pyrolysis profiles of ABS/PVC, ABS/PA6 and ABS/PC were investigated using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG-FTIR). Also, CaCO 3 was added as plastic filler to discuss its effects on the pyrolysis of these plastics. The results showed that the interaction between ABS and PVC made PVC pyrolysis earlier and HCl emission slightly accelerated. The mixing of ABS and PA6 made their decomposition temperature closer, and ketones in PA6 pyrolysis products were reduced. The presence of ABS made PC pyrolysis earlier, and phenyl compounds in PC pyrolysis products could be transferred into alcohol or H 2 O. The interaction between ABS and other polymers in pyrolysis could be attributed to the intermolecular radical transfer, and free radicals from the polymer firstly decomposed led to a fast initiation the decomposition of the other polymer. As plastic filler, CaCO 3 promoted the thermal decomposition of PA6 and PC, and had no obvious effects on ABS and PVC pyrolysis process. Also, CaCO 3 made the pyrolysis products from PA6 and PC further decomposed into small-molecule compounds like CO 2 . The kinetics analysis showed that isoconversional method like Starink method was more suitable for these polymer blends. Starink method showed the average activation energy of ABS50/PVC50, ABS50/PA50 and ABS50/PC50 was 186.63kJ/mol, 239.61kJ/mol and 248.95kJ/mol, respectively, and the interaction among them could be reflected by the activation energy variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Subtilase cytotoxin-encoding subAB2 variants in verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from goats and sheep.

    PubMed

    Orden, José A; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; de la Fuente, Ricardo; Carrión, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is a cytotoxin which might contribute to the virulence of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains in humans. Three variants of SubAB encoding genes have been described (subAB1, subAB2-1, and subAB2-2) and it has been suggested that the strains positive for two variants of subAB may be more pathogenic for humans. In this study, 188 subAB2-positive VTEC strains isolated from goats and sheep were investigated for the presence of the subAB2-1 and subAB2-2 variants by PCR. Eighty-one of the 132 (61.4%) caprine strains and 36 of the 56 (64.3%) ovine strains possessed the subAB2-1 variant and all ovine and caprine strains, except one, were positive for the subAB2-2 variant. The results of this study show for first time that the subAB2-1 and subAB2-2 variants are found in caprine subAB2-positive VTEC strains and confirm that both subAB2 variants are detected in ovine subAB2-positive VTEC strains. Since no significant difference in the presence of both subAB2 variants was found among strains belonging to serotypes associated with severe illness in humans and strains not belonging to these serotypes, the occurrence of two subAB2 variants seems not to be associated with a higher risk of severe disease in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multicapillary SDS-gel electrophoresis for the analysis of fluorescently labeled mAb preparations: a high throughput quality control process for the production of QuantiPlasma and PlasmaScan mAb libraries.

    PubMed

    Székely, Andrea; Szekrényes, Akos; Kerékgyártó, Márta; Balogh, Attila; Kádas, János; Lázár, József; Guttman, András; Kurucz, István; Takács, László

    2014-08-01

    Molecular heterogeneity of mAb preparations is the result of various co- and post-translational modifications and to contaminants related to the production process. Changes in molecular composition results in alterations of functional performance, therefore quality control and validation of therapeutic or diagnostic protein products is essential. A special case is the consistent production of mAb libraries (QuantiPlasma™ and PlasmaScan™) for proteome profiling, quality control of which represents a challenge because of high number of mAbs (>1000). Here, we devise a generally applicable multicapillary SDS-gel electrophoresis process for the analysis of fluorescently labeled mAb preparations for the high throughput quality control of mAbs of the QuantiPlasma™ and PlasmaScan™ libraries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Development of the Ability to Use Recall to Guide Action, as Indicated by Infants' Performance on AB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Adele

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five infants were tested every two weeks on the AB Object Permanence Task, from the time they first reached for a hidden object until they were 12 months old. Results indicate that the AB provides an index of the ability to carry out an intention based on stored information despite a conflicting habitual tendency. (Author/RH)

  18. Cytotoxicity and binding profiles of activated Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab to three insect cell lines

    While Cry1Ac has been known to bind with larval midgut proteins cadherin, APN (amino peptidase N), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and ABCC2 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C2), little is known about the receptors of Cry2Ab. To provide a clue to the receptors of Cry2Ab, we tested the baselin...

  19. Phage-Mediated Competitive Chemiluminescent Immunoassay for Detecting Cry1Ab Toxin by Using an Anti-Idiotypic Camel Nanobody.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yulou; Li, Pan; Dong, Sa; Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Yang, Qianru; Wang, Yulong; Ge, Jing; Hammock, Bruce D; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Xianjin

    2018-01-31

    Cry toxins have been widely used in genetically modified organisms for pest control, raising public concern regarding their effects on the natural environment and food safety. In this work, a phage-mediated competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay (c-CLIA) was developed for determination of Cry1Ab toxin using anti-idiotypic camel nanobodies. By extracting RNA from camels' peripheral blood lymphocytes, a naive phage-displayed nanobody library was established. Using anti-Cry1Ab toxin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the library for anti-idiotypic antibody screening, four anti-idiotypic nanobodies were selected and confirmed to be specific for anti-Cry1Ab mAb binding. Thereafter, a c-CLIA was developed for detection of Cry1Ab toxin based on anti-idiotypic camel nanobodies and employed for sample testing. The results revealed a half-inhibition concentration of developed assay to be 42.68 ± 2.54 ng/mL, in the linear range of 10.49-307.1 ng/mL. The established method is highly specific for Cry1Ab recognition, with negligible cross-reactivity for other Cry toxins. For spiked cereal samples, the recoveries of Cry1Ab toxin ranged from 77.4% to 127%, with coefficient of variation of less than 9%. This study demonstrated that the competitive format based on phage-displayed anti-idiotypic nanobodies can provide an alternative strategy for Cry toxin detection.

  20. A cell-based fluorescent assay to detect the activity of AB toxins that inhibit protein synthesis

    AB-type protein toxins, produced by numerous bacterial pathogens and some plants, elicit a cytotoxic effect involving the inhibition of protein synthesis. To develop an improved method to detect the inhibition of protein synthesis by AB-type toxins, the present study characterized a Vero cell line t...

  1. The end of a myth – Bt(Cry1Ab) maize does not harm green lacewings

    A concern with Bt-transgenic insect-resistant plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms. Early studies reported that Cry1Ab-producing Bt maize and purified Cry1Ab harmed larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea. Although these effects could not be confirmed in subsequent studies...

  2. Ab Initio Studies of Shock-Induced Chemical Reactions of Inter-Metallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharieva, Roussislava; Hanagud, Sathya

    2009-06-01

    Shock-induced and shock assisted chemical reactions of intermetallic mixtures are studied by many researchers, using both experimental and theoretical techniques. The theoretical studies are primarily at continuum scales. The model frameworks include mixture theories and meso-scale models of grains of porous mixtures. The reaction models vary from equilibrium thermodynamic model to several non-equilibrium thermodynamic models. The shock-effects are primarily studied using appropriate conservation equations and numerical techniques to integrate the equations. All these models require material constants from experiments and estimates of transition states. Thus, the objective of this paper is to present studies based on ab initio techniques. The ab inito studies, to date, use ab inito molecular dynamics. This paper presents a study that uses shock pressures, and associated temperatures as starting variables. Then intermetallic mixtures are modeled as slabs. The required shock stresses are created by straining the lattice. Then, ab initio binding energy calculations are used to examine the stability of the reactions. Binding energies are obtained for different strain components super imposed on uniform compression and finite temperatures. Then, vibrational frequencies and nudge elastic band techniques are used to study reactivity and transition states. Examples include Ni and Al.

  3. Erythema ab igne of shins: a kerosene stove-induced prototype in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Y; Sabag, T; Zlotogorski, A; Heyman, S N

    2013-01-01

    A patient with erythema ab igne of shins is presented, caused by repeated thermal injury induced by a heating stove placed between the knees. This injury pattern has been repeatedly identified in diabetic patients involved in similar heating practice, underscoring a possible predisposition related to diabetic neuropathy.

  4. Detection and analysis of tupaia hepatocytes via mAbs against tupaia serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Yuan, Lunzhi; Yuan, Quan; Zhang, Yali; Wu, Kun; Zhang, Tianying; Wu, Yong; Hou, Wangheng; Wang, Tengyun; Liu, Pingguo; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-05-20

    On the basis of its close phylogenetic relationship with primates, the development of Tupaia belangeri as an infection animal model and drug metabolism model could provide a new option for preclinical studies, especially in hepatitis virus research. As a replacement for primary human hepatocytes (PHHs), primary tupaia hepatocytes (PTHs) have been widely used. Similar to human serum albumin, tupaia serum albumin (TSA) is the most common liver synthesis protein and is an important biomarker for PTHs and liver function. However, no detection or quantitative method for TSA has been reported. In this study, mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 4G5 and 9H3 against TSA were developed to recognize PTHs, and they did not show cross-reactivity with serum albumin from common experimental animals, such as the mouse, rat, cow, rabbit, goat, monkey, and chicken. The two mAbs also exhibited good performance in fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and immunofluorescence (IF) detection of PTHs. A chemiluminescent enzyme immune assay method using the two mAbs, with a linear range from 96.89 pg/ml to 49,609.38 pg/ml, was developed for the quantitative detection of TSA. The mAbs and the CLEIA method provide useful tools for research on TSA and PTHs.

  5. An efficient and accurate molecular alignment and docking technique using ab initio quality scoring

    PubMed Central

    Füsti-Molnár, László; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2008-01-01

    An accurate and efficient molecular alignment technique is presented based on first principle electronic structure calculations. This new scheme maximizes quantum similarity matrices in the relative orientation of the molecules and uses Fourier transform techniques for two purposes. First, building up the numerical representation of true ab initio electronic densities and their Coulomb potentials is accelerated by the previously described Fourier transform Coulomb method. Second, the Fourier convolution technique is applied for accelerating optimizations in the translational coordinates. In order to avoid any interpolation error, the necessary analytical formulas are derived for the transformation of the ab initio wavefunctions in rotational coordinates. The results of our first implementation for a small test set are analyzed in detail and compared with published results of the literature. A new way of refinement of existing shape based alignments is also proposed by using Fourier convolutions of ab initio or other approximate electron densities. This new alignment technique is generally applicable for overlap, Coulomb, kinetic energy, etc., quantum similarity measures and can be extended to a genuine docking solution with ab initio scoring. PMID:18624561

  6. 76 FR 31508 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... proposed AD would affect 8 products of U.S. registry. We also estimate that it would take 12 work-hours per..., contact Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems, SE-581 88, Link[ouml]ping, Sweden; telephone +46 13 18 5591; fax +46 13... September 6, 2010 (referred to after this as ``the MCAI''), to correct an unsafe condition for the specified...

  7. Steel — ab Initio: Quantum Mechanics Guided Design of New Fe-Based Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl, Ulrich; Bleck, Wolfgang; Saeed-Akbari, Alireza

    This contribution reports the results of the collaborative research unit SFB 761 "Steel — ab initio", a cooperative project between RWTH Aachen University and the Max-Planck-Institute for Iron Research in Düsseldorf (MPIE) financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG). For the first time, it is exploited how ab initio approaches may lead to a detailed understanding and thus to a specific improvement of material development. The challenge lies in the combination of abstract natural science theories with rather engineering-like established concepts. Aiming at the technological target of the development of a new type of structural materials based on Fe-Mn-C alloys, the combination of ab initio and engineering methods is new, but could be followed quite successfully. Three major topics are treated in this research unit: a) development of a new method for material- and process-development based on ab initio calculations; b) design of a new class of structural materials with extraordinary property combinations; c) acceleration of development time and reduction of experimental efforts and complexity for material- and process-development. In the present work, an overview of the results of the first five years as well as an outlook for the upcoming three-year period is given.

  8. Vibrational modes in thymine molecule from an ab initio MO calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aida, Misako; Kaneko, Motohisa; Dupuis, Michel; Ueda, Toyotoshi; Ushizawa, Koichi; Ito, Gen; Kumakura, Akiko; Tsuboi, Masamichi

    1997-03-01

    Ab initio self-consistent field molecular orbital (SCF MO) calculations have been made of the thymine molecule for the equilibrium geometry, harmonic force constants, vibrational frequencies, vibrational modes, infrared intensities, and Raman intensities. The results have been correlated with the observed Raman and infrared spectra of thymine crystalline powder.

  9. 46 CFR 12.401 - General requirements for able seaman (A/B) endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must— (1) Be at least 18 years of age; (2) Pass the prescribed physical and medical examination requirements specified in 46 CFR, part 10, subpart C; (3) Present evidence of having passed a chemical test for... appropriate. (3) The A/B endorsement will clearly describe the type of rating that it represents (see...

  10. Concise solid-phase synthesis of inverse poly(amidoamine) dendrons using AB2 building blocks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Adela Ya-Ting; Tsai, Ching-Hua; Chen, Hsing-Yin; Chen, Hui-Ting; Lu, Chi-Yu; Lin, Yu-Ting; Kao, Chai-Lin

    2013-06-28

    A concise solid-phase synthesis of inverse poly(amidoamine) dendrons was developed. Upon introduction of AB2-type monomers, each dendron generation was constructed via one reaction. G2 to G5 dendrons were constructed in a peptide synthesizer in 93%, 89%, 82%, and 78% yields, respectively, within 5 days.

  11. The College & Financial Aid Guide for: AB540 Undocumented Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliverez, Paz M., Ed.; Chavez, Maria Lucia, Ed.; Soriano, Mayra, Ed.; Tierney, William G., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of California Assembly Bill 540 in 2001, authored by the late Assemblyman, Marco Antonio Firebaugh, more than 5,000 undocumented students in California have had improved financial access to higher education. AB 540 has become a pinnacle in the lives of students, who because of their immigration status, have historically been…

  12. Ab initio theory of noble gas atoms in bcc transition metals

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Chao; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gao, Yipeng; ...

    2018-01-01

    Systematic ab initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to gain fundamental understanding of the interactions between noble gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar and Kr) and bcc transition metals in groups 5B (V, Nb and Ta), 6B (Cr, Mo and W) and 8B (Fe).

  13. 45 CFR 233.21 - Budgeting methods for OAA, AB, APTD, and AABD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Budgeting methods for OAA, AB, APTD, and AABD. 233.21 Section 233.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  14. 45 CFR 233.21 - Budgeting methods for OAA, AB, APTD, and AABD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budgeting methods for OAA, AB, APTD, and AABD. 233.21 Section 233.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  15. AB 1725 Human Resources Development Plan for the Period July 1, 1989-June 30, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desert Community Coll. District, Palm Desert, CA.

    Funds set aside by California Assembly Bill (AB) 1725 for staff development programs were used by the Desert Community College District (DCCD) to supplement its existing human resources development plan (HRDP). The HRDP, which was based on the results of a needs assessment of all employees, was designed to respond to the changing professional…

  16. Combined TEM and NanoSIMS Analysis of Subgrains in a SiC AB Grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, K. M.; Amari, S.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Lebsack, E.; Gyngard, F.; Nittler, L. R.

    2011-03-01

    We report the results of NanoSIMS and TEM analysis, including isotopic, structural, chemical, and subgrain data, on a SiC AB grain. This grain contains the first oldhamite subgrains observed in a presolar grain, as well as TiC- and Fe-rich subgrains.

  17. Method for the separation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam J.; Arman, Bayram; Karvelas, Dimitrios E.; Pomykala, Jr., Joseph A.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    An improved method is provided for separating acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) plastics from each other. The ABS and HIPS plastics are shredded to provide a selected particle size. The shredded particles of the ABS and HIPS plastics are applied to a solution having a solution density in a predefined range between 1.055 gm/cm.sup.3 and 1.07 gm/cm.sup.3, a predefined surface tension in a range between 22 dynes/cm to 40 dynes/cm and a pH in the range of 1.77 and 2.05. In accordance with a feature of the invention, the novel method is provided for separating ABS and HIPS, two solid thermoplastics which have similar densities by selectively modifying the effective density of the HIPS using a binary solution with the appropriate properties, such as pH, density and surface tension, such as a solution of acetic acid and water or a quaternary solution having the appropriate density, surface tension, and pH.

  18. Improvements to a five-phase ABS algorithm for experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Mathieu; Pasillas-Lépine, William; de Vries, Edwin; Verhaegen, Michel

    2012-10-01

    The anti-lock braking system (ABS) is the most important active safety system for passenger cars. Unfortunately, the literature is not really precise about its description, stability and performance. This research improves a five-phase hybrid ABS control algorithm based on wheel deceleration [W. Pasillas-Lépine, Hybrid modeling and limit cycle analysis for a class of five-phase anti-lock brake algorithms, Veh. Syst. Dyn. 44 (2006), pp. 173-188] and validates it on a tyre-in-the-loop laboratory facility. Five relevant effects are modelled so that the simulation matches the reality: oscillations in measurements, wheel acceleration reconstruction, brake pressure dynamics, brake efficiency changes and tyre relaxation. The time delays in measurement and actuation have been identified as the main difficulty for the initial algorithm to work in practice. Three methods are proposed in order to deal with these delays. It is verified that the ABS limit cycles encircle the optimal braking point, without assuming any tyre parameter being a priori known. The ABS algorithm is compared with the commercial algorithm developed by Bosch.

  19. PD-L1 mAb Treats Ischemic Stroke by Controlling CNS Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Bodhankar, Sheetal; Chen, Yingxin; Lapato, Andrew; Dotson, Abby L.; Wang, Jianming; Vandenbark, Arthur A.; Saugstad, Julie A.; Offner, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Both pathogenic and regulatory immune processes are involved in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of experimental stroke, including interactions involving the Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) receptor and its two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. Although PD-1 reduced stroke severity, PD-L1 and PD-L2 appeared to play pathogenic roles, suggesting use of anti-PD-L monoclonal Ab (mAb) therapy for MCAO. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a single dose of anti-PD-L1 mAb 4 h after MCAO and evaluated for clinical, histological and immunological changes after 96 h reperfusion. Results Blockade of the PD-L1 checkpoint using a single injection of 200μg anti-PD-L1 mAb given i.v. 4 h after occlusion significantly reduced MCAO infarct volumes and improved neurological outcomes after 96 h reperfusion. Treatment partially reversed splenic atrophy and decreased CNS infiltrating immune cells concomitant with enhanced appearance of CD8+ regulatory T cells in the lesioned CNS hemisphere. Conclusions This study demonstrates for the first time the beneficial therapeutic effects of PD-L1 checkpoint blockade on MCAO, thus validating proposed mechanisms obtained in our previous studies using PD-1 and PD-L deficient mice. These results provide strong support for use of available humanized anti-PD-L1 antibodies for treatment of human stroke subjects. PMID:26306753

  20. Sorbitol crystallization-induced aggregation in frozen mAb formulations.

    PubMed

    Piedmonte, Deirdre Murphy; Hair, Alison; Baker, Priti; Brych, Lejla; Nagapudi, Karthik; Lin, Hong; Cao, Wenjin; Hershenson, Susan; Ratnaswamy, Gayathri

    2015-02-01

    Sorbitol crystallization-induced aggregation of mAbs in the frozen state was evaluated. The effect of protein aggregation resulting from sorbitol crystallization was measured as a function of formulation variables such as protein concentration and pH. Long-term studies were performed on both IgG1 and IgG2 mAbs over the protein concentration range of 0.1-120 mg/mL. Protein aggregation was measured by size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) and further characterized by capillary-electrophoresis SDS. Sorbitol crystallization was monitored and characterized by subambient differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Aggregation due to sorbitol crystallization is inversely proportional to both protein concentration and formulation pH. At high protein concentrations, sorbitol crystallization was suppressed, and minimal aggregation by SE-HPLC resulted, presumably because of self-stabilization of the mAbs. The glass transition temperature (Tg ') and fragility index measurements were made to assess the influence of molecular mobility on the crystallization of sorbitol. Tg ' increased with increasing protein concentration for both mAbs. The fragility index decreased with increasing protein concentration, suggesting that it is increasingly difficult for sorbitol to crystallize at high protein concentrations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Numerical study of A+A-->0 and A+B-->0 reactions with inertia.

    PubMed

    Romero, A H; Lacasta, A M; Sancho, J M; Lindenberg, Katja

    2007-11-07

    Using numerical methods the authors study the annihilation reactions A+A-->0 and A+B-->0 in one and two dimensions in the presence of inertial contributions to the motion of the particles. The particles move freely following Langevin dynamics at a fixed temperature. The authors focus on the role of friction.

  2. Adaptation of the ABS-S:2 for Use in Spain with Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Alonso, Isabel; De La Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel; Fernandez Hawrylak, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As there is a dearth of Spanish-language standardized scales that assess adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), the authors adapted one of the most widely used and studied scales of adaptive behavior in the U.S., the ABS-S:2 (Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition), and validated it for use in…

  3. Matrix product operators, matrix product states, and ab initio density matrix renormalization group algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R.

    2016-07-01

    Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.

  4. Predicting vapor-liquid phase equilibria with augmented ab initio interatomic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasiuk, Maryna; Sadus, Richard J.

    2017-06-01

    The ability of ab initio interatomic potentials to accurately predict vapor-liquid phase equilibria is investigated. Monte Carlo simulations are reported for the vapor-liquid equilibria of argon and krypton using recently developed accurate ab initio interatomic potentials. Seventeen interatomic potentials are studied, formulated from different combinations of two-body plus three-body terms. The simulation results are compared to either experimental or reference data for conditions ranging from the triple point to the critical point. It is demonstrated that the use of ab initio potentials enables systematic improvements to the accuracy of predictions via the addition of theoretically based terms. The contribution of three-body interactions is accounted for using the Axilrod-Teller-Muto plus other multipole contributions and the effective Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potentials. The results indicate that the predictive ability of recent interatomic potentials, obtained from quantum chemical calculations, is comparable to that of accurate empirical models. It is demonstrated that the Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potential can be used in combination with accurate two-body ab initio models for the computationally inexpensive and accurate estimation of vapor-liquid phase equilibria.

  5. One Size Fits All? Learning Conditions and Working Memory Capacity in "Ab Initio" Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Cristina; Lin, Hui-Ju; Lado, Beatriz; Stafford, Catherine A.; Bowden, Harriet W.

    2016-01-01

    The article summarizes results from two experimental studies (N = 23, N = 21) investigating the extent to which working memory capacity (WMC) intervenes in "ab initio" language development under two pedagogical conditions [± grammar lesson + input-based practice + explicit feedback]. The linguistic target is the use of morphosyntax to…

  6. Designing neuro-fuzzy controller for electromagnetic anti-lock braking system (ABS) on electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramudijanto, Josaphat; Ashfahani, Andri; Lukito, Rian

    2018-03-01

    Anti-lock braking system (ABS) is used on vehicles to keep the wheels unlocked in sudden break (inside braking) and minimalize the stop distance of the vehicle. The problem of it when sudden break is the wheels locked so the vehicle steering couldn’t be controlled. The designed ABS system will be applied on ABS simulator using the electromagnetic braking. In normal condition or in condition without braking, longitudinal velocity of the vehicle will be equal with the velocity of wheel rotation, so the slip ratio will be 0 (0%) and if the velocity of wheel rotation is 0 (in locked condition) then the wheels will be slip 1 (100%). ABS system will keep the value of slip ratio so it will be 0.2 (20%). In this final assignment, the method that is used is Neuro-Fuzzy method to control the slip value on the wheels. The input is the expectable slip and the output is slip from plant. The learning algorithm which is used is Backpropagation that will work by feedforward to get actual output and work by feedback to get error value with target output. The network that was made based on fuzzy mechanism which are fuzzification, inference and defuzzification, Neuro-fuzzy controller can reduce overshoot plant respond to 43.2% compared to plant respond without controller by open loop.

  7. AB 540 Community College Students in Southern California: Making Connections and Realizing Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleza, Michelle Gonzales

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the construct of institutional agents and the associated theories of social capital and social networking to understand the influence of institutional agents on Latino undocumented community college students who qualify for tuition equity in California under AB 540. The purpose of this study was to identify the issues these…

  8. Astrometric Detection of a Low Mass Companion Orbiting the Star AB Doradus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderhjelm, S.; Guirado, J. C.; Reynolds, J. E.; Lestrade, J. F.; Preston, R. A.; Jauncey, D. L.; Jones, D. L.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Ferris, R. H.; King, E. A.; hide

    1997-01-01

    We report submilliarsecond-precise astrometric measurement for the late-type star AB Doradus via a combination of VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) and Hipparos satellite data. Our astrometric analysis results in the precise determination of the kinematics of this star, that reveals an orbital motion readily explained as caused by the gravitational interaction with a low-mass companion.

  9. Compatibilization of HIPS/ABS blends from WEEE by using Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR).

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this work is to develop compatibilization strategies for High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS)/ Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) blends from WEEE in order to add value to these recycled plastics by improving their mechanical performance. Results from a screening study of HIPS/ABS blends compatibilization by the addition of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) are presented. Two different weight proportion of HIPS/ABS physical blends were analyzed, 80/20 and 20/80, with three different concentration of SBR: 2, 10 and 20 wt%. Compatibilization efficiency was analyzed from an accurate thermal and mechanical analysis, by comparing each physical blend and corresponding compatibilized blends with SBR. Results were discussed relating glass transition changes with mechanical performance, both aspects were interpreted in terms of blend morphology. Phase and fillers dispersion and distribution as well as SBR amount and its interaction with each phase were accurate analyzed. Compatibilization of HIPS/ABS blends from WEEE with the addition of SBR is effective in blends with HIPS as main component. With the addition of 2 wt% of SBR, strength and toughness have notably increased respect to the corresponding physical blend, 244% and 186% respectively. From this screening study is possible to infer that SBR is a sustainable and efficient compatibilizer of HIPS rich blends allowing to obtain a final blend that can be used as a replacement material of separated resins from WEEE. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Partitioning-Defective 1a/b Depletion Impairs Glomerular and Proximal Tubule Development.

    PubMed

    Akchurin, Oleh; Du, Zhongfang; Ramkellawan, Nadira; Dalal, Vidhi; Han, Seung Hyeok; Pullman, James; Müsch, Anne; Susztak, Katalin; Reidy, Kimberly J

    2016-12-01

    The kidney is a highly polarized epithelial organ that develops from undifferentiated mesenchyme, although the mechanisms that regulate the development of renal epithelial polarity are incompletely understood. Partitioning-defective 1 (Par1) proteins have been implicated in cell polarity and epithelial morphogenesis; however, the role of these proteins in the developing kidney has not been established. Therefore, we studied the contribution of Par1a/b to renal epithelial development. We examined the renal phenotype of newborn compound mutant mice carrying only one allele of Par1a or Par1b. Loss of three out of four Par1a/b alleles resulted in severe renal hypoplasia, associated with impaired ureteric bud branching. Compared with kidneys of newborn control littermates, kidneys of newborn mutant mice exhibited dilated proximal tubules and immature glomeruli, and the renal proximal tubular epithelia lacked proper localization of adhesion complexes. Furthermore, Par1a/b mutants expressed low levels of renal Notch ligand Jag1, activated Notch2, and Notch effecter Hes1. Together, these data demonstrate that Par1a/b has a key role in glomerular and proximal tubule development, likely via modulation of Notch signaling. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Accurate radio and optical positions for the radio star HD 36705 (AB Doradus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Graeme L.; Jauncey, David L.; Batty, Michael J.; Peters, W. L.; Gulkis, S.

    1988-01-01

    Arc-second position measurements of the active star HD 36705 (AB Dor) and of the variable radio source found nearby are presented. These measurements show that the radio source is clearly identified with HD 36705 and not with the nearby red-dwarf star Rst 137B.

  12. Arginine metabolism is altered in adults with A-B + ketosis-prone diabetes

    A-B + ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is a subset of type 2 diabetes in which patients have severe but reversible B cell dysfunction of unknown etiology. Plasma metabolomic analysis indicates that abnormal arginine metabolism may be involved. The objective of this study was to determine the relation be...

  13. On the impact of `smart tyres' on existing ABS/EBD control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheli, Federico; Leo, Elisbetta; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2010-12-01

    The paper focuses on the possibility of enhancing the performances of the ABS (Antilock Braking System)/EBD (electronic braking distribution) control system by using the additional information provided by 'smart tyres' (i.e. tyres with embedded sensors and digital-computing capability). In particular, on the basis of previous works [Braghin et al., Future car active controls through the measurement of contact forces and patch features, Veh. Syst. Dyn. 44 (2006), pp. 3-13], the authors assumed that these components should be able to provide estimates for the normal loads acting on the four wheels and for the tyre-road friction coefficient. The benefits produced by the introduction of these additional channels into the existing ABS/EBD control logic were evaluated through simulations carried out with a validated 14 degrees of freedom (dofs) vehicle + ABS/EBD control logic numerical model. The performance of the ABS control system was evaluated through a series of braking manoeuvres on straight track focusing the attention on μ -jump conditions, while the performance of the EBD control system was assessed by means of braking manoeuvres carried out considering several weight distributions.

  14. Dispersion Interactions between Rare Gas Atoms: Testing the London Equation Using ab Initio Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    A computational chemistry experiment is described in which students can use advanced ab initio quantum mechanical methods to test the ability of the London equation to account quantitatively for the attractive (dispersion) interactions between rare gas atoms. Using readily available electronic structure applications, students can calculate the…

  15. Sphinx: merging knowledge-based and ab initio approaches to improve protein loop prediction

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Claire; Nowak, Jaroslaw; Klostermann, Stefan; Georges, Guy; Dunbar, James; Shi, Jiye; Kelm, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Motivation: Loops are often vital for protein function, however, their irregular structures make them difficult to model accurately. Current loop modelling algorithms can mostly be divided into two categories: knowledge-based, where databases of fragments are searched to find suitable conformations and ab initio, where conformations are generated computationally. Existing knowledge-based methods only use fragments that are the same length as the target, even though loops of slightly different lengths may adopt similar conformations. Here, we present a novel method, Sphinx, which combines ab initio techniques with the potential extra structural information contained within loops of a different length to improve structure prediction. Results: We show that Sphinx is able to generate high-accuracy predictions and decoy sets enriched with near-native loop conformations, performing better than the ab initio algorithm on which it is based. In addition, it is able to provide predictions for every target, unlike some knowledge-based methods. Sphinx can be used successfully for the difficult problem of antibody H3 prediction, outperforming RosettaAntibody, one of the leading H3-specific ab initio methods, both in accuracy and speed. Availability and Implementation: Sphinx is available at http://opig.stats.ox.ac.uk/webapps/sphinx. Contact: deane@stats.ox.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28453681

  16. Sphinx: merging knowledge-based and ab initio approaches to improve protein loop prediction.

    PubMed

    Marks, Claire; Nowak, Jaroslaw; Klostermann, Stefan; Georges, Guy; Dunbar, James; Shi, Jiye; Kelm, Sebastian; Deane, Charlotte M

    2017-05-01

    Loops are often vital for protein function, however, their irregular structures make them difficult to model accurately. Current loop modelling algorithms can mostly be divided into two categories: knowledge-based, where databases of fragments are searched to find suitable conformations and ab initio, where conformations are generated computationally. Existing knowledge-based methods only use fragments that are the same length as the target, even though loops of slightly different lengths may adopt similar conformations. Here, we present a novel method, Sphinx, which combines ab initio techniques with the potential extra structural information contained within loops of a different length to improve structure prediction. We show that Sphinx is able to generate high-accuracy predictions and decoy sets enriched with near-native loop conformations, performing better than the ab initio algorithm on which it is based. In addition, it is able to provide predictions for every target, unlike some knowledge-based methods. Sphinx can be used successfully for the difficult problem of antibody H3 prediction, outperforming RosettaAntibody, one of the leading H3-specific ab initio methods, both in accuracy and speed. Sphinx is available at http://opig.stats.ox.ac.uk/webapps/sphinx. deane@stats.ox.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Ab Initio Studies of Chlorine Oxide and Nitrogen Oxide Species of Interest in Stratospheric Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of chlorine oxide and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. In particular the geometrical structures, vibrational spectra, and heats of formation Of ClNO2, CisClONO, and trans-ClONO are shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the ab initio results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve the experimental controversy. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of ClONO2, HONO2, ClOOC17 ClOOH, and HOOH will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of the experimental studies.

  18. Predicting vapor-liquid phase equilibria with augmented ab initio interatomic potentials.

    PubMed

    Vlasiuk, Maryna; Sadus, Richard J

    2017-06-28

    The ability of ab initio interatomic potentials to accurately predict vapor-liquid phase equilibria is investigated. Monte Carlo simulations are reported for the vapor-liquid equilibria of argon and krypton using recently developed accurate ab initio interatomic potentials. Seventeen interatomic potentials are studied, formulated from different combinations of two-body plus three-body terms. The simulation results are compared to either experimental or reference data for conditions ranging from the triple point to the critical point. It is demonstrated that the use of ab initio potentials enables systematic improvements to the accuracy of predictions via the addition of theoretically based terms. The contribution of three-body interactions is accounted for using the Axilrod-Teller-Muto plus other multipole contributions and the effective Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potentials. The results indicate that the predictive ability of recent interatomic potentials, obtained from quantum chemical calculations, is comparable to that of accurate empirical models. It is demonstrated that the Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potential can be used in combination with accurate two-body ab initio models for the computationally inexpensive and accurate estimation of vapor-liquid phase equilibria.

  19. Matrix product operators, matrix product states, and ab initio density matrix renormalization group algorithms.

    PubMed

    Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R

    2016-07-07

    Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.

  20. Cellular recovery from exposure to sub-optimal concentrations of AB toxins that inhibit protein synthesis

    Shiga toxin 1, exotoxin A, diphtheria toxin and ricin are all AB-type protein toxins that act within the host cytosol to kill the host cell through a pathway involving the inhibition of protein synthesis. It is thought that a single molecule of cytosolic toxin is sufficient to kill the host cell. In...

  1. Time-resolved High Spectral Resolution Observation of 2MASSW J0746425+200032AB

    SciT

    Wang, Ji; Mawet, Dimitri; Prato, Lisa, E-mail: ji.wang@caltech.edu

    Many brown dwarfs (BDs) exhibit photometric variability at levels from tenths to tens of percents. The photometric variability is related to magnetic activity or patchy cloud coverage, characteristic of BDs near the L–T transition. Time-resolved spectral monitoring of BDs provides diagnostics of cloud distribution and condensate properties. However, current time-resolved spectral studies of BDs are limited to low spectral resolution ( R ∼ 100) with the exception of the study of Luhman 16 AB at a resolution of 100,000 using the VLT+CRIRES. This work yielded the first map of BD surface inhomogeneity, highlighting the importance and unique contribution of highmore » spectral resolution observations. Here, we report on the time-resolved high spectral resolution observations of a nearby BD binary, 2MASSW J0746425+200032AB. We find no coherent spectral variability that is modulated with rotation. Based on simulations, we conclude that the coverage of a single spot on 2MASSW J0746425+200032AB is smaller than 1% or 6.25% if spot contrast is 50% or 80% of its surrounding flux, respectively. Future high spectral resolution observations aided by adaptive optics systems can put tighter constraints on the spectral variability of 2MASSW J0746425+200032AB and other nearby BDs.« less

  2. Development and application of ab initio QM/MM methods for mechanistic simulation of reactions in solution and in enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hao; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    Determining the free energies and mechanisms of chemical reactions in solution and enzymes is a major challenge. For such complex reaction processes, combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method is the most effective simulation method to provide an accurate and efficient theoretical description of the molecular system. The computational costs of ab initio QM methods, however, have limited the application of ab initio QM/MM methods. Recent advances in ab initio QM/MM methods allowed the accurate simulation of the free energies for reactions in solution and in enzymes and thus paved the way for broader application of the ab initio QM/MM methods. We review here the theoretical developments and applications of the ab initio QM/MM methods, focusing on the determination of reaction path and the free energies of the reaction processes in solution and enzymes. PMID:24146439

  3. NHLBI-AbDesigner: an online tool for design of peptide-directed antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Saeed, Fahad; Knepper, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of physiological mechanisms at a cellular level often requires production of high-quality antibodies, frequently using synthetic peptides as immunogens. Here we describe a new, web-based software tool called NHLBI-AbDesigner that allows the user to visualize the information needed to choose optimal peptide sequences for peptide-directed antibody production (http://helixweb.nih.gov/AbDesigner/). The choice of an immunizing peptide is generally based on a need to optimize immunogenicity, antibody specificity, multispecies conservation, and robustness in the face of posttranslational modifications (PTMs). AbDesigner displays information relevant to these criteria as follows: 1) "Immunogenicity Score," based on hydropathy and secondary structure prediction; 2) "Uniqueness Score," a predictor of specificity of an antibody against all proteins expressed in the same species; 3) "Conservation Score," a predictor of ability of the antibody to recognize orthologs in other animal species; and 4) "Protein Features" that show structural domains, variable regions, and annotated PTMs that may affect antibody performance. AbDesigner displays the information online in an interactive graphical user interface, which allows the user to recognize the trade-offs that exist for alternative synthetic peptide choices and to choose the one that is best for a proposed application. Several examples of the use of AbDesigner for the display of such trade-offs are presented, including production of a new antibody to Slc9a3. We also used the program in large-scale mode to create a database listing the 15-amino acid peptides with the highest Immunogenicity Scores for all known proteins in five animal species, one plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  4. AbsIDconvert: An absolute approach for converting genetic identifiers at different granularities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High-throughput molecular biology techniques yield vast amounts of data, often by detecting small portions of ribonucleotides corresponding to specific identifiers. Existing bioinformatic methodologies categorize and compare these elements using inferred descriptive annotation given this sequence information irrespective of the fact that it may not be representative of the identifier as a whole. Results All annotations, no matter the granularity, can be aligned to genomic sequences and therefore annotated by genomic intervals. We have developed AbsIDconvert, a methodology for converting between genomic identifiers by first mapping them onto a common universal coordinate system using an interval tree which is subsequently queried for overlapping identifiers. AbsIDconvert has many potential uses, including gene identifier conversion, identification of features within a genomic region, and cross-species comparisons. The utility is demonstrated in three case studies: 1) comparative genomic study mapping plasmodium gene sequences to corresponding human and mosquito transcriptional regions; 2) cross-species study of Incyte clone sequences; and 3) analysis of human Ensembl transcripts mapped by Affymetrix®; and Agilent microarray probes. AbsIDconvert currently supports ID conversion of 53 species for a given list of input identifiers, genomic sequence, or genome intervals. Conclusion AbsIDconvert provides an efficient and reliable mechanism for conversion between identifier domains of interest. The flexibility of this tool allows for custom definition identifier domains contingent upon the availability and determination of a genomic mapping interval. As the genomes and the sequences for genetic elements are further refined, this tool will become increasingly useful and accurate. AbsIDconvert is freely available as a web application or downloadable as a virtual machine at: http://bioinformatics.louisville.edu/abid/. PMID:22967011

  5. Investigation of polarization effects in the gramicidin A channel from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Timko, Jeff; Kuyucak, Serdar

    2012-11-28

    Polarization is an important component of molecular interactions and is expected to play a particularly significant role in inhomogeneous environments such as pores and interfaces. Here we investigate the effects of polarization in the gramicidin A ion channel by performing quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and comparing the results with those obtained from classical MD simulations with non-polarizable force fields. We consider the dipole moments of backbone carbonyl groups and channel water molecules as well as a number of structural quantities of interest. The ab initio results show that the dipole moments of the carbonyl groups and water molecules are highly sensitive to the hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) they participate in. In the absence of a K(+) ion, water molecules in the channel are quite mobile, making the H-bond network highly dynamic. A central K(+) ion acts as an anchor for the channel waters, stabilizing the H-bond network and thereby increasing their average dipole moments. In contrast, the K(+) ion has little effect on the dipole moments of the neighboring carbonyl groups. The weakness of the ion-peptide interactions helps to explain the near diffusion-rate conductance of K(+) ions through the channel. We also address the sampling issue in relatively short ab initio MD simulations. Results obtained from a continuous 20 ps ab initio MD simulation are compared with those generated by sampling ten windows from a much longer classical MD simulation and running each window for 2 ps with ab initio MD. Both methods yield similar results for a number of quantities of interest, indicating that fluctuations are fast enough to justify the short ab initio MD simulations.

  6. Data characteristics and preliminary results from the atacama b-mode search (ABS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visnjic, Catherine

    The Atacama B-Mode Search (ABS) is a 145 GHz polarimeter located at a high altitude site on Cerro Toco, in the Andes of northern Chile. Having deployed in early 2012, it is currently in its second year of operation, observing the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). It seeks to probe the as yet undetected odd-parity B-modes of the polarization, which would have been created by the primordial gravitational wave background (GWB) predicted by theories of inflation. The magnitude of the B-mode signal is characterized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r. ABS features 60 cm cryogenic reflectors in the crossed-Dragone configuration, and a warm, continuously rotating sapphire half-wave plate to modulate the polarization of incoming radiation. The focal plane consists of 480 antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers, arranged in orthogonal pairs for polarization sensitivity, and coupled to feedhorns in a hexagonal array. In this thesis we describe the ABS instrument in the state in which it is now operating, outline the first season of observations, and characterize the data obtained. Focusing on observations of the primary CMB field during a one month reference period, we detail the algorithms currently used to select the data suitable for making maps. This is the first pass at data cuts and provides a conservative estimate for the sensitivity of ABS to the polarization modes in the sky. We project that with one year total observation time of the primary CMB field, ABS should be able to detect the B-mode signal at roughly the level of r = 0.03.

  7. Both Reversible Self-Association and Structural Changes Underpin Molecular Viscoelasticity of mAb Solutions.

    PubMed

    Sarangapani, Prasad S; Weaver, Justin; Parupudi, Arun; Besong, Tabot M D; Adams, Gary G; Harding, Stephen E; Manikwar, Prakash; Castellanos, Maria M; Bishop, Steven M; Pathak, Jai A

    2016-12-01

    The role of antibody structure (conformation) in solution rheology is probed. It is demonstrated here that pH-dependent changes in the tertiary structure of 2 mAb solutions lead to viscoelasticity and not merely a shear viscosity (η) increase. Steady shear flow curves on mAb solutions are reported over broad pH (3.0 ≤ pH ≤ 8.7) and concentration (2 mg/mL ≤ c ≤ 120 mg/mL) ranges to comprehensively characterize their rheology. Results are interpreted using size exclusion chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, analytical ultracentrifugation, near-UV circular dichroism, and dynamic light scattering. Changes in tertiary structure with concentration lead to elastic yield stress and increased solution viscosity in solution of "mAb1." These findings are supported by dynamic light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry, which show increased hydrodynamic radius of mAb1 at low pH and a reduced melting temperature T m , respectively. Conversely, another molecule at 120 mg/mL solution concentration is a strong viscoelastic gel due to perturbed tertiary structure (seen in circular dichroism) at pH 3.0, but the same molecule responds as a viscous liquid due to reversible self-association at pH 7.4 (verified by analytical ultracentrifugation). Both protein-protein interactions and structural perturbations govern pH-dependent viscoelasticity of mAb solutions. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pilot study of 68Ga-DOTA-F(ab')2-trastuzumab in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Beylergil, Volkan; Morris, Patrick G; Smith-Jones, Peter M; Modi, Shanu; Solit, David; Hudis, Clifford A; Lu, Yang; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Lyashchenko, Serge K; Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Larson, Steven M; Akhurst, Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    68Ga-1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-F(ab')2-trastuzumab [68Ga-DOTA-F(ab')2-trastuzumab] has been developed at our institution as a positron imaging reagent for assessing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression status by in-vivo imaging. Initial studies on animals demonstrated promising results in the monitoring of treatment response to heat shock protein 90-targeted drugs that inhibit the client protein HER2. We report here our initial clinical experience in the assessment of the toxicity, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and dosimetry profile of 68Ga-DOTA-F(ab')2-trastuzumab with PET/computed tomography using a mean of 236 MBq/5 mg administered intravenously. A group of 16 women with breast cancer were enrolled in this study. The one patient who did not receive 68Ga-DOTA-F(ab')2-trastuzumab was excluded from analysis. Both HER2-negative (n=7) and HER2-positive (n=8) cases were studied. Among the latter, seven had undergone trastuzumab treatment previously and one had not. It was determined that 68Ga-DOTA-F(ab')2-trastuzumab was well tolerated, with a T½ of ≈ 3.6 ± 0.9 h; the critical organ was the kidney, with a mean dose of 0.383 cGy/37 MBq; and tumor targeting was seen in 4/8 patients with HER2-positive disease. The reagent is safe, and assessments through additional studies in a better-defined group of patients, using larger administered masses of antibodies, with a better immunoreactive fraction are needed.

  9. BROWN DWARFS IN YOUNG MOVING GROUPS FROM PAN-STARRS1. I. AB DORADUS

    SciT

    Aller, Kimberly M.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.

    Substellar members of young (≲150 Myr) moving groups are valuable benchmarks to empirically define brown dwarf evolution with age and to study the low-mass end of the initial mass function. We have combined Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) proper motions with optical–IR photometry from PS1, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and WISE to search for substellar members of the AB Dor Moving Group within ≈50 pc and with spectral types of late M to early L, corresponding to masses down to ≈30 M {sub Jup} at the age of the group (≈125 Myr). Including both photometry and proper motions allows us tomore » better select candidates by excluding field dwarfs whose colors are similar to young AB Dor Moving Group members. Our near-IR spectroscopy has identified six ultracool dwarfs (M6–L4; ≈30–100 M {sub Jup}) with intermediate surface gravities (int-g) as candidate members of the AB Dor Moving Group. We find another two candidate members with spectra showing hints of youth but consistent with field gravities. We also find four field brown dwarfs unassociated with the AB Dor Moving Group, three of which have int-g gravity classification. While signatures of youth are present in the spectra of our ≈125 Myr objects, neither their J – K nor W 1 – W 2 colors are significantly redder than field dwarfs with the same spectral types, unlike younger ultracool dwarfs. We also determined PS1 parallaxes for eight of our candidates and one previously identified AB Dor Moving Group candidate. Although radial velocities (and parallaxes, for some) are still needed to fully assess membership, these new objects provide valuable insight into the spectral characteristics and evolution of young brown dwarfs.« less

  10. Combined clear corneal phacoemulsification and ab interno trabeculectomy: three-year case series.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ettore; Bandello, Francesco; Roman-Pognuz, Derri; Menchini, Francesca

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel surgical approach, ab interno trabeculectomy, in a combined procedure (clear corneal phacoemulsification + ab interno trabeculectomy) for the management of concurrent cataract and glaucoma with prognostic factors for filtration failure. Department of Ophthalmology, Palmanova Hospital, Udine, Italy. A prospective noncomparative case series of 11 eyes of 11 consecutive cataract patients with medically uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma was performed. Each patient had phacoemulsification + intraocular lens implantation + ab interno trabeculectomy, which consisted of a gonioscopically controlled ab interno removal of a quadrant (3 clock hours) of the trabecular meshwork. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucomatous medications used, and complications. Ten patients completed a 3-year follow-up. One patient had further surgery because of poor IOP control; in this case, the last valid observation was carried forward for IOP calculation. Mean preoperative IOP and IOPs measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after surgery were 25.0, 15.8, 15.4, 15.4, 15.2, 15.0, and 15.3 (-38.56%) mm Hg respectively. The number of medications averaged 2.4 before surgery and dropped to 0.8 at the end of follow-up. No major complications occurred during the follow-up period. The new surgical procedure combining phacoemulsification with ab interno trabeculectomy can induce a clinically relevant decrease in IOP in eyes with cataract and glaucoma with poor prognosis for filtering surgery. However, a randomized controlled clinical trial with a more extended follow-up and a larger series of patients is needed to ascertain the actual effectiveness and safety of this procedure.

  11. [Dynamics of Cry1ab protein content in the rhizosphere soil and straw debris of transgenic Bt corn].

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Wang, Min; Sun, Hong-Wei; Yang, Shu-Ke; Lu, Xing-Bo

    2013-07-01

    By using ELISA test kits, a field investigation was conducted on the degradation dynamics of CrylAb protein in the rhizosphere soil of Bt corn MON810 at its different growth stages and in the MON810 straws returned into field after harvest. Three models (shift-log model, exponential model, and bi-exponential model) were used to fit the degradation dynamics of the Cry1 Ab protein from the straw debris, and the DT50 and DT90, values were estimated. There existed great differences in the CrylAb protein content in the rhizosphere soil of MON810 at its different growth stages, but overall, the CrylAb protein content was decreased remarkably with the growth of MON810. The degradation of Cry1 Ab protein from the straws covered on soil surface and buried in soil showed the same two-stage pattern, i.e., more rapid at early stage and slow-stable in later period. Within the first week after straw return, the degradation rate of the CrylAb protein from the straws covered on soil surface was significantly higher than that from the straws buried in soil. At 10 d, the degradation rate of the CrylAb protein from the straws covered on soil surface and buried in soil was basically the same, being 88.8% and 88.6%, respectively. After 20 days, the degradation of CrylAb protein entered slow-stable stage. Till at 180 d, a small amount of Cry1Ab protein could still be detected in the straw debris. All of the three models used in this study could fit the decay pattern of the CrylAb protein from the straw debris in field. By comparing the correlation coefficient (r) and the consistency between the measured and calculated DT90, bi-exponential model was considered to be the best.

  12. Ab-initio study of B{sub 2}-type technetium AB (A=Tc, B=Nb and Ta) intermetallic compounds

    SciT

    Acharya, Nikita, E-mail: acharyaniks30@gmail.com; Fatima, Bushra; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2016-05-06

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of AB type (A = Tc, B = Nb and Ta) technetium intermetallic compounds are studied using full potential linearized plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated lattice parameters agree well with the experimental results. The elastic constants obey the stability criteria for cubic system. Ductility for these compounds has been analyzed using the Pugh’s rule and Cauchy’s pressure and found that all the compounds are ductile in nature. Bonding nature is discussed in terms of Fermi surface and band structures.

  13. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human serum albumin (HSA) for the development of an immunoaffinity system with oriented anti-HSA mAbs as immobilized ligand.

    PubMed

    Rajak, Poonam; Vijayalakshmi, M A; Jayaprakash, N S

    2013-05-05

    Proteins present in human serum are of immense importance in the field of biomarker discovery. But, the presence of high-abundant proteins like albumin makes the analysis more challenging because of masking effect on low-abundant proteins. Therefore, removal of albumin using highly specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can potentiate the discovery of low-abundant proteins. In the present study, mAbs against human serum albumin (HSA) were developed and integrated in to an immunoaffinity based system for specific removal of albumin from the serum. Hybridomas were obtained by fusion of Sp2/0 mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from the mouse immunized with HSA. Five clones (AHSA1-5) producing mAbs specific to HSA were established and characterized by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting for specificity, sensitivity and affinity in terms of antigen binding. The mAbs were able to bind to both native albumin as well as its glycated isoform. Reactivity of mAbs with different mammalian sera was tested. The affinity constant of the mAbs ranged from 10(8) to 10(9)M(-1). An approach based on oriented immobilization was followed to immobilize purified anti-HSA mAbs on hydrazine activated agarose gel and the dynamic binding capacity of the column was determined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Thyroglobulin (Tg) Testing Revisited: Tg Assays, TgAb Assays, and Correlation of Results With Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Netzel, Brian C; Grebe, Stefan K G; Carranza Leon, B Gisella; Castro, M Regina; Clark, Penelope M; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Spencer, Carole A; Turcu, Adina F; Algeciras-Schimnich, Alicia

    2015-08-01

    Measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg) by mass spectrometry (Tg-MS) is emerging as a tool for accurate Tg quantification in patients with anti-Tg autoantibodies (TgAbs). The objective of the study was to perform analytical and clinical evaluations of two Tg-MS assays in comparison with immunometric Tg assays (Tg-IAs) and Tg RIAs (Tg-RIAs) in a cohort of thyroid cancer patients. A total of 589 samples from 495 patients, 243 TgAb-/252 TgAb+, were tested by Beckman, Roche, Siemens-Immulite, and Thermo-Brahms Tg and TgAb assays, two Tg-RIAs, and two Tg-MS assays. The frequency of TgAb+ was 58%, 41%, 27%, and 39% for Roche, Beckman, Siemens-Immulite, and Thermo-Brahms, respectively. In TgAb- samples, clinical sensitivities and specificities of 100% and 74%-100%, respectively, were observed across all assays. In TgAb+ samples, all Tg-IAs demonstrated assay-dependent Tg underestimation, ranging from 41% to 86%. In TgAb+ samples, the use of a common cutoff (0.5 ng/mL) for the Tg-MS, three Tg-IAs, and the USC-RIA improved the sensitivity for the Tg-MSs and Tg-RIAs when compared with the Tg-IAs. In up to 20% of TgAb+ cases, Tg-IAs failed to detect Tg that was detectable by Tg-MS. In Tg-RIAs false-high biases were observed in TgAb+ samples containing low Tg concentrations. Tg-IAs remain the method of choice for Tg quantitation in TgAb- patients. In TgAb+ patients with undetectable Tg by immunometric assay, the Tg-MS will detect Tg in up to 20% additional cases. The Tg-RIA will detect Tg in approximately 35% cases, but a significant proportion of these will be clinical false-positive results. The undetectable Tg-MS seen in approximately 40% of TgAb+ cases in patients with disease need further evaluation.

  15. Performance of the Alere Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo Rapid Test with algorithm-defined acute HIV-1 infection specimens.

    PubMed

    Parker, Monica M; Bennett, S Berry; Sullivan, Timothy J; Fordan, Sally; Wesolowski, Laura G; Wroblewski, Kelly; Gaynor, Anne M

    2018-05-14

    The capacity of HIV Antigen/Antibody (Ag/Ab) immunoassays (IA) to detect HIV-1 p24 antigen has resulted in improved detection of HIV-1 infections in comparison to Ab-only screening assays. Since its introduction in the US, studies have shown that the Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo assay (Determine Ag/Ab) detects HIV infection earlier than laboratory-based IgM/IgG-sensitive IAs, but its sensitivity for HIV-1 p24 Ag detection is reduced compared to laboratory-based Ag/Ab assays. However, further evaluation is needed to assess its capacity to detect acute HIV-1 infection. To assess the performance of Determine Ag/Ab in serum from acute HIV-1 infections. Select serum specimens that screened reactive on a laboratory-based Ag/Ab IA or IgM/IgG Ab-only IA, with a negative or indeterminate supplemental antibody test and detectable HIV-1 RNA were retrospectively tested with Determine Ag/Ab. Results were compared with those of the primary screening immunoassay to evaluate concordance within this set of algorithm-defined acute infections. Of 159 algorithm-defined acute HIV-1 specimens, Determine Ag/Ab was reactive for 105 resulting in 66.0% concordance. Of 125 that were initially detected by a laboratory-based Ag/Ab IA, 81 (64.8%) were reactive by Determine Ag/Ab. A total of 34 acute specimens were initially detected by a laboratory-based IgM/IgG Ab-only IA and 24 (70.6%) of those were reactive by Determine Ag/Ab. Due to their enhanced sensitivity, laboratory-based Ag/Ab IAs continue to be preferred over the Determine Ag/Ab as the screening method used by laboratories conducting HIV diagnostic testing on serum and plasma specimens. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cosmic microwave background polarimetry with ABS and ACT: Instrumental design, characterization, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sara Michelle

    The LCDM model of the universe is supported by an abundance of astronomical observations, but it does not confirm a period of inflation in the early universe or explain the nature of dark energy and dark matter. The polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) may hold the key to addressing these profound questions. If a period of inflation occurred in the early universe, it could have left a detectable odd-parity pattern called B-modes in the polarization of the CMB on large angular scales. Additionally, the CMB can be used to probe the structure of the universe on small angular scales through lensing and the detection of galaxy clusters and their motions via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, which can improve our understanding of neutrinos, dark matter, and dark energy. The Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) instrument was a cryogenic crossed-Dragone telescope located at an elevation of 5190m in the Atacama Desert in Chile that observed from February 2012 until October 2014. ABS searched on degree-angular scales for inflationary B-modes in the CMB and pioneered the use of a rapidly-rotating half-wave plate (HWP), which modulates the polarization of incoming light to permit the measurement of celestial polarization on large angular scales that would otherwise be obscured by 1/f noise from the atmosphere. Located next to ABS in the Atacama is the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), which is an off-axis Gregorian telescope. Its large 6m primary mirror facilitates measurements of the CMB on small angular scales. HWPs are baselined for use with the upgraded polarization-sensitive camera for ACT, called Advanced ACTPol, to extend observations of the polarized CMB to larger angular scales while also retaining sensitivity to small angular scales. The B-mode signal is extremely faint, and measuring it poses an instrumental challenge that requires the development of new technologies and well-characterized instruments. I will discuss the use of novel instrumentation and

  17. Serious Gaming for Test & Evaluation of Clean-Slate (Ab Initio) National Airspace System (NAS) Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, B. Danette; Alexandrov, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Incremental approaches to air transportation system development inherit current architectural constraints, which, in turn, place hard bounds on system capacity, efficiency of performance, and complexity. To enable airspace operations of the future, a clean-slate (ab initio) airspace design(s) must be considered. This ab initio National Airspace System (NAS) must be capable of accommodating increased traffic density, a broader diversity of aircraft, and on-demand mobility. System and subsystem designs should scale to accommodate the inevitable demand for airspace services that include large numbers of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and a paradigm shift in general aviation (e.g., personal air vehicles) in addition to more traditional aerial vehicles such as commercial jetliners and weather balloons. The complex and adaptive nature of ab initio designs for the future NAS requires new approaches to validation, adding a significant physical experimentation component to analytical and simulation tools. In addition to software modeling and simulation, the ability to exercise system solutions in a flight environment will be an essential aspect of validation. The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Autonomy Incubator seeks to develop a flight simulation infrastructure for ab initio modeling and simulation that assumes no specific NAS architecture and models vehicle-to-vehicle behavior to examine interactions and emergent behaviors among hundreds of intelligent aerial agents exhibiting collaborative, cooperative, coordinative, selfish, and malicious behaviors. The air transportation system of the future will be a complex adaptive system (CAS) characterized by complex and sometimes unpredictable (or unpredicted) behaviors that result from temporal and spatial interactions among large numbers of participants. A CAS not only evolves with a changing environment and adapts to it, it is closely coupled to all systems that constitute the environment. Thus, the ecosystem that

  18. Effects of goat manure liquid fertilizer combined with AB-MIX on foliage vegetables growth in hydroponic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunaryo, Y.; Purnomo, D.; Darini, M. T.; Cahyani, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    Hydroponic as one of the protected cultivation practices is very important to be developed in Indonesia due to not only the reduction of arable agricultural lands in lines with increasing of residential demand and other public facilities but also due to the negative influences of climate change as well global warming to plant growth. The effects of liquid fertilizer made from goat manure (LFGM) in combination with AB-Mix on three kinds of foliage vegetable growth was examined in hydroponics. The research was conducted by 3 x 4 factorial experiment and arranged in Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications. The first factor was foliage vegetable consisting of 3 levels: Mustard Green, Lettuce, and Red Spinach. The second factor was the mixture composition of nutrient solution consisting of 4 levels: LFGM + AB-Mix (v/v: 1:1), LFGM + AB-Mix (v/v: 1:3), LFGM + AB-Mix (v/v: 3:1), and A/B mix as control. Results indicated that the application of LFGM + AB-Mix (v/v: 1:3) resulted in similar plant growth as control (AB-Mix application), and also resulted in the highest chlorophyll content of Mustard green.

  19. Poly(ethylene oxide)-Assisted Macromolecular Self-Assembly of Lignin in ABS Matrix for Sustainable Composite Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Akato, Kokouvi M.; Tran, Chau D.; Chen, Jihua; ...

    2015-11-05

    Here we report the compatibilization of biomass-derived lignin polymer in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic matrix without loss of mechanical properties via poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-mediated macromolecular self-assembly. ABS was blended with lignin in different concentrations, and blends with 10 wt % PEO (relative to lignin) were prepared. The relative tensile strength improved slightly at low lignin content but diminished rapidly as the lignin content was increased. However, the inclusion of PEO as an interfacial adhesion promoter helped avoid deleterious effects. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that PEO plasticized the hard phase and thus lowered the activation energy (E a) for itsmore » relaxation but caused stiffening of the soft phase and increased its E a. Microscopy revealed that incorporating lignin in ABS led to the statistical dispersion of discrete lignin domains (300–1000 nm) which, after PEO addition, were reduced to smaller interconnected particles (200–500 nm). The lignin-extended partially renewable ABS resins showed shear-thinning behavior and reduced viscosity compared to neat ABS. The preferred lignin-loaded compositions reinforced with 20 vol % chopped carbon fibers exhibited mechanical performances (77–80 MPa) equivalent to those of reinforced ABS materials reportedly used in 3D printing applications. In conclusion, this approach could lower the cost of ABS while reducing its carbon footprint.« less

  20. MiR-181a/b induce the growth, invasion, and metastasis of neuroblastoma cells through targeting ABI1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodan; Peng, Hongxia; Liao, Wang; Luo, Ailing; Cai, Mansi; He, Jing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Luo, Ziyan; Jiang, Hua; Xu, Ling

    2018-05-26

    Neuroblastoma is a pediatric malignancy, and the clinical phenotypes range from localized tumors with excellent outcomes to widely metastatic disease in which long-term survival is approximately 40%, despite intensive therapy. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant miRNA regulation plays a role in neuroblastoma, but the miRNA functions and mechanisms remain unknown. miR-181 family members were detected in 32 neuroblastoma patients, and the effects of miR-181a/b on cell viability, invasion, and migration were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A parallel global mRNA expression profile was obtained for neuroblastoma cells overexpressing miR-181a. The potential targets of miR-181a/b were validated. miR-181a/b expression levels were positively associated with MYCN amplification and neuroblastoma aggressiveness. Moreover, ectopic miR-181a/b expression significantly induced the growth and invasion of neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis revealed that mRNAs were consistently downregulated after miR-181a overexpression, leading to cell migration. In addition, the expression of ABI1 was suppressed by miR-181a/b, and ABI1 was validated as a direct target of miR-181a/b. We concluded that miR-181a/b were significantly upregulated in aggressive neuroblastoma, which enhanced its tumorigenesis and progression by suppressing the expression of ABI1. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Baseline sensitivity of lepidopteran corn pests in India to Cry1Ab insecticidal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Sushil K; Lalitha, Yadavalli; Kamath, Subray P; Mohan, Komarlingam S; Head, Graham P

    2010-08-01

    Genetically engineered corn (Bt corn) expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner insecticidal protein Cry1Ab is a biotechnological option being considered for management of lepidopteran corn pests in India. As a resistance management practice it was essential to determine the sensitivity of multiple populations of the stalk borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe), pink borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) and the cob borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) to Cry1Ab protein through bioassays. The insect populations were collected during growing seasons of Rabi 2005 (October 2005 to February 2006) and Kharif 2006 (May to September 2006). Multiple populations of the three lepidopteran corn pests were found to be susceptible to Cry1Ab. Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) ranged between 0.008 and 0.068 microg Cry1Ab mL(-1) diet for 18 populations of C. partellus (across two seasons), between 0.12 and 1.99 microg mL(-1) for seven populations of H. armigera and between 0.46 and 0.56 microg mL(-1) for two populations of S. inferens. Dose-response concentrations for lethality and growth inhibition have been determined to mark baseline sensitivity of multiple populations of key lepidopteran corn pests in India to Cry1Ab protein. These benchmark values will be referenced while monitoring resistance to Cry1Ab should Bt corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab be approved for commercial cultivation in India. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. 40 CFR 174.511 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein... Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as plant...

  3. 40 CFR 174.511 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein... Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as plant...

  4. 40 CFR 174.511 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein... Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as plant...

  5. 40 CFR 174.511 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein... Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as plant...

  6. 40 CFR 174.511 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein... Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as plant...

  7. Performance of the BioPlex 2200 HIV Ag-Ab assay for identifying acute HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, Susan H; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Sivay, Mariya V; Debevec, Barbara; Veater, Stephanie; McKinstry, Laura; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mannheimer, Sharon; Grant, Robert M; Chesney, Margaret A; Coates, Thomas J; Koblin, Beryl A; Fogel, Jessica M

    Assays that detect HIV antigen (Ag) and antibody (Ab) can be used to screen for HIV infection. To compare the performance of the BioPlex 2200 HIV Ag-Ab assay and two other Ag/Ab combination assays for detection of acute HIV infection. Samples were obtained from 24 individuals (18 from the US, 6 from South Africa); these individuals were classified as having acute infection based on the following criteria: positive qualitative RNA assay; two negative rapid tests; negative discriminatory test. The samples were tested with the BioPlex assay, the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo test, the Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag-Ab EIA test, and a viral load assay. Twelve (50.0%) of 24 samples had RNA detected only ( > 40 to 13,476 copies/mL). Ten (43.5%) samples had reactive results with all three Ag/Ab assays, one sample was reactive with the ARCHITECT and Bio-Rad assays, and one sample was reactive with the Bio-Rad and BioPlex assays. The 11 samples that were reactive with the BioPlex assay had viral loads from 83,010 to >750,000 copies/mL; 9/11 samples were classified as Ag positive/Ab negative by the BioPlex assay. Detection of acute HIV infection was similar for the BioPlex assay and two other Ag/Ab assays. All three tests were less sensitive than a qualitative RNA assay and only detected HIV Ag when the viral load was high. The BioPlex assay detected acute infection in about half of the cases, and identified most of those infections as Ag positive/Ab negative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stellar Origin of 15N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB: Supernovae with Explosive Hydrogen Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nan; Nittler, Larry R.; Pignatari, Marco; O'D. Alexander, Conel M.; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-06-01

    We report C, N, and Si isotopic data for 59 highly 13C-enriched presolar submicron- to micron-sized SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite, including eight putative nova grains (PNGs) and 29 15N-rich (14N/15N ≤ solar) AB grains, and their Mg-Al, S, and Ca-Ti isotope data when available. These 37 grains are enriched in 13C, 15N, and 26Al with the PNGs showing more extreme enhancements. The 15N-rich AB grains show systematically higher 26Al and 30Si excesses than the 14N-rich AB grains. Thus, we propose to divide the AB grains into groups 1 (14N/15N < solar) and 2 (14N/15N ≥ solar). For the first time, we have obtained both S and Ti isotopic data for five AB1 grains and one PNG and found 32S and/or 50Ti enhancements. Interestingly, one AB1 grain had the largest 32S and 50Ti excesses, strongly suggesting a neutron-capture nucleosynthetic origin of the 32S excess and thus the initial presence of radiogenic 32Si (t 1/2 = 153 years). More importantly, we found that the 15N and 26Al excesses of AB1 grains form a trend that extends to the region in the N-Al isotope plot occupied by C2 grains, strongly indicating a common stellar origin for both AB1 and C2 grains. Comparison of supernova models with the AB1 and C2 grain data indicates that these grains came from supernovae that experienced H ingestion into the He/C zones of their progenitors.

  9. Drosophila small heat shock protein CryAB ensures structural integrity of developing muscles, and proper muscle and heart performance.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Inga; Jabłońska, Jadwiga; Zmojdzian, Monika; Taghli-Lamallem, Ouarda; Renaud, Yoan; Junion, Guillaume; Daczewska, Malgorzata; Huelsmann, Sven; Jagla, Krzysztof; Jagla, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Molecular chaperones, such as the small heat shock proteins (sHsps), maintain normal cellular function by controlling protein homeostasis in stress conditions. However, sHsps are not only activated in response to environmental insults, but also exert developmental and tissue-specific functions that are much less known. Here, we show that during normal development the Drosophila sHsp CryAB [L(2)efl] is specifically expressed in larval body wall muscles and accumulates at the level of Z-bands and around myonuclei. CryAB features a conserved actin-binding domain and, when attenuated, leads to clustering of myonuclei and an altered pattern of sarcomeric actin and the Z-band-associated actin crosslinker Cheerio (filamin). Our data suggest that CryAB and Cheerio form a complex essential for muscle integrity: CryAB colocalizes with Cheerio and, as revealed by mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, binds to Cheerio, and the muscle-specific attenuation of cheerio leads to CryAB-like sarcomeric phenotypes. Furthermore, muscle-targeted expression of CryAB(R120G), which carries a mutation associated with desmin-related myopathy (DRM), results in an altered sarcomeric actin pattern, in affected myofibrillar integrity and in Z-band breaks, leading to reduced muscle performance and to marked cardiac arrhythmia. Taken together, we demonstrate that CryAB ensures myofibrillar integrity in Drosophila muscles during development and propose that it does so by interacting with the actin crosslinker Cheerio. The evidence that a DRM-causing mutation affects CryAB muscle function and leads to DRM-like phenotypes in the fly reveals a conserved stress-independent role of CryAB in maintaining muscle cell cytoarchitecture. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Deficiency of the ferrous iron transporter FeoAB is linked with metronidazole resistance in Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Husain, Fasahath; Boente, Renata; Moore, Jane; Smith, C. Jeffrey; Rocha, Edson R.; Patrick, Sheila; Wexler, Hannah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Metronidazole is the most commonly used antimicrobial for Bacteroides fragilis infections and is recommended for prophylaxis of colorectal surgery. Metronidazole resistance is increasing and the mechanisms of resistance are not clear. Methods A transposon mutant library was generated in B. fragilis 638R (BF638R) to identify the genetic loci associated with resistance to metronidazole. Results Thirty-two independently isolated metronidazole-resistant mutants had a transposon insertion in BF638R_1421 that encodes the ferrous transport fusion protein (feoAB). Deletion of feoAB resulted in a 10-fold increased MIC of metronidazole for the strain. The metronidazole MIC for the feoAB mutant was similar to that for the parent strain when grown on media supplemented with excess iron, suggesting that the increase seen in the MIC of metronidazole was due to reduced cellular iron transport in the feoAB mutant. The furA gene repressed feoAB transcription in an iron-dependent manner and disruption of furA resulted in constitutive transcription of feoAB, regardless of whether or not iron was present. However, disruption of feoAB also diminished the capacity of BF638R to grow in a mouse intraperitoneal abscess model, suggesting that inorganic ferrous iron assimilation is essential for B. fragilis survival in vivo. Conclusions Selection for feoAB mutations as a result of metronidazole treatment will disable the pathogenic potential of B. fragilis and could contribute to the clinical efficacy of metronidazole. While mutations in feoAB are probably not a direct cause of clinical resistance, this study provides a key insight into intracellular metronidazole activity and the link with intracellular iron homeostasis. PMID:25028451

  11. Comparison of F(ab')2 versus Fab antivenom for pit viper envenomation: a prospective, blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sean P; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Seifert, Steven A; Morgan, David L; Lewis, Brandon J; Arnold, Thomas C; Clark, Richard F; Meggs, William J; Toschlog, Eric A; Borron, Stephen W; Figge, Gary R; Sollee, Dawn R; Shirazi, Farshad M; Wolk, Robert; de Chazal, Ives; Quan, Dan; García-Ubbelohde, Walter; Alagón, Alejandro; Gerkin, Richard D; Boyer, Leslie V

    2015-01-01

    Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) has been the only antivenom commercially available in the US since 2007 for treatment of Crotalinae envenomation. Late coagulopathy can occur or recur after clearance of Fab antivenom, often after hospital discharge, lasting in some cases more than 2 weeks. There have been serious, even fatal, bleeding complications associated with recurrence phenomena. Frequent follow-up is required, and additional intervention or hospitalization is often necessary. F(ab')2 immunoglobulin derivatives have longer plasma half life than do Fab. We hypothesized that F(ab')2 antivenom would be superior to Fab in the prevention of late coagulopathy following treatment of patients with Crotalinae envenomation. We conducted a prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial, comparing late coagulopathy in snakebitten patients treated with F(ab')2 with maintenance doses [F(ab')2/F(ab')2], or F(ab')2 with placebo maintenance doses [F(ab')2/placebo], versus Fab with maintenance doses [Fab/Fab]. The primary efficacy endpoint was coagulopathy (platelet count < 150 K/mm(3), fibrinogen level < 150 mg/dL) between end of maintenance dosing and day 8. 121 patients were randomized at 18 clinical sites and received at least one dose of study drug. 114 completed the study. Of these, 11/37 (29.7%) in the Fab/Fab cohort experienced late coagulopathy versus 4/39 (10.3%, p < 0.05) in the F(ab')2/F(ab')2 cohort and 2/38 (5.3%, p < 0.05) in the F(ab')2/placebo cohort. The lowest heterologous protein exposure was with F(ab')2/placebo. No serious adverse events were related to study drug. In each study arm, one patient experienced an acute serum reaction and one experienced serum sickness. In this study, management of coagulopathic Crotalinae envenomation with longer-half-life F(ab')2 antivenom, with or without maintenance dosing, reduced the risk of subacute coagulopathy and bleeding following treatment of envenomation.

  12. Adhesion between liposomes mediated by the chlorophyll a/b light- harvesting complex isolated from chloroplast membranes

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    A highly purified chlorophyll a/b light-harvesting complex (chl a/b LHC; chl a/b ratio 1.2) was obtained from Triton-solubilized chloroplast membranes of pea and barley according to the method of Burke et al. (1978, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 187: 252--263). Gel electrophoresis of the cation-precipitated chl a/b LHC from peas reveals the presence of four polypeptides in the 23- to 28-kdalton size range. Three of these peptides appear to be identical to those derived from re-electrophoresed CPII and CPII* bands. In freeze-fracture replicas, the cation-precipitated chl a/b LHC appears as a semicrystalline aggregate of membranous sheets containing closely spaced granules. Upon removal of the cations by dialysis, the aggregates break up into their constituent membranous sheets without changing their granular substructure. These membranous sheets can be resolubilized in 1.5% Triton X-100, and the chl a/b LHC particles then reconstituted into soybean lecithin liposomes. Freeze-fracture micrographs of the reconstituted chl a/b LHC vesicles suspended in a low salt medium reveal randomly dispersed approximately 80-A particles on both concave and convex fracture faces as well as some crystalline particle arrays, presumably resulting from incompletely solubilized fragments of the membranous sheets. Based on the approximately 80-A diameter of the particles, and on the assumption that one freeze- fracture particle represents the structural unit of one chl a/b LHC aggregate, a theoretical mol wt of approximately 200 kdalton has been calculated for the chl a/b LHC. Deep-etching and negative-staining techniques reveal that the chl a/b LHC particles are also exposed on the surface of the bilayer membranes. Addition of greater than or equal to 2 mM MgCl2 or greater than or equal to 60 mM NaCl to the reconstituted vesicles leads to their aggregation and, with divalent cations, to the formation of extensive membrane stacks. At the same time, the chl a/b LHC particles become clustered

  13. Comparison of F(ab')2 versus Fab antivenom for pit viper envenomation: A prospective, blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Seifert, Steven A.; Morgan, David L.; Lewis, Brandon J.; Arnold, Thomas C.; Clark, Richard F.; Meggs, William J.; Toschlog, Eric A.; Borron, Stephen W.; Figge, Gary R.; Sollee, Dawn R.; Shirazi, Farshad M.; Wolk, Robert; de Chazal, Ives; Quan, Dan; García-Ubbelohde, Walter; Alagón, Alejandro; Gerkin, Richard D.; Boyer, Leslie V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) has been the only antivenom commercially available in the US since 2007 for treatment of Crotalinae envenomation. Late coagulopathy can occur or recur after clearance of Fab antivenom, often after hospital discharge, lasting in some cases more than 2 weeks. There have been serious, even fatal, bleeding complications associated with recurrence phenomena. Frequent follow-up is required, and additional intervention or hospitalization is often necessary. F(ab')2 immunoglobulin derivatives have longer plasma half life than do Fab. We hypothesized that F(ab')2 antivenom would be superior to Fab in the prevention of late coagulopathy following treatment of patients with Crotalinae envenomation. Methods. We conducted a prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial, comparing late coagulopathy in snakebitten patients treated with F(ab')2 with maintenance doses [F(ab')2/F(ab')2], or F(ab')2 with placebo maintenance doses [F(ab')2/placebo], versus Fab with maintenance doses [Fab/Fab]. The primary efficacy endpoint was coagulopathy (platelet count < 150 K/mm3, fibrinogen level < 150 mg/dL) between end of maintenance dosing and day 8. Results. 121 patients were randomized at 18 clinical sites and received at least one dose of study drug. 114 completed the study. Of these, 11/37 (29.7%) in the Fab/Fab cohort experienced late coagulopathy versus 4/39 (10.3%, p < 0.05) in the F(ab')2/F(ab')2 cohort and 2/38 (5.3%, p < 0.05) in the F(ab')2/placebo cohort. The lowest heterologous protein exposure was with F(ab')2/placebo. No serious adverse events were related to study drug. In each study arm, one patient experienced an acute serum reaction and one experienced serum sickness. Conclusions. In this study, management of coagulopathic Crotalinae envenomation with longer-half-life F(ab')2 antivenom, with or without maintenance dosing, reduced the risk of subacute coagulopathy and bleeding following treatment of envenomation

  14. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1: An Intermediate Surface Gravity, Dusty Brown Dwarf in the AB Dor Moving Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    reserved. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1: AN INTERMEDIATE SURFACE GRAVITY, DUSTY BROWN DWARF IN THE AB DOR MOVING GROUP John E. Gizis1,9, Katelyn N...pc. The three-dimensional space mo- tion identifies it as a member of the AB Dor Moving Group, an identification supported by our classification of...SUBTITLE WISEP J004701+680352.1: An Intermediate Surface Gravity, Dusty Brown Dwarf In The AB Dor Moving Group 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  15. Atomic defects in monolayer WSe2 tunneling FETs studied by systematic ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jixuan; Fan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jiezhi; Jiang, Xiangwei

    2018-05-01

    Atomic defects in monolayer WSe2 tunneling FETs (TFETs) are studied through systematic ab initio calculations aiming at performance predictions and enhancements. The effects of various defect positions and different passivation atoms are characterized in WSe2 TFETs by rigorous ab initio quantum transport simulations. It is suggested that the Se vacancy (VSe) defect located in the gate-controlled channel region tends to increase the OFF current (I off), whereas it can be well suppressed by oxygen passivation. It is demonstrated that chlorine (Cl) passivation at the source-side tunneling region can largely suppress I off, leading to an impressively improved on–off ratio (I on/I off) compared with that without any defect. However, it is also observed that randomly positioned atomic defects tend to induce significant fluctuation of the TFET output. Further discussions are made with focus on the performance-variability trade-off for robust circuit design.

  16. Crossover of cation partitioning in olivines: a combination of ab initio and Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Swastika; Bhattacharyya, Sirshendu; Sengupta, Surajit; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri

    2011-04-01

    We report studies based on a combination of ab initio electronic structure and Monte Carlo (MC) technique on the problem of cation partitioning among inequivalent octahedral sites, M1 and M2 in mixed olivines containing Mg2+ and Fe2+ ions. Our MC scheme uses interactions derived out of ab initio, density functional calculations carried out on measured crystal structure data. Our results show that there is no reversal of the preference of Fe for M1 over M2 as a function of temperature. Our findings do not agree with the experimental findings of Redfern et al. (Phys Chem Miner 27:630-637, 2000), but are in agreement with those of Heinemann et al. (Eur J Mineral 18:673-689, 2006) and Morozov et al. (Eur J Mineral 17:495-500, 2005).

  17. Bridging a gap between continuum-QCD and ab initio predictions of hadron observables

    DOE PAGES

    Binosi, Daniele; Chang, Lei; Papavassiliou, Joannis; ...

    2015-03-01

    Within contemporary hadron physics there are two common methods for determining the momentum- dependence of the interaction between quarks: the top-down approach, which works toward an ab initiocomputation of the interaction via direct analysis of the gauge-sector gap equations; and the bottom-up scheme, which aims to infer the interaction by fitting data within a well-defined truncation of those equations in the matter sector that are relevant to bound-state properties. We unite these two approaches by demonstrating that the renormalisation-group-invariant running-interaction predicted by contemporary analyses of QCD’s gauge sector coincides with that required in order to describe ground-state hadron observables usingmore » a nonperturbative truncation of QCD’s Dyson–Schwinger equations in the matter sector. This bridges a gap that had lain between nonperturbative continuum-QCD and the ab initio prediction of bound-state properties.« less

  18. A global ab initio potential for HCN/HNC, exact vibrational energies, and comparison to experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, Joseph A.; Bowman, Joel M.; Gazdy, Bela; Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.

    1992-01-01

    An ab initio (i.e., from first principles) calculation of vibrational energies of HCN and HNC is reported. The vibrational calculations were done with a new potential derived from a fit to 1124 ab initio electronic energies which were calculated using the highly accurate CCSD(T) coupled-cluster method in conjunction with a large atomic natural orbital basis set. The properties of this potential are presented, and the vibrational calculations are compared to experiment for 54 vibrational transitions, 39 of which are for zero total angular momentum, J = 0, and 15 of which are for J = 1. The level of agreement with experiment is unprecedented for a triatomic with two nonhydrogen atoms, and demonstrates the capability of the latest computational methods to give reliable predictions on a strongly bound triatomic molecule at very high levels of vibrational excitation.

  19. PPL2ab neurons restore sexual responses in aged Drosophila males through dopamine.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shu-Yun; Wu, Chia-Lin; Hsieh, Min-Yen; Lin, Chen-Ta; Wen, Rong-Kun; Chen, Lien-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Hui; Yu, Yhu-Wei; Wang, Horng-Dar; Su, Yi-Ju; Lin, Chun-Ju; Yang, Cian-Yi; Guan, Hsien-Yu; Wang, Pei-Yu; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Fu, Tsai-Feng

    2015-06-30

    Male sexual desire typically declines with ageing. However, our understanding of the neurobiological basis for this phenomenon is limited by our knowledge of the brain circuitry and neuronal pathways controlling male sexual desire. A number of studies across species suggest that dopamine (DA) affects sexual desire. Here we use genetic tools and behavioural assays to identify a novel subset of DA neurons that regulate age-associated male courtship activity in Drosophila. We find that increasing DA levels in a subset of cells in the PPL2ab neuronal cluster is necessary and sufficient for increased sustained courtship in both young and aged male flies. Our results indicate that preventing the age-related decline in DA levels in PPL2ab neurons alleviates diminished courtship behaviours in male Drosophila. These results may provide the foundation for deciphering the circuitry involved in sexual motivation in the male Drosophila brain.

  20. An allosteric transport mechanism for the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Fan, Guizhen; Hryc, Corey F; Blaza, James N; Serysheva, Irina I; Schmid, Michael F; Chiu, Wah; Luisi, Ben F; Du, Dijun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial efflux pumps confer multidrug resistance by transporting diverse antibiotics from the cell. In Gram-negative bacteria, some of these pumps form multi-protein assemblies that span the cell envelope. Here, we report the near-atomic resolution cryoEM structures of the Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump in resting and drug transport states, revealing a quaternary structural switch that allosterically couples and synchronizes initial ligand binding with channel opening. Within the transport-activated state, the channel remains open even though the pump cycles through three distinct conformations. Collectively, our data provide a dynamic mechanism for the assembly and operation of the AcrAB-TolC pump. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24905.001 PMID:28355133

  1. Specific interactions between DNA and regulatory protein controlled by ligand-binding: Ab initio molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Y.; Murakawa, T.; Shimamura, K.; Oishi, M.; Ohyama, T.; Kurita, N.

    2015-02-01

    The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA.

  2. Electronic properties of liquid Hg-In alloys : Ab-initio molecular dynamics study

    SciT

    Sharma, Nalini, E-mail: nalini-2808@yahoo.co.in; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Thakur, Anil

    2016-05-23

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-In alloys (Hg{sub 10}In{sub 90}, Hg{sub 30}In{sub 70,.} Hg{sub 50}In{sub 50}, Hg{sub 70}In{sub 30}, and Hg{sub 90}Pb{sub 10}) at 299 K are considered. The calculated results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-In) are also drawn. Along with the calculated results of considered five liquid alloys of Hg-In alloy. The results obtained from electronic properties namely total density of state and partial density of states help to find the localmore » arrangement of Hg and In atoms and the presence of liquid state in the considered five alloys.« less

  3. Optimized expression and purification of NavAb provide the structural insight into the voltage dependence.

    PubMed

    Irie, Katsumasa; Haga, Yukari; Shimomura, Takushi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2018-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are crucial for electro-signalling in living systems. Analysis of the molecular mechanism requires both fine electrophysiological evaluation and high-resolution channel structures. Here, we optimized a dual expression system of NavAb, which is a well-established standard of prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels, for E. coli and insect cells using a single plasmid vector to analyse high-resolution protein structures and measure large ionic currents. Using this expression system, we evaluated the voltage dependence and determined the crystal structures of NavAb wild-type and two mutants, E32Q and N49K, whose voltage dependence were positively shifted and essential interactions were lost in voltage sensor domain. The structural and functional comparison elucidated the molecular mechanisms of the voltage dependence of prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. Electronic properties of liquid Hg-In alloys : Ab-initio molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-In alloys (Hg10In90, Hg30In70,. Hg50In50, Hg70In30, and Hg90Pb10) at 299 K are considered. The calculated results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-In) are also drawn. Along with the calculated results of considered five liquid alloys of Hg-In alloy. The results obtained from electronic properties namely total density of state and partial density of states help to find the local arrangement of Hg and In atoms and the presence of liquid state in the considered five alloys.

  5. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid Hg-Pb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2014-04-01

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-Pb alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-Pb mixtures (Hg30Pb70, Hg50Pb50 and Hg90Pb10) at 600K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-Pb). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered three alloys. Among the all considered alloys, Hg50Pb50 alloy shows presence of more chemical ordering and presence of hetero-coordination.

  6. {bold {ital Ab initio}} studies of the structural and electronic properties of solid cubane

    SciT

    Richardson, S.L.; Martins, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we report {ital ab initio} calculation of the structural and electronic properties of solid cubane (s-C{sub 8}H{sub 8}) in the local-density approximation. By using an {ital ab initio} constant pressure extended molecular dynamics method with variable cell shape proposed by Wentzcovitch, Martins, and Price, we compute a lattice parameter {ital a} and a bond angle {alpha} for the rhombohedral Bravais lattice and compare it with experimental x-ray data. We obtain bond lengths for the mononuclear C{sub 8}H{sub 8} unit of basis atoms, as well as a density of states and heat of formation. {copyright} {ital 1998} {italmore » The American Physical Society}« less

  7. Study of atomic structure of liquid Hg-In alloys using ab-initio molecular dynamics

    SciT

    Sharma, Nalini; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Thakur, Anil

    2015-05-15

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Five liquid Hg-In mixtures (Hg{sub 10}In{sub 90}, Hg{sub 30}In{sub 70}, Hg{sub 50}In{sub 50}, Hg{sub 70}In{sub 30} and Hg{sub 90}In{sub 10}) at 299K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and (l-In). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factormore » shows the presence of liquid state in the considered alloys.« less

  8. Study of atomic structure of liquid Hg-In alloys using ab-initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2015-05-01

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Five liquid Hg-In mixtures (Hg10In90, Hg30In70, Hg50In50, Hg70In30 and Hg90In10) at 299K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and (l-In). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered alloys.

  9. Spectroscopic evidence supporting the gravitational lens hypothesis for 1635+267 A,B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Edwin L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Schneider, Donald P.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Burke, Bernard F.

    1988-01-01

    The gravitational lens hypothesis is tested for 1613+267 A,B by comparing the detailed line widths and shapes of the 2799-A Mg II and semiforbidden 1909-A C-III lines in each component. Following subtraction of an interpolating polynomial fit to the continua and the determination of a single optimum scaling factor (an amplification ratio of 2.83), reasonable agreement between the profiles of both lines in the two composites is obtained. Comparison of these lines to those in an unrelated quasar with a similar redshift and apparent magnitude does not produce a good match. It is suggested that the observed match in the 1635+267 A,B spectra arises from gravitational lensing.

  10. Effect analysis of material properties of picosecond laser ablation for ABS/PVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Y. H.; Ho, C. Y.; Chiou, Y. J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper analytically investigates the picosecond laser ablation of ABS/PVC. Laser-pulsed ablation is a wellestablished tool for polymer. However the ablation mechanism of laser processing for polymer has not been thoroughly understood yet. This study utilized a thermal transport model to analyze the relationship between the ablation rate and laser fluences. This model considered the energy balance at the decomposition interface and Arrhenius law as the ablation mechanisms. The calculated variation of the ablation rate with the logarithm of the laser fluence agrees with the measured data. It is also validated in this work that the variation of the ablation rate with the logarithm of the laser fluence obeys Beer's law for low laser fluences. The effects of material properties and processing parameters on the ablation depth per pulse are also discussed for picosecond laser processing of ABS/PVC.

  11. Automated generation of radical species in crystalline carbohydrate using ab initio MD simulations.

    PubMed

    Aalbergsjø, Siv G; Pauwels, Ewald; Van Yperen-De Deyne, Andy; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Sagstuen, Einar

    2014-08-28

    As the chemical structures of radiation damaged molecules may differ greatly from their undamaged counterparts, investigation and description of radiation damaged structures is commonly biased by the researcher. Radical formation from ionizing radiation in crystalline α-l-rhamnose monohydrate has been investigated using a new method where the selection of radical structures is unbiased by the researcher. The method is based on using ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) studies to investigate how ionization damage can form, change and move. Diversity in the radical production is gained by using different points on the potential energy surface of the intact crystal as starting points for the ionizations and letting the initial velocities of the nuclei after ionization be generated randomly. 160 ab initio MD runs produced 12 unique radical structures for investigation. Out of these, 7 of the potential products have never previously been discussed, and 3 products are found to match with radicals previously observed by electron magnetic resonance experiments.

  12. Ab initio NMR Confirmed Evolutionary Structure Prediction for Organic Molecular Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Cong-Huy; Kucukbenli, Emine; de Gironcoli, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Ab initio crystal structure prediction of even small organic compounds is extremely challenging due to polymorphism, molecular flexibility and difficulties in addressing the dispersion interaction from first principles. We recently implemented vdW-aware density functionals and demonstrated their success in energy ordering of aminoacid crystals. In this work we combine this development with the evolutionary structure prediction method to study cholesterol polymorphs. Cholesterol crystals have paramount importance in various diseases, from cancer to atherosclerosis. The structure of some polymorphs (e.g. ChM, ChAl, ChAh) have already been resolved while some others, which display distinct NMR spectra and are involved in disease formation, are yet to be determined. Here we thoroughly assess the applicability of evolutionary structure prediction to address such real world problems. We validate the newly predicted structures with ab initio NMR chemical shift data using secondary referencing for an improved comparison with experiments.

  13. Ab initio theoretical calculations of the electronic excitation energies of small water clusters.

    PubMed

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Yabushita, Akihiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2011-12-14

    A direct ab initio molecular dynamics method has been applied to a water monomer and water clusters (H(2)O)(n) (n = 1-3) to elucidate the effects of zero-point energy (ZPE) vibration on the absorption spectra of water clusters. Static ab initio calculations without ZPE showed that the first electronic transitions of (H(2)O)(n), (1)B(1)←(1)A(1), are blue-shifted as a function of cluster size (n): 7.38 eV (n = 1), 7.58 eV (n = 2) and 8.01 eV (n = 3). The inclusion of the ZPE vibration strongly affects the excitation energies of a water dimer, and a long red-tail appears in the range of 6.42-6.90 eV due to the structural flexibility of a water dimer. The ultraviolet photodissociation of water clusters and water ice surfaces is relevant to these results.

  14. Ab initio simulations of iron-nickel alloys at Earth's core conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côté, Alexander S.; Vočadlo, Lidunka; Brodholt, John P.

    2012-09-01

    We report ab initio density functional theory calculations on iron-nickel (FeNi) alloys at conditions representative of the Earth's inner core. We test different concentrations of Ni, up to ∼39 wt% using ab initio lattice dynamics, and investigate the thermodynamic and vibrational stability of the three candidate crystal structures (bcc, hcp and fcc). First of all, at inner core pressures, we find that pure Fe transforms from the hcp to the fcc phase at around 6000 K. Secondly, in agreement with low pressure experiments on Fe-Ni alloys, we find the fcc structure is stabilised by the incorporation of Ni under core pressures and temperatures. Our results show that the fcc structure may, therefore, be stable under core conditions depending on the temperature in the inner core and the Ni content. Lastly, we find that within the quasi-harmonic approximation, there is no stability field for FeNi alloys in the bcc structure under core conditions.

  15. Unusual amnesia in a patient with VGKC-Ab limbic encephalitis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kartsounis, Luke D; de Silva, Rajith

    2011-04-01

    We describe the case of a patient with confirmed voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated encephalitis (VGKC-Ab). MRI studies revealed bilateral hyper-intensity in the hippocampi, with their volumes preserved. At presentation, the patient's anterograde and retrograde memory skills were found to be impaired and he showed fluctuation in his ability to recall familiar information. Following treatment with immunotherapy, his condition improved considerably and, in a series of follow up assessments, he performed satisfactorily (i.e., within the average range or above) on formal tests of memory, as well as on a range of other cognitive tests, including tests of executive function. By contrast, in the context of contemporaneous unstructured interviews, he showed a strong tendency to confabulate. We argue that the reported case broadens the phenomenology of VGKC-Ab limbic encephalitis and raises important theoretical questions about the aetiology of this patient's most unusual memory disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Mg II and Ca II ionization on ab-initio solar chromosphere models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rammacher, W.; Cuntz, M.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustically heated solar chromosphere models are computed considering radiation damping by (non-LTE) emission from H(-) and by Mg II and Ca II emission lines. The radiative transfer equations for the Mg II k and Ca II K emission lines are solved using the core-saturation method with complete redistribution. The Mg II k and Ca II K cooling rates are compared with the VAL model C. Several substantial improvements over the work of Ulmschneider et al. (1987) are included. It is found that the rapid temperature rises caused by the ionization of Mg II are not formed in the middle chromosphere, but occur at larger atmospheric heights. These models represent the temperature structure of the 'real' solar chromosphere much better. This result is a major precondition for the study of ab-initio models for solar flux tubes based on MHD wave propagation and also for ab-initio models for the solar transition layer.

  17. Pollution load index for heavy metals in Mian-Ab plain soil, Khuzestan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Jorfi, Sahand; Maleki, Rohangiz; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    Soil pollution by heavy metals is a major concern in agricultural area. Potential impact of heavy metals in agricultural soil on human health by accumulating in food chain demonstrated elsewhere. In this regard Mian-Ab plain as a major agricultural site of Khuzestan province considered for Arsenic, cadmium and lead concentration as the main potential toxic pollutants in soil. 50 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Also Contamination level of selected heavy metals in Mian-Ab Plain, was assessed by single factor contaminant index (PI) and pollution load index (PLI). Results show mean concentration of arsenic, cadmium and lead were 2.52, 0.30 and 7.21 mg kg -1 . Base on PLI results 12 point (24%) of the studied area show moderately polluted and 38 point (76%) show unpolluted area.

  18. Computational prediction of muon stopping sites using ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liborio, Leandro; Sturniolo, Simone; Jochym, Dominik

    2018-04-01

    The stopping site of the muon in a muon-spin relaxation experiment is in general unknown. There are some techniques that can be used to guess the muon stopping site, but they often rely on approximations and are not generally applicable to all cases. In this work, we propose a purely theoretical method to predict muon stopping sites in crystalline materials from first principles. The method is based on a combination of ab initio calculations, random structure searching, and machine learning, and it has successfully predicted the MuT and MuBC stopping sites of muonium in Si, diamond, and Ge, as well as the muonium stopping site in LiF, without any recourse to experimental results. The method makes use of Soprano, a Python library developed to aid ab initio computational crystallography, that was publicly released and contains all the software tools necessary to reproduce our analysis.

  19. An ab-initio study of mechanical, dynamical and electronic properties of MgEu intermetallic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Ramesh; Jaiganesh, G.; Jayalakshmi, V.

    2018-04-01

    The theoretical investigation on the mechanical, dynamical and electronic properties of MgEu in CsCl-type structure has been carried out through the ab-initio calculations within the framework of the density functional theory and the density functional perturbation theory. For the purpose, Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package and Phonopy packages were used. Our calculated ground-state properties of MgEu are in good agreement with other available results. Our computed elastic constants and phonon spectrum results suggest that MgEu is mechanically and dynamically stable up to 5 GPa. The thermodynamic quantities as a function of temperatures are also reported and discussed. The band structure, density of states and charge density also calculated to understand the electronic properties of MgEu.

  20. Approaches to ab initio molecular replacement of α-helical transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jens M H; Simkovic, Felix; Keegan, Ronan; Mayans, Olga; Zhang, Chengxin; Zhang, Yang; Rigden, Daniel J

    2017-12-01

    α-Helical transmembrane proteins are a ubiquitous and important class of proteins, but present difficulties for crystallographic structure solution. Here, the effectiveness of the AMPLE molecular replacement pipeline in solving α-helical transmembrane-protein structures is assessed using a small library of eight ideal helices, as well as search models derived from ab initio models generated both with and without evolutionary contact information. The ideal helices prove to be surprisingly effective at solving higher resolution structures, but ab initio-derived search models are able to solve structures that could not be solved with the ideal helices. The addition of evolutionary contact information results in a marked improvement in the modelling and makes additional solutions possible.

  1. Explicit polarization (X-Pol) potential using ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Song, Lingchun; Han, Jaebeom; Lin, Yen-lin; Xie, Wangshen; Gao, Jiali

    2009-10-29

    The explicit polarization (X-Pol) method has been examined using ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory. The X-Pol potential was designed to provide a novel theoretical framework for developing next-generation force fields for biomolecular simulations. Importantly, the X-Pol potential is a general method, which can be employed with any level of electronic structure theory. The present study illustrates the implementation of the X-Pol method using ab initio Hartree-Fock theory and hybrid density functional theory. The computational results are illustrated by considering a set of bimolecular complexes of small organic molecules and ions with water. The computed interaction energies and hydrogen bond geometries are in good accord with CCSD(T) calculations and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ optimizations.

  2. Incirlik AB, Adana, Turkey. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A through F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-15

    POE FROM DAILY OBS: MAY 55-OOT 68 wn"HIS DOCJMtXN T R!, P"ROVED FOR PUBLIC R; ’SE ND SALE ; ITS DiS- TRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED." MAR 15 97? FEDERAL...DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 9 A I CIRLTIK Ab TURJFY/A Af- 7-7f, ____ MTATN. STATI lE lll 3011g ,I,, ITun is,-3 € 1lO~ll N tI

  3. Ab initio theory of the N2V defect in diamond for quantum memory implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udvarhelyi, Péter; Thiering, Gergő; Londero, Elisa; Gali, Adam

    2017-10-01

    The N2V defect in diamond is characterized by means of ab initio methods relying on density functional theory calculated parameters of a Hubbard model Hamiltonian. It is shown that this approach appropriately describes the energy levels of correlated excited states induced by this defect. By determining its critical magneto-optical parameters, we propose to realize a long-living quantum memory by N2V defect, i.e., H 3 color center in diamond.

  4. Spectral transmission of the pig lens: effect of ultraviolet A+B radiation.

    PubMed

    Artigas, C; Navea, A; López-Murcia, M-M; Felipe, A; Desco, C; Artigas, J-M

    2014-12-01

    To determine the spectral transmission curve of the crystalline lens of the pig. To analyse how this curve changes when the crystalline lens is irradiated with ultraviolet A+B radiation similar to that of the sun. To compare these results with literature data from the human crystalline lens. We used crystalline lenses of the common pig from a slaughterhouse, i.e. genetically similar pigs, fed with the same diet, and slaughtered at six months old. Spectral transmission was measured with a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 35 UV/VIS spectrometer. The lenses were irradiated using an Asahi Spectra Lax-C100 ultraviolet source, which made it possible to select the spectral emission band as well as the intensity and exposure time. The pig lens transmits all the visible spectrum (95%) and lets part of the ultraviolet A through (15%). Exposure to acute UV (A+B) irradiation causes a decrease in its transmission as the intensity or exposure time increases: this decrease is considerable in the UV region. We were able to determine the mean spectral transmission curve of the pig lens. It appears to be similar to that of the human lens in the visible spectrum, but different in the ultraviolet. Pig lens transmission is reduced by UV (A+B) irradiation and its transmission in the UV region can even disappear as the intensity or exposure time increases. An adequate exposure intensity and time of UV (A+B) radiation always causes an anterior subcapsular cataract (ASC). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Bismuth Infusion of ABS Enables Additive Manufacturing of Complex Radiological Phantoms and Shielding Equipment.

    PubMed

    Ceh, Justin; Youd, Tom; Mastrovich, Zach; Peterson, Cody; Khan, Sarah; Sasser, Todd A; Sander, Ian M; Doney, Justin; Turner, Clark; Leevy, W Matthew

    2017-02-24

    Radiopacity is a critical property of materials that are used for a range of radiological applications, including the development of phantom devices that emulate the radiodensity of native tissues and the production of protective equipment for personnel handling radioactive materials. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a fabrication platform that is well suited to creating complex anatomical replicas or custom labware to accomplish these radiological purposes. We created and tested multiple ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) filaments infused with varied concentrations of bismuth (1.2-2.7 g/cm³), a radiopaque metal that is compatible with plastic infusion, to address the poor gamma radiation attenuation of many mainstream 3D printing materials. X-ray computed tomography (CT) experiments of these filaments indicated that a density of 1.2 g/cm³ of bismuth-infused ABS emulates bone radiopacity during X-ray CT imaging on preclinical and clinical scanners. ABS-bismuth filaments along with ABS were 3D printed to create an embedded human nasocranial anatomical phantom that mimicked radiological properties of native bone and soft tissue. Increasing the bismuth content in the filaments to 2.7 g/cm³ created a stable material that could attenuate 50% of 99m Technetium gamma emission when printed with a 2.0 mm wall thickness. A shielded test tube rack was printed to attenuate source radiation as a protective measure for lab personnel. We demonstrated the utility of novel filaments to serve multiple radiological purposes, including the creation of anthropomorphic phantoms and safety labware, by tuning the level of radiation attenuation through material customization.

  6. Atomistic and Ab Initio Calculations or Ternary II-IV-V2 Semiconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-07

    consisting of two- and three-body terms is developed reproducing crystal lattice constants, elastic and dielectric constants very well. The calculated...the lattice . This difference may well be due to defect-induced lattice distortion which plays a key role in stabilizing the hole states in the... lattice . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Chalcopyrites, Defects, Atomistic and AB Initio Calculations 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT u b. ABSTRACT U

  7. Postural Change Effects on Infants' AB Task Performance: Visual, Postural, or Spatial?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Adina R.; Hopkins, Brian; Owen, Laura H.; Green, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Smith and colleagues (Smith, L. B., Thelen, E., Titzer, R., & McLin, D. (1999). Knowing in the context of acting: The task dynamics of the A-not-B error. "Psychological Review, 106," 235-260) demonstrated that 10-month-olds succeed on a Piagetian AB search task if they are moved from a sitting position to a standing position between A and B…

  8. Comparisons of fully automated syphilis tests with conventional VDRL and FTA-ABS tests.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Jun; Park, Yongjung; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Sinyoung; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2013-06-01

    Serologic tests are widely used for the diagnosis of syphilis. However, conventional methods require well-trained technicians to produce reliable results. We compared automated nontreponemal and treponemal tests with conventional methods. The HiSens Auto Rapid Plasma Reagin (AutoRPR) and Treponema Pallidum particle agglutination (AutoTPPA) tests, which utilize latex turbidimetric immunoassay, were assessed. A total of 504 sera were assayed by AutoRPR, AutoTPPA, conventional VDRL and FTA-ABS. Among them, 250 samples were also tested by conventional TPPA. The concordance rate between the results of VDRL and AutoRPR was 67.5%, and 164 discrepant cases were all VDRL reactive but AutoRPR negative. In the 164 cases, 133 showed FTA-ABS reactivity. Medical records of 106 among the 133 cases were reviewed, and 82 among 106 specimens were found to be collected from patients already treated for syphilis. The concordance rate between the results of AutoTPPA and FTA-ABS was 97.8%. The results of conventional TPPA and AutoTPPA for 250 samples were concordant in 241 cases (96.4%). AutoRPR showed higher specificity than that of VDRL, while VDRL demonstrated higher sensitivity than that of AutoRPR regardless of whether the patients had been already treated for syphilis or not. Both FTA-ABS and AutoTPPA showed high sensitivities and specificities greater than 98.0%. Automated RPR and TPPA tests could be alternatives to conventional syphilis tests, and AutoRPR would be particularly suitable in treatment monitoring, since results by AutoRPR in cases after treatment became negative more rapidly than by VDRL. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. N3LO NN interaction adjusted to light nuclei in ab exitu approach

    DOE PAGES

    Shirokov, A. M.; Shin, I. J.; Kim, Y.; ...

    2016-08-09

    Here, we use phase-equivalent transformations to adjust off-shell properties of similarity renormalization group evolved chiral effective field theory NN interaction (Idaho N3LO) to fit selected binding energies and spectra of light nuclei in an ab exitu approach. Then, we test the transformed interaction on a set of additional observables in light nuclei to verify that it provides reasonable descriptions of these observables with an apparent reduced need for three- and many-nucleon interactions.

  10. Kwang Ju AB, Korea, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A, C - F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    VISIBILITY AIP wATHER SERVICE/MAC � KWANGJU AB KO 68-69,73-80 OCT STATION STATION NA.. V.AN. MONVN PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE ___OCO-C2C (FROM...8217.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , , , II I l I l l l l ! uLL05AL CLIMATOLOGY 4RANCH S USAFETAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY A!O ’ WATHER SERVICE/MAC 43,15b

  11. Ab initio calculations of potential energy curves of Hg/sub 2/ and TlHg

    SciT

    Celestino, K.C.; Ermler, W.C.

    1984-08-15

    Potential energy curves for electronic states of Hg/sub 2/ and TlHg are presented and analyzed. They are derived using large scale configuration interaction procedures for the valence electrons, with the core electrons represented by ab initio relativistic effective potentials. The effect of spin-orbit coupling are investigated for the low-lying excimer states. It is determined that neither system possesses strongly bound electronic states for which transitions to the repulsive ground states are optically allowed.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The hot Jupiter Kepler-13Ab planet's occultation (Shporer+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shporer, A.; O'Rourke, J. G.; Knutson, H. A.; Szabo, G. M.; Zhao, M.; Burrows, A.; Fortney, J.; Agol, E.; Cowan, N. B.; Desert, J.-M.; Howard, A. W.; Isaacson, H.; Lewis, N. K.; Showman, A. P.; Todorov, K. O.

    2017-07-01

    Here we carry out an atmospheric characterization of Kepler-13Ab by measuring its occultation in four different wavelength bands, from the infrared (IR; Spitzer/Infrared array camera (IRAC) 4.5 um and 3.6 um), through the near-IR (NIR; Ks band), to the optical (Kepler). We also analyze the Kepler phase curve and obtain Keck/high-resolution echelle spectrometer (HIRES) spectra that result in revised parameters for the objects in the system. (4 data files).

  13. Understanding the Electronic Structure of the a-B5C:Hx-to-Metal Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    investigating electronic structure is optical absorption spectroscopy, where the absorbance spectrum represents a superposition of optical transitions...6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-63 Understanding the Electronic Structure of the a-B5C:Hx-to...42 4.4. Electronic Structure and Charge Transport Models

  14. Ab initio SCF calculations on the potential energy surface of potassium cyanide (KCN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormer, Paul E. S.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    1981-08-01

    The potential energy surface of KCN has been generated by ab initio SCF calculations in the region of equilibrium bond distances. An analytic representation of the surface is presented. The calculations show that the bonding between K and CN is ionic, and that the structure of KCN is triangular, which confirms recent experimental findings. The computed geometry is &KCN = 62.4°, rCK = 5.492a0, and rCN = 2.186a0.

  15. Ab initio optical potentials and nucleon scattering on medium mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idini, A.; Barbieri, C.; Navrátil, P.

    2018-03-01

    We show first results for the elastic scattering of neutrons off oxygen and calcium isotopes obtained from ab initio optical potentials. The potential is derived using self-consistent Green’s function theory (SCGF) with the saturating chiral interaction NNLOsat. Calculations are compared to available scattering data and show that it is possible to reproduce low energy scattering observables in medium mass nuclei from first principles.

  16. Ab initio calculations for the elastic properties of magnesium under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin'Ko, G. V.; Smirnov, N. A.

    2009-09-01

    Results of ab initio calculations of the elastic constants for the hcp, bcc, double hcp (dhcp), and fcc magnesium in a wide range of pressures are presented. The calculated elastic constants are compared with available experimental and theoretical data. We discuss the effect of the electron topological transition that occurs when the hcp structure is compressed on results of calculations and consider possibility of observing the hcp→dhcp transition on the magnesium Hugoniot.

  17. An L+T Spectral Binary with Possible AB Doradus Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.

    2018-02-01

    We present the identification of WISE J135501.90‑825838.9 as a spectral binary system with a slight possibility of planetary-mass components in the 130–200 Myr AB Doradus moving group. Peculiarities in the near-infrared spectrum of this source suggest it to be a blended-light binary with L6.0 ± 1.0 and T3.0 ± 1.8 or L7.0 ± 0.6 and T7.5 ± 0.4 components. Its proper motion and radial velocity as a combined-light source yield a high membership probability for AB Doradus. While the young L6+T3 case is underluminous in a color–magnitude diagram at the AB Doradus kinematic distance, the young L7+T7.5 case could be viable. Gravity-sensitive indicators are more consistent with a field-age binary. If confirmed as a young object member of AB Doradus, we estimate masses of 11 ± 1 M Jup and 9 ± 1 M Jup with both component masses below the Deuterium-burning mass limit. Otherwise, we find masses of {72}-5+4 and {61}-8+6 for the field L6+T3 case and {70}-4+2 and {42}-6+5 for the field L7+T7.5 case. Our identification of WISE J135501.90‑825838.9 as a candidate young spectral binary introduces a new technique for detecting and characterizing planetary-mass companions to young brown dwarfs.

  18. Fungal-specific transcription factor AbPf2 activates pathogenicity in Alternaria brassicicola

    SciT

    Cho, Yangrae; Ohm, Robin A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. To identify molecular determinants of pathogenicity, we created non-pathogenic mutants of a transcription factor-encoding gene, AbPf2. The frequency and timing of germination and appressorium formation on host plants were similar between the non-pathogenic abpf2 mutants and wild-type A. brassicicola. The mutants were also similar in vitro to wild-type A. brassicicola in terms of vegetative growth, conidium production, and responses to a phytoalexin, reactive oxygen species and osmolites. The hyphae of the mutants grew slowly but did not cause disease symptoms on the surface of host plants. Transcripts of the AbPf2more » gene increased exponentially soon after wild-type conidia contacted their host plants . A small amount of AbPf2 protein, as monitored using GFP fusions, was present in young, mature conidia. The protein level decreased during saprophytic growth, but increased and was located primarily in fungal nuclei during pathogenesis. Levels of the proteins and transcripts sharply decreased following colonization of host tissues beyond the initial infection site. When expression of the transcription factor was induced in the wild-type during early pathogenesis, 106 fungal genes were also induced in the wild-type but not in the abpf2 mutants. Notably, 33 of the 106 genes encoded secreted proteins, including eight putative effector proteins. Plants inoculated with abpf2 mutants expressed higher levels of genes associated with photosynthesis, the pentose phosphate pathway and primary metabolism, but lower levels of defense-related genes. Our results suggest that AbPf2 is an important regulator of pathogenesis, but does not affect other cellular processes in A. brassicicola.« less

  19. Superior ab initio identification, annotation and characterisation of TEs and segmental duplications from genome assemblies.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lu; Kortschak, R Daniel; Raison, Joy M; Bertozzi, Terry; Adelson, David L

    2018-01-01

    Transposable Elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences that make up significant fractions of amniote genomes. However, they are difficult to detect and annotate ab initio because of their variable features, lengths and clade-specific variants. We have addressed this problem by refining and developing a Comprehensive ab initio Repeat Pipeline (CARP) to identify and cluster TEs and other repetitive sequences in genome assemblies. The pipeline begins with a pairwise alignment using krishna, a custom aligner. Single linkage clustering is then carried out to produce families of repetitive elements. Consensus sequences are then filtered for protein coding genes and then annotated using Repbase and a custom library of retrovirus and reverse transcriptase sequences. This process yields three types of family: fully annotated, partially annotated and unannotated. Fully annotated families reflect recently diverged/young known TEs present in Repbase. The remaining two types of families contain a mixture of novel TEs and segmental duplications. These can be resolved by aligning these consensus sequences back to the genome to assess copy number vs. length distribution. Our pipeline has three significant advantages compared to other methods for ab initio repeat identification: 1) we generate not only consensus sequences, but keep the genomic intervals for the original aligned sequences, allowing straightforward analysis of evolutionary dynamics, 2) consensus sequences represent low-divergence, recently/currently active TE families, 3) segmental duplications are annotated as a useful by-product. We have compared our ab initio repeat annotations for 7 genome assemblies to other methods and demonstrate that CARP compares favourably with RepeatModeler, the most widely used repeat annotation package.

  20. Superior ab initio identification, annotation and characterisation of TEs and segmental duplications from genome assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lu; Kortschak, R. Daniel; Raison, Joy M.

    2018-01-01

    Transposable Elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences that make up significant fractions of amniote genomes. However, they are difficult to detect and annotate ab initio because of their variable features, lengths and clade-specific variants. We have addressed this problem by refining and developing a Comprehensive ab initio Repeat Pipeline (CARP) to identify and cluster TEs and other repetitive sequences in genome assemblies. The pipeline begins with a pairwise alignment using krishna, a custom aligner. Single linkage clustering is then carried out to produce families of repetitive elements. Consensus sequences are then filtered for protein coding genes and then annotated using Repbase and a custom library of retrovirus and reverse transcriptase sequences. This process yields three types of family: fully annotated, partially annotated and unannotated. Fully annotated families reflect recently diverged/young known TEs present in Repbase. The remaining two types of families contain a mixture of novel TEs and segmental duplications. These can be resolved by aligning these consensus sequences back to the genome to assess copy number vs. length distribution. Our pipeline has three significant advantages compared to other methods for ab initio repeat identification: 1) we generate not only consensus sequences, but keep the genomic intervals for the original aligned sequences, allowing straightforward analysis of evolutionary dynamics, 2) consensus sequences represent low-divergence, recently/currently active TE families, 3) segmental duplications are annotated as a useful by-product. We have compared our ab initio repeat annotations for 7 genome assemblies to other methods and demonstrate that CARP compares favourably with RepeatModeler, the most widely used repeat annotation package. PMID:29538441

  1. JBIR-23 and -24, novel anticancer agents from Streptomyces sp. AK-AB27.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Keiichiro; Hwang, Ji-Hwan; Sekido, Yoshitaka; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2009-01-15

    The screening for active compounds against malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells produced by Streptomyces sp. AK-AB27 resulted in the isolation of two compounds with a dodecahydrodibenzo[b,d]furan skeleton named JBIR-23 (1) and -24 (2). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR and MS analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic effects against several MPM cell lines.

  2. Ab interno laser sclerostomy in aphakic patients with glaucoma and chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R P; Javitt, J C

    1990-08-15

    Five patients with aphakia, glaucoma, and chronic inflammation were treated with ab interno sclerostomy by using the continuous wave Nd:YAG laser focused through a sapphire probe. After a follow-up period of 24 to 28 months, three of five patients had good intraocular pressure control. The sclerostomy failed in one patient when it was occluded by vitreous. The second failure was attributed to closure of the sclerostomy because of chronic intraocular inflammation.

  3. 360-degree suture trabeculotomy ab interno to treat open-angle glaucoma: 2-year outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomoki; Kawaji, Takahiro; Hirata, Akira; Mizoguchi, Takanori

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 360-degree suture trabeculotomy (360S-LOT) ab interno for treating open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Risk factors of surgical failure were examined. Patients and methods 360S-LOT ab interno alone was performed for patients with uncontrolled OAG, and combined 360S-LOT ab interno/phacoemulsification was performed for patients with controlled OAG with a visually significant cataract between March 2014 and September 2015 at a single center. The patients were prospectively followed for 2 years. The main outcome measures included 2-year intraocular pressure (IOP), number of anti-glaucoma medications used, postoperative complications, and predictive factors of surgical failure. Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed, with surgical success (with or without medication use) defined as postoperative IOP ≤15 mmHg and IOP reduction ≥20% (criterion A) or IOP ≤12 mmHg and IOP reduction ≥30% (criterion B). Predictive factors were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard ratios. Results A total of 64 eyes of 64 patients were included, and 50 (78%) eyes of 64 eyes underwent a phacoemulsification combination procedure. Surgery significantly reduced IOP from 18.4 ± 2.9 mmHg before surgery to 13.4 ± 3.0 mmHg after surgery (P < 0.001). Patients used an average of 1.8 ± 1.5 medications before surgery and 1.3 ± 1.5 medications after surgery (P = 0.101). No serious postoperative complications were observed. The probability of surgical success was 49.2% and 16.0% using criteria A and B, respectively. No risk factors of surgical failure were identified. Conclusion The 360S-LOT ab interno procedure is a favorable option for treating eyes with mild or moderate OAG. PMID:29844656

  4. Ab interno trabecular bypass surgery with iStent for open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Le, Jimmy T; Bicket, Amanda K; Li, Tianjing

    2018-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: The primary objective is to assess the comparative effectiveness and safety of ab interno trabecular bypass surgery with iStent or iStent inject for OAG in comparison to conventional medical, laser, or surgical treatment. A secondary objective is to examine the effectiveness and safety of iStent or iStent Inject surgery in people who have concomitant phacoemulsification. PMID:27526051

  5. Decohesion models informed by first-principles calculations: The ab initio tensile test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enrique, Raúl A.; Van der Ven, Anton

    2017-10-01

    Extreme deformation and homogeneous fracture can be readily studied via ab initio methods by subjecting crystals to numerical "tensile tests", where the energy of locally stable crystal configurations corresponding to elongated and fractured states are evaluated by means of density functional method calculations. The information obtained can then be used to construct traction curves of cohesive zone models in order to address fracture at the macroscopic scale. In this work, we perform an in depth analysis of traction curves and how ab initio calculations must be interpreted to rigorously parameterize an atomic scale cohesive zone model, using crystalline Ag as an example. Our analysis of traction curves reveal the existence of two qualitatively distinct decohesion criteria: (i) an energy criterion whereby the released elastic energy equals the energy cost of creating two new surfaces and (ii) an instability criterion that occurs at a higher and size independent stress than that of the energy criterion. We find that increasing the size of the simulation cell renders parts of the traction curve inaccessible to ab initio calculations involving the uniform decohesion of the crystal. We also find that the separation distance below which a crack heals is not a material parameter as has been proposed in the past. Finally, we show that a large energy barrier separates the uniformly stressed crystal from the decohered crystal, resolving a paradox predicted by a scaling law based on the energy criterion that implies that large crystals will decohere under vanishingly small stresses. This work clarifies confusion in the literature as to how a cohesive zone model is to be parameterized with ab initio "tensile tests" in the presence of internal relaxations.

  6. Performance evaluation of four dominant anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb) kits in Japan for preventing de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Eiji; Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yoshioka, Nori; Kita, Mifumi; Asari, Seishi; Suehisa, Etsuji; Hidaka, Yoh; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    The determination of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb) has become an important means of evaluating the risk factors of de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection before starting intensive immunosuppressive drug therapies. Four dominant HBcAb determination reagents used in Japan were evaluated with HBcIgM, HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAb, and HBV DNA reagents in order to study their clinical utility. Four kinds of HBcAb reagent kits (HBcAb Total and HBcAb-IgG reagent) were evaluated with 526 clinical specimens, including 344 negative specimens, at Osaka University Hospital. The dynamic range of each kit was evaluated by testing serially diluted serum from pooled sera with high HBcAb concentration. The reagent that showed the largest dynamic range was the Lumipulse HBcAb-N (HBcAb-IgG reagent). Regarding clinical sensitivity and specificity, Centaur HBcAb (HBcAb Total reagent) gave several "doubtful negative" results and ARCHITECT HBcII (HBcAb Total reagent) had the most discrepant positive results. By comparing the cut-off-index distribution of negative specimens using a parameter of "distance from the mean to the cut-off divided by the SD", Centaur was determined to be the best (distance/SD = 12.65), with Lumipulse and Elecsys Anti-HBc (HBcAb Total reagent) in the second group (8.13 and 7.00, respectively), and ARCHITECT rated as the worst (3.25). In this evaluation, Elecsys and Lumipulse HBcAb kits showed good clinical sensitivity and specificity and were considered to be suitable for evaluating the risk factors of de novo HBV infection.

  7. Biofilm formation ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium acrAB mutants.

    PubMed

    Schlisselberg, Dov B; Kler, Edna; Kisluk, Guy; Shachar, Dina; Yaron, Sima

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies offer contradictory findings about the role of multidrug efflux pumps in bacterial biofilm development. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the AcrAB efflux pump in biofilm formation by investigating the ability of AcrB and AcrAB null mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to produce biofilms. Three models were used to compare the ability of S. Typhimurium wild-type and its mutants to form biofilms: formation of biofilm on polystyrene surfaces; production of biofilm (mat model) on the air/liquid interface; and expression of curli and cellulose on Congo red-supplemented agar plates. All three investigated genotypes formed biofilms with similar characteristics. However, upon exposure to chloramphenicol, formation of biofilms on solid surfaces as well as the production of curli were either reduced or were delayed more significantly in both mutants, whilst there was no visible effect on pellicle formation. It can be concluded that when no selective pressure is applied, S. Typhimurium is able to produce biofilms even when the AcrAB efflux pumps are inactivated, implying that the use of efflux pump inhibitors to prevent biofilm formation is not a general solution and that combined treatments might be more efficient. Other factors that affect the ability to produce biofilms depending on efflux pump activity are yet to be identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  8. Ab Initio Predictions of Hexagonal Zr(B,C,N) Polymorphs for Coherent Interface Design

    SciT

    Hu, Chongze; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2017-10-27

    Density functional theory calculations are used to explore hexagonal (HX) NiAs-like polymorphs of Zr(B,C,N) and compare with corresponding Zr(B,C,N) Hagg-like face-centered cubic rocksalt (B1) phases. While all predicted compounds are mechanically stable according to the Born-Huang criteria, only HX Zr(C,N) are found dynamically stable from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and lattice dynamics calculations. HX ZrN emerges as a candidate structure with ground state energy, elastic constants, and extrinsic mechanical parameters comparable with those of B1 ZrN. Ab initio band structure and semi-classical Boltzmann transport calculations predict a metallic character and a monotonic increase in electrical conductivity with the numbermore » of valence electrons. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the HX phases gain their stability and mechanical attributes by Zr d- non-metal p hybridization and by broadening of Zr d bands. Furthermore, it is shown that the HX ZrN phase provides a low-energy coherent interface model for connecting B1 ZrN domains, with significant energetic advantage over an atomistic interface model derived from high resolution transmission electron microscopy images. The ab initio characterizations provided herein should aid the experimental identification of non-Hagg-like hard phases. Furthermore, the results can also enrich the variety of crystalline phases potentially available for designing coherent interfaces in superhard nanostructured materials and in materials with multilayer characteristics.« less

  9. Industrialization of mAb production technology The bioprocessing industry at a crossroads

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturing processes for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have evolved tremendously since the first licensed mAb product in 1986. The rapid growth in product demand for mAbs triggered parallel efforts to increase production capacity through construction of large bulk manufacturing plants as well as improvements in cell culture processes to raise product titers. This combination has led to an excess of manufacturing capacity, and together with improvements in conventional purification technologies, promises nearly unlimited production capacity in the foreseeable future. The increase in titers has also led to a marked reduction in production costs, which could then become a relatively small fraction of sales price for future products which are sold at prices at or near current levels. The reduction of capacity and cost pressures for current state-of-the-art bulk production processes may shift the focus of process development efforts and have important implications for both plant design and product development strategies for both biopharmaceutical and contract manufacturing companies. PMID:20065641

  10. An ab initio-based Er–He interatomic potential in hcp Er

    SciT

    Yang, Li; ye, Yeting; Fan, K. M.

    2014-09-01

    We have developed an empirical erbium-helium (Er-He) potential by fitting to the results calculated from ab initio method. Based on the electronic hybridization between Er and He atoms, an s-band model, along with a repulsive pair potential, has been derived to describe the Er-He interaction. The atomic configurations and the formation energies of single He defects, small He interstitial clusters (Hen) and He-vacancy (HenV ) clusters obtained by ab initio calculations are used as the fitting database. The binding energies and relative stabilities of the HnVm clusters are studied by the present potential and compared with the ab initio calculations.more » The Er-He potential is also applied to study the migration of He in hcp-Er at different temperatures, and He clustering is found to occur at 600 K in hcp Er crystal, which may be due to the anisotropic migration behavior of He interstitials.« less

  11. Ab Initio Prediction of Adsorption Isotherms for Small Molecules in Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Arpan; Piccini, GiovanniMaria; Sillar, Kaido; Sauer, Joachim

    2016-10-26

    For CO and N 2 on Mg 2+ sites of the metal-organic framework CPO-27-Mg (Mg-MOF-74), ab initio calculations of Gibbs free energies of adsorption have been performed. Combined with the Bragg-Williams/Langmuir model and taking into account the experimental site availability (76.5%), we obtained adsorption isotherms in close agreement with those in experiment. The remaining deviations in the Gibbs free energy (about 1 kJ/mol) are significantly smaller than the "chemical accuracy" limit of about 4 kJ/mol. The presented approach uses (i) a DFT dispersion method (PBE+D2) to optimize the structure and to calculate anharmonic frequencies for vibrational partition functions and (ii) a "hybrid MP2:(PBE+D2)+ΔCCSD(T)" method to determine electronic energies. With the achieved accuracy (estimated uncertainty ±1.4 kJ/mol), the ab initio energies become useful benchmarks for assessing different DFT + dispersion methods (PBE+D2, B3LYP+D*, and vdW-D2), whereas the ab initio heats, entropies, and Gibbs free energies of adsorption are used to assess the reliability of experimental values derived from fitting isotherms or from variable-temperature IR studies.

  12. Thermal and mechanical properties of 3D printed boron nitride - ABS composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quill, Tyler J.; Smith, Matthew K.; Zhou, Tony; Baioumy, Mohamed Gamal Shafik; Berenguer, Joao Paulo; Cola, Baratunde A.; Kalaitzidou, Kyriaki; Bougher, Thomas L.

    2017-11-01

    The current work investigates the thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of Boron Nitride (BN)-Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) composites prepared using both 3D printing and injection molding. The thermally conductive, yet electrically insulating composite material provides a unique combination of properties that make it desirable for heat dissipation and packaging applications in electronics. Materials were fabricated via melt mixing on a twin-screw compounder, then injection molded or extruded into filament for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. Compositions of up to 35 wt.% BN in ABS were prepared, and the infill orientation of the 3D printed composites was varied to investigate the effect on properties. Injection molding produced a maximum in-plane conductivity of 1.45 W/m-K at 35 wt.% BN, whereas 3D printed samples of 35 wt.% BN showed a value of 0.93 W/m-K, over 5 times the conductivity of pure ABS. The resulting thermal conductivity is anisotropic; with the through-plane thermal conductivity lower by a factor of 3 for injection molding and 4 for 3D printing. Adding BN flakes caused a modest increase in the flexural modulus, but resulted in a large decrease in the flexural strength and impact toughness. It is shown that although injection molding produces parts with superior thermal and mechanical properties, BN shows much potential as a filler material for rapid prototyping of thermally conductive composites.

  13. 7Be(p,gamma)8B S-factor from Ab Initio Wave Functions

    SciT

    Navratil, P; Bertulani, C A; Caurier, E

    2006-10-12

    There has been a significant progress in ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) predicts low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. It is a challenging task to extend ab initio methods to describe nuclear reactions. We present here a brief overview of the first steps taken toward nuclear reaction applications. In particular, we discuss our calculation of the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B S-factor. We also present our first results of the {sup 3}He({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Be S-factor and of the S-factor of the mirror reaction {sup 3}H({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Li.more » The {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B and {sup 3}He({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Be reactions correspond to the most important uncertainties in solar model predictions of neutrino fluxes.« less

  14. Filaments Production and Fused Deposition Modelling of ABS/Carbon Nanotubes Composites

    PubMed Central

    Fambri, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Composite acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS)/carbon nanotubes (CNT) filaments at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt %, suitable for fused deposition modelling (FDM) were obtained by using a completely solvent-free process based on direct melt compounding and extrusion. The optimal CNT content in the filaments for FDM was found to be 6 wt %; for this composite, a detailed investigation of the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties was performed. Presence of CNT in ABS filaments and 3D-printed parts resulted in a significant enhancement of the tensile modulus and strength, accompanied by a reduction of the elongation at break. As documented by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, the stiffening effect of CNTs in ABS is particularly pronounced at high temperatures. Besides, the presence of CNT in 3D-printed parts accounts for better creep and thermal dimensional stabilities of 3D-printed parts, accompanied by a reduction of the coefficient of thermal expansion). 3D-printed nanocomposite samples with 6 wt % of CNT exhibited a good electrical conductivity, even if lower than pristine composite filaments. PMID:29346291

  15. Anti-GD2 mAb and Vorinostat synergize in the treatment of neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kroesen, Michiel; Büll, Christian; Gielen, Paul R.; Brok, Ingrid C.; Armandari, Inna; Wassink, Melissa; Looman, Maaike W. G.; Boon, Louis; den Brok, Martijn H.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Adema, Gosse J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neuroblastoma (NBL) is a childhood malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system. For high-risk NBL patients, the mortality rate is still over 50%, despite intensive multimodal treatment. Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAB) in combination with systemic cytokine immunotherapy has shown clinical efficacy in high-risk NBL patients. Targeted therapy using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is currently being explored in cancer treatment and already shows promising results. Using our recently developed transplantable TH-MYCN NBL model, we here report that the HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat synergizes with anti-GD2 mAb therapy in reducing NBL tumor growth. Further mechanistic studies uncovered multiple mechanisms for the observed synergy, including Vorinostat-induced specific NBL cell death and upregulation of the tumor antigen GD2 on the cell surface of surviving NBL cells. Moreover, Vorinostat created a permissive tumor microenvironment (TME) for tumor-directed mAb therapy by increasing macrophage effector cells expressing high levels of Fc-receptors (FcR) and decreasing the number and function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Collectively, these data imply further testing of other epigenetic modulators with immunotherapy and provide a strong basis for clinical testing of anti-GD2 plus Vorinostat combination therapy in NBL patients. PMID:27471639

  16. Anti-GD2 mAb and Vorinostat synergize in the treatment of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kroesen, Michiel; Büll, Christian; Gielen, Paul R; Brok, Ingrid C; Armandari, Inna; Wassink, Melissa; Looman, Maaike W G; Boon, Louis; den Brok, Martijn H; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Adema, Gosse J

    2016-06-01

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is a childhood malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system. For high-risk NBL patients, the mortality rate is still over 50%, despite intensive multimodal treatment. Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAB) in combination with systemic cytokine immunotherapy has shown clinical efficacy in high-risk NBL patients. Targeted therapy using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is currently being explored in cancer treatment and already shows promising results. Using our recently developed transplantable TH-MYCN NBL model, we here report that the HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat synergizes with anti-GD2 mAb therapy in reducing NBL tumor growth. Further mechanistic studies uncovered multiple mechanisms for the observed synergy, including Vorinostat-induced specific NBL cell death and upregulation of the tumor antigen GD2 on the cell surface of surviving NBL cells. Moreover, Vorinostat created a permissive tumor microenvironment (TME) for tumor-directed mAb therapy by increasing macrophage effector cells expressing high levels of Fc-receptors (FcR) and decreasing the number and function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Collectively, these data imply further testing of other epigenetic modulators with immunotherapy and provide a strong basis for clinical testing of anti-GD2 plus Vorinostat combination therapy in NBL patients.

  17. Filaments Production and Fused Deposition Modelling of ABS/Carbon Nanotubes Composites.

    PubMed

    Dul, Sithiprumnea; Fambri, Luca; Pegoretti, Alessandro

    2018-01-18

    Composite acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)/carbon nanotubes (CNT) filaments at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt %, suitable for fused deposition modelling (FDM) were obtained by using a completely solvent-free process based on direct melt compounding and extrusion. The optimal CNT content in the filaments for FDM was found to be 6 wt %; for this composite, a detailed investigation of the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties was performed. Presence of CNT in ABS filaments and 3D-printed parts resulted in a significant enhancement of the tensile modulus and strength, accompanied by a reduction of the elongation at break. As documented by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, the stiffening effect of CNTs in ABS is particularly pronounced at high temperatures. Besides, the presence of CNT in 3D-printed parts accounts for better creep and thermal dimensional stabilities of 3D-printed parts, accompanied by a reduction of the coefficient of thermal expansion). 3D-printed nanocomposite samples with 6 wt % of CNT exhibited a good electrical conductivity, even if lower than pristine composite filaments.

  18. Two-mAb Cocktail Protects Macaques Against The Makona Variant of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiangguo; Audet, Jonathan; Lv, Ming; He, Shihua; Wong, Gary; Wei, Haiyan; Luo, Longlong; Fernando, Lisa; Kroeker, Andrea; Bovendo, Hugues Fausther; Bello, Alexander; Li, Feng; Ye, Pei; Jacobs, Michael; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Bi, Shengli; Shen, Beifen; Gao, George F; Zeitlin, Larry; Feng, Jiannan; Zhang, Boyan; Kobinger, Gary P.

    2018-01-01

    The 2014–15 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa highlighted the urgent need for specific therapeutic interventions for infected patients. The human-mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktail ZMapp™, previously shown to be efficacious in EBOV (variant Kikwit) lethally infected nonhuman primates (NHPs) when administration was initiated up to 5 days, was used in some patients during the outbreak. Here we show that a two-antibody cocktail, MIL77E, is fully protective in NHPs when administered at 50 mg/kg 3 days after challenge with a lethal dose of EBOV, variant Makona, the virus responsible for the ongoing 2014–15 outbreak, while a similar formulation of ZMapp™ protected 2 of 3 NHPs. The chimeric MIL77E mAb cocktail is produced in engineered CHO cells and is based on mAbs c13C6 and c2G4 from ZMapp™. The use of only 2 antibodies in MIL77E opens the door to a pan-ebolavirus cocktail. PMID:26962157

  19. Registration of immunoglobuline AB/AG reaction with planar polarization interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabok, Alexei V.; Starodub, Nickolaj F.; Ray, Asim K.; Hassan, Aseel K.

    2000-12-01

    Immobilization of human immunoglobuline (IgG) (AG) and goat on human IGG antibodies (AB) as well as AB/AG specific reaction were studied with planar polarization interferometry (PPI). In this novel method, polarized laser beam was coupled into the planar waveguide made on silicon wafer and consisted of 20nm Si3N4 layer sandwiched between two 1.5 micrometers SiO2 layers with the sensing window etched in the top SIO2 layer. One of the immune components was deposited by means of polyelectrolyte self- assembly on top of the Si3N3 layer within the sensing window, P-component of the polarized light is sensitive to adsorption, while s-component serves as a reference. Thus the outcoming light intensity depends on the phase shift between s- and p-components. Different sequences of immobilization of the immune components were studied with both surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and PPI methods. It was shown that predeposition of a monolayer of protein A, which is believed to affect the orientation of the immune components, causes an additional increase in the sensitivity. PPI method allowed us to improve substantially the sensitivity towards AB/AG reaction as compared to traditional SPR method. Particularly, of specific binding of 3ng/ml AG was registered.

  20. Self-Interaction Chromatography of mAbs: Accurate Measurement of Dead Volumes.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, S H M; Heng, J Y Y; Williams, D R; Liddell, J M

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of the second virial coefficient B22 for proteins using self-interaction chromatography (SIC) is becoming an increasingly important technique for studying their solution behaviour. In common with all physicochemical chromatographic methods, measuring the dead volume of the SIC packed column is crucial for accurate retention data; this paper examines best practise for dead volume determination. SIC type experiments using catalase, BSA, lysozyme and a mAb as model systems are reported, as well as a number of dead column measurements. It was observed that lysozyme and mAb interacted specifically with Toyopearl AF-Formyl dead columns depending upon pH and [NaCl], invalidating their dead volume usage. Toyopearl AF-Amino packed dead columns showed no such problems and acted as suitable dead columns without any solution condition dependency. Dead volume determinations using dextran MW standards with protein immobilised SIC columns provided dead volume estimates close to those obtained using Toyopearl AF-Amino dead columns. It is concluded that specific interactions between proteins, including mAbs, and select SIC support phases can compromise the use of some standard approaches for estimating the dead volume of SIC columns. Two other methods were shown to provide good estimates for the dead volume.