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Sample records for e-waste recycling town

  1. Blood lead and cadmium levels and relevant factors among children from an e-waste recycling town in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Liangkai; Wu Kusheng; Li Yan

    Background: Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is ongoing in Guiyu, and thus toxic heavy metals may keep on threatening to the health of local children. Some related factors may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) or blood cadmium levels (BCLs). Objective: To investigate the children's BLLs and BCLs in Guiyu and Chendian as compare to discuss the effects of primitive e-waste recycling activities on children's health. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-eight children less than 8 years who lived in Guiyu and Chendian were observed, and their BLLs and BCLs were determined by graphite atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Questionnairemore » survey for risk factors was also performed and data were analyzed using spearman correlation analyses and logistic regression analyses. Results: Children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs and BCLs as compared with those living in Chendian (p<0.01). In Guiyu, 70.8% of children (109/154) had BLLs>10 {mu}g/dL, and 20.1% of children (31/154) had BCLs>2 {mu}g/L, compared with 38.7% of children (48/124) had BLLs>10 {mu}g/dL and 7.3% of children (9/124) had BCLs>2 {mu}g/L in Chendian (p<0.01, respectively). We also observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p<0.01). Mean height of children in Guiyu was significantly lower than that in Chendian (p<0.01). The risk factors related to children's BLLs and BCLs mainly included father's engagement in the work related to e-waste, children's residence in Guiyu and the amount of time that children played outside near the road everyday. Conclusions: There are close relationships between the BLLs, BCLs in children and the primitive e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu. Environmental pollution, especially lead pollution, has threatened the health of children living around e-waste recycling site.« less

  2. The assessment of source attribution of soil pollution in a typical e-waste recycling town and its surrounding regions using the combined organic and inorganic dataset.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Xie, Xianming; Gu, X W Sophie; Wang, Jinji

    2017-01-01

    Guiyu is a well-known electronic waste dismantling and recycling town in south China. Concentrations and distribution of the 21 mineral elements and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) collected there were evaluated. Principal component analyses (PCA) applied to the data matrix of PAHs in the soil extracted three major factors explaining 85.7% of the total variability identified as traffic emission, coal combustion, and an unidentified source. By using metallic or metalloid element concentrations as variables, five principal components (PCs) were identified and accounted for 70.4% of the information included in the initial data matrix, which can be denoted as e-waste dismantling-related contamination, two different geological origins, anthropogenic influenced source, and marine aerosols. Combining the 21 metallic and metalloid element datasets with the 16 PAH concentrations can narrow down the coarse source and decrease the unidentified contribution to soil in the present study and therefore effectively assists the source identification process.

  3. Association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and lead co-exposure with child physical growth and development in an e-waste recycling town.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Huang, Chaoying; Lu, Fangfang; Chiung, Yin Mei; Huo, Xia

    2015-11-01

    Informal e-waste recycling activities results in serious environmental pollution of PAHs. We evaluated the body burden of 16 PAH congeners and potential health risks for children. A total of 167 children from exposed and reference area entered this study. Child blood samples were collected; height, weight, head and chest circumferences were measured. Blood PAH and lead concentrations were determined. The blood median of total PAHs from the exposed group was significantly higher than the reference group (68.53μg/L vs. 26.92μg/L, P<0.01). The major sources of Σ16-PAH and Σ7 carcinogenic-PAH were residence adjacent to e-waste workshop, paternal occupation related to e-waste recycling and house as a workshop. Inverse correlations were observed in the age and milk consumption with these two PAH groups, while a positive association was found between BMI and Σ7 carcinogenic-PAH, and between child height and blood lead. When divided into high and low exposure groups by Σ16-PAH, a significant negative association was found between body height and blood PAHs (β and 95%CI: -3.838, -6.469 to -1.206), while for weight and chest circumferences, negative associations were obtained only in the male subgroup before adjustment. After adjustment by sex, age, child milk products consumption per month and blood lead, child height was negatively associated with Σ16-PAH (β and 95%CI: -3.884, -6.736 to -1.033). Same trends were observed for child chest circumference (β and 95%CI: -1.147, -2.229 to -0.065). We suggest a negative association of PAHs and child height and chest circumference, while the correlation is more obvious in boys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development potential of e-waste recycling industry in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Yang, Jie; Liu, Lili

    2015-06-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) recycling industries in China have been through several phases from spontaneous informal family workshops to qualified enterprises with treatment fund. This study attempts to analyse the development potential of the e-waste recycling industry in China from the perspective of both time and scale potential. An estimation and forecast of e-waste quantities in China shows that, the total e-waste amount reached approximately 5.5 million tonnes in 2013, with 83% of air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines, televisions sand computers. The total quantity is expected to reach ca. 11.7 million tonnes in 2020 and 20 million tonnes in 2040, which indicates a large increase potential. Moreover, the demand for recycling processing facilities, the optimal service radius of e-waste recycling enterprises and estimation of the profitability potential of the e-waste recycling industry were analysed. Results show that, based on the e-waste collection demand, e-waste recycling enterprises therefore have a huge development potential in terms of both quantity and processing capacity, with 144 and 167 e-waste recycling facilities needed, respectively, by 2020 and 2040. In the case that e-waste recycling enterprises set up their own collection points to reduce the collection cost, the optimal collection service radius is estimated to be in the range of 173 km to 239 km. With an e-waste treatment fund subsidy, the e-waste recycling industry has a small economic profit, for example ca. US$2.5/unit for television. The annual profit for the e-waste recycling industry overall was about 90 million dollars in 2013. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Global responses for recycling waste CRTs in e-waste.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narendra; Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai

    2016-11-01

    The management of used cathode ray tube (CRT) devices is a major problem worldwide due to rapid uptake of the technology and early obsolescence of CRT devices, which is considered an environment hazard if disposed improperly. Previously, their production has grown in step with computer and television demand but later on with rapid technological innovation; TVs and computer screens has been replaced by new products such as Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) and Plasma Display Panel (PDPs). This change creates a large volume of waste stream of obsolete CRTs waste in developed countries and developing countries will be becoming major CRTs waste producers in the upcoming years. We studied that there is also high level of trans-boundary movement of these devices as second-hand electronic equipment into developing countries in an attempt to bridge the 'digital divide'. Moreover, the current global production of e-waste is estimated to be '41million tonnes per year' where a major part of the e-waste stream consists of CRT devices. This review article provides a concise overview of world's current CRTs waste scenario, namely magnitude of the demand and processing, current disposal and recycling operations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Airborne PCDD/Fs in two e-waste recycling regions after stricter environmental regulations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Manwen; Feng, Guixian; Yin, Wenhua; Xie, Bing; Ren, Mingzhong; Xu, Zhencheng; Zhang, Sukun; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-12-01

    Since the 2010s, the authorities of Guangdong province and local governments have enhanced law enforcement and environmental regulations to abolish open burning, acid washing, and other uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities. In this study, ambient air and indoor dust near different kinds of e-waste recycling processes were collected in Guiyu and Qingyuan to investigate the pollution status of particles and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) after stricter environmental regulations. PM 2.5 and PCDD/Fs both showed significantly reduced levels in the two regions compared with the documented data. The congener distribution and principal component analysis results also confirmed the significant differences between the current PCDD/Fs pollution characterizations and the historical ones. The estimated total intake doses via air inhalation and dust ingestion of children in the recycling region of Guiyu ranged from 10 to 32pgTEQ/(kg•day), which far exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) limit (1-4pgTEQ/(kg•day). Although the measurements showed a significant reduction of the release of PCDD/Fs, the pollution status was still considered severe in Guiyu town after stricter regulations were implemented. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Contamination by trace elements at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Agusa, Tetsuro; Ramu, Karri; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Murata, Satoko; Bulbule, Keshav A; Parthasaraty, Peethmbaram; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-06-01

    The recycling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing an increasing concern due to its effects on the environment and associated human health risks. To understand the contamination status, we measured trace elements (TEs) in soil, air dust, and human hair collected from e-waste recycling sites (a recycling facility and backyard recycling units) and the reference sites in Bangalore and Chennai in India. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Bi were higher in soil from e-waste recycling sites compared to reference sites. For Cu, Sb, Hg, and Pb in some soils from e-waste sites, the levels exceeded screening values proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, In, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb and Bi in air from the e-waste recycling facility were relatively higher than the levels in Chennai city. High levels of Cu, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Tl, and Pb were observed in hair of male workers from e-waste recycling sites. Our results suggest that e-waste recycling and its disposal may lead to the environmental and human contamination by some TEs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on TE contamination at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

  8. From electronic consumer products to e-wastes: Global outlook, waste quantities, recycling challenges.

    PubMed

    Tansel, Berrin

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in technology, materials development, and manufacturing processes have changed the consumer products and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) since 1960s. Increasing quantities of discarded consumer products remain a major challenge for recycling efforts, especially for discarded electronic products (also referred as e-waste). The growing demand for high tech products has increased the e-waste quantities and its cross boundary transport globally. This paper reviews the challenges associated with increasing e-waste quantities. The increasing need for raw materials (especially for rare earth and minor elements) and unregulated e-waste recycling operations in developing and underdeveloped counties contribute to the growing concerns for e-waste management. Although the markets for recycled materials are increasing; there are major challenges for development of the necessary infrastructure for e-waste management and accountability as well as development of effective materials recovery technologies and product design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High levels of antimony in dust from e-waste recycling in southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiangyang; Li, Zhonggen; Zhuang, Xiaochun; Han, Zhixuan; Yang, Wenlin

    2011-11-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global issue. Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element used in semiconductor components and flame retardants for circuit board within electronic equipment. When e-waste is recycled, Sb is released and contaminates the surrounding environment; however, few studies have characterized the extent of this problem. In this study, we investigated Sb and arsenic (As) distributions in indoor dust from 13 e-waste recycling villages in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, southeastern China. Results revealed significantly elevated concentrations of Sb (6.1-232 mg/kg) in dust within all villages, which were 3.9-147 times higher than those from the non e-waste sites, indicating e-waste recycling was an important source of Sb pollution. On the contrary, As concentrations (5.4-17.7 mg/kg) in e-waste dusts were similar to reference values from the control sites. Therefore, dusts emitted from e-waste recycling may be characterized by high Sb/As ratios, which may help identify the contamination due to the e-waste recycling activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Designing and examining e-waste recycling process: methodology and case studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; He, Xin; Zeng, Xianlai

    2017-03-01

    Increasing concerns on resource depletion and environmental pollution have largely obliged electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) should be tackled in an environmentally sound manner. Recycling process development is regarded as the most effective and fundamental to solve the e-waste problem. Based on global achievements related to e-waste recycling in the past 15 years, we first propose a theory to design an e-waste recycling process, including measuring e-waste recyclability and selection of recycling process. And we summarize the indicators and tools in terms of resource dimension, environmental dimension, and economic dimension, to examine the e-waste recycling process. Using the sophisticated experience and adequate information of e-waste management, spent lithium-ion batteries and waste printed circuit boards are chosen as case studies to implement and verify the proposed method. All the potential theory and obtained results in this work can contribute to future e-waste management toward best available techniques and best environmental practices.

  11. Heavy metals in hair of residents in an e-waste recycling area, south China: contents and assessment of bodily state.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yuan, Jian-Gang; He, Luo-Yiyi; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Luo, Yong; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals were measured in hair from occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed populations in an e-waste recycling area and from residents from a control rural town. The levels of five heavy metals were in the following order of Zn > Pb, Cu > Cd > Ni, with the highest levels found in the occupationally exposed workers. The levels of Cd, Pb, and Cu were significantly higher in residents from the e-waste recycling area than in the control area. Elevated Cd, Pb, and Cu contents along with significant positive correlations between them in hair from the e-waste recycling area indicated that these metals were likely to have originated from the e-waste recycling activities. The similarity in heavy metal pattern between children and occupationally exposed workers indicated that children are particularly vulnerable to heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities. The increased Cu exposure might be a benefit for the insufficient intake of Cu in the studied area. However, the elevated hair Cd and Pb levels implied that the residents in the e-waste area might be at high risk of toxic metal, especially for children and occupationally exposed workers.

  12. Residents' behaviors, attitudes, and willingness to pay for recycling e-waste in Macau.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2012-09-15

    Large quantities of e-waste are presently being generated in Macau, but since recycling facilities and laws on e-waste still need to be developed, most e-waste cannot currently be properly treated. Moreover, little is known about residents' behaviors, attitudes, and their willingness to pay (WTP) for recycling e-waste. These issues are discussed in this study, based on a questionnaire survey on household electronic product usage. In 2010, "Life span completed" was the primary reason respondents abandoned their electronic products, accounting for about 37.97% of responses; the main disposal methods of e-waste in Macau were "Retailers retrieve from consumer" and "Sale to a recycling corporation." While having little understanding of e-waste disposal issues, most residents were still willing to hand their e-waste into the government for centralized collection. In addition, the respondents gave "telephone reservation" as their preferred collection method. Finally, the residents' WTP in Macau was estimated by the logistic regression method. It was found that education level, age and household income were the significant factors affecting residents' WTP. The monthly mean WTP was 20.03MOP (2.50 US dollar) per household, and the annual WTP was approximately 40,185,067 MOP (5,023,133 US dollar) for all of Macau. The results of our study can help managers develop more effective environmental management policies for e-waste disposal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future.

    PubMed

    Man, Ming; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. State-of-the-art of recycling e-wastes by vacuum metallurgy separation.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-12-16

    In recent era, more and more electric and electronic equipment wastes (e-wastes) are generated that contain both toxic and valuable materials in them. Most studies focus on the extraction of valuable metals like Au, Ag from e-wastes. However, the recycling of metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn, and organics has not attracted enough attentions. Vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) processes can reduce pollution significantly using vacuum technique. It can effectively recycle heavy metals and organics from e-wastes in an environmentally friendly way, which is beneficial for both preventing the heavy metal contaminations and the sustainable development of resources. VMS can be classified into several methods, such as vacuum evaporation, vacuum carbon reduction and vacuum pyrolysis. This paper respectively reviews the state-of-art of these methods applied to recycling heavy metals and organics from several kinds of e-wastes. The method principle, equipment used, separating process, optimized operating parameters and recycling mechanism of each case are illustrated in details. The perspectives on the further development of e-wastes recycling by VMS are also presented.

  15. Informal E-waste recycling in developing countries: review of metal(loid)s pollution, environmental impacts and transport pathways.

    PubMed

    Ackah, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Crude or primitive recycling practices are often adopted in material resource recovery from E-waste in developing nations. Significant human health and environmental impacts may occur because of such practices. Literature on metal(loid)s pollution during E-waste processing is fragmented. Here, I review the health and environmental impacts of E-waste recycling operations and transport pathways of metal(loid)s, dispersed during operations. This paper is organised into five sections. Section 1 relates to the background of global E-waste generation and legal/illegal trade, citing specific cases from Ghana and other developing nations. Section 2 provides a brief information on sources of metal(loid)s in E-waste. Section 3 describes characteristics of informal E-waste recycling operations in developing nations. Section 4 examines the health and environmental impacts in E-waste recycling while section 5 evaluates major transport pathways of metal(loid)s contaminants.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ΣPBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of Σ18PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. AUTOMATED REMOVAL OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANT MATERIAL FROM A MIXED E-WASTE PLASTICS RECYCLING STREAM - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the most rapidly growing waste problems worldwide. Improper handling of e-waste results in vast amounts of toxic waste being sent to landfills and leaching into the water supply. Because of these concerns, e-waste recycling is a rapidly gro...

  18. AUTOMATED REMOVAL OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANT MATERIAL FROM A MIXED E-WASTE PLASTICS RECYCLING STREAM - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the most rapidly growing waste problems worldwide. Improper handling of e-waste results in vast amounts of toxic waste being sent to landfill and leaching into the water supply. Due to there concerns e-waste recycling is a rapidly growing...

  19. AUTOMATED IDENTIFICATION AND SORTING OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN AN E-WASTE RECYCLING STREAM - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the most rapidly growing waste problems worldwide. Improper handling of e-waste results in vast amounts of toxic waste being sent to landfill and leaching into the water supply. Due to these concerns, e-waste recycling is a rapidly gro...

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan

    Highlights: • PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. • PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. • The levels of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. • The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well asmore » dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ΣPBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of Σ{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.« less

  1. Elevated Blood Lead Levels of Children in Guiyu, an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xia; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Liangkai; Qiu, Bo; Qi, Zongli; Zhang, Bao; Han, Dai; Piao, Zhongxian

    2007-01-01

    Background Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has remained primitive in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living in the local environment. Objectives We compared the BLLs in children living in the e-waste recycling town of Guiyu with those living in the neighboring town of Chendian. Methods We observed the processing of e-waste recycling in Guiyu and studied BLLs in a cluster sample of 226 children < 6 years of age who lived in Guiyu and Chendian. BLLs were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and physical indexes (height and weight, head and chest circumferences) were also measured. Results BLLs in 165 children of Guiyu ranged from 4.40 to 32.67 μg/dL with a mean of 15.3 μg/dL, whereas BLLs in 61 children of Chendian were from 4.09 to 23.10 μg/dL with a mean of 9.94 μg/dL. Statistical analyses showed that children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs compared with those living in Chendian (p < 0.01). Of children in Guiyu, 81.8% (135 of 165) had BLLs > 10 μg/dL, compared with 37.7% of children (23 of 61) in Chendian (p < 0.01). In addition, we observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p < 0.01). It appeared that there was correlation between the BLLs in children and numbers of e-waste workshops. However, no significant difference in Hgb level or physical indexes was found between the two towns. Conclusions The primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the elevated BLLs in children living in Guiyu. PMID:17637931

  2. Occupational health hazards related to informal recycling of E-waste in India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Jayapradha

    2015-01-01

    The innovation in science and technology coupled with the change in lifestyle of an individual has made an incredible change in the electronic industry show casing an assorted range of new products every day to the world. India too has been impacted by this digital revolution where consumption of electronics goods grows at a rapid rate producing a large amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment. This substantial generation of electronic waste referred to as e-waste accompanied with the lack of stringent environmental laws and regulations for handling the hazardous e-waste has resulted in the cropping of number of informal sectors. Over 95% of the e-waste is treated and processed in the majority of urban slums of the country, where untrained workers carry out the dangerous procedures without personal protective equipment, which are detrimental not only to their health but also to the environment. This paper focuses on the occupational health hazards due to the informal recycling of e-waste and then proceeds to show the safe disposal methods for handling the large quantities of e-waste generated in this electronic era and thus finds a sustainable solution for the formal processing of e-waste. PMID:26023273

  3. Occupational health hazards related to informal recycling of E-waste in India: An overview.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Jayapradha

    2015-01-01

    The innovation in science and technology coupled with the change in lifestyle of an individual has made an incredible change in the electronic industry show casing an assorted range of new products every day to the world. India too has been impacted by this digital revolution where consumption of electronics goods grows at a rapid rate producing a large amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment. This substantial generation of electronic waste referred to as e-waste accompanied with the lack of stringent environmental laws and regulations for handling the hazardous e-waste has resulted in the cropping of number of informal sectors. Over 95% of the e-waste is treated and processed in the majority of urban slums of the country, where untrained workers carry out the dangerous procedures without personal protective equipment, which are detrimental not only to their health but also to the environment. This paper focuses on the occupational health hazards due to the informal recycling of e-waste and then proceeds to show the safe disposal methods for handling the large quantities of e-waste generated in this electronic era and thus finds a sustainable solution for the formal processing of e-waste.

  4. On the effectiveness of a license scheme for E-waste recycling: The challenge of China and India

    SciTech Connect

    Shinkuma, Takayoshi, E-mail: shinkuma@kansai-u.ac.j; Managi, Shunsuke, E-mail: managi@ynu.ac.j

    2010-07-15

    It is well known that China and India have been recycling centers of WEEE, especially printed circuit boards, and that serious environmental pollution in these countries has been generated by improper recycling methods. After the governments of China and India banned improper recycling by the informal sector, improper recycling activities spread to other places. Then, these governments changed their policies to one of promoting proper recycling by introducing a scheme, under which E-waste recycling requires a license issued by the government. In this paper, the effectiveness of that license scheme is examined by means of an economic model. It canmore » be shown that the license scheme can work effectively only if disposers of E-waste have a responsibility to sell E-waste to license holders. Our results run counter to the idea that international E-waste trade should be banned and provide an alternative solution to the problem.« less

  5. Relationship between e-waste recycling and human health risk in India: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    Informal recycling of waste (including e-waste) is an emerging source of environmental pollution in India. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and heavy metals, among other substances, are a major health concern for workers engaged in waste disposal and processing, and for residents living near these facilities, and are also a detriment to the natural environment. The main objective of this review article was to evaluate the status of these impacts. The review found that, huge quantity of e-waste/waste generated, only a small amount is treated formally; the remainder is processed through the informal sector. We also evaluated the exposure pathways, both direct and indirect, and the human body load markers (e.g., serum, blood, breast milk, urine, and hair), and assessed the evidence for the association between these markers and e-waste exposure. Our results indicated that the open dumping and informal e-waste recycling systems should be replaced by the best available technology and environmental practices, with proper monitoring and regular awareness programs for workers and residents. Further and more detailed investigation in this area is also recommended.

  6. Environmental risk assessment of CRT and PCB workshops in a mobile e-waste recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingbin; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Duan, Huabo; Yuan, Wenyi

    2015-08-01

    The mobile e-waste recycling equipment was chosen as the object of this study, including manual dismantling, mechanical separation of cathode ray tubes (CRTs), and printed circuit boards (PCBs) in the two independent workshops. To determine the potential environmental contamination, the noise, the heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb), and the environmental impacts of the e-waste recycling processes in the two workshops of the mobile plant have been evaluated in this paper. This study determined that when control measures are employed, the noise within the two workshops (<80 dB) will meet the national standards. In the CRT workshop, Pb was the most polluting metal, with 2.3 μg/m(3) and 10.53 mg/g in the air and floor dust, respectively. The result of a health risk assessment shows that noncancerous effects are possible for Pb (hazard index (HI) = 3.54 in the CRT workshop and HI = 1.27 in the PCB workshop). The carcinogenic risks to workers for Cd are relatively light in both the workshops. From the results of life cycle assessment (LCA), it can be seen that there was an environmental benefit from the e-waste recycling process as a whole.

  7. Human dietary intake of organohalogen contaminants at e-waste recycling sites in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Labunska, Iryna; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Eulaers, Igor; Covaci, Adrian; Tao, Fang; Wang, Mengjiao; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This study reports concentrations and human dietary intake of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as selected "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organochlorine pesticides, in ten staple food categories. Samples were sourced from areas in Taizhou City, eastern China, where rudimentary recycling and disposal of e-waste is commonplace, as well as from nearby non-e-waste impacted control areas. In most instances, concentrations in foods from e-waste recycling areas exceeded those from control locations. Concentrations of 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TBP) in samples from e-waste sites were 3.09-62.2ng/g and 0.81-16.3ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively; exceeding consistently those in foods acquired from control sites by an order of magnitude in many cases. In contrast, while concentrations of HBCD in some foods from e-waste impacted areas exceed those from control locations; concentrations in pork, shrimp, and duck liver are higher in control samples. This highlights the potential significance of non-e-waste sources of HBCD (e.g. building insulation foam) in our study areas. While concentrations of DDT in all foods examined except pork were higher in e-waste impacted samples than controls; our exposure estimates were well below the provisional tolerable daily intake of 0.01mg/kgbw/day derived by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues. Concentrations of ΣPCBs resulted in exposures (650 and 2340ng/kgbw/day for adults and children respectively) that exceed substantially the Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for ΣPCBs of 20ng/kgbw/day derived by the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. Moreover, when expressed in terms of dioxin-like toxicity equivalency based on the four dioxin-like PCBs monitored in this study (DL-PCBs) (PCB-105, 118, 156, and 167); concentrations in e-waste impacted foods exceed limits set by the European Union in

  8. Comparison of soil heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities and traditional industrial operations.

    PubMed

    He, Kailing; Sun, Zehang; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-04-01

    The traditional industrial operations are well recognized as an important source of heavy metal pollution, while that caused by the e-waste recycling activities, which have sprouted in some developing countries, is often overlooked. This study was carried out to compare the status of soil heavy metal pollution caused by the traditional industrial operations and the e-waste recycling activities in the Pearl River Delta, and assess whether greater attention should be paid to control the pollution arising from e-waste recycling activities. Both the total contents and the chemical fractionation of major heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in 50 surface soil samples collected from the e-waste recycling areas and 20 soil samples from the traditional industrial zones were determined. The results show that the soils in the e-waste recycling areas were mainly polluted by Cu, Zn, As, and Cd, while Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were the major heavy metals in the soils from the traditional industrial zones. Statistical analyses consistently show that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils from both types of sites were contributed mostly by human activities, while As, Cr, and Ni in the soils were dominated by natural background. No clear distinction was found on the pollution characteristic of heavy metals in the surface soils between the e-waste recycling areas and traditional industrial zones. The potential ecological risk posed by heavy metals in the surface soils from both types of sites, which was dominated by that from Cd, ranged from low to moderate. Given the much shorter development history of e-waste recycling and its largely unregulated nature, significant efforts should be made to crack down on illegal e-waste recycling and strengthen pollution control for related activities.

  9. Children with health impairments by heavy metals in an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H Marike; Huo, Xia

    2016-04-01

    E-waste recycling has become a global environmental health issue. Pernicious chemicals escape into the environment due to informal and nonstandard e-waste recycling activities involving manual dismantling, open burning to recover heavy metals and open dumping of residual fractions. Heavy metals derived from electronic waste (e-waste), such as, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al) and cobalt (Co), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, distribution, metabolism, excretion and biological transmission. Our previous studies showed that heavy metal exposure have adverse effects on children's health including lower birth weight, lower anogenital distance, lower Apgar scores, lower current weight, lower lung function, lower hepatitis B surface antibody levels, higher prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and higher DNA and chromosome damage. Heavy metals influence a number of diverse systems and organs, resulting in both acute and chronic effects on children's health, ranging from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous, urinary and reproductive disease, as well as aggravation of pre-existing symptoms and disease. These effects of heavy metals on children's health are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Urinary metabolites of phosphate flame retardants in workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Meihuan; Zheng, Jing; Xu, Rongfa; Zhuang, Xi; Lin, Ying; Ren, Mingzhong

    2018-06-01

    Urinary metabolites of phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were determined in workers from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site and an incineration plant, in order to assess the PFR exposure risks of workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration. Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) were the most frequently detected chemicals (82-93%). The median concentrations of BCEP, BDCIPP, and DPHP were 1.77, 0.23, and 0.70 ng/mL, and 1.44, 0.22, and 0.11 ng/mL in samples from the e-waste site and the incineration plant, respectively. Dibutyl phosphate (DBP) was detected in all samples from the incineration plant, with a median level of 0.30 ng/mL. The concentrations of BDCIPP (r = -0.31, p < 0.05) were significantly correlated with the occupational exposure time rather than age in workers from the e-waste site. Negative and significant correlations were also observed between the concentrations of BCEP (r = -0.42, p < 0.05), BDCIPP (r = -0.37, p < 0.05), and DPHP (r = -0.37, p < 0.05) and occupational exposure time rather than age in workers from the incineration plant. No gender differences were observed in levels of PFR metabolites in urine samples (p > 0.05). Concentrations of BDCIPP in female were significantly correlated with occupational exposure time (r = -0.507, p < 0.01). Concentrations of PFR metabolites in male were not significantly correlated with age or occupational exposure time (p > 0.05). Overall, the workers with occupational exposure to PFRs had different profiles of urinary PFR metabolites. The age, occupational exposure time, and gender seemed not to be main factors mediating the exposure to PFRs for workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites.

  12. Spatial and temporal variation, source profile, and formation mechanisms of PCDD/FS in the atmosphere of an e-waste recycling area, south China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Hu, Jianfang; Chen, Pei; Chen, Deyi; Huang, Weilin; Peng, Ping'an; Ren, Man

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the impact of typical electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling activities on the distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the adjacent atmospheric environment. The target areas included the town of Longtang, a well known e-waste recycling site, and 2 affected neighborhoods, all of which were within the city of Qingyuan,Guangdong Province, China. Air samples were collected from the 3 locations and analyzed following the standard methods. The results showed that the atmospheric PCDD/F level in Longtang was 159.41 pg m(-3), which was approximately 16 to 17 times higher than its neighborhoods and 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than baseline levels reported for urban cities of the world. The homologue profiles were quite different from the typical urban air patterns, as de novo synthesis was likely to be the dominant formation pathway of the detected PCDD/Fs. The seasonal variations were minor, and the concentration change of PCDD/Fs between day and night did not follow a clear pattern. Given the unique atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations, similar homologue profiles, and the elemental carbon/organic carbon relationships of the 3 sampling sites, the relatively high dioxin levels in its 2 neighborhoods were most likely the result of the primitive e-waste dismantling activities undertaken in the town of Longtang. A simple risk assessment also showed that the residents of Qingyuan were at high risk of exposure to PCDD/Fs.

  13. Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2014-12-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. High levels of PAH-metabolites in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Torsten; Fobil, Julius N; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael; Till, Holger; Zoufaly, Alexander; Burchard, Gerd; Göen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The informal recycling of electronic waste (e-waste) is an emerging source of environmental pollution in Africa. Among other toxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major health concern for exposed individuals. In a cross-sectional study, the levels of PAH metabolites in the urine of individuals working on one of the largest e-waste recycling sites of Africa, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to e-waste recycling activities, were investigated. Socioeconomic data, basic health data and urine samples were collected from 72 exposed individuals and 40 controls. In the urine samples, concentrations of the hydroxylate PAH metabolites (OH-PAH) 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OH-phenanthrene), the sum of 2- and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (2-/9-OH-phenanthrene), 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-phenanthrene), 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (4-OH-phenanthrene) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-pyrene), as well as cotinine and creatinine, were determined. In the exposed group, median urinary concentrations were 0.85 μg/g creatinine for 1-OH-phenanthrene, 0.54 μg/g creatinine for 2-/9-OH-phenanthrene, 0.99 μg/g creatinine for 3-OH-phenanthrene, 0.22 μg/g creatinine for 4-OH-phenanthrene, and 1.33 μg/g creatinine for 1-OH-pyrene, all being significantly higher compared to the control group (0.55, 0.37, 0.63, 0.11 and 0.54 μg/g creatinine, respectively). Using a multivariate linear regression analysis including sex, cotinine and tobacco smoking as covariates, exposure to e-waste recycling activities was the most important determinant for PAH exposure. On physical examination, pathological findings were rare, but about two thirds of exposed individuals complained about cough, and one quarter about chest pain. In conclusion, we observed significantly higher urinary PAH metabolite concentrations in individuals who were exposed to e-waste recycling compared to controls who were not exposed to e-waste recycling activities. The impact of e-waste recycling on exposure to

  15. Association between lung function in school children and exposure to three transition metals from an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guina; Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Wu, Kusheng; Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Huo, Xia

    2013-01-01

    The informal processing of electronic waste or e-waste contributes to the release of high concentrations of transition metals into the ambient air. The damage caused by chromium, nickel and manganese exposure on lung function in school children from an e-waste recycling area and the role of oxidative stress in this process were evaluated. We recruited school children (n=144, 8-13 years) from an e-waste recycling area in China compared with the control. Spirometry was performed to assess lung function status. The blood levels of chromium, nickel and manganese, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of the subjects were examined. The concentrations of blood manganese (bMn) and serum nickel (sNi) in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in controls for all three age groups. The forced vital capacity value of boys aged 8-9 years was significantly lower than that of the control. Malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activities increased significantly in children aged 8-9 years from e-waste environment, but catalase activities declined. School children from an e-waste recycling area were exposed to high levels of the three transition metals. The accumulation of bMn and sNi may be risk factors for oxidative damage and decreased pulmonary function.

  16. Environmental effects of heavy metals derived from the e-waste recycling activities in China: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingbin; Li, Jinhui

    2014-12-01

    As the world's leading manufacturing country, China has become the largest dumping ground for e-waste, resulting in serious pollution of heavy metals in China. This study reviews recent studies on environmental effects of heavy metals from the e-waste recycling sites in China, especially Taizhou, Guiyu, and Longtang. The intensive uncontrolled processing of e-waste in China has resulted in the release of large amounts of heavy metals in the local environment, and caused high concentrations of metals to be present in the surrounding air, dust, soils, sediments and plants. Though the pollution of many heavy metals was investigated in the relevant researches, the four kinds of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd and Cr) from e-waste recycling processes attracted more attention. The exceedance of various national and international standards imposed negative effects to the environment, which made the local residents face with the serious heavy metal exposure. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. E-Waste Informal Recycling: An Emerging Source of Lead Exposure in South America

    PubMed Central

    Pascale, Antonio; Sosa, Adriana; Bares, Cristina; Battocletti, Alejandra; Moll, María José; Pose, Darío; Laborde, Amalia; González, Hugo; Feola, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling creates exposures to several hazardous substances including lead. In Uruguay, primitive recycling procedures are a significant source of lead exposure. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine lead exposure in blood lead levels (BLLs) in low-income children exposed to lead through burning cables. METHODS A sample of children and adolescents exposed to lead through burning cable activities were assessed at the Department of Toxicology in Montevideo, Uruguay, between 2010 and 2014. Soil lead levels of residences were taken shortly after their assessment. FINDINGS The final sample included 69 children and adolescents (mean age 7.89 years). More than 66% of participants had an additional source of lead exposure—manual gathering of metals—and <5% were exposed to lead through landfills or paint. Average BLLs at first consultation were 9.19 ug/dL and lower at the second measurement (5.86 μg/dL). Data from soil lead levels ranged from 650 to 19,000 mg of lead/kg of soil. The interventions conducted after the assessment included family education in the clinic and at home, indoor and outdoor remediation. We found a decrease in BLLs of 6.96 μg/dL. Older children had lower BLLs (r = −0.24; P =0.05). Statistical analyses also showed that children living in areas with higher soil lead levels had significantly higher BLLs (r = 0.50; P < 0.01). Additionally, we found greater BLLs from burning cable activities when children had been exposed to lead-based paint (r = 0.23; P < 0.1). CONCLUSION Among children exposed to e-waste recycling, the most common additional source of lead exposure was the manual gathering of metals. The average BLL among children and adolescents in this study is higher than the BLLs currently suggested in medical intervention. Future research should focus on exploring effective interventions to reduce lead exposure among this vulnerable group. PMID:27325077

  18. E-Waste Informal Recycling: An Emerging Source of Lead Exposure in South America.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Antonio; Sosa, Adriana; Bares, Cristina; Battocletti, Alejandra; Moll, María José; Pose, Darío; Laborde, Amalia; González, Hugo; Feola, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling creates exposures to several hazardous substances including lead. In Uruguay, primitive recycling procedures are a significant source of lead exposure. The aim of this study was to examine lead exposure in blood lead levels (BLLs) in low-income children exposed to lead through burning cables. A sample of children and adolescents exposed to lead through burning cable activities were assessed at the Department of Toxicology in Montevideo, Uruguay, between 2010 and 2014. Soil lead levels of residences were taken shortly after their assessment. The final sample included 69 children and adolescents (mean age 7.89 years). More than 66% of participants had an additional source of lead exposure-manual gathering of metals-and <5% were exposed to lead through landfills or paint. Average BLLs at first consultation were 9.19 ug/dL and lower at the second measurement (5.86 μg/dL). Data from soil lead levels ranged from 650 to 19,000 mg of lead/kg of soil. The interventions conducted after the assessment included family education in the clinic and at home, indoor and outdoor remediation. We found a decrease in BLLs of 6.96 μg/dL. Older children had lower BLLs (r = -0.24; P = 0.05). Statistical analyses also showed that children living in areas with higher soil lead levels had significantly higher BLLs (r = 0.50; P < 0.01). Additionally, we found greater BLLs from burning cable activities when children had been exposed to lead-based paint (r = 0.23; P < 0.1). Among children exposed to e-waste recycling, the most common additional source of lead exposure was the manual gathering of metals. The average BLL among children and adolescents in this study is higher than the BLLs currently suggested in medical intervention. Future research should focus on exploring effective interventions to reduce lead exposure among this vulnerable group. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Heavy metals concentrations of surface dust from e-waste recycling and its human health implications in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S; Cheung, K C; Wong, Ming H

    2008-04-01

    The recycling of printed circuit boards in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, may present a significant environmental and human health risk. To evaluate the extent of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) contamination from printed circuit board recycling, surface dust samples were collected from recycling workshops, adjacent roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market. ICP-OES analyses revealed elevated mean concentrations in workshop dust (Pb 110,000, Cu 8360, Zn 4420, and Ni 1500 mg/kg) and in dust of adjacent roads (Pb 22,600, Cu 6170, Zn 2370, and Ni 304 mg/kg). Lead and Cu in road dust were 330 and 106, and 371 and 155 times higher, respectively, than non e-waste sites located 8 and 30 km away. Levels at the schoolyard and food market showed that public places were adversely impacted. Risk assessment predicted that Pb and Cu originating from circuit board recycling have the potential to pose serious health risks to workers and local residents of Guiyu, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into heavy metal related health impacts. The potential environmental and human health consequences due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling in Guiyu serves as a case study for other countries involved in similar crude recycling activities.

  20. Factors influencing the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs at an abandoned e-waste recycling site in South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Xiaowei; Hou, Minmin; Zhao, Hongxia; Chen, Ruize; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2017-02-01

    The diurnal atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at an abandoned e-waste recycling site in South China during winter and summer. Total PCB concentrations during winter and summer were 27.6-212 and 368-1704pg/m 3 in the particulate phase and 270-697 and 3000-15,500pg/m 3 in the gaseous phase, respectively. Both gaseous and particulate PCB concentrations and compositions exhibited significant difference between winter and summer samples, but no diurnal variations during the measurement period. The correlation analysis between PCB concentrations and meteorological conditions, including atmospheric temperature, humidity, and mixing layer height, suggested that the seasonal variability of atmospheric PCB concentrations was strongly temperature-dependent, while the diurnal variability was probably source-dependent. The temperature-driven variations can also be proved by the significant linear correlation between ln P and 1/T in the Clausius-Clapeyron plot. Although government has implemented controls to reduce e-waste pollution, both the relatively high concentrations of PCBs and the diurnal variation in the air suggested that emissions from occasional e-waste recycling activities may still exist in this recycling area. These results underline the importance of continuing e-waste recycling site management long after abandonment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-criteria group decision making for evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Santoso; Deng, Hepu

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria group decision making approach for effectively evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs under uncertainty in an organization. Intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are used for adequately representing the subjective and imprecise assessments of the decision makers in evaluating the relative importance of evaluation criteria and the performance of individual e-waste recycling programs with respect to individual criteria in a given situation. An interactive fuzzy multi-criteria decision making algorithm is developed for facilitating consensus building in a group decision making environment to ensure that all the interest of individual decision makers have been appropriately considered in evaluating alternative e-waste recycling programs with respect to their corporate sustainability performance. The developed algorithm is then incorporated into a multi-criteria decision support system for making the overall performance evaluation process effectively and simple to use. Such a multi-criteria decision making system adequately provides organizations with a proactive mechanism for incorporating the concept of corporate sustainability into their regular planning decisions and business practices. An example is presented for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed approach in evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs in organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lead exposure is associated with risk of impaired coagulation in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhijun; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Xiao, Zhehong; Zhang, Yuling; Xu, Xijin

    2018-05-12

    Environmental lead exposure leads to various deleterious effects on multiple organs and systems, including the hematopoietic system. To explore the effects of lead exposure on platelet indices in preschool children from an informal, lead-contaminated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, we collected venous blood samples from 466 preschool children (331 from an e-waste area (Guiyu) and 135 from a non-e-waste area (Haojiang)). Child blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while platelet indices were quantified using a Sysmex XT-1800i hematology analyzer. Higher blood lead levels are observed in e-waste lead-exposed preschool children. Significant relationships between high blood lead levels (exceeding current health limits) and elevated platelet count (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) were also uncovered. Furthermore, the median PLT and PCT levels of children from the exposed group both exceeded the respective recommended maximum reference range value, whereas the reference group did not. Location of child residence in Guiyu and BLLs were both risk factors related to platelet indices. These results suggest that high blood lead exposure from e-waste recycling may increase the risk of an amplified coagulation process through the activation of platelets in preschool children.

  3. A multi-technique phytoremediation approach to purify metals contaminated soil from e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Cai, Limei; Qi, Shihua; Wu, Jian; Sophie Gu, Xiaowen

    2017-12-15

    Multiple techniques for soil decontamination were combined to enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of Eucalyptus globulese and alleviate the corresponding environmental risks. The approach constituted of chelating agent using, electrokinetic remediation, plant hormone foliar application and phytoremediation was designed to remediate multi-metal contaminated soils from a notorious e-waste recycling town. The decontamination ability of E. globulese increased from 1.35, 58.47 and 119.18 mg per plant for Cd, Pb and Cu in planting controls to 7.57, 198.68 and 174.34 mg per plant in individual EDTA treatments, respectively, but simultaneously, 0.9-11.5 times more metals leached from chelator treatments relative to controls. Low (2 V) and moderate (4 V) voltage electric fields provoked the growth of the species while high voltage (10 V) had an opposite effect and metal concentrations of the plants elevated with the increment of voltage. Volumes of the leachate decreased from 1224 to 134 mL with voltage increasing from 0 to 10 V due to electroosmosis and electrolysis. Comparing with individual phytoremediation, foliar cytokinin treatments produced 56% more biomass and intercepted 2.5 times more leachate attributed to the enhanced transpiration rate. The synergistic combination of the individuals resulted in the most biomass production and metal accumulation of the species under the stress condition relative to other methods. Time required for the multi-technique approach to decontaminate Cd, Pb and Cu from soil was 2.1-10.4 times less than individual chelator addition, electric field application or plant hormone utilization. It's especially important that nearly no leachate (60 mL in total) was collected from the multi-technique system. This approach is a suitable method to remediate metal polluted site considering its decontamination efficiency and associated environmental negligible risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental contamination and human exposure to dioxin-related compounds in e-waste recycling sites of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sakai, Shinichi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    E-waste recycling using uncontrolled processes is a major source of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs), including not only the regulated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) but also non-regulated brominated and mixed halogenated compounds (PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs). Various studies at informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) in Asian developing countries found the soil contamination levels of PCDD/Fs from tens to ten thousand picogram TCDD-equivalents (TEQ) per gram and those of DL-PCBs up to hundreds of picogram TEQ per gram. The air concentration of PCDD/Fs was reported as high as 50 pg TEQ per m(3) in Guiyu, the largest Chinese EWRS. Non-regulated compounds also contributed substantially to the total DL toxicity of the DRC mixtures from e-waste, as evidenced by the high TEQ levels estimated for the currently identifiable PBDD/Fs as well as the large portion of unexplained bioassay-derived TEQ levels in soils/dusts from EWRSs. Considering the high exposure levels estimated for EWRS residents, especially children, comprehensive emission inventories of DRCs from informal e-waste recycling, the identities and toxic potencies of unidentified DRCs released, and their impacts on human health need to be investigated in future studies.

  5. The influence of e-waste recycling on the molecular ecological network of soil microbial communities in Pakistan and China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Longfei; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhang, Dayi; Song, Mengke; Wang, Yujie; Luo, Chunling; Yin, Hua; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2017-12-01

    Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling releases large amounts of organic pollutants and heavy metals into the environment. As crucial moderators of geochemical cycling processes and pollutant remediation, soil microbes may be affected by these contaminants. We collected soil samples heavily contaminated by e-waste recycling in China and Pakistan, and analyzed the indigenous microbial communities. The results of this work revealed that the microbial community composition and diversity, at both whole and core community levels, were affected significantly by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals (e.g., Cu, Zn, and Pb). The geographical distance showed limited impacts on microbial communities compared with geochemical factors. The constructed ecological network of soil microbial communities illustrated microbial co-occurrence, competition and antagonism across soils, revealing the response of microbes to soil properties and pollutants. Two of the three main modules constructed with core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were sensitive to nutrition (total organic carbon and total nitrogen) and pollutants. Five key OTUs assigned to Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Nitrospirae in ecological network were identified. This is the first study to report the effects of e-waste pollutants on soil microbial network, providing a deeper understanding of the ecological influence of crude e-waste recycling activities on soil ecological functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Immobilization of metals in contaminated soil from E-waste recycling site by dairy-manure-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiliang; Zhang, Jianqiang; Liu, Minchao; Wu, Yingxin; Yuan, Zhihui

    2017-08-24

    E-waste is a growing concern around the world and varieties of abandoned E-waste recycling sites, especially in urban area, need to remediate immediately. The impacts of dairy-manure-derived biochars (BCs) on the amelioration of soil properties, the changes in the morphologies as well as the mobility of metals were studied to test their efficacy in immobilization of metals for a potential restoration of vegetation landscape in abandoned E-waste recycling site. The amendment with BCs produced positive effects on bioavailability and mobility reduction for Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu depending on BC ratio and incubation time. The BCs promoted the transformation of species of heavy metals to a more stable fraction, and the metals concentrations in Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure extract declined significantly, especially Pb and Cu. Besides, the BCs ameliorated the substrate with increasing the soil pH, cations exchangeable capacity and available phosphorous, which suggested BC as a potential amendment material for abandoned E-waste recycling sites before restoration of vegetation landscape. Generally, the BC modified by alkaline treatment has a higher efficacy, probably due to increase of specific surface area and porosity as well as the functional groups after alkaline treatment.

  7. A production-theory-based framework for analysing recycling systems in the e-waste sector

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Mario

    2005-07-15

    Modern approaches in the production theory of business and management economics propose that objects (e.g. materials) be divided into good, bad or neutral. In transformation processes such as occur in production or recycling this makes it possible to distinguish stringently between the economic revenue of a process and the economic and ecological expenditures for it. This approach can be transferred to entire systems of processes in order to determine the system revenue and the system expenditure. Material flow nets or graphs are used for this purpose. In complex material flow systems it becomes possible to calculate not only the costs,more » but also the direct and indirect environmental impacts of an individual process or a system revenue (for example a product or the elimination of waste) consistently. The approach permits a stringent analysis as well as different analysis perspectives of a material flow system. It is particularly suitable for closed-loop economic systems in which material backflows occur. With the aid of an example developed jointly with Hewlett Packard Europe, the paper outlines how this approach can be employed in the field of e-waste management.« less

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in surface soils from e-waste recycling areas and industrial areas in South China: concentration levels, congener profile, and inventory.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shutao; Hong, Jianwen; Yu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jingzhi; Yang, Guoyi; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2011-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in 60 surface soils from two e-waste recycling sites (Qingyuan and Guiyu, China) and their surrounding areas to assess the extent and influence of PBDEs from e-waste recycling sites on the surrounding areas. A total of 32 surface soils from industrial areas in South China were also investigated for comparison. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs in the e-waste recycling sites of Guiyu and Qingyuan were 2,909 and 3,230 ng/g dry weight, respectively, whereas the PBDE concentrations decreased dramatically (1-2 orders of magnitude) with increasing distance from the recycling site, suggesting that the e-waste recycling activities were the major source of PBDEs in the surrounding areas. Decabromodiphenyl ethers accounted for 77.0 to 85.8% of total PBDEs in e-waste recycling areas, whereas it accounted for 90.2% in industrial areas. Principal component analysis showed that the major source of PBDEs in e-waste recycling areas were a combination of penta-, octa-, and deca-BDE commercial formulations, whereas deca-BDE commercial formulations were the major source of PBDE congeners in industrial areas. The inventories of PBDEs gave preliminary estimates of 6.22 tons and 13.4 tons for the e-waste recycling areas and industrial areas. The results suggested that significantly higher PBDEs in the e-waste recycling sites have already affected surrounding areas negatively within a relatively large distance. Because of the environmental persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of PBDEs, improving the recycling techniques employed at such facilities and developing e-waste management policies are necessary. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  9. Increased memory T cell populations in Pb-exposed children from an e-waste-recycling area.

    PubMed

    Cao, Junjun; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yu; Zeng, Zhijun; Hylkema, Machteld N; Huo, Xia

    2018-03-01

    Chronic exposure to heavy metals could affect cell-mediated immunity. The aim of this study was to explore the status of memory T cell development in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area. Blood lead (Pb) levels, peripheral T cell subpopulations, and serum levels of cytokines (IL-2/IL-7/IL-15), relevant to generation and homeostasis of memory T cells were evaluated in preschool children from Guiyu (e-waste-exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). The correlations between blood Pb levels and percentages of memory T cell subpopulations were also evaluated. Guiyu children had higher blood Pb levels and increased percentages of CD4 + central memory T cells and CD8 + central memory T cells than in the Haojiang group. Moreover, blood Pb levels were positively associated with the percentages of CD4 + central memory T cells. In contrast, Pb exposure contributed marginally in the change of percentages of CD8 + central memory T cells in children. There was no significant difference in the serum cytokine levels between the e-waste-exposed and reference children. Taken together, preschool children from an e-waste recycling area suffer from relatively higher levels of Pb exposure, which might facilitate the development of CD4 + central memory T cells in these children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Tetrabromobisphenol A and heavy metal exposure via dust ingestion in an e-waste recycling region in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Yanyan; Kang, Duan; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Yanfang; Du, Dongli; Pan, Bishu; Lin, Zhenkun; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2016-01-15

    This study was designed to investigate a prevalent brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and four heavy metals of Pb, Cr, As, Cd in dust samples (52 indoor and 52 outdoor) collected from residential houses in an e-waste recycling area in Southeast China. For TBBPA, the mean concentration in indoor dust (3435 ng/g, dw) was higher than that in outdoor dust (1998 ng/g, dw). For heavy metals, the mean concentrations of Pb, Cr, As, Cd were 399, 151, 48.13, and 5.85 mg/kg in indoor dust, respectively, and were 328, 191, 17.59, and 4.07 mg/kg in outdoor dust, respectively. Except for As, concentrations of TBBPA and other metals decreased with the increased distance away from the e-waste recycling center, suggesting significant contribution of e-waste activities. The daily exposure doses of TBBPA ranged from 0.04 to 7.50 ng/kg-bw/day for adults and from 0.31 to 58.54 ng/kg-bw/day for children, representing the highest values reported to date for TBBPA exposure via dust ingestion. Daily exposure doses of Cr, As, and Cd were all below the reference doses. However, daily exposure dose of Pb for children in areas near the e-waste processing center was above the reference dose, posing significant health concern for children in that region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological effects of combined pollution associated with e-waste recycling on the composition and diversity of soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; He, Xiao-Xin; Lin, Xue-Rui; Chen, Wen-Ce; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Huang, Li-Nan

    2015-06-02

    The crude processing of electronic waste (e-waste) has led to serious contamination in soils. While microorganisms may play a key role in remediation of the contaminated soils, the ecological effects of combined pollution (heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers) on the composition and diversity of microbial communities remain unknown. In this study, a suite of e-waste contaminated soils were collected from Guiyu, China, and the indigenous microbial assemblages were profiled by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and clone library analysis. Our data revealed significant differences in microbial taxonomic composition between the contaminated and the reference soils, with Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes dominating the e-waste-affected communities. Genera previously identified as organic pollutants-degrading bacteria, such as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Alcanivorax, were frequently detected. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that approximately 70% of the observed variation in microbial assemblages in the contaminated soils was explained by eight environmental variables (including soil physiochemical parameters and organic pollutants) together, among which moisture content, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), and copper were the major factors. These results provide the first detailed phylogenetic look at the microbial communities in e-waste contaminated soils, demonstrating that the complex combined pollution resulting from improper e-waste recycling may significantly alter soil microbiota.

  12. Health risk assessment of lead for children in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas of Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Miller, Greg; Ding, Gangqiang; Lou, Xiaoming; Cai, Delei; Chen, Zhijian; Meng, Jia; Tang, Jun; Chu, Cordia; Mo, Zhe; Han, Jianlong

    2012-06-01

    Tinfoil manufacturing and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling remain rudimentary processes in Zhejing Province, China, which could account for elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) and health impacts on children. We assessed the potential health risks of lead in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas. 329 children in total aged 11-12 who lived in a tinfoil manufacturing area (Lanxi), an e-waste recycling area (Luqiao) and a reference area (Chun'an) were studied. Lead levels in children's blood were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, serum calcium, δ-Aminolaevulinic acid (δ-ALA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) were also measured. Geometric mean of BLLs in Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an were 8.11 μg/dL, 6.97 μg/dL, and 2.78 μg/dL respectively, with 35.1%, 38.9% and 0% of children who had BLLs above 10 μg/dL. The BLLs in exposed areas were much higher than those in the control area. Lanxi children had higher creatinine and calcium than Chun'an children, and Luqiao children had higher δ-ALA and lower calcium than Chun'an children. No significant differences of IQ were observed between Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an, however a negative relationship between BLLs and IQ was shown for the study children. The results indicated that lead pollution from e-waste recycling and tinfoil processing appears to be a potential serious threat to children's health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant selective uptake of halogenated flame retardants at an e-waste recycling site in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaorui; Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Yin, Hua; Zhang, Gan

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations and homolog patterns of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in vegetables grown at an e-waste contaminated site were investigated. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were the dominant HFRs in vegetable tissues, with concentrations ranging from 10.3 to 164 ng g(-1) and 1.16-107 ng g(-1) in shoots and roots, respectively, followed by novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and dechlorane plus (DPs). This is an indication that PBDE contamination in vegetables grown around e-waste recycling sites may pose a risk to the local terrestrial ecosystem and residents. In addition, this is the first report on the concentrations and compositions of NBFRs in vegetables around e-waste recycling sites. The HFRs concentrations in vegetables varied greatly with the vegetable species, with the highest concentrations observed in Brassica oleracea var. capitata. Root concentration factors (RCF) decreased with increasing log Kow of HFRs, which indicated that the uptake of HFRs was controlled mainly by log Kow. Dissimilar HFRs profiles in shoots and roots suggested that the uptake and translocation of HFRs by plants were selective, with lower halogenated congeners prone to accumulation in vegetable tissues. Positive relationships between PBDEs and their substitutes were observed in vegetable tissues, suggesting that the replacement of PBDEs by NBFRs has not resulted in an obvious transition in plants within the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Short Placental Telomere was Associated with Cadmium Pollution in an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingying; Fan, Xiaojuan; Du, Li; Xu, Xijin; Qiu, Shaoshan; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Yun; Gu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    In Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site near Shantou, Guangdong province, China, primitive ways of e-waste processing have caused severe cadmium and lead pollution to the local residents. However, the possible effects of cadmium or lead pollution to genomic integrity of the local residents have not been investigated. We examined the possible relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in placenta and placental telomere length in Guiyu and compared the data with that of a non-polluted town. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and real-time PCR were used to determine placental cadmium and lead concentrations, and placental telomere length. We found that placental cadmium concentration was negatively correlated with placental telomere length (r = −0.138, p = 0.013). We also found that placental cadmium concentration of 0.0294 µg/g might be a critical point at which attrition of placental telomere commenced. No significant correlation between placental lead concentration and placental telomere length was detected (r = 0.027, p = 0.639). Our data suggest that exposure to cadmium pollution during pregnancy may be a risk factor for shortened placental telomere length that is known to be related to cancer development and aging. Furthermore, grave consequence on the offspring from pregnancies in e-waste polluted area is indicated. PMID:23565277

  15. Short placental telomere was associated with cadmium pollution in an electronic waste recycling town in China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuiqin; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Qingying; Fan, Xiaojuan; Du, Li; Xu, Xijin; Qiu, Shaoshan; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Yun; Gu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    In Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site near Shantou, Guangdong province, China, primitive ways of e-waste processing have caused severe cadmium and lead pollution to the local residents. However, the possible effects of cadmium or lead pollution to genomic integrity of the local residents have not been investigated. We examined the possible relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in placenta and placental telomere length in Guiyu and compared the data with that of a non-polluted town. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and real-time PCR were used to determine placental cadmium and lead concentrations, and placental telomere length. We found that placental cadmium concentration was negatively correlated with placental telomere length (r = -0.138, p = 0.013). We also found that placental cadmium concentration of 0.0294 µg/g might be a critical point at which attrition of placental telomere commenced. No significant correlation between placental lead concentration and placental telomere length was detected (r = 0.027, p = 0.639). Our data suggest that exposure to cadmium pollution during pregnancy may be a risk factor for shortened placental telomere length that is known to be related to cancer development and aging. Furthermore, grave consequence on the offspring from pregnancies in e-waste polluted area is indicated.

  16. The cytotoxic and genetoxic effects of dust and soil samples from E-waste recycling area on L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liulin; Hou, Meiling; An, Jing; Zhong, Yufang; Wang, Xuetong; Wang, Yangjun; Wu, Minghong; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2011-10-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (E-waste) has now become the fastest growing solid waste around the world. Primitive recycling operations for E-waste have resulted in severe contamination of toxic metals and organic chemicals in the related areas. In this study, six dust and soil samples collected from E-waste recycling workshops and open-burning sites in Longtang were analyzed to investigate their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on L02 cells. These six samples were: dust No. 1 collected at the gate of the workshop; dust No. 2 collected from air conditioning compressor dismantling site; dust No. 3 collected from where some motors, wires, and aluminium products since the 1980s were dismantled; soil No. 1 collected at the circuit board acid washing site; soil No. 2 collected from a wire open-burning site; soil No. 3 collected near a fiber open-burning site. At the same time, two control soil samples were collected from farmlands approximately 8 km away from the dismantling workshops. The results showed that all of these samples could inhibit cell proliferation and cause cell membrane lesion, among which dust No. 3 and soil No. 2 had the strongest toxicity. Moreover, the comet assay showed that the dust No. 3 had the most significant capability to cause DNA single-strand beaks (SSB), while the road dust (dust No. 1) collected at the gate of the workshop, a relatively farer site, showed the slightest capability to induce DNA SSB. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection showed that ROS level was elevated with the increase of dust and soil samples concentration. Dust No. 3 and soil No. 2 had the highest ROS level, followed by dust No. 2 and 1, soil No. 3 and 1. All of the above results indicated that polluted soil and dust from the E-waste area had cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on L02 cells, the mechanism might involve the increased ROS level and consequent DNA SSB.

  17. Spatial assessment of potential ecological risk of heavy metals in soils from informal e-waste recycling in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Klaus; Atiemo, Sampson Manukure

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly increasing annual global volume of e-waste, and of its inherently valuable fraction, has created an opportunity for individuals in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana to make a living by using unconventional, uncontrolled, primitive and crude procedures to recycle and recover valuable metals from this waste. The current form of recycling procedures releases hazardous fractions, such as heavy metals, into the soil, posing a significant risk to the environment and human health. Using a handheld global positioning system, 132 soil samples based on 100 m grid intervals were collected and analysed for cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Using geostatistical techniques and sediment quality guidelines, this research seeks to assess the potential risk these heavy metals posed to the proposed Korle Ecological Restoration Zone by informal e-waste processing site in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana. Analysis of heavy metals revealed concentrations exceeded the regulatory limits of both Dutch and Canadian soil quality and guidance values, and that the ecological risk posed by the heavy metals extended beyond the main burning and dismantling sites of the informal recyclers to the school, residential, recreational, clinic, farm and worship areas. The heavy metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn had normal distribution, spatial variability, and spatial autocorrelation. Further analysis revealed the decreasing order of toxicity, Hg>Cd>Pb> Cu>Zn>Cr, of contributing significantly to the potential ecological risk in the study area. PMID:29056034

  18. Spatial assessment of potential ecological risk of heavy metals in soils from informal e-waste recycling in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kyere, Vincent Nartey; Greve, Klaus; Atiemo, Sampson Manukure; Ephraim, James

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly increasing annual global volume of e-waste, and of its inherently valuable fraction, has created an opportunity for individuals in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana to make a living by using unconventional, uncontrolled, primitive and crude procedures to recycle and recover valuable metals from this waste. The current form of recycling procedures releases hazardous fractions, such as heavy metals, into the soil, posing a significant risk to the environment and human health. Using a handheld global positioning system, 132 soil samples based on 100 m grid intervals were collected and analysed for cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Using geostatistical techniques and sediment quality guidelines, this research seeks to assess the potential risk these heavy metals posed to the proposed Korle Ecological Restoration Zone by informal e-waste processing site in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana. Analysis of heavy metals revealed concentrations exceeded the regulatory limits of both Dutch and Canadian soil quality and guidance values, and that the ecological risk posed by the heavy metals extended beyond the main burning and dismantling sites of the informal recyclers to the school, residential, recreational, clinic, farm and worship areas. The heavy metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn had normal distribution, spatial variability, and spatial autocorrelation. Further analysis revealed the decreasing order of toxicity, Hg>Cd>Pb> Cu>Zn>Cr, of contributing significantly to the potential ecological risk in the study area.

  19. Accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in breast milk of women from an e-waste recycling center in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinghong; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Yun; Ben, Yujie; Lv, Quanxia

    2017-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can be transferred to infants through the ingestion of breast milk, resulting in potential health risk. In this study, PBDEs, hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) in human milk from women living adjacent to e-waste recycling sites of Wenling, China, were investigated. The median level of PBDEs in samples from residents living in the e-waste recycling environment >20years (R 20 group, 19.5ng/g lipid weight (lw)) was significantly higher than that for residents living in Wenling <3years (R 3 group, 3.88ng/g lw) (p<0.05), likely ascribable to specific exposure to PBDEs from e-waste recycling activities. In the R 20 group, most congeners (except for BDE-209) were correlated with each other (p<0.05). Moreover, CB-153 showed significant association with most PBDE congeners, rather than BDE-209. The relationship indicated that most BDE congeners other than BDE-209 shared common sources and/or pathways with CB-153, e.g., dietary ingestion. The correlations between BDE-209 and other congeners were different in the two groups, likely suggesting their different exposure sources and/or pathways for PBDEs. Although estimated dietary intake of PBDEs for infants via breast milk was lower than the minimum value affecting human health, the PBDE exposure of infants should be of great concern because of their potential effect on the development of neonates over long-term exposure. OH-PBDEs were not detected in the collected samples, which is in accordance with reports in published literature, likely indicating that they were not apt to be accumulated in human milk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Risk mitigation by waste-based permeable reactive barriers for groundwater pollution control at e-waste recycling sites.

    PubMed

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Yip, Alex C K; Zhang, Weihua; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) have proved to be a promising passive treatment to control groundwater contamination and associated human health risks. This study explored the potential use of low-cost adsorbents as PRBs media and assessed their longevity and risk mitigation against leaching of acidic rainfall through an e-waste recycling site, of which Cu, Zn, and Pb were the major contaminants. Batch adsorption experiments suggested a higher adsorption capacity of inorganic industrial by-products [acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) and coal fly ash (CFA)] and carbonaceous recycled products [food waste compost (FWC) and wood-derived biochar] compared to natural inorganic minerals (limestone and apatite). Continuous leaching tests of sand columns with 10 wt% low-cost adsorbents were then conducted to mimic the field situation of acidic rainfall infiltration through e-waste-contaminated soils (collected from Qingyuan, China) by using synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) solution. In general, Zn leached out first, followed by Cu, and finally delayed breakthrough of Pb. In the worst-case scenario (e.g., at initial concentrations equal to 50-fold of average SPLP result), the columns with limestone, apatite, AMDS, or biochar were effective for a relatively short period of about 20-40 pore volumes of leaching, after which Cu breakthrough caused non-cancer risk concern and later-stage Pb leaching considerably increased both non-cancer and lifetime cancer risk associated with portable use of contaminated water. In contrast, the columns with CFA or FWC successfully mitigated overall risks to an acceptable level for a prolonged period of 100-200 pore volumes. Therefore, with proper selection of low-cost adsorbents (or their mixture), waste-based PRBs is a technically feasible and economically viable solution to mitigate human health risk due to contaminated groundwater at e-waste recycling sites.

  1. Multi-trace element levels and arsenic speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Agusa, Tetsuro; Biney, Charles Augustus; Agyekum, William Atuobi; Bello, Mohammed; Otsuka, Masanari; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-05-01

    To understand human contamination by multi-trace elements (TEs) in electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site at Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana, this study analyzed TEs and As speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers. Concentrations of Fe, Sb, and Pb in urine of e-waste recycling workers were significantly higher than those of reference sites after consideration of interaction by age, indicating that the recycling workers are exposed to these TEs through the recycling activity. Urinary As concentration was relatively high, although the level in drinking water was quite low. Speciation analysis of As in human urine revealed that arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid were the predominant As species and concentrations of both species were positively correlated with total As concentration as well as between each other. These results suggest that such compounds may be derived from the same source, probably fish and shellfish and greatly influence As exposure levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study on human contamination resulting from the primitive recycling of e-waste in Ghana. This study will contribute to the knowledge about human exposure to trace elements from an e-waste site in a less industrialized region so far scantly covered in the literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in terrestrial bird species inhabiting an e-waste recycling site in South China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-03-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Currently, limited data are available about SCCPs in terrestrial organisms. In the present study, SCCP concentration in the muscles of seven terrestrial bird species (n = 38) inhabiting an e-waste recycling area in South China was determined. This concentration varied from 620 to 17,000 ng/g lipid. Resident birds accumulated significantly higher SCCP concentrations than migratory birds (p < 0.01). Trophic magnification was observed for migratory bird species but not for resident, which was attributed to high heterogeneity of SCCP in e-waste area. Two different homologue group patterns were observed in avian samples. The first pattern was found in five bird species dominated by C10 and C11 congeners, while the second was found in the remains, which show rather equal abundance of homologue groups. This may be caused by two sources of SCCPs (local and e-waste) in the study area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Management strategies on the industrialization road of state-of-the-art technologies for e-waste recycling: the case study of electrostatic separation--a review.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-02-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) management is pressing as global production has increased significantly in the past few years and is rising continuously at a fast rate. Many countries are facing hazardous e-waste mountains, most of which are disposed of by backyard recyclers, creating serious threats to public health and ecosystems. Industrialization of state-of-the-art recycling technologies is imperative to enhance the comprehensive utilization of resources and to protect the environment. This article aims to provide an overview of management strategies solving the crucial problems during the process of industrialization. A typical case study of electrostatic separation for recycling waste printed circuit boards was discussed in terms of parameters optimization, materials flow control, noise assessment, risk assessment, economic evaluation and social benefits analysis. The comprehensive view provided by the review could be helpful to the progress of the e-waste recycling industry.

  4. Daily intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers via dust and diet from an e-waste recycling area in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Lin, Zhenkun; Wu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xiangping; Hu, Yabing; Li, Yanyan; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2014-07-15

    This study was designed to estimate the human risk to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure via two main exposure routes (dust and diet) in an e-waste recycling area in southern China. A total of 134 dust samples and 129 food samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The mean concentration of ΣPBDE in in-house dust (38,685ng/g dw) was higher than that in out-house dust (24,595ng/g). For food samples, the highest concentration of ΣPBDE was found in fish and shellfish (2755ng/kg ww), followed in descending order by eggs (2423ng/kg), cereals (2239ng/kg) and meat (1799ng/kg). The estimated total daily dietary intake of PBDEs was 1671ng/day for adults and 952ng/day for children. The present study indicated that dust intake was the dominant PBDE exposure route for children, and the dietary intake was the dominant PBDE exposure route for adults. Our findings revealed high PBDE concentrations in dust and food samples collected at the center of e-waste recycling area, raising significant health concerns for residents in this particular region, especially for children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Levels and ecological risk assessment of metals in soils from a typical e-waste recycling region in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weituo; Ding, Lei; Gu, Xiaowen; Luo, Jie; Liu, Yunlang; Guo, Li; Shi, Yi; Huang, Ting; Cheng, Shenggao

    2015-11-01

    Due to the high threat to human health and the ecosystem from metals, the levels and distribution of As, Hg, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, V, Sn, Sb, Li and Be in various layers of soil from an e-waste recycling area in Guiyu, China were investigated. The extent of pollution from the metals in soil was assessed using enrichment factors (EFs) and the Nemerow pollution index (P N ). To determine the metals' integrated potential ecological risks, the potential ecological risk index (RI) was chosen. The concentrations of Hg, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Sn and Sb were mainly enriched in the topsoil. EF values (2-5) of the elements Hg, Co, Ni, Zn, Sn, Li and Be revealed their moderate enrichment status in the topsoil, derived from e-waste recycling activities. P N presented a decreasing trend in different layers in the order topsoil (0-20 cm) > deep soil (100-150 cm) > middle soil (50-100 cm) > shallow soil (20-50 cm). With higher potential ecological risk factor (E(i)), Hg and Cd are the main contributors to the potential ecological risk. With respect to the RI, all the values in soil from the study area exceeded 300, especially for the soil at sites S2, S4, S5, S7 and S8, where RI was greater than 600. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil is necessary to prevent the release of metals and potential ecological harm.

  6. Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Deng, Shaopo; Teng, Ying; Song, Jing

    2014-02-15

    Informal electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling often creates secondary sources of cadmium (Cd) pollution. To characterize the total Cd concentration (Cdtotal) in topsoil and evaluate the threat of Cd in topsoils to shallow groundwater, 187 topsoil samples and 12 shallow groundwater samples were collected in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China. Soil organic matter content, soil pH and Cdtotal in topsoil, pH and dissolved Cd concentration in shallow groundwater were measured. Cdtotal in the topsoils showed an inverse distribution trend with soil pH in that high Cd concentrations (and low pH values) were found in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park where there were many family-operated e-waste recycling facilities before the industrial park was established and with low concentrations (and high pH values) in other areas, and they had similar spatial correlation structures. Cd accumulation and acidification were synchronous in topsoils, and soil pH was significantly correlated with Cdtotal in topsoils with low to moderate negative correlation coefficient (r=-0.24), indicating that both of them maybe correlated with informal recycling. The shallow groundwater in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park was seriously contaminated by Cd, and topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification in the surrounding area of e-waste recycling sites significantly increase the risk of shallow groundwater contaminated by Cd. Action is urgently required to control Cd accumulation and acidification by improving the recycling operations of e-wastes in order to reduce the risk of Cd leaching from topsoils and shallow groundwater contamination. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in soils near a primitive e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Quan, Sheng-Xiang; Yan, Bo; Yang, Fan; Li, Ning; Xiao, Xian-Ming; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2015-01-01

    The total concentrations of 12 heavy metals in surface soils (SS, 0-20 cm), middle soils (MS, 30-50 cm) and deep soils (DS, 60-80 cm) from an acid-leaching area, a deserted paddy field and a deserted area of Guiyu were measured. The results showed that the acid-leaching area was heavily contaminated with heavy metals, especially in SS. The mean concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb in SS from the acid-leaching area were 278.4, 684.1, 572.8, 1.36, 3,472, 1,706 and 222.8 mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metal pollution in the deserted paddy field was mainly concentrated in SS and MS. The average values of Sb in SS and MS from the deserted paddy field were 16.3 and 20.2 mg/kg, respectively. However, heavy metal contamination of the deserted area was principally found in the DS. Extremely high concentrations of heavy metals were also observed at some special research sites, further confirming that the level of heavy metal pollution was very serious. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values revealed that the acid-leaching area was severely polluted with heavy metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn > Pb, while deserted paddy field was contaminated predominately by metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu. It was obvious that the concentrations of some uncommon contaminants, such as Sb and Sn, were higher than principal contaminants, such as Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, suggesting that particular attention should be directed to Sn and Sb contamination in the future research of heavy metals in soils from e-waste-processing areas. Correlation analysis suggested that Li and Be in soils from the acid-leaching area and its surrounding environment might have originated from other industrial activities and from batteries, whereas Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Sn and Sb contamination was most likely caused by uncontrolled electronic waste (e-waste) processing. These results indicate the significant need for optimisation of e-waste-dismantling technologies and remediation of polluted soil

  8. Monitoring of lead load and its effect on neonatal behavioral neurological assessment scores in Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling town in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, Xijin; Wu, Kusheng; Chen, Gangjian; Liu, Junxiao; Chen, Songjian; Gu, Chengwu; Zhang, Bao; Zheng, Liangkai; Zheng, Minghao; Huo, Xia

    2008-10-01

    Guiyu is the major electronic waste (e-waste) recycling town in China. The primary purpose of this study was to measure the lead levels in neonates and examine the correlation between lead levels and neurobehavioral development. One hundred full-term neonates from Guiyu and fifty-two neonates from neighboring towns (control group) in the late summer of 2006 were selected for study. The lead levels in the umbilical cord blood (CBPb) and lead levels in meconium (MPb) of neonates were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) was conducted on all neonates. A questionnaire related to the exposure to lead of pregnant women was used as a survey of the neonates' mothers. Compared with the control group, neonates in Guiyu had significantly higher levels of lead (P < 0.01), and the mean CBPb and MPb were 113.28 microg L(-1) and 2.50 microg g(-1), respectively. The relatively high lead levels in the neonates of the Guiyu group were found to correlate with their maternal occupation in relation to e-waste recycling. Neonates with high levels of lead load have lower NBNA scores (P < 0.01). There was a statistically significant difference in NBNA scores between the Guiyu group and the control group by t test (P < 0.05). No correlation was found between CBPb and NBNA scores; however, a negative correlation was found between MPb and NBNA scores (P < 0.01). There is a correlation between relatively high lead levels in the umbilical cord blood and meconium in neonates and the local e-waste recycling activities related to lead contamination. This study suggests that environmental lead contamination due to e-waste recycling have an impact on neurobehavioral development of neonates in Guiyu.

  9. Heavy metals distribution and risk assessment in soil from an informal E-waste recycling site in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isimekhai, Khadijah A; Garelick, Hemda; Watt, John; Purchase, Diane

    2017-07-01

    Informal E-waste recycling can pose a risk to human health and the environment which this study endeavours to evaluate. The distribution of a number of heavy metals in soil from an informal recycling site in the largest market for used and new electronics and electrical equipment in West Africa was investigated. The potential bioavailability of heavy metals, extent of contamination, potential risk due to the recycling activities and impact of external factors such as rainfall were also assessed. The concentrations of all the heavy metals tested were higher in the area where burning of the waste occurred than at the control site, suggesting an impact of the recycling activities on the soil. The order of total metal concentrations was Cu > Pb > Zn > Mn > Ni > Sb > Cr > Cd for both the dry and wet seasons. The total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were all significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the dry season than in the wet season. The concentrations of Cu (329-7106 mg kg -1 ), Pb (115-9623 mg kg -1 ) and Zn (508-8178 mg kg -1 ) were consistently higher than international soil guideline values. Using a sequential extraction method, the potential bioavailability of the heavy metals was indicated as Cd > Sb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. When the risk was assessed using the Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI), Cu was found to contribute the most to the potential ecological risk and Cd gave rise to the greatest concern due to its high toxic-response factor within the study site. Similarly, utilising the Risk Assessment Code (RAC) suggested that Cd posed the most risk in this site. This research establishes a high level of contamination in the study site and underscores the importance of applying the appropriate chemical speciation in risk assessment.

  10. Bioleaching of Gold and Silver from Waste Printed Circuit Boards by Pseudomonas balearica SAE1 Isolated from an e-Waste Recycling Facility.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Saini, Harvinder Singh; Kumar, Sudhir

    2018-02-01

    Indigenous bacterial strain Pseudomonas balearica SAE1, tolerant to e-waste toxicity was isolated from an e-waste recycling facility Exigo Recycling Pvt. Ltd., India. Toxicity tolerance of bacterial strain was analyzed using crushed (particle size ≤150 µm) waste computer printed circuit boards (PCBs)/liter (L) of culture medium. The EC 50 value for SAE1 was 325.7 g/L of the e-waste pulp density. Two-step bioleaching was then applied to achieve the dissolution of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) from the e-waste. To maximize precious metal dissolution, factors including pulp density, glycine concentration, pH level, and temperature were optimized. The optimization resulted in 68.5 and 33.8% of Au and Ag dissolution, respectively, at a pH of 9.0, a pulp density of 10 g/L, a temperature of 30 °C, and a glycine concentration of 5 g/L. This is the first study of Au and Ag bioleaching using indigenous e-waste bacteria and its analysis to determine e-waste toxicity tolerance.

  11. Different profiles of anthropogenic and naturally produced organohalogen compounds in serum from residents living near a coastal area and e-waste recycling workers in India.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-10-15

    We determined the contamination status and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB congeners (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and bromophenols (BPhs) in serum from e-waste recycling workers and residents near a coastal area in India. Residue levels of penta- to octa-chlorinated PCBs, penta- to octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs, 6MeO-BDE47, 6OH-BDE47, and 2,4,6-tri-BPh in serum from residents living near the coastal area were significantly higher than those in serum from e-waste recycling workers. Residue levels of tri- to tetra-chlorinated PCBs, tri- to tetra-chlorinated OH-PCBs, PBDEs, octa-brominated OH-PBDEs, and tetra-BPhs in serum from e-waste recycling workers were higher than those in serum from residents living near the coastal area. Principal component analysis revealed that residents living near the coastal area and e-waste recycling workers had different serum profiles of chlorinated and brominated compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Eco-toxicity and metal contamination of paddy soil in an e-wastes recycling area.

    PubMed

    Jun-hui, Zhang; Hang, Min

    2009-06-15

    Paddy soil samples taken from different sites in an old primitive electronic-waste (e-waste) processing region were examined for eco-toxicity and metal contamination. Using the environmental quality standard for soils (China, Grade II) as reference, soil samples of two sites were weakly contaminated with trace metal, but site G was heavily contaminated with Cd (6.37 mg kg(-1)), and weakly contaminated with Cu (256.36 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (209.85 mg kg(-1)). Zn appeared to be strongly bound in the residual fraction (72.24-77.86%), no matter the soil was metal contaminated or not. However, more than 9% Cd and 16% Cu was present in the non-residual fraction in the metal contaminated soils than in the uncontaminated soil, especially for site G and site F. Compared with that of the control soil, the micronucleus rates of site G and site F soil treatments increased by 2.7-fold and 1.7-fold, respectively. Low germination rates were observed in site C (50%) and site G (50%) soil extraction treated rice seeds. The shortest root length (0.2377 cm) was observed in site G soil treated groups, which is only 37.57% of that of the control soil treated groups. All of the micronucleus ratio of Vicia faba root cells, rice germination rate and root length after treatment of soil extraction indicate the eco-toxicity in site F and G soils although the three indexes are different in sensitivity to soil metal contamination.

  13. Associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and oxidative stress in people living near e-waste recycling facilities in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-You; Li, Yan-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Gui-Hua; Huang, Ming-Zhi; Li, Xiao; Ruan, Ju-Jun; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2016-09-01

    Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from e-waste recycling activities in China is known. However, little is known on the association between PAH exposure and oxidative damage to DNA and lipid content in people living near e-waste dismantling sites. In this study, ten hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and two biomarkers [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA)] of oxidative stress were investigated in urine samples collected from people living in and around e-waste dismantling facilities, and in reference population from rural and urban areas in China. The urinary levels of ∑10OH-PAHs determined in e-waste recycling area (GM: 25.4μg/g Cre) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those found in both rural (11.7μg/g Cre) and urban (10.9μg/g Cre) reference areas. The occupationally exposed e-waste workers (36.6μg/g Cre) showed significantly higher (p<0.01) urinary Σ10OH-PAHs concentrations than non-occupationally exposed people (23.2μg/g Cre) living in the e-waste recycling site. The differences in urinary Σ10OH-PAHs levels between smokers (23.4μg/g Cre) and non-smokers (24.7μg/g Cre) were not significant (p>0.05) in e-waste dismantling sites, while these differences were significant (p<0.05) in rural and urban reference areas; this indicated that smoking is not associated with elevated levels of PAH exposure in e-waste dismantling site. Furthermore, we found that urinary concentrations of Σ10OH-PAHs and individual OH-PAHs were significantly associated with elevated 8-OHdG, in samples collected from e-waste dismantling site; the levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR) (r=0.284, p<0.01) was significantly positively associated with MDA. Our results indicate that the exposure to PAHs at the e-waste dismantling site may have an effect on oxidative damage to DNA among selected participants, but this needs to be validated in large studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Proteomic evaluation of human umbilical cord tissue exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers in an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghui; Huo, Xia; Pan, Yukui; Cai, Haoxing; Dai, Yifeng; Xu, Xijin

    2018-02-01

    Parental exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is associated with adverse birth outcomes. This study aims to examine differentially-expressed protein profiles in umbilical cord tissue, derived from mothers exposed to PBDEs, and investigate candidate biomarkers to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. Umbilical cord samples were obtained from women residing in an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area (Guiyu) and reference area (Haojiang) in China. The concentration of PBDEs in umbilical cord tissue was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomic technology was conducted to analyze differentially-expressed protein profiles. The total PBDE concentration was approximately five-fold higher in umbilical cords from Guiyu than from Haojiang (median 71.92ng/g vs. 15.52ng/g lipid, P<0.01). Neonatal head circumference, body-mass index (BMI) and Apgar1 score were lower in Guiyu and negatively correlated with PBDE concentration (P<0.01). Proteomic analysis showed 697 proteins were differentially expressed in the e-waste-exposed group compared with the reference group. The differentially-expressed proteins were principally involved in antioxidant defense, apoptosis, cell structure and metabolism. Among them, catalase and glutathione S-transferase omega-1, were down-regulated, and cytochrome c was found to be up-regulated, changes which were further verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. These results suggest that an antioxidant imbalance and cell apoptosis in the umbilical cord following PBDE exposure is associated with neonatal birth outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alteration of the number and percentage of innate immune cells in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Xijin; Sun, Di; Cao, Junjun; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2017-11-01

    Heavy metal lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are widespread environmental contaminants and exert detrimental effects on the immune system. We evaluated the association between Pb/Cd exposures and innate immune cells in children from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area. A total number of 294 preschool children were recruited, including 153 children from Guiyu (e-waste exposed group), and 141 from Haojiang (reference group). Pb and Cd levels in peripheral blood were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, NK cell percentages were detected by flow cytometer, and other innate immune cells including monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils were immediately measured by automated hematology analyzer. Results showed children in Guiyu had significantly higher Pb and Cd levels than in reference group. Absolute counts of monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils, as well as percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher in the Guiyu group. In contrast, NK cell percentages were significantly lower in Guiyu group. Pb elicited significant escalation in counts of monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, as well as percentages of monocytes, but decline in percentages of neutrophils in different quintiles with respect to the first quintile of Pb concentrations. Cd induced significant increase in counts and percentages of neutrophils in the highest quintile compared with the first quintile of Cd concentrations. We concluded alteration of the number and percentage of innate immune cells are linked to higher levels of Pb and Cd, which indicates Pb and Cd exposures might affect the innate and adaptive immune response in Guiyu children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metal contents of indoor dust in e-waste recycling impacted area, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zongmin; Han, Zhixuan; Bi, Xiangyang; Yang, Wenlin

    2012-09-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global problem. The aim of this study is to test the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting the metal pollutants emitted from e-waste recycling activities. Dust samples collected from a typical e-waste recycling region in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, China, were investigated using magnetic, geochemical, micro-morphological and mineralogical analysis. The values of mass-specific susceptibility (χ) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) in dusts from e-waste recycling impacted areas ranged from 101 to 636×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1) and from 10.5 to 85.2×10(-3) Am(2) kg(-1), respectively. There was a significant correlation between SIRM and χ (r(2)=0.747, p<0.001), indicating that ferrimagnetic minerals were dominating χ in the dust samples. The values of χ(fd)% varied from 2.6 to 4.6% with a mean of 3.4%, which suggested that magnetic carriers in the dusts are predominately coarse-grained particles. Two shapes of magnetic particles, spherule (10-150 μm) and angular-shaped particles (30-300 μm), were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) analyses. κ-T curves, magnetic hysteresis loops and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that these magnetic particles were magnetite and goethite. There were significant correlations between SIRM and heavy metals (especially Cd, Co, Fe, Ni and Zn) as well as the Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) of the dust, indicating that SIRM can be used as an efficient proxy for metal pollution in the e-waste recycling impacted area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Organic contaminants and heavy metals in indoor dust from e-waste recycling, rural, and urban areas in South China: Spatial characteristics and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    He, Chun-Tao; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Yan, Xiao; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Mei-Huan; Tan, Xiao; Qiao, Lin; Chen, She-Jun; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-06-01

    The concentrations of several organic contaminants (OCs) and heavy metals were measured in indoor dust from e-waste recycling, rural, and urban areas in South China to illustrate the spatial characteristics of these pollutants and to further evaluate human exposure risks. The median concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and dechlorane plus (DPs) were 38.6-3560, 2360-30,100, 665-2720, and 19.5-1860ng/g, while the median concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Zn were 2.46-40.4, 206-1380, 217- 1200, 25.3-134, and 176-212μg/g in indoor dust. The levels of all pollutants, except Zn, in dust from the e-waste recycling area were significantly higher than those from the other areas. Cd, Pb, and most OCs exhibited similar pollution patterns in the three areas, indicating that e-waste recycling activities are the major pollution source. In contrast, Cu, Cr, Zn, and penta-BDE are likely derived from household products in the rural and urban areas. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of PCBs, PBDEs, DBDPE, and DPs were 0.15-163, 3.97-1470, 1.26-169, and 0.11-134ng/kg bw/day for toddlers and adults. The highest EDIs of BDE 209 and Pb in toddlers in the e-waste recycling area were 16% and 18 times higher than the reference doses, indicating the high exposure risk of these pollutants in the e-waste recycling area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and vegetation near an e-waste recycling site in South China: concentration, distribution, source, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Tian, Zhongjing; Zhu, Haolin; Cheng, Zhineng; Kang, Meiling; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2012-11-15

    This study determined the concentrations of PAHs generated from e-waste recycling activities and their potential impacts on soil, vegetation, and human health. The total PAH concentrations in soils and plants ranged from 127 to 10,600 and 199 to 2420 ng/g, respectively. Samples from an e-waste burning site had higher PAH concentrations than samples from adjacent locations. The PAHs in plants varied with plant species and tissue, and Lactuca sativa L. contained the highest PAHs of all the vegetable species. Various land use types showed different PAH concentrations in soils, with vegetable fields showing higher concentrations than paddy fields. Low molecular weight PAHs, such as phenanthrene, were the predominant congeners in soils, whereas high molecular weight PAHs, such as fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene, were enriched in plants relative to soils. Dissimilar PAH profiles in soil and the corresponding vegetation indicated that the uptake of PAHs by plants was selective. A source analysis showed that the contamination by PAHs originated primarily from the open burning of e-waste. The total daily intakes of PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs through vegetables at the e-waste dismantling site were estimated to be 279 and 108 ng/kg/d, respectively, indicating that the consumption of vegetables grown near e-waste recycling sites is risky and should be completely avoided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Considerable decrease of antibody titers against measles, mumps, and rubella in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yucong; Xu, Xijin; Dai, Yifeng; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2016-12-15

    Data on vaccination effects in children chronically exposed to heavy metals are extremely scarce. This study aims to investigate the immune responsiveness to measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in children from an e-waste recycling area. 378 healthy children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group) were surveyed. Blood lead (Pb) levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption. Titers of antibodies against MMR were quantified by ELISA. Blood Pb levels of children from the exposed group were significantly higher than those from the reference group (5.61μg/dL vs. 3.57μg/dL, p<0.001). In contrast, the antibody titers against MMR of the children from the exposed group were significantly lower than those from the reference group. The median titer of the anti-measles antibody of the exposed group was 669.64mIU/mL, with an interquartile range of 372.88-1068.42mIU/mL; this was decreased by nearly 40% compared to that of the reference group (median 1046.79mIU/mL, interquartile range 603.29-1733.10mIU/mL). For antibody titers against mumps, there was an about 45% decrease in the exposed group (median 272.24U/mL, interquartile range 95.19-590.16U/mL), compared to the reference group (median 491.78U/mL, interquartile range 183.38-945.96U/mL). In the case of rubella, the median titer of the antibody was also significantly lower in the exposed group (median 37.08IU/mL, interquartile range 17.67-66.66IU/mL) compared to the reference group (median 66.50IU/mL, interquartile range 25.32-105.59IU/mL); the decrease in this case was nearly 44%. The proportion of children whose antibody titers against MMR were below protective level in the exposed group was higher than it was in the reference group. The present study demonstrates that the immune responsiveness to routine vaccination was suppressed in children chronically exposed to lead. Thus, the vaccination strategies for these children living in an e-waste recycling area should be modified

  20. Variation and distribution of metals and metalloids in soil/ash mixtures from Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Itai, Takaaki; Otsuka, Masanari; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Muto, Mamoru; Opoku-Ankomah, Yaw; Ansa-Asare, Osmund Duodu; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-02-01

    Illegal import and improper recycling of electronic waste (e-waste) are an environmental issue in developing countries around the world. African countries are no exception to this problem and the Agbogbloshie market in Accra, Ghana is a well-known e-waste recycling site. We have studied the levels of metal(loid)s in the mixtures of residual ash, formed by the burning of e-waste, and the cover soil, obtained using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (P-XRF) coupled with determination of the 1M HCl-extractable fraction by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The accuracy and precision of the P-XRF measurements were evaluated by measuring 18 standard reference materials; this indicated the acceptable but limited quality of this method as a screening tool. The HCl-extractable levels of Al, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, In, Sb, Ba, and Pb in 10 soil/ash mixtures varied by more than one order of magnitude. The levels of these metal(loid)s were found to be correlated with the color (i.e., soil/ash ratio), suggesting that they are being released from disposed e-waste via open burning. The source of rare elements could be constrained using correlation to the predominant metals. Human hazard quotient values based on ingestion of soil/ash mixtures exceeded unity for Pb, As, Sb, and Cu in a high-exposure scenario. This study showed that along with common metals, rare metal(loid)s are also enriched in the e-waste burning site. We suggest that risk assessment considering exposure to multiple metal(loid)s should be addressed in studies of e-waste recycling sites. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. PCBs and PCDD/Fs in soil from informal e-waste recycling sites and open dumpsites in India: Levels, congener profiles and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Nakamura, Masafumi; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Bang, John J

    2018-04-15

    Growth of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sector is an emerging problem for India. The presence of halogenated compounds in e-wastes may result in the formation of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during recycling processes. We therefore investigated PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface soils explicitly from the informal e-waste recycling sites and nearby open dumpsites of major metropolitan cities from four corners of India, viz., New Delhi (North), Kolkata (East), Mumbai (West) and Chennai (South). In the informal e-waste recycling sites, the range of Σ 26 PCBs (0.4-488ng/g) and ƩPCDD/Fs (1.0-10.6ng/g) were higher than Ʃ 26 PCBs (0.3-21ng/g) and ƩPCDD/Fs (0.15-7.3ng/g) from open dumpsites. In the e-waste sites, ƩPCDDs were found with increasing trend from ƩTetraCDD to OctaCDD, whereas ƩPCDFs showed a reverse trend. The dominance of PCDF congeners and maximum toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for both PCDDs (17pg TEQ/g) and PCDFs (82pg TEQ/g) at Mandoli in New Delhi has been related to intensive precious metal recovery process using acid bath. Among dumpsites, highest TEQ for PCDD/Fs was observed at Kodangaiyur dumpsite of Chennai (CN DS -02, 45pg TEQ/g). Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model identified distinct congener pattern based on the functional activities, such as e-waste dismantling, shredding, precious metal recovery and open burning in dumpsites. E-waste metal recovery factor was loaded with 86-91% of PCB-77, -105, -114, -118 and 30% of PCB-126, possibly associated with the burning of wires during the copper extraction process. Almost 70% of the Ʃ 26 PCB concentrations was comprised of the dioxin-like PCB congeners with a maximum concentration of 437ng/g at New Moore market in Chennai, followed by Wire Lane (102ng/g), in Mumbai. We speculate that PCB-126 might have resulted from combustion of plastic materials in e-waste stream and dumped waste

  2. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The major components of particles emitted during recycling of waste printed circuit boards in a typical e-waste workshop of South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xinhui; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Wang, ZhenZhen; Wang, Xinming; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-11-01

    Electronic waste from across the world is dismantled and disposed of in China. The low-tech recycling methods have caused severe air pollution. Air particle samples from a typical workshop of South China engaged in recycling waste printed circuit boards have been analyzed with respect to chemical constituents. This is the first report on the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted in an e-waste recycling workshop of South China. The results show that the composition of PM from this recycling process was totally different from other emission sources. Organic matter comprised 46.7-51.6% of the PM. The major organic constituents were organophosphates consisting mainly of triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and its methyl substituted compounds, methyl esters of hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids, levoglucosan and bisphenol A. TPP and bisphenol A were present at 1-5 orders of magnitude higher than in other indoor and outdoor environments throughout the world, which implies that they might be used as potential markers for e-waste recycling. The elemental carbon, inorganic elements and ions had a minor contribution to the PM (<5% each). The inorganic elements were dominated by phosphorus and followed by crustal elements and metal elements Pb, Zn, Sn, and lesser Cu, Sb, Mn, Ni, Ba and Cd. The recycling of printed circuit boards was demonstrated as an important contributor of heavy metal contamination, particularly Cd, Pb and Ni, to the local environment. These findings suggest that this recycling method represents a strong source of PM associated with pollutants to the ambient atmosphere of an e-waste recycling locale.

  4. Aquatic bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of tetrabromobisphenol-A flame retardant introduced from a typical e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Zhi, Hui; Zhang, Ying; Ren, Zi-He; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-07-01

    While the flame retardant chemical, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), has been frequently detected in the environment, knowledge regarding its species-specific bioaccumulation and trophic transfer is limited, especially in the highly contaminated sites. In this study, the components of an aquatic food web, including two invertebrates, two prey fish, and one predator fish, collected from a natural pond at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China were analyzed for TBBP-A, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The aquatic species had TBBP-A concentrations ranging from 350 to 1970 pg/g wet weight, with higher concentrations in the invertebrates relative to the fish species. Field-determined bioaccumulation factors of TBBP-A in the two aquatic invertebrates were nearly or greater than 5000, suggesting that TBBP-A is highly bioaccumulative in the two species. The lipid-normalized concentrations of TBBP-A in the aquatic species were negatively correlated with the trophic levels determined from stable nitrogen isotope (δ(15)N) (r = -0.82, p = 0.09), indicating that this compound experienced trophic dilution in the current food web.

  5. Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenols and Their Association with Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in People Living Near E-Waste Recycling Facilities in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Xue, Jingchuan; Gao, Chuan-zi; Qiu, Rong-liang; Li, Yan-xi; Li, Xiao; Huang, Ming-zhi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-04-05

    In this study, concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and seven other bisphenols (BPs) were measured in urine samples collected from people living in and around e-waste dismantling facilities, and in matched reference population from rural and urban areas in China. BPA, bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol F (BPF) were frequently detected (detection frequencies: > 90%) in urine samples collected from individuals who live near e-waste facilities, with geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 2.99 (or 3.75), 0.361 (or 0.469), and 0.349 (or 0.435) ng/mL (or μg/g Cre), respectively; the other five BPs were rarely found in urine samples, regardless of the sampling location. The urinary concentrations of BPA and BPF, but not BPS, were significantly higher in individuals from e-waste recycling locations than did individuals from a rural reference location. Our findings indicated that e-waste dismantling activities contribute to human exposure to BPA and BPF. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured in urine as a marker of oxidative stress. In the e-waste dismantling location, urinary 8-OHdG was significantly and positively correlated (p < 0.001) with urinary BPA and BPS, but not BPF; a similar correlation was also observed in reference sites. These findings suggest that BPA and BPS exposures are associated with elevated oxidative stress.

  6. Occurrence of perchlorate and thiocyanate in human serum from e-waste recycling and reference sites in Vietnam: association with thyroid hormone and iodide levels.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu, Qian; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-07-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4 (-)) and thiocyanate (SCN(-)) interfere with iodide (I(-)) uptake by the sodium/iodide symporter, and thereby these anions may affect the production of thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid gland. Although human exposure to perchlorate and thiocyanate has been studied in the United States and Europe, few investigations have been performed in Asian countries. In this study, we determined concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide in 131 serum samples collected from 2 locations in Northern Vietnam, Bui Dau (BD; electrical and electronic waste [e-waste] recycling site) and Doung Quang (DQ; rural site) and examined the association between serum levels of these anions with levels of THs. The median concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide detected in the serum of Vietnamese subjects were 0.104, 2020, and 3.11 ng mL(-1), respectively. Perchlorate levels were significantly greater in serum of the BD population (median 0.116 ng mL(-1)) than those in the DQ population (median 0.086 ng mL(-1)), which indicated greater exposure from e-waste recycling operations by the former. Serum concentrations of thiocyanate were not significantly different between the BD and DQ populations, but increased levels of this anion were observed among smokers. Iodide was a significant positive predictor of serum levels of FT3 and TT3 and a significant negative predictor of thyroid-stimulating hormone in males. When the association between serum levels of perchlorate or thiocyanate and THs was assessed using a stepwise multiple linear regression model, no significant correlations were found. In addition to greater concentrations of perchlorate detected in the e-waste recycling population, however, given that lower concentrations of iodide were observed in the serum of Vietnamese females, detailed risk assessments on TH homeostasis for females inhabiting e-waste recycling sites, especially for pregnant women and their neonates, are required.

  7. Dechlorane Plus in serum from e-waste recycling workers: influence of gender and potential isomer-specific metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ke-Hui; Yang, Junzhi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yu, Le-Huan; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2012-11-15

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) and its dechlorinated product, anti-Cl₁₁-DP, were measured in serum of 70 occupationally exposed workers in an e-waste recycling region and 13 residents of an urban area in South China. The DP levels were significantly higher in the workers (22-2200 ng/g with median of 150 ng/g lipid) than in the urban residents (2.7-91 ng/g with median of 4.6 ng/g lipid). The DP concentrations in females were found to be associated with their age but such relation was not found for males. Significant differences in DP levels and DP isomer composition were found between genders. The females had remarkably higher DP levels and f(anti) values (fraction of anti-DP to total DPs) in serum than the males. Anti-Cl₁₁-DP was significantly correlated with anti-DP for both genders but with different slope of regression line. The ratios of anti-Cl₁₁-DP to anti-DP (mean of 0.017) in males were significantly higher than those (mean of 0.010) in females. Combining with the lower f(anti) values in males, it is likely that males have higher metabolic potential for DPs than females which resulted in the lower DP loading in serum. However, the different patterns of selective uptake and/or excretion of different compounds between genders cannot be eliminated as a possible reason for the observed gender differences. This study is the first to report on the gender difference in DP accumulation in human, and its mechanism is worth further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Size-dependent distribution and inhalation cancer risk of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a typical e-waste recycling and an urban site.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pei; Bao, Lian-Jun; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric particle size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a typical e-waste recycling zone and an urban site (Guangzhou) in southern China featured a unimodal peak in 0.56-1.8 μm for 4-6 ring PAHs but no obvious peak for 2-3 ring PAHs at both sites. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAHs were estimated at 5.4 ± 2.3 μg m(-2) d(-1) in the e-waste recycling zone and 3.1 ± 0.6 μg m(-2) d(-1) in Guangzhou. In addition, dry and wet deposition fluxes of PAHs were dominated by coarse (Dp > 1.8 μm) and fine particles (Dp < 1.8 μm), respectively. Fine particles predominated the deposition of PAHs in the lung. The results estimated by incremental inhalation cancer risk suggested that particle-bound PAHs posed serious threat to human health within the e-waste recycling zone and Guangzhou. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Residue profiles of organohalogen compounds in human serum from e-waste recycling sites in North Vietnam: Association with thyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Minh Tue, Nguyen; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Hung Viet, Pham; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrated the contamination levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), and bromophenols (BPhs), and their relationships with thyroid hormones (THs), in the serum of human donors from an e-waste recycling site and a rural site in Hung Yen province, Vietnam. Occupationally related exposure was indicated by significantly higher residue levels of PCBs, OH-PCBs, PBDEs, and BPhs in the serum of donors from the e-waste recycling site (median: 420, 160, 290, and 300pgg(-1) wet wt, respectively) than those in the serum of donors from the rural site (median: 290, 82, 230, and 200pgg(-)(1) wet wt, respectively). On the other hand, levels of OH-/MeO-PBDEs were significantly higher in serum of donors from the reference site (median: 160 and 20pgg(-1) wet wt, respectively) than in those from the e-waste recycling site (median: 43 and 0.52pgg(-1) wet wt, respectively). In addition, we implemented stepwise generalized linear models to assess the association between the levels of TH and PCBs, PBDEs, and their related compounds. In females, we found positive associations of PCBs and OH-PCB concentrations with total thyroxine, free thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, and free triiodothyronine, and a negative association with thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Health risk characterization for resident inhalation exposure to particle-bound halogenated flame retardants in a typical e-waste recycling zone.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pei; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Feng-Chang; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of pollutants is an important exposure route for causing human health hazards, and inhalation exposure assessment must take into account particle size distribution because particle-bound pollutants are size-dependent. Such information is scarce, particularly for residents dwelling within e-waste recycling zones where abundant atmospheric halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) commonly used in electronic/electrical devices have been widely reported. Atmospheric size-fractioned particle samples were collected using a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor from an e-waste recycling zone in South China. The deposition efficiencies and fluxes of size-fractioned HFRs including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alternative brominated flame retardants, and Dechlorane Plus in the human respiratory tract were estimated using the International Commission on Radiological Protection deposition model. The majority of HFRs was found to deposit in the head airways, with coarse particles (aerodynamic diameter (Dp) > 1.8 μm) contributing the most (69-91%). Conversely, fine particles (Dp < 1.8 μm) were dominant in the alveolar region (62-80%). The inhalation intake of PBDEs within the e-waste recycling zone was 44 ng/d (95% confidence interval (CI): 30-65 ng/d), close to those through food consumption in non-e-waste recycling regions. The estimated total hazard quotient of particle-bound HFRs was 5.6 × 10(-4) (95% CI: 3.8 × 10(-4)-8.8 × 10(-4)). In addition, incremental lifetime cancer risk induced by BDE-209 was 1.36 × 10(-10) (95% CI: 7.3 × 10(-11)-2.3 × 10(-10)), much lower than the Safe Acceptable Range (1.0 × 10(-6)-1.0 × 10(-4)) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. These results indicate that the potential health risk from inhalation exposure to particle-bound HFRs for residents dwelling in the e-waste recycling zone was low.

  12. Remote Sensing Combined with Field Spectroscopy for the Detection and Monitoring of Heavy Metal Contamination from Informal E-waste Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, L. R.; Garb, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams. Made up of discarded electronics, e-waste disposal is complex. However, e-waste also provides economic opportunity through the processing and extraction of precious metals. Sometimes referred to as "urban mining," this recycling operates informally or illegally and is characterized by dangerous practices such as, open-pit burning, acid leaching, and burning of low value wastes. Poorly controlled e-waste recycling releases dangerous contaminants, especially heavy metals, directly to the surface environment where they can infiltrate water resources and spread through precipitation events. Despite growing recognition of the prevalence of unregulated e-waste processing, systematic data on the extent and persistence of the released contamination is still limited. In general, contamination is established through techniques that provide only a snapshot in time and in a limited geographic area. Here we present preliminary results from attempts to combine field, laboratory, and remote sensing studies toward a systematic remote sensing methodology for e-waste contamination detection and monitoring. The ongoing work utilizes a tragic "natural experiment," in which over 500 e-waste burn sites were active over more than a decade in a variety of agricultural, residential, and natural contexts. We have collected over 100 soil samples for which we have both XRF and ICP-AES measurements showing soil Pb concentrations as high as 14000 ppm. We have also collected 480 in-situ reflectance spectra with corresponding soil samples over 4 field transects of areas with long-term burn activity. The most heavily contaminated samples come from within the burn sites and are made up of ash. Field spectra of these samples reflect their dark color with low overall reflectance and shallow spectral features. These spectra are challenging to use for image classification due to their similarity with other low-reflectance parts

  13. Flame retardant emission from e-waste recycling operation in northern Vietnam: environmental occurrence of emerging organophosphorus esters used as alternatives for PBDEs.

    PubMed

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Suzuki, Go; Someya, Masayuki; Tuyen, Le Huu; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2015-05-01

    Three oligomeric organophosphorus flame retardants (o-PFRs), eight monomeric PFRs (m-PFRs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were identified and quantified in surface soils and river sediments around the e-waste recycling area in Bui Dau, northern Vietnam. Around the e-waste recycling workshops, 1,3-phenylene bis(diphenyl phosphate) (PBDPP), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), TBBPA, and PBDEs were dominant among the investigated flame retardants (FRs). The respective concentrations of PBDPP, BPA-BDPP, TPHP, TBBPA and the total PBDEs were 6.6-14000 ng/g-dry, <2-1500 ng/g-dry, 11-3300 ng/g-dry, <5-2900 ng/g-dry, and 67-9200 ng/g-dry in surface soils, and 4.4-78 ng/g-dry, <2-20 ng/g-dry, 7.3-38 ng/g-dry, 6.0-44 ng/g-dry and 100-350 ng/g-dry in river sediments. Near the open burning site of e-waste, tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP), (2-ethylhexyl)diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), TPHP, and the total PBDEs were abundantly with respective concentrations of <2-190 ng/g-dry, <2-69 ng/g-dry, <3-51 ng/g-dry and 1.7-67 ng/g-dry in surface soils. Open storage and burning of e-waste have been determined to be important factors contributing to the emissions of FRs. The environmental occurrence of emerging FRs, especially o-PFRs, indicates that the alternation of FRs addition in electronic products is shifting in response to domestic and international regulations of PBDEs. The emissions of alternatives from open storage and burning of e-waste might become greater than those of PBDEs in the following years. The presence and environmental effects of alternatives should be regarded as a risk factor along with e-waste recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chromium exposure among children from an electronic waste recycling town of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xijin; Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Liu, Junxiao; Zhuang, Bingrong; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2015-02-01

    Guiyu is one of the most heavily chromium-polluted areas in China due to the numerous informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities. A 3-year (2004, 2006, and 2008) independent cross-sectional study on blood chromium (BCr) levels of 711 children from Guiyu and a control area was investigated. Questionnaire completed by parents/guardians was used to assess the risk factors of chromium (Cr) exposure, while physical examination, for the year 2008 only, was used to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to Cr on child physical development. Children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BCr levels compared with those living in Chendian at the same period from 2004 to 2008 (P < 0.001). The predominant risk factors related to elevated child BCr levels included the use of house as a family workshop, parent involved in e-waste recycling, and child residence in Guiyu. Children's weight and chest circumferences in group with high exposure to Cr (upper quartile) were higher than in the low-exposure group (P < 0.01), although the difference was less significant for boys between the two groups (P < 0.05). The results suggest that elevated child BCr in Guiyu due to informal e-waste recycling activities might be threatening the health of children, with implications on physical growth and development.

  15. Determination of the Extent of Trace Metals Pollution in Soils, Sediments and Human Hair at e-Waste Recycling Site in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tokumaru, Takashi; Ozaki, Hirokazu; Onwona-Agyeman, Siaw; Ofosu-Anim, John; Watanabe, Izumi

    2017-10-01

    The concentrations of trace elements (Mg, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Tl, Pb, and Bi) in soils, sediment, human hair, and foodstuff collected around the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites in Accra, Ghana were detected using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). High levels of Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, and Pb were observed in soils collected from the e-waste recycling sites. Four sequential extraction procedures were used to evaluate the mobility and bioavailability of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Sb, and Pb). Especially, the results showed that Cd and Zn in soils were mostly recovered in exchangeable fraction (respectively 58.9 and 62.8%). Sediment collected from around the site had enrichment of Zn, Sn, Sb, Mo, In, Pb, and Bi. The concentrations of Cu, Mo, Cd, Sb, and Pb in human hair were significantly higher than those collected from the control site (p < 0.01). Additionally, hierarchical cluster analysis reviewed that these elements were derived from e-waste activities. The results of Pb isotopic ratios in the samples indicate that Pb in human hair possibly originated from contaminated soils, fish, and foodstuff.

  16. The Abandoned E-Waste Recycling Site Continued to Act As a Significant Source of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: An in Situ Assessment Using Fugacity Samplers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Wang, Shaorui; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-08-16

    The recycling of e-waste has attracted significant attention due to emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminants into the environment. We measured PCB concentrations in surface soils, air equilibrated with the soil, and air at 1.5-m height using a fugacity sampler in an abandoned electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China. The total concentrations of PCBs in the soils were 39.8-940 ng/g, whereas the concentrations in air equilibrated with the soil and air at 1.5 m height were 487-8280 pg/m(3) and 287-7380 pg/m(3), respectively. The PCB concentrations displayed seasonal variation; they were higher in winter in the soils and higher in summer in the air, indicating that the emission of PCBs from the soil was enhanced during hot seasons for the relatively high temperature or additional sources, especially for low-chlorinated PCBs. We compared two methods (traditional fugacity model and fugacity sampler) for assessing the soil-air partition coefficients (Ksa) and the fugacity fractions of PCBs. The results suggested that the fugacity sampler provided more instructive and practical estimation on Ksa values and trends in air-soil exchange, especially for low-chlorinated PCBs. The abandoned e-waste burning site still acted as a significant source of PCBs many years after the prohibition on open burning.

  17. Health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via fish consumption in Haimen bay (China), downstream of an e-waste recycling site (Guiyu).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingchun; Zheng, Gene Jin-Shu; Wong, Ming-Hung; Liang, Hong; Li, Yuelin; Wu, Yinglin; Li, Ping; Liu, Wenhua

    2016-05-01

    Guiyu, China has been one of the largest e-waste recycling sites of the world for more than 20 years. Abundant data show that local dwellers there suffered from severe health risks from e-waste contaminants. In this study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used as candidates to test the contamination levels and their possible adverse effects on residents in Haimen Bay, the estuary of Lian River (less than 30km from Guiyu), which has been totally neglected. The concentrations of 16PAHs were determined in collected marine fish with a median ΣPAH concentration of 1478ng/g (wet weight), and the contamination may be mainly influenced by Lian River runoff, specifically from Guiyu. The lifetime excess cancer risk for local dwellers was much higher than the serious risk level (10(-4)). More seriously, outflows of PAHs from the e-waste recycling site (Guiyu) seemed to exert health risks of a much larger scale of population downstream. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury and their association with biomarkers of DNA oxidative damage in preschool children living in an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xijin; Liao, Weitang; Lin, Yucong; Dai, Yifeng; Shi, Zhihua; Huo, Xia

    2017-06-16

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced DNA damage occurs in heavy metal exposure, but the simultaneous effect on DNA repair is unknown. We investigated the influence of co-exposure of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) on 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and human repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) mRNA levels in exposed children to evaluate the imbalance of DNA damage and repair. Children within the age range of 3-6 years from a primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling town were chosen as participants to represent a heavy metal-exposed population. 8-OHdG in the children's urine was assessed for heavy metal-induced oxidative effects, and the hOGG1 mRNA level in their blood represented the DNA repair ability of the children. Among the children surveyed, 88.14% (104/118) had a blood Pb level >5 μg/dL, 22.03% (26/118) had a blood Cd level >1 μg/dL, and 62.11% (59/95) had a blood Hg level >10 μg/dL. Having an e-waste workshop near the house was a risk factor contributing to high blood Pb (r s  = 0.273, p < 0.01), while Cd and Hg exposure could have come from other contaminant sources. Preschool children of fathers who had a college or university education had significantly lower 8-OHdG levels (median 242.76 ng/g creatinine, range 154.62-407.79 ng/g creatinine) than did children of fathers who had less education (p = 0.035). However, we did not observe a significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of hOGG1 between the different variables. Compared with children having low lead exposure (quartile 1), the children with high Pb exposure (quartiles 2, 3, and 4) had significantly higher 8-OHdG levels (β Q2  = 0.362, 95% CI 0.111-0.542; β Q3  = 0.347, 95% CI 0.103-0.531; β Q4  = 0.314, 95% CI 0.087-0.557). Associations between blood Hg levels and 8-OHdG were less apparent. Compared with low levels of blood Hg (quartile 1), elevated blood Hg levels (quartile 2) were associated with higher 8-OHdG levels (β Q2  = 0

  19. Organohalogen pollutants in surface particulates from workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites in China and implications for emission lists.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Peng, Ping-An; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-11-01

    To examine the environmental pollution associated with e-waste recycling activities, the concentrations of organohologenated pollutants (OHPs), i.e., short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and several other halogenated flame retardants (OHFRs), were investigated in surface particulates from the workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, Dali and Qingyuan) in China. The mean levels of SCCPs, MCCPs, PCBs, PBDEs and OHFRs in surface particulates ranged from 30,000-61,000, 170,000-890,000, 2700-27,000, 52,000-240,000, and 62,000-140,000ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. OHFRs, including decabromodiphenyl ethane, dechlorane plus, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated biphenyls, hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and pentabromoethylbenzene, were frequently (>50% detection frequency) detected in surface particulates with mean concentration ranges of 39,000-63,000, 310-2700, 98-16,000, 21,000-56,000, 55-5700, 1700-27,000, 42-1600, 3.2-220, and 5.8-12ng/g dw, respectively. The composition of OHPs varied depend on the e-waste items processing in different regions. Guiyu and Dali were typical sites contaminated by halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and CPs, respectively, while Qingyuan, and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. The evidence produced by this preliminary study indicated that electronic devices and plastics may account for the high content of HFRs and the metal products are likely the major source of CPs in these e-waste sites. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in rice hull from a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China: temporal trend, source, and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Liao, Chunyang; Fu, Jianjie; Lv, Jungang; Xue, Qinzhao; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-02-01

    The residue levels of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 16 selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in rice and rice hull collected from a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China were investigated from 2005 to 2007. PAHs and OCPs also were measured in ten mollusk species (soft tissues) collected in an adjacent bay in 2007. Individual PAHs were frequently found in the entire sample set (including the rice, hull, and mollusk samples) with a detection rate of 73 %. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (ΣPAHs) and 16 OCPs (ΣOCPs) were in the range of 40.8-432 ng/g dry weight (mean: 171 ng/g) and 2.35-925 ng/g (122 ng/g), respectively, which were comparable or higher than those reported in some polluted areas. Statistical comparisons suggested that the concentrations of contaminants in hull gradually decreased from 2005 to 2007 and the residue levels were generally in the order of mollusk, hull, and rice, on a dry weight basis. Principal component analysis in combination with diagnostic ratios implied that combustion of coal, wood, and plastic wastes that are closely associated with crude e-waste recycling activities is the main source of PAHs. The finding of decreasing trend of concentrations of PAHs in this area is consistent with the efforts of local authorities to strengthen regulations on illegal e-waste recycling activities. Composition analysis suggested that there is a recent usage or discharge of hexachlorocyclohexane and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane into the tested area. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of ΣPAHs and ΣOCPs (calculated from mean concentrations) through rice and mollusk consumption was 0.411 and 0.921 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day, respectively.

  1. Assessment of health risk of trace metal pollution in surface soil and road dust from e-waste recycling area in China.

    PubMed

    Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Wu, Yousheng; Kim, Stephani; Reponen, Tiina; Dietrich, Kim N; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2016-09-01

    Informal recycling of e-waste and the resulting heavy metal pollution has become a serious burden on the ecosystem in Guiyu, China. In this investigation, we evaluated the trace metal concentration of community soil and road dust samples from 11 locations in Guiyu and 5 locations (consisting of residential areas, kindergarten/school, and farm field) in a reference area using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study spanned four seasons, 2012-2013, with a view to assess the risk associated with e-waste recycling in the study area. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Mn were 448.73, 0.71, 63.90, and 806.54 mg/kg in Guiyu soil and 589.74, 1.94, 69.71, and 693.74 mg/kg, in the dust, respectively. Pb and Cd values were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than the reference area, and the mixed model analysis with repeated seasonal measurements revealed soil Pb and Cd levels that were 2.32 and 4.34 times, while the ratios for dust sample were 4.10 and 3.18 times higher than the reference area. Contamination factor, degree of contamination, and pollution load index indicated that all sampling points had a high level of metal contamination except farm land and kindergarten compound. The cumulative hazard index of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Mn for children in exposed area was 0.99 and 1.62 for soil and dust, respectively, suggesting non-cancer health risk potential. The significant accumulation of trace metals in the e-waste recycling area predisposes human life, especially children, to a potentially serious health risk.

  2. Human health risk assessment of occupational and residential exposures to dechlorane plus in the manufacturing facility area in China and comparison with e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Gao; Alaee, Mehran; Byer, Jonathan D; Brimble, Samantha; Pacepavicius, Grazina

    2013-02-15

    A screening level human health risk assessment based on the worst-case scenario was conducted on the occupational and residential exposures to dechlorane plus (DP) in the manufacturing facility region and an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site in China, which are two of the most polluted areas of DP in the world. Total estimated exposure doses (EEDs) via dietary intake, dermal contact, and inhalation was approximately 0.01 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for people living in the manufacturing facility region. In comparison, total EEDs (approximate 0.03 μg kg(-1), d(-1)) were 300-fold lower in people living near an e-waste recycling site in China. Chronic oral, dermal, and inhalation reference doses (RfDs) were estimated to be 5.0, 2.0, and 0.01 mg kg(-1)d (-1), respectively. The oral RfD was markedly greater than Mirex (2×10(-4) mg kg(-1) d(-1)) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209; 7×10(-3) mg kg(-1) d(-1)), which have been or might be replaced by DP as a flame retardant with less toxicity. Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate the probability densities and functions for the hazard index which was calculated from the EEDs and RfDs to assess the human health risk. The hazard index was three orders of magnitude lower than 1, suggesting that occupational and residential exposures were relatively safe in the manufacturing facility region and e-waste recycling site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential health risk for residents around a typical e-waste recycling zone via inhalation of size-fractionated particle-bound heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Luo, Pei; Wang, Zhao-Yi; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-11-05

    Health risk of residents dwelling around e-waste recycling zones has been a global concern, but has not been adequately examined. The present study was intended to evaluate the potential health risk of residents through inhalation exposure to size-fractionated particle-bound heavy metals in a typical e-waste recycling zone, South China. Anthropogenic metals (Zn, Se, Pb, Sb, As, and Cd) were predominantly enriched in fine particles (Dp<1.8μm), whereas the crustal elements (Ti, Fe, and Co) tended to accumulate in coarse particles (Dp>1.8μm). Although the daily inhalation intakes of the target metals were significantly lower than those through food consumption and ingestion of house dust, the hazard quotients of total metals for adults (95% CI: 1.0-5.5) and children (95% CI: 3.0-17) were greater than 1. Moreover, the incremental lifetime cancer risks of five carcinogenic metals (Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd) for adults and children were 1.3×10(-3) (95% CI: 4.1×10(-4)-3.0×10(-3)) and 3.9×10(-3) (95% CI: 1.3×10(-3)-8.6×10(-3)), respectively, substantially higher than the acceptable cancer risk range of 10(-6)-10(-4). All these findings suggested that health risks were high for local residents dwelling around the e-waste recycling zone through inhalation exposure to particle-bound heavy metals, for both adults and children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of health risk of trace metal pollution in surface soil and road dust from e-waste recycling area in China

    PubMed Central

    Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Wu, Yousheng; Kim, Stephani; Reponen, Tiina; Dietrich, Kim N.; Ho, Shuk-mei; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Informal recycling of e-waste and the resulting heavy metal pollution has become a serious burden on the ecosystem in Guiyu, China. In this investigation, we evaluated the trace metals concentration of community soil and road dust samples from 11 locations in Guiyu and 5 locations (consists of residential areas, kindergarten/school and farm field) in a reference area using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study spanned four seasons, 2012–2013, with a view to assess the risk associated with e-waste recycling in the study area. The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn were 448.73, 0.71, 63.90 and 806.54 mg/kg in Guiyu soil and 589.74, 1.94, 69.71 and 693.74 mg/kg, in the dust, respectively. Pb and Cd values were significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) than the reference area and the mixed model analysis with repeated seasonal measurements revealed soil Pb and Cd levels that were 2.32 and 4.34 times, while the ratios for dust sample were 4.10 and 3.18 times higher than the reference area. Contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index indicated that all sampling points had high level of metal contamination except farm land and kindergarten compound. The cumulative hazard index of Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn for children in exposed area was 0.99 and 1.62 for soil and dust respectively, suggesting non-cancer health risk potential. The significant accumulation of trace metals in the e-waste recycling area predisposes human life, especially children, to a potentially serious health risk. PMID:27230155

  5. Recycling process for recovery of gallium from GaN an e-waste of LED industry through ball milling, annealing and leaching.

    PubMed

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon

    2015-04-01

    Waste dust generated during manufacturing of LED contains significant amounts of gallium and indium, needs suitable treatment and can be an important resource for recovery. The LED industry waste dust contains primarily gallium as GaN. Leaching followed by purification technology is the green and clean technology. To develop treatment and recycling technology of these GaN bearing e-waste, leaching is the primary stage. In our current investigation possible process for treatment and quantitative leaching of gallium and indium from the GaN bearing e-waste or waste of LED industry dust has been developed. To recycle the waste and quantitative leaching of gallium, two different process flow sheets have been proposed. In one, process first the GaN of the waste the LED industry dust was leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue was mixed with Na2CO3, ball milled followed by annealing, again leached to recover gallium. In the second process, the waste LED industry dust was mixed with Na2CO3, after ball milling and annealing, followed acidic leaching. Without pretreatment, the gallium leaching was only 4.91 w/w % using 4M HCl, 100°C and pulp density of 20g/L. After mechano-chemical processing, both these processes achieved 73.68 w/w % of gallium leaching at their optimum condition. The developed process can treat and recycle any e-waste containing GaN through ball milling, annealing and leaching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chest circumference and birth weight are good predictors of lung function in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between birth weight, chest circumference, and lung function in preschool children from e-waste exposure area. A total of 206 preschool children from Guiyu (an e-waste recycling area) and Haojiang and Xiashan (the reference areas) in China were recruited and required to undergo physical examination, blood tests, and lung function tests during the study period. Birth outcome such as birth weight and birth height were obtained by questionnaire. Children living in the e-waste-exposed area have a lower birth weight, chest circumference, height, and lung function when compare to their peers from the reference areas (all p value <0.05). Both Spearman and partial correlation analyses showed that birth weight and chest circumference were positively correlated with lung function levels including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ). After adjustment for the potential confounders in further linear regression analyses, birth weight, and chest circumference were positively associated with lung function levels, respectively. Taken together, birth weight and chest circumference may be good predictors for lung function levels in preschool children.

  7. Spatial distribution and implications to sources of halogenated flame retardants in riverine sediments of Taizhou, an intense e-waste recycling area in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shanshan; Fu, Jie; He, Huan; Fu, Jianjie; Tang, Qiaozhi; Dong, Minfeng; Pan, Yongqiang; Li, An; Liu, Weiping; Zhang, Limin

    2017-10-01

    Concentrations and spatial distribution pattern of organohalogen flame retardants were investigated in the riverine surface sediments from Taizhou, an intensive e-waste recycling region in China. The analytes were syn- and anti- Dechlorane Plus (DP), Dechloranes 602, 603, and 604, a DP monoadduct, two dechlorinated DPs and 8 congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The concentrations of Σ 8 PBDEs, ΣDP, ΣDec600s, and ΣDP-degradates ranged from <100 to 172,000, 100 to 55,000, not detectable (nd) to 1600, and nd to 2800 pg/g dry weight, respectively. BDE-209 and DP, both have been manufactured in China, had similar spatial distribution patterns in the study area, featured by distinctly recognizable hotspots some of which are in proximity to known e-waste dumping or metal recycling facilities. Such patterns were largely shared by Dec602 and dechlorinated DP, although their concentration levels were much lower. These major flame retardants significantly correlate with each other, and cluster together in the loading plot of principle component analysis. In contrast, most non-deca PBDE congeners do not correlate with DPs. Dec604 stood out having distinctly different spatial distribution pattern, which could be linked to historical use of mirex. Organic matter content of the sediment was not the dominant factor in determining the spatial pattern of pollution by halogenated flame retardants in the rivers of this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human health risk assessment based on trace metals in suspended air particulates, surface dust, and floor dust from e-waste recycling workshops in Hong Kong, China.

    PubMed

    Lau, Winifred Ka Yan; Liang, Peng; Man, Yu Bon; Chung, Shan Shan; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated health risks exerted on electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workers exposed to cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and zinc (Zn) in Hong Kong. E-waste recycling workshops were classified into eight working areas: 1 = office, 2 = repair, 3 = dismantling, 4 = storage, 5 = desoldering, 6 = loading, 7 = cable shredding, and 8 = chemical waste. The aforementioned metal concentrations were analyzed in suspended air particulates, surface dust and floor dust collected from the above study areas in five workshops. Elevated Pb levels were measured in dismantling and desoldering areas (582 and 486 μg/100 cm(2) in surface and 3,610 and 19,172 mg/kg in floor dust, respectively). Blood lead levels of 10 and 39.5 μg/dl were estimated using United States Environmental Protection Agency's Adult Lead Model as a result of exposure to the floor dust from these two areas. Human health risk assessments were conducted to evaluate cancer and noncancer risks resulting from exposure to floor dust through the combined pathways of ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. Findings indicated that workers may be exposed to cancer risks above the acceptable range at 147 in a million at the 95th percentile in the dismantling area. Workers should be informed of associated risks to safeguard their health.

  9. Hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in contaminated soil from an e-waste recycling area, using nanoscale zerovalent iron and Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Yao, Xiaoyan; Yu, Chunna; Su, Xiaomei; Shen, Chaofeng; Chen, Chen; Huang, Ronglang; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-04-01

    Soil pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) arising from the crude disposal and recycling of electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) is a serious issue, and effective remediation technologies are urgently needed. Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) and bimetallic systems have been shown to promote successfully the destruction of halogenated organic compounds. In the present study, nZVI and Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by chemical deposition were used to remove 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl from deionized water, and then applied to PCBs contaminated soil collected from an e-waste recycling area. The results indicated that the hydrodechlorination of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl by nZVI and Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and Pd loading was beneficial to the hydrodechlorination process. It was also found that the removal efficiencies of PCBs from soil achieved using Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles were higher than that achieved using nZVI and that PCBs degradation might be affected by the soil properties. Finally, the potential challenges of nZVI application to in situ remediation were explored.

  10. Chemical and ecotoxicological analyses of sediments and elutriates of contaminated rivers due to e-waste recycling activities using a diverse battery of bioassays.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Leung, A O W; Wu, S C; Yang, M S; Wong, M H

    2009-07-01

    A multi-trophic, multi-exposure phase assessment approach was applied to characterize the toxicity of sediments collected from two rivers in Guiyu, China, an e-waste recycling centre. Elutriate toxicity tests (bacterium Vibrio fischeri and microalga Selenastrum capricornutum) and whole sediment toxicity test (crustacean Heterocypris incongruens) showed that most sediments exhibited acute toxicity, due to elevated heavy metals and PAHs levels, and low pH caused by uncontrolled acid discharge. The survival rates of crustaceans were negatively (p < 0.05) correlated with total PAHs in sediments (411-1755 mg kg(-1)); EC50s of V. fischeri on the elutriates were significantly correlated with elutriate pH (p < 0.01). Significant (p < 0.05) correlations between the induction of hepatic metallothionein in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb) in sediments were also observed, when fish were fed with diets containing sediment. The results showed that uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities may bring adverse effects to local aquatic ecosystem.

  11. Flame retardants and organochlorines in indoor dust from several e-waste recycling sites in South China: composition variations and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Xu, Fuchao; Chen, Kehui; Zeng, Yanhong; Luo, Xiaojun; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    Several classes of flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), dechlorane plus (DPs), and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs), together with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in indoor dust from five villages located in three e-waste recycling regions in Guangdong Province, South China. The medians of PBDEs, NBFRs, and PFRs in dust in five sites ranged from 685-67,500, 1460-50,010, and 2180-29,000ng/g, respectively. These concentrations were much higher than the medians of PCBs (52-2900ng/g). BDE 209 and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were the two major halogen flame retardants in dust, while tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the major PFRs. Principle component analysis revealed the different pollutant patterns among different sites. The estimated median human exposures of PBDEs, NBFRs, PFRs, and PCBs via dust ingestion were 1.1-24.1, 0.73-20.3, 1.36-23.5, and 0.04-0.93ng/kgbw/day for adults, and 16.2-352, 10.7-296, 19.9-343, 0.05-0.61, 0.65-13.6ng/kgbw/day for toddlers, respectively. Residents from Site 5 had the highest exposure (95 percentile levels and high dust ingestion for toddlers) of PBDEs (3920ng/kgbw/day), NBFRs (3200ng/kgbw/day), and PFRs (5280ng/kgbw/day). More attention should be paid to the contamination with NBFRs and PFRs, instead of PCBs, in these e-waste recycling regions, and local public health threat from PBDE alternatives should remain of concern. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on human exposure assessment of PFRs at e-waste sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Health consequences of exposure to e-waste: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Grant, Kristen; Goldizen, Fiona C; Sly, Peter D; Brune, Marie-Noel; Neira, Maria; van den Berg, Martin; Norman, Rosana E

    2013-12-01

    The population exposed to potentially hazardous substances through inappropriate and unsafe management practices related to disposal and recycling of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment, collectively known as e-waste, is increasing. We aimed to summarise the evidence for the association between such exposures and adverse health outcomes. We systematically searched five electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycNET, and CINAHL) for studies assessing the association between exposure to e-waste and outcomes related to mental health and neurodevelopment, physical health, education, and violence and criminal behaviour, from Jan 1, 1965, to Dec 17, 2012, and yielded 2274 records. Of the 165 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, we excluded a further 142, resulting in the inclusion of 23 published epidemiological studies that met the predetermined criteria. All studies were from southeast China. We assessed evidence of a causal association between exposure to e-waste and health outcomes within the Bradford Hill framework. We recorded plausible outcomes associated with exposure to e-waste including change in thyroid function, changes in cellular expression and function, adverse neonatal outcomes, changes in temperament and behaviour, and decreased lung function. Boys aged 8-9 years living in an e-waste recycling town had a lower forced vital capacity than did those living in a control town. Significant negative correlations between blood chromium concentrations and forced vital capacity in children aged 11 and 13 years were also reported. Findings from most studies showed increases in spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and premature births, and reduced birthweights and birth lengths associated with exposure to e-waste. People living in e-waste recycling towns or working in e-waste recycling had evidence of greater DNA damage than did those living in control towns. Studies of the effects of exposure to e-waste on thyroid function were not

  13. Recycling process for recovery of gallium from GaN an e-waste of LED industry through ball milling, annealing and leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, Basudev, E-mail: swain@iae.re.kr; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung

    Waste dust generated during manufacturing of LED contains significant amounts of gallium and indium, needs suitable treatment and can be an important resource for recovery. The LED industry waste dust contains primarily gallium as GaN. Leaching followed by purification technology is the green and clean technology. To develop treatment and recycling technology of these GaN bearing e-waste, leaching is the primary stage. In our current investigation possible process for treatment and quantitative leaching of gallium and indium from the GaN bearing e-waste or waste of LED industry dust has been developed. To recycle the waste and quantitative leaching of gallium,more » two different process flow sheets have been proposed. In one, process first the GaN of the waste the LED industry dust was leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue was mixed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, ball milled followed by annealing, again leached to recover gallium. In the second process, the waste LED industry dust was mixed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, after ball milling and annealing, followed acidic leaching. Without pretreatment, the gallium leaching was only 4.91 w/w % using 4 M HCl, 100 °C and pulp density of 20 g/L. After mechano-chemical processing, both these processes achieved 73.68 w/w % of gallium leaching at their optimum condition. The developed process can treat and recycle any e-waste containing GaN through ball milling, annealing and leaching. - Highlights: • Simplest process for treatment of GaN an LED industry waste developed. • The process developed recovers gallium from waste LED waste dust. • Thermal analysis and phase properties of GaN to Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN to NaGaO{sub 2} revealed. • Solid-state chemistry involved in this process reported. • Quantitative leaching of the GaN was achieved.« less

  14. Health risk assessment of the workers exposed to the heavy metals in e-waste recycling sites of Chandigarh and Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manmohit; Thind, Parteek Singh; John, Siby

    2018-07-01

    Investigations were made to analyze the effects of heavy metals on the adults and children working in informal e-waste recycling sectors of Chandigarh and Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Soil samples of the ground where recycling was being done, dust from the platform where recycling activities were done and dermal samples of workers were collected to estimate the presence of heavy metals (As, Cu, Co, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Zn, Pb, Ba) in them. High concentration of Ba, Cu, Pb and Zn was observed in the soil and dust samples. Cr, Pb and Zn were observed in high concentrations in dermal samples. These heavy metals could cause serious health effects. Therefore, human health risk assessment was also done using carcinogenic (cancer risk potency factor) and non-carcinogenic (health hazard index) health risk assessment. Carcinogenic hazards were not reported in children however, hazard index, for soil and dust contamination for some heavy metals, was found significant (Soil samples: As = 1.69, Cr = 1.38, Cu = 4.5 and Pb = 5.82 and dust samples: Pb = 2.97). Carcinogenic hazards were reported in adults from Cr contamination in soil samples (3.4E-03). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phosphate flame retardants and novel brominated flame retardants in home-produced eggs from an e-waste recycling region in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Xu, Fuchao; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) (2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-benzoate (EH-TBB) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP)) were measured in free-range chicken eggs from three e-waste recycling sites and a negative control site located in Guangdong province, Southern China. BEH-TEBP, tris-(chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP), tris-(chloropropyl)-phosphate (∑TCPP, two isomers) and tris-(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)-phosphate (TDCIPP) were detected in more than 50% of eggs samples with low concentrations. The median values of BEH-TEBP and total PFRs were 0.17-0.46 ng/g ww (wet weight) and 1.62-2.59 ng/g ww in eggs from the e-waste sites, respectively. The results indicate that EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP and PFRs are less persistent and bioaccumulative than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken eggs, and possibly also in other bio-matrices. Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were identified in albumen with higher frequencies, but at similar concentrations compared to yolk, while BEH-TEBP was mainly detected in yolk. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of BEH-TEBP and total PFRs from consumption of chicken eggs ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 and 0.32-0.52 ng/kg bw/day for adults, and 0.20-0.54 and 1.89-3.02 ng/kg bw/day for children in e-waste sites, respectively. Indoor dust ingestion seems to be a more important pathway for the intake of these FRs, while egg consumption is probably a more important exposure pathway for PBDEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human placenta associated with neonatal physiological development at a typical e-waste recycling area in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Long; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Zhang, Jianqing; Xu, Xijin

    2015-01-01

    Our aim of this study was to characterize the exposure pattern of polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs) in human placenta and assess their potential effects on neonates. Placenta samples were obtained from a typical e-waste area in Guiyu and a reference area in Haojiang, China. The median ΣPBDE concentration was 32.25 ng/g lipid weight (lw) in placenta samples from Guiyu, and 5.13 ng/g lw from Haojiang. BDE-209 predominated in placenta samples, followed by BDE-28, -47, -99 -153, -183. Residence in Guiyu contributed the most to elevated PDBE levels. Neonatal physiological indices, including bodymass index (BMI), Apgar 1 score and head circumference, were reduced in Guiyu group. No significant difference was found in neonatal weight between the two groups, but neonatal body length in Guiyu was increased. Our data suggest prenatal exposure to PBDEs is high at the e-waste recycling area, and may lead to adverse physiological development in the fetus.

  17. An assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in the indoor dust of e-waste recycling facilities in South Africa: implications for occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Abafe, Ovokeroye A; Martincigh, Bice S

    2015-09-01

    Workplace exposure to persistent organic pollutants is a concern for human health. This study examined the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the indoor dust from two major e-waste recycling sites and a university electronic equipment repair workshop in Durban, South Africa, in order to evaluate the implication of dust for occupational exposure. The mean ∑(n = 8)PBDEs and ∑(n = 3)PCBs were 20,094 and 235 ng g(-1), respectively. The levels of PBDEs and PCBs obtained in one of the recycling sites (123-27,530 and 161-593 ng g(-1)) were significantly higher than the levels obtained (91-7686 and e-waste facilities are cleaned thoroughly regularly.

  18. E-waste: a global hazard.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Devin N; Brune Drisse, Marie-Noel; Nxele, Tapiwa; Sly, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Waste from end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment, known as e-waste, is a rapidly growing global problem. E-waste contains valuable materials that have an economic value when recycled. Unfortunately, the majority of e-waste is recycled in the unregulated informal sector and results in significant risk for toxic exposures to the recyclers, who are frequently women and children. The aim of this study was to document the extent of the problems associated with inappropriate e-waste recycling practices. This was a narrative review that highlighted where e-waste is generated, where it is recycled, the range of adverse environmental exposures, the range of adverse health consequences, and the policy frameworks that are intended to protect vulnerable populations from inappropriate e-waste recycling practices. The amount of e-waste being generated is increasing rapidly and is compounded by both illegal exportation and inappropriate donation of electronic equipment, especially computers, from developed to developing countries. As little as 25% of e-waste is recycled in formal recycling centers with adequate worker protection. The health consequences of both direct exposures during recycling and indirect exposures through environmental contamination are potentially severe but poorly studied. Policy frameworks aimed at protecting vulnerable populations exist but are not effectively applied. E-waste recycling is necessary but it should be conducted in a safe and standardized manor. The acceptable risk thresholds for hazardous, secondary e-waste substances should not be different for developing and developed countries. However, the acceptable thresholds should be different for children and adults given the physical differences and pronounced vulnerabilities of children. Improving occupational conditions for all e-waste workers and striving for the eradication of child labor is non-negotiable. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-stakeholder decision analysis and comparative risk assessment for reuse-recycle oriented e-waste management strategies: a game theoretic approach.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Rajendra Kumar; Nema, Arvind K

    2013-09-01

    This article deals with assessment of the potential health risk posed by carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances, namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper, chromium (CrVI), zinc, nickel and mercury, present in e-waste. A multi-objective, multi-stakeholder approach based on strategic game theory model has been developed considering cost, as well as human health risk. The trade-off due to cost difference between a hazardous substances-free (HSF) and a hazardous substance (HS)-containing desktop computer, and the risk posed by them at the time of disposal, has been analyzed. The cancer risk due to dust inhalation for workers at a recycling site in Bangalore for Pb, Cr(VI) and Cd was found to be 4, 33 and 101 in 1 million respectively. Pb and Cr(VI) result in a very high risk owing to dust ingestion at slums near the recycling site--175 and 81 in 1 million for children, and 24 and 11 in 1 million for adults respectively. The concentration of Pb at a battery workshop in Mayapuri, Delhi (hazard quotient = 3.178) was found to pose adverse health hazards. The government may impose an appropriate penalty on the land disposal of computer waste and/or may give an incentive to manufacturer for producing HSF computers through, for example, relaxing taxes, but there should be no such incentive for manufacturing HS-containing computers.

  20. Emission of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in use of electric/electronic equipment and recycling of e-waste in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Eun; Kang, Young-Yeul; Kim, Woo-Il; Jeon, Tae-Wan; Shin, Sun-Kyoung; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2014-02-01

    The emission rates of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from electric/electronic products during their use and disposal were estimated. E-wastes, including televisions and refrigerators, gathered at recycling centers were also analyzed to estimate their emissions. The average concentrations of PBDEs in TV rear covers produced before and after the year 2000 were 145,027 mg/kg and 14,049 mg/kg, respectively. The PBDEs concentration in TV front covers was lower than the concentration in TV rear covers. The concentration in the components of the refrigerator samples ranged from ND to 445 mg/kg. We estimated the atmospheric emissions of PBDEs based on the concentrations. The annual emissions from TV rear covers produced before 2000 were calculated to be approximately 162.1 kg and after 2000, the annual emissions were 18.7 kg. Refrigerators showed the lowest annual emissions of PBDEs (0.7 kg). The atmospheric concentrations were also measured to calculate emissions generated during the recycling process. The highest concentration was 16.86 ng/m(3) emitted from the TV sets during the dismantling process. The concentrations of PBDEs generated in the plastic processing field ranged from 2.05 to 5.43 ng/m(3) depending on the products, and ambient air in open-air yards showed concentrations in the range of 0.32 to 5.55 ng/m(3). Emission factors for the recycling process were calculated using the observed concentrations. The estimated emissions according to the emission factors ranged from 0.3×10(-1) to 90.3 kg/year for open-air yards and from 0.1×10(-1) to 292.7 kg/year for the dismantling and crushing processes of TV set, depending on the production year. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of informal e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana, and controls.

    PubMed

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius N; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Wilhelm, Michael; Feldt, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The formation and environmental release of highly toxic organohalogen compounds associated with informal recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) is a growing problem at e-waste dumps/recycling sites (EWRSs) in many developing countries worldwide. We chose a cross-sectional study design to measure the internal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of individuals working on one of the largest EWRSs of Africa, located at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to EWRS activities. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals (mean age: 24.7 years, SD 6.0) and 21 male controls (mean age: 24.4 years, SD 5.7) 17 PCDD/F congeners were determined. Moreover three indicator PCB congeners (#138, #153 and #180) were measured in blood of 39 exposed (mean age: 27.5 years, SD 11.7) and 19 non-exposed (mean age: 26.8 years, SD 9.7) patients. Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. In the exposed group, median PCDD/F-concentrations were 6.18 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 2.1-42.7) and significantly higher compared to the control group with 4.60 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 1.6-11.6). Concentrations were different for 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD, three HexaCDD and all 10 PCDF congeners, indicating a combustion pattern. Using a multivariate regression analysis exposure to EWRS activities was the most important determinant for PCDD/F exposure. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners #138, #153 and #180 were 0.011, 0.019 and 0.008 μg/l whole blood (ranges: 0.002-0.18, 0.003-0.16, 0.002-0.078) in the exposed group and, surprisingly, significantly higher in the controls (0.037, 0.062 and 0.022; ranges: 0.005-0.46, 0.010-0.46, 0.004-0.21). In a

  2. Thyroid disruption and reduced mental development in children from an informal e-waste recycling area: A mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lian; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Kun; Zhang, Yuling; Xu, Xijin; Huo, Xia

    2018-02-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effects of thyroid disruption on the mental development of children. A total of 258 three-year-old children in Guiyu (e-waste-exposed group) and Nanao (reference group), China were examined. FT 3 , FT 4 , TSH, lead (BPb) and cadmium (BCd) in blood were determined, and cognitive and language scores of children were assessed based on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Stepwise multiple regression was used to estimate the relationship between heavy metals and cognitive and language scores; mediation analysis was performed to determine whether thyroid disruption was mechanistically involved. Medians of BPb and BCd in Guiyu were higher than that of Nanao (11.30 ± 5.38 vs. 5.77 ± 2.51 μg/dL BPb; 1.22 ± 0.55 vs. 0.72 ± 0.37 μg/L BCd, both p < 0.001). Means of FT 4 and TSH in Guiyu were also higher than those in Nanao (16.65 ± 1.83 vs.16.06 ± 1.66 pmol/L FT 4 , p = 0.007; 2.79 ± 1.30 vs. 2.21 ± 1.43 mIU/L TSH, p = 0.001). Guiyu children had lower cognitive scores (100.00 ± 25.00 vs. 120.00 ± 20.00, p < 0.001) and lower language scores (99.87 ± 7.52 vs. 111.39 ± 7.02, p < 0.001). Mediation analysis showed that Pb negatively correlated with both cognitive and language scores (both p < 0.001). However, FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH did not significantly mediate the relationship between Pb and mental development of children (all p > 0.05). In contrast, Cd correlated with neither cognitive nor language scores (both p > 0.05). Results suggest exposure to heavy metal (Pb) reduces cognitive and language skills, and affects thyroid function, but fail to confirm that thyroid disruption is involved in the neurotoxicity induced by PbCd co-exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dioxin-related compounds in breast milk of women from Vietnamese e-waste recycling sites: levels, toxic equivalents and relevance of non-dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Katsura, Kana; Suzuki, Go; Tuyen, Le Huu; Takasuga, Takumi; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-08-01

    Although informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) are hotspots of both polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs), human exposure to the latter has not been studied in details. This study investigated the accumulation levels and profiles of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) in breast milk samples from women living in two Vietnamese EWRSs and estimated the intake contribution from e-waste-related exposure. Screening results using Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression assay (DR-CALUX) showed higher dioxin-like (DL) activities in samples from the EWRS Bui Dau than in those from the EWRS Trang Minh and a reference site (2.3-10 vs 1.7-4.8 and 0.60-5.7 pg CALUX-TEQ/g lipid, n=10, 6 and 9, respectively). Chemical analysis results of selected samples show that the WHO-TEQ levels of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PBDD/Fs in EWRS samples were not significantly higher than in those from the reference site (0.22-7.4 vs 1.1-3.0 pg/g lipid) and within the Vietnamese background range, but women involved in recycling accumulated higher concentrations of PCDFs (13-15 vs 2.3-8.8 pg/g lipid) and PBDFs (1.1-1.5 vs <1.1 pg/g lipid). By comparing the DRC profile in milk of these women with the reported profile in house dust from the same site, dust ingestion was estimated to contribute most of the intake for tetraBDF, 37 per cent to 55 per cent for penta-octaCDFs, but less than twenty per cent for PCDDs and DL-PCBs, and 26 per cent for total WHO-TEQs. The DL activities in some EWRS milk samples were not fully explained by chemical data, suggesting contribution from unidentified compounds. The estimated WHO-TEQ intake doses for breastfed infants (1.3-33 pg/kg/d) mostly exceeded the tolerable value, especially for those living in the EWRSs; and unidentified DRCs might increase further the dioxin-related health risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyl ethers in adipose tissue and matched serum from an E-waste recycling area (Wenling, China).

    PubMed

    Lv, Quan-Xia; Wang, Wenyue; Li, Xing-Hong; Yu, Lianlian; Zhang, Yun; Tian, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    To Date, the knowledge on relationship between PCBs/PBDEs exposure and thyroid hormones (THs) levels during pregnancy still needs to be extended. Meanwhile, studies on congener-specific adipose-serum ratios for PCBs/PBDEs were limited. This study reports the levels of PCBs/PBDEs in serum-adipose tissue samples (n = 64) from expectant women living surrounding e-waste recycling sites in Wenling, China. Their concentrations varied from several to hundreds of ng g(-1) lipid. Maternal exposure to PCBs was associated with lower TSH during pregnancy, suggesting possible implication for maternal health and fetal development. The compound levels between the adipose tissue and matched serum samples were highly correlated (p < 0.001), generating a predicted adipose-serum partitioning relationship for individual PCB congener and PBDE congener. Molecular characteristics, such as Kow value, molecular weight and molecular volume, may play a key role in the variable partitioning of some compounds between serum and adipose tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of land use on the concentration and vertical distribution of PBDEs in soils of an e-waste recycling region of South China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhineng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Shaorui; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Chaemfa, Chakra; Jiang, Haoyu; Zhang, Gan

    2014-08-01

    The vertical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil at four sites within an e-waste recycling region of South China was investigated. PBDE concentrations in soil ranged from 1.38 to 765 ng/g. There was a trend of decreasing PBDE concentration with soil depth, especially in the paddy field. However, high concentrations of BDE-209 were found in deeper soils indicating a highly preferential migration. There was a stronger correlation between PBDEs and total organic carbon (TOC), compared to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which suggests that the association between non-dissolved organic carbon (NDOC) and PBDEs is stronger than for DOC. Different land use types, in particular differences in farming activities, significantly influenced the vertical distribution of PBDEs in soils. PBDEs displayed a higher leaching tendency in moist paddy soil than in drier soils. The frequent flooding condition in paddy field may facilitate the vertical transfer of PBDEs to the deeper soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) levels and TH-regulated gene expression by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hydroxylated PCBs in e-waste recycling workers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; He, Chun-Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yan, Xiao; Guo, Mi-Na; Wang, Mei-Huan; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the primary toxicants released by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, but their adverse effects on people working in e-waste recycling or living near e-waste sites have not been studied well. In the present study, the serum concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and hydroxylated PCBs, the circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs), and the mRNA levels of seven TH-regulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes of e-waste recycling workers were analyzed. The associations of the hormone levels and gene expression with the exposure to these contaminants were examined using multiple linear regression models. There were nearly no associations of the TH levels with PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs, whereas elevated hormone (T 4 and T 3 ) levels were associated with certain lower-brominated BDEs. While not statistically significant, we did observe a negative association between highly brominated PBDE congeners and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the e-waste workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was more significantly associated with the organohalogen compounds (OHCs) than the TH levels in these workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was significantly associated with certain PCB and hydroxylated PCB congeners. However, the expression of most target genes was suppressed by PBDEs (mostly highly brominated congeners). This is the first evidence of alterations in TH-regulated gene expression in humans exposed to OHCs. Our findings indicated that OHCs may interfere with TH signaling and/or exert TH-like effects, leading to alterations in related gene expression in humans. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms of action and associated biological consequences of the gene expression disruption by OHCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Anh, Hoang Quoc; Nam, Vu Duc; Tri, Tran Manh; Ha, Nguyen Manh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Anh, Duong Hong; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Minh, Tu Binh

    2017-08-01

    Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10 -7 to 1.2 × 10 -5 (year -1 ) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10 -7 to 7.2 × 10 -6 (year -1 ) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10-3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities and

  8. E-waste hazard: The impending challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Violet N.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India's lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India's current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action. PMID:20040981

  9. E-waste hazard: The impending challenge.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Violet N

    2008-08-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India's lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India's current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action.

  10. Bioavailability and tissue distribution of Dechloranes in wild frogs (Rana limnocharis) from an e-waste recycling area in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Wang, Wenyue; Lv, Quanxia; Ben, Yujie; Li, Xinghong

    2014-03-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP), a flame retardant used as an alternative to decabromodiphenylether, has been frequently detected in organisms, indicating its bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential in aquatic and terrestrial species. However, little data is available on the bioaccumulation of DP in amphibians. Dechlorane Plus and its analogs (DPs) were detected in the liver, muscle and brain tissues of wild frogs (Rana limnocharis), which were collected from an e-waste recycling site, Southeast China. DP, Mirex, Dec 602 and a dechlorinated compound of DP (anti-Cl11-DP) varied in the range of 2.01-291, 0.650-179, 0.260-12.4, and not detected (nd)-8.67 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. No difference of tissue distribution was found for syn-DP, Mirex and Dec 602 between the liver and muscle tissue (liver/muscle concentration ratio close to 1, p > 0.05). However, higher retention was observed for anti-DP and anti-Cl11-DP in the frog muscle relative to the liver tissue (liver/muscle concentration ratio < 1, p < 0.05). Additionally, the blood-brain barrier was found to work efficiently to suppress these compounds entering brain tissues in this species (liver/brain concentration ratio > 1, p < 0.05), and the molecular weight was a key factor impacting the extent of the blood-brain barrier. Compared to levels in the muscle and brain tissue, a preferential enrichment of syn-DP was observed in the liver tissue, suggesting the occurrence of stereo-selective bioaccumulation in the wild frog. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the surrounding of an e-waste recycling facility in North-Rhine Westphalia: Levels in plants and dusts, spatial distribution, homologue pattern and source identification using the combination of plants and wind direction data.

    PubMed

    Klees, Marcel; Hombrecher, Katja; Gladtke, Dieter

    2017-12-15

    During this study the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the surrounding of an e-waste recycling facility in North-Rhine Westphalia was analysed. PCB levels were analysed in curly kale, spruce needles, street dusts and dusts. Conspicuously high PCB concentrations in curly kale and spruce needles were found directly northwards of the industrial premises. Furthermore a concentration gradient originating from the industrial premises to the residential areas in direction southwest to northeast was evident. Homologue patterns of highly PCB contaminated dusts and street dusts were comparable to the homologue patterns of PCB in curly kale and spruce needles. This corroborates the suspicion that the activities at the e-waste recycling facility were responsible for the elevated PCB levels in curly kale and spruce needles. The utilization of multiple linear regression of wind direction data and analysed PCB concentrations in spruce needles proved that the e-waste recycling facility caused the PCB emissions to the surrounding. Additionally, this evaluation enabled the calculation of source specific accumulation constants for certain parts of the facility. Consequently the different facility parts contribute with different impacts to the PCB levels in bioindicators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparisons of IL-8, ROS and p53 responses in human lung epithelial cells exposed to two extracts of PM2.5 collected from an e-waste recycling area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fangxing; Jin, Shiwei; Xu, Ying; Lu, Yuanan

    2011-04-01

    To identify the different effects of organic-soluble and water-soluble pollutants adsorbed on PM2.5 (PM: particulate matter) released from e-waste (electrical/electronic waste) on inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, interleukin-8 (IL-8), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 protein levels were determined and compared in human lung epithelial A549 cells exposed to extracts of PM2.5 collected from two sampling sites in an e-waste recycling area in China. It is found that both extracts induced increases of IL-8 release, ROS production and p53 protein expression. The differences between the organic-soluble and water-soluble extracts were determined as of significance for ROS production (p < 0.05) and p53 protein expression (p < 0.01). The ROS production and p53 protein expression induced by the organic-soluble extracts were found to be greater than those induced by the water-soluble extracts, for both sampling sites. The results indicated that PM2.5 collected from the e-waste recycling areas could lead to inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and the organic-soluble extracts had higher potential to induce such adverse effects on human health.

  13. Accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the brain compared with the levels in other tissues among different vertebrates from an e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaxian; Li, Yuanyuan; Qin, Xiaofei; Lou, Qinqin; Qin, Zhanfen

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the brain compared with that in other tissues among different vertebrates. We collected mice, chickens, ducks, frogs, and fish from an e-waste recycling region in Taizhou, China, and measured PBDE concentrations in brain, liver and muscle tissues. The levels of PBDE in the tissues of mice, chickens, ducks, frogs and fish ranged 0.45-206, 0.06-18.8, 1.83-112, 2.75-108, and 0.02-32.0 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Preferential distribution in the liver and muscle relative to the brain was observed for PBDEs in mice, chickens, ducks and frogs. However, a high retention in the brain compared to the liver and muscle was observed in fish. Comparison of the brain/liver concentration (B/L) ratios revealed differences in PBDEs accumulation in the brain among these vertebrates. PBDEs accumulation in the brain was greatest in fish, followed by frogs, while the lowest accumulation occurred in the brains of mammals and birds. The findings apparently coincided with the evolution of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) across vertebrates, i.e. the BBB of fish might be less efficient than those of mammals, birds and amphibian. Low brominated congeners (such as BDE-28, BDE-47 and BDE-99) were predominant in the brains of investigated vertebrates, whereas BDE-209 was most abundant in liver and muscle tissues of mice, chickens and ducks. Significant differences in B/L ratios among PBDE congeners were found in both mice and chickens (p < 0.05). Particularly in mice, the B/L ratios of PBDE congeners presented a declining trend with increased bromine number. Our findings suggested that low brominated congeners might have a higher capacity to penetrate the BBB and accumulate in the brain, whereas high brominated congeners such as BDE-209 might have less potency to pass through the barrier. Further experimental studies are needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Voluntary approaches to solid waste management in small towns: a case study of community involvement in household hazardous waste recycling.

    PubMed

    Massawe, Ephraim; Legleu, Tye; Vasut, Laura; Brandon, Kelly; Shelden, Greg

    2014-06-01

    An enormous amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated as part of municipal solid waste. This scenario presents problems during disposal, including endangering human health and the environment if improperly disposed. This article examines current HHW recycling efforts in Hammond, Louisiana, with the following objectives: (a) analyze factors and attitudes that motivate residents to participate in the program; (b) quantify various types of HHW; and (c) analyze the e-waste stream in the HHW. Residents and city officials who were surveyed and interviewed cited that commitment shown by local authorities and passion to protect the environment and human health were part of their active participation in the program. An awareness program has played a key role in the success of the program. A legislation specific to e-waste is encouraged. While knowledge and information on laws and permit application processes and the promotion of greener products are encouraged, provision of storage or collection facilities and communal transportation will further motivate more residents to participate in the recycling program.

  15. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Brominated flame retardants in the hair and serum samples from an e-waste recycling area in southeastern China: the possibility of using hair for biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Liang, Si; Xu, Feng; Tang, Weibiao; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lili; Wang, Junxia; Lin, Kuangfei

    2016-08-01

    Hair samples and paired serum samples were collected from e-waste and urban areas in Wenling of Zhejiang Province, China. The PBDE and DBDPE concentrations in hair and serum samples from e-waste workers were significantly higher than those of non-occupational residents and urban residents. BDE209 was the dominating BFRs in hair and serum samples from the e-waste area, while DBDPE was the major BFRs from the urban area. Statistically significant correlations were observed between hair level and serum level for some substances (BDE209, DBDPE, BDE99, BDE47, BDE28, and BDE17), although the PBDE congener profiles in hair were different from those in the serum. A statistically significant positive correlation between the PBDE concentrations and the working age, as well as gender difference, was observed in e-waste workers. Different sources of PBDEs and DBDPE in three groups were identified by principal component analysis and spearman correlation coefficient. Hair is suggested to be a useful matrix for biomonitoring the PBDE exposure in humans.

  17. Effect of E-waste Recycling on Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate Flame Retardants and Plasticizers and Their Association with Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-You; Li, Yan-Xi; Zhang, Tao; Cai, Dan; Ruan, Ju-Jun; Huang, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2017-02-21

    In this study, three chlorinated (Cl-mOPs) and five nonchlorinated (NCl-mOPs) organophosphate metabolites were determined in urine samples collected from participants living in an electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling area (n = 175) and two reference areas (rural, n = 29 and urban, n = 17) in southern China. Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate [BCEP, geometric mean (GM): 0.72 ng/mL] was the most abundant Cl-mOP, and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP, 0.55 ng/mL) was the most abundant NCl-mOP. The GM concentrations of mOPs in the e-waste dismantling sites were higher than those in the rural control site. These differences were significant for BCEP (p < 0.05) and DPHP (p < 0.01). Results suggested that e-waste dismantling activities contributed to human exposure to OPs. In the e-waste sites, the urinary concentrations of bis(2-chloro-isopropyl) phosphate (r = 0.484, p < 0.01), BCEP (r = 0.504, p < 0.01), dibutyl phosphate (r = 0.214, p < 0.05), and DPHP (r = 0.440, p < 0.01) were significantly increased as the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of DNA oxidative stress, increased. Our results also suggested that human exposure to OPs might be correlated with DNA oxidative stress for residents in e-waste dismantling areas. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the urinary levels of mOPs in China and examine the association between OP exposure and 8-OHdG in humans.

  18. E-waste management in India: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Zhishi; Awasthi, Mrigendra Kumar; Li, Jinhui

    2018-05-01

    Environmental deterioration and health risk due to improper e-waste management has become a serious issue in India. The major portion of e-waste reaches an unorganized e-waste recycling sector and is then treated by using crude methods. This review article presents a brief highlight on e-waste management status, legislation, and technology uses in India. The present e-waste management needs to be more focused on environmentally sound management, by more active support from all the participants involved in the e-waste flow chain in India.

  19. The flow of E-waste material in the Asian region and a reconsideration of international trade policies on E-waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shinkuma, Takayoshi; Nguyen Thi Minh Huong

    End-of-life home appliances discarded in Japan are reused in Southeast Asia; end-of-life computers are reused in China. E-waste scrap generated in Asia is recycled in China, especially in Guangdong Province. The informal sector in that province has been recycling E-waste scrap and its improper recycling methods have caused serious pollution. In response to this problem, there is wide support for a total ban on E-waste trade, including secondhand items and E-waste scrap. Alternatively, we recommend the establishment of an alternative proper recycling system in Asia that needs cooperation among all Asian countries. First, China is urged to promote proper domesticmore » recycling activities by providing a subsidy for proper recycling. Second, Japan, as a main exporter of E-waste, should establish a traceability system that ensures E-waste scrap exported from Japan will be recycled at proper recycling facilities in China.« less

  20. Influence of heavy metals and PCBs pollution on the enzyme activity and microbial community of paddy soils around an e-waste recycling workshop.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xianjin; Hashmi, Muhammad Z; Long, Dongyan; Chen, Litao; Khan, Muhammad I; Shen, Chaofeng

    2014-03-14

    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to e-waste there is concern about the quality of paddy soils near e-waste workshops. The levels of heavy metals and PCBs and their influence on the enzyme activity and microbial community of paddy soils obtained from the immediate vicinity of an e-waste workshop were investigated in the present study. The results indicated that the heavy metal and PCB pollution did not differ significantly with an increase of the sampling point distances (5 to 30 m). The concentration of Cd (2.16 mg·kg-1) and Cu (69.2 mg·kg-1) were higher, and the PCB pollution was also serious, ranging from 4.9 to 21.6 μg·kg-1. The highest enzyme activity was found for urease compared to phosphatase and catalase, and a fluctuating trend in soil enzyme activity was observed in soils from different sampling sites. The microbial analysis revealed that there was no apparent correlation between the microbial community and the pollutants. However, a slight influence for soil microbial communities could be found based on DGGE, the Shannon index and PCA analysis. The present study suggests that the contamination stress of heavy metals and PCBs might have a slight influence on microbial activity in paddy soils. This study provides the baseline data for enzyme activities and microbial communities in paddy soil under the influence of mixed contamination.

  1. Influence of Heavy Metals and PCBs Pollution on the Enzyme Activity and Microbial Community of Paddy Soils around an E-Waste Recycling Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xianjin; Hashmi, Muhammad Z.; Long, Dongyan; Chen, Litao; Khan, Muhammad I.; Shen, Chaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to e-waste there is concern about the quality of paddy soils near e-waste workshops. The levels of heavy metals and PCBs and their influence on the enzyme activity and microbial community of paddy soils obtained from the immediate vicinity of an e-waste workshop were investigated in the present study. The results indicated that the heavy metal and PCB pollution did not differ significantly with an increase of the sampling point distances (5 to 30 m). The concentration of Cd (2.16 mg·kg−1) and Cu (69.2 mg·kg−1) were higher, and the PCB pollution was also serious, ranging from 4.9 to 21.6 μg·kg−1. The highest enzyme activity was found for urease compared to phosphatase and catalase, and a fluctuating trend in soil enzyme activity was observed in soils from different sampling sites. The microbial analysis revealed that there was no apparent correlation between the microbial community and the pollutants. However, a slight influence for soil microbial communities could be found based on DGGE, the Shannon index and PCA analysis. The present study suggests that the contamination stress of heavy metals and PCBs might have a slight influence on microbial activity in paddy soils. This study provides the baseline data for enzyme activities and microbial communities in paddy soil under the influence of mixed contamination. PMID:24637907

  2. E-waste interventions in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Pwamang, John A; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw; Ampofo, Joseph Addo

    2016-03-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) has become an emerging environmental and human health problem in the world in the 21st century. Recently, the developing nations of West Africa (e.g. Ghana and Nigeria) have become a major destination for e-waste worldwide. In Ghana, the e-waste recyclers use primitive methods (mechanical shredding and open burning) to remove plastic insulation from copper cables. This technique can release highly toxic chemicals and severely affect the environment and human health if improperly managed. It is as a result of the adverse impact on human health that some interventions are being made in Ghana to reduce exposure. The present mode of recycling/dismantling, which happens at Agbogbloshie must be replaced by official receiving/recycling centers to be established. Currently, equipment to strip both large and small cables are available in the country via the Blacksmith Institute (USA) and it is expected that the e-waste workers will embrace the use of these machines. This technology will go a long way to help prevent the burning of e-waste and will be replicated in other smaller e-waste centers in the country.

  3. Heavy metals in food, house dust, and water from an e-waste recycling area in South China and the potential risk to human health.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ke-hui; Yan, Xiao; Chen, She-Jun; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Peng, Xiao-Wu; Yuan, Jian-gang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2013-10-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni) were measured in the foodstuffs, house dust, underground/drinking water, and soil from an electronic waste (e-waste) area in South China. Elevated concentrations of these potentially toxic metals were observed in the samples but not in drinking water. The health risks for metal exposure via food consumption, dust ingestion, and drinking water were evaluated for local residents. For the average residents in the e-waste area, the non-carcinogenic risks arise predominantly from rice (hazard index=3.3), vegetables (2.2), and house dust (1.9) for adults, while the risks for young children are dominated by house dust (15). Drinking water may provide a negligible contribution to risk. However, local residents who use groundwater as a water supply source are at high non-carcinogenic risk. The potential cancer risks from oral intake of Pb are 8×10(-5) and 3×10(-4) for average adults and children, and thus groundwater would have a great potential to induce cancer (5×10(-4) and 1×10(-3)) in a highly exposed population. The results also reveal that the risk from oral exposure is much higher than the risk from inhalation and dermal contact with house dust. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternative Flame Retardant, 2,4,6-Tris(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine, in an E-waste Recycling Facility and House Dust in North America.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiehong; Stubbings, William A; Romanak, Kevin; Nguyen, Linh V; Jantunen, Liisa; Melymuk, Lisa; Arrandale, Victoria; Diamond, Miriam L; Venier, Marta

    2018-03-20

    A high molecular weight compound, 2,4,6-tris(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine (TTBP-TAZ), was detected during the analysis of brominated flame retardants in dust samples collected from an electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling facility in Ontario, Canada. Gas chromatography coupled with both high-resolution and low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used to determine TTBP-TAZ's chemical structure and concentrations. To date, TTBP-TAZ has only been detected in plastic casings of electrical and electronic equipment and house dust from The Netherlands. Here we report on the concentrations of TTBP-TAZ in selected samples from North America: e-waste dust ( n = 7) and air ( n = 4), residential dust ( n = 30), and selected outdoor air ( n = 146), precipitation ( n = 19), sediment ( n = 11) and water ( n = 2) samples from the Great Lakes environment. TTBP-TAZ was detected in all the e-waste dust and air samples, and in 70% of residential dust samples. The median concentrations of TTBP-TAZ in these three types of samples were 5540 ng/g, 5.75 ng/m 3 and 6.76 ng/g, respectively. The flame retardants 2,4,6-tribromophenol, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate, and 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) ether, BDE-47 and BDE-209 were also measured for comparison. None of these other flame retardants concentrations was significantly correlated with those of TTBP-TAZ in any of the sample types suggesting different sources. TTBP-TAZ was not detected in any of the outdoor environmental samples, which may relate to its application history and physicochemical properties. This is the first report of TTBP-TAZ in North America.

  5. Assessment of heavy metals exposure, noise and thermal safety in the ambiance of a vacuum metallurgy separation system for recycling heavy metals from crushed e-wastes.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-12-01

    Vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) is a technically feasible method to recover Pb, Cd and other heavy metals from crushed e-wastes. To further determine the environmental impacts and safety of this method, heavy metals exposure, noise and thermal safety in the ambiance of a vacuum metallurgy separation system are evaluated in this article. The mass concentrations of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM10 are 0.1503 and 0.0973 mg m(-3) near the facilities. The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Sn in TSP samples are 0.0104, 0.1283 and 0.0961 μg m(-3), respectively. Health risk assessments show that the hazard index of Pb is 3.25 × 10(-1) and that of Cd is 1.09 × 10(-1). Carcinogenic risk of Cd through inhalation is 1.08 × 10(-5). The values of the hazard index and risk indicate that Pb and Cd will not cause non-cancerous effects or carcinogenic risk on workers. The noise sources are mainly the mechanical vacuum pump and the water cooling pump. Both of them have the noise levels below 80 dB (A). The thermal safety assessment shows that the temperatures of the vacuum metallurgy separation system surface are all below 303 K after adopting the circulated water cooling and heat insulation measures. This study provides the environmental information of the vacuum metallurgy separation system, which is of assistance to promote the industrialisation of vacuum metallurgy separation for recovering heavy metals from e-wastes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, and children's respiratory symptoms and asthma from an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Xiangbin; Reponen, Tiina; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2016-03-01

    This study was to investigate the levels of heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma, and the related factors to them. Lead and cadmium in both PM2.5 and blood were significant higher in Guiyu (exposed area) than Haojiang (reference area) (p < 0.05), however, no significant difference was found for chromium and manganese in PM2.5 and in blood. The prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, and wheeze of children was higher in Guiyu compared to Haojiang (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found for the prevalence of asthma in children between Guiyu and Haojiang. Living in Guiyu was positively associated with blood lead (B = 0.196, p < 0.001), blood cadmium (B = 0.148, p < 0.05) and cough (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.30-4.32; p < 0.01). Blood lead>5 μg/dL was significantly associated with asthma (OR, 9.50; 95% CI, 1.16-77.49). Higher blood chromium and blood manganese were associated with more cough and wheeze, respectively. Our data suggest that living in e-waste exposed area may lead to increased levels of heavy metals, and accelerated prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Why Waste a Second Chance? A Small Town Guide to Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Towns and Townships, Washington, DC.

    In many communities, garbage disposal--solid waste management--is the third largest municipal expenditure and a fast growing budget item. Many small local governments have controlled the growth of these costs by recycling up to 40% of the total solid waste they produce. This guidebook can help communities identify and develop opportunities…

  8. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, sediment and dust samples collected from various electronic waste recycling sites within Guiyu town, southern China.

    PubMed

    Labunska, Iryna; Harrad, Stuart; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Brigden, Kevin

    2013-02-01

    Electronic waste recycling operations in some parts of Asia are conducted using rudimentary techniques which result in workplace and environmental contamination with toxic metals and persistent organic pollutants. This study reports concentrations of 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), from tri- to deca-brominated, in 31 samples of soil, sediment, dust or ash collected in the vicinity of e-waste recycling sites in Guiyu (southeast China) which were engaged in common activities such as dismantling, shredding, solder recovery, acid processing and open burning. The concentrations detected in this study far exceed those reported previously in urban soil and sediment and are consistent with or exceed those reported in previous studies around e-waste processing facilities. Some of the highest PBDE concentrations reported to date (e.g. 390 000 ng g (-1) dw (∑ 14 PBDEs)) were found in a sample collected from a site used for open-burning of e-waste, while an average concentration of 220 000 ng g (-1) dw (∑ 14 PBDEs) occurred in sediments impacted by circuit board shredding. A decrease in PBDE concentrations observed with increasing distance from workshops in samples associated with acid processing of wastes provides evidence that such operations are a significant source of PBDEs to the environment. Principal components analysis reveals a complex PBDE congener distribution, suggesting contamination by two or even three commercial formulations consistent with the diverse range of wastes processed.

  9. Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinker, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

  10. Innovating e-waste management: From macroscopic to microscopic scales.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Yang, Congren; Chiang, Joseph F; Li, Jinhui

    2017-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) has become a global problem, due to its potential environmental pollution and human health risk, and its containing valuable resources (e.g., metals, plastics). Recycling for e-waste will be a necessity, not only to address the shortage of mineral resources for electronics industry, but also to decline environmental pollution and human health risk. To systematically solve the e-waste problem, more attention of e-waste management should transfer from macroscopic to microscopic scales. E-waste processing technology should be significantly improved to diminish and even avoid toxic substance entering into downstream of material. The regulation or policy related to new production of hazardous substances in recycled materials should also be carried out on the agenda. All the findings can hopefully improve WEEE legislation for regulated countries and non-regulated countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Global perspectives on e-waste

    SciTech Connect

    Widmer, Rolf; Oswald-Krapf, Heidi; Sinha-Khetriwal, Deepali

    2005-07-15

    Electronic waste, or e-waste, is an emerging problem as well as a business opportunity of increasing significance, given the volumes of e-waste being generated and the content of both toxic and valuable materials in them. The fraction including iron, copper, aluminium, gold and other metals in e-waste is over 60%, while pollutants comprise 2.70%. Given the high toxicity of these pollutants especially when burned or recycled in uncontrolled environments, the Basel Convention has identified e-waste as hazardous, and developed a framework for controls on transboundary movement of such waste. The Basel Ban, an amendment to the Basel Convention that hasmore » not yet come into force, would go one step further by prohibiting the export of e-waste from developed to industrializing countries. Section 1 of this paper gives readers an overview on the e-waste topic-how e-waste is defined, what it is composed of and which methods can be applied to estimate the quantity of e-waste generated. Considering only PCs in use, by one estimate, at least 100 million PCs became obsolete in 2004. Not surprisingly, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) today already constitutes 8% of municipal waste and is one of the fastest growing waste fractions. Section 2 provides insight into the legislation and initiatives intended to help manage these growing quantities of e-waste. Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is being propagated as a new paradigm in waste management. The European Union's WEEE Directive, which came into force in August of 2004, makes it incumbent on manufacturers and importers in EU states to take back their products from consumers and ensure environmentally sound disposal. WEEE management in industrializing countries has its own characteristics and problems, and therefore this paper identifies some problems specific to such countries. The risky process of extracting copper from printed wiring boards is discussed as an example to illustrate the hazards of the

  12. E-waste scenario in India, its management and implications.

    PubMed

    Wath, Sushant B; Dutt, P S; Chakrabarti, T

    2011-01-01

    Electronic waste or E-waste comprises of old, end-of-life electronic appliances such as computers, laptops, TVs, DVD players, refrigerators, freezers, mobile phones, MP3 players, etc., which have been disposed of by their original users. E-waste contains many hazardous constituents that may negatively impact the environment and affect human health if not properly managed. Various organizations, bodies, and governments of many countries have adopted and/or developed the environmentally sound options and strategies for E-waste management to tackle the ever growing threat of E-waste to the environment and human health. This paper presents E-waste composition, categorization, Global and Indian E-waste scenarios, prospects of recoverable, recyclable, and hazardous materials found in the E-waste, Best Available Practices, recycling, and recovery processes followed, and their environmental and occupational hazards. Based on the discussion, various challenges for E-waste management particularly in India are delineated, and needed policy interventions were discussed.

  13. Prevention-intervention strategies to reduce exposure to e-waste.

    PubMed

    Heacock, Michelle; Trottier, Brittany; Adhikary, Sharad; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Basu, Nil; Brune, Marie-Noel; Caravanos, Jack; Carpenter, David; Cazabon, Danielle; Chakraborty, Paromita; Chen, Aimin; Barriga, Fernando Diaz; Ericson, Bret; Fobil, Julius; Haryanto, Budi; Huo, Xia; Joshi, T K; Landrigan, Philip; Lopez, Adeline; Magalini, Frederico; Navasumrit, Panida; Pascale, Antonio; Sambandam, Sankar; Aslia Kamil, Upik Sitti; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter; Suk, Ann; Suraweera, Inoka; Tamin, Ridwan; Vicario, Elena; Suk, William

    2018-06-27

    As one of the largest waste streams, electronic waste (e-waste) production continues to grow in response to global demand for consumer electronics. This waste is often shipped to developing countries where it is disassembled and recycled. In many cases, e-waste recycling activities are conducted in informal settings with very few controls or protections in place for workers. These activities involve exposure to hazardous substances such as cadmium, lead, and brominated flame retardants and are frequently performed by women and children. Although recycling practices and exposures vary by scale and geographic region, we present case studies of e-waste recycling scenarios and intervention approaches to reduce or prevent exposures to the hazardous substances in e-waste that may be broadly applicable to diverse situations. Drawing on parallels identified in these cases, we discuss the future prevention and intervention strategies that recognize the difficult economic realities of informal e-waste recycling.

  14. A review on human health consequences of metals exposure to e-waste in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingbin; Li, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    As the world's the largest dumping ground for e-waste, much of the population in China is exposed to heavy metals due to informal e-waste recycling processes. We reviewed recent studies on body burdens and human health effects of heavy metals from the major e-waste recycling sites in China. The results showed that the residents in the e-waste recycling sites are facing a potential higher daily intake of heavy metals. Moreover, heavy metals had entered subjects' bodies (the collected 5 tissue samples). Additionally,individual exposure to heavy metals in e-waste has also caused negative health outcomes,especially in neonates and children. We also recorded plausible outcomes associated with exposure to e wast (to heavy metals). A precautionary approach toward exposure, especially in neonates and children, therefore seems warranted.

  15. E-waste bans and U.S. households' preferences for disposing of their e-waste.

    PubMed

    Milovantseva, Natalia; Saphores, Jean-Daniel

    2013-07-30

    To deal with the inadequate disposal of e-waste, many states have instituted bans on its disposal in municipal landfills. However, the effectiveness of e-waste bans does not seem to have been analyzed yet. This paper starts addressing this gap. Using data from a survey of U.S. households, we estimate multivariate logit models to explain past disposal behavior by households of broken/obsolete ("junk") cell phones and disposal intentions for "junk" TVs. Our explanatory variables include factors summarizing general awareness of environmental issues, pro-environmental behavior in the past year, attitudes toward recycling small electronics (for the cell phones model only), socio-economic and demographic characteristics, and the presence of state e-waste bans. We find that California's Cell Phone Recycling Act had a significant and positive impact on the recycling of junk cell phones; however, state disposal bans for junk TVs seem to have been mostly ineffective, probably because they were poorly publicized and enforced. Their effectiveness could be enhanced by providing more information about e-waste recycling to women, and more generally to adults under 60. Given the disappointing performance of policies implemented to-date to enhance the collection of e-waste, it may be time to explore economic instruments such as deposit-refund systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Junya; Santorelli, Michael

    Recycling systems are classified into those employing typically three methods, and the progress of each method is described. In mechanical recycling, powders of phenolic materials are recovered via a mechanical process and reused as fillers or additives in virgin materials. The effects to flowability, curability, and mechanical properties of the materials are explained. In feedstock recycling, monomers, oligomers, or oils are recovered via chemical processes and reused as feedstock. Pyrolysis, solvolysis or hydrolysis, and supercritical or subcritical fluid technology will also be introduced. When using a subcritical fluid of phenol, the recycled material maintains excellent properties similar to the virgin material, and a demonstration plant has been constructed to carry out mass production development. In energy recovery, wastes of phenolic materials are used as an alternative solid fuel to coal because they are combustible and have good calorific value. Industrial wastes of these have been in practical use in a cement plant. Finally, it is suggested that the best recycling method should be selected according to the purpose or situation, because every recycling method has both strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, quantitative and objective evaluation methods in recycling are desirable and should be established.

  17. Developmental neurotoxicants in e-waste: an emerging health concern.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N; Huo, Xia; Ho, Shuk-mei

    2011-04-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) has been an emerging environmental health issue in both developed and developing countries, but its current management practice may result in unintended developmental neurotoxicity in vulnerable populations. To provide updated information about the scope of the issue, presence of known and suspected neurotoxicants, toxicologic mechanisms, and current data gaps, we conducted this literature review. We reviewed original articles and review papers in PubMed and Web of Science regarding e-waste toxicants and their potential developmental neurotoxicity. We also searched published reports of intergovernmental and governmental agencies and nongovernmental organizations on e-waste production and management practice. We focused on the potential exposure to e-waste toxicants in vulnerable populations-that is, pregnant women and developing children-and neurodevelopmental outcomes. In addition, we summarize experimental evidence of developmental neurotoxicity and mechanisms. In developing countries where most informal and primitive e-waste recycling occurs, environmental exposure to lead, cadmium, chromium, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is prevalent at high concentrations in pregnant women and young children. Developmental neurotoxicity is a serious concern in these regions, but human studies of adverse effects and potential mechanisms are scarce. The unprecedented mixture of exposure to heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants warrants further studies and necessitates effective pollution control measures. Pregnant women and young children living close to informal e-waste recycling sites are at risk of possible perturbations of fetus and child neurodevelopment.

  18. Estimation of future outflows of e-waste in India

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedy, Maheshwar, E-mail: dwivedy_m@bits-pilani.ac.i; Mittal, R.K.

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to construct an approach and a methodology to estimate the future outflows of electronic waste (e-waste) in India. Consequently, the study utilizes a time-series multiple lifespan end-of-life model proposed by Peralta and Fontanos for estimating the current and future quantities of e-waste in India. The model estimates future e-waste generation quantities by modeling their usage and disposal. The present work considers two scenarios for the approximation of e-waste generation based on user preferences to store or to recycle the e-waste. This model will help formal recyclers in India to make strategic decisions in planningmore » for appropriate recycling infrastructure and institutional capacity building. Also an extension of the model proposed by Peralta and Fontanos is developed with the objective of helping decision makers to conduct WEEE estimates under a variety of assumptions to suit their region of study. During 2007-2011, the total WEEE estimates will be around 2.5 million metric tons which include waste from personal computers (PC), television, refrigerators and washing machines. During the said period, the waste from PC will account for 30% of total units of WEEE generated.« less

  19. Estimation of future outflows of e-waste in India.

    PubMed

    Dwivedy, Maheshwar; Mittal, R K

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct an approach and a methodology to estimate the future outflows of electronic waste (e-waste) in India. Consequently, the study utilizes a time-series multiple lifespan end-of-life model proposed by Peralta and Fontanos for estimating the current and future quantities of e-waste in India. The model estimates future e-waste generation quantities by modeling their usage and disposal. The present work considers two scenarios for the approximation of e-waste generation based on user preferences to store or to recycle the e-waste. This model will help formal recyclers in India to make strategic decisions in planning for appropriate recycling infrastructure and institutional capacity building. Also an extension of the model proposed by Peralta and Fontanos is developed with the objective of helping decision makers to conduct WEEE estimates under a variety of assumptions to suit their region of study. During 2007-2011, the total WEEE estimates will be around 2.5 million metric tons which include waste from personal computers (PC), television, refrigerators and washing machines. During the said period, the waste from PC will account for 30% of total units of WEEE generated. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global challenges for e-waste management: the societal implications.

    PubMed

    Magalini, Federico

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decades the electronics industry and ICT Industry in particular has revolutionized the world: electrical and electronic products have become ubiquitous in today's life around the planet. After use, those products are discarded, sometimes after re-use cycles in countries different from those where they were initially sold; becoming what is commonly called e-waste. Compared to other traditional waste streams, e-waste handling poses unique and complex challenges. e-Waste is usually regarded as a waste problem, which can cause environmental damage and severe human health consequences if not safely managed. e-Waste contains significant amounts of toxic and environmentally sensitive materials and is, thus, extremely hazardous to humans and the environment if not properly disposed of or recycled. On the other hand, e-waste is often seen as a potential source of income for individuals and entrepreneurs who aim to recover the valuable materials (metals in particular) contained in discarded equipment. Recently, for a growing number of people, in developing countries in particular, recycling and separation of e-waste has become their main source of income. In most cases, this is done informally, with no or hardly any health and safety standards, exposing workers and the surrounding neighborhoods to extensive health dangers as well as leading to substantial environmental pollution. Treatment processes of e-waste aim to remove the hazardous components and recover as much reusable material (e.g. metals, glass and plastics) as possible; achieving both objectives is most desired. The paper discuss societal implications of proper e-waste management and key elements to be considered in the policy design at country level.

  1. Special Report: E-Waste Management in the United States and Public Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Seeberger, Jessica; Grandhi, Radhika; Kim, Stephani S; Mase, William A; Reponen, Tiina; Ho, Shuk-mei; Chen, Aimin

    2016-10-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) generation is increasing worldwide, and its management becomes a significant challenge because of the many toxicants present in electronic devices. The U.S. is a major producer of e-waste, although its management practice and policy regulation are not sufficient to meet the challenge. We reviewed e-waste generation, current management practices and trends, policy challenges, potential health impact, and toxicant exposure prevention in the U.S. A large amount of toxic metals, flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants exist in e-waste or can be released from the disposal of e-waste (e.g., landfill, incineration, recycling). Landfill is still a major method used to dispose of obsolete electronic devices, and only about half of the states have initiated a landfill ban for e-waste. Recycling of e-waste is an increasing trend in the past few years. There is potential, however, for workers to be exposed to a mixture of toxicants in e-waste and these exposures should be curtailed. Perspectives and recommendations are provided regarding managing e-waste in the U.S. to protect public health, including enacting federal legislation, discontinuing landfill disposal, protecting workers in recycling facilities from toxicant exposure, reducing toxicant release into the environment, and raising awareness of this growing environmental health issue among the public.

  2. Modelling the correlations of e-waste quantity with economic increase.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Li, Jinhui; Rosa, Paolo; Terzi, Sergio; Wei, Guoyin; Zeng, Xianlai

    2018-02-01

    Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste) is regarded as one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world and is becoming an emerging issue owing to adverse consequences on the natural environment and the human health. This research article reveals the presence of a strong linear correlation among global e-waste generation and Gross Domestic Product. The obtained results indicate that the best fit for data can be reached by comparing e-waste collected volumes and GDP PPS. More in detail, an increase of 1000 GDP PPS means an additional 0.27kg of e-waste collected and 0.22kg of e-waste reused/recycled. Furthermore, for each additional citizen, there will be an increase of 7.7kg of e-waste collected and 6.2kg of e-waste reused/recycled. The better collection of e-waste acts an important role concerning the circular economy, and it can be an advantageous approach. Therefore, e-waste could be considered as an opportunity for recycling or recovery of valuable metals (e.g., copper, gold, silver, and palladium), given their significant content in precious metals than in mineral ores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters emitted from plastic wastes recycling granulation plants in Xingtan Town, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, De-Yin; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Hong, Wei; Feng, Wei-Feng; Tao, Liang

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to investigate the main pollution characteristics of exhaust gases emitted from plastic waste recycling granulation plants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs) were analyzed in Xingtan Town, the largest distribution center of plastic waste recycling in China. Both inside and outside the plants, the total concentrations of volatile monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), PAHs and PAEs ranged from 2000 to 3000 μg m-3, 450 to 1200 ng m-3, and 200 to 1200 ng m-3, respectively. Their concentration levels inside the plants were higher than those outside the plants, and PAHs and PAEs were mainly distributed in the gas-phase. Notably, highly toxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could be detected inside the plants, and harmful PAEs could be detected not only inside but also outside the plants, although PAEs are non-volatile. The exhaust gas composition and concentration were related to the plastic feedstock and granulation temperature.

  4. "Control-alt-delete": rebooting solutions for the E-waste problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Stevels, Ab

    2015-06-16

    A number of efforts have been launched to solve the global electronic waste (e-waste) problem. The efficiency of e-waste recycling is subject to variable national legislation, technical capacity, consumer participation, and even detoxification. E-waste management activities result in procedural irregularities and risk disparities across national boundaries. We review these variables to reveal opportunities for research and policy to reduce the risks from accumulating e-waste and ineffective recycling. Full regulation and consumer participation should be controlled and reinforced to improve local e-waste system. Aiming at standardizing best practice, we alter and identify modular recycling process and infrastructure in eco-industrial parks that will be expectantly effective in countries and regions to handle the similar e-waste stream. Toxicity can be deleted through material substitution and detoxification during the life cycle of electronics. Based on the idea of "Control-Alt-Delete", four patterns of the way forward for global e-waste recycling are proposed to meet a variety of local situations.

  5. How much e-waste is there in US basements and attics? Results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Nixon, Hilary; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Shapiro, Andrew A

    2009-08-01

    The fate of used electronic products (e-waste) is of increasing concern because of their toxicity and the growing volume of e-waste. Addressing these concerns requires developing the recycling infrastructure, but good estimates of the volume of e-waste stored by US households are still unavailable. In this context, we make two contributions based on a national random survey of 2136 US households. First, we explain how much e-waste is stored by US households using count models. Significant explanatory variables include age, marital and employment status, ethnicity, household size, previous e-waste recycling behavior, and to some extent education, home ownership, and understanding the consequences of recycling, but neither income nor knowledge of e-waste recycling laws. Second, we estimate that on average, each US household has 4.1 small (e-waste items in storage. Although these numbers are likely lower bounds, they are higher than recent US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates (based on narrower product categories). This suggests that the backlog of e-waste in the US is likely larger than generally believed; it calls for developing the recycling infrastructure but also for targeted recycling campaigns.

  6. Developmental Neurotoxicants in E-Waste: An Emerging Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N.; Huo, Xia; Ho, Shuk-mei

    2011-01-01

    Objective Electronic waste (e-waste) has been an emerging environmental health issue in both developed and developing countries, but its current management practice may result in unintended developmental neurotoxicity in vulnerable populations. To provide updated information about the scope of the issue, presence of known and suspected neurotoxicants, toxicologic mechanisms, and current data gaps, we conducted this literature review. Data sources We reviewed original articles and review papers in PubMed and Web of Science regarding e-waste toxicants and their potential developmental neurotoxicity. We also searched published reports of intergovernmental and governmental agencies and nongovernmental organizations on e-waste production and management practice. Data extraction We focused on the potential exposure to e-waste toxicants in vulnerable populations—that is, pregnant women and developing children—and neurodevelopmental outcomes. In addition, we summarize experimental evidence of developmental neurotoxicity and mechanisms. Data synthesis In developing countries where most informal and primitive e-waste recycling occurs, environmental exposure to lead, cadmium, chromium, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is prevalent at high concentrations in pregnant women and young children. Developmental neurotoxicity is a serious concern in these regions, but human studies of adverse effects and potential mechanisms are scarce. The unprecedented mixture of exposure to heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants warrants further studies and necessitates effective pollution control measures. Conclusions Pregnant women and young children living close to informal e-waste recycling sites are at risk of possible perturbations of fetus and child neurodevelopment. PMID:21081302

  7. Environmental and human exposure to persistent halogenated compounds derived from e-waste in China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Zeng, Hui; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2010-06-01

    Various classes of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) can be released into the environment due to improper handling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste), which creates severe environmental problems and poses hazards to human health as well. In this review, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) are the main target contaminants for examination. As the world's largest importer and recycler of e-waste, China has been under tremendous pressure to deal with this huge e-waste situation. This review assesses the magnitude of the e-waste problems in China based on data obtained from the last several years, during which many significant investigations have been conducted. Comparative analyses of the concentrations of several classes of toxic compounds, in which e-waste recycling sites are compared with reference sites in China, have indicated that improper e-waste handling affects the environment of dismantling sites more than that of control sites. An assessment of the annual mass loadings of PBDEs, PBBs, TBBPA, PBPs, PCDD/Fs, and ClPAHs from e-waste in China has shown that PBDEs are the dominant components of PHCs in e-waste, followed by ClPAHs and PCDD/Fs. The annual loadings of PBDEs, ClPAHs, and PCDD/Fs emission were estimated to range from 76,200 to 182,000, 900 to 2,000 and 3 to 8 kg/year, respectively. However, PCDD/Fs and ClPAHs should not be neglected because they are also primarily released from e-waste recycling processes. Overall, the magnitude of human exposure to these toxics in e-waste sites in China is at the high end of the global range. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  8. A systematic review of the human body burden of e-waste exposure in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingbin; Li, Jinhui

    2014-07-01

    As China is one of the countries facing the most serious pollution and human exposure effects of e-waste in the world, much of the population there is exposed to potentially hazardous substances due to informal e-waste recycling processes. This report reviews recent studies on human exposure to e-waste in China, with particular focus on exposure routes (e.g. dietary intake, inhalation, and soil/dust ingestion) and human body burden markers (e.g. placenta, umbilical cord blood, breast milk, blood, hair, and urine) and assesses the evidence for the association between such e-waste exposure and the human body burden in China. The results suggest that residents in the e-waste exposure areas, located mainly in the three traditional e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, and Qingyuan), are faced with a potential higher daily intake of these pollutants than residents in the control areas, especially via food ingestion. Moreover, pollutants (PBBs, PBDEs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and heavy metals) from the e-waste recycling processes were all detectable in the tissue samples at high levels, showing that they had entered residents' bodies through the environment and dietary exposure. Children and neonates are the groups most sensitive to the human body effects of e-waste exposure. We also recorded plausible outcomes associated with exposure to e-waste, including 7 types of human body burden. Although the data suggest that exposure to e-waste is harmful to health, better designed epidemiological investigations in vulnerable populations, especially neonates and children, are needed to confirm these associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Level changes and human dietary exposure assessment of halogenated flame retardant levels in free-range chicken eggs: A case study of a former e-waste recycling site, South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Chen; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Bin; Liu, Yin-E; Ren, Zi-He; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2018-09-01

    To assess the impacts of e-waste regulations on environmental pollution, we built on a previous study from 2010 to investigate the levels and human dietary exposure of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in free-range chicken eggs from Baihe village in 2013 and 2016. The concentrations of PBDEs, PBBs, HBCDs, and DBDPE showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) from 2010 to 2013/2016, suggesting the efficacy of regulatory policies. The relative contribution of BDE209 were higher in 2013 and 2016 than in 2010, accounting for 67.8%, 61.4%, and 27.7%, respectively. The concentration ratios of PBB209:PBB153 were much lower in 2013 (1.51) and 2016 (1.32) than in 2010 (29.5). These observed different profiles likely due to the different environmental behaviors of HFRs (e.g. the different atmospheric migration abilities of PBDE congeners and degradation of PBB209). Our exposure estimates suggested high dietary intake of HFRs via home-produced eggs. As for PBDEs, considering the worst situation (highly polluted eggs were consumed), the margin of exposure (MOE) of BDE99 for both adults and children were 1.5 and 0.3 in 2013, and 1.1 and 0.2 in 2016, respectively, which were below 2.5. According to the CONTAM panel, an MOE larger than 2.5 indicates no health concern. Therefore, these MOE values represent a significant potential health concern due to the adverse impacts of PBDEs on human neurodevelopment and fertility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A roadmap for development of sustainable E-waste management system in India.

    PubMed

    Wath, Sushant B; Vaidya, Atul N; Dutt, P S; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2010-12-01

    The problem of E-waste has forced Environmental agencies of many countries to innovate, develop and adopt environmentally sound options and strategies for E-waste management, with a view to mitigate and control the ever growing threat of E-waste to the environment and human health. E-waste management is given the top priority in many developed countries, but in rapid developing countries like India, it is difficult to completely adopt or replicate the E-waste management system in developed countries due to many country specific issues viz. socio-economic conditions, lack of infrastructure, absence of appropriate legislations for E-waste, approach and commitments of the concerned, etc. This paper presents a review and assessment of the E-waste management system of developed as well as developing countries with a special emphasis on Switzerland, which is the first country in the world to have established and implemented a formal E-waste management system and has recycled 11kg/capita of WEEE against the target of 4kg/capita set by EU. And based on the discussions of various approaches, laws, legislations, practices of different countries, a road map for the development of sustainable and effective E-waste management system in India for ensuring environment, as well as, occupational safety and health, is proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Brett H

    2009-12-20

    E-waste comprises discarded electronic appliances, of which computers and mobile telephones are disproportionately abundant because of their short lifespan. The current global production of E-waste is estimated to be 20-25 million tonnes per year, with most E-waste being produced in Europe, the United States and Australasia. China, Eastern Europe and Latin America will become major E-waste producers in the next ten years. Miniaturisation and the development of more efficient cloud computing networks, where computing services are delivered over the internet from remote locations, may offset the increase in E-waste production from global economic growth and the development of pervasive new technologies. E-waste contains valuable metals (Cu, platinum group) as well as potential environmental contaminants, especially Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, Ni, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Burning E-waste may generate dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), and hydrogen chloride. The chemical composition of E-waste changes with the development of new technologies and pressure from environmental organisations on electronics companies to find alternatives to environmentally damaging materials. Most E-waste is disposed in landfills. Effective reprocessing technology, which recovers the valuable materials with minimal environmental impact, is expensive. Consequently, although illegal under the Basel Convention, rich countries export an unknown quantity of E-waste to poor countries, where recycling techniques include burning and dissolution in strong acids with few measures to protect human health and the environment. Such reprocessing initially results in extreme localised contamination followed by migration of the contaminants into receiving waters and food chains. E-waste workers suffer negative health effects through skin contact and inhalation, while the wider community are exposed

  12. E-waste: a problem or an opportunity? Review of issues, challenges and solutions in Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Herat, Sunil; Agamuthu, P

    2012-11-01

    Safe management of electronic and electrical waste (e-waste/WEEE) is becoming a major problem for many countries around the world. In particular, developing countries face a number of issues with the generation, transboundary movement and management of e-waste. It is estimated that the world generates around 20-50 million tonnes of e-waste annually, most of it from Asian countries. Improper handling of e-waste can cause harm to the environment and human health because of its toxic components. Several countries around the world are now struggling to deal with this emerging threat. Although the current emphasis is on end-of-life management of e-waste activities, such as reuse, servicing, remanufacturing, recycling and disposal, upstream reduction of e-waste generation through green design and cleaner production is gaining much attention. Environmentally sound management (ESM) of e-waste in developing countries is absent or very limited. Transboundary movement of e-waste is a major issue throughout the region. Dealing with the informal recycling sector is a complex social and environmental issue. There are significant numbers of such challenges faced by these countries in achieving ESM of e-waste. This article aims to present a review of challenges and issues faced by Asian countries in managing their e-waste in a sustainable way.

  13. E-waste Management and Refurbishment Prediction (EMARP) Model for Refurbishment Industries.

    PubMed

    Resmi, N G; Fasila, K A

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm for establishing a standard methodology to manage and refurbish e-waste called E-waste Management And Refurbishment Prediction (EMARP), which can be adapted by refurbishing industries in order to improve their performance. Waste management, particularly, e-waste management is a serious issue nowadays. Computerization has been into waste management in different ways. Much of the computerization has happened in planning the waste collection, recycling and disposal process and also managing documents and reports related to waste management. This paper proposes a computerized model to make predictions for e-waste refurbishment. All possibilities for reusing the common components among the collected e-waste samples are predicted, thus minimizing the wastage. Simulation of the model has been done to analyse the accuracy in the predictions made by the system. The model can be scaled to accommodate the real-world scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Systematic characterization of generation and management of e-waste in China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huabo; Hu, Jiukun; Tan, Quanyin; Liu, Lili; Wang, Yanjie; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been much effort to promote the management of e-waste in China. Policies have been affected to prohibit imports and to control pollution. Research has been conducted in laboratories and on large-scale industrial operations. A subsidy system to support sound e-waste recycling has been put in place. However, the handling of e-waste is still a concern in China and the issue remains unresolved. There has been relatively little work to follow up this issue or to interpret continuing problems from the perspective of sustainable development. This paper first provides a brief overview of conventional and emerging environmental pollution in Chinese "famous" e-waste dismantling areas, including Guiyu in Guangdong and Wenling in Zhejiang. Environmentalists have repeatedly proven that these areas are significantly polluted. Importing and backyard recycling are decreasing but are ongoing. Most importantly, no work is being done to treat or remediate the contaminated environmental media. The situation is exacerbated by the rising tide of e-waste generated by domestic update of various electronics. This study, therefore, employs a Sales Obsolescence Model approach to predict the generation of e-waste. When accounting for weight, approximately 8 million tons of e-waste will be generated domestically in 2015, of which around 50% is ferrous metals, followed by miscellaneous plastic (30%), copper metal and cables (8%), aluminum (5%), and others (7%). Of this, 3.6% will come from scrap PCBs and 0.2% from lead CRT glass. While more and more end-of-life electronics have been collected and treated by formal or licensed recyclers in China in terms of our analysis, many of them only have dismantling and separation activities. Hazardous e-wastes, including those from PCBs, CRT glass, and brominated flame retardant (BFR) plastics, have become problematic and probably flow to small or backyard recyclers without environmentally sound management. Traditional

  15. Has the question of e-waste opened a Pandora's box? An overview of unpredictable issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Gravel, Sabrina; Ceballos, Diana; Flynn, Michael A; Zayed, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Despite regulatory efforts and position papers, electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) remains ill-managed as evidenced by the extremely low rates of proper e-waste recycling (e-recycling) worldwide, ongoing illegal shipments to developing countries and constantly reported human health issues and environmental pollution. The objectives of this review are, first, to expose the complexity of e-waste problems, and then to suggest possible upstream and downstream solutions. Exploring e-waste issues is akin to opening a Pandora's box. Thus, a review of prevailing e-waste management practices reveals complex and often intertwined gaps, issues and challenges. These include the absence of any consistent definition of e-waste to date, a prevalent toxic potential still involving already banned or restricted hazardous components such as heavy metals and persistent and bioaccumulative organic compounds, a relentless growth in e-waste volume fueled by planned obsolescence and unsustainable consumption, problematic e-recycling processes, a fragile formal e-recycling sector, sustained and more harmful informal e-recycling practices, and more convoluted and unpredictable patterns of illegal e-waste trade. A close examination of the e-waste legacy contamination reveals critical human health concerns, including significant occupational exposure during both formal and informal e-recycling, and persistent environmental contamination, particularly in some developing countries. However, newly detected e-waste contaminants as well as unexpected sources and environmental fates of contaminants are among the emerging issues that raise concerns. Moreover, scientific knowledge gaps remain regarding the complexity and magnitude of the e-waste legacy contamination, specifically, a comprehensive characterization of e-waste contaminants, information on the scale of legacy contamination in developing countries and on the potential environmental damage in developed countries, and a stronger body

  16. E-Waste and the Sustainable Organisation: Griffith University's Approach to E-Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Georgina; Wolski, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to provide details of Griffith University's (GU) approach for sustainably dealing with electronic waste (e-waste) and the benefits of using the e-waste programme as a valuable educational case study for ESD. Design/methodology/approach: The e-waste programme is explained with reference to key resources and literature, so…

  17. Assessing resident awareness on e-waste management in Bangalore, India: a preliminary case study.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Li, Jinhui

    2018-04-01

    The generation of e-waste has increased significantly in India, and the informal recycling of e-waste has adverse effects on environment and public health. In this article, the E-waste management is evaluated in accordance from the resident's awareness perspective in Bangalore city, India. The survey data revealed that about 58% male and 42% female responded and 35% of the participants belong to age range between 18 and 25 years. About 60% of respondent's education level was either graduate or post graduate, 27% high school to higher school, 10% higher educated (> post graduate), and 3% primary to middle. Only 30% of the respondents were confident with e-waste rules and regulation, while 39% of the respondents were of very little information. Indian e-waste management has been improving for the last few years and it continues to develop. Therefore, the findings can be valuable for better understanding the resident's awareness for e-waste management and also need to promote the environmentally sound management of e-waste in Bangalore, India.

  18. E-Waste and Harm to Vulnerable Populations: A Growing Global Problem

    PubMed Central

    Heacock, Michelle; Kelly, Carol Bain; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Bergman, Åke Lennart; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Carpenter, David O.; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia; Kamel, Mostafa; Landrigan, Philip J.; Magalini, Federico; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Neira, Maria; Omar, Magdy; Pascale, Antonio; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D.; Van den Berg, Martin; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electronic waste (e-waste) is produced in staggering quantities, estimated globally to be 41.8 million tonnes in 2014. Informal e-waste recycling is a source of much-needed income in many low- to middle-income countries. However, its handling and disposal in underdeveloped countries is often unsafe and leads to contaminated environments. Rudimentary and uncontrolled processing methods often result in substantial harmful chemical exposures among vulnerable populations, including women and children. E-waste hazards have not yet received the attention they deserve in research and public health agendas. Objectives: We provide an overview of the scale and health risks. We review international efforts concerned with environmental hazards, especially affecting children, as a preface to presenting next steps in addressing health issues stemming from the global e-waste problem. Discussion: The e-waste problem has been building for decades. Increased observation of adverse health effects from e-waste sites calls for protecting human health and the environment from e-waste contamination. Even if e-waste exposure intervention and prevention efforts are implemented, legacy contamination will remain, necessitating increased awareness of e-waste as a major environmental health threat. Conclusion: Global, national, and local levels efforts must aim to create safe recycling operations that consider broad security issues for people who rely on e-waste processing for survival. Paramount to these efforts is reducing pregnant women and children’s e-waste exposures to mitigate harmful health effects. With human environmental health in mind, novel dismantling methods and remediation technologies and intervention practices are needed to protect communities. Citation: Heacock M, Kelly CB, Asante KA, Birnbaum LS, Bergman AL, Bruné MN, Buka I, Carpenter DO, Chen A, Huo X, Kamel M, Landrigan PJ, Magalini F, Diaz-Barriga F, Neira M, Omar M, Pascale A, Ruchirawat M, Sly L, Sly PD

  19. E-Waste and Harm to Vulnerable Populations: A Growing Global Problem.

    PubMed

    Heacock, Michelle; Kelly, Carol Bain; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Birnbaum, Linda S; Bergman, Åke Lennart; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Carpenter, David O; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia; Kamel, Mostafa; Landrigan, Philip J; Magalini, Federico; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Neira, Maria; Omar, Magdy; Pascale, Antonio; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D; Van den Berg, Martin; Suk, William A

    2016-05-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is produced in staggering quantities, estimated globally to be 41.8 million tonnes in 2014. Informal e-waste recycling is a source of much-needed income in many low- to middle-income countries. However, its handling and disposal in underdeveloped countries is often unsafe and leads to contaminated environments. Rudimentary and uncontrolled processing methods often result in substantial harmful chemical exposures among vulnerable populations, including women and children. E-waste hazards have not yet received the attention they deserve in research and public health agendas. We provide an overview of the scale and health risks. We review international efforts concerned with environmental hazards, especially affecting children, as a preface to presenting next steps in addressing health issues stemming from the global e-waste problem. The e-waste problem has been building for decades. Increased observation of adverse health effects from e-waste sites calls for protecting human health and the environment from e-waste contamination. Even if e-waste exposure intervention and prevention efforts are implemented, legacy contamination will remain, necessitating increased awareness of e-waste as a major environmental health threat. Global, national, and local levels efforts must aim to create safe recycling operations that consider broad security issues for people who rely on e-waste processing for survival. Paramount to these efforts is reducing pregnant women and children's e-waste exposures to mitigate harmful health effects. With human environmental health in mind, novel dismantling methods and remediation technologies and intervention practices are needed to protect communities. Heacock M, Kelly CB, Asante KA, Birnbaum LS, Bergman AL, Bruné MN, Buka I, Carpenter DO, Chen A, Huo X, Kamel M, Landrigan PJ, Magalini F, Diaz-Barriga F, Neira M, Omar M, Pascale A, Ruchirawat M, Sly L, Sly PD, Van den Berg M, Suk WA. 2016. E-waste and harm to

  20. Urinary heavy metal levels and relevant factors among people exposed to e-waste dismantling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongmei; Han, Mei; Yang, Suwen; Chen, Yanqing; Liu, Qian; Ke, Shen

    2011-01-01

    Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has become a growing environmental concern, and toxic heavy metals released from e-waste activities may continue to threaten the health of local people. To study the impact of heavy metals in people around e-waste sites, 349 people from e-waste recycling sites (exposure group) and 118 people from a green plantation (control group) were surveyed, and their urinary levels of lead (UPb), cadmium (UCd), manganese (UMn), copper (UCu), and Zinc (UZn) were assayed. Questionnaire surveys for risk factors were also performed and analyzed by using the Pearson correlation analysis. Results indicated that the levels of urinary Cd in both occupational dismantling people {GM(GSD) 0.72(0.71) ug/L} and non-occupational dismantling people {GM(GSD) 0.50(0.79) ug/L} were higher than the control group {GM(GSD) 0.27(0.85) ug/L}. Further analyses of correlations between urinary heavy metal levels and exposure factors in the exposed group revealed positive relationship between the duration of dismantling and the level of UPb (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, rice sources from local village have a positive correlation with the level of UPb and UCd (p < 0.01). Other factors, however, may also have influences on heavy metal burden, and not all urinary heavy metal levels can be contributed to e-waste dismantling exposure levels. Primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the changes of urinary heavy metal levels and increase the health risk for those chronically working on e-waste dismantling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for E-waste management.

    PubMed

    Ikhlayel, Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for proper e-waste handling using Jordan as a case study. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was employed to evaluate five advanced management systems represent state-of-the-art treatment technologies, including sanitary landfilling; proper recycling of metals, materials, and precious metals (PMs); and incineration of plastic and the hazardous portion of printed circuit boards (PCBs). Six e-waste products that contribute the most to the e-waste in Jordan were included in the assessment of each scenario, which resulted in 30 total cases of e-waste management. The findings indicated that landfills for the entire components of the e-waste stream are the worst option and should be avoided. The most promising e-waste management scenario features integrated e-waste processes based on the concept of Integrated Waste Management (IWM), including recycling materials such as non-PMs and PMs, incinerating plastic and the hazardous content of PCBs using the energy recovered from incineration, and using sanitary landfills of residues. For this scenario, the best environmental performance was obtained for the treatment of mobile phones. Incineration of the portion of hazardous waste using energy recovery is an option that deserves attention. Because scenario implementation depends on more than just the environmental benefits (e.g., economic cost and technical aspects), the study proposes a systematic approach founded on the IWM concept for e-waste management scenario selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fungal Biorecovery of Gold From E-waste.

    PubMed

    Bindschedler, Saskia; Vu Bouquet, Thi Quynh Trang; Job, Daniel; Joseph, Edith; Junier, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Waste electric and electronic devices (e-waste) represent a source of valuable raw materials of great interest, and in the case of metals, e-waste might become a prized alternative source. Regarding gold, natural ores are difficult to mine due to their refractory nature and the richest ores have almost all been exploited. Additionally, some gold mining areas are present in geopolitically unstable regions. Finally, the gold mining industry produces toxic compounds, such as cyanides. As a result, the gold present in e-waste represents a nonnegligible resource (urban mining). Extraction methods of gold from natural ores (pyro- and hydrometallurgy) have been adapted to this particular type of matrix. However, to propose novel approaches with a lower environmental footprint, biotechnological methods using microorganisms are being developed (biometallurgy). These processes use the extensive metabolic potential of microbes (algae, bacteria, and fungi) to mobilize and immobilize gold from urban and industrial sources. In this review, we focus on the use of fungi for gold biomining. Fungi interact with gold by mobilizing it through mechanical attack as well as through biochemical leaching by the production of cyanides. Moreover, fungi are also able to release Au through the degradation of cyanide from aurocyanide complexes. Finally, fungi immobilize gold through biosorption, bioaccumulation, and biomineralization, in particular, as gold nanoparticles. Overall, the diversity of mechanisms of gold recycling using fungi combined with their filamentous lifestyle, which allows them to thrive in heterogeneous and solid environments such as e-waste, makes fungi an important bioresource to be harnessed for the biorecovery of gold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. E-waste disposal effects on the aquatic environment: Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Mensah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The volume of e-waste is growing around the world, and, increasingly, it is being disposed of by export from developed to developing countries. This is the situation in Ghana, and, in this paper we address the potential consequences of such e-waste disposal. Herein, we describe how e-waste is processed in Ghana, and what the fate is of e-waste-chemical contaminants during recycling and storage. Finally, to the extent it is known, we address the prospective adverse effects of e-waste-related contaminants on health and aquatic life downstream from a large e-waste disposal facility in Accra, Ghana.In developing countries, including Ghana, e-waste is routinely disassembled by unprotected workers that utilize rudimentary methods and tools. Once disassembled,e-waste components are often stored in large piles outdoors. These processing and storage methods expose workers and local residents to several heavy metals and organic chemicals that exist in e-waste components. The amount of e-waste dumped in Ghana is increasing annually by about 20,000 t. The local aquatic environment is at a potential high risk, because the piles of e-waste components stored outside are routinely drenched or flooded by rainfall, producing run-off from storage sites to local waterways. Both water and sediment samples show that e-waste-related contaminant shave entered Ghana's water ways.The extent of pollution produced in key water bodies of Ghana (Odaw River and the Korle Lagoon) underscores the need for aquatic risk assessments of the many contaminants released during e-waste processing. Notwithstanding the fact that pollutants from other sources reach the water bodies, it is clear that these water bodies are also heavily impacted by contaminants that are found in e-waste. Our concern is that such exposures have limited and will continue to limit the diversity of aquatic organisms.There have also been changes in the abundance and biomass of surviving species and changes in food chains. Therefore

  4. Cleaning Up Electronic Waste (E-Waste)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    While accurate data on the amount of e-waste being exported from the U.S. are not available, the United States government is concerned that these exports are being mismanaged abroad, causing serious public health and environmental hazards.

  5. International E-Waste Management Network (IEMN)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Environmental Protection Administration Taiwan (EPAT) have collaborated since 2011 to build global capacity for the environmentally sound management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), which is commonly called e-waste.

  6. Urban Mining of E-Waste is Becoming More Cost-Effective Than Virgin Mining.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Mathews, John A; Li, Jinhui

    2018-04-17

    Stocks of virgin-mined materials utilized in linear economic flows continue to present enormous challenges. E-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams, and threatens to grow into a global problem of unmanageable proportions. An effective form of management of resource recycling and environmental improvement is available, in the form of extraction and purification of precious metals taken from waste streams, in a process known as urban mining. In this work, we demonstrate utilizing real cost data from e-waste processors in China that ingots of pure copper and gold could be recovered from e-waste streams at costs that are comparable to those encountered in virgin mining of ores. Our results are confined to the cases of copper and gold extracted and processed from e-waste streams made up of recycled TV sets, but these results indicate a trend and potential if applied across a broader range of e-waste sources and metals extracted. If these results can be extended to other metals and countries, they promise to have positive impact on waste disposal and mining activities globally, as the circular economy comes to displace linear economic pathways.

  7. Characterization of brominated flame retardants from e-waste components in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Danfeng; Duan, Huabo; Song, Qingbin; Liu, Yicheng; Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Weijun; Luo, Jiahui; Wang, Jinben

    2017-10-01

    Many studies show that high levels of many toxic metals and persistent and bio-accumulative chemicals have been found in electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling sites and their surrounding environmental media. Both flame-retardant plastic housing materials and printed circuit boards (PCBs) could be the major contributors. However, relatively little work has focused on the use or content of toxic substances and their changing in scrap housing materials and PCBs from home appliances. This study evaluated the existence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA)) in housing plastics and PCBs from home appliances collected from various e-waste recyclers in China. These were then analyzed for the potential migration of BFRs from the e-waste components into their recycled products. The results show that both PBDEs and TBBPA were found with high level in most of e-waste samples, indicating that the widespread use of BFRs in home appliances are entering into the end-of-life stage. For the plastics samples, CRT TVs and LCD monitors should be given priority for the control of BFRs. Regarding PBDEs, the dominant congeners of BDE-209 in the plastics samples contributed 90.72-93.54% to the total concentrations of PBDEs, yet there are large variations for PCBs samples: BDE-28, -47, -99, and -153 were also important congeners compositions, except for BDE-209. Compared with previous studies, the BFRs concentrations in current Chinese e-waste are trending to decline. This study also found that BFRs in housing plastics and PCBs will be transferred into the recycled products with other purpose use, and the new products could have highly enriched capacities for BFRs. The obtained results could be helpful to manage e-waste and their components properly in order to minimize associated environmental and health risks of BFRs, particularly for their further reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Requirement analysis to promote small-sized E-waste collection from consumers.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kuniko; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2016-02-01

    The collection and recycling of small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment is an emerging problem, since these products contain certain amounts of critical metals and rare earths. Even if the amount is not large, having a few supply routes for such recycled resources could be a good strategy to be competitive in a world of finite resources. The small-sized e-waste sometimes contains personal information, therefore, consumers are often reluctant to put them into recycling bins. In order to promote the recycling of E-waste, collection of used products from the consumer becomes important. Effective methods involving incentives for consumers might be necessary. Without such methods, it will be difficult to achieve the critical amounts necessary for an efficient recycling system. This article focused on used mobile phones among information appliances as the first case study, since it contains relatively large amounts of valuable metals compared with other small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment and there are a large number of products existing in the market. The article carried out surveys to determine what kind of recycled material collection services are preferred by consumers. The results clarify that incentive or reward money alone is not a driving force for recycling behaviour. The article discusses the types of effective services required to promote recycling behaviour. The article concludes that securing information, transferring data and providing proper information about resources and environment can be an effective tool to encourage a recycling behaviour strategy to promote recycling, plus the potential discount service on purchasing new products associated with the return of recycled mobile phones. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Unfair trade: e-waste in Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Charles W

    2006-04-01

    Africa is quickly becoming a destination for information technology in the form of tons of used computers, fax machines, cell phones, and other electronics. Although many of these machines can be repaired and resold, up to 75% of the electronics shipped to Africa is junk. This equipment, when dumped, may leach lead, mercury, and cadmium into the environment; when burned, it may release carcinogenic dioxins and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In the United States, activists are working to limit the flow of e-waste to developing countries through international agreements and voluntary e-waste export reduction efforts.

  10. Ecological effects of soil properties and metal concentrations on the composition and diversity of microbial communities associated with land use patterns in an electronic waste recycling region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wencheng; Dong, Changxun; Wu, Jiahui; Liu, Xiaowen; Wu, Yingxin; Chen, Xianbin; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-12-01

    Soil microbes play vital roles in ecosystem functions, and soil microbial communities may be strongly structured by land use patterns associated with electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities, which can increase the heavy metal concentration in soils. In this study, a suite of soils from five land use types (paddy field, vegetable field, dry field, forest field, and e-waste recycling site) were collected in Longtang Town, Guangdong Province, South China. Soil physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were measured, and the indigenous microbial assemblages were profiled using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and clone library analyses. The results showed that mercury concentration was positively correlated with both Faith's PD and Chao1 estimates, suggesting that the soil microbial alpha diversity was predominantly regulated by mercury. In addition, redundancy analysis indicated that available phosphorus, soil moisture, and mercury were the three major drivers affecting the microbial assemblages. Overall, the microbial composition was determined primarily by land use patterns, and this study provides a novel insight on the composition and diversity of microbial communities in soils associated with e-waste recycling activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation of and control measures for, e-waste in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Chung Shanshan, E-mail: sschung@hkbu.edu.hk; Lau Kayan; Zhang Chan

    2011-03-15

    While accurately estimating electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) generation is important for building appropriate infrastructure for its collection and recycling, making reliable estimates of this kind is difficult in Hong Kong owing to the fact that neither accurate trade statistics nor sales data of relevant products are available. In view of this, data of e-products consumption at household level was collected by a tailor-made questionnaire survey from the public for obtaining a reasonable e-waste generation estimate. It was estimated that on average no more than 80,443 tonnes (11.5 kg/capita) of waste is generated from non-plasma and non-liquid crystal display televisions,more » refrigerators, washing machines, air-conditioners and personal computers each year by Hong Kong households. However, not more than 17% of this is disposed as waste despite a producer responsibility scheme (PRS) not being in place because of the existence of a vibrant e-waste trading sector. The form of PRS control that can possibly win most public support is one that would involve the current e-waste traders as a major party in providing the reverse logistics with a visible recycling charge levied at the point of importation. This reverse logistic service should be convenient, reliable and highly accessible to the consumers.« less

  12. Generation of and control measures for, e-waste in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shan-shan; Lau, Ka-yan; Zhang, Chan

    2011-03-01

    While accurately estimating electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) generation is important for building appropriate infrastructure for its collection and recycling, making reliable estimates of this kind is difficult in Hong Kong owing to the fact that neither accurate trade statistics nor sales data of relevant products are available. In view of this, data of e-products consumption at household level was collected by a tailor-made questionnaire survey from the public for obtaining a reasonable e-waste generation estimate. It was estimated that on average no more than 80,443 tones (11.5 kg/capita) of waste is generated from non-plasma and non-liquid crystal display televisions, refrigerators, washing machines, air-conditioners and personal computers each year by Hong Kong households. However, not more than 17% of this is disposed as waste despite a producer responsibility scheme (PRS) not being in place because of the existence of a vibrant e-waste trading sector. The form of PRS control that can possibly win most public support is one that would involve the current e-waste traders as a major party in providing the reverse logistics with a visible recycling charge levied at the point of importation. This reverse logistic service should be convenient, reliable and highly accessible to the consumers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Financing electronic waste recycling Californian households' willingness to pay advanced recycling fees.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

    2007-09-01

    The growth of electronic waste (e-waste) is of increasing concern because of its toxic content and low recycling rates. The e-waste recycling infrastructure needs to be developed, yet little is known about people's willingness to fund its expansion. This paper examines this issue based on a 2004 mail survey of California households. Using an ordered logit model, we find that age, income, beliefs about government and business roles, proximity to existing recycling facilities, community density, education, and environmental attitudes are significant factors for explaining people's willingness to pay an advanced recycling fee (ARF) for electronics. Most respondents are willing to support a 1% ARF. Our results suggest that policymakers should target middle-aged and older adults, improve programs in communities with existing recycling centers or in rural communities, and consider public-private partnerships for e-waste recycling programs.

  14. Multiple Elemental Exposures Amongst Workers at the Agbogbloshie Electronic Waste (E-Waste) Site in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Srigboh, Roland Kofi; Basu, Niladri; Stephens, Judith; Asampong, Emmanuel; Perkins, Marie; Neitzel, Richard L.; Fobil, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is growing worldwide and raising a number of environmental health concerns. One of the largest e-waste sites is Agbogbloshie (Ghana). While several toxic elements have been reported in Agbogbloshie’s environment, there is limited knowledge of human exposures there. The objectives of this study were to characterize exposures to several essential (copper, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc) and toxic (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead) elements in the urine and blood of male workers (n=58) at Agbogbloshie, as well as females (n=11) working in activities that serve the site, and to relate these exposures to sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. The median number of years worked at the site was 5, and the average worker indicated being active in 6.8 tasks (of 9 key e-waste job categories). Additionally, we categorized four main e-waste activities (in brackets % of population self-reported main activity): dealing (22.4%), sorting (24.1%), dismantling (50%), and burning (3.4%) e-waste materials. Many blood and urinary elements (including essential ones) were within biomonitoring reference ranges. However, blood cadmium (1.2 ug/L median) and lead (6.4 ug/dl; 67% above U.S. CDC/NIOSH reference level), and urinary arsenic (38.3 ug/L; 39% above U.S. ATSDR value) levels were elevated compared to background populations elsewhere. Workers who burned e-waste tended to have the highest biomarker levels. The findings of this study contribute to a growing body of work at Agbogbloshie (and elsewhere) to document that individuals working within e-waste sites are exposed to a number of toxic elements, some at potentially concerning levels. PMID:27580259

  15. Multiple elemental exposures amongst workers at the Agbogbloshie electronic waste (e-waste) site in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Srigboh, Roland Kofi; Basu, Niladri; Stephens, Judith; Asampong, Emmanuel; Perkins, Marie; Neitzel, Richard L; Fobil, Julius

    2016-12-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is growing worldwide and raising a number of environmental health concerns. One of the largest e-waste sites is Agbogbloshie (Ghana). While several toxic elements have been reported in Agbogbloshie's environment, there is limited knowledge of human exposures there. The objectives of this study were to characterize exposures to several essential (copper, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc) and toxic (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead) elements in the urine and blood of male workers (n = 58) at Agbogbloshie, as well as females (n = 11) working in activities that serve the site, and to relate these exposures to sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. The median number of years worked at the site was 5, and the average worker indicated being active in 6.8 tasks (of 9 key e-waste job categories). Additionally, we categorized four main e-waste activities (in brackets % of population self-reported main activity): dealing (22.4%), sorting (24.1%), dismantling (50%), and burning (3.4%) e-waste materials. Many blood and urinary elements (including essential ones) were within biomonitoring reference ranges. However, blood cadmium (1.2 μg/L median) and lead (6.4 μg/dl; 67% above U.S. CDC/NIOSH reference level), and urinary arsenic (38.3 μg/L; 39% above U.S. ATSDR value) levels were elevated compared to background populations elsewhere. Workers who burned e-waste tended to have the highest biomarker levels. The findings of this study contribute to a growing body of work at Agbogbloshie (and elsewhere) to document that individuals working within e-waste sites are exposed to a number of toxic elements, some at potentially concerning levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. E-waste environmental contamination and harm to public health in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xijin; Zeng, Xiang; Boezen, H Marike; Huo, Xia

    2015-06-01

    The adverse effects of electronic waste (e-waste) on the human body have stirred up concern in recent years. China is one of the countries that confront serious pollution and human exposure of e-waste, and the majority of the population is exposed to potentially hazardous substances that are derived from informal e-waste recycling processes. This study reviews recent reports on human exposure to e-waste in China, with particular focus on exposure routes (e.g., inhalation and ingestion) and several toxicities of human (e.g., endocrine system, respiratory system, reproductive system, developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and genetic toxicity). Pieces of evidence that associate e-waste exposure with human health effects in China are assessed. The role of toxic heavy metals (e.g., lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, and nickel) and organic pollutants (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), bisphenol A (BPA)) on human health is also briefly discussed.

  17. Can Small Countries Benefit from the E-waste Global Value Chain?

    SciTech Connect

    Meine Pieter, Dijk van, E-mail: mpvandijk@iss.nl

    E-waste is a term used to cover items of all types of electrical and electronic equipment and its parts that have been discarded by the owners as waste without the intention of re-use, because this equipment has ceased to be of any value to its owners. E-waste is one of the fastestgrowing waste streams globally. Since the Rio Summit Earth summit organized by the United Nations in 1992, the concept of sustainability extends to rendering basic services such as Solid Waste Management and dealing with e-waste. People are afraid of e-waste because of its possible negative effects on health andmore » because it could pollute the environment. Indicators of unsustainable service provision concerninge-waste include irregular collection, open dumping, burning of solid and e-waste in open spaces. Often collection covers a small part of the country, cost recovery is limited or not existent, and one notes poor utilization of available resources with no or very limited reuse and recycling.« less

  18. Opportunities and constraints for developing a sustainable E-waste management system at local government level in Australia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Georgina; Herat, S

    2010-08-01

    E-waste refers to both electronic and electrical waste materials; namely any items which rely on an electric current or electromagnetic fields in order to operate, and contain a hard-drive or significant electronic components and/or a printed circuit board. E-waste is outstripping the general growth of the municipal waste stream. Increasingly, smaller and cheaper electronic items are being disposed of in municipal waste systems and this, coupled with an increase in the number of, and turnover of manufacturers and suppliers, may see local councils assuming a key role in future e-waste management. A survey of local councils across Australia was undertaken to determine the current level of understanding and action on e-waste, and to solicit key responses regarding the identification of areas where improvements could be made. The survey achieved an overall response rate of 35%. Survey results identified key barriers experienced by councils regarding the collection and treatment of e-wastes, such as access to reprocessing facilities and the limited or complete unawareness by the public of the issues. With regards to who should pay for e-waste disposal at end-of-life, consumers and producers were most commonly cited, depending on the state with the preferred funding mechanisms being 'advanced recycling fee' and Expanded Producer Responsibility. Overwhelmingly, 88% of respondents believed that federal legislation was required to manage e-waste. Overall, the results did not indicate differences in views between states for most questions.

  19. Emerging issue of e-waste in Pakistan: A review of status, research needs and data gaps.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mehreen; Breivik, Knut; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-12-01

    This review article focuses on the current situation of e-waste in Pakistan with the emphasis on defining the major e-waste recycling sites, current and future domestic generation of e-waste, hidden flows or import of e-waste and discusses various challenges for e-waste management. Needed policy interventions and possible measures to be taken at governmental level are discussed to avoid the increasing problem of e-waste in the country. Our findings highlight that there is still a general lack of reliable data, inventories and research studies addressing e-waste related issues in the context of environmental and human health in Pakistan. There is therefore a critical need to improve the current knowledge base, which should build upon the research experience from other countries which have experienced similar situations in the past. Further research into these issues in Pakistan is considered vital to help inform future policies/control strategies as already successfully implemented in other countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. E-waste management and sustainability: a case study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Luís Peres; da Silva Araújo, Fernando Gabriel; Lagarinhos, Carlos Alberto Ferreira; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano

    2017-11-01

    The advancement of technology and development of new electronic and electrical equipment with a reduced life cycle has increased the need for the disposal of them (called Waste of Electric and Electronic Equipment or simply e-waste) due to defects presented during use, replacement of obsolete equipment, and ease of acquisition of new equipment. There is a lack of consumer awareness regarding the use, handling storage, and disposal of this equipment. In Brazil, the disposal of post-consumer waste is regulated by the National Solid Waste Policy, established by Law No. 12305 and regulated on the 23rd December 2010. Under this legislation, manufacturers and importers are required to perform a project for the Reverse Logistics of e-waste, though its implementation is not well defined. This work focuses on the verification of the sustainability of reverse logistics suggested by the legislation and the mandatory points, evaluating its costs and the possible financial gain with recycling of the waste. The management of reverse logistics and recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment, or simply recycling of e-waste, as suggested by the government, will be the responsibility of the managing organization to be formed by the manufacturers/importers in Brazil.

  1. The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Osibanjo, O; Nnorom, I C

    2007-12-01

    Information and telecommunications technology (ICT) and computer Internet networking has penetrated nearly every aspect of modern life, and is positively affecting human life even in the most remote areas of the developing countries. The rapid growth in ICT has led to an improvement in the capacity of computers but simultaneously to a decrease in the products lifetime as a result of which increasingly large quantities of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) are generated annually. ICT development in most developing countries, particularly in Africa, depends more on secondhand or refurbished EEEs most of which are imported without confirmatory testing for functionality. As a result large quantities of e-waste are presently being managed in these countries. The challenges facing the developing countries in e-waste management include: an absence of infrastructure for appropriate waste management, an absence of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste, an absence of any framework for end-of-life (EoL) product take-back or implementation of extended producer responsibility (EPR). This study examines these issues as they relate to practices in developing countries with emphasis on the prevailing situation in Nigeria. Effective management of e-waste in the developing countries demands the implementation of EPR, the establishment of product reuse through remanufacturing and the introduction of efficient recycling facilities. The implementation of a global system for the standardization and certification/labelling of secondhand appliances intended for export to developing countries will be required to control the export of electronic recyclables (e-scarp) in the name of secondhand appliances.

  2. E-waste: impacts, issues and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    The present electronic era has seen massive proliferation of electrical and electronic equipment especially during the last two decades. These gadgets have become indispensable components of human life. The gravity of this sensitive 21st century problem is being felt by relevant stakeholders from the community to global level. Consequently, the annual global generation of e-waste is estimated to be 20-50 million tons. According to the Basel Action Network, 500 million computers contain 287 billion kilograms (kg) plastics; 716.7 million kg lead; and 286,700 kg mercury. These gadgets contain over 50 elements from the periodic table. The lethal components include heavy metals (like cadmium, mercury, copper, nickel, lead, barium, hexavalent chromium and beryllium); phosphor; plastics; and brominated flame retardants. These are persistent, mobile, and bioaccumulative toxins that remain in the environment but their forms are changed and are carcinogens, mutagens and teratogens. The ensuing hazardous waste has created deleterious impacts on physical, biological and socioeconomic environments. The lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere of Earth are being gravely polluted. Human beings and other biodiversity face fatal diseases, such as cancer, reproductive disorders, neural damages, endocrine disruptions, asthmatic bronchitis, and brain retardation. Marginal populations of developing countries living in squatter/slums are most vulnerable. Numerous issues are associated with uncontrolled generation, unscientific and environmentally inappropriate recycling processes for the extraction of heavy and precious metals (e.g., gold, platinum, and silver), illegal transboundary shipments from advanced to developing countries and weak conventions/legislations at global and national levels. Although the Basel Convention has been ratified by most countries, illicit trading/trafficking of hazardous substances remains unchecked, sometimes "disguised" as donations. The fact

  3. E-Waste Driven Pollution in Pakistan: The First Evidence of Environmental and Human Exposure to Flame Retardants (FRs) in Karachi City.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mehreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Breivik, Knut; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2017-12-05

    Informal e-waste recycling activities have been shown to be a major emitter of organic flame retardants (FRs), contributing to both environmental and human exposure to laborers at e-waste recycling sites in some West African countries, as well as in China and India. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of selected organic FRs in both air and soil samples collected from areas with intensive informal e-waste recycling activities in Karachi, Pakistan. Dechlorane Plus (DP) and "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were often detected in high concentrations in soils, while phosphorus-based FRs (OPFRs) dominated atmospheric samples. Among individual substances and substance groups, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) (726 ng/g), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) (551 ng/g), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE) (362 ng/g), and triphenyl-phosphate (∑TPP) (296 ng/g) were found to be prevalent in soils, while OPFR congeners (5903-24986 ng/m 3 ) were prevalent in air. The two major e-waste recycling areas (Shershah and Lyari) were highly contaminated with FRs, suggesting informal e-waste recycling activities as a major emission source of FRs in the environment in Karachi City. However, the hazards associated with exposure to PM 2.5 appear to exceed those attributed to exposure to selected FRs via inhalation and soil ingestion.

  4. Town & Gown.

    PubMed

    King, Beth M; Gordon, Shirley C; Barry, Charlotte D; Goodman, Rhonda; Jannone, Laura T; Foley, Marie; Resha, Cheryl; Hendershot, Candace

    2017-01-01

    Innovative approaches for building "town and gown" relationships between practicing school nurses, community partners, and universities/colleges are presented through exemplars relating to research, education, policy, and practice. The exemplars demonstrate the critical factors of successful partnerships as validated by their outcomes.

  5. Terrace Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabin, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The "Terrace Town" program brings architecture and city planning curriculum to elementary schools in Madison, Wisconsin, and surrounding areas. Over eight weeks, classrooms discuss what makes a community livable, sustainable, and kid-friendly. Throughout the process, students gain a better understanding of their own city environments and…

  6. Tox Town

    MedlinePlus

    ... to view this content. Skip to main content ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CONCERNS AND TOXIC CHEMICALS WHERE YOU LIVE, WORK, AND PLAY Search:  Home Text Version Neighborhoods Locations Chemicals For Educators Español City View Farm View Port View US Southwest View Town View What's New ...

  7. Our Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines an issue-based lesson for a physical science course in which students investigate potential alternative energy sources for Alternatown, a fictitious city. Students are randomly selected to serve as town council members or as representatives of different alternative energy source options put before the council. The…

  8. Characteristics of organic matter in PM2.5 from an e-waste dismantling area in Taizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zeping; Feng, Jialiang; Han, Wenliang; Wu, Minghong; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying

    2010-08-01

    Solvent extractable organic compounds in PM(2.5) samples collected in Taizhou, a city famous for its electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling industry in Zhejiang province of China, were analyzed to identify the main emission sources based on molecular markers. Two types of plastics which were most frequently contained in the e-wastes, wires/cables and plastic blocks, were burned in the lab and the particles emitted analyzed. The concentrations of PAHs and phthalate esters at the e-waste dismantling area during our sampling periods were about two times of that at the reference urban site, indicating the high pollution level there. The high concentrations of quaterphenyl found at the dismantling area indicated that burning of plastics or polymers was an important emission source of the PAHs in the fine particles. The diagnostic analysis based on the compositions of alkanes, hopanes and other molecular markers showed that engine exhaust, biomass burning and kitchen emissions were also important emission sources at the e-waste dismantling area. Our results suggested that more effort should be paid to control the correlative emission sources such as transportation and kitchen to achieve better air quality at the e-waste dismantling area besides regulating the recycling activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Disposing and recycling waste printed circuit boards: disconnecting, resource recovery, and pollution control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianbo; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-20

    Over the past decades, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered e-waste recycling activities. After a decade of effort, disassembly and raw materials recycling of environmentally friendly e-waste have been realized in specialized companies, in China, and law enforcement for illegal activities of e-waste recycling has also been made more and more strict. So up to now, the e-waste recycling in China should be developed toward more depth and refinement to promote industrial production of e-waste resource recovery. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), which are the most complex, hazardous, and valuable components of e-waste, are selected as one typical example in this article that reviews the status of related regulations and technologies of WPCBs recycling, then optimizes, and integrates the proper approaches in existence, while the bottlenecks in the WPCBs recycling system are analyzed, and some preliminary experiments of pinch technologies are also conducted. Finally, in order to provide directional guidance for future development of WPCBs recycling, some key points in the WPCBs recycling system are proposed to point towards a future trend in the e-waste recycling industry.

  10. E-waste: the growing global problem and next steps.

    PubMed

    Heacock, Michelle; Kelly, Carol Bain; Suk, William A

    2016-03-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries, handling and disposal of discarded electrical or electronic equipment (EEE) is frequently unregulated. e-Waste contains hazardous constituents such as lead, mercury, and chromium, certain chemicals in plastics, and flame retardants. There is increasing concern about health effects related to contamination in air, soil, and water for people working and living at or near informal e-waste processing sites, especially to the most vulnerable populations, pregnant women and children. The observed adverse health effects and increasing number of e-waste sites make protecting human health and the environment from e-waste contamination an expanding challenge. Through international cooperation, awareness can be elevated about the harm that e-waste processing poses to human health. Here we discuss how international researchers, public health practitioners, and policymakers can employ solutions to reduce e-waste exposures.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the atmosphere of Taizhou, a major e-waste dismantling area in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenliang; Feng, Jialiang; Gu, Zeping; Chen, Duohong; Wu, Minghong; Fu, Jiamo

    2009-12-01

    Concentrations, congener profiles, gas-particle partitioning and size distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the atmosphere of Taizhou were studied to evaluate the impact of e-waste recycling on the environment. Total concentration of 13 PBDEs near the e-waste dismantling area was 506 pg m(-3) in summer and 1,662 pg m(-3) in winter, about 7 times higher than that of the reference urban site, but much lower than that of Guiyu, another major e-waste dismantling area in China. This should be attributable to the centralized management measures taken in recent years in Taizhou. BDE-209 was the major congener and mainly in coarse particles.

  12. Elevated biomarkers of sympatho-adrenomedullary activity linked to e-waste air pollutant exposure in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaowei; Xu, Xijin; Xu, Long; Li, Minghui; Xu, Cheng; Qin, Qilin; Huo, Xia

    2018-06-01

    Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cardiovascular regulatory changes in childhood contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular events at older ages. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air pollutant exposure on the child sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system, which plays a vital role in regulating and controlling the cardiovascular system. Two plasma biomarkers (plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine) of SAM activity and heart rate were measured in preschool children (n = 228) living in Guiyu, and native (n = 104) and non-native children (n = 91) living in a reference area (Haojiang) for >1 year. Air pollution data, over the 4-months before the health examination, was also collected. Environmental PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 and CO, plasma norepinephrine and heart rate of the e-waste recycling area were significantly higher than for the non-e-waste recycling area. However, there was no difference in plasma norepinephrine and heart rate between native children living in the non-e-waste recycling area and non-native children living in the non-e-waste recycling area. PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 data, over the 30-day and the 4-month average of pollution before the health examination, showed a positive association with plasma norepinephrine level. PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 and CO concentrations, over the 24 h of the day of the health examination, the 3 previous 24-hour periods before the health examination, and the 24 h after the health examination, were related to increase in heart rate. At the same time, plasma norepinephrine and heart rate on children in the high air pollution level group (≤50-m radius of family-run workshops) were higher than those in the low air pollution level group. Our results suggest that air pollution exposure in e-waste recycling areas could result in an increase in heart rate and plasma norepinephrine, implying e-waste air pollutant exposure

  13. Enhanced bioleaching efficiency of metals from E-wastes driven by biochar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuhua; Zheng, Yue; Yan, Weifu; Chen, Lixiang; Dummi Mahadevan, Gurumurthy; Zhao, Feng

    2016-12-15

    Electronic wastes (E-wastes) contain a huge amount of valuable metals that are worth recovering. Bioleaching has attracted widespread attention as an environment-friendly and low-cost technology for the recycling of E-wastes. To avoid the disadvantages of being time-consuming or having a relatively low efficiency, biochar with redox activity was used to enhance bioleaching efficiency of metals from a basic E-waste (i.e., printed circuit boards in this study). The role of biochar was examined through three basic processes: Carbon-mediated, Sulfur-mediated and Iron-mediated bioleaching pathways. Although no obvious enhancement of bioleaching performance was observed in the C-mediated and S-mediated systems, Fe-mediated bioleaching was significantly promoted by the participation of biochar, and its leaching time was decreased by one-third compared with that of a biochar-free system. By mapping the dynamic concentration of Fe(II) and Cu(II), biochar was proved to facilitate the redox action between Fe(II) to Fe(III), which resulted in effective leaching of Cu. Two dominant functional species consisting of Alicyclobacillus spp. and Sulfobacillus spp. may cooperate in the Fe-mediated bioleaching system, and the ratio of these two species was regulated by biochar for enhancing the efficiency of bioleaching. Hence, this work provides a method to improve bioleaching efficiency with low-cost solid redox media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electronic waste (e-waste): material flows and management practices in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nnorom, Innocent Chidi; Osibanjo, Oladele

    2008-01-01

    The growth in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) production and consumption has been exponential in the last two decades. This has been as a result of the rapid changes in equipment features and capabilities, decrease in prices, and the growth in internet use. This creates a large volume of waste stream of obsolete electrical and electronic devices (e-waste) in developed countries. There is high level of trans-boundary movement of these devices as secondhand electronic equipment into developing countries in an attempt to bridge the 'digital divide'. The past decade has witnessed a phenomenal advancement in information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigeria, most of which rely on imported secondhand devices. This paper attempts to review the material flow of secondhand/scrap electronic devices into Nigeria, the current management practices for e-waste and the environmental and health implications of such low-end management practices. Establishment of formal recycling facilities, introduction of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste and the confirmation of the functionality of secondhand EEE prior to importation are some of the options available to the government in dealing with this difficult issue.

  15. Biphenyl-Metabolizing Microbial Community and a Functional Operon Revealed in E-Waste-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Longfei; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Dayi; Song, Mengke; Sun, Yingtao; Zhang, Gan

    2018-05-18

    Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities release massive amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals into surrounding soils, posing a major threat to the ecosystem and human health. Microbes capable of metabolizing POPs play important roles in POPs remediation in soils, but their phylotypes and functions remain unclear. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), one of the main pollutants in e-waste contaminated soils, have drawn increasing attention due to their high persistence, toxicity, and bioaccumulation. In the present study, we employed the culture-independent method of DNA stable-isotope probing to identify active biphenyl and PCB degraders in e-waste-contaminated soil. A total of 19 rare operational taxonomic units and three dominant bacterial genera ( Ralstonia, Cupriavidus, and uncultured bacterium DA101) were enriched in the 13 C heavy DNA fraction, confirming their functions in PCBs metabolism. Additionally, a 13.8 kb bph operon was amplified, containing a bphA gene labeled by 13 C that was concentrated in the heavy DNA fraction. The tetranucleotide signature characteristics of the bph operon suggest that it originated from Ralstonia. The bph operon may be shared by horizontal gene transfer because it contains a transposon gene and is found in various bacterial species. This study gives us a deeper understanding of PCB-degrading mechanisms and provides a potential resource for the bioremediation of PCBs-contaminated soils.

  16. Electronic waste (e-waste): Material flows and management practices in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Nnorom, Innocent Chidi; Osibanjo, Oladele

    The growth in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) production and consumption has been exponential in the last two decades. This has been as a result of the rapid changes in equipment features and capabilities, decrease in prices, and the growth in internet use. This creates a large volume of waste stream of obsolete electrical and electronic devices (e-waste) in developed countries. There is high level of trans-boundary movement of these devices as secondhand electronic equipment into developing countries in an attempt to bridge the 'digital divide'. The past decade has witnessed a phenomenal advancement in information and communication technology (ICT)more » in Nigeria, most of which rely on imported secondhand devices. This paper attempts to review the material flow of secondhand/scrap electronic devices into Nigeria, the current management practices for e-waste and the environmental and health implications of such low-end management practices. Establishment of formal recycling facilities, introduction of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste and the confirmation of the functionality of secondhand EEE prior to importation are some of the options available to the government in dealing with this difficult issue.« less

  17. The urgent need for health impact assessment: proposing a transdisciplinary approach to the e-waste crisis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, Dinah; Lengel, Lara

    2017-06-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing health and environmental concern in developing countries. In the sub-Saharan African region e-waste is considered a crisis with no end in sight yet; there is lack of structures and regulations to manage the problem. In this article, we discuss the potential of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in addressing the health, environmental, and social impacts of e-waste in sub-Saharan Africa. We draw from environmental policy, environmental communication, global health policy, and health communication to argue that managing e-waste could be framed as ongoing HIA where all the steps of HIA are performed on a rolling basis with input from local communities. Further, we suggest that HIA should be infused into recycling legislation to help streamline the practice in order to make it safe for health and the environment and to maximize the economic benefits.

  18. Speciation and leaching of trace metal contaminants from e-waste contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin-Li; Luo, Chun-Ling; Tang, Chloe Wing-Yee; Chan, Ting-Shan; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-05-05

    Primitive electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities have caused serious environmental problems. However, little is known about the speciation and leaching behaviors of metal contaminants at e-waste contaminated sites. This study investigated trace metal speciation/mobilization from e-waste polluted soil through column leaching experiments involving irrigation with rainwater for almost 2.5 years. Over the experimental period, Cu and Zn levels in the porewater were 0.14±0.08mg/L, and 0.16±0.08mg/L, respectively, increasing to 0.33±0.16mg/L, and 0.69±0.28mg/L with plant growth. The amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb released in surface soil (0-2cm) contributed 43.8%, 22.5%, and 13.8%, respectively, to the original levels. The released Cu and Zn were primarily caused by the mobilization of the carbonate species of metals, including Cu(OH) 2 , CuCO 3 , and Zn 5 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 6 , and amorphous Fe/Mn oxides associated fractions characterized by sequential extraction coupling with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. During the experiments, trace metals were not detected in the effluent, and the re-sequestration of trace metals was mainly attributed to the adsorption on the abundant Fe/Mn oxides in the sub-layer soil. This study quantitatively elucidated the molecular speciation of Cu and Zn in e-waste contaminated soil during the column leaching process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: A worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation

    SciTech Connect

    Reis de Oliveira, Camila, E-mail: Camilareis.oliveira@hotmail.com; Moura Bernardes, Andrea, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br; Gerbase, Annelise Engel, E-mail: agerbase@ufrgs.br

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review of the different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the e-waste collection systems used in Europe and in the US. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present e-waste collection systems used in Asia and Latin America. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E-waste management between developed and developing countries is very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We made a comparison of the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. - Abstract: Recycling and the related issue of sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Overmore » the last 10 years, different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes have been applied globally. This paper presents the systems used in different countries and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. To establish a recycling process, it is necessary to organize efficient collection management. The main difficulty associated with the implementation of e-waste recycling processes in Brazil is the collection system, as its efficiency depends not only on the education and cooperation of the people but also on cooperation among industrial waste generators, distributors and the government. Over half a million waste pickers have been reported in Brazil and they are responsible for the success of metal scrap collection in the country. The country also has close to 2400 companies and cooperatives involved in recycling and scrap trading. On the other hand, the collection and recycling of e-waste is still incipient because e-wastes are not seen as valuable in the informal sector. The Brazilian challenge is therefore to organize a system of e-waste management including the informal sector without neglecting environmentally sound management principles.« less

  20. Recovery of metals and nonmetals from electronic waste by physical and chemical recycling processes.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Muammer

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the existing and state of art knowledge for electronic waste (e-waste) recycling. Electrical and/or electronic devices which are unwanted, broken or discarded by their original users are known as e-waste. The main purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of e-waste problem, strategies of e-waste management and various physical, chemical and metallurgical e-waste recycling processes, their advantages and disadvantages towards achieving a cleaner process of waste utilization, with special attention towards extraction of both metallic values and nonmetallic substances. The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals Hg, Cd, Pb, etc., brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. Due to the presence of these substances, e-waste is generally considered as hazardous waste and, if improperly managed, may pose significant human and environmental health risks. This review describes the potential hazards and economic opportunities of e-waste. Firstly, an overview of e-waste/printed circuit board (PCB) components is given. Current status and future perspectives of e-waste/PCB recycling are described. E-waste characterization, dismantling methods, liberation and classification processes are also covered. Manual selective dismantling after desoldering and metal-nonmetal liberation at -150μm with two step crushing are seen to be the best techniques. After size reduction, mainly physical separation processes employing gravity, electrostatic, magnetic separators, froth floatation, etc. have been critically reviewed here for separation of metals and nonmetals, along with useful utilizations of the nonmetallic materials. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed along with purification and refining. Suitable PCB recycling flowsheets for industrial applications are also given

  1. Spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, sediment, and combusted residue at an e-waste processing site in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-06-01

    The environmental pollution and health impacts caused by the primitive and crude recycling of e-waste have become urgent global issues. Guiyu, China is a major hotspot of e-waste recycling. In this study, the levels and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil in Guiyu were determined to investigate the effect of e-waste activities on the environment and to identify possible sources of these pollutants. Sediment samples from a local duck pond, water gullies, a river tributary, and combusted residue from e-waste burning sites were also investigated. The general trend found in soil (Σ16 PAHs) was acid leaching site > duck pond > rice field > printer roller dump site > reservoir (control site) and ranged from 95.2 ± 54.2 to 5,210 ± 89.6 ng/g (dry wt). The highest average total PAH concentrations were found in combusted residues of wires, cables, and other computer electrical components located at two e-waste open burning sites (18,600 and 10,800 ± 3,940 ng/g). These were 195- and 113-fold higher than the PAH concentrations of soil at the control site. Sediment PAH concentrations ranged from 37.2 ± 6 to 534 ± 271 ng/g. Results of this study provide further evidence of significant input of PAHs to the environment attributed to crude e-waste recycling.

  2. Characterization of Airborne Particles in an Electronic Waste Recycling Facility and Their Toxicity Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improper disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) can lead to release of toxic chemicals into the environment and also may pose health risks. Thus, recycling e-waste, instead of landfilling, is considered to be an effective way to reduce pollutant release and exposure. However, lit...

  3. Examining the relationship between brominated flame retardants (BFR) exposure and changes of thyroid hormone levels around e-waste dismantling sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Qian; Wang, Feifei; Nie, Jing; Qian, Yan

    2010-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) released from e-waste related activities may affect the health of local people. Assessing the impact of e-waste exposure during recycling and dismantling activities on local people's thyroid hormone levels is an area of ongoing research. During November and December 2008, the process of e-waste recycling and dismantling was investigated, and 236 occupation-exposed people and 89 non-occupation-exposed people approximate to the e-waste recycling sites were surveyed; their thyroid hormone levels (THs), thyrotropins (TSH) and BFRs levels in serum were assayed. Multiple regression models were constructed to analyze the changes of serum THs and TSH in the people living in the exposure area (exposure group) and the people in the control group. Covariates known to be or likely to be associated with THs, TSH and BFRs levels were analyzed. Lower level of Triiodothyronine (T(3)) in both occupation-exposed and non-occupation-exposed group were observed (p<0.01), when compared with the control group, and the same trend was obtained for free triiodothyronine (fT(3)) and free thyroxine (fT4) (p<0.01). However, no significant difference in thyroxine (T(4)) was found between the two groups. The level of TSH in the e-waste recycling occupational-exposed group ranged from 0.00 to 5.00microIU/ml with a mean of 1.26microIU/ml, whereas the level of TSH in the control group was from 0.03 to 5.54microIU/ml with a mean of 1.57microIU/ml. This study revealed that people having worked on e-waste recycling and dismantling had significantly lower TSH compared with the control group (p<0.01). Moreover, the level of BDE-205 is positively associated with the level of T4, as confirmed by the linear regression model (unstandardized regression coefficient, beta=0.25, rho=0.001) and a weaker positive relation was also found between the levels of BDE-126 and T4. Meanwhile, a weak negative relation was found between the levels of PBB 103 and T3, and between the levels

  4. Hazardous E-waste and its impact on soil structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharini, K.; Cynthia, J. Bernadette; Kamalambikai, B.; Sudar Celestina, J. P. Arul; Muthu, D.

    2017-07-01

    E-waste disposal has been a significant issue over the past few decades with the development of technology and the plethora of electronic products produced. The inclusive term E-Waste encapsulates various forms of electrical and electronical equipment which provides no value to the current owners and it is one among the fastest growing waste streams. E-Waste is a complex, non-biodegradable waste which is generally dumped in mountain like heaps. These wastes are said to have a large quantities of lead, cadmium, arsenic etc.it is mandatory to dispose such scrupulously since they have the ability to affect the soil and water parameters. Solid waste management is a blooming field which strives to reduce the accumulation of used electronic gadgets. Rainwater gets infiltrated through the e-waste landfill and it leaches through the soil which in turn reaches the groundwater directly thereby affecting the water intended for drinking and domestic purposes. This study focuses on the consequences of toxic waste by comparing the difference in properties of the soil structure prior to and after the e-waste landfill at various concentrations.

  5. Exposure assessment of heavy metals in an e-waste processing area in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Tomoko; Suzuki, Go; Matsukami, Hidenori; Uchida, Natsuyo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Tuyen, Le Huu; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2018-04-15

    In developing countries, inappropriate recycling of e-waste has resulted in the environmental release of toxicants, including heavy metals, that may have deleterious health effects. In this study, we estimated daily metal intakes in five households in a Vietnamese village located in an e-waste processing area and assessed the health risk posed by exposure to the metals. Garden soil, floor dust, 24-h duplicate diet, and ambient air samples were collected from five households in northern Vietnam in January 2014. All samples were acid-digested, and contents of Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, and Zn were measured by using ICP mass spectrometry and ICP atomic emission spectroscopy. In addition, the soil, dust, and diet samples were subjected to an bioaccessibility extraction test to determine bioaccessible metal concentrations. Hazard quotients were estimated from bioaccessible metal concentrations, provisional tolerable weekly intakes, and reference doses. Garden soil and floor dust were estimated to be mainly contributors to daily Pb intake, as indicated by calculations using bioaccessible metal concentrations and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency soil plus dust ingestion rate. Diet was suggested to contribute significantly to daily Cd, Cu, Mn, Sb, and Zn intake. Estimated metal exposures via inhalation were negligible, as indicated by calculations using International Atomic Energy Agency reference inhalation rates. The maximum hazard quotients were calculated as 0.2 (Cd), 0.09 (Cu), 0.3 (Mn), 0.6 (Pb), 0.2 (Sb), and 0.5 (Zn), on the basis of bioaccessible metal concentrations. The contributions of Cd, Cu, Mn, Sb, and Zn except Pb to potential noncancer risk for adult residents of the five households in the e-waste processing area may be low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: a worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Camila Reis; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Gerbase, Annelise Engel

    2012-08-01

    Recycling and the related issue of sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Over the last 10 years, different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes have been applied globally. This paper presents the systems used in different countries and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. To establish a recycling process, it is necessary to organize efficient collection management. The main difficulty associated with the implementation of e-waste recycling processes in Brazil is the collection system, as its efficiency depends not only on the education and cooperation of the people but also on cooperation among industrial waste generators, distributors and the government. Over half a million waste pickers have been reported in Brazil and they are responsible for the success of metal scrap collection in the country. The country also has close to 2400 companies and cooperatives involved in recycling and scrap trading. On the other hand, the collection and recycling of e-waste is still incipient because e-wastes are not seen as valuable in the informal sector. The Brazilian challenge is therefore to organize a system of e-waste management including the informal sector without neglecting environmentally sound management principles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Speciation and Characterization of E-Waste, Using Analytical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, C. Cortés; Cruz, V. E. Reyes; Rodríguez, M. A. Veloz; Ávila, J. Hernández; Badillo, J. Flores; Murcia, J. A. Cobos

    Electronic waste (e-waste), have a high potential as a source of precious metals, since they can contain metals like silver, gold, platinum, copper, zinc, nickel, tin and others. In this paper some e-waste were characterized using several analytical techniques as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) in addition to the thermodynamic study by Pourbaix diagrams of silver (Ag), gold (Au), platinum (Pt), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), tin (Sn) and zinc (Zn); considering an average low concentration of HNO3 (10% v/v). With results of the characterization was determined that the e-waste is an ideal source for the recovery of valuable metals. Similarly, the thermodynamic studies showed that it is possible to obtain all metallic species except Pt, in a potential window of 1.45V to 2.0V vs SCE.

  8. Status of electronic waste recycling techniques: a review.

    PubMed

    Abdelbasir, Sabah M; Hassan, Saad S M; Kamel, Ayman H; El-Nasr, Rania Seif

    2018-05-08

    The increasing use of electrical and electronic equipment leads to a huge generation of electronic waste (e-waste). It is the fastest growing waste stream in the world. Almost all electrical and electronic equipment contain printed circuit boards as an essential part. Improper handling of these electronic wastes could bring serious risk to human health and the environment. On the other hand, proper handling of this waste requires a sound management strategy for awareness, collection, recycling, and reuse. Nowadays, the effective recycling of this type of waste has been considered as a main challenge for any society. Printed circuit boards (PCBs), which are the base of many electronic industries, are rich in valuable heavy metals and toxic halogenated organic substances. In this review, the composition of different PCBs and their harmful effects are discussed. Various techniques in common use for recycling the most important metals from the metallic fractions of e-waste are illustrated. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed, along with alternative uses of non-metallic fraction. The data are explained and compared with the current e-waste management efforts done in Egypt. Future perspectives and challenges facing Egypt for proper e-waste recycling are also discussed.

  9. Teaching Our Town in Our Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberling, Jennifer A.; White, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Teachers from a high school and university collaborated to analyze the obstacles students encountered while understanding the theatre play "Our Town". A description on the activities undertaken to help students approach and appreciate the play is presented.

  10. Release of chlorinated, brominated and mixed halogenated dioxin-related compounds to soils from open burning of e-waste in Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana).

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Goto, Akitoshi; Takahashi, Shin; Itai, Takaaki; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-01-25

    Although complex mixtures of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) can be released from informal e-waste recycling, DRC contamination in African e-waste recycling sites has not been investigated. This study examined the concentrations of DRCs including chlorinated, brominated, mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in surface soil samples from the Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Ghana. PCDD/F and PBDD/F concentrations in open burning areas (18-520 and 83-3800 ng/g dry, respectively) were among the highest reported in soils from informal e-waste sites. The concentrations of PCDFs and PBDFs were higher than those of the respective dibenzo-p-dioxins, suggesting combustion and PBDE-containing plastics as principal sources. PXDFs were found as more abundant than PCDFs, and higher brominated analogues occurred at higher concentrations. The median total WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in open burning soils was 7 times higher than the U.S. action level (1000 pg/g), with TEQ contributors in the order of PBDFs>PCDD/Fs>PXDFs. DRC emission to soils over the e-waste site as of 2010 was estimated, from surface soil lightness based on the correlations between concentrations and lightness, at 200mg (95% confidence interval 93-540 mg) WHO-TEQ over three years. People living in Agbogbloshie are potentially exposed to high levels of not only chlorinated but also brominated DRCs, and human health implications need to be assessed in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 40 CFR 60.35e - Waste management guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management guidelines. 60.35e... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators § 60.35e Waste management guidelines. For approval, a State...

  12. 40 CFR 60.35e - Waste management guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waste management guidelines. 60.35e... Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators § 60.35e Waste management guidelines. For approval, a State plan shall include the requirements for a waste management plan at least as protective as those...

  13. 40 CFR 60.35e - Waste management guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waste management guidelines. 60.35e... Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators § 60.35e Waste management guidelines. For approval, a State plan shall include the requirements for a waste management plan at least as protective as those...

  14. 40 CFR 60.35e - Waste management guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waste management guidelines. 60.35e... Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators § 60.35e Waste management guidelines. For approval, a State plan shall include the requirements for a waste management plan at least as protective as those...

  15. 40 CFR 60.35e - Waste management guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste management guidelines. 60.35e... Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators § 60.35e Waste management guidelines. For approval, a State plan shall include the requirements for a waste management plan at least as protective as those...

  16. Where next on e-waste in Australia?

    PubMed

    Golev, Artem; Schmeda-Lopez, Diego R; Smart, Simon K; Corder, Glen D; McFarland, Eric W

    2016-12-01

    For almost two decades waste electrical and electronic equipment, WEEE or e-waste, has been considered a growing problem that has global consequences. The value of recovered materials, primarily in precious and base metals, has prompted some parts of the world to informally and inappropriately process e-waste causing serious environmental and human health issues. Efforts in tackling this issue have been limited and in many ways unsuccessful. The global rates for formal e-waste treatment are estimated to be below the 20% mark, with the majority of end-of-life (EoL) electronic devices still ending up in the landfills or processed through rudimentary means. Industrial confidentiality regarding device composition combined with insufficient reporting requirements has made the task of simply characterizing the problem difficult at a global scale. To address some of these key issues, this paper presents a critical overview of existing statistics and estimations for e-waste in an Australia context, including potential value and environmental risks associated with metals recovery. From our findings, in 2014, on average per person, Australians purchased 35kg of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) while disposed of 25kg of WEEE, and possessed approximately 320kg of EEE. The total amount of WEEE was estimated at 587kt worth about US$ 370million if all major metals are fully recovered. These results are presented over the period 2010-2014, detailed for major EEE product categories and metals, and followed by 2015-2024 forecast. Our future projection, with the base scenario fixing EEE sales at 35kg per capita, predicts stabilization of e-waste generation in Australia at 28-29kg per capita, with the total amount continuing to grow along with the population growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR EMISSIONS AND RESIDUAL ASH FROM OPEN BURNING OF ELECTRONIC WASTES DURING SIMULATED RUDIMENTALRY RECYCLING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air emissions and residual ash measurements were made from open, uncontrolled combustion of electronic waste (e-waste) during simulations of practices associated with rudimentary e-waste recycling operations. Circuit boards and insulated wires were separately burned to simulate p...

  18. Impact of informal electronic waste recycling on metal concentrations in soils and dusts.

    PubMed

    Ohajinwa, Chimere May; van Bodegom, Peter M; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2018-07-01

    Electronic and electrical equipment contains over 1000 different substances, including metals. During informal e-waste recycling some of these substances such as metals, are released into the environment causing environmental pollution. This study assessed the impact of different informal e-waste recycling activities (burning, dismantling, and repairing) on metal concentrations in top soils and various dust. A comparative cross-sectional study design was adopted to assess metal concentrations in top soils and in various dust samples from multiple e-waste recycling sites. Metal concentrations at e-waste recycling sites were compared to the concentrations at control sites in three study locations in Nigeria (Lagos, Ibadan, and Aba). In the three study locations, mean metal concentrations at the e-waste recycling sites exceeded the concentrations at the control sites and the Nigerian standard guideline values by 100 s to 1000 s times. Burning sites showed the highest pollution level, followed by dismantling sites, then repair sites. Our findings show serious environmental and public health concerns. The metal concentrations were also higher than levels reported in other studies at the same locations in Nigeria, indicating that the situation is worsening. This study provides scientific evidence for an urgent need to develop effective strategies to strengthen enforcement of existing e-waste regulations in Nigeria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites in the serum of e-waste dismantling workers from eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengtao; Ren, Guofa; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2017-05-05

    A number of studies have reported on the exposure of e-waste dismantling workers to significantly high concentrations of halogenated organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Such exposure can have adverse health effects. However, little information on the metabolites of these contaminants exists. In this study, we investigated PCBs levels and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCB) in the serum of e-waste workers in Taizhou in eastern China. Our results indicate elevated PCB and OH-PCB levels in the serum of the workers, with medians of 443.7 and 133.9 ng/g lw, respectively. Tri- to hexachlorinated PCB congeners were the dominant homologue groups in all of the samples. 4-OH-CB107 was the predominant homologue among the hydroxylated metabolites, accounting for 88.9% of the total OH-PCB concentrations. While dietary sources (e.g., fish) appear to be an important route for PCB accumulation in non-occupational exposure groups, exposure via ingestion of house dust and inhalation of pollutants derived from the recycling of PCB-containing e-wastes may primarily contribute to the high body burden observed in the occupational groups. Since we found concentrations of metabolites higher than those of their parent compounds, further studies need to pay more attention to their bioaccumulation and toxicity.

  20. Company Town Shutdown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnage, Martha A.

    Saltville, Virginia, is a former company town whose main employer, a soda ash plant, shut down on July 1, 1971. The closure of the chemical plant displaced 700 workers, and created a crisis that threatened not only the existence of the town, but of the entire region. In response, Virginia Highlands Community College (VHCC), in cooperation with the…

  1. Elevated lead levels and changes in blood morphology and erythrocyte CR1 in preschool children from an e-waste area.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yifeng; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Tian; Li, Minghui; Xu, Xijin

    2017-08-15

    Improper dismantling and combustion of electronic waste (e-waste) may release persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals that possess potential risk for human health. Lead (Pb) is carried through the circulatory system by erythrocytes and is known to alter the functions of hematopoietic and immune systems. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on blood morphology and erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (CR1) levels as related to immunologic function in preschool children. We recruited 484 preschool children, 2- to 6-years of age, among whom 332 children were from Guiyu, a typical and primitive e-waste processing area, and 152 children from Haojiang (reference area). Results showed that the blood Pb level (BPb) and erythrocyte Pb level (EPb) of exposed children were significantly higher, but, the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and erythrocyte CR1 levels were significantly lower than reference children. Elevated EPb and BPb was related to disadvantageous changes in hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin (HGB), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCHC, respectively, in children from the e-waste recycling area. Furthermore, in the high Pb-exposed group, the Pb toxicity of erythrocytes was more significant compared to the low Pb-exposed group in e-waste-exposed children. Combine with the BPb and EPb would be better to evaluating the Pb toxicity of erythrocytes. Compared to low Pb exposure, high BPb and EPb were associated with lower erythrocyte CR1 expression in all children. Our data suggests that elevated Pb levels result in adverse changes in blood morphology, hemoglobin synthesis and CR1 expression, which might be a non-negligible threat to erythrocyte immunity development in local preschool children. It is therefore imperative for any intervention to control the Pb exposure of children and actively educate adults to raise their environmental awareness of potential e-waste pollution during the

  2. 'Away' is a place: The impact of electronic waste recycling on blood lead levels in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, Ebenezer Forkuo; Adovor Tsikudo, Kwame A; Bowman, Jay A

    2017-12-01

    E-waste recycling remains a major source of livelihood for many urban poor in developing countries, but this economic activity is fraught with significant environmental health risk. Yet, human exposure to the toxic elements associated with e-waste activities remains understudied and not evidently understood. This study investigates the impact of informal e-waste processing on the blood lead levels (BLLs) of e-waste workers and non-e-waste workers (mainly females working in activities that serve the Agbogbloshie e-waste site), and relates their lead exposure to socio-demographic and occupational characteristics. A total of 128 blood samples were analysed for lead levels. Surprisingly, the mean BLL (3.54μg/dL) of non-e-waste workers was slightly higher than that of e-waste workers (3.49μg/dL), although higher BLLs ranges were found among e-waste workers (0.50-18.80μg/dL) than non-e-waste workers (0.30-8.20μg/dL). Workers who engaged in e-waste burning tended to have the highest BLLs. In general, the BLLs are within the ABLES/US CDC reference level of 5μg/dL, although 12.3% of the workers have elevated BLLs, i.e. BLL ≥5μg/dL. The study concludes that the impact of e-waste recycling is not limited to workers alone. Traders and residents within the Agbogbloshie enclave are equally at risk through a range of environmental vectors. This calls for increased public awareness about the effects of human exposure to lead and other toxic elements from e-waste recycling. A key contribution is that government and stakeholder projects for safe e-waste infrastructure should disaggregate the e-waste value chain, recognize differential risk and resist one-size-fits-all strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hearing loss in children with e-waste lead and cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Wei, Xiaoqin; Wu, Wengli; Wu, Xianguang; Xu, Xijin

    2018-05-15

    Environmental chemical exposure can cause neurotoxicity and has been recently linked to hearing loss in general population, but data are limited in early life exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) especially for children. We aimed to evaluate the association of their exposure with pediatric hearing ability. Blood Pb and urinary Cd were collected form 234 preschool children in 3-7years of age from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area and a reference area matched in Shantou of southern China. Pure-tone air conduction (PTA) was used to test child hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8kHz. A PTA≥25dB was defined as hearing loss. A higher median blood Pb level was found in the exposed group (4.94±0.20 vs 3.85±1.81μg/dL, p<0.001), while no significance was found for creatinine-adjusted Cd. Compared with the reference group, the exposed group had a higher prevalence of hearing loss (28.8% vs 13.6%, p<0.001). The PTA in the left, right and both ears, and hearing thresholds at average low and high frequency, and single frequency of 0.5, 1 and 2kHz were all increased in the exposed group. Positive correlations of child age and nail biting habit with Pb, and negative correlations of parent education level and child washing hands before dinner with Pb and Cd exposure were observed. Logistic regression analyses showed the adjusted OR of hearing loss for Pb exposure was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.029, 1.486). Our data suggest that early childhood exposure to Pb may be an important risk factor for hearing loss, and the developmental auditory system might be affected in e-waste polluted areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward a More Sustainable Trajectory for E-Waste Policy: A Review of a Decade of E-Waste Research in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Daum, Kurt; Stoler, Justin; Grant, Richard J

    2017-01-29

    Global flows of e-waste from the Global North to the Global South continue to damage local environments and harm human health. Weak e-waste regulations and limited use of safety measures for e-waste workers in Accra, Ghana, foster an exploitative environment within the industry, and pose health risks for those working and living near e-waste processing sites. This paper presents an integrated review of over 40 e-waste studies specific to Accra, with particular emphasis on the well-studied e-waste processing site in Agbogbloshie, and synthesizes the existing research base across interdisciplinary themes of human health, environmental health, globalization, trade and informalization, and public policy. Despite significant international attention to Accra's e-waste problem, loopholes within international environmental regulations and treaties provide few incentives and resources for Ghana to strengthen protections for human and environmental health. After a decade of e-waste research in Accra, the crisis continues to intensify; we present a renewed vision for sustainable e-waste policy reform in Ghana and beyond.

  5. Toward a More Sustainable Trajectory for E-Waste Policy: A Review of a Decade of E-Waste Research in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Daum, Kurt; Stoler, Justin; Grant, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Global flows of e-waste from the Global North to the Global South continue to damage local environments and harm human health. Weak e-waste regulations and limited use of safety measures for e-waste workers in Accra, Ghana, foster an exploitative environment within the industry, and pose health risks for those working and living near e-waste processing sites. This paper presents an integrated review of over 40 e-waste studies specific to Accra, with particular emphasis on the well-studied e-waste processing site in Agbogbloshie, and synthesizes the existing research base across interdisciplinary themes of human health, environmental health, globalization, trade and informalization, and public policy. Despite significant international attention to Accra’s e-waste problem, loopholes within international environmental regulations and treaties provide few incentives and resources for Ghana to strengthen protections for human and environmental health. After a decade of e-waste research in Accra, the crisis continues to intensify; we present a renewed vision for sustainable e-waste policy reform in Ghana and beyond. PMID:28146075

  6. Women, e-waste, and technological solutions to climate change.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Lucy; Magee, Amanda; Hale, Benjamin

    2014-06-14

    In this paper, we argue that a crossover class of climate change solutions (which we term "technological solutions") may disproportionately and adversely impact some populations over others. We begin by situating our discussion in the wider climate discourse, particularly with regard to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Basel Convention. We then suggest that many of the most attractive technological solutions to climate change, such as solar energy and electric car batteries, will likely add to the rapidly growing stream of electronic waste ("e-waste"). This e-waste may have negative downstream effects on otherwise disenfranchised populations. We argue that e-waste burdens women unfairly and disproportionately, affecting their mortality/morbidity and fertility, as well as the development of their children. Building on this, we claim that these injustices are more accurately captured as problems of recognition rather than distribution, since women are often institutionally under-acknowledged both in the workplace and in the home. Without institutional support and representation, women and children are deprived of adequate safety equipment, health precautions, and health insurance. Finally, we return to the question of climate justice in the context of the human right to health and argue for greater inclusion and recognition of women waste workers and other disenfranchised groups in forging future climate agreements. Copyright © 2014 McAllister, Magee. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  7. E-waste management and resources recovery in France.

    PubMed

    Vadoudi, Kiyan; Kim, Junbeum; Laratte, Bertrand; Lee, Seung-Jin; Troussier, Nadège

    2015-10-01

    There are various issues of concern regarding electronic waste management, such as the toxicity of hazardous materials and the collection, recycling and recovery of useful resources. To understand the fate of electronic waste after collection and recycling, a products and materials flow analysis should be performed. This is a critical need, as material resources are becoming increasingly scarce and recycling may be able to provide secondary sources for new materials in the future. In this study, we investigate electronic waste systems, specifically the resource recovery or recycling aspects, as well as mapping electronic waste flows based on collection data in France. Approximately 1,588,453 t of new electrical and electronic equipment were sold in the French market in 2010. Of this amount, 430,000 t of electronic waste were collected, with the remaining 1,128,444 t remaining in stock. Furthermore, the total recycled amounts were 354,106 t and 11,396 t, respectively. The main electronic waste materials were ferrous metals (37%), plastic (22%), aluminium (12%), copper (11%) and glass (7%). This study will contribute to developing sustainable electronic waste and resource recycling systems in France. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Zheng, Jinshu; Yu, Chik Kin; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Chris K C; Cai, Zongwei; Wong, Ming H

    2011-07-01

    Surface dust collected from printed circuit board recycling workshop floors, roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, were investigated for levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PBDE concentrations in dust from workshop-floors (14,800 ± 5130 ng/g) and on adjacent roads to the workshops (24,900 ± 31,600 ng/g) were highest among the study sites whereas PCDD/F concentrations were highest at the schoolyard (1316 pg/g) and in a workshop (1264 pg/g). Analyses of <2 mm and <53 μm dust particle sizes did not show any significant differences in PBDE concentrations. The cytotoxicity was investigated using two bioassays: 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD-TEQ) and MTT. EROD-TEQ values ranged from 260 to 432 pg/g, with the highest in dust collected from a street lined with workshops. Using the MTT assay, cytoxicity of dust from the plastic chips drying district in Guiyu was higher than dust from the other sites investigated. This study showed that the primitive recycling of e-waste introduced toxic pollutants into the environment which are potentially harmful to the health of e-waste workers and local residents, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into POPs related health impacts.

  9. Toxic assessment of the leachates of paddy soils and river sediments from e-waste dismantling sites to microalga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiangping; Fan, Canpeng; Wang, Zhaohui; Su, Tian; Liu, Xinyu; An, Taicheng

    2015-01-01

    The potential adverse effects of e-waste recycling activity on environment are getting increasing concern. In this work, a model alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, was employed to assess the toxic effects of the leachates of paddy soils and river sediments collected from e-waste dismantling sites. Chemical analysis of the paddy soils and river sediments and their leachates were carried out and the growth rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence and anti-oxidative systems of the alga were measured. Results showed that two leachates decreased the amount of PSII active reaction centers and affected photosynthesis performance, interfered with chlorophyll synthesis and inhibited algal growth. Some chemical pollutants in the sediments and soils such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals derived from e-waste recycling activity may impose oxidative stress on algae and affect the activity of anti-oxidative enzymes such as GST, SOD, CAT and APX. The leachates of both river sediments and paddy soils are potentially toxic to the primary producers, P. subcapitata and the leachate from sediments was more deleterious than that from soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterisation and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and plants around e-waste dismantling sites in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujie; He, Jiexin; Wang, Shaorui; Luo, Chunling; Yin, Hua; Zhang, Gan

    2017-10-01

    Environmental pollution due to primitive e-waste dismantling activities has been intensively investigated over the last decade in the south-eastern coastal region of China. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and plants around e-waste recycling sites in Longtang, Guangdong province, South China. The results indicated that PAH concentrations in rhizosphere soil and non-rhizosphere soil were in the range of 133 to 626 ng/g and 60 to 816 ng/g, respectively, while PAH levels in plant tissue were 96 to 388 ng/g in shoots and 143 to 605 ng/g in roots. PAHs were enriched in rhizosphere soils in comparison with non-rhizosphere soils. The concentrations of PAHs in plant tissues varied greatly among plant cultivars, indicating that the uptake of PAHs by plants is species-dependent. Different profiles of PAHs in the soil and the corresponding plant tissue implied that PAH uptake and translocation by plants were selective.The total daily intakes of PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs through vegetables at the e-waste recycling site were estimated to be 99 and 22 ng/kg/day, respectively, suggesting that potential health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated vegetables should not be ignored.

  11. E-waste issues in Sri Lanka and the Basel Convention.

    PubMed

    Suraweera, Inoka

    2016-03-01

    E-waste is hazardous, complex and expensive to treat in an environmentally sound manner. The management of e-waste is considered a serious challenge in both developed and developing countries and Sri Lanka is no exception. Due to significant growth in the economy and investments and other reasons the consumption of electronic and electrical equipment in Sri Lanka has increased over the years resulting in significant generation of e-waste. Several initiatives such as introduction of hazardous waste management rules, ratification of the Basel Convention in 1992 and the introduction of a National Corporate E-waste Management Program have been undertaken in Sri Lanka to manage e-waste. Strengthening policy and legislation, introducing methods for upstream reduction of e-waste, building capacity of relevant officers, awareness raising among school children and the general public and development of an e-waste information system are vital. Research on e-waste needs to be developed in Sri Lanka. The health sector could play a leading role in the provision of occupational health and safety for e-waste workers, advocacy, capacity building of relevant staff and raising awareness among the general public about e-waste. Improper e-waste management practices carried out by informal sector workers need to be addressed urgently in Sri Lanka.

  12. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  13. Sustainability assessment and prioritisation of e-waste management options in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Ricardo Gabbay; Clímaco, João C Namorado; Sant'Anna, Annibal Parracho; Rocha, Tiago Barreto; do Valle, Rogério de Aragão Bastos; Quelhas, Osvaldo Luiz Gonçalves

    2016-11-01

    Brazil has an increasing rate of e-waste generation, but there are currently few adequate management systems in operation, with the largest share of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) going to landfill sites or entering informal chains. The National Solid Waste Policy (2010) enforces the implementation of reverse logistics systems under the shared responsibility of consumers, companies and governments. The objective of this paper is to assess sustainability and prioritise system alternatives for potential implementation in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro. Sustainability criteria and decision alternatives were defined by elicitation of stakeholders. The adopted multicriteria approach combines Life Cycle Assessment with qualitative evaluations by a small sample of regional experts with knowledge of the problem. The recommended system consists of a hybrid WEEE collection scheme with delivery points at shops, metro stations and neighbourhood centres; a pre-treatment phase with the involvement of private companies, cooperatives and social enterprises; and full recycling of all components in the country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-09-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Decreased lung function with mediation of blood parameters linked to e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H Marike; Vonk, Judith M; Wu, Weidong; Huo, Xia

    2017-11-01

    Blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels have been associated with lower lung function in adults and smokers, but whether this also holds for children from electronic waste (e-waste) recycling areas is still unknown. To investigate the contribution of blood heavy metals and lung function levels, and the relationship among living area, the blood parameter levels, and the lung function levels, a total of 206 preschool children from Guiyu (exposed area), and Haojiang and Xiashan (reference areas) were recruited and required to undergo blood tests and lung function tests during the study period. Preschool children living in e-waste exposed areas were found to have a 1.37 μg/dL increase in blood Pb, 1.18 μg/L increase in blood Cd, and a 41.00 × 10 9 /L increase in platelet counts, while having a 2.82 g/L decrease in hemoglobin, 92 mL decrease in FVC and 86 mL decrease in FEV 1 . Each unit of hemoglobin (1 g/L) decline was associated with 5 mL decrease in FVC and 4 mL decrease in FEV 1 . We conclude that children living in e-waste exposed area have higher levels of blood Pb, Cd and platelets, and lower levels of hemoglobin and lung function. Hemoglobin can be a good predictor for lung function levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A town conserves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.

    1993-07-15

    With encouragement from a TV personality, a Wisconsin town saves energy. This article describes how a TV program host mediated between Northern States Power, local businesses, and the people of a Wisconsin town for a demand side management program demonstration of the Wisconsin Public Service Commission. The key to acceptance and use of the program was public education of consumers, combined with making available experts who could answer questions on product availability and installation. The demonstration project is designed to show that the least expensive means to achieve energy efficiency for the customer is to foster a sense of communitymore » ownership of the program.« less

  17. HEDSA Town Hall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afeyan, Bedros

    2017-10-01

    HEDSA will hold its Town Hall meeting on Wednesday October 25 at 12:30pm in the Wisconsin Center. The new steering committee members and HEDSA leadership will be announced. A report will be given on 2017 HEDSA activities. Program Managers from Federal Funding Agencies such as OFES, NNSA, AFOSR and NSF will provide updates on the state of sponsored research in HED plasmas, and to engage the community in an open dialogue. The HEDSA Town Hall is a ``bring your own lunch'' meeting. Current members of HEDSA and all graduate students are strongly encouraged to attend. To join HEDSA please visit HEDSA.org

  18. Monitoring of organic micropollutants in Ghana by combination of pellet watch with sediment analysis: e-waste as a source of PCBs.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Junki; Ofosu-Anim, John; Sabi, Edward Benjamin; Akita, Lailah Gifty; Onwona-Agyeman, Siaw; Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige

    2014-09-15

    Plastic resin pellets collected at 11 beaches covering the whole Ghanaian coastline were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCB concentrations (∑13 congeners) were higher in Accra, capital city, and Tema (39-69 ng/g-pellets) than those in rural coastal towns (1-15 ng/g-pellets) which are close to global background, indicating local inputs of PCBs. River sediments were also analyzed for PCBs together with molecular markers. Sedimentary PCBs concentrations were highest at a site (AR02) downstream of an electronic waste (e-waste) scrapyard. At the site (AR02), concentration of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), a marker of municipal wastewater, was lower than another site (AR03) which is located at the downstream of downtown Accra. This result suggests that PCBs are introduced more to the river from the e-waste site than from activities in downtown Accra. PAHs concentrations were relatively higher in urban areas with strong petrogenic signature. Abundance of triphenylbenzenes suggested plastic combustion near e-waste scrapyard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated lead levels from e-waste exposure are linked to decreased olfactory memory in children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Cheng, Zhiheng; Cong, Xiaowei; Lu, Xueling; Xu, Xijin

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant and can cause abnormal development of the nervous system in children. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on child olfactory memory by correlating the blood Pb levels of children in Guiyu with olfactory memory tests. We recruited 61 preschool children, 4- to 7-years of age, from Guiyu and 57 children from Haojiang. The mean blood Pb level of Guiyu children was 9.40 μg/dL, significantly higher than the 5.04 μg/dL mean blood Pb level of Haojiang children. In addition, approximately 23% of Guiyu children had blood Pb levels exceeding 10.00 μg/dL. The correlation analysis showed that blood Pb levels in children highly correlated with e-waste contact (r s  = 0.393). Moreover, the mean concentration of serum BDNF in Guiyu children (35.91 ng/ml) was higher than for Haojiang (28.10 ng/ml) and was positively correlated with blood Pb levels. Both item and source olfactory memory tests at 15 min, 5 h and 24 h after odor exposure showed that scores were lower in Guiyu children indicative of reduced olfactory memory in Guiyu children. Olfactory memory tests scores negatively correlated with blood Pb and serum BDNF levels, but were positively associated with parental education levels. At the same time, scores of both tests on children in the high blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels > 5.00 μg/dL) were lower than those in the low blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels ≤ 5.00 μg/dL), implying that Pb exposure decreases olfactory memory in children. Our findings suggest that Pb exposure in e-waste recycling and dismantling areas could result in an increase in serum BDNF level and a decrease in child olfactory memory, in addition, BDNF might be involved in olfactory memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reviving the Town Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Tim

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of the National Issues Forum's (NIF's) town meetings in efforts to increase citizen participation in democratic processes. Describes the Catholic adaptation of the NIF approach, providing examples of its use at the high school, college, and community level. (MAB)

  1. Tire Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  2. Nano-hydroxyapatite alleviates the detrimental effects of heavy metals on plant growth and soil microbes in e-waste-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liu; Wang, Shutao; Zuo, Qingqing; Liang, Shuxuan; Shen, Shigang; Zhao, Chunxia

    2016-06-15

    The crude recycling activities of e-waste have led to the severe and complex contamination of e-waste workshop topsoil (0-10 cm) by heavy metals. After nano-hydroxyapatite (NHAp) application in June 2013, plant and soil samples were obtained in November 2013, December 2013, March 2014 and June 2014. The results showed that NHAp effectively reduced the concentration of CaCl2-extractable Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn in the topsoil and significantly reduced the metal content in ryegrass and also increased the plant biomass compared with that of the control. Moreover, the concentrations of CaCl2-extractable metals in the soil decreased with increasing NHAp. NHAp application also increased the activities of soil urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase. Moreover, the soil bacterial diversity and community structure were also altered after NHAp application. Particularly, Stenotrophomonas sp. and Bacteroides percentages were increased. Our work proves that NHAp application can alleviate the detrimental effects of heavy metals on plants grown in e-waste-contaminated soil and soil enzyme activities, as well as soil microbial diversity.

  3. Enhancing e-waste estimates: Improving data quality by multivariate Input–Output Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng, E-mail: fwang@unu.edu; Design for Sustainability Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628CE Delft; Huisman, Jaco

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A multivariate Input–Output Analysis method for e-waste estimates is proposed. • Applying multivariate analysis to consolidate data can enhance e-waste estimates. • We examine the influence of model selection and data quality on e-waste estimates. • Datasets of all e-waste related variables in a Dutch case study have been provided. • Accurate modeling of time-variant lifespan distributions is critical for estimate. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lackmore » of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input–Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e-waste

  4. Impact of metals in surface matrices from formal and informal electronic-waste recycling around Metro Manila, the Philippines, and intra-Asian comparison.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka; Agusa, Tetsuro; Eguchi, Akifumi; Bekki, Kanae; Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi; Ballesteros, Florencio C

    2012-06-30

    We report concentrations, enrichment factors, and hazard indicators of 11 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, In, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soil and dust surface matrices from formal and informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites around Metro Manila, the Philippines, referring to soil guidelines and previous data from various e-waste recycling sites in Asia. Surface dust from e-waste recycling sites had higher levels of metal contamination than surface soil. Comparison of formal and informal e-waste recycling sites (hereafter, "formal" and "informal") revealed differences in specific contaminants. Formal dust contained a mixture of serious pollutant metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and Cd (polluted modestly), quite high enrichment metals (Ag and In), and crust-derived metals (As, Co, Fe, and Mn). For informal soil, concentration levels of specific metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were similar among Asian recycling sites. Formal dust had significantly higher hazardous risk than the other matrices (p<0.005), excluding informal dust (p=0.059, almost significant difference). Thus, workers exposed to formal dust should protect themselves from hazardous toxic metals (Pb and Cu). There is also a high health risk for children ingesting surface matrices from informal e-waste recycling sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of electronic waste recycling in Switzerland and in India

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha-Khetriwal, Deepali; Kraeuchi, Philipp; Schwaninger, Markus

    2005-07-15

    Electronic waste, commonly known as e-waste, is comprised of discarded computers, television sets, microwave ovens and other such appliances that are past their useful lives. As managing e-waste becomes a priority, countries are being forced to develop new models for the collection and environmentally sound disposal of this waste. Switzerland is one of the very few countries with over a decade of experience in managing e-waste. India, on the other hand, is only now experiencing the problems that e-waste poses. The paper aims to give the reader insight into the disposal of end-of-life appliances in both countries, including appliance collectionmore » and the financing of recycling systems as well as the social and environmental aspects of the current practices.« less

  6. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade

    PubMed Central

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2016-01-01

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country’s economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities. PMID:27527200

  7. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade.

    PubMed

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P

    2016-08-05

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country's economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities.

  8. Electrostatic separation for recycling conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors from electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Yan, Guoqing; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-10-02

    Electrostatic separation has been widely used to separate conductors and nonconductors for recycling e-waste. However, the components of e-waste are complex, which can be classified as conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors according to their conducting properties. In this work, we made a novel attempt to recover the mixtures containing conductors (copper), semiconductors (extrinsic silicon), and nonconductors (woven glass reinforced resin) by electrostatic separation. The results of binary mixtures separation show that the separation of conductor and nonconductor, semiconductor and nonconductor need a higher voltage level while the separation of conductor and semiconductor needs a higher roll speed. Furthermore, the semiconductor separation efficiency is more sensitive to the high voltage level and the roll speed than the conductor separation efficiency. An integrated process was proposed for the multiple mixtures separation. The separation efficiency of conductors and semiconductors can reach 82.5% and 88%, respectively. This study contributes to the efficient recycling of valuable resources from e-waste.

  9. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  10. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  11. Dissolution Behaviour of Metal Elements from Several Types of E-waste Using Leaching Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Amira Nordin, Nurul; Mohamad, Fariza; Jaibee, Shafizan; Ismail, Al Emran; Omar, Badrul; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Rahim, Abd Khalil Abd; Kamaruddin, Muhamad Khalif Ikhwan Mohd; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Abu Bakar, Elmi; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2017-08-01

    Rapid development of the electrical and electronic was increasing annually due to the demand by the human being. Increasing production of electrical and electronic product led to the increasing of electric and electronic waste or can be called as the e-waste. The UN Environment Programme estimates that the world generates 20-50 million tons of the e-waste each year and the amount is raising three times faster than other forms of municipal waste. This study is focusing on the investigation of the dissolution behaviour of metal element from several types of e-waste by hydrometallurgical process. Leaching test was conducted on the e-waste by using acid as the reagent solution. Prior to the leaching test, manual dismantling, separation, and crushing process were carried out to the e-waste. The e-waste were characterized by Scanning Electron Microcopy (SEM) and the Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) to define the elements inside the sample of e-waste. While the liquid residue from leaching test was analyzed by using Inductively Couple Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) to define the dissolution behaviour of the metal element that contain in the e-waste. It was found that the longest time for dismantling process was the dismantling of laptop. The dissolution behaviour of Fe, Al, Zn and Pb elements in the e-waste has affected to the increase of pH. The increasing pH led to the reduction of the metals element during leaching process.

  12. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu, Minghong; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n=23 males, n=4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n=11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of ∑PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. JWST Town Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Science Working Group has published the key scientific study areas for the mission: the end of the dark ages, the assembly of galaxies, the birth of stars and protoplanetary systems, and planetary systems and the origins of life. With these objectives establishing the major scientific capabilities of the observatory, the JWST Project has successfully completed major reviews of the telescope architecture and budget plan and has reached agreement on the contributions for all three international partners (NASA, ESA, and the Canadian Space Agency). Northrop Grumman Space Technologies (NGST) is the prime contractor responsible for the spacecraft, telescope, and integration. GSFC/NASA oversees the development and integration of the science instruments. The Space Telescope Science Institute is developing the JWST Science & Operations Center. The JWST will be launched to L2 2011 using an Ariane V. At this town hall, the mission's Project Scientists will present the technical and scientific status of the mission, concentrating on those areas that have changed over the last year. This will be an excellent opportunity to learn about JWST and catch up on the most recent developments. Questions from the audience will be welcomed. The town hall speakers will be John Mather, Peter Jakobsen, John Hutchings, and Peter Stockman.

  14. Socioeconomic Indicators for Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Prepared to help small towns assess community population and economic trends, this publication provides a step-by-step guide for establishing an on-going local data collection system, which is based on four local indicators and will provide accurate, up-to-date estimates of population, family income, and gross sales within a town's trade area. The…

  15. Recycling Lesson Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  16. Enhancing e-waste estimates: improving data quality by multivariate Input-Output Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Stevels, Ab; Baldé, Cornelis Peter

    2013-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lack of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input-Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e-waste estimation studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. RadTown USA: Basic Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Burbs Countryside Waterfront Downtown Did you know? RadTown Games Educational Materials Bring RadTown into the classroom with ... Waterfront Downtown Educational Materials RadTown A to Z Games Link to Us Glossary Subscribe to Listserv News ...

  18. From Centralized Disassembly to Life Cycle Management: Status and Progress of E-waste Treatment System in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaolong; Yang, Jianxin; Lu, Bin; Yang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    China is now facing e-waste problems from both growing domestic generation and illegal imports. Many stakeholders are involved in the e-waste treatment system due to the complexity of e-waste life cycle. Beginning with the state of the e-waste treatment industry in China, this paper summarizes the latest progress in e-waste management from such aspects as the new edition of the China RoHS Directive, new Treatment List, new funding subsidy standard, and eco-design pilots. Thus, a conceptual model for life cycle management of e-waste is generalized. The operating procedure is to first identify the life cycle stages of the e-waste and extract the important life cycle information. Then, life cycle tools can be used to conduct a systematic analysis to help decide how to maximize the benefits from a series of life cycle engineering processes. Meanwhile, life cycle thinking is applied to improve the legislation relating to e-waste so as to continuously improve the sustainability of the e-waste treatment system. By providing an integrative framework, the life cycle management of e-waste should help to realize sustainable management of e-waste in developing countries.

  19. Economic assessment for recycling critical metals from hard disk drives using a comprehensive recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Diaz, Luis A.; Imholte, D. Devin

    Since the 2011 price spike of rare earth elements (REEs), research on permanent magnet recycling has blossomed globally to reduce future REE criticality. Hard disk drives (HDDs) have emerged as one feasible feedstock for recovering valuable REEs such as praseodymium, neodymium, and dysprosium. However, current processes for recycling e-waste only focus on certain metals due to feedstock and metal price uncertainties. In addition, some believe that recycling REEs is unprofitable. To shed some light on the economic viability of REE recycling from HDDs, this paper combines techno-economic information of a hydrometallurgical process with end-of-life HDD availability in a simulation model.more » Results showed that adding REEs to HDD recycling was profitable given current prices. As a result, recovered REEs could meet up to 5.1% rest of world (excluding China) magnet demand. Aluminum, gold, copper scrap and REEs were the primary main revenue streams from HDD recycling.« less

  20. Economic assessment for recycling critical metals from hard disk drives using a comprehensive recovery process

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Diaz, Luis A.; Imholte, D. Devin; ...

    2017-06-05

    Since the 2011 price spike of rare earth elements (REEs), research on permanent magnet recycling has blossomed globally to reduce future REE criticality. Hard disk drives (HDDs) have emerged as one feasible feedstock for recovering valuable REEs such as praseodymium, neodymium, and dysprosium. However, current processes for recycling e-waste only focus on certain metals due to feedstock and metal price uncertainties. In addition, some believe that recycling REEs is unprofitable. To shed some light on the economic viability of REE recycling from HDDs, this paper combines techno-economic information of a hydrometallurgical process with end-of-life HDD availability in a simulation model.more » Results showed that adding REEs to HDD recycling was profitable given current prices. As a result, recovered REEs could meet up to 5.1% rest of world (excluding China) magnet demand. Aluminum, gold, copper scrap and REEs were the primary main revenue streams from HDD recycling.« less

  1. Reactive oxygen species alteration of immune cells in local residents at an electronic waste recycling site in northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Yang, Qiaoyun; Qiu, Xinghua; Li, Keqiu; Li, Guang; Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Tong

    2013-04-02

    The health effects of exposure to pollutants from electronic waste (e-waste) pose an important issue. In this study, we explored the association between oxidative stress and blood levels of e-waste-related pollutants. Blood samples were collected from individuals living in the proximity of an e-waste recycling site located in northern China, and pollutants, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS), were measured in comparison to a reference population. The geometric mean concentrations of PCBs, dechlorane plus, and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl in plasma from the exposure group were 60.4, 9.0, and 0.55 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, which were 2.2, 3.2, and 2.2 times higher than the corresponding measurement in the reference group. Correspondingly, ROS levels in white blood cells, including in neutrophil granulocytes, from the exposure group were significantly higher than in those from the reference group, suggesting potential ROS related health effects for residents at the e-waste site. In contrast, fewer ROS were generated in the respiratory burst of neutrophil granulocytes for the exposure group, indicating a depressed innate immune function for the individuals living at the e-waste site. These findings suggest a potential linkage between exposure to pollutants from e-waste recycling and both elevated oxidative stress and altered immune function.

  2. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in e-waste plastic in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sindiku, O; Babayemi, J O; Tysklind, M; Osibanjo, O; Weber, R; Watson, A; Schlummer, M; Lundstedt, S

    2015-10-01

    Plastics from cathode ray tube (CRT) casings were sampled in Nigeria and analysed for their polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PBDD/F) content. PBDD/Fs, consisting mainly of PBDFs, were detected in BFR containing plastic with a median (mean) concentration of 18,000 ng/g (41,000 ng/g). The PBDD/Fs levels were highest in samples containing PBDEs, but the levels of PBDFs were two orders of magnitude higher than the levels reported in the technical PBDE mixtures and where frequently exceeding 1000 μg/g of PBDE content. These higher levels are likely to arise from additional transformation of PBDEs during production, use, recycling, or storage, but the processes responsible were not identified in this study. PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containing1,2-bistribromophenoxyethane (TBPE) were dominated by tetrabrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDDs) with concentrations around 10 μg/g of the TBPE content. The PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containing tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were found at concentrations around 0.1 μg/g of TBBPA levels. Casings treated with TBPE or TBBPA often contained PBDEs (and PBDF) as impurities-probably originating from recycled e-waste plastics. It was estimated that the 237,000 t of CRT casings stockpiled in Nigeria contain between 2 and 8 t of PBDD/Fs. The total PBDD/F contamination in polymers arising from total historic PBDE production/use is estimated in the order of 1000 t. TEQ values of CRT samples frequently exceeded the Basel Convention's provisional low POPs content of 15 ng TEQ/g. Due to the significant risks to health associated with PBDD/Fs, more detailed studies on the exposure routes from PBDD/Fs in stockpiles are needed.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the atmosphere of Taizhou, a major e-waste dismantling area in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenliang; Feng, Jialiang; Gu, Zeping; Wu, Minghong; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-01-01

    PM2.5, total suspended particles (TSP) and gas phase samples were collected at two sites of Taizhou, a major e-waste dismantling area in China. Concentrations, seasonal variations, congener profiles, gas-particle partitioning and size distribution of the atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied to assess the current state of atmospheric PCBs after the phase out of massive historical dismantling of PCBs containing e-wastes. The average sigma38PCBs concentration in the ambient air (TSP plus gas phase) near the e-waste dismantling area was (12,407 +/- 9592) pg/m3 in winter, which was substantially lower than that found one decade ago. However, the atmospheric PCBs level near the e-waste dismantling area was 54 times of the reference urban site, indicating that the impact of the historical dismantling of PCBs containing e-wastes was still significant. Tri-Penta-CBs were dominant homologues, consisting with their dominant global production. Size distribution of particle-bound PCBs showed that higher chlorinated CBs tended to partition more to the fine particles, facilitating its long range air transportation.

  4. PBDE emission from E-wastes during the pyrolytic process: Emission factor, compositional profile, size distribution, and gas-particle partitioning.

    PubMed

    Cai, ChuanYang; Yu, ShuangYu; Liu, Yu; Tao, Shu; Liu, WenXin

    2018-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) pollution in E-waste recycling areas has garnered great concern by scientists, the government and the public. In the current study, two typical kinds of E-wastes (printed wiring boards and plastic casings of household or office appliances) were selected to investigate the emission behaviors of individual PBDEs during the pyrolysis process. Emission factors (EFs), compositional profile, particle size distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PBDEs were explored. The mean EF values of the total PBDEs were determined at 8.1 ± 4.6 μg/g and 10.4 ± 11.3 μg/g for printed wiring boards and plastic casings, respectively. Significantly positive correlations were observed between EFs and original addition contents of PBDEs. BDE209 was the most abundant in the E-waste materials, while lowly brominated and highly brominated components (excluding BDE209) were predominant in the exhaust fumes. The distribution of total PBDEs on different particle sizes was characterized by a concentration of finer particles with an aerodynamic diameter between 0.4 μm and 2.1 μm and followed by less than 0.4 μm. Similarly, the distribution of individual species was dominated by finer particles. Most of the freshly emitted PBDEs (via pyrolysis) were liable to exist in the particulate phase with respect to the gaseous phase, particularly for finer particles. In addition, a linear relationship between the partitioning coefficient (K P ) and the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L 0 ) of the different components indicated non-equilibrium gas-particle partitioning during the pyrolysis process and suggested that absorption by particulate organic carbon, rather than surface adsorption, governed gas-particle partitioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Katrina N.; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001). A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage. PMID:26797626

  6. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    PubMed

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p < 0.001). A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  7. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  8. Recycling Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

    This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting…

  9. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  10. Rhizospheric effects on the microbial community of e-waste-contaminated soils using phospholipid fatty acid and isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether analyses.

    PubMed

    Song, Mengke; Cheng, Zhineng; Luo, Chunling; Jiang, Longfei; Zhang, Dayi; Yin, Hua; Zhang, Gan

    2018-04-01

    We performed the study of rhizospheric effects on soil microbial community structure, including bacteria, fungi, actinomycete, and archaea, at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site by analyzing the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) contents. By comparing PLFA and isoprenoid GDGT profiles of rhizospheric and surrounding bulk soils of 11 crop species, we observed distinct microbial community structures. The total PLFA concentration was significantly higher in rhizospheric soils than in non-rhizospheric soils, whereas no obvious difference was found in the total isoprenoid GDGT concentrations. The microbial community structure was also different, with higher ratios of fungal-to-bacterial PLFAs (F/B) and lower relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in rhizospheric soils. The extent of rhizospheric effects varied among plant species, and Colocasia esculenta L. had the greatest positive effects on the total microbial biomass. Dissolved organic carbon and pH were the main environmental factors affecting the microbial community represented by PLFAs, while the archaeal community was influenced by copper and zinc in all soils. These results offer a comprehensive view of rhizospheric effects on microbes in heavy metal and persistent organic pollutant co-contaminated soil, and provide fundamental knowledge regarding microbial ecology in e-waste-contaminated soils.

  11. Chemical and biological extraction of metals present in E waste: A hybrid technology.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Joshi, Deepika; Upreti, Manoj K; Kotnala, Ravindra K

    2012-05-01

    Management of metal pollution associated with E-waste is widespread across the globe. Currently used techniques for the extraction of metals from E-waste by using either chemical or biological leaching have their own limitations. Chemical leaching is much rapid and efficient but has its own environmental consequences, even the future prospects of associated nanoremediation are also uncertain. Biological leaching on the other hand is comparatively a cost effective technique but at the same moment it is time consuming and the complete recovery of the metal, alone by biological leaching is not possible in most of the cases. The current review addresses the individual issues related to chemical and biological extraction techniques and proposes a hybrid-methodology which incorporates both, along with safer chemicals and compatible microbes for better and efficient extraction of metals from the E-waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of temperature on copper, iron and lead leaching from e-waste using citrate solutions.

    PubMed

    Torres, Robinson; Segura-Bailón, Brenda; Lapidus, Gretchen T

    2018-01-01

    E-waste is a potential source of large quantities of metals. The ability of citrate solutions to recover base metals from these materials has been demonstrated. In the present study, the effect of the temperature on base metal leaching capacity by the citrate solutions is determined. The material employed consisted of a mechanically prepared, gravity concentrated e-waste, with a metallic content greater than 90%. The leaching conditions were selected based on previous research performed by the authors (0.5 M sodium citrate, pH 4.5 and 20 g per liter e-waste concentrate). Leaching tests were performed at temperatures between 0° and 70 °C. The initial leaching rates for the three metals increased with temperature. However, these tapered off with time for temperatures above 30 °C, which can be associated to citrate destruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls in settled dust from informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby highways in urban centers and suburban industrial roadsides of Chennai city, India: Levels, congener profiles and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kumar, Bhupander

    2016-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in settled dust collected from informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workshops and nearby highways in the urban centers and roadside dust from the suburban industrial belt of Chennai city in India. Further dust samples were subjected to a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX) to characterize the shape, size and elemental composition of the dust particles. Geomean of total PCB concentration followed the following order: informal e-waste metal recovery workshops (53ngg -1 )>e-waste dismantling sites (3.6ngg -1 )>nearby highways (1.7ngg -1 )>suburban industrial roadsides (1.6ngg -1 ). In e-waste workshops, tetra, penta and hexa-PCB homologs contributed two third of Σ 26 PCB concentration. Informal e-waste recycling workshops contributed more than 80% concentration of all the PCB congeners loaded in the first principal component. Predominance of dioxin like PCBs, PCB-l14, -118 and -126 in the e-waste metal recovery sites were presumably due to combustion and pyrolytic processes performed during recycling of electrical components. According to the morphology and elemental composition, settled dust from e-waste workshops were irregular particles heavily embedded with toxic metals and industrial roadside dust were distinct angular particles. FESEM revealed that average particle size (in Ferret diameter) increased in the following order: e-waste recycling workshops (0.5μm)recycling workshops engaged in metal recovery were found with maximum toxicity equivalents (TEQs) for dl-PCBs and potential cancer risk (10 -6 -10 -4 ) for both adult and children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Leaching of heavy metals from E-waste in simulated landfill columns

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yadong; Richardson, Jay B.; Mark Bricka, R.

    2009-07-15

    In recent history the volume of electronic products purchased by consumers has dramatically escalated. As a result this has produced an ever-increasing electronic waste (E-waste) stream, which has generated concerns regarding the E-waste's potential for adversely impacting the environment. The leaching of toxic substances from obsolete personal computers (PCs) and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) of televisions and monitors, which are the most significant components in E-waste stream, was studied using landfill simulation in columns. Five columns were employed. One column served as a control which was filled with municipal solid waste (MSW), two columns were filled with a mixture ofmore » MSW and CRTs, and the other two were filled with MSW and computer components including printed wire boards, hard disc drives, floppy disc drives, CD/DVD drives, and power supply units. The leachate generated from the columns was monitored for toxic materials throughout the two-year duration of the study. Results indicate that lead (Pb) and various other heavy metals that were of environmental and health concern were not detected in the leachate from the simulators. When the samples of the solids were collected from underneath the E-waste in the columns and were analyzed, significant amount of Pb was detected. This indicates that Pb could readily leach from the E-waste, but was absorbed by the solids around the E-waste materials. While Pb was not observed in the leachate in this study, it is likely that the Pb would eventually enter the leachate after a long term transport.« less

  15. [PHAHs levels in soil samples from the E-waste disassembly sites and their sources allocation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gao-Feng; Wang, Zi-Jian

    2009-06-15

    Soil samples (each with 3 replicates of - 1 kg, at the top 0-5 cm layer) were collected from each of the e-waste disassembly sites and the control site. Also obtained from each disassembly site were samples (each weighing - 0.2 kg) of cable coating,stuffing powder, and circuit boards chipping. The contents of 23 PBB congeners, 12 PBDE congeners, and 27 PCB congeners in soil and in their potential sources, including e-waste residues, were measured using the GC-MS5975B technique. The highest level of PBBs was found in the cable coating among the three e-waste residues, with a concentration of 35.25 ng x g(-1). The contents of low-brominated PBBs (including monobromobiphenyls and dibromobiphenyls) accounted for 38% of the total PBBs concentration observed in cable coating sample. The highest levels of PBDEs and PBDE209 were found in the stuffing powder for electronic component among the collected e-waste residues, with a concentration of 29.71 and 4.19 x 10(3) ng x g(-1). PBDE153 and PBDE183 were the most predominant PBDE congeners, with their concentration accounting for 43% and 24% of the total PBDEs concentration observed in the stuffing powder sample, respectively. Levels of PCBs in cable coating were the highest in these e-waste residues, with a concentration of 680.02 ngx g(-1). The observed values of the three PHAHs in soils from the disassembly site were considerably higher than their corresponding values observed in the control site (p < 0.05), which indicates that these PHAHs from e-waste is the pollution source of local environment.

  16. Tracking the global generation and exports of e-waste. Do existing estimates add up?

    PubMed

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    The transport of discarded electronic and electrical appliances (e-waste) to developing regions has received considerable attention, but it is difficult to assess the significance of this issue without a quantitative understanding of the amounts involved. The main objective of this study is to track the global transport of e-wastes by compiling and constraining existing estimates of the amount of e-waste generated domestically in each country MGEN, exported from countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) MEXP, and imported in countries outside of the OECD MIMP. Reference year is 2005 and all estimates are given with an uncertainty range. Estimates of MGEN obtained by apportioning a global total of ∼ 35,000 kt (range 20,000-50,000 kt) based on a nation's gross domestic product agree well with independent estimates of MGEN for individual countries. Import estimates MIMP to the countries believed to be the major recipients of e-waste exports from the OECD globally (China, India, and five West African countries) suggests that ∼ 5,000 kt (3,600 kt-7,300 kt) may have been imported annually to these non-OECD countries alone, which represents ∼ 23% (17%-34%) of the amounts of e-waste generated domestically within the OECD. MEXP for each OECD country is then estimated by applying this fraction of 23% to its MGEN. By allocating each country's MGEN, MIMP, MEXP and MNET = MGEN + MIMP - MEXP, we can map the global generation and flows of e-waste from OECD to non-OECD countries. While significant uncertainties remain, we note that estimated import into seven non-OECD countries alone are often at the higher end of estimates of exports from OECD countries.

  17. Environmental friendly technology for aluminum electrolytic capacitors recycling from waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianbo; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-03-15

    up to now, the recycling of e-waste should be developed towards more depth and refinement to promote industrial production of e-waste resource recovery. in the present study, the recycling of aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is focused on. First of all, AECs are disassembled from WPCBs by a self-designed machine; meanwhile, the disassembled AECs are subjected to an integrated process, involving heating treatment, crushing, sieving, and magnetic separating, to recover aluminum and iron; finally, the off-gas and residue generated during the aforementioned processes are analyzed to evaluate environmental risks. The results indicate that 96.52% and 98.68% of aluminum and iron, respectively, can be recovered from AECs under the optimal condition. The off-gas generated during the process is mainly composed of elements of C, H, and O, indicating that the off-gas is non-toxic and could be re-utilized as clean energy source. The residue according with toxicity characteristics leaching standard can be landfilled safely in sanitary landfill site. The present study provides an environmentally friendly and industrial application potential strategy to recycle AECs to promote e-waste recycling industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Best-of-2-Worlds philosophy: developing local dismantling and global infrastructure network for sustainable e-waste treatment in emerging economies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Meskers, Christina E M; Schluep, Mathias; Stevels, Ab; Hagelüken, Christian

    2012-11-01

    E-waste is a complex waste category containing both hazardous and valuable substances. It demands for a cost-efficient treatment system which simultaneously liberates and refines target fractions in an environmentally sound way. In most developing countries there is a lack of systems covering all steps from disposal until final processing due to limited infrastructure and access to technologies and investment. This paper introduces the 'Best-of-2-Worlds' philosophy (Bo2W), which provides a network and pragmatic solution for e-waste treatment in emerging economies. It seeks technical and logistic integration of 'best' pre-processing in developing countries to manually dismantle e-waste and 'best' end-processing to treat hazardous and complex fractions in international state-of-the-art end-processing facilities. A series of dismantling trials was conducted on waste desktop computers, IT equipment, large and small household appliances, in order to compare the environmental and economic performances of the Bo2W philosophy with other conventional recycling scenarios. The assessment showed that the performance of the Bo2W scenario is more eco-efficient than mechanical separation scenarios and other local treatment solutions. For equipment containing substantial hazardous substances, it demands the assistance from domestic legislation for mandatory removal and safe handling of such fractions together with proper financing to cover the costs. Experience from Bo2W pilot projects in China and India highlighted key societal factors influencing successful implementation. These include market size, informal competitors, availability of national e-waste legislation, formal take-back systems, financing and trust between industrial players. The Bo2W philosophy can serve as a pragmatic and environmentally responsible transition before establishment of end-processing facilities in developing countries is made feasible. The executive models of Bo2W should be flexibly differentiated

  19. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng; Lin, Carol S K; Hui, Chi-Wai; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly "recycling" has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

  1. Chemical and biological extraction of metals present in E waste: A hybrid technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Deepak, E-mail: deepakpant1@rediffmail.com; Joshi, Deepika; Upreti, Manoj K.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid methodology for E waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient extraction of metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace metal extraction is possible. - Abstract: Management of metal pollution associated with E-waste is widespread across the globe. Currently used techniques for the extraction of metals from E-waste by using either chemical or biological leaching have their own limitations. Chemical leaching is much rapid and efficient but has its own environmental consequences, even the future prospects of associated nanoremediation are also uncertain. Biological leaching on the other hand is comparatively a cost effective technique but at the same moment it is time consuming and themore » complete recovery of the metal, alone by biological leaching is not possible in most of the cases. The current review addresses the individual issues related to chemical and biological extraction techniques and proposes a hybrid-methodology which incorporates both, along with safer chemicals and compatible microbes for better and efficient extraction of metals from the E-waste.« less

  2. 5 Steps to Responsible E-Waste Management at Your School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Caprice

    2008-01-01

    Demand for environmentally responsible stewardship is increasing, and the education technology sector is responding. Former L&L Senior Editor Caprice Lawless offers an overview of local and national e-waste legislation and resources for related classroom projects. (Contains 3 resources and 13 online resources.)

  3. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteersmore » were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury

  4. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  5. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China.

    PubMed

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60-99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12-30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Uncovering the Recycling Potential of "New" WEEE in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Gong, Ruying; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Li, Jinhui

    2016-02-02

    Newly defined categories of WEEE have increased the types of China's regulated WEEE from 5 to 14. Identification of the amounts and valuable-resource components of the "new" WEEE generated is critical to solving the e-waste problem, for both governmental policy decisions and recycling enterprise expansions. This study first estimates and predicts China's new WEEE generation for the period of 2010-2030 using material flow analysis and the lifespan model of the Weibull distribution, then determines the amounts of valuable resources (e.g., base materials, precious metals, and rare-earth minerals) encased annually in WEEE, and their dynamic transfer from in-use stock to waste. Main findings include the following: (i) China will generate 15.5 and 28.4 million tons WEEE in 2020 and 2030, respectively, and has already overtaken the U.S. to become the world's leading producer of e-waste; (ii) among all the types of WEEE, air conditioners, desktop personal computers, refrigerators, and washing machines contribute over 70% of total WEEE by weight. The two categories of EEE-electronic devices and electrical appliances-each contribute about half of total WEEE by weight; (iii) more and more valuable resources have been transferred from in-use products to WEEE, significantly enhancing the recycling potential of WEEE from an economic perspective; and (iv) WEEE recycling potential has been evolving from ∼16 (10-22) billion US$ in 2010, to an anticipated ∼42 (26-58) billion US$ in 2020 and ∼73.4 (44.5-103.4) billion US$ by 2030. All the obtained results can improve the knowledge base for closing the loop of WEEE recycling, and contribute to governmental policy making and the recycling industry's business development.

  7. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  8. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  9. Recycling Research. Tracking Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLago, Louise Furia

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students research the effectiveness of recycling is presented. Students compare the types and amount of litter both before and after recycling is implemented. Directions for the activity and a sample data sheet are included. (KR)

  10. Reimagining Education in Small Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Patrick J.; Kefalas, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Things are not going so well in small-town America. While the so-called "Great Recession" of the moment has focused considerable attention on the travails of Main Street and Middle America, the truth is that the troubles that plague such places have been a long time in the making. For the past 30 years, nonmetropolitan counties and the…

  11. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  12. A proposal to improve e-waste collection efficiency in urban mining: Container loading and vehicle routing problems - A case study of Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), also known as e-waste, is one of the most important waste streams with high recycling potential. Materials used in these products are valuable, but some of them are hazardous. The urban mining approach attempts to recycle as many materials as possible, so efficiency in collection is vital. There are two main methods used to collect WEEE: stationary and mobile, each with different variants. The responsibility of WEEE organizations and waste collection companies is to assure all resources required for these activities - bins, containers, collection vehicles and staff - are available, taking into account cost minimization. Therefore, it is necessary to correctly determine the capacity of containers and number of collection vehicles for an area where WEEE need to be collected. There are two main problems encountered in collection, storage and transportation of WEEE: container loading problems and vehicle routing problems. In this study, an adaptation of these two models for packing and collecting WEEE is proposed, along with a practical implementation plan designed to be useful for collection companies' guidelines for container loading and route optimization. The solutions are presented in the case studies of real-world conditions for WEEE collection companies in Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  14. The formal electronic recycling industry: Challenges and opportunities in occupational and environmental health research.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Diana Maria; Dong, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    E-waste includes electrical and electronic equipment discarded as waste without intent of reuse. Informal e-waste recycling, typically done in smaller, unorganized businesses, can expose workers and communities to serious chemical health hazards. It is unclear if formalization into larger, better-controlled electronics recycling (e-recycling) facilities solves environmental and occupational health problems. To systematically review the literature on occupational and environmental health hazards of formal e-recycling facilities and discuss challenges and opportunities to strengthen research in this area. We identified 37 publications from 4 electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Environmental Index, NIOSHTIC-2) specific to chemical exposures in formal e-recycling facilities. Environmental and occupational exposures depend on the degree of formalization of the facilities but further reduction is needed. Reported worker exposures to metals were often higher than recommended occupational guidelines. Levels of brominated flame-retardants in worker's inhaled air and biological samples were higher than those from reference groups. Air, dust, and soil concentrations of metals, brominated flame-retardants, dioxins, furans, polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons, or polychlorinated biphenyls found inside or near the facilities were generally higher than reference locations, suggesting transport into the environment. Children of a recycler had blood lead levels higher than public health recommended guidelines. With mounting e-waste, more workers, their family members, and communities could experience unhealthful exposures to metals and other chemicals. We identified research needs to further assess exposures, health, and improve controls. The long-term solution is manufacturing of electronics without harmful substances and easy-to-disassemble components. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection and Monitoring of E-Waste Contamination through Remote Sensing and Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garb, Yaakov; Friedlander, Lonia

    2015-04-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams, and also one of the more problematic, as this end-of-life product contains precious metals mixed with and embedded in a variety of low value and potentially harmful plastic and other materials. This combination creates a powerful incentive for informal value chains that transport, extract from, and dispose of e-waste materials in far-ranging and unregulated ways, and especially in settings where regulation and livelihood alternatives are sparse, most notably in areas of India, China, and Africa. E-waste processing is known to release a variety of contaminants, such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, including flame retardants, dioxins and furans. In several sites, where the livelihoods of entire communities are dependent on e-waste processing, the resulting contaminants have been demonstrated to enter the hydrological system and food chain and have serious health and ecological effects. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the usefulness of multi-spectral remote sensing imagery to detect and monitor the release and possibly the dispersal of heavy metal contaminants released in e-waste processing. While similar techniques have been used for prospecting or for studying heavy metal contamination from mining and large industrial facilities, we suggest that these techniques are of particular value in detecting contamination from the more dispersed, shifting, and ad-hoc kinds of release typical of e-waste processing. Given the increased resolution and decreased price of multi-spectral imagery, such techniques may offer a remarkably cost-effective and rapidly responsive means of assessing and monitoring this kind of contamination. We will describe the geochemical and multi-spectral image-processing principles underlying our approach, and show how we have applied these to an area in which we have a detailed, multi-temporal, spatially referenced, and ground

  16. Economic analysis of electronic waste recycling: modeling the cost and revenue of a materials recovery facility in California.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hai-Yong; Schoenung, Julie M

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify the various techniques used for treating electronic waste (e-waste) at material recovery facilities (MRFs) in the state of California and to investigate the costs and revenue drivers for these techniques. The economics of a representative e-waste MRF are evaluated by using technical cost modeling (TCM). MRFs are a critical element in the infrastructure being developed within the e-waste recycling industry. At an MRF, collected e-waste can become marketable output products including resalable systems/components and recyclable materials such as plastics, metals, and glass. TCM has two main constituents, inputs and outputs. Inputs are process-related and economic variables, which are directly specified in each model. Inputs can be divided into two parts: inputs for cost estimation and for revenue estimation. Outputs are the results of modeling and consist of costs and revenues, distributed by unit operation, cost element, and revenue source. The results of the present analysis indicate that the largest cost driver for the operation of the defined California e-waste MRF is the materials cost (37% of total cost), which includes the cost to outsource the recycling of the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) (dollar 0.33/kg); the second largest cost driver is labor cost (28% of total cost without accounting for overhead). The other cost drivers are transportation, building, and equipment costs. The most costly unit operation is cathode ray tube glass recycling, and the next are sorting, collecting, and dismantling. The largest revenue source is the fee charged to the customer; metal recovery is the second largest revenue source.

  17. An environmentally friendly ball milling process for recovery of valuable metals from e-waste scraps.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Yao, TianQi

    2017-10-01

    The present study reports a mechanochemical (MC) process for effective recovery of copper (Cu) and precious metals (i.e. Pd and Ag) from e-waste scraps. Results indicated that the mixture of K 2 S 2 O 8 and NaCl (abbreviated as K 2 S 2 O 8 /NaCl hereafter) was the most effective co-milling reagents in terms of high recovery rate. After co-milling with K 2 S 2 O 8 /NaCl, soluble metallic compounds were produced and consequently benefit the subsequent leaching process. 99.9% of Cu and 95.5% of Pd in the e-waste particles could be recovered in 0.5mol/L diluted HCl in 15min. Ag was concentrated in the leaching residue as AgCl and then recovered in 1mol/L NH 3 solution. XRD and XPS analysis indicated that elemental metals in the raw materials were transformed into their corresponding oxidation state during ball milling process at low temperature, implying that solid-solid phase reactions is the reaction mechanism. Based on the results and thermodynamic parameters of the probable reactions, possible reaction pathways during ball milling were proposed. Suggestion on category of e-waste for ball milling process was put forward according to the experiment results. The designed metal recovery process of this study has the advantages of highly recovery rate and quick leaching speed. Thus, this study offers a promising and environmentally friendly method for recovering valuable metals from e-waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Key factors of eddy current separation for recovering aluminum from crushed e-waste.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jujun; Dong, Lipeng; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Tao; Huang, Mingzhi; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-02-01

    Recovery of e-waste in China had caused serious pollutions. Eddy current separation is an environment-friendly technology of separating nonferrous metallic particles from crushed e-waste. However, due to complex particle characters, separation efficiency of traditional eddy current separator was low. In production, controllable operation factors of eddy current separation are feeding speed, (ωR-v), and S p . There is little special information about influencing mechanism and critical parameters of these factors in eddy current separation. This paper provided the special information of these key factors in eddy current separation of recovering aluminum particles from crushed waste refrigerator cabinets. Detachment angles increased as the increase of (ωR-v). Separation efficiency increased with the growing of detachment angles. Aluminum particles were completely separated from plastic particles in critical parameters of feeding speed 0.5m/s and detachment angles greater than 6.61deg. S p /S m of aluminum particles in crushed waste refrigerators ranged from 0.08 to 0.51. Separation efficiency increased as the increase of S p /S m . This enlightened us to develop new separator to separate smaller nonferrous metallic particles in e-waste recovery. High feeding speed destroyed separation efficiency. However, greater S p of aluminum particles brought positive impact on separation efficiency. Greater S p could increase critical feeding speed to offer greater throughput of eddy current separation. This paper will guide eddy current separation in production of recovering nonferrous metals from crushed e-waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: initiatives, practices, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of submicron silver powder from scrap low-temperature co-fired ceramic an e-waste: Understanding the leaching kinetics and wet chemistry.

    PubMed

    Swain, Basudev; Shin, Dongyoon; Joo, So Yeong; Ahn, Nak Kyoon; Lee, Chan Gi; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2018-03-01

    The current study focuses on the understanding of leaching kinetics of metal in the LTCC in general and silver leaching in particular along with wet chemical reduction involving silver nanoparticle synthesis. Followed by metal leaching, the silver was selectively precipitated using HCl as AgCl. The precipitated AgCl was dissolved in ammonium hydroxide and reduced to pure silver metal nanopowder (NPs) using hydrazine as a reductant. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) used as a stabilizer and Polyethylene glycol (PEG) used as reducing reagent as well as stabilizing reagent to control size and shape of the Ag NPs. An in-depth investigation indicated a first-order kinetics model fits well with high accuracy among all possible models. Activation energy required for the first order reaction was 21.242 kJ mol -1 for Silver. PVP and PEG 1% each together provide better size control over silver nanoparticle synthesis using 0.4 M hydrazine as reductant, which provides relatively regular morphology in comparison to their individual application. The investigation revealed that the waste LTCC (an industrial e-waste) can be recycled through the reported process even in industrial scale. The novelty of reported recycling process is simplicity, versatile and eco-efficiency through which waste LTCC recycling can address various issues like; (i) industrial waste disposal (ii) synthesis of silver nanoparticles from waste LTCC (iii) circulate metal economy within a closed loop cycle in the industrial economies where resources are scarce, altogether. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of material flow analysis to estimate the efficiency of e-waste management systems: the case of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Gurauskiene, Inga; Stasiskiene, Zaneta

    2011-07-01

    Electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has penetrated everyday life. The EEE industry is characterized by a rapid technological change which in turn prompts consumers to replace EEE in order to keep in step with innovations. These factors reduce an EEE life span and determine the exponential growth of the amount of obsolete EEE as well as EEE waste (e-waste). E-waste management systems implemented in countries of the European Union (EU) are not able to cope with the e-waste problem properly, especially in the new EU member countries. The analysis of particular e-waste management systems is essential in evaluation of the complexity of these systems, describing and quantifying the flows of goods throughout the system, and all the actors involved in it. The aim of this paper is to present the research on the regional agent based material flow analysis in e-waste management systems, as a measure to reveal the potential points for improvement. Material flow analysis has been performed as a flow of goods (EEE). The study has shown that agent-based EEE flow analysis incorporating a holistic and life cycle thinking approach in national e-waste management systems gives a broader view to the system than a common administrative one used to cover. It helps to evaluate the real efficiency of e-waste management systems and to identify relevant impact factors determining the current operation of the system.

  2. Systematic Review: Occupational illness in the waste and recycling sector

    PubMed Central

    Poole, C J M; Basu, S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The waste and recycling sector is a growing part of industry. Whether health surveillance is indicated and how it should be undertaken is unclear. Aims To undertake a review of the literature to identify hazards to health, biological effects and occupational illnesses for workers in the sector. Methods A systematic review of the published literature and two UK databases. Results Rates of fatal, non-fatal injuries and self-reported work-related illness were found to be higher in the waste and recycling sector than in UK industry as a whole. There was an increased prevalence of respiratory, gastro-intestinal and skin complaints in workers exposed to compost relative to controls. They may also be at increased risk of extrinsic allergic alveolitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, occupational asthma and abnormalities of lung function. Workers involved with the recycling of batteries and cables may be at risk of lead poisoning and exposure to other heavy metals. There were case reports of mercury poisoning from the recycling of fluorescent lights. Cases of occupational asthma have been reported in association with wood and paper recycling. The recycling of e-waste may cause exposure to heavy metals and organic pollutants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dioxins and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, which have been associated with damage to DNA and adverse neonatal outcomes. Conclusions Ill-health and adverse biological effects have been described in waste and recycling workers, but their true prevalence has probably not been captured. Targeted health surveillance may be required to assess exposure and to identify occupational illness. PMID:29165683

  3. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida accept items donated by employees in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  4. America Recycles Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    In the parking lot of the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a member of Goodwill Industries loads used household material for recycling. During the two-day event, employees dropped off items as part of America Recycles Day. The center partnered with Goodwill Industries and several other local organizations to collect items for reprocessing. The annual event is a program of Keep America Beautiful, dedicated to promoting and celebrating recycling.

  5. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida shred a disposed hard drive in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  6. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cheng, Jinping; Horii, Yuichi; Wu, Qian; Wang, Wenhua

    2008-11-15

    Environmental pollution arising from electronic waste (e-waste) disposal and recycling has received considerable attention in recent years. Treatment, at low temperatures, of e-wastes that contain polyvinylchloride and related polymers can release polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Although several studies have reported trace metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) released from e-waste recycling operations, environmental contamination and human exposure to PCDD/Fs from e-waste recycling operations are less well understood. In this study, electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total PCDD/ Fs including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil (44.5-531 pg/g dry wt) from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels (3.44-33.8 pg/g dry wt) of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/ Fs via soil/dust ingestion

  7. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    A sign tells NASA Kennedy Space Center employees they have come to the right place to donate items for reuse or recycling in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more. The two-day event was sponsored by Kennedy's Sustainability team.

  8. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida set up giveaway items and sort through donations for reuse or recycling in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more. The two-day event was sponsored by Kennedy's Sustainability team.

  9. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida look over appliances donated for reuse or recycling in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  10. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida sort through items donated for reuse or recycling in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  11. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200 E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314 Tank Farm Restoration & Safe Operations

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2001-10-31

    This Requirements Verification Report provides the traceability of how Project W-314 fulfilled the Project Development Specification requirements for the AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System Upgrade package.

  12. Research on solid waste management system: to improve existing situation in Corlu Town of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tinmaz, Esra; Demir, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decades, uncontrolled population growth and rapid urbanization and industrialization have resulted in environmental problems in Corlu Town, Turkey. One of the most important problems is solid waste due to inadequate management practices. Nowadays, increasing public awareness of the environment compels local authorities to define and to adopt new solutions for waste management. This paper presents a general overview of current solid waste management practices in Corlu Town and principles of the recommended municipal solid waste (MSW) management system. In Corlu, 170 tonnes of municipal solid waste are generated each day, or 1.150 kg per capita per day. Approximately one-half of the municipal solid waste generated is organic material and 30% of the MSW consists of recyclable materials. The recommended system deals with maximizing recycling and minimizing landfilling of municipal solid waste, and consists of separation at source, collection, sorting, recycling, composting and sanitary landfilling. This study also analyzed the recommended system with respect to feasibility and economics. To evaluate whether the suggested system is cost effective or not, the operating cost of the recommended system and market prices of recyclable materials were compared, and the results show that the recommended system will reduce required landfill volume up to 27% of compared to the present situation. The profit of the recommended system is estimated to be about 80 million US dollars.

  13. Town Hall with Secretary Moniz

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest; Poneman, Daniel

    In a town hall meeting with Department staff, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz spoke about his plans for a reorganization of the Energy Department’s management structure. The plans will help better achieve the Department’s key priorities and those of the President, including implementing the President’s Climate Action Plan, “all of the above” energy strategy and nuclear security agenda. After his remarks, Moniz, joined by Deputy Secretary Dan Poneman, took questions from the audience in the Forrestal Auditorium as well as email questions from other Department locations.

  14. Town Hall with Secretary Moniz

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest; Poneman, Daniel

    2018-04-16

    In a town hall meeting with Department staff, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz spoke about his plans for a reorganization of the Energy Department’s management structure. The plans will help better achieve the Department’s key priorities and those of the President, including implementing the President’s Climate Action Plan, “all of the above” energy strategy and nuclear security agenda. After his remarks, Moniz, joined by Deputy Secretary Dan Poneman, took questions from the audience in the Forrestal Auditorium as well as email questions from other Department locations.

  15. [PBDEs pollution in the atmosphere of a typical E-waste dismantling region].

    PubMed

    Chen, Duo-hong; Li, Li-ping; Bi, Xin-hui; Zhao, Jin-ping; Sheng, Guo-ying; Fu, Jia-mo

    2008-08-01

    The vapor-phase and particulate-phase samples were collected from the E-waste dismantling region (E) and a reference region (S), which is located in the upwind direction of the E and where the costume industry is developed. The aim was to acquire information about the concentrations, gas/particle partitioning and distribution of polybrominated diphenyt ethers (PBDEs). 11 congeners PBDEs were detected with GC-NCI-MS. The results showed that E-waste dismantling has resulted in serious pollution and the PBDE concentrations (from tri-to deca-BDE) ranged from 51.1 pg x m(-3) to 2685 pg x m(-3) (mean:830 pg x m(-3)), while the PBDE concentrations (from tri-to deca-BDE) in S were in the range of 1.00 pg x m(-3) to 98.9 pg x m(-3) (mean: 28.7 pg x m(-3)). The gas/particle partitioning of PBDEs exhibited a strong dependence on bromine number. Low-brominated PBDEs tend to have a higher concentration in the gas-phase while highly brominated PBDEs are mostly associated with the particulate. The mass distribution of PBDEs in E (including vapor-phase and particulate-phase) was dominated by penta-BDE, accounting for 54.3% of the total PBDEs, followed by deca-BDE, accounting for 23.8%. This pollution characters validated that the E-waste did not only come from Asia, but also from North America and Europe.

  16. Wee Recyclers Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Hands-on activities in this guide are designed to help preschool children (ages 3-5) understand that reducing, reusing, and recycling preserves natural resources and prolongs the life of landfills. Children sort, match and compare recyclable items and learn to separate some items by number and color. The 29 activities are divided into units that…

  17. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  18. Recycling at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, William M.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines a Michigan summer camp's efforts to reduce solid waste disposal by recycling cardboard, tin, glass, aluminum, and plastic milk containers. Points out variables affecting the success of such efforts. Discusses Michigan state funding for the development of recycling programs. (SV)

  19. America Recycles Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    In the parking lot of the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, employees drop off used household items as part of America Recycles Day. The center recently partnered with Goodwill Industries and several other local organizations to collect items for reprocessing. The annual event is a program of Keep America Beautiful, dedicated to promoting and celebrating recycling.

  20. Carbon dioxide recycling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  1. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Gairong; Luo, Jiayi; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18-3.98μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12-1.63μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=-0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=-0.278, P=0.001). This study investigated human mercury exposure and suggested elevated hair mercury concentrations in

  2. Characteristics of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Released from Thermal Treatment and Open Burning of E-Waste.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting-Yu; Zhou, Jun-Feng; Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Shi, Lei; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2018-04-17

    Primitive processing of e-waste potentially releases abundant organic contaminants to the environment, but the magnitudes and mechanisms remain to be adequately addressed. We conducted thermal treatment and open burning of typical e-wastes, that is, plastics and printed circuit boards. Emission factors of the sum of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑ 39 PBDE) were 817-1.60 × 10 5 ng g -1 in thermal treatment and nondetected-9.14 × 10 4 ng g -1 , in open burning. Airborne particles (87%) were the main carriers of PBDEs, followed by residual ashes (13%) and gaseous constituents (0.3%), in thermal treatment, while they were 30%, 43% and 27% in open burning. The output-input mass ratios of ∑ 39 PBDE were 0.12-3.76 in thermal treatment and 0-0.16 in open burning. All PBDEs were largely affiliated with fine particles, with geometric mean diameters at 0.61-0.83 μm in thermal degradation and 0.57-1.16 μm in open burning from plastic casings, and 0.44-0.56 and nondetected- 0.55 μm, from printed circuit boards. Evaporation and reabsorption may be the main emission mechanisms for lightly brominated BDEs, but heavily brominated BDEs tend to affiliate with particles from heating or combustion. The different size distributions of particulate PBDEs in emission sources and adjacent air implicated a noteworthy redisposition process during atmospheric dispersal.

  3. Co-combustion of E+E waste plastics in the TAMARA test plant

    SciTech Connect

    Vehlow, J.; Wanke, T.; Bergfeldt, B.

    1997-12-01

    The co-combustion of different amounts of various plastic fractions of electrical and electronic (E+E) waste together with municipal solid waste has been tested in the Karlsruhe test incinerator TAMARA. The tests revealed no negative influences upon the combustion process. In general the increased heating value of the fuel causes an improved burnout in all residue streams. The halogens Cl and Br added with the plastics are mainly transferred as HCl or HBr into the flue gas. An influence upon the formation of chlorinated dioxins and furans could not be observed. With increasing Br feed bromine containing homologues were detected inmore » the raw gas. The furans formed easier than the dioxins and those homologues carrying one Br atom were by far prevailing. Even at high Br input the total amount of mixed halogenated species was limited to approximately 30% of the total load of such compounds which did not leave the typical operation window for PCDD/PCDF in TAMARA. The co-combustion tests demonstrated that MSW combustion is an ecologically acceptable and economically sound disposal route for limited amounts of specific E+E waste.« less

  4. Environmental pollution of electronic waste recycling in India: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-04-01

    The rapid growth of the production of electrical and electronic products has meant an equally rapid growth in the amount of electronic waste (e-waste), much of which is illegally imported to India, for disposal presenting a serious environmental challenge. The environmental impact during e-waste recycling was investigated and metal as well as other pollutants [e.g. polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] were found in excessive levels in soil, water and other habitats. The most e-waste is dealt with as general or crudely often by open burning, acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As resulted of these process; dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released and harmful to the surrounding environment, engaged workers, and also residents inhabiting near the sites. The informal e-waste sectors are growing rapidly in the developing countries over than in the developed countries because of cheapest labor cost and week legislations systems. It has been confirmed that contaminates are moving through the food chain via root plant translocation system, to the human body thereby threatening human health. We have suggested some possible solution toward in which plants and microbes combine to remediate highly contaminated sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Democratic Participation in Small-Town Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuck, Patricia A.; Schmuck, Richard A.

    Using first-hand material collected by interview and observation during a 160-day trip around 21 states, this report describes the current situation of democratic participation in small-town schools. The small-town school is like a vortex drawing everyone into its activities and serving as a foundation for the community's social and cultural…

  6. VOCs elimination and health risk reduction in e-waste dismantling workshop using integrated techniques of electrostatic precipitation with advanced oxidation technologies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Hu, Yunkun; Li, Yunlu

    2016-01-25

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during the electronic waste dismantling process (EWDP) were treated at a pilot scale, using integrated electrostatic precipitation (EP)-advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs, subsequent photocatalysis (PC) and ozonation). Although no obvious alteration was seen in VOC concentration and composition, EP technology removed 47.2% of total suspended particles, greatly reducing the negative effect of particles on subsequent AOTs. After the AOT treatment, average removal efficiencies of 95.7%, 95.4%, 87.4%, and 97.5% were achieved for aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, as well as nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds, respectively, over 60-day treatment period. Furthermore, high elimination capacities were also seen using hybrid technique of PC with ozonation; this was due to the PC unit's high loading rates and excellent pre-treatment abilities, and the ozonation unit's high elimination capacity. In addition, the non-cancer and cancer risks, as well as the occupational exposure cancer risk, for workers exposed to emitted VOCs in workshop were reduced dramatically after the integrated technique treatment. Results demonstrated that the integrated technique led to highly efficient and stable VOC removal from EWDP emissions at a pilot scale. This study points to an efficient approach for atmospheric purification and improving human health in e-waste recycling regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecological and health risks assessment and spatial distribution of residual heavy metals in the soil of an e-waste circular economy park in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Gao, Guanghai; Geng, Jinyao; Li, Yao; Wang, Yingying

    2018-04-01

    Ziya Circular Economy Park is the biggest e-waste recycle park in North China before 2011, its function was then transformed in response to regulations and rules. In this paper, investigation was conducted to research the residual concentrations of 14 analytes (12 heavy metals and 2 non-metals) in the surface soil of Ziya Circular Economy Park and surrounding area. Both ecological and health assessments were evaluated using GI (geo-accumulation index) and NPI (Nemerow pollution index), and associated health risk was assessed by using USEPA model. According to the ecological risk assessment, Cu, Sb, Cd, Zn and Co were seriously enriched in the soil of the studied area. The health risk assessment proposed by USEPA indicated no significant health risks to the population. Soil properties, such as pH and organic matter, were found to correlate with the enrichment of heavy metals. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were found positively correlated to dead bacteria concentrations. Spatial distribution of heavy metals revealed that Ziya Circular Economy Park was the dominant pollution source in the studied area. Findings in this study suggest that enough attention should be payed to the heavy metal pollution in Ziya Circular Economy Park. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Distributions and compositions of old and emerging flame retardants in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in an e-waste contaminated area of South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaorui; Wang, Yan; Song, Mengke; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated rhizosphere effects on the distributions and compositions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), and dechlorane plus (DPs) in rhizosphere soils (RS) and non-rhizosphere soils (NRS) in an e-waste recycling area in South China. The concentrations of PBDEs, NBFRs, and DPs ranged from 13.9 to 351, 11.6 to 70.8, and 0.64 to 8.74 ng g(-1) in RS and 7.56 to 127, 8.98 to 144, and 0.38 to 8.45 ng g(-1) in NRS, respectively. BDE-209 and DBDPE were the dominant congeners of PBDEs and NBFRs, respectively. PBDEs, NBFRs, and DPs were more enriched in RS than NRS in most vegetables species. Further analysis suggested that the differentiation of the rhizosphere effect on halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) was not solely controlled by the octanol-water coefficients. This difference was also reflected by the correlations between total organic carbon (TOC) and PBDEs, NBFRs, or DPs, which indicated that organic carbon was a more pivotal controlling factor for PBDEs and DPs than for NBFRs in soil. We also found significant positive correlations between PBDEs and their replacement products, which indicated a similar emission pattern and environmental behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Computers, monitors, vacuum cleaners and other electronics have been donated by employees at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more. The two-day event was sponsored by Kennedy's Sustainability team.

  10. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    A sign points the way to the electronic waste collection site, where NASA Kennedy Space Center employees donated computers, monitors, vacuum cleaners and other electronics in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more. The two-day event was sponsored by Kennedy's Sustainability team.

  11. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Computers, monitors, vacuum cleaners and other electronics have been donated by employees at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  12. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida take a bin of disposed hard drives to be shredded in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  13. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Kannan, K.; Cheng, J.

    2008-11-15

    Electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11,400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148,000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854more » to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposure were 2 orders of magnitude higher in people at e-waste recycling facilities than in people at the chemical industrial site, implying greater health risk for humans from dioxin exposures at e-waste recycling facilities. The calculated TEQ exposures for e-waste workers from dust and soil ingestion alone were 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the exposures from soils in reference locations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.« less

  14. Motivation recycling: pre-recycling case study in Minsk, Belarus.

    PubMed

    Miafodzyeva, Sviatlana; Brandt, Nils; Olsson, Monika

    2010-04-01

    Given the aim of motivating householders to behave in a recycling-friendly manner, there is a need to understand consumers' recycling behaviour. This paper documents and analyses acceptability and awareness of a pre-recycling society, through a survey carried out in the region of Minsk, Belarus. The results show a large number of people have no strong awareness about separate collection of household waste for recycling. By analysing the pre-recycling behaviour of Minsk citizens and substantive comparison with literature studies of a more mature recycling society such as Sweden, we indicate common sociodemographic variables for both cases and determine that these sociodemographic characteristics will directly influence recycling behaviour in countries like Belarus. It is also noted that the lack of recycling habit cannot directly predict subsequent recycling behaviour on the stage of implementation the recycling system.

  15. Microbial community structure and function in sediments from e-waste contaminated rivers at Guiyu area of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Xi; Shu, Hao-Yue; Lin, Xue-Rui; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Bramryd, Torleif; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Huang, Li-Nan

    2018-04-01

    The release of toxic organic pollutants and heavy metals by primitive electronic waste (e-waste) processing to waterways has raised significant concerns, but little is known about their potential ecological effects on aquatic biota especially microorganisms. We characterized the microbial community composition and diversity in sediments sampled along two rivers consistently polluted by e-waste, and explored how community functions may respond to the complex combined pollution. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that Proteobacteria (particularly Deltaproteobacteria) dominated the sediment microbial assemblages followed by Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Firmicutes. PICRUSt metagenome inference provided an initial insight into the metabolic potentials of these e-waste affected communities, speculating that organic pollutants degradation in the sediment might be mainly performed by some of the dominant genera (such as Sulfuricurvum, Thiobacillus and Burkholderia) detected in situ. Statistical analyses revealed that toxic organic compounds contributed more to the observed variations in sediment microbial community structure and predicted functions (24.68% and 8.89%, respectively) than heavy metals (12.18% and 4.68%), and Benzo(a)pyrene, bioavailable lead and electrical conductivity were the key contributors. These results have shed light on the microbial assemblages in e-waste contaminated river sediments, indicating a potential influence of e-waste pollution on the microbial community structure and function in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the Awareness Regarding E-waste and its Health Hazards among the Informal Handlers in Musheerabad Area of Hyderabad.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sapna; Shamanna, B R; Kannan, Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Occupational Health hazards of handling and management of electronic waste is a nascent subject. Improper and unscientific handling of e-waste can invite significant human and environmental health risks. To study the level of awareness about electronic waste and its health hazards amongst informal handlers in Musheerabad, Hyderabad. Ethical approval and informed consents were obtained from Institutional Ethical Committee, University of Hyderabad and from the participants respectively before the commencement of study. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected twenty-six waste handling centers from sixty of them in the locality. From each of the centers four handlers agedbetween 18 and 45 were randomly selected. Total of 104 handlers were interviewed using semi-structured schedule. Interviews were also conducted among 10 owners of such centres on the waste management practices. About 72% of the handlers did not know the meaning of electronic waste and 71% were not aware of associated health risks, 85% did not use any protective gears, while 16% acknowledged health issues attributed to improper handling of e-waste, 77% felt their handling of e-waste was appropriate. Majority of center owners felt that informal e-waste handling does not pose any health risks, and reported that there was no awareness campaign by any agency as of then. This study highlights the need for awareness campaigns on proper e-waste management practices to ensure occupational safety among the waste handlers who belong to lower socio-economic strata.

  17. Development of an analytical method for quantitative comparison of the e-waste management systems in Thailand, Laos, and China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Sharp, Alice

    2016-11-01

    This study employed a set of quantitative criteria to analyse the three parameters; namely policy, process, and practice; of the respective e-waste management systems adopted in Thailand, Laos, and China. Questionnaire surveys were conducted to determine the current status of the three parameters in relation to mobile phones. A total of five, three, and six variables under Policy (P 1 ), Process (P 2 ), and Practice (P 3 ), respectively, were analysed and their weighted averages were calculated. The results showed that among the three countries surveyed, significant differences at p<0.01 were observed in all the P 1 , P 2 , and P 3 variables, except P 305 (sending e-waste to recovery centres) and P 306 (treating e-waste by retailers themselves). Based on the quantitative method developed in this study, Laos' e-waste management system received the highest scores in both P 1 average (0.130) and P 3 average (0.129). However, in the combined P total , China scored the highest (0.141), followed by Laos (0.132) and Thailand (0.121). This method could be used to assist decision makers in performing quantitative analysis of complex issues associating with e-waste management in a country. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. The Totem Pole Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Susan Breyer

    1991-01-01

    Presents an activity that integrates science, environmental education, art, and social studies. Students identify and research an endangered species and construct a totem pole depicting the species using a recyclable material. (MDH)

  19. A Practical Recycling Project . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

    1973-01-01

    Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

  20. America Recycles Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-17

    In the parking lot of the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, employees drop off used household items, such as this television, as part of America Recycles Day. The center recently partnered with Goodwill Industries and several other local organizations to collect items for reprocessing. The annual event is a program of Keep America Beautiful, dedicated to promoting and celebrating recycling.

  1. Recycling of nonmetallics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  2. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  3. Determination of dechlorane flame retardants in soil and fish at Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in south China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wuqun; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shen, Li; Zhao, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Dechlorane 602 (Dec 602), Dechlorane 603 (Dec 603), Dechlorane 604 (Dec 604), Dechlorane 604 component B (Dec 604 CB) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) were analyzed in soil and fish collected across e-waste recycling sites in Guiyu. The results indicate that soil and fish are contaminated with dechlorane compounds especially Dec 602 and DP which show high concentrations in the samples near recycling sites. Dec 604 and Dec 604 CB are not detected. The photo-degradation experiment indicates that Dec 604 and Dec 604 CB have much faster degradation rates compared to other dechloranes, suggesting they might be more vulnerable to degradation during recycling processes and further studies are needed for assessing the environmental fate and persistence of their degradation products. Dec 602 has not been manufactured in China, the detection of Dec 602 in soil and fish implies that it might be from imports of recyclable materials from developed countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. E-waste collection in Italy: Results from an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Favot, Marinella; Grassetti, Luca

    2017-09-01

    This study looks at the performance of household electrical and electronic waste (WEEE) collection in 20 Italian regions from 2008 to 2015. The impact of several explicative variables on the results of e-waste collection is evaluated. The independent variables are socio-economic and demographic ones (age, gender, household size, education level, migration and income) along with technical-organisational variables (population density, presence of metropoles, macro regions, characteristics of the territory, percentage of household waste collected separately and number of e-waste collection points). The results show that the presence of collection points, the percentage of household waste collected separately and the percentage of females are positively correlated with the kg collected per inhabitant per year. For example, a variation of 1% of input (presence of collection points) corresponds to a 0.25% variation in the output (collection results) while 1% difference in the percentage of females in the population corresponds to a 7.549% difference in the collection rate. Population density, instead, is negatively correlated. It is interesting to note that there is a discrepancy between the Southern regions and the Centre regions (the former have an outcome 0.66 times lower than the latter) while the Northern regions perform similarly to the Centre ones. Moreover, the first year (2008) had a very low performance compared to the following years when the scheme constantly improved, mainly due to the additional collection points available. The Stochastic Frontier Model allows for the identification of the optimal production function among the 20 Italian regions. The best performing region is Tuscany (in the Centre), followed by Sardinia and Sicily (in the South). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Genotoxic effects and serum abnormalities in residents of regions proximal to e-waste disposal facilities in Jinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Li, KeQiu; Liu, ShaSha; Yang, QiaoYun; Zhao, YuXia; Zuo, JunFang; Li, Ran; Jing, YaQing; He, XiaoBo; Qiu, XingHua; Li, Guang; Zhu, Tong

    2014-07-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) disposal is a growing problem in China, and its effects on human health are a concern. To determine the concentrations of pollutants in peripheral blood and genetic aberrations near an e-waste disposal area in Jinghai, China, blood samples were collected from 30 (age: 41±11.01 years) and 28 (age: 33±2.14 years) individuals residing within 5 and 40km of e-waste disposal facilities in Jinghai (China), respectively, during the week of October 21-28, 2011. Levels of inorganic pollutants (calcium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, selenium, and zinc) and malondialdehyde (MDA), identities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), micronucleus rates, and lymphocyte subsets were analyzed in individuals. Total RNA expression profiles were analyzed by group and gender. The population group living in proximity to the e-waste site displayed significantly higher mean levels of copper, zinc, lead, MDAs, POPs (B4-6DE, B7-9DE, total polychlorinated biphenyls, and BB-153). In addition, micronucleus rates of close-proximity group were higher compared with the remote group (18.27% vs. 7.32%). RNA expression of genes involved in metal ion binding and transport, oxidation/reduction, immune defense, and tumorigenesis varied between groups, with men most detrimentally affected (p<0.05). CD4(+)/CD8(+)T cell ratios, CD4(+)CD25(nt/hi)CD127(lo)regulatory T cell percentages, and CD95 expression were greater in the e-waste group (p<0.05). Residing in close proximity to e-waste disposal facilities (≤5km) may be associated with the accumulation of potentially harmful inorganic/organic compounds and gender-preferential genetic aberrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass balance evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate and potential for transfer from e-waste.

    PubMed

    Danon-Schaffer, Monica N; Mahecha-Botero, Andrés; Grace, John R; Ikonomou, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has largely focussed on their concentrations in the environment and their adverse effects on human health. This paper explores their transfer from waste streams to water and soil. A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), originating from e-waste and non-e-waste solids leaching from a landfill. Stepwise debromination is assumed to occur in three sub-systems (e-waste, aqueous leachate phase, and non-e-waste solids). Analysis of landfill samples and laboratory results from a solid-liquid contacting chamber are used to estimate model parameters to simulate an urban landfill system, for past and future scenarios. Sensitivity tests to key model parameters were conducted. Lower BDEs require more time to disappear than high-molecular weight PBDEs, since debromination takes place in a stepwise manner, according to the simplified reaction scheme. Interphase mass transfer causes the decay pattern to be similar in all three sub-systems. The aqueous phase is predicted to be the first sub-system to eliminate PBDEs if their input to the landfill were to be stopped. The non-e-waste solids would be next, followed by the e-waste sub-system. The model shows that mass transfer is not rate-limiting, but the evolution over time depends on the kinetic degradation parameters. Experimental scatter makes model testing difficult. Nevertheless, the model provides qualitative understanding of the influence of key variables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. NAS Decadal Review Town Hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine is seeking community input for a study on the future of materials research (MR). Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey will look at defining the frontiers of materials research ranging from traditional materials science and engineering to condensed matter physics. Please join members of the study committee for a town hall to discuss future directions for materials research in the United States in the context of worldwide efforts. In particular, input on the following topics will be of great value: progress, achievements, and principal changes in the R&D landscape over the past decade; identification of key MR areas that have major scientific gaps or offer promising investment opportunities from 2020-2030; and the challenges that MR may face over the next decade and how those challenges might be addressed. This study was requested by the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. The National Academies will issue a report in 2018 that will offer guidance to federal agencies that support materials research, science policymakers, and researchers in materials research and other adjoining fields. Learn more about the study at http://nas.edu/materials.

  8. Recycling in a megacity.

    PubMed

    Themelis, Nickolas J; Todd, Claire E

    2004-04-01

    In the aftermath of the 9/11 disaster, Mayor Bloomberg of New York City unveiled an aggressive budget plan that included the temporary suspension of glass and plastics recycling. This was considered by many to be anti-environmental, but the results of this study show that for lack of markets, even at zero or negative prices, nearly 90% of the plastic and glass set aside by thoughtful New Yorkers was transported to materials recovery facilities (MRFs) and from there to landfills. Sending bales of plastics to landfills is not limited to New York City. It is an environmental paradox that the United States is digging up new oil fields in pristine areas and, at the same time, continues to convert greenfields to brownfields by burying nearly 20 million tons of plastic fuel annually. The study also determined that at the present rate of source separation, estimated to be less than 30% of the available recyclables in 1999, building large, modern MRFs may increase substantially the rate of New York City recycling and also allow single-stream collection of commingled recyclables, as is done in Phoenix, AZ. Single-stream collection simplifies separation at the source by citizens and increases the amount of collected recyclables. Also, because collection represents a large fraction of the costs of waste management, it may have a significant economic advantage.

  9. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  10. NASA Chief Technologist Hosts Town Hall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-24

    Bobby Braun, NASA's Chief Technologist, answers questions during a Town Hall meeting to discuss agency-wide technology policy and programs at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, May 25, 2010, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. NASA Chief Technologist Hosts Town Hall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-24

    NASA's Chief Technologists, Bobby Braun, hosts a Town Hall meeting to discuss agency-wide technology policy and programs at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, May 25, 2010, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. NASA Chief Technologist Hosts Town Hall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-24

    Bobby Braun, right, NASA's Chief Technologist, answers questions during a Town Hall meeting to discuss agency-wide technology policy and programs at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, May 25, 2010, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Townes-Brocks Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Surgery and Rehabilitation Related Information How ... JB, Wu BL, Korf BR. Townes-Brocks syndrome versus expanded spectrum hemifacial microsomia: review of eight patients ...

  14. Environmental fate of hexabromocyclododecane from a new Canadian electronic recycling facility.

    PubMed

    Tomko, Geoffrey; McDonald, Karen M

    2013-01-15

    An electronics recycling facility began operation at the municipal landfill site for the City of Edmonton, Canada in March 2008 with the goal of processing 30,000 tonnes of electronic wastes per year. Of the many by-products from the process, brominated fire retardants such as hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) can evolve off of e-wastes and be released into the environmental media. HBCD has been identified by many countries and international bodies as a chemical of concern because of its ability to bioaccumulate in the ecosystem. An evaluation of the potential emission of HBCD indicates that up to 500 kg per year may be released from a landfill and recycling facility such as that operating in Edmonton. A multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the dispersion and fate of atmospherically emitted HBCD traveling into surrounding agricultural land and forested parkland. The model indicates that the three isomers of HBCD partitioned into environmental media similarly. Much of the HBCD is lost through atmospheric advection, but it is also found in soil and sediment. Modeled air concentrations are similar to those measured at locations with a history of e-waste recycling. Since HBCD has been shown to bioaccumulate, the HBCD released from this source has the long-term potential to affect agricultural food crops and the park ecosystem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recycling the construction and demolition waste to produce polymer concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mohammad T.; Hameed, Awham M., Dr.

    2018-05-01

    The sustainable management for solid wastes of the construction and demolition waste stimulates searching for safety applications for these wastes. The aim of this research is recycling of construction and demolition waste with some different types of polymeric resins to be used in manufacturing process of polymer mortar or polymer concrete, and studying their mechanical and physical properties, and also Specify how the values of compressive strength and the density are affected via the different parameters. In this research two types of construction and demolition waste were used as aggregates replacement (i.e. waste cement/concrete debris, and the waste blocks) while the two types of polymer resins (i.e. Unsaturated polyester and Epoxy) as cement replacements. The used weight percentages of the resins were changed within (1°, 20, 25 and 30) % to manufacture this polymer concrete.

  16. Who owns the recyclables

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.

    On March 31, the California Supreme Court decided the much awaited Rancho Mirage'' case (Waste Management of the Desert, Inc., and the City of Rancho Mirage v. Palm Springs Recycling Center, Inc.), and held that the California Integrated Waste Management Act of 1989 does not allow an exclusive franchise for the collection of recyclables not discarded by their owner.'' This ends a three-year slugfest between secondary materials processors in the state and municipalities and their franchised garbage haulers who also collect and process recyclables as part of their exclusive arrangement. Central to this nationally-watched litigation is a most fundamental questionmore » in waste management: at what point in time do articles in the solid waste stream become actual or potentially valuable secondary materials« less

  17. Tracking the Global Distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants Accounting for E-Waste Exports to Developing Regions.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-01-19

    Elevated concentrations of various industrial-use Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been reported in some developing areas in subtropical and tropical regions known to be destinations of e-waste. We used a recent inventory of the global generation and exports of e-waste to develop various global scale emission scenarios for industrial-use organic contaminants (IUOCs). For representative IUOCs (RIUOCs), only hypothetical emissions via passive volatilization from e-waste were considered whereas for PCBs, historical emissions throughout the chemical life-cycle (i.e., manufacturing, use, disposal) were included. The environmental transport and fate of RIUOCs and PCBs were then simulated using the BETR Global 2.0 model. Export of e-waste is expected to increase and sustain global emissions beyond the baseline scenario, which assumes no export. A comparison between model predictions and observations for PCBs in selected recipient regions generally suggests a better agreement when exports are accounted for. This study may be the first to integrate the global transport of IUOCs in waste with their long-range transport in air and water. The results call for integrated chemical management strategies on a global scale.

  18. Major pollutants in soils of abandoned agricultural land contaminated by e-waste activities in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Man, Yu Bon; Zhao, Yin Ge; Zheng, Jin Shu; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Yao, Jun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds and five heavy metals (cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and zinc) were determined in soil samples collected from six sites of abandoned agricultural land affected by electronic-waste: e-waste dismantling workshop [EW (DW)], e-waste open burning site [EW (OBS)], e-waste storage [EW (S)], and agricultural (A) in the New Territories, Hong Kong. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals were detected in all soil samples. EW (DW) contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, Cr, Cu, and Zn, whereas EW (OBS) had the highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, Cd, and Pb. PAH at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) and PCB concentrations at EW (OBS) exceeded the target values of the New Dutch list, whereas Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn levels exceeded the Chinese legislation for the protection of agricultural production and safeguarding of human health, by 3-11 times at EW (OBS) and 5-8 times at EW (DW). Lead at EW (OBS) and EW (DW) and Cr at EW (DW) greatly exceeded the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines by 46 and 20 times and 27 times, respectively. Concentrations of POPs and heavy metals at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) were significantly higher than at EW (S) and A. It was concluded that e-waste activities led to increases of toxic chemicals at these abandoned agricultural land, which would hinder the redevelopment of the land.

  19. Revitalisation as a Method of Planning Sustainable Development of Old Town Complexes in Historic Towns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagroba, Marek; Gawryluk, Dorota

    2017-12-01

    Old towns in spatial structures of historic towns are the areas which - same as centuries before - serve as the town centres. This is almost invariably true about small towns especially, as the inner town district is more frequently the site where a town was originally located and is often the manifestation of its historic identity. However, functional and spatial problems of many small historic towns arise from the above trend, mostly because of the frequently high density of buildings in the oldest part of a town. The intricate nature of elements creating the structure of a town’s historic centre often calls for certain steps to be taken, which will ensure better exposure of an old town complex against the backdrop of the town’s other areas. Numerous problems need to be solved, not only spatial but also economic and social ones. A town is a living organism, inhabited by people. The key to tackling these issues successfully lies in the creation of such revitalisation programmes that will improve the quality of space and help achieve the sustainable development of inner-town areas in historic towns. The historic centres in the medieval towns of Warmia, a region rich in history and situated in north-eastern Poland, can serve as an example and has been investigated in the following study. All the towns in Warmia located in the Middle Ages, except the capital of the region Olsztyn, can be classified as small urban developments. This group of eleven towns is dominated by the ones whose territorial coverage has not changed considerably since the location and the population ranges from a few thousand to less than twenty thousand. To this day, the historic quarters of these towns have remained the central ones in each town, and their urban structures to a various extent reveal the features characteristic for the period when they were created. The differences are due to the war damage the towns suffered at the end of World War Two and because of the different ways in

  20. Exploring the Awareness Regarding E-waste and its Health Hazards among the Informal Handlers in Musheerabad Area of Hyderabad

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sapna; Shamanna, B. R.; Kannan, Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Occupational Health hazards of handling and management of electronic waste is a nascent subject. Improper and unscientific handling of e-waste can invite significant human and environmental health risks. Objective: To study the level of awareness about electronic waste and its health hazards amongst informal handlers in Musheerabad, Hyderabad. Methodology: Ethical approval and informed consents were obtained from Institutional Ethical Committee, University of Hyderabad and from the participants respectively before the commencement of study. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected twenty-six waste handling centers from sixty of them in the locality. From each of the centers four handlers agedbetween 18 and 45 were randomly selected. Total of 104 handlers were interviewed using semi-structured schedule. Interviews were also conducted among 10 owners of such centres on the waste management practices. Results: About 72% of the handlers did not know the meaning of electronic waste and 71% were not aware of associated health risks, 85% did not use any protective gears, while 16% acknowledged health issues attributed to improper handling of e-waste, 77% felt their handling of e-waste was appropriate. Majority of center owners felt that informal e-waste handling does not pose any health risks, and reported that there was no awareness campaign by any agency as of then. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for awareness campaigns on proper e-waste management practices to ensure occupational safety among the waste handlers who belong to lower socio-economic strata. PMID:29618915

  1. Filter Backwash Recycling Rule Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the FBRR is to require (PWSs) to review their recycle practices and, where appropriate, work with the state Primacy Agency to make any necessary changes to recycle practices that may compromise microbial control.

  2. Recycling Decisions and Green Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explores the facts and perceptions regarding recycling, what can be done to make products more environmentally compatible, and how to think about recycling decisions in a more helpful way. (Contains 39 references.) (MDH)

  3. Recycling Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallowell, Anne; And Others

    This study guide was designed to help teachers and students understand the problems surrounding solid wastes. It includes an overview of solid waste and recycling, a glossary, suggested activities and a list of resource publications, audiovisual materials and organizations. There are 19 activity suggestions included in this guide designed for use…

  4. Helium-Recycling Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

  5. Recycled Insect Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  6. The Recycle Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Roger; And Others

    This guide provides lessons that enable students to learn how important it is for each of us to take care of the environment by minimizing the problems caused by too much trash. In the 10 lessons included here, students and their families learn how they can be part of the solution by practicing source reduction and by reusing, recycling, and…

  7. RECYCLABILITY INDEX FOR AUTOMOBILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project's purpose is to create a rating system for the ecological impacts of vehicles at the end of their life based on recyclability, toxic material content, and ultimate disposal. Each year, 10-11 million vehicles are retired from service in the United States. The vehi...

  8. Fuels from Recycling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, David A.

    1975-01-01

    Three systems, operating at sufficient scale, produce fuels that may be alternatives to oil and gas. These three recycling systems are: Black Clawson Fiberclaim, Franklin, Ohio; Union Carbide, South Charleston, West Virginia; and Union Electric, St. Louis, Missouri. These produce a wet fuel, a pyrolytic gas, and a dry fuel, respectively. (BT)

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils, sediments, and human hair in a plastic waste recycling area: a neglected heavily polluted area.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Yufei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Wei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Ning; Jin, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The release of pollutants during the recycling of contaminated plastics is a problem which has drawn worldwide attention; however, little information on the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in these processes is available. We conducted a survey of PBDEs in soils, sediments, and human hair in a typical plastic waste recycling area in northern China. The total concentrations (ng/g) of 21 PBDEs were 1.25-5504 (average 600), 18.2-9889 (average 1619), and 1.50-861 (average 112) in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations observed in e-waste recycling areas; however, the concentrations in soils and sediments were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than in other areas, and the concentrations in hair were much higher than in other areas. This indicates that this area is highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the dominant congener (representing 91.23%, 92.3%, and 91.5% of the total PBDEs observed in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively), indicating that the commercial deca-BDE product was dominant. The commercial penta- and octa-BDE products made small contributions to the total PBDE concentrations, unlike what has been found in some e-waste recycling areas. Our results show that crude plastic waste processing is a major contributor of PBDEs to the environment and humans, which should be of great concern.

  10. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

    2005-01-01

    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  11. Selective dissolution followed by EDDS washing of an e-waste contaminated soil: Extraction efficiency, fate of residual metals, and impact on soil environment.

    PubMed

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Valix, Marjorie; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    To enhance extraction of strongly bound metals from oxide minerals and organic matter, this study examined the sequential use of reductants, oxidants, alkaline solvents and organic acids followed by a biodegradable chelating agent (EDDS, [S,S]-ethylene-diamine-disuccinic-acid) in a two-stage soil washing. The soil was contaminated by Cu, Zn, and Pb at an e-waste recycling site in Qingyuan city, China. In addition to extraction efficiency, this study also examined the fate of residual metals (e.g., leachability, bioaccessibility, and distribution) and the soil quality parameters (i.e., cytotoxicity, enzyme activities, and available nutrients). The reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride) effectively extracted metals by mineral dissolution, but elevated the leachability and bioaccessibility of metals due to the transformation from Fe/Mn oxides to labile fractions. Subsequent EDDS washing was found necessary to mitigate the residual risks. In comparison, prior washing by oxidants (persulphate, hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) was marginally useful because of limited amount of soil organic matter. Prior washing by alkaline solvents (sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate) was also ineffective due to metal precipitation. In contrast, prior washing by low-molecular-weight organic acids (citrate and oxalate) improved the extraction efficiency. Compared to hydroxylamine hydrochloride, citrate and oxalate induced lower cytotoxicity (Microtox) and allowed higher enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and urease) and soil nutrients (available nitrogen and phosphorus), which would facilitate reuse of the treated soil. Therefore, while sequential washing proved to enhance extraction efficacy, the selection of chemical agents besides EDDS should also include the consideration of effects on metal leachability/bioaccessibility and soil quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Archaeological Documentation of a Defunct Iraqi Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šedina, J.; Pavelka, K.; Housarová, E.

    2016-06-01

    The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  13. Increase male genital diseases morbidity linked to informal electronic waste recycling in Guiyu, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Li, Yan; Zhuang, Bingrong; Huo, Xia

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, occupational and environmental exposure to toxic pollutants has increasingly contributed to declining sperm quality and increasing morbidity of human male genital diseases. This study explored the effects of electronic waste (e-waste) environmental pollutions on male genital health in Guiyu, one of the largest e-waste recycling centers in the world. We collected outpatient case information from 2001 to 2009 in Guiyu and a control hospital and performed statistical analysis on male genital diseases morbidity (MGDM). The MGDM in Guiyu and the control hospital per thousand from 2004 to 2009 were 1.410/0.403 (2004), 0.539/0.385 (2005), 0.248/0.284 (2006), 0.485/0.195 (2007), 1.107/0.272 (2008), and 0.741/0.586 (2009) while the average total MGDM from 2004 to 2009 were 0.753 and 0.355 per thousand, respectively. Percentage of occurrence of epididymitis, impotence and prospermia, redundant prepuce, gonorrhea, urethritis, sexual function dysfunction, azoospermia, asthenospermia, and unknown etiology male sterility were higher in Guiyu (P < 0.05), whereas the frequency of prostatitis, condyloma accuminatum, and genital herpes were higher in the control (P < 0.05). Morbidity of male genital diseases was higher in Guiyu than in the control area. Male reproductive health may be threatened by e-waste environmental pollution in Guiyu, especially for diseases that could be influenced by environmental factors, and it may influence local population diathesis.

  14. Environmental impact and human exposure to PCBs in Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Guan Hua; Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, M H

    2009-01-01

    PCB levels in fish (collected from local rivers), atmosphere and human milk samples have been studied to determine the exposure levels of PCBs for local residents and e-waste workers in Guiyu, a major electronic waste scrapping center in China. The source appointment and correlation analyses showed that homologue composition of PCBs in 7 species of fish were consistent and similar to commercial PCBs Aroclor 1248. PCB levels in air surrounding the open burning site were significantly higher than those in residential area. Inhalation exposure contributed 27% and 93% to the total body loadings (the sum of dietary and inhalation exposure) of the local residents, and e-waste workers engaged in open burning respectively. Total PCB concentrations in human milk ranged from N.D. to 57.6 ng/g lipid, with an average of 9.50 ng/g lipid. The present results indicated that commercial PCBs derived from e-waste recycling are major sources of PCBs accumulating in different environmental media, leading to the accumulation of high chlorinated biphenyls in human beings.

  15. Integrating EDDS-enhanced washing with low-cost stabilization of metal-contaminated soil from an e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Baek, Kitae; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-09-01

    While chelant-enhanced soil washing has been widely studied for metal extraction from contaminated soils, there are concerns about destabilization and leaching of residual metals after remediation. This study integrated 2-h soil washing enhanced by biodegradable ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and 2-month stabilization using agricultural waste product (soybean stover biochar pyrolyzed at 300 and 700 °C), industrial by-product (coal fly ash (CFA)), and their mixture. After integration with 2-month stabilization, the leachability and mobility of residual metals (Cu, Zn, and Pb) in the field-contaminated soil were significantly reduced, especially for Cu, in comparison with 2-h EDDS washing alone. This suggested that the metals destabilized by EDDS-washing could be immobilized by subsequent stabilization with biochar and CFA. Moreover, when the remediation performance was evaluated for phytoavailability and bioaccessibility, prior EDDS washing helped to achieve a greater reduction in the bioavailable fraction of metals than sole stabilization treatment. This was probably because the weakly-bound metals were first removed by EDDS washing before stabilization. Both individual and combined applications of biochar and CFA showed comparable effectiveness regardless of the difference in material properties, possibly due to the high level of amendments (150 ton ha(-1)). Based on the mobility and bioaccessibility results, the estimated human health risk (primarily resulting from Pb) could be mitigated to an acceptable level in water consumption pathway or reduced by half in soil ingestion pathway. These results suggest that an integration of EDDS washing with soil stabilization can alleviate post-remediation impacts of residual metals in the treated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) from an electronic waste recycling site and a reference site, South China: influence of residue levels on the isomeric composition.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Zou, Fa-Shen; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-03-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) isomers were examined in common kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) and their prey fishes collected from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site and a reference site in South China, to investigate the possible influence of DP residue levels on the isomeric compositions. ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations in kingfishers from the e-waste recycling site ranged from 29 to 150 (median of 58) ng/g lipid weight (lw), which were one order of magnitude greater than those from the reference site (median = 3.9 ng/g lw). The isomer fractions of anti-DP (f(anti)) in kingfishers from the e-waste recycling site (mean of 0.65) were significantly smaller than those from the reference site (0.76). Additionally, the f(anti) values were negatively correlated to logarithm of ∑DP concentrations in the kingfishers (r(2) = 0.41, p < 0.0001). These results suggested that DP residue levels could influence its isomeric composition in the piscivorous bird. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid waste characterization in Ketao, a rural town in Togo, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-07-01

    In Africa the majority of solid waste data is for big cities. Small and rural towns are generally neglected and waste data from these areas are often unavailable, which makes planning a proper solid waste management difficult. This paper presents the results from two waste characterization projects conducted in Kétao, a rural town in Togo during the rainy season and the dry season in 2010. The seasonal variation has a significant impact on the waste stream. The household waste generation rate was estimated at 0.22 kg person(-1) day(-1) in the dry season and 0.42 in the rainy season. Likewise, the waste moisture content was 4% in the dry season while it was 33-63% in the rainy season. The waste consisted mainly of soil and dirt characterized as 'other' (41%), vegetables and putrescibles (38%) and plastic (11%). In addition to these fractions, considerable amounts of material are either recycled or reused locally and do not enter the waste stream. The study suggests that additional recycling is not feasible, but further examination of the degradability of the organic fraction is needed in order to assess whether the residual waste should be composed or landfilled.

  18. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Addink, Rudolf; Yun, Sehun; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-10-01

    The formation and release of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) from the incineration of electronic wastes (e-waste) that contain brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a concern. However, studies on the determination of PBDD/Fs in environmental samples collected from e-waste recycling facilities are scarce. In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale e-waste recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-800000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89600-pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of sigmaPBDD/Fs and sigmaPBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between sigmaPBDD/Fs and the previously reported sigmaPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by

  19. Occurrence, profiles, and toxic equivalents of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in E-waste open burning soils.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Chiya; Horii, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Ballesteros, Florencio; Viet, Pham Hung; Itai, Takaaki; Takigami, Hidetaka; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Fujimori, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    We conducted this study to assess the occurrence, profiles, and toxicity of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Br-PAHs) in e-waste open burning soils (EOBS). In this study, concentrations of 15 PAHs, 26 Cl-PAHs and 14 Br-PAHs were analyzed in EOBS samples. We found that e-waste open burning is an important emission source of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs as well as PAHs. Concentrations of total Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in e-waste open burning soil samples ranged from 21 to 2800 ng/g and from 5.8 to 520 ng/g, respectively. Compared with previous studies, the mean of total Cl-PAH concentrations of the EOBS samples in this study was higher than that of electronic shredder waste, that of bottom ash, and comparable to fly ash from waste incinerators in Korea and Japan. The mean of total Br-PAH concentrations of the EOBS samples was generally three to four orders of magnitude higher than those in incinerator bottom ash and comparable to incinerator fly ash, although the number of Br-PAH congeners measured differed among studies. We also found that the Cl-PAH and Br-PAH profiles were similar among all e-waste open burning soil samples but differed from those in waste incinerator fly ash. The profiles and principal component analysis results suggested a unique mechanism of Cl-PAH and Br-PAH formation in EOBS. In addition, the Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs showed high toxicities equivalent to PCDD/Fs measured in same EOBS samples when calculated based on their relative potencies to benzo[a]pyrene. Along with chlorinated and brominated dioxins and PAHs, Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs are important environmental pollutants to investigate in EOBS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chlorinated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples from an electronic waste recycling facility and a chemical industrial complex in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Horii, Yuichi; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Wu, Qian; Ohura, Takeshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-02-01

    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CIPAHs) are a class of halogenated contaminants found in the urban atmosphere; they have toxic potential similar to that of dioxins. Information on the sources of CIPAHs is limited. In this study, concentrations of 20 CIPAHs and 16 parent PAHs were measured in electronic wastes, workshop-floor dust, vegetation, and surface soil collected from the vicinity of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant), and agricultural areas in central and eastern China. High concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs were found in floor dust (mean, 103 ng/g dry wt), followed in order of decreasing concentration by leaves (87.5 ng/g drywt), electronic shredder waste (59.1 ng/g dry wt), and soil (26.8 ng/g dry wt) from an e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou. The mean concentration of SigmaCIPAHs in soil from the chemical industrial complex (88 ng/g dry wt) was approximately 3-fold higher than the concentration in soil from e-waste recycling facilities. The soils from e-waste sites and industrial areas contained mean concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations in agricultural soils (ND-0.76 ng/g), suggesting that e-waste recycling and chlorine-chemical industries are potential emission sources of CIPAHs. The profiles of CIPAHs in soil and dust were similar to a profile that has been reported previously for fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (6-CIBaP was the predominant compound), but the profiles in vegetation and electronic shredder waste were different from those found in fly ash. Concentrations of 16 parent PAHs were high (150-49,700 ng/g) in samples collected from the e-waste recycling facility. Significant correlation between SigmaCIPAH and SigmaPAH concentrations suggests that direct chlorination of parent PAHs is the major pathway of formation of

  1. The Best-Kept Secret in Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he has toured many impressive schools over the years and has heard one familiar statement that amazes him: "We are the best-kept secret in town." How can a school exist for any significant period of time and be virtually unknown to the community it serves? The truth is that if one considers his school to…

  2. RadTown USA Neighborhoods | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-09-08

    Learn about radiation sources and uses in the interactive, virtual community of RadTown USA! Explore radiation sources and uses in homes and schools, medical buildings and laboratories and outdoors. You will also find information about coal-fired power plants and nuclear power plants, power lines and learn about responding to radiation emergencies.

  3. International Mathematics Tournament of the Towns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Andy

    The International Mathematics Tournament of the Towns is a mathematics competition for junior and senior high school students all over the world. The tournament began in 1980 in the former Soviet Union. Participants write contest papers locally, with emphasis on solving within a very generous time allowance a small number of interesting problems.…

  4. NASA Chief Technologist Hosts Town Hall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-24

    Bobby Braun, NASA's Chief Technologist, is seen on a video monitor during a Town Hall meeting to discuss agency-wide technology policy and programs at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, May 25, 2010, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Shopping for Mathematics in Consumer Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Ann L.; Wimer, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Justin and Jenny, grade 12 math students, walk with their preschool friends Sean and Meg to the local grocery store. There, two classmates are tending the cash registers. The six of them, along with others, are participating in an in-school "field trip" to Consumer Town, located in the South Windsor High School front lobby. The field…

  6. George A. Towns Elementary School. Atlanta, Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Ralph H.

    1976-01-01

    A project testing solar heating and cooling in an existing building, the George A. Towns Elementary School, is intended to provide information on system design and performance, allow the identification and correction of problems encountered in installing large units, and gauge community/user reaction to solar equipment. (Author/MLF)

  7. Association between lead exposure from electronic waste recycling and child temperament alterations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junxiao; Xu, Xijin; Wu, Kusheng; Piao, Zhongxian; Huang, Jinrong; Guo, Yongyong; Li, Weiqiu; Zhang, Yuling; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of lead exposure on temperament alterations in children from a primitive e-waste (obsolete electrical and electronic devices) recycling area in Guiyu of China and a control area (Chendian, China). Blood lead levels (BLL) might be correlated with temperament, health, and relevant factors that were evaluated through Parent Temperament Questionnaire (PTQ), physical examination, and residential questionnaires. We collected venipuncture blood samples from 303 children (aged 3-7 years old) between January and February 2008. Child BLL were higher in Guiyu than in Chendian (median 13.2 μg/dL, range 4.0-48.5 μg/dL vs. 8.2 μg/dL, 0-21.3 μg/dL) (P<0.01). Significant differences of mean scores in activity level (4.53±0.83 vs. 4.18±0.81), approach-withdrawal (4.62±0.85 vs. 4.31±0.89), and adaptability (4.96±0.73 vs. 4.67±0.83) were found between Guiyu and Chendian children (all P<0.01). High BLL (BLL≥10μg/dL) child had higher mean scores of approach-withdrawal when compared with those children with low BLL (BLL<10 μg/dL) (4.61±0.87 vs. 4.30±0.88, P<0.01). Location of child residence in Guiyu, and parents engagement in work related to e-waste were the risk factors related to child BLL, activity level, approach-withdrawal, adaptability, and mood. Child hand washing prior to food consumption was a protected factor for BLL and several dimensions. There are close relationships between BLL elevation, temperament alteration and the e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu. Primitive e-waste recycling may threaten the health of children by increasing BLL and altering children temperament, although the exposure to other toxicants needs to be examined in future studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  9. Going to Town: Where Is the Nearest Steakhouse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Growing up in Loretto, Tennessee, population 1,700, people called it "going to town" when they went to any city big enough to have a McDonald's, Walmart, or a movie theater. If someone is not from a small town, they may not know what type of economic activities a small town can support. Will the town have a police department? Will there…

  10. Export of toxic chemicals - a review of the case of uncontrolled electronic-waste recycling.

    PubMed

    Wong, M H; Wu, S C; Deng, W J; Yu, X Z; Luo, Q; Leung, A O W; Wong, C S C; Luksemburg, W J; Wong, A S

    2007-09-01

    This paper reviews the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants such as flame retardants (PBDEs), dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals/metalloid concentrations of different environmental media at Guiyu, a traditional rice-growing village located in southeastern Guangdong Province (PR China), which has turned into an intensive electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site. Incomplete combustion of e-waste in open air and dumping of processed materials are the major sources of various toxic chemicals. By comparing with existing data available in other areas and also guidelines adopted in different countries, it is obvious that the environment is highly contaminated by these toxic chemicals derived from the recycling processes. For example, the monthly concentration of the sum of 22 PBDE congeners contained in PM(2.5) (16.8ngm(-3)) of air samples at Guiyu was 100 times higher than published data. In order to safeguard the environment and human health, detailed investigations are urgently needed, especially on tracking the exposure pathways of different toxic chemicals which may affect the workers and local residents especially mothers, infants and children.

  11. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDDs/Fs) in dust, soil, sediment and health risk assessment from an intensive electronic waste recycling site in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianfang; Xiao, Xiao; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin; Chen, Deyi; Cai, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Workshop dust, soil and sediment samples were collected to investigate the level and spatial distribution of PCDDs/Fs at an intensive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in Southern China, and also to characterize the dioxin emission in different e-waste recycling procedures. The concentrations of total PCDDs/Fs ranged from 1866 to 234292 ng kg(-1) for the dust samples, from 3187 to 63998 ng kg(-1) dry wt for the top soils, and 33718 ng kg(-1) for the surface sediment. All the samples were characterized by abnormally high concentrations of OCDD and an extremely low portion of PCDFs. Different e-waste recycling procedures may generate different congener profiles. Open burning and dismantling were the two procedures emitting relatively higher concentrations of PCDDs/Fs in this case, indicating that low-tech recycling operations were one of the major contributors of PCDDs/Fs to the environment. The variation and distinction of the concentrations and homologue/congener profiles among different environmental matrices reveal the characteristics of contaminant environmental behavior and fate during the transportation from "source" to "sink". Daily intake of PCDDs/Fs through soil ingestion and dermal absorption was negligible, but the rough estimated total PCDD/F intake dose far exceeded the tolerance daily intake value of 4 pg-TEQ per kg per day recommended by WHO, indicating that residents in Longtang were at a high risk of exposure to dioxins, especially children.

  12. Changes in Small Town Social Capital and Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besser, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    Small towns are often depicted as places with many interpersonal relationships and generalized trust, or high social capital. Social capital is a resource which towns can use to solve problems and improve the local quality of life. In this paper, I determined if social capital and civic engagements have declined in small towns in the U.S. Midwest…

  13. Text Recycling in Scientific Writing.

    PubMed

    Moskovitz, Cary

    2018-03-15

    Text recycling, often called "self-plagiarism", is the practice of reusing textual material from one's prior documents in a new work. The practice presents a complex set of ethical and practical challenges to the scientific community, many of which have not been addressed in prior discourse on the subject. This essay identifies and discusses these factors in a systematic fashion, concluding with a new definition of text recycling that takes these factors into account. Topics include terminology, what is not text recycling, factors affecting judgements about the appropriateness of text recycling, and visual materials.

  14. Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?

    PubMed

    Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

    2014-08-16

    Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling.

  15. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil canmore » be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.« less

  16. Recycling parental sexual messages.

    PubMed

    Darling, C A; Hicks, M W

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore parent-child sexual communication by investigating the impact of direct and indirect parental messages on the sexual attitudes and sexual satisfaction of young adults. A survey research design was used to obtain data from undergraduate students attending a large Southern university. The findings indicate that both direct and indirect parental sexual messages are negative and restrictive and have a differential impact on sexual satisfaction and sexual attitudes. While sexual satisfaction was positive, sexual attitudes were found to be problematic, especially among females. Suggestions are given for approaches that family life educators and parents may use in order to recycle previous sexual messages.

  17. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio ( w/ c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/ c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  18. Anthropogenic sinkholes in the town of Naples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, Carmela; Parise, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The importance of sinkhole as a natural hazard is often underrated when compared with landslides, floods, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes in Italy. Sinkholes are rarely included in risk analysis despite their frequent occurrence in several parts of Italy, especially in karst lands or in those sectors of the country where artificial cavities have been realized underground by man for different purposes. Among the most affected Italian regions, Campania (southern Italy) stands out for several reasons, with particular regard to the town of Naples, highly affected by anthropogenic sinkholes. These latter have caused serious damage to society, and above all to people in terms of deaths, missing persons, and injured people, due to the high urbanization of the city, developed above a complex and extensive network of cavities, excavated during the 2000 years of history of the town. Among the different typologies of artificial cavities, it is worth mentioning the high number of ancient quarry used to extract the building materials for the town construction. The Institute of Research for the Hydrological Protection (IRPI) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) has been working in the last years at populating a specific chronological database on sinkholes in the whole Italian country. On the base of the collected data, Naples appears to have been affected by not less than 250 events from the beginning of the century to nowadays. The IRPI database includes only sinkholes for which a temporal reference on their time of occurrence is known. Particular attention was given on this information, since the catalogue idea is to make a starting point for a complete sinkhole hazard analysis. At this aim, knowledge of the time of occurrence is mandatory. Day, month and year of the event are known for about 70% of sinkholes that took place in Naples, but the hour of occurrence is known for just 6% of the data. Information about site of occurrence are, on the other hand, highly

  19. Study on the natural and humanistic environment of runcheng town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijun, Nie; Jinping, Wang

    2018-03-01

    Runcheng town is one of the first Chinese characteristic towns to be selected in Shanxi province. It is 38 kilometers from the Jin city and 7 kilometers from Yangcheng County. It’s also an important undertaking place for the project “Industrial Westward Move of Jincheng City” and an important tourist town of Qin Castle Valley. The Runcheng town has a history of thousands of years, with a deep cultural background and unique natural landscape. This paper studies the history and cultural resources and makes a preliminary study on the natural and humanistic environment of the Runcheng town.

  20. Trash track--active location sensing for evaluating e-waste transportation.

    PubMed

    Offenhuber, Dietmar; Wolf, Malima I; Ratti, Carlo

    2013-02-01

    Waste and recycling systems are complex and far-reaching, but its mechanisms are poorly understood by the public, in some cases government organizations and even the waste management sector itself. The lack of empirical data makes it challenging to assess the environmental impact of trash collection, removal and disposal. This is especially the case for the global movement of electronic wastes. Senseable City Lab's Trash Track project tackles this scarcity of data by following the trajectories of individual objects. The project presents a methodology involving active location sensors that were placed on end-of-life products donated by volunteers in the Seattle, Washington area. These tags sent location messages chronicling their journey, some over the course of a month or more. In this paper, the authors focus on the analysis of traces acquired from 146 items of electronic waste, estimating evaluating the environmental impact, including the travel distances and end-of-life treatments for the products. Combining this information with impact evaluation from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Waste Reduction Model (WARM) allows for the creation of environmental impact profiles for individual pieces of trash.

  1. Environmental risk related to specific processes during scrap computer recycling and disposal.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Shi, Pixing; Shan, Hongshan; Xie, Yijun

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to achieve a better understanding of the generation of toxic chemicals related to specific processes in scrap computer recycling and disposal, such as thermal recycling of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and the landfilling or dumping of cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Tube furnace pyrolysis was carried out to simulate different thermal treatment conditions for the identification of the by-products and potential environmental risk from thermal recycling ofPCBs. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a column test were used to study the leaching characteristics of lead from waste CRT glass, which is one of the most important environmental concerns arising from the disposal of e-waste. The results indicate that more attention should be paid to the benzene series when recycling PCBs under thermal conditions, especially for workers without any personal protection equipment. The impact of immersion on the leaching of lead from CRT leaded glass was more effective than the impact of washing only by acid rain. Thus when waste leaded glass has to be stored for some reason, the storage facility should be dry.

  2. Moving from recycling to waste prevention: A review of barriers and enables.

    PubMed

    Bartl, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Current European waste policy does not mainly aim to treat waste streams but rather place in the foreground of interest the complete supply chain of a product. Waste prevention and re-use do have the highest priority and they take effect before the end-of-life phase of a product or a material is reached. Recycling only takes the third place whereas recovery and disposal represent the least favourable options. Recycling can help to decrease the consumption of primary resources but it does not tackle the causes but only the symptoms. In principle, recycling processes require energy and will generate side streams (i.e. waste). Furthermore, there are insuperable barriers and the practice is far from 100% recycling. The philosophy of waste prevention and re-use is completely different since they really tackle the causes. It is self-evident that a decrease of waste will also decrease the consumption of resources, energy and money to process the waste. However, even if European legislation is proceeding in the right direction, a clear decrease in waste generation did not occur up to now. Unfortunately, waste generation represents a positive factor of economic growth. Basically, waste generation is a huge business and numerous stakeholders are not interested to reduce waste. More sophisticated incentives are required to decouple economic growth from waste generation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Pollution profiles and health risk assessment of VOCs emitted during e-waste dismantling processes associated with different dismantling methods.

    PubMed

    An, Taicheng; Huang, Yong; Li, Guiying; He, Zhigui; Chen, Jiangyao; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2014-12-01

    Pollution profiles of typical volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during dismantling of various printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) of e-wastes using different methods were comparatively investigated in the real e-waste dismantling workshops in South China in April 2013. Similar pollution profiles and concentrations of VOCs were observed between dismantling mobile phone and hard disk PCBAs by using electric blowers and between dismantling television and power supplier PCBAs using electric heating furnaces. Aromatic hydrocarbons (accounting for >60% of the sum of VOCs) were the dominant group during using electric blowers, while aromatic (accounting for >44% of the sum of VOCs) and halogenated hydrocarbons (accounting for >48% of the sum of VOCs) were the two dominant groups which contributed equally using electric heating furnaces. However, the distribution profiles of VOCs emitted during dismantling of televisions, hard disks and micro motors using rotary incinerators varied greatly, though aromatic hydrocarbons were still the dominant group. The combustion of e-wastes led to the most severe contamination of VOCs, with total VOCs (3.3×10(4) μg m(-3)) using rotary incinerators about 190, 180, 139, and 40 times higher than those using mechanical cutting, electric soldering iron, electric blower, and electric heating furnace, respectively. Both cancer and non-cancer risks existed for workers due to exposure to on-site emitted VOCs in all workshops especially in those using rotary incinerators according to the USEPA methodology, whereas only cancer risks existed in rotary incinerator workshops according to the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists methodology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recycling Study Guide [Resource Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    This resource packet contains six documents developed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in order to help teachers infuse the environmental education topics of recycling and solid waste into social studies, art, English, health, mathematics, science, and environmental education classes. "Recycling Study Guide" contains 19…

  5. Recycling Pressure-Sensitive Products

    Treesearch

    Jihui Guo; Larry Gwin; Carl Houtman; Mark Kroll; Steven J. Severtson

    2012-01-01

    The efficient control of contaminants such as metals, plastics, inks and adhesives during the processing of recovered paper products determines the profitability of recycling mills. In fact, it is arguably the most important technical obstacle in expanding the use of recycled paper.1-4 An especially challenging category of contaminants to manage...

  6. Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

    1973-01-01

    Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)

  7. American Art of Conspicuous Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Aurelia

    1999-01-01

    Characterizes the use of recycling "junk" as a means for creating art by exploring various recycling traditions that are present in the United States. Demonstrates to students that "junk" can be fashioned into beautiful works of art. Offers four works of art and provides discussion questions and project ideas for each artwork. (CMK)

  8. Bacterial cell-wall recycling

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jarrod W.; Fisher, Jed F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2012-01-01

    Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many—and quite possibly all—bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. While cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall–targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC β-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both β-lactamase and β-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of β-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC β-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

  9. Information Sources on Rural Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg; Kuske, Jodee

    1992-01-01

    Provides resources for rural recycling operations with the principle aim of assisting rural government officials, planners, residents, and educators to encourage recycling as an integral part of an individual's or community's solid waste management plan. Sources range from bibliographies, directories, and government documents to case studies. (49…

  10. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  11. Registrar working hours in Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Vadia, S; Kahn, D

    2005-08-01

    The number of hours worked by general surgical registrars in Europe and the USA has been reduced so as to reduce fatigue and the possibility of errors. The impact of these restrictions on surgical training remains unresolved. To date there are no officially reported data on the number of hours worked by registrars in South Africa. The aim of this study was to document the hours worked by registrars in general surgery in Cape Town. Thirty-three general surgical registrars at the University of Cape Town were asked to complete a time sheet over a 2-week period, indicating hours spent in hospital as part of a normal working day, hours spent in hospital outside of a normal day, hours at home on 'cold call' and hours off duty. Of the 33 registrars, 25 completed the time sheet. Registrars at Groote Schuur Hospital worked an average of 105 hours per week (68 hours in hospital and 37 hours on call at home). Registrars at New Somerset Hospital worked 79 hours per week (70 hours on site), while registrars at Red Cross Children's Hospital, G. F. Jooste Hospital and the Trauma Unit worked 60 - 69 hours per week. In the Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) registrars worked 75 hours per week. In conclusion, general surgical registrars at the University of Cape Town work hours in excess of European and American work-hour restrictions.

  12. Town mouse or country mouse: identifying a town dislocation effect in Chinese urbanization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Li, Shu; Bai, Xin-Wen; Ren, Xiao-Peng; Rao, Li-Lin; Li, Jin-Zhen; Liu, Huan; Liu, Hong-Zhi; Wu, Bin; Zheng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Understanding urbanization and evaluating its impact are vital for formulating global sustainable development. The results obtained from evaluating the impact of urbanization, however, depend on the kind of measurement used. With the goal of increasing our understanding of the impact of urbanization, we developed direct and indirect subjective indicators to measure how people assess their living situation. The survey revealed that the projected endorsements and perceived social ambiance of people toward living in different types of settlements did not improve along with the urbanization level in China. The assessment scores from the city dwellers were not significantly different from those from the country areas and, more surprisingly, both were significantly higher than the assessment scores of the town dwellers, which we had expected to fall between the assessment scores of the country and city dwellers. Instead their scores were the lowest. We dubbed this V-shaped relationship the "town dislocation effect." When searching for a potential explanation for this effect, we found additional town dislocation effects in social support, loss aversion, and receptivity toward genetically modified food. Further analysis showed that only social support mediated the relationship between the three tiers of settlements (cities, country areas, and towns) and the subjective indicator. The projected endorsements yielded significant subjective assessments that could enhance our understanding of Chinese urbanization. Towns posed specific problems that require special attention.

  13. Town Mouse or Country Mouse: Identifying a Town Dislocation Effect in Chinese Urbanization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Li, Shu; Bai, Xin-Wen; Ren, Xiao-Peng; Rao, Li-Lin; Li, Jin-Zhen; Liu, Huan; Liu, Hong-Zhi; Wu, Bin; Zheng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Understanding urbanization and evaluating its impact are vital for formulating global sustainable development. The results obtained from evaluating the impact of urbanization, however, depend on the kind of measurement used. With the goal of increasing our understanding of the impact of urbanization, we developed direct and indirect subjective indicators to measure how people assess their living situation. The survey revealed that the projected endorsements and perceived social ambiance of people toward living in different types of settlements did not improve along with the urbanization level in China. The assessment scores from the city dwellers were not significantly different from those from the country areas and, more surprisingly, both were significantly higher than the assessment scores of the town dwellers, which we had expected to fall between the assessment scores of the country and city dwellers. Instead their scores were the lowest. We dubbed this V-shaped relationship the “town dislocation effect.” When searching for a potential explanation for this effect, we found additional town dislocation effects in social support, loss aversion, and receptivity toward genetically modified food. Further analysis showed that only social support mediated the relationship between the three tiers of settlements (cities, country areas, and towns) and the subjective indicator. The projected endorsements yielded significant subjective assessments that could enhance our understanding of Chinese urbanization. Towns posed specific problems that require special attention. PMID:25973960

  14. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving forcemore » for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is

  15. Recycling microcavity optical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Heather K; Armani, Andrea M

    2011-04-01

    Optical biosensors have tremendous potential for commercial applications in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety evaluation. In these applications, sensor reuse is desirable to reduce costs. To achieve this, harsh, wet chemistry treatments are required to remove surface chemistry from the sensor, typically resulting in reduced sensor performance and increased noise due to recognition moiety and optical transducer degradation. In the present work, we suggest an alternative, dry-chemistry method, based on O2 plasma treatment. This approach is compatible with typical fabrication of substrate-based optical transducers. This treatment completely removes the recognition moiety, allowing the transducer surface to be refreshed with new recognition elements and thus enabling the sensor to be recycled.

  16. Recycling in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, C.L.

    1996-05-01

    The commonwealth of Puerto Rico has never had a traditional, centrally organized solid waste management system. In the past, municipalities provided service for their own residents and the island used 62 unlined landfills. In April 1994, 32 of those landfills closed. A study released in 1995 found that residents of Puerto Rico generate 8,100 tons of waste each day, at a per capita rate of 4.9 pounds per day. A solid waste management strategy unveiled with much fanfare early last year included plans to build an integrated system of collection, transfer stations, and disposal sites. These sites would be market-drivenmore » by recycling and hinged on partnerships between the public and private sectors and public education. A key to Puerto Rico`s plan was investment by the private sector.« less

  17. Exposure to hazardous substances in Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) recycling sites in France

    SciTech Connect

    Lecler, Marie-Thérèse, E-mail: marie-therese.lecler@inrs.fr; Zimmermann, François; Silvente, Eric

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the nine cathode ray tube screens recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are dust containing lead, cadmium, barium and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels are described for different operations and processes. • All the operations and processes are concerned by significant levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or e-waste recycling sector has grown considerably in the last fifteen years due to the ever shorter life cycles of consumables and an increasingly restrictive policy context. Cathode Ray Tubesmore » (CRTs) from used television and computer screens represent one of the main sources of e-waste. CRTs contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, barium, and fluorescent powders which can be released if recycling of CRTs is not appropriate. Exposure to these harmful substances was assessed in nine workshops where CRT screens are treated. Particulate exposure levels were measured using a gravimetric method and metals were analysed by plasma emission spectrometry. The maximum levels of worker exposure were 8.8 mg/m{sup 3}, 1504.3 μg/m{sup 3}, 434.9 μg/m{sup 3}, 576.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 2894.3 μg/m{sup 3} respectively for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The maximum levels of airborne pollutants in static samples were 39.0 mg/m{sup 3}, 848.2 μg/m{sup 3}, 698.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 549.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 3437.9 μg/m{sup 3} for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The most harmful operations were identified, and preventive measures for reducing the chemical risk associated with screen recycling were proposed. Workplace measurements were used to define recommendations for reducing the chemical risks in CRT screens recycling facilities and for promoting the design and development of “clean and safe” processes in emerging recycling channels.« less

  18. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  19. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  20. Do bird assemblages predict susceptibility by e-waste pollution? A comparative study based on species- and guild-dependent responses in China agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Jiangping; Sun, Yuxin; Zhang, Min; Mai, Bixian; Mo, Ling; Lee, Tien Ming; Zou, Fasheng

    2015-01-01

    Indirect effects of electronic waste (e-waste) have been proposed as a causal factor in the decline of bird populations, but analyses of the severity impacts on community assembly are currently lacking. To explore how population abundance/species diversity are influenced, and which functional traits are important in determining e-waste susceptibility, here we surveyed breeding and overwintering birds with a hierarchically nested sampling design, and used linear mixed models to analyze changes in bird assemblages along an exposure gradient in South China. Total bird abundance and species diversity decreased with e-waste severity (exposed < surrounding < reference), reflecting the decreasing discharge and consequent side effects. Twenty-five breeding species exclusively used natural farmland, and nine species decreased significantly in relative abundance at e-waste polluted sites. A high pairwise similarity between exposed and surrounding sites indicates a diffuse effect of pollutants on the species assembly at local scale. We show that sensitivity to e-waste severity varies substantially across functional guild, with the prevalence of woodland insectivorous and grassland specialists declining, while some open farmland generalists such as arboreal frugivores, and terrestrial granivores were also rare. By contrast, the response of waterbirds, omnivorous and non-breeding visitors seem to be tolerable to a wide range of pollution so far. These findings underscore that improper e-waste dismantling results in a severe decline of bird diversity, and the different bird assemblages on polluted and natural farmlands imply species- and guild-dependent susceptibility with functional traits. Moreover, a better understanding of the impact of e-waste with different pollution levels, combined multiple pollutants, and in a food-web context on bird is required in future.

  1. Do Bird Assemblages Predict Susceptibility by E-Waste Pollution? A Comparative Study Based on Species- and Guild-Dependent Responses in China Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Jiangping; Sun, Yuxin; Zhang, Min; Mai, Bixian; Mo, Ling; Lee, Tien Ming; Zou, Fasheng

    2015-01-01

    Indirect effects of electronic waste (e-waste) have been proposed as a causal factor in the decline of bird populations, but analyses of the severity impacts on community assembly are currently lacking. To explore how population abundance/species diversity are influenced, and which functional traits are important in determining e-waste susceptibility, here we surveyed breeding and overwintering birds with a hierarchically nested sampling design, and used linear mixed models to analyze changes in bird assemblages along an exposure gradient in South China. Total bird abundance and species diversity decreased with e-waste severity (exposed < surrounding < reference), reflecting the decreasing discharge and consequent side effects. Twenty-five breeding species exclusively used natural farmland, and nine species decreased significantly in relative abundance at e-waste polluted sites. A high pairwise similarity between exposed and surrounding sites indicates a diffuse effect of pollutants on the species assembly at local scale. We show that sensitivity to e-waste severity varies substantially across functional guild, with the prevalence of woodland insectivorous and grassland specialists declining, while some open farmland generalists such as arboreal frugivores, and terrestrial granivores were also rare. By contrast, the response of waterbirds, omnivorous and non-breeding visitors seem to be tolerable to a wide range of pollution so far. These findings underscore that improper e-waste dismantling results in a severe decline of bird diversity, and the different bird assemblages on polluted and natural farmlands imply species- and guild-dependent susceptibility with functional traits. Moreover, a better understanding of the impact of e-waste with different pollution levels, combined multiple pollutants, and in a food-web context on bird is required in future. PMID:25811881

  2. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    DOEpatents

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  3. TOWN HALL MEETING-SCCM 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Eggert, J.; Ryan, S. J.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2009-12-28

    The following article contains the summary of the discussion held at the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter Town Hall Meeting. This was held on Tuesday afternoon of the meeting and attracted 100+ attendees. This meeting, chaired by John Eggert, was planned to introduce challenges in selected topics relevant to shock wave science. The three subjects and speakers were: space research introduced by Shannon Ryan, nanotechnology presented by Kaliat T. Ramesh, and compression tools delivered by Dave Funk. After each presentation there were a number of questions.

  4. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  5. 16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... established recycling program for reuse or use in manufacturing or assembling another item. (b) Marketers... the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling..., means at least 60 percent. (2) When recycling facilities are available to less than a substantial...

  6. 16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... established recycling program for reuse or use in manufacturing or assembling another item. (b) Marketers... the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling..., means at least 60 percent. (2) When recycling facilities are available to less than a substantial...

  7. 78 FR 69531 - America Recycles Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    .... Recycling not only reduces pollution, but also saves energy, preserves valuable raw materials, and reduces... recycling a part of our daily lives. We should reuse or donate when possible, and recycle or compost as much as we are able. Students can get involved by championing waste-free lunches, recycling programs, and...

  8. The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A student hand-out for a recycling unit defines the terms reduce, recycle, and reuse as they relate to solid waste management. Presents the characteristics of recyclable items such as yard wastes, metals, glass, and paper. Lists organizations through which more information about recycling can be obtained. (MCO)

  9. Ship recycling and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Wang, Nannan; Durak, Onur Sabri

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses the historical background, structure and enforcement of the '2009 Hong Kong International Convention on the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships.' the 2009 Hong Kong Convention establishes control and enforcement instruments related to ship recycling, determining the control rights of Port States and the obligations of Flag States, Parties and recycling facilities under its jurisdiction. The Convention also controls the communication and exchange of information procedures, establishes a reporting system to be used upon the completion of recycling, and outlines an auditing system for detecting violations. The Convention, however, also contains some deficiencies. This paper concludes these deficiencies will eventually influence the final acceptance of this Convention by the international community. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Some problems of Maryland towns as seen by their mayors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Conversations were held with the mayors of six Maryland towns to discuss possible models and needs for technology transfer. An unexpected outcome of the discussions was a considerable insight into local problems as perceived by the mayors. Problems, whether administrative, socio-economic, or technological, are different, from town to town, in degree, not in kind. Recognition of this feature of local priorities is vital to any considerations of external assistance.

  11. Sundown Town to "Little Mexico": Old-Timers and Newcomers in an American Small Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Eileen Diaz; Miraftab, Faranak

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century, communities across the United States legally employed strategies to create and maintain racial divides. One particularly widespread and effective practice was that of "sundown towns," which signaled to African Americans and others that they were not welcome within the city limits after dark. Though nearly 1,000…

  12. Recycling steel. Conducting a waste audit.

    PubMed

    Crawford, G

    1996-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three articles regarding steel can recycling from foodservice operations of healthcare facilities. This article highlights the basic methods of recycling steel cans, and includes information on conducting a waste audit and negotiating with a hauler regarding the benefits of recycling. The previous article discussed how steel is recycled across the country. The next article will convey a case history of actual foodservice recycling practice from a healthcare facility.

  13. Exposure to PCBs, through inhalation, dermal contact and dust ingestion at Taizhou, China--a major site for recycling transformers.

    PubMed

    Xing, Guan Hua; Liang, Ying; Chen, Ling Xuan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-04-01

    Air samples containing gaseous and particulate phases were collected from e-waste workplaces and residential areas of an intensive e-waste recycling area and compared with a reference site. The highest total concentration of PCBs was detected at transformer recycling workshops (17.6 ng m(-3)), followed by the residential area (3.37 ng m(-3)) at Taizhou, and the lowest was obtained at the residential area of the reference site, Lin'an (0.46 ng m(-3)). The same trend was also observed with regards to PCB levels in dust samples. The highest average PCBs level of 2824 ng g(-1) (dry wt) was found in the transformer recycling workshops, and was significantly higher than that of residential areas of Taizhou (572 ng g(-1) dry wt) and Lin'an (42.4 ng g(-1) dry wt). WHO-PCB-TEQ level in the workshops of Taizhou was 2216 pg TEQ(1998)g(-1) dry wt or 2159 pg TEQ(2005)g(-1) dry wt, due to the high abundance of PCB 126 (21.5 ng g(-1) dry wt), which contributed 97% or 99% of WHO-PCB-TEQs. The estimated intake of PCBs via dust ingestion and dermal absorption by transformer recycling workers were 77.5×10(-5) and 36.0×10(-5) pg WHO-PCB-TEQ(1998)kg(-1)d(-1), and 67.3×10(-5) and 31.3×10(-5) pg WHO-PCB-TEQ(2005)kg(-1)d(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Rethinking Recycling in Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P.; Behn, M. D.; Jagoutz, O.

    2012-12-01

    Hacker et al EPSL 2011 and Behn et al Nature Geosci 2011 investigated pathways for return of buoyant, subducted material to arc crust. These include (1) diapirs rising into the hot mantle wedge, with extensive melts adding a component to arc magmas, (2) flow of material back up a relatively cold "subduction channel", adding solids to the lower crust and small-degree partial melts to the upper crust, (3) flow from the forearc along the base of arc crust, and (4) imbrication of forearc material into arc crust. These processes add felsic, incompatible-element-rich components to arc crust. The flux of incompatible elements such as Th in arc lavas, thought to be mainly recycled from subducted sediments, is > sediment subduction flux. There are large uncertainties: arc crustal growth rates are imprecise; young, primitive arc lavas may not be representative of magmatic flux into arc crust; sediment subduction flux may have varied. Nevertheless, this result is found for all arcs examined, using recently published growth rates. Perhaps arc growth rates that include subduction erosion are systematically overestimated. Instead or in addition, maybe significant Th comes from material other than sediments. Here, we consider the implications of pathways 1-4 for arc growth rates and incompatible element enrichment, in the context of subduction erosion and arc-arc collision. Subducting arc lithologies can become separated, with only felsic components returned to arc crust. Buoyant lithologies are mobile in viscous instabilities at > 700-800°C. Whereas thin layers such as sediments may become mobile all at once, instabilities may periodically strip the hottest parts from the top of thick buoyant layers, replacing them with hot mantle. In arc-arc collision, the top of a subducting plate starts at about 0°C on the seafloor, so heating is slow. In subduction erosion, forearc material in the subducting package can be > 200°C before erosion so buoyant lithologies reach 700-800

  15. Characterization of Size-Fractionated Airborne Particles Inside an Electronic Waste Recycling Facility and Acute Toxicity Testing in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Ho; Wyrzykowska-Ceradini, Barbara; Touati, Abderrahmane; Krantz, Q Todd; Dye, Janice A; Linak, William P; Gullett, Brian; Gilmour, M Ian

    2015-10-06

    Disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in landfills, incinerators, or at rudimentary recycling sites can lead to the release of toxic chemicals into the environment and increased health risks. Developing e-waste recycling technologies at commercial facilities can reduce the release of toxic chemicals and efficiently recover valuable materials. While these e-waste operations represent a vast improvement over previous approaches, little is known about environmental releases, workplace exposures, and potential health impacts. In this study, airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured at various locations within a modern U.S.-based e-waste recycling facility that utilized mechanical processing. In addition, composite size fractionated PM (coarse, fine and ultrafine) samples were collected, extracted, chemically analyzed, and given by oropharyngeal aspiration to mice or cultured with lung slices for lung toxicity tests. Indoor total PM concentrations measured during the study ranged from 220 to 1200 μg/m(3). In general, the coarse PM (2.5-10 μm) was 3-4 times more abundant than fine/ultrafine PM (<2.5 μm). The coarse PM contained higher levels of Ni, Pb, and Zn (up to 6.8 times) compared to the fine (0.1-2.5 μm) and ultrafine (<0.1 μm) PM. Compared to coarse PM measurements from a regional near-roadway study, Pb and Ni were enriched 170 and 20 times, respectively, in the indoor PM, with other significant enrichments (>10 times) observed for Zn and Sb, modest enrichments (>5 times) for Cu and Sr, and minor enrichments (>2 times) for Cr, Cd, Mn, Ca, Fe, and Ba. Negligible enrichment (<2 times) or depletion (<1 time) were observed for Al, Mg, Ti, Si, and V. The coarse PM fraction elicited significant pro-inflammatory responses in the mouse lung at 24 h postexposure compared to the fine and ultrafine PM, and similar toxicity outcomes were observed in the lung slice model. We conclude that exposure to coarse PM from the facility caused substantial inflammation in the

  16. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; <1.4-100, <1.2-100, and <0.5-20 ng/L, respectively). Interestingly, there were specific PFC profiles: perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorohexanoic acid (88 and 77 ng/L, respectively) were almost as abundant as PFOA in MD leachate (100 ng/L), whereas PFNA was prevalent in ER and BR (mean, 17 and 6.2 ng/L, respectively) and PFUDA was the most abundant in municipal wastewater (mean, 5.6 ng/L), indicating differences in PFC contents in different waste materials.

  17. Global reverse supply chain design for solid waste recycling under uncertainties and carbon emission constraint.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhitao; Elomri, Adel; Pokharel, Shaligram; Zhang, Qin; Ming, X G; Liu, Wenjie

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of concerns over environmental protection, resource conservation as well as the development of logistics operations and manufacturing technology has led several countries to implement formal collection and recycling systems of solid waste. Such recycling system has the benefits of reducing environmental pollution, boosting the economy by creating new jobs, and generating income from trading the recyclable materials. This leads to the formation of a global reverse supply chain (GRSC) of solid waste. In this paper, we investigate the design of such a GRSC with a special emphasis on three aspects; (1) uncertainty of waste collection levels, (2) associated carbon emissions, and (3) challenges posed by the supply chain's global aspect, particularly the maritime transportation costs and currency exchange rates. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first attempt to integrate the three above-mentioned important aspects in the design of a GRSC. We have used mixed integer-linear programming method along with robust optimization to develop the model which is validated using a sample case study of e-waste management. Our results show that using a robust model by taking the complex interactions characterizing global reverse supply chain networks into account, we can create a better GRSC. The effect of uncertainties and carbon constraints on decisions to reduce costs and emissions are also shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Why Devil's town has Devil's water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovic, Sladjana; Mitriceski, Bojana

    2015-04-01

    Why Devil's town has Devil's water In the south of Serbia, lies a first-class natural landmark "Devil's Town" at an altitude of 660-700 m. Earthen figures or "towers" as the locals call them, are located in the watershed between two gullies, whose sources joined together create a unique erosive formation, tremendously demolished by the erosive processes. The gullies also have strange names: "Devil's Gully" and "Hell's Gully". There are two rare natural phenomena at the same spot: 202 earthen figures of different shape and dimension, from 2 m to 15 m in height, and from 0.5 m to 3 m in width, with stone caps on the top. They are an outcome of a specific erosive process that lasts for centuries. When figures are formed, they grow, change, shorten, gradually (very slowly) disappear and reappear. The loose soil is dissolved and washed away by the rain. However, the material under the stone caps is protected from the "bombardment" of the rain drops and washout, and remains in place in the form of the rising earthen pillars - figures. Another natural rarity in "Devil's Town" are two springs of extraordinary properties "Devil's Water", which is located in vicinity of these earthen figures, is a cold and extremely acid spring (pH 1.5) of high mineral concentration (15 g/l of water), springing out in "Devil's Gully". In comparison to drinking water, it is 10 to 1000 times richer in minerals (aluminium, iron, potassium, copper, nickel, sulphur, and alaun). "Red Well" is another spring located downstream, in the alluvial plain, 400 m away from the first spring. Its water (pH 3.5) is less acid and has a lower general mineral concentration (4.372 mg/l of water). Due to the oxidation of iron, which is contained in water in large amounts, an attractive red terrace in the form of a fan is created. The main assessment for students is to take some examples of water from Devils Gully and the others from Red Well . Second part is to find out content of minerals in water examples and

  19. The Cape Town Statement on Geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Peppoloni, Silvia; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The interest of geoscientists in (geo)ethical aspects of geoscience knowledge, education, research and practice is rising and today geoethics has a significant visibility. This prominence is the result of hard work done in the last 4 years by the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics (http://www.geoethics.org), a not-for-profit, multidisciplinary, scientific network (with more than 1350 members in 107 countries) established for widening the discussion and creating awareness about problems of ethics applied to the geosciences. IAPG has produced a strong conceptual substratum on which to base the future development of geoethics, by clarifying the meaning of the word Geoethics, formalizing its definition, and identifying a framework of reference values on which the geoscience community can base more effective codes of conduct. IAPG members have published numerous books and articles in peer reviewed international journals, and organized scientific sessions to bring geoethics at the most important geoscience conferences. Geoethical issues have been included in the European project ENVRI-Plus, dedicated to the environmental and solid Earth research infrastructures. Moreover, the most prestigious geoscience organizations around the world now recognize geoethics as an important issue that warrants attention. This success was confirmed by the high quality of contents and the large participation of scientists in the 6 technical sessions and single panel session on geoethics organized by IAPG at the 35th IGC - International Geological Congress, held in 2016 in Cape Town (South Africa), with the cooperative work of different geoscience organizations (IUGS-TGGP - Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism; GSL - Geological Society of London; EFG - European Federation of Geologists; EGS - EuroGeoSurveys; AGI - American Geosciences Institute; AGU - American Geophysical Union, and AAWG - African Association of Women in Geosciences). IAPG considers the 35th

  20. PRESENT CONDITION OF FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LOOP BASED ON RECYCLING PROJECT CERTIFICATION OF THE FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Tomoko; Kanaya, Ken

    Purpose of this research is to clear present condition of food waste recycling loops based on recycling project certification of the Food Waste Recycling Law. Method of this research is questionnaire survey to companies constituting the loops. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. Proponents of the loop is most often the recycling companies. 2. Food waste recycling rate is 61% for the food retailing industry and 81% for the food service industry. These values are higher than the national average in 2006. The effect of the revision of recycling project certification is suggested.

  1. Profiles, sources, and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils affected by electronic waste recycling in Longtang, south China.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Yin; Liu, Chuan-Ping; Li, Fang-Bai; Liu, Tong-Xu; Liu, Cheng-Shuai; Tao, Liang; Wang, Yan

    2014-06-01

    We studied the profiles, possible sources, and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils from the Longtang area, which is an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling center in south China. The sum of 16 PAH concentrations ranged from 25 to 4,300 ng/g (dry weight basis) in the following order: pond sediment sites (77 ng/g), vegetable fields (129 ng/g), paddy fields (180 ng/g), wastelands (258 ng/g), dismantling sites (678 ng/g), and former open burning sites (2,340 ng/g). Naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene were the dominant PAHs and accounted for approximately 75 % of the total PAHs. The similar composition characteristics of PAHs and the significant correlations among individual, low molecular weight, high molecular weight, and total PAHs were found in all six sampling site types, thus indicating that PAHs originated from similar sources. The results of both isomeric ratios and principal component analyses confirmed that PAHs were mainly derived from the incomplete combustion of e-waste. The former open burning sites and dismantling sites were the main sources of PAHs. Soil samples that were taken closer to the point sources had high PAH concentrations. PAHs are transported via different soil profiles, including those in agricultural fields, and have been detected not only in 0- to 40-cm-deep soil but also in 40 cm to 80 cm-deep soil. PAH concentrations in soils in Longtang have been strongly affected by primitive e-waste recycling, particularly by former open burning activities.

  2. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  3. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M

    2005-04-05

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming,more » scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite

  4. Guidelines for Speed Reduction in Towns Along Rural Highways

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of the study undertaken to develop a guideline for setting up speed limit in towns along rural highways of Nevada. Generally, speed zones are provided in towns along rural highways to reduce speed-related crashes. How...

  5. The Spatial Pattern of Intelligence in a Small Town.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William H.

    The document measures the spatial patterns of mental abilities of 94 seventh-grade students within a small town by correlating and mapping four variables--IQ test scores, achievement test scores, neighborhood quality as seen by town officials, and creativity test scores from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Objectives were to ascertain the…

  6. Town Flush with Benefits from New Water System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An EPA-funded project to replace the aging and undersized water lines in a Virginia town has transformed the community–providing cost savings, improved water quality and greater public safety, while eliminating leaks that drained half of the town' water.

  7. Being Superintendent of a Small-Town District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuck, Richard A.; Schmuck, Patricia A.

    Because of their visibility at the center stage of community life, small-town superintendents have a greater opportunity to act as participatory managers and instructional leaders. This paper reports the results of surveys with 25 small-town school superintendents to discover rural/urban differences, work patterns, and exemplary practices in…

  8. Recycling of polymers: a review.

    PubMed

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob

    2014-06-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Scrap computer recycling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Chang, S.L.; Wang, K.M.

    1999-07-01

    It is estimated that approximately 700,000 scrap personal computers will be generated each year in Taiwan. The disposal of such a huge amount of scrap computers presents a difficult task for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. Also, the hazardous materials contained in the scrap computers may cause serious pollution to the environment, if they are not properly disposed. Thus, EPA of Taiwan has declared scrap personal computers as a producer responsibility recycling product on July 1997 to mandate that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of personal computers have to recover and recyclemore » their scrap computers properly. Beginning on June 1, 1998, a scrap computer recycling plan is officially implemented on the island. Under this plan, consumers can deliver their unwanted personal computers to the designated collection points to receive reward money. Currently, only six items are mandated to be recycled in this recycling plan. They are notebooks, monitor and the hard disk, power supply, printed circuit board and shell of the main frame of the personal computer. This paper presents the current scrap computer recycling system in Taiwan.« less

  10. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    PubMed

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  11. Small Towns in a Rural Area: A Study of the Problems of Small Towns in Idaho. Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin No. 91, April 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, J. R.; And Others

    Using aggregate data from several Idaho counties and towns, the study examined the economic forces which pressure small town people and merchants--pressures which ultimately shape and will shape small towns in areas like Idaho. Six towns chosen for intensive study were Priest River, Cottonwood, Riggins, Shoshone, Oakley, and Malad. Focusing on…

  12. Public, experts join at town meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    About 80 citizens concerned with the threat of ozone depletion attended a public meeting on June 9 in Charlottesville, Va., to discuss the issue with a panel of six leading ozone experts. Held in conjunction with the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, the town meeting was videotaped for airing on public broadcast stations this fall. The meeting was aimed at nonexperts, to “get the word out” to the public, said the moderator, journalist Peter Hackes.The lively, sometimes heated discussion showed the public's high awareness and concern over problems associated with ozone depletion. During the nearly 2-hour meeting topics ranged from the reparability of the ozone layer, to steps the public can take to help mitigate ozone loss, to reports of increased cases of skin cancer due to more ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface. There were also some claims that ozone depletion is overexaggerated and is a hoax for scientists to get more research funding.

  13. Promoting small towns for rural development: a view from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bajracharya, B N

    1995-06-01

    Two small villages in Nepal are the subjects of case studies that illustrate the role of small towns in provision of services, employment, and market operations. Some general findings are that small towns act as service centers for distribution of basic essential goods such as food grains, salt, kerosene, and fabric for hill and mountain areas. The role of small towns as market centers and in the provision of employment is limited. In resource-poor areas small towns are less diversified. Towns with agricultural surpluses are more developed. Small hill towns satisfy consumption rather than production needs. The growth of rural areas and towns in rural areas in Nepal is dependent on arable land and levels of production in hill areas. Limited land and low levels of production have an adverse impact. Movement of people, goods, and services is limited by difficult terrain and lack of access to good roads. Variability in access to off-farm jobs and services available in small towns varies with ethnicity and place of residence. The best development strategy for small towns in Nepal is market-oriented territorial development, which retains surpluses in the local area and integrates markets in the larger economy. The strategy would decentralize planning into small territorial units that include both small towns and groups of villages, provide institutional support for the rural poor, expand off-farm employment, and include investment in region-serving functions. Subsistence agriculture needs to include diversification of high value cash crops based on local comparative advantage suitable for hill climate and terrain. Small farmers must produce both cash and subsistence crops. Government should provide market space and paved areas, weighing facilities, and overnight storage facilities. Products would be processed at the village level. Subdistricts must be established according to spatial and social linkages between villages and the service center and coordinated at the

  14. Recycling Expensive Medication: Why Not?

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantz, Jay M

    2004-01-01

    New (and proposed) advances in packaging, preserving, labeling, and verifying product integrity of individual tablets and capsules may allow for the recycling of certain expensive medicines. Previously sold, but unused, medication, if brought back to special pharmacies for resale or donation, may provide a low-cost source of patent-protected medicines. Benefits of such a program go beyond simply providing affordable medication to the poor. This article suggests that medicine recycling may be a possibility (especially if manufacturers are mandated to blister-package and bar-code individual tablets and capsules). This early discussion of medication recycling identifies relevant issues, such as: need, rationale, existing programs, available supplies, expiration dates, new technology for ensuring safety and potency, environmental impact, public health benefits, program focus, program structure, and liability. PMID:15266231

  15. Habitat- and species-dependent accumulation of organohalogen pollutants in home-produced eggs from an electronic waste recycling site in South China: Levels, profiles, and human dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Bin; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Organohalogen pollutants (OHPs) including chlorinated paraffins (CPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other halogenated flame retardants (OHFRs) (dechlorane plus (DP), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)) originating from an e-waste recycling area in Guiyu, southern China were investigated in chicken and goose eggs. As expected, OHP concentrations were higher in chicken eggs collected from the location (site 1) approaching the e-waste recycling center than from the location (site 2) far from the e-waste recycling center. Also, much higher OHP levels were observed in goose eggs foraging in residential area (site 2) than that in agricultural area (site 1), suggesting a clear habitat dependent OHP bioaccumulation pattern both concerning distance from e-waste activities and type of foraging habitat. Goose eggs exhibited higher short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) concentrations but lower PBDE and OHFR levels than chicken eggs. The proportion of high brominated PBDEs (hepta-to deca-BDEs) was lower in goose eggs than that in chicken eggs and showed a clear decrease from site 1 to site 2. DP isomeric composition fanti values (the ratio of the anti-DP to the sum of the anti- and syn-DP) in goose eggs were significantly lower than those in chicken eggs (p < 0.001). These differences are likely a reflection of factors such as the species-specific differences in habitat preference and the differing environmental behaviors of the pollutants owing to their inherent properties (such as solubility and vapor pressure). Our findings suggested a high dietary intake of OHPs via home-produced eggs. For BDE99 there is a potential health concern with respect to the current dietary exposure via eggs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Process to recycle shredder residue

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  17. A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

    This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

  18. The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

  19. Distribution of metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in sediments, soils and plants from an informal e-waste dismantling site, South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junxia; Liu, Lili; Wang, Jinfu; Pan, Bishu; Fu, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Long; Lin, Kuangfei

    2015-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA)) and metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg and As) in sediments, soils and herb plants from unregulated e-waste disposal sites were examined. The metal concentrations, ∑PBDE and TBBPA concentrations in all samples from the examined e-waste dismantling sites were relatively high in comparison with those of rural and urban areas around the world. The PBDE and TBBPA levels in soils significantly decreased with increasing distance from the e-waste dismantling sites, indicating that PBDEs and TBBPA had similar transport potential from the e-waste dismantling process as a point source to the surrounding region. BDE-209 and TBBPA predominated in all samples, which is consistent with the evidence that the deca-BDE and TBBPA commercial mixtures were extensively used in electronic products. Metals, PBDEs and TBBPA displayed significant positive correlations with TOC, whereas the correlations with pH were insignificant, indicating that TOC was a major factor governing the spatial distribution, transportation and fate in sediments and soils. A significant relationship between log-transformed metals and BFR concentrations indicated common pollution sources. Moreover, cluster analysis and principal component analysis further confirmed that the metals and BFRs had a common source, and penta- and deca-BDE commercial products may be two sources of PBDEs in this region.

  20. Field investigation of the quality of fresh and aged leachates from selected landfills receiving e-waste in an arid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Kiddee, Peeranart; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide 5095; Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au

    Highlights: • E-waste comprises approximately 6% of the waste mass going to landfill in South Australia. • Significant amounts of metal(loids)s and PBDEs are released from e-waste mixed with municipal solid in landfill leachates. • Significantly elevated concentrations of lead and PBDEs are detected in groundwater wells downgradient of landfills. • Significant temporal variation exists in electrical conductivity and in the concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in leachates. - Abstract: The management of electronic waste (e-waste) is a serious problem worldwide and much of it is landfilled. A survey of four selected landfills in an arid region of Southmore » Australia was conducted to determine the proportion of e-waste in municipal waste and the properties of each landfill site. Leachate and groundwater samples were collected upgradient and downgradient of the landfills for analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 14 metals and metalloids, including Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn. Our data demonstrate that the selected landfills in South Australia continue to receive municipal waste containing in excess of 6%, or 25,000 tonnes per year, of e-waste. The leachates and groundwater collected from the landfills contained significantly elevated concentrations of Pb with the highest concentration in groundwater of 38 μg/l, almost four times higher than the Australian drinking water guideline of 10 μg/l. The presence of PBDEs was detected in both leachate and groundwater samples. Total PBDEs values of 2.13–59.75 ng/l in leachate samples were 10 times higher than in groundwater samples, which recorded a range of 0.41–6.53 ng/l at all sites. Moreover, the concentrations of metals and metalloids in sampled groundwater contained elevated levels of Al, As, Fe, Ni and Pb that exceeded Australian drinking water guideline values. For these reasons potential leaching of these contaminants is of concern and while difficult to

  1. Performance of Recycled Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-05-01

    This research project was undertaken to evaluate the performance of recycled pavements in comparison to virgin (control) asphalt pavements. Five projects, each consisting of a recycled section and a control section, were subjected to detailed evaluat...

  2. Recycled materials in Portland cement concrete

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-06-01

    This report pertains to a comprehensive study involving the use of recycled materials in Portland cement concrete. Three different materials were studied including crushed glass (CG), street sweepings (SS), and recycled concrete (RC). Blast furnace s...

  3. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    DOEpatents

    Grot, Stephen [Middletown, DE; Grot, Walther [Chadds Ford, PA

    2007-08-14

    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  4. Converting Garbage to Gold: Recycling Our Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, William U.

    1984-01-01

    Recycling conserves energy, fights pollution and inflation, creates jobs, and improves the outlook for the future of materials. But converting a throwaway society to recycling will depend on finding good markets for waste paper and scrap metals. (RM)

  5. Durable Recycled Superpave Mixes in Kansas

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-04-01

    The use of economical and environment-friendly recycled asphalt materials has become increasingly popular for asphalt pavement construction. In general, reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) are used in hot-mix asphalt ...

  6. Food Service Recycling: Whose Responsibility Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settanni, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    The food service department at a Pennsylvania school district recycles polystyrene "styrofoam" cups, plates, and food trays. In addition, the department recycles glass, aluminum, and paper. Offers advice on how to set up a school program. (MLF)

  7. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  8. Long-term aging of recycled binders.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-07-01

    Asphalt pavement is Americas most recycled material. Eighty million tons of asphalt, nearly 80% of all milled asphalt pavement, : is recycled every year [1]. To effectively maintain its 40,000 miles of paved roads, the Florida Department of Transp...

  9. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, F.L.; Wells, F.C.; Shelby, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are impoundments on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and are a source of water for municipal industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Small vertical temperature variations in both lakes were attributed to shallow depths in the lakes and short retention times of water in the lakes during the summer months. The largest areal variations in dissolved oxygen generally occur in Lake Austin during the summer as a result of releases of water from below the thermocline in Lake Travis. Except formore » iron, manganese, and mercury, dissolved concentrations of trace elements in water collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake did not exceed the primary or secondary drinking water standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Little or no effect of stormwater runoff on temperature, dissolved oxygen, or minor elements could be detected in either Lake Austin or Town Lake. Little seasonal or areal variation was noted in nitrogen concentrations in Lake Austin or Town lake. Total phosphorus concentrations generally were small in both lakes. Increased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were detected after storm runoff inflow in Town Lake, but not in Lake Austin; densities of fecal-coliform bacteria increased in Lake Austin and Town Lake, but were substantially greater in Town Lake than in Lake Austin. 18 refs., 38 figs., 59 tabs.« less

  10. [Polychlorinated biphenyls in house dust at an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China: sources and human exposure and health risks].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, She-Jun; Ding, Nan; Wang, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust from an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China. The PCB concentrations in house dust at the e-waste site ranged from 12.4 to 87 765 ng x g(-1), with an average of 10 167 ng x g(-1). There was no significant difference in the PCB concentrations between indoor and outdoor dust. The PCB homologue pattern was dominated by tri-, penta-, hexa-, and tetra-CBs, which was not similar to that in Chinese technical PCB product. There was also no significant difference in the PCB compositions between indoor and outdoor dust. PCB sources in house dust at the e-waste site were apportioned by chemical mass balance (CMB) model. The results showed that the PCBs were derived primarily from Aroclor 1262 (36.7% ), Aroclor 1254 (26.7%), Aroclor 1242 (21.4%), and Aroclor 1248 (18.5%). The daily exposure doses were 42, 17, and 2.9 ng x (kg x d)(-1) for toddlers, children/adolescents, and adults in the e-waste area, respectively. Risk assessment indicated that the hazard quotients were higher than 1 for toddlers and children/adolescents indicating adverse effects for them. The lifetime average excess carcinogenic risk for population in the e-waste area was 4.5 x 10(-5), within the acceptable range of U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The mean concentrations of PCBs in house dust in Guangzhou was 48.7 ng x g(-1). The low PCB level is consistent with the fact that technical PCBs were not widely used in China in the past. The risks of exposure to PCBs via house dust in Guangzhou are very low.