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Sample records for e1 initiates biosynthesis

  1. Cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a bona fide lysosomal protein which undergoes proteolytic maturation during its biosynthesis

    SciT

    Schaehs, Philipp; Weidinger, Petra; Probst, Olivia C.

    2008-10-01

    Cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) has been reported to be a secretory glycoprotein implicated in cellular growth and differentiation. We now show that CREG is predominantly localized within intracellular compartments. Intracellular CREG was found to lack an N-terminal peptide present in the secreted form of the protein. In contrast to normal cells, CREG is largely secreted by fibroblasts missing both mannose 6-phosphate receptors. This is not observed in cells lacking only one of them. Mass spectrometric analysis of recombinant CREG revealed that the protein contains phosphorylated oligosaccharides at either of its two N-glycosylation sites. Cellular CREG was found tomore » cosediment with lysosomal markers upon subcellular fractionation by density-gradient centrifugation. In fibroblasts expressing a CREG-GFP fusion construct, the heterologous protein was detected in compartments containing lysosomal proteins. Immunolocalization of endogenous CREG confirmed that intracellular CREG is localized in lysosomes. Proteolytic processing of intracellular CREG involves the action of lysosomal cysteine proteinases. These results establish that CREG is a lysosomal protein that undergoes proteolytic maturation in the course of its biosynthesis, carries the mannose 6-phosphate recognition marker and depends on the interaction with mannose 6-phosphate receptors for efficient delivery to lysosomes.« less

  2. Inhibition of adenovirus replication by the E1A antisense transcript initiated from hsp70 and VA-1 promoters.

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, O I; Borisenko, A S; Ponomareva, T I; Tikhonenko, T I

    1990-03-01

    The E1A region of the adenoviral genome, important for initiation of virus infection and activation of other viral genes, was chosen as a target for engineering antisense RNA (asRNA) to inhibit adenovirus 5 (Ad5) replication in COS-1 cell culture in vitro. The hsp70 promoter, taken from the appropriate heat-shock-protein gene of Drosophila melanogaster, and the VA-1 RNA promoter, derived from the Ad5 gene coding for low-molecular-mass VA-1 RNA and recognized by RNA polymerase III were used as regulatory elements of transcription. The two types of recombinant constructs contained E1A fragments of 710 bp (hsp70 constructs) or 380 or 740 bp (VA-1 RNA constructs) in reverse orientation relative to the promoter position, as well as a transcription termination signal, the SV40 ori, and the gene controlling Geneticin (antibiotic G418) resistance (G418R). After selection of transfected COS-1 cells in the presence of G418, a number of stable G418R cell lines were raised which expressed engineered asRNAs. Plating of Ad5 suspensions of known titre on monolayers of transfected COS-1 cells clearly showed strong inhibition of adenovirus replication by asRNAs: 75% with the hsp70 promoter and 90% with the VA-1 RNA promoter.

  3. Moco biosynthesis and the ATAC acetyltransferase engage translation initiation by inhibiting latent PKR activity.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Tamaki; Swanson, Selene K; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Workman, Jerry L

    2016-02-01

    Molybdenum cofactor (Moco) biosynthesis is linked to c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in Drosophila through MoaE, a molybdopterin (MPT) synthase subunit that is also a component of the Ada Two A containing (ATAC) acetyltransferase complex. Here, we show that human MPT synthase and ATAC inhibited PKR, a double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, to facilitate translation initiation of iron-responsive mRNA. MPT synthase and ATAC directly interacted with PKR and suppressed latent autophosphorylation of PKR and its downstream phosphorylation of JNK and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). The suppression of eIF2α phosphorylation via MPT synthase and ATAC prevented sequestration of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor eIF2B, which recycles eIF2-GDP to eIF2-GTP, resulting in the promotion of translation initiation. Indeed, translation of the iron storage protein, ferritin, was reduced in the absence of MPT synthase or ATAC subunits. Thus, MPT synthase and ATAC regulate latent PKR signaling and link transcription and translation initiation. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initiated in calyx and modulated by water loss from the fruit.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryohei; Ogura, Emi; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu

    2003-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production.

  5. Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit Is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryohei; Ogura, Emi; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu

    2003-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production. PMID:12529535

  6. The significance of nitrogen limited condition in the initiation of lipid biosynthesis in Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haladu, Zangoma Maryam; Ibrahim, Izyanti; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2018-04-01

    The manner of the onset of lipid synthesis in Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 as well as the possible role of NAD+ dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD+: ICDH) in the initiation of lipid biosynthesis were studied. The initiation of lipid synthesis in the microalgae was not associated with the cessation of growth, but commence at the early phase of growth. Substantial amount of lipid (30 %, g/g biomass) was accumulated during the active growth phase at 48 h with growth rate decreasing from 0.11 g/L/h during active growth to 0.02 g/L/h in the limited growth phase. At that period the activity of NAD+: ICDH was still detectable although it slightly decreased to 20 nmol/min/mg in 48 h from 25 nmol/min/mg at 24 h. Analysis of ammonium sulfate fractionated of NAD+: ICDH activity showed that NAD+: ICDH was not completely dependent on adenosine monophosphate (AMP) for its activity, although the presence of AMP increased the enzyme's affinity towards its substrate (isocitrate) indicated by the low Km value of the enzyme for isocitrate. While citrate acts as inhibitor of the enzyme only at high concentration. The probable implications of these properties to the regulation of lipid are discussed.

  7. Unravelling molecular mechanisms from floral initiation to lipid biosynthesis in a promising biofuel tree species, Pongamia pinnata using transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sreeharsha, Rachapudi V.; Mudalkar, Shalini; Singha, Kambam T.; Reddy, Attipalli R.

    2016-01-01

    Pongamia pinnata (L.) (Fabaceae) is a promising biofuel tree species which is underexploited in the areas of both fundamental and applied research, due to the lack of information either on transcriptome or genomic data. To investigate the possible metabolic pathways, we performed whole transcriptome analysis of Pongamia through Illumina NextSeq platform and generated 2.8 GB of paired end sequence reads. The de novo assembly of raw reads generated 40,000 contigs and 35,000 transcripts, representing leaf, flower and seed unigenes. Spatial and temporal expression profiles of photoperiod and floral homeotic genes in Pongamia, identified GIGANTEA (GI) - CONSTANS (CO) - FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) as active signal cascade for floral initiation. Four prominent stages of seed development were selected in a high yielding Pongamia accession (TOIL 1) to follow the temporal expression patterns of key fatty acid biosynthetic genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and accumulation. Our results provide insights into an array of molecular events from flowering to seed maturity in Pongamia which will provide substantial basis for modulation of fatty acid composition and enhancing oil yields which should serve as a potential feedstock for biofuel production. PMID:27677333

  8. Characterization of the GDP-D-mannose biosynthesis pathway in Coxiella burnetii: the initial steps for GDP-β-D-virenose biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Narasaki, Craig T; Mertens, Katja; Samuel, James E

    2011-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of human Q fever, is a gram-negative and naturally obligate intracellular bacterium. The O-specific polysaccharide chain (O-PS) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of C. burnetii is considered a heteropolymer of the two unusual sugars β-D-virenose and dihydrohydroxystreptose and mannose. We hypothesize that GDP-D-mannose is a metabolic intermediate to GDP-β-D-virenose. GDP-D-mannose is synthesized from fructose-6-phosphate in 3 successive reactions; Isomerization to mannose-6-phosphate catalyzed by a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI), followed by conversion to mannose-1-phosphate mediated by a phosphomannomutase (PMM) and addition of GDP by a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP). GDP-D-mannose is then likely converted to GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-hex-4-ulopyranose (GDP-Sug), a virenose intermediate, by a GDP-mannose-4,6-dehydratase (GMD). To test the validity of this pathway in C. burnetii, three open reading frames (CBU0671, CBU0294 and CBU0689) annotated as bifunctional type II PMI, as PMM or GMD were functionally characterized by complementation of corresponding E. coli mutant strains and in enzymatic assays. CBU0671, failed to complement an Escherichia coli manA (PMM) mutant strain. However, complementation of an E. coli manC (GMP) mutant strain restored capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. CBU0294 complemented a Pseudomonas aeruginosa algC (GMP) mutant strain and showed phosphoglucomutase activity (PGM) in a pgm E. coli mutant strain. Despite the inability to complement a manA mutant, recombinant C. burnetii PMI protein showed PMM enzymatic activity in biochemical assays. CBU0689 showed dehydratase activity and determined kinetic parameters were consistent with previously reported data from other organisms. These results show the biological function of three C. burnetii LPS biosynthesis enzymes required for the formation of GDP-D-mannose and GDP-Sug. A fundamental understanding of C. burnetii genes that encode PMI, PMM and GMP is

  9. 'Click'-xylosides as initiators of the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans: Comparison of mono-xylosides with xylobiosides.

    PubMed

    Chatron-Colliet, Aurore; Brusa, Charlotte; Bertin-Jung, Isabelle; Gulberti, Sandrine; Ramalanjaona, Nick; Fournel-Gigleux, Sylvie; Brézillon, Stéphane; Muzard, Murielle; Plantier-Royon, Richard; Rémond, Caroline; Wegrowski, Yanusz

    2017-03-01

    Different mono-xylosides and their corresponding xylobiosides obtained by a chemo-enzymatic approach featuring various substituents attached to a triazole ring were probed as priming agents for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis in the xylosyltransferase-deficient pgsA-745 Chinese hamster ovary cell line. Xylosides containing a hydrophobic aglycone moiety were the most efficient priming agents. Mono-xylosides induced higher GAG biosynthesis in comparison with their corresponding xylobiosides. The influence of the degree of polymerization of the carbohydrate part on the priming activity was investigated through different experiments. We demonstrated that in case of mono-xylosides, the cellular uptake as well as the affinity and the catalytic efficiency of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 7 were higher than for xylobiosides. Altogether, these results indicate that hydrophobicity of the aglycone and degree of polymerization of glycone moiety were critical factors for an optimal priming activity for GAG biosynthesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. THE E1 PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Bergvall, Monika; Melendy, Thomas; Archambault, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    E1, an ATP-dependent DNA helicase, is the only enzyme encoded by papillomaviruses (PVs). It is essential for replication and amplification of the viral episome in the nucleus of infected cells. To do so, E1 assembles into a double-hexamer at the viral origin, unwinds DNA at the origin and ahead of the replication fork and interacts with cellular DNA replication factors. Biochemical and structural studies have revealed the assembly pathway of E1 at the origin and how the enzyme unwinds DNA using a spiral escalator mechanism. E1 is tightly regulated in vivo, in particular by post-translational modifications that restrict its accumulation in the nucleus. Here we review how different functional domains of E1 orchestrate viral DNA replication, with an emphasis on their interactions with substrate DNA, host DNA replication factors and modifying enzymes. These studies have made E1 one of the best characterized helicases and provided unique insights on how PVs usurp different host-cell machineries to replicate and amplify their genome in a tightly controlled manner. PMID:24029589

  11. Engineered Biosynthesis of a Novel Amidated Polyketide, Using the Malonamyl-Specific Initiation Module from the Oxytetracycline Polyketide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjun; Ames, Brian D.; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Tang, Yi

    2006-01-01

    Tetracyclines are aromatic polyketides biosynthesized by bacterial type II polyketide synthases (PKSs). Understanding the biochemistry of tetracycline PKSs is an important step toward the rational and combinatorial manipulation of tetracycline biosynthesis. To this end, we have sequenced the gene cluster of oxytetracycline (oxy and otc genes) PKS genes from Streptomyces rimosus. Sequence analysis revealed a total of 21 genes between the otrA and otrB resistance genes. We hypothesized that an amidotransferase, OxyD, synthesizes the malonamate starter unit that is a universal building block for tetracycline compounds. In vivo reconstitution using strain CH999 revealed that the minimal PKS and OxyD are necessary and sufficient for the biosynthesis of amidated polyketides. A novel alkaloid (WJ35, or compound 2) was synthesized as the major product when the oxy-encoded minimal PKS, the C-9 ketoreductase (OxyJ), and OxyD were coexpressed in CH999. WJ35 is an isoquinolone compound derived from an amidated decaketide backbone and cyclized with novel regioselectivity. The expression of OxyD with a heterologous minimal PKS did not afford similarly amidated polyketides, suggesting that the oxy-encoded minimal PKS possesses novel starter unit specificity. PMID:16597959

  12. Evidence supporting a role for TopBP1 and Brd4 in the initiation but not continuation of human papillomavirus 16 E1/E2-mediated DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Gauson, Elaine J; Donaldson, Mary M; Dornan, Edward S; Wang, Xu; Bristol, Molly; Bodily, Jason M; Morgan, Iain M

    2015-05-01

    To replicate the double-stranded human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) DNA genome, viral proteins E1 and E2 associate with the viral origin of replication, and E2 can also regulate transcription from adjacent promoters. E2 interacts with host proteins in order to regulate both transcription and replication; TopBP1 and Brd4 are cellular proteins that interact with HPV16 E2. Previous work with E2 mutants demonstrated the Brd4 requirement for the transactivation properties of E2, while TopBP1 is required for DNA replication induced by E2 from the viral origin of replication in association with E1. More-recent studies have also implicated Brd4 in the regulation of DNA replication by E2 and E1. Here, we demonstrate that both TopBP1 and Brd4 are present at the viral origin of replication and that interaction with E2 is required for optimal initiation of DNA replication. Both cellular proteins are present in E1-E2-containing nuclear foci, and the viral origin of replication is required for the efficient formation of these foci. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against either TopBP1 or Brd4 destroys the E1-E2 nuclear bodies but has no effect on E1-E2-mediated levels of DNA replication. An E2 mutation in the context of the complete HPV16 genome that compromises Brd4 interaction fails to efficiently establish episomes in primary human keratinocytes. Overall, the results suggest that interactions between TopBP1 and E2 and between Brd4 and E2 are required to correctly initiate DNA replication but are not required for continuing DNA replication, which may be mediated by alternative processes such as rolling circle amplification and/or homologous recombination. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is causative in many human cancers, including cervical and head and neck cancers, and is responsible for the annual deaths of hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. The current vaccine will save lives in future generations, but antivirals targeting HPV16 are required for the alleviation of disease

  13. Evidence Supporting a Role for TopBP1 and Brd4 in the Initiation but Not Continuation of Human Papillomavirus 16 E1/E2-Mediated DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Gauson, Elaine J.; Donaldson, Mary M.; Dornan, Edward S.; Wang, Xu; Bristol, Molly; Bodily, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To replicate the double-stranded human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) DNA genome, viral proteins E1 and E2 associate with the viral origin of replication, and E2 can also regulate transcription from adjacent promoters. E2 interacts with host proteins in order to regulate both transcription and replication; TopBP1 and Brd4 are cellular proteins that interact with HPV16 E2. Previous work with E2 mutants demonstrated the Brd4 requirement for the transactivation properties of E2, while TopBP1 is required for DNA replication induced by E2 from the viral origin of replication in association with E1. More-recent studies have also implicated Brd4 in the regulation of DNA replication by E2 and E1. Here, we demonstrate that both TopBP1 and Brd4 are present at the viral origin of replication and that interaction with E2 is required for optimal initiation of DNA replication. Both cellular proteins are present in E1-E2-containing nuclear foci, and the viral origin of replication is required for the efficient formation of these foci. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against either TopBP1 or Brd4 destroys the E1-E2 nuclear bodies but has no effect on E1-E2-mediated levels of DNA replication. An E2 mutation in the context of the complete HPV16 genome that compromises Brd4 interaction fails to efficiently establish episomes in primary human keratinocytes. Overall, the results suggest that interactions between TopBP1 and E2 and between Brd4 and E2 are required to correctly initiate DNA replication but are not required for continuing DNA replication, which may be mediated by alternative processes such as rolling circle amplification and/or homologous recombination. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is causative in many human cancers, including cervical and head and neck cancers, and is responsible for the annual deaths of hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. The current vaccine will save lives in future generations, but antivirals targeting HPV16 are required for the

  14. Cinnamate:CoA ligase initiates the biosynthesis of a benzoate-derived xanthone phytoalexin in Hypericum calycinum cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gaid, Mariam M; Sircar, Debabrata; Müller, Andreas; Beuerle, Till; Liu, Benye; Ernst, Ludger; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-11-01

    Although a number of plant natural products are derived from benzoic acid, the biosynthesis of this structurally simple precursor is poorly understood. Hypericum calycinum cell cultures accumulate a benzoic acid-derived xanthone phytoalexin, hyperxanthone E, in response to elicitor treatment. Using a subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) library and sequence information about conserved coenzyme A (CoA) ligase motifs, a cDNA encoding cinnamate:CoA ligase (CNL) was isolated. This enzyme channels metabolic flux from the general phenylpropanoid pathway into benzenoid metabolism. HcCNL preferred cinnamic acid as a substrate but failed to activate benzoic acid. Enzyme activity was strictly dependent on the presence of Mg²⁺ and K⁺ at optimum concentrations of 2.5 and 100 mM, respectively. Coordinated increases in the Phe ammonia-lyase and HcCNL transcript levels preceded the accumulation of hyperxanthone E in cell cultures of H. calycinum after the addition of the elicitor. HcCNL contained a carboxyl-terminal type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal made up by the tripeptide Ser-Arg-Leu, which directed an amino-terminal reporter fusion to the peroxisomes. Masking the targeting signal by carboxyl-terminal reporter fusion led to cytoplasmic localization. A phylogenetic tree consisted of two evolutionarily distinct clusters. One cluster was formed by CoA ligases related to benzenoid metabolism, including HcCNL. The other cluster comprised 4-coumarate:CoA ligases from spermatophytes, ferns, and mosses, indicating divergence of the two clades prior to the divergence of the higher plant lineages.

  15. Aflatoxin biosynthesis is a novel source of reactive oxygen species—a potential redox signal to initiate resistance to oxidative stress?

    Aflatoxin biosynthesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus parasiticus involves a minimum of 21 enzymes, encoded by genes located in a 70 kb gene cluster. For aflatoxin biosynthesis to be completed, the required enzymes must be transported to specialized early and late endosomes called aflatoxisom...

  16. Aflatoxin biosynthesis is a novel source of reactive oxygen species--a potential redox signal to initiate resistance to oxidative stress?

    PubMed

    Roze, Ludmila V; Laivenieks, Maris; Hong, Sung-Yong; Wee, Josephine; Wong, Shu-Shyan; Vanos, Benjamin; Awad, Deena; Ehrlich, Kenneth C; Linz, John E

    2015-04-28

    Aflatoxin biosynthesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus parasiticus involves a minimum of 21 enzymes, encoded by genes located in a 70 kb gene cluster. For aflatoxin biosynthesis to be completed, the required enzymes must be transported to specialized early and late endosomes called aflatoxisomes. Of particular significance, seven aflatoxin biosynthetic enzymes are P450/monooxygenases which catalyze reactions that can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as byproducts. Thus, oxidative reactions in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway could potentially be an additional source of intracellular ROS. The present work explores the hypothesis that the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway generates ROS (designated as "secondary" ROS) in endosomes and that secondary ROS possess a signaling function. We used specific dyes that stain ROS in live cells and demonstrated that intracellular ROS levels correlate with the levels of aflatoxin synthesized. Moreover, feeding protoplasts with precursors of aflatoxin resulted in the increase in ROS generation. These data support the hypothesis. Our findings also suggest that secondary ROS may fulfill, at least in part, an important mechanistic role in increased tolerance to oxidative stress in germinating spores (seven-hour germlings) and in regulation of fungal development.

  17. Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Is a Novel Source of Reactive Oxygen Species—A Potential Redox Signal to Initiate Resistance to Oxidative Stress?

    PubMed Central

    Roze, Ludmila V.; Laivenieks, Maris; Hong, Sung-Yong; Wee, Josephine; Wong, Shu-Shyan; Vanos, Benjamin; Awad, Deena; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Linz, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin biosynthesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus parasiticus involves a minimum of 21 enzymes, encoded by genes located in a 70 kb gene cluster. For aflatoxin biosynthesis to be completed, the required enzymes must be transported to specialized early and late endosomes called aflatoxisomes. Of particular significance, seven aflatoxin biosynthetic enzymes are P450/monooxygenases which catalyze reactions that can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as byproducts. Thus, oxidative reactions in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway could potentially be an additional source of intracellular ROS. The present work explores the hypothesis that the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway generates ROS (designated as “secondary” ROS) in endosomes and that secondary ROS possess a signaling function. We used specific dyes that stain ROS in live cells and demonstrated that intracellular ROS levels correlate with the levels of aflatoxin synthesized. Moreover, feeding protoplasts with precursors of aflatoxin resulted in the increase in ROS generation. These data support the hypothesis. Our findings also suggest that secondary ROS may fulfill, at least in part, an important mechanistic role in increased tolerance to oxidative stress in germinating spores (seven-hour germlings) and in regulation of fungal development. PMID:25928133

  18. Biosynthesis of Bacterial Cell Walls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    amino acid accumulation level in Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus faecalis despite a normal initial transport rate. In the course of these...biosynthesis of a dipeptide, D-alanylcysteine; A demonstration that a pantothenic acid deficiency renders L. plantarum unusually sensitive to lysozyme digestion...A quantitative description of the lipid constituents of S. faecalis and L. plantarum ; An investigation of the biochemical basis of a marked lytic

  19. Initial results from SKiYMET meteor radar at Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E): 1. Comparison of wind measurements with MF spaced antenna radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Karanam Kishore; Ramkumar, Geetha; Shelbi, S. T.

    2007-12-01

    In the present communication, initial results from the allSKy interferometric METeor (SKiYMET) radar installed at Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E) are presented. The meteor radar system provides hourly zonal and meridional winds in the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region. The meteor radar measured zonal and meridional winds are compared with nearby MF radar at Tirunalveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E). The present study provided an opportunity to compare the winds measured by the two different techniques, namely, interferometry and spaced antenna drift methods. Simultaneous wind measurements for a total number of 273 days during September 2004 to May 2005 are compared. The comparison showed a very good agreement between these two techniques in the height region 82-90 km and poor agreement above this height region. In general, the zonal winds compare very well as compared to the meridional winds. The observed discrepancies in the wind comparison above 90 km are discussed in the light of existing limitations of both the radars. The detailed analysis revealed the consistency of the measured winds by both the techniques. However, the discrepancies are observed at higher altitudes and are attributed to the contamination of MF radar neutral wind measurements with Equatorial Electro Jet (EEJ) induced inospheric drifts rather than the limitations of the spaced antenna technique. The comparison of diurnal variation of zonal winds above 90 km measured by both the radars is in reasonably good agreement in the absence of EEJ (during local nighttime). It is also been noted that the difference in the zonal wind measurements by both the radars is directly related to the strength of EEJ, which is a noteworthy result from the present study.

  20. [Molecular mechanisms of protein biosynthesis initiation--biochemical and biomedical implications of a new model of translation enhanced by the RNA hypoxia response element (rHRE)].

    PubMed

    Master, Adam; Nauman, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Translation initiation is a key rate-limiting step in cellular protein synthesis. A cap-dependent initiation is the most effective mechanism of the translation. However, some physiological (mitosis) and pathological (oxidative stress) processes may switch the classic mechanism to an alternative one that is regulated by an mRNA element such as IRES, uORF, IRE, CPE, DICE, AURE or CITE. A recently discovered mechanism of RNA hypoxia response element (rHRE)-dependent translation initiation, may change the view of oxygen-regulated translation and give a new insight into unexplained biochemical processes. Hypoxia is one of the better-known factors that may trigger an alternative mechanism of the translation initiation. Temporal events of oxygen deficiency within tissues and organs may activate processes such as angiogenesis, myogenesis, regeneration, wound healing, and may promote an adaptive response in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. On the other hand, growth of solid tumors may be accompanied by cyclic hypoxia, allowing for synthesis of proteins required for further progression of cancer cells. This paper provides a review of current knowledge on translational control in the context of alternative models of translation initiation.

  1. The nuclear receptor NR2E1/TLX controls senescence.

    PubMed

    O'Loghlen, Ana; Martin, Nadine; Krusche, Benjamin; Pemberton, Helen; Alonso, Marta M; Chandler, Hollie; Brookes, Sharon; Parrinello, Simona; Peters, Gordon; Gil, Jesús

    2015-07-30

    The nuclear receptor NR2E1 (also known as TLX or tailless) controls the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and has been implied as an oncogene which initiates brain tumors including glioblastomas. Despite NR2E1 regulating targets like p21(CIP1) or PTEN we still lack a full explanation for its role in NSC self-renewal and tumorigenesis. We know that polycomb repressive complexes also control stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis, but so far, no formal connection has been established between NR2E1 and PRCs. In a screen for transcription factors regulating the expression of the polycomb protein CBX7, we identified NR2E1 as one of its more prominent regulators. NR2E1 binds at the CBX7 promoter, inducing its expression. Notably CBX7 represses NR2E1 as part of a regulatory loop. Ectopic NR2E1 expression inhibits cellular senescence, extending cellular lifespan in fibroblasts via CBX7-mediated regulation of p16(INK4a) and direct repression of p21(CIP1). In addition NR2E1 expression also counteracts oncogene-induced senescence. The importance of NR2E1 to restrain senescence is highlighted through the process of knocking down its expression, which causes premature senescence in human fibroblasts and epithelial cells. We also confirmed that NR2E1 regulates CBX7 and restrains senescence in NSCs. Finally, we observed that the expression of NR2E1 directly correlates with that of CBX7 in human glioblastoma multiforme. Overall we identified control of senescence and regulation of polycomb action as two possible mechanisms that can join those so far invoked to explain the role of NR2E1 in control of NSC self-renewal and cancer.

  2. Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Steven R.; Laymon, Robert A.; Himmel, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol.

  3. Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, S.R.; Laymon, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

    1996-07-16

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol. 6 figs.

  4. Protein biosynthesis in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Kuzmenko, A V; Levitskii, S A; Vinogradova, E N; Atkinson, G C; Hauryliuk, V; Zenkin, N; Kamenski, P A

    2013-08-01

    Translation, that is biosynthesis of polypeptides in accordance with information encoded in the genome, is one of the most important processes in the living cell, and it has been in the spotlight of international research for many years. The mechanisms of protein biosynthesis in bacteria and in the eukaryotic cytoplasm are now understood in great detail. However, significantly less is known about translation in eukaryotic mitochondria, which is characterized by a number of unusual features. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about mitochondrial translation in different organisms while paying special attention to the aspects of this process that differ from cytoplasmic protein biosynthesis.

  5. Initial-rate kinetics of human NMN-adenylyltransferases: substrate and metal ion specificity, inhibition by products and multisubstrate analogues, and isozyme contributions to NAD+ biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sorci, Leonardo; Cimadamore, Flavio; Scotti, Stefania; Petrelli, Riccardo; Cappellacci, Loredana; Franchetti, Palmarisa; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Magni, Giulio

    2007-04-24

    Initial-rate and product inhibition studies revealed distinctive ordered ternary complex kinetic mechanisms, substrate specificities, and metal ion preferences for the three isozymes of human nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl-transferase (NMNAT, EC 2.7.7.1). ATP binds before NMN with nuclear isozyme NMNAT1 and Golgi apparatus NMNAT2, but the opposite order is observed with the mitochondrial isozyme NMNAT3. Only the latter utilizes ITP efficiently in place of ATP, and while NMNH conversion to NADH by NMNAT1 and NMNAT3 occurs at similar rates, conversion by NMNAT2 is much slower. These isozymes can also be discriminated by their action on tiazofurin monophosphate (TrMP), a metabolite of the antineoplastic prodrug tiazofurin. Our finding that TrMP is only a substrate with NMNAT1 and NMNAT3 reveals for the first time an organelle selectivity in the metabolism of this important drug. In search of additional ways to discriminate these isozymes, we synthesized and tested the P1-(nicotinamide/nicotinate-riboside-5')-Pn-(adenosine-5') dinucleotides Np3AD, Np4AD, and Nap4AD. In addition to being highly effective inhibitors, these multisubstrate geometric inhibitors gave inhibition patterns that are consistent with the aforementioned isozyme differences in substrate binding order. Distinctive differences in their substrate specificity and metal ion selectivity also permitted us to quantify individual isozyme contributions to NAD+ formation in human cell extracts.

  6. E1A promoter of bovine adenovirus type 3.

    PubMed

    Xing, Li; Tikoo, Suresh Kumar

    2006-12-01

    Conserved motifs of eukaryotic gene promoters, such as TATA box and CAAT box sequences, of E1A of human adenoviruses (e.g human adenovirus 5) lie between the left inverted terminal repeat (ITR) and the ATG of E1A. However, analysis of the left end of the bovine adenovirus 3 (BAdV-3) genome revealed that the conserved sequences of the E1A promoter are present only in the ITR. As such, the promoter activity of ITR was tested in the context of a BAdV-3 vector or a plasmid-based system. Different regions of the left end of the BAdV-3 genome initiated transcription of the red fluorescent protein gene in a plasmid-based system. Moreover, BAdV-3 mutants in which the open reading frame of E1A was placed immediately downstream of the ITR produced E1A transcript and could be propagated in non-E1A-complementing Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. These results suggest that the left ITR contains the sole BAdV-3 E1A promoter.

  7. The lipid biosynthesis hole in the rickettsiales

    Using a complementation assay in E. coli, we have shown that the propionyl-CoA carboxylase complex (PCC) from Wolbachia pipientis wMel, order Rickettsiales, provides for lipid biosynthesis through malonyl-CoA production. Normally, the prototypical prokaryote fatty acid synthesis (FASII) initiation ...

  8. Biosynthesis of human myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Nauseef, William M

    2018-03-15

    Members of Chordata peroxidase subfamily [1] expressed in mammals, including myeloperoxidase (MPO), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), lactoperoxidase (LPO), and thyroid peroxidase (TPO), express conserved motifs around the heme prosthetic group essential for their activity, a calcium-binding site, and at least two covalent bonds linking the heme group to the protein backbone. Although most studies of the biosynthesis of these peroxidases have focused on MPO, many of the features described occur during biosynthesis of other members of the protein subfamily. Whereas MPO biosynthesis includes events typical for proteins generated in the secretory pathway, the importance and consequences of heme insertion are events uniquely associated with peroxidases. This Review summarizes decades of work elucidating specific steps in the biosynthetic pathway of human MPO. Discussion includes cotranslational glycosylation and subsequent modifications of the N-linked carbohydrate sidechains, contributions by molecular chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum, cleavage of the propeptide from proMPO, and proteolytic processing of protomers and dimerization to yield mature MPO. Parallels between the biosynthesis of MPO and TPO as well as the impact of inherited mutations in the MPO gene on normal biosynthesis will be summarized. Lastly, specific gaps in our knowledge revealed by this review of our current understanding will be highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Recessive mutations in the INS gene result in neonatal diabetes through reduced insulin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Garin, Intza; Edghill, Emma L.; Akerman, Ildem; Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar; Rica, Itxaso; Locke, Jonathan M.; Maestro, Miguel Angel; Alshaikh, Adnan; Bundak, Ruveyde; del Castillo, Gabriel; Deeb, Asma; Deiss, Dorothee; Fernandez, Juan M.; Godbole, Koumudi; Hussain, Khalid; O’Connell, Michele; Klupa, Thomasz; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Mohsin, Fauzia; Perlman, Kusiel; Sumnik, Zdenek; Rial, Jose M.; Ugarte, Estibaliz; Vasanthi, Thiruvengadam; Johnstone, Karen; Flanagan, Sarah E.; Martínez, Rosa; Castaño, Carlos; Patch, Ann-Marie; Fernández-Rebollo, Eduardo; Raile, Klemens; Morgan, Noel; Harries, Lorna W.; Castaño, Luis; Ellard, Sian; Ferrer, Jorge; de Nanclares, Guiomar Perez; Hattersley, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    Heterozygous coding mutations in the INS gene that encodes preproinsulin were recently shown to be an important cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. These dominantly acting mutations prevent normal folding of proinsulin, which leads to beta-cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. We now report 10 different recessive INS mutations in 15 probands with neonatal diabetes. Functional studies showed that recessive mutations resulted in diabetes because of decreased insulin biosynthesis through distinct mechanisms, including gene deletion, lack of the translation initiation signal, and altered mRNA stability because of the disruption of a polyadenylation signal. A subset of recessive mutations caused abnormal INS transcription, including the deletion of the C1 and E1 cis regulatory elements, or three different single base-pair substitutions in a CC dinucleotide sequence located between E1 and A1 elements. In keeping with an earlier and more severe beta-cell defect, patients with recessive INS mutations had a lower birth weight (−3.2 SD score vs. −2.0 SD score) and were diagnosed earlier (median 1 week vs. 10 weeks) compared to those with dominant INS mutations. Mutations in the insulin gene can therefore result in neonatal diabetes as a result of two contrasting pathogenic mechanisms. Moreover, the recessively inherited mutations provide a genetic demonstration of the essential role of multiple sequence elements that regulate the biosynthesis of insulin in man. PMID:20133622

  10. E1 transitions from octupole vibration states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottle, P. D.

    1993-04-01

    Electric dipole moments are extracted from data for E1 transitions deexciting octupole vibration states in nineteen nuclei. The moments are then compared to values calculated using the droplet model prescription of Dorso, Myers, and Swiatecki. It is found that the E1 moments in quadrupole deformed nuclei can be reproduced with the droplet model using the same model parameters that reproduce atomic masses and fission barriers. This result supports the suggestion of Butler and Nazarewicz that single particle effects are usually much smaller than macroscopic effects in E1 transitions associated with octupole vibrations in reflection symmetric deformed nuclei.

  11. Decaprenyl-phosphoryl-ribose 2'-epimerase (DprE1): challenging target for antitubercular drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Gawad, Jineetkumar; Bonde, Chandrakant

    2018-06-23

    Tuberculosis has proved harmful to the entire history of mankind from past several decades. Decaprenyl-phosphoryl-ribose 2'-epimerase (DprE1) is a recent target which was identified in 2009 but unfortunately it is neither explored nor crossed phase II. In past several decades few targets were identified for effective antitubercular drug discovery. Resistance is the major problem for effective antitubercular drug discovery. Arabinose is constituent of mycobacterium cell wall. Biosynthesis of arabinose is FAD dependant two step epimerisation reaction which is catalysed by DprE1 and DprE2 flavoprotein enzymes. The current review is mainly emphases on DprE1 as a perspective challenge for further research.

  12. Glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yim, Grace; Thaker, Maulik N; Koteva, Kalinka; Wright, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Glycopeptides such as vancomycin, teicoplanin and telavancin are essential for treating infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Unfortunately, the dwindled pipeline of new antibiotics into the market and the emergence of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci and other resistant bacteria are increasingly making effective antibiotic treatment difficult. We have now learned a great deal about how bacteria produce antibiotics. This information can be exploited to develop the next generation of antimicrobials. The biosynthesis of glycopeptides via nonribosomal peptide assembly and unusual amino acid synthesis, crosslinking and tailoring enzymes gives rise to intricate chemical structures that target the bacterial cell wall. This review seeks to describe recent advances in our understanding of both biosynthesis and resistance of these important antibiotics.

  13. Solanesol Biosynthesis in Plants.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ning; Liu, Yanhua; Zhang, Hongbo; Du, Yongmei; Liu, Xinmin; Zhang, Zhongfeng

    2017-03-23

    Solanesol is a non-cyclic terpene alcohol composed of nine isoprene units that mainly accumulates in solanaceous plants. Solanesol plays an important role in the interactions between plants and environmental factors such as pathogen infections and moderate-to-high temperatures. Additionally, it is a key intermediate for the pharmaceutical synthesis of ubiquinone-based drugs such as coenzyme Q10 and vitamin K2, and anti-cancer agent synergizers such as N-solanesyl-N,N'-bis(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl) ethylenediamine (SDB). In plants, solanesol is formed by the 2- C -methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway within plastids. Solanesol's biosynthetic pathway involves the generation of C5 precursors, followed by the generation of direct precursors, and then the biosynthesis and modification of terpenoids; the first two stages of this pathway are well understood. Based on the current understanding of solanesol biosynthesis, we here review the key enzymes involved, including 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPI), geranyl geranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS), and solanesyl diphosphate synthase (SPS), as well as their biological functions. Notably, studies on microbial heterologous expression and overexpression of key enzymatic genes in tobacco solanesol biosynthesis are of significant importance for medical uses of tobacco.

  14. Chirality and protein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Banik, Sindrila Dutta; Nandi, Nilashis

    2013-01-01

    Chirality is present at all levels of structural hierarchy of protein and plays a significant role in protein biosynthesis. The macromolecules involved in protein biosynthesis such as aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and ribosome have chiral subunits. Despite the omnipresence of chirality in the biosynthetic pathway, its origin, role in current pathway, and importance is far from understood. In this review we first present an introduction to biochirality and its relevance to protein biosynthesis. Major propositions about the prebiotic origin of biomolecules are presented with particular reference to proteins and nucleic acids. The problem of the origin of homochirality is unresolved at present. The chiral discrimination by enzymes involved in protein synthesis is essential for keeping the life process going. However, questions remained pertaining to the mechanism of chiral discrimination and concomitant retention of biochirality. We discuss the experimental evidence which shows that it is virtually impossible to incorporate D-amino acids in protein structures in present biosynthetic pathways via any of the two major steps of protein synthesis, namely aminoacylation and peptide bond formation reactions. Molecular level explanations of the stringent chiral specificity in each step are extended based on computational analysis. A detailed account of the current state of understanding of the mechanism of chiral discrimination during aminoacylation in the active site of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and peptide bond formation in ribosomal peptidyl transferase center is presented. Finally, it is pointed out that the understanding of the mechanism of retention of enantiopurity has implications in developing novel enzyme mimetic systems and biocatalysts and might be useful in chiral drug design.

  15. Biosynthesis of Rishirilide B.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Philipp; Wunsch-Palasis, Julia; Bechthold, Andreas; Paululat, Thomas

    2018-03-07

    Rishirilide B was isolated from Streptomyces rishiriensis and Streptomyces bottropensis on the basis of its inhibitory activity towards alpha-2-macroglobulin. The biosynthesis of rishirilide B was investigated by feeding experiments with different 13 C labelled precursors using the heterologous host Streptomyces albus J1074::cos4 containing a cosmid encoding of the gene cluster responsible for rishirilide B production. NMR spectroscopic analysis of labelled compounds demonstrate that the tricyclic backbone of rishirilide B is a polyketide synthesized from nine acetate units. One of the acetate units is decarboxylated to give a methyl group. The origin of the starter unit was determined to be isobutyrate.

  16. RP-1 delivered to E-1 Test Stand

    2010-03-30

    NASA John C. Stennis Space Center employee Dustan Ladner (left) assists tanker driver David Velasco in transferring RP-1 fuel to a 20,000-gallon underground tank at the E-1 Test Stand during a March 30 delivery. The rocket propellant will be used for testing Aerojet AJ26 rocket engines beginning this summer. Stennis is testing the engines for Orbital Sciences Corporation, which has partnered with NASA to provide eight supply missions to the International Space Station through 2015. The partnership is part of NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services initiative to work closer with companies to provide commercial space transport once the space shuttle is retired later this year.

  17. Biosynthesis of methanopterin

    SciT

    White, R.H.

    1990-06-05

    The biosynthetic pathway for the generation of the methylated pterin in methanopterins was determined for the methanogenic bacteria Methanococcus volta and Methanobacterium formicicum. Extracts of M. volta were found to readily cleave L-7,8-dihydroneopterin to 7,8-dihydro-6-(hydroxymethyl)pterin, which was confirmed to be a precursor of the pterin portion of the methanopterin. (methylene{sup 2}H)-6-(hydroxymethyl)pterin was incorporated into methanopterin by growing cells of M. volta to an extent of 30%. Both the C-11 and C-12 methyl groups of methanopterin originate from (methyl-{sup 2}H{sub 3})methionine. Cells grown in the presence of (methylene-{sup 2}H)-6-(hydroxymethyl)pterin, (ethyl-{sup 2}H{sub 4})-6-(1 (RS)-hydroxyethyl)pterin, (methyl-{sup 2}H{sub 3})-6-(hydroxymethyl)-7-methylpterin, (ethyl-{sup 2}H{sub 4}, methyl-{sup 2}H{submore » 3})-6-(1 (RS)-hydroxyethyl)-7-methylpterin, and (1-ethyl-{sup 3}H)-6-(1 (RS)-hydroxyethyl)-7-methylpterin showed that only the non-7-methylated pterins were incorporated into methanopterin. Cells extracts of M. formicicum readily condensed synthetic (methylene-{sup 3}H)-7,8-H{sub 2}-6-(hydroxymethyl)pterin-PP with methaniline to generate demethylated methanopterin, which is then methylated to methanopterin by the cell extract in the presence of S-adenosylmethionine. These observations indicate that the pterin portion of methanopterin is biosynthetically derived from 7,8-H{sub 2}-6-(hydroxymethyl)pterin, which is coupled to methaniline by a pathway analogous to the biosynthesis of folic acid. This pathway for the biosynthesis of methanopterin represents the first example of the modification of the specificity of a coenzyme through a methylation reaction.« less

  18. Resolvin E1-induced intestinal alkaline phosphatase promotes resolution of inflammation through LPS detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Eric L.; MacManus, Christopher F.; Kominsky, Douglas J.; Keely, Simon; Glover, Louise E.; Bowers, Brittelle E.; Scully, Melanie; Bruyninckx, Walter J.; Colgan, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    Resolvin-E1 (RvE1) has been demonstrated to promote inflammatory resolution in numerous disease models. Given the importance of epithelial cells to coordination of mucosal inflammation, we hypothesized that RvE1 elicits an epithelial resolution signature. Initial studies revealed that the RvE1-receptor (ChemR23) is expressed on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and that microarray profiling of cells exposed to RvE1 revealed regulation of inflammatory response gene expression. Notably, RvE1 induced intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPI) expression and significantly enhanced epithelial ALPI enzyme activity. One role recently attributed to ALPI is the detoxification of bacterial LPS. In our studies, RvE1-exposed epithelia detoxified LPS (assessed by attenuation of NF-κB signaling). Furthermore, in epithelial-bacterial interaction assays, we determined that ALPI retarded the growth of Escherichia coli. To define these features in vivo, we used a murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis. Compared with vehicle controls, administration of RvE1 resulted in significant improvement of disease activity indices (e.g., body weight, colon length) concomitant with increased ALPI expression in the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, inhibition of ALPI activity resulted in increased severity of colitis in DSS-treated animals and partially abrogated the protective influence of RvE1. Together, these data implicate a previously unappreciated role for ALPI in RvE1-mediated inflammatory resolution. PMID:20660763

  19. Resolvin E1-induced intestinal alkaline phosphatase promotes resolution of inflammation through LPS detoxification.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Eric L; MacManus, Christopher F; Kominsky, Douglas J; Keely, Simon; Glover, Louise E; Bowers, Brittelle E; Scully, Melanie; Bruyninckx, Walter J; Colgan, Sean P

    2010-08-10

    Resolvin-E1 (RvE1) has been demonstrated to promote inflammatory resolution in numerous disease models. Given the importance of epithelial cells to coordination of mucosal inflammation, we hypothesized that RvE1 elicits an epithelial resolution signature. Initial studies revealed that the RvE1-receptor (ChemR23) is expressed on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and that microarray profiling of cells exposed to RvE1 revealed regulation of inflammatory response gene expression. Notably, RvE1 induced intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPI) expression and significantly enhanced epithelial ALPI enzyme activity. One role recently attributed to ALPI is the detoxification of bacterial LPS. In our studies, RvE1-exposed epithelia detoxified LPS (assessed by attenuation of NF-kappaB signaling). Furthermore, in epithelial-bacterial interaction assays, we determined that ALPI retarded the growth of Escherichia coli. To define these features in vivo, we used a murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis. Compared with vehicle controls, administration of RvE1 resulted in significant improvement of disease activity indices (e.g., body weight, colon length) concomitant with increased ALPI expression in the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, inhibition of ALPI activity resulted in increased severity of colitis in DSS-treated animals and partially abrogated the protective influence of RvE1. Together, these data implicate a previously unappreciated role for ALPI in RvE1-mediated inflammatory resolution.

  20. Prostaglandin E1 fever induced in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Stitt, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    1. Micro-injections of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) into the anterior hypothalamus of the rabbit produced fever which was nearly immediate in onset. The prostaglandin sensitive region appears to be identical to that described as being fever sensitive to leucocytic pyrogen. 2. Micro-injections of PGE1 into the posterior hypothalamus and midbrain reticular formation of the rabbit did not produce fever. 3. The febrile response to PGE1 injected into the anterior hypothalamus was dose dependent over a range of 20-1000 ng. 4. Ambient temperature influenced the thermoregulatory mechanism by which PGE1 fever evolved. In the cold, PGE1 fever was due to increased heat production while during heat exposure both evaporative and dry heat losses were reduced without significant changes in heat production. Vasoconstriction, confined mainly to the ears, was effective in producing fever in standard room environments (24-25° C) along with a small increase in heat production. 5. The preoptic anterior hypothalamic area retained its thermosensitivity during PGE1 fever; heating this area attenuated, while cooling augmented the fever. 6. The results support the view that PGE1 is a mediator of pyrogen induced fever. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4733481

  1. Natural product biosynthesis: Tackling tunicamycin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard-Borger, Ethan D.; Withers, Stephen G.

    2012-07-01

    The tunicamycins, secondary metabolites of various Streptomyces species, are invaluable tools in glycobiology. It has now been shown that their biosynthesis involves an unusual exo-glycal intermediate produced by previously unknown short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase activity.

  2. Serine biosynthesis and transport defects.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W

    2016-07-01

    l-serine is a non-essential amino acid that is biosynthesized via the enzymes phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP). Besides its role in protein synthesis, l-serine is a potent neurotrophic factor and a precursor of a number of essential compounds including phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, glycine, and d-serine. Serine biosynthesis defects result from impairments of PGDH, PSAT, or PSP leading to systemic serine deficiency. Serine biosynthesis defects present in a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes, at the severe end, Neu-Laxova syndrome, a lethal multiple congenital anomaly disease, intermediately, infantile serine biosynthesis defects with severe neurological manifestations and growth deficiency, and at the mild end, the childhood disease with intellectual disability. A serine transport defect resulting from deficiency of the ASCT1, the main transporter for serine in the central nervous system, has been recently described in children with neurological manifestations that overlap with those observed in serine biosynthesis defects. l-serine therapy may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms in serine biosynthesis and transport defects, if started before neurological damage occurs. Herein, we review serine metabolism and transport, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of serine biosynthesis and transport defects, the mechanisms of these diseases, and the potential role of serine therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Leinamycin E1 acting as an anticancer prodrug activated by reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Yun, Bong-Sik; Ma, Ming; Basu, Hirak S; Church, Dawn R; Ingenhorst, Gudrun; Huang, Yong; Yang, Dong; Lohman, Jeremy R; Tang, Gong-Li; Ju, Jianhua; Liu, Tao; Wilding, George; Shen, Ben

    2015-07-07

    Leinamycin (LNM) is a potent antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces atroolivaceus S-140, featuring an unusual 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety that is spiro-fused to a thiazole-containing 18-membered lactam ring. Upon reductive activation in the presence of cellular thiols, LNM exerts its antitumor activity by an episulfonium ion-mediated DNA alkylation. Previously, we have cloned the lnm gene cluster from S. atroolivaceus S-140 and characterized the biosynthetic machinery responsible for the 18-membered lactam backbone and the alkyl branch at C3 of LNM. We now report the isolation and characterization of leinamycin E1 (LNM E1) from S. atroolivacues SB3033, a ΔlnmE mutant strain of S. atroolivaceus S-140. Complementary to the reductive activation of LNM by cellular thiols, LNM E1 can be oxidatively activated by cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) to generate a similar episulfonium ion intermediate, thereby alkylating DNA and leading to eventual cell death. The feasibility of exploiting LNM E1 as an anticancer prodrug activated by ROS was demonstrated in two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and DU-145. Because many cancer cells are under higher cellular oxidative stress with increased levels of ROS than normal cells, these findings support the idea of exploiting ROS as a means to target cancer cells and highlight LNM E1 as a novel lead for the development of anticancer prodrugs activated by ROS. The structure of LNM E1 also reveals critical new insights into LNM biosynthesis, setting the stage to investigate sulfur incorporation, as well as the tailoring steps that convert the nascent hybrid peptide-polyketide biosynthetic intermediate into LNM.

  4. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Fusarium

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Javier; Pardo-Medina, Javier; Parra-Rivero, Obdulia; Ruger-Herreros, Macarena; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Roberto; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Limón, María Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Many fungi of the genus Fusarium stand out for the complexity of their secondary metabolism. Individual species may differ in their metabolic capacities, but they usually share the ability to synthesize carotenoids, a family of hydrophobic terpenoid pigments widely distributed in nature. Early studies on carotenoid biosynthesis in Fusarium aquaeductuum have been recently extended in Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium oxysporum, well-known biotechnological and phytopathogenic models, respectively. The major Fusarium carotenoid is neurosporaxanthin, a carboxylic xanthophyll synthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate through the activity of four enzymes, encoded by the genes carRA, carB, carT and carD. These fungi produce also minor amounts of β-carotene, which may be cleaved by the CarX oxygenase to produce retinal, the rhodopsin’s chromophore. The genes needed to produce retinal are organized in a gene cluster with a rhodopsin gene, while other carotenoid genes are not linked. In the investigated Fusarium species, the synthesis of carotenoids is induced by light through the transcriptional induction of the structural genes. In some species, deep-pigmented mutants with up-regulated expression of these genes are affected in the regulatory gene carS. The molecular mechanisms underlying the control by light and by the CarS protein are currently under investigation. PMID:29371556

  5. Biosynthesis of oleamide.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Gregory P; Driscoll, William J

    2009-01-01

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is the prototype long chain primary fatty acid amide lipid messenger. The natural occurrence of oleamide was first reported in human serum in 1989. Subsequently oleamide was shown to accumulate in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats and to induce sleep when administered to experimental animals. Accordingly, oleamide first became known for its potential role in the mechanisms that mediate the drive to sleep. Oleamide also has profound effects on thermoregulation and acts as an analgesic in several models of experimental pain. Although these important pharmacologic effects are well establish, the biochemical mechanism for the synthesis of oleamide has not yet been defined. This chapter reviews the biosynthetic pathways that have been proposed and highlights two mechanisms which are most supported by experimental evidence: the generation of oleamide from oleoylglycine by the neuropeptide processing enzyme, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), and alternatively, the direct amidation of oleic acid via oleoyl coenzyme A by cytochrome c using ammonia as the nitrogen source. The latter mechanism is discussed in the context of apoptosis where oleamide may play a role in regulating gap junction communication. Lastly, several considerations and caveats pertinent to the future study oleamide biosynthesis are discussed.

  6. Stereoselectivity in Polyphenol Biosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.

    1992-01-01

    Stereoselectivity plays an important role in the late stages of phenyl-propanoid metabolism, affording lignins, lignans, and neolignans. Stereoselectivity is manifested during monolignol (glucoside) synthesis, e.g., where the geometry (E or Z) of the pendant double bond affects the specificity of UDPG:coniferyl alcohol glucosyltransferases in different species. Such findings are viewed to have important ramifications in monolignol transport and storage processes, with roles for both E- and Z-monolignols and their glucosides in lignin/lignan biosynthesis being envisaged. Stereoselectivity is also of great importance in enantiose-lective enzymatic processes affording optically active lignans. Thus, cell-free extracts from Forsythia species were demonstrated to synthesize the enantiomerically pure lignans, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, and (-)-pinoresinol, when NAD(P)H, H2O2 and E-coniferyl alcohol were added. Progress toward elucidating the enzymatic steps involved in such highly stereoselective processes is discussed. Also described are preliminary studies aimed at developing methodologies to determine the subcellular location of late-stage phenylpropanoid metabolites (e.g., coniferyl alcohol) and key enzymes thereof, in intact tissue or cells. This knowledge is essential if questions regarding lignin and lignan tissue specificity and regulation of these processes are to be deciphered.

  7. BIOSYNTHESIS OF CHLORAMPHENICOL IV.

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, David; Carter, H. E.; Robbins, P. W.; Burg, R. W.

    1962-01-01

    Gottlieb, David (University of Illinois, Urbana), H. E. Carter, P. W. Robbins, and R. W. Burg. Biosynthesis of chloramphenicol. IV. Incorporation of carbon14-labeled precursors. J. Bacteriol. 84:888–895. 1962.—Metabolism of dl-phenylalanine stimulated antibiotic synthesis by Streptomyces venezuelae, and resulted in the fixation of carbons 1 and 2 into the carbonyl group of chloramphenicol. It probably occurs by the oxidation of these carbons to carbon dioxide, followed by incorporation. Carbon 3 and the adjacent ring carbon were found in the dichloromethyl and the carbonyl carbons, respectively, of the dichloroacetyl portion of the molecule. The phenyl group of the amino acid is not transferred to the ring in chloramphenicol. Another stimulatory amino acid, dl-norleucine, contributed carbon 2 only as the carbonyl carbon. dl-Leucine is metabolized so that two adjacent carbons appear as the carbons in the dichloroacetyl moiety of the antibiotic. From acetic acid, carbon 1 is found only in the carbonyl group of chloramphenicol; carbon 2 of the acid is more generally distributed among the ring and side chain of the p-nitrophenylserinol part of the antibiotic, but is in greatest concentration in the dichloroacetyl fraction. Formic acid and carbon dioxide also are transformed only to the carbonyl group. Glycerol, the main source of metabolized carbon in the medium, has a general role and contributes to all parts of the molecule. In addition, it has a specific role in supplying an intact three-carbon fragment which enters into the molecule of chloramphenicol as a unit. PMID:13949488

  8. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  9. Regulation of cell wall biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Plant cell walls differ in their amount and composition among various cell types and even in different microdomains of the wall of a given cell. Plants must have evolved regulatory mechanisms controlling biosynthesis, targeted secretion, and assembly of wall components to achieve the heterogeneity in cell walls. A number of factors, including hormones, the cytoskeleton, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, phosphoinositides, and sugar nucleotide supply, have been implicated in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis or deposition. In the past two years, there have been important discoveries in transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis. Several transcription factors in the NAC and MYB families have been shown to be the key switches for activation of secondary wall biosynthesis. These studies suggest a transcriptional network comprised of a hierarchy of transcription factors is involved in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis. Further investigation and integration of the regulatory players participating in the making of cell walls will certainly lead to our understanding of how wall amounts and composition are controlled in a given cell type. This may eventually allow custom design of plant cell walls on the basis of our needs.

  10. Evolution of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme Uba1 (E1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Douglas C.; Phillips, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    Ubiquitin tags diseased proteins and initiates an enzyme conjugation cascade, which has three stages. The first-stage enzyme Uba1 (E1) has evolved only modestly from slime mold to humans, and is > 14 times larger than Ub. Here we use critical point thermodynamic scaling theory to connect Uba1 (E1) evolution from yeast and slime mold to fruit flies and humans to subtle changes in its amino acid sequences.

  11. E1a is an exogenous in vivo tumour suppressor.

    PubMed

    Cimas, Francisco J; Callejas-Valera, Juan L; García-Olmo, Dolores C; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Melgar-Rojas, Pedro; Ruiz-Hidalgo, María J; Pascual-Serra, Raquel; Ortega-Muelas, Marta; Roche, Olga; Marcos, Pilar; Garcia-Gil, Elena; Fernandez-Aroca, Diego M; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Gutkind, J Silvio; Sanchez-Prieto, Ricardo

    2017-07-28

    The E1a gene from adenovirus has become a major tool in cancer research. Since the discovery of E1a, it has been proposed to be an oncogene, becoming a key element in the model of cooperation between oncogenes. However, E1a's in vivo behaviour is consistent with a tumour suppressor gene, due to the block/delay observed in different xenograft models. To clarify this interesting controversy, we have evaluated the effect of the E1a 13s isoform from adenovirus 5 in vivo. Initially, a conventional xenograft approach was performed using previously unreported HCT116 and B16-F10 cells, showing a clear anti-tumour effect regardless of the mouse's immunological background (immunosuppressed/immunocompetent). Next, we engineered a transgenic mouse model in which inducible E1a 13s expression was under the control of cytokeratin 5 to avoid side effects during embryonic development. Our results show that E1a is able to block chemical skin carcinogenesis, showing an anti-tumour effect. The present report demonstrates the in vivo anti-tumour effect of E1a, showing that the in vitro oncogenic role of E1a cannot be extrapolated in vivo, supporting its future use in gene therapy approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence Favoring a Positive Feedback Loop for Physiologic Auto Upregulation of hnRNP-E1 during Prolonged Folate Deficiency in Human Placental Cells1234

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ying-Sheng; Khan, Rehana A; Xiao, Suhong; Hansen, Deborah K; Stabler, Sally P; Kusumanchi, Praveen; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N; Antony, Aśok C

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previously, we determined that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP-E1) functions as an intracellular physiologic sensor of folate deficiency. In this model, l-homocysteine, which accumulates intracellularly in proportion to the extent of folate deficiency, covalently binds to and thereby activates homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1 to interact with folate receptor-α mRNA; this high-affinity interaction triggers the translational upregulation of cell surface folate receptors, which enables cells to optimize folate uptake from the external milieu. However, integral to this model is the need for ongoing generation of hnRNP-E1 to replenish homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1 that is degraded. Objective: We searched for an interrelated physiologic mechanism that could also maintain the steady-state concentration of hnRNP-E1 during prolonged folate deficiency. Methods: A novel RNA-protein interaction was functionally characterized by using molecular and biochemical approaches in vitro and in vivo. Results: l-homocysteine triggered a dose-dependent high-affinity interaction between hnRNP-E1 and a 25-nucleotide cis element within the 5′-untranslated region of hnRNP-E1 mRNA; this led to a proportionate increase in these RNA-protein complexes, and translation of hnRNP-E1 both in vitro and within placental cells. Targeted perturbation of this RNA-protein interaction either by specific 25-nucleotide antisense oligonucleotides or mutation within this cis element or by small interfering RNA to hnRNP-E1 mRNA significantly reduced cellular biosynthesis of hnRNP-E1. Conversely, transfection of hnRNP-E1 mutant proteins that mimicked homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1 stimulated both cellular hnRNP-E1 and folate receptor biosynthesis. In addition, ferrous sulfate heptahydrate [iron(II)], which also binds hnRNP-E1, significantly perturbed this l-homocysteine–triggered RNA-protein interaction in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, folate deficiency induced dual upregulation of hnRNP-E

  13. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allocation rules. 1.514(e)-1 Section 1.514(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1...

  14. 26 CFR 49.4264(e)-1 - Round trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Round trips. 49.4264(e)-1 Section 49.4264(e)-1... TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4264(e)-1 Round trips. (a) In general. For purposes of the regulations in this subpart, a round trip shall be considered to consist of...

  15. 26 CFR 49.4264(e)-1 - Round trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Round trips. 49.4264(e)-1 Section 49.4264(e)-1... TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4264(e)-1 Round trips. (a) In general. For purposes of the regulations in this subpart, a round trip shall be considered to consist of...

  16. 26 CFR 49.4264(e)-1 - Round trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Round trips. 49.4264(e)-1 Section 49.4264(e)-1... TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4264(e)-1 Round trips. (a) In general. For purposes of the regulations in this subpart, a round trip shall be considered to consist of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Allocation rules. 1.514(e)-1 Section 1.514(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1...

  18. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Putatively Involved in Toxin Biosynthesis in the Marine Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Gao, Yue; Lin, Lin; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Alexandrium is a neurotoxin-producing dinoflagellate genus resulting in paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. However, little is known about the toxin biosynthesis mechanism in Alexandrium. This study compared protein profiles of A. catenella collected at different toxin biosynthesis stages (non-toxin synthesis, initial toxin synthesis and toxin synthesizing) coupled with the cell cycle, and identified differentially expressed proteins using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. The results showed that toxin biosynthesis of A. catenella occurred within a defined time frame in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Proteomic analysis indicated that 102 protein spots altered significantly in abundance (P < 0.05), and 53 proteins were identified using database searching. These proteins were involved in a variety of biological processes, i.e., protein modification and biosynthesis, metabolism, cell division, oxidative stress, transport, signal transduction, and translation. Among them, nine proteins with known functions in paralytic shellfish toxin-producing cyanobacteria, i.e., methionine S-adenosyltransferase, chloroplast ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, S-adenosylhomocysteinase, adenosylhomocysteinase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase, sulfotransferase (similar to), alcohol dehydrogenase and arginine deiminase, varied significantly at different toxin biosynthesis stages and formed an interaction network, indicating that they might be involved in toxin biosynthesis in A. catenella. This study is the first step in the dissection of the behavior of the A. catenella proteome during different toxin biosynthesis stages and provides new insights into toxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates. PMID:23340676

  19. (-)-Menthol biosynthesis and molecular genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Davis, Edward M.; Ringer, Kerry L.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2005-12-01

    (-)-Menthol is the most familiar of the monoterpenes as both a pure natural product and as the principal and characteristic constituent of the essential oil of peppermint ( Mentha x piperita). In this paper, we review the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of (-)-menthol production in peppermint. In Mentha species, essential oil biosynthesis and storage is restricted to the peltate glandular trichomes (oil glands) on the aerial surfaces of the plant. A mechanical method for the isolation of metabolically functional oil glands, has provided a system for precursor feeding studies to elucidate pathway steps, as well as a highly enriched source of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes and of their corresponding transcripts with which cDNA libraries have been constructed to permit cloning and characterization of key structural genes. The biosynthesis of (-)-menthol from primary metabolism requires eight enzymatic steps, and involves the formation and subsequent cyclization of the universal monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate to the parent olefin (-)-(4 S)-limonene as the first committed reaction of the sequence. Following hydroxylation at C3, a series of four redox transformations and an isomerization occur in a general “allylic oxidation-conjugate reduction” scheme that installs three chiral centers on the substituted cyclohexanoid ring to yield (-)-(1 R, 3 R, 4 S)-menthol. The properties of each enzyme and gene of menthol biosynthesis are described, as are their probable evolutionary origins in primary metabolism. The organization of menthol biosynthesis is complex in involving four subcellular compartments, and regulation of the pathway appears to reside largely at the level of gene expression. Genetic engineering to up-regulate a flux-limiting step and down-regulate a side route reaction has led to improvement in the composition and yield of peppermint oil.

  20. The enzymology of polyether biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiangang; Cane, David E; Deng, Zixin

    2009-01-01

    Polyether ionophore antibiotics are a special class of polyketides widely used in veterinary medicine, and as food additives in animal husbandry. In this article, we review current knowledge about the mechanism of polyether biosynthesis, and the genetic and biochemical strategies used for its study. Several clear differences distinguish it from traditional type I modular polyketide biosynthesis: polyether backbones are assembled by modular polyketide synthases but are modified by two key enzymes, epoxidase and epoxide hydrolase, to generate the product. All double bonds involved in the oxidative cyclization in the polyketide backbone are of E geometry. Chain release in the polyether biosynthetic pathway requires a special type II thioesterase which specifically hydrolyzes the polyether thioester. All these discoveries should be very helpful for a deep understanding of the biosynthetic mechanism of this class of important natural compounds, and for the targeted engineering of polyether derivatives.

  1. Biosynthesis of enediyne antitumor antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Van Lanen, Steven G; Shen, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The enediyne polyketides are secondary metabolites isolated from a variety of Actinomycetes. All members share very potent anticancer and antibiotic activity, and prospects for the clinical application of the enediynes has been validated with the recent marketing of two enediyne derivatives as anticancer agents. The biosynthesis of these compounds is of interest because of the numerous structural features that are unique to the enediyne family. The gene cluster for five enediynes has now been cloned and sequenced, providing the foundation to understand natures' means to biosynthesize such complex, exotic molecules. Presented here is a review of the current progress in delineating the biosynthesis of the enediynes with an emphasis on the model enediyne, C-1027.

  2. US NDC Modernization Iteration E1 Prototyping Report: User Interface Framework

    SciT

    Lober, Randall R.

    2014-12-01

    During the first iteration of the US NDC Modernization Elaboration phase (E1), the SNL US NDC modernization project team completed an initial survey of applicable COTS solutions, and established exploratory prototyping related to the User Interface Framework (UIF) in support of system architecture definition. This report summarizes these activities and discusses planned follow-on work.

  3. US NDC Modernization Iteration E1 Prototyping Report: Common Object Interface

    SciT

    Lewis, Jennifer E.; Hess, Michael M.

    2014-12-01

    During the first iteration of the US NDC Modernization Elaboration phase (E1), the SNL US NDC modernization project team completed an initial survey of applicable COTS solutions, and established exploratory prototyping related to the Common Object Interface (COI) in support of system architecture definition. This report summarizes these activities and discusses planned follow-on work.

  4. US NDC Modernization Iteration E1 Prototyping Report: Processing Control Framework

    SciT

    Prescott, Ryan; Hamlet, Benjamin R.

    2014-12-01

    During the first iteration of the US NDC Modernization Elaboration phase (E1), the SNL US NDC modernization project team developed an initial survey of applicable COTS solutions, and established exploratory prototyping related to the processing control framework in support of system architecture definition. This report summarizes these activities and discusses planned follow-on work.

  5. Amino acid precursor supply in the biosynthesis of the RNA polymerase inhibitor streptolydigin by Streptomyces lydicus.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Cristina; Horna, Dina H; Olano, Carlos; Palomino-Schätzlein, Martina; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio; Carbajo, Rodrigo J; Braña, Alfredo F; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A

    2011-08-01

    Biosynthesis of the hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptide antibiotic streptolydigin, 3-methylaspartate, is utilized as precursor of the tetramic acid moiety. The three genes from the Streptomyces lydicus streptolydigin gene cluster slgE1-slgE2-slgE3 are involved in 3-methylaspartate supply. SlgE3, a ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase, is responsible for the biosynthesis of glutamate from glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate. In addition to slgE3, housekeeping NADPH- and ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase genes have been identified in S. lydicus. The expression of slgE3 is increased up to 9-fold at the onset of streptolydigin biosynthesis and later decreases to ∼2-fold over the basal level. In contrast, the expression of housekeeping glutamate synthases decreases when streptolydigin begins to be synthesized. SlgE1 and SlgE2 are the two subunits of a glutamate mutase that would convert glutamate into 3-methylaspartate. Deletion of slgE1-slgE2 led to the production of two compounds containing a lateral side chain derived from glutamate instead of 3-methylaspartate. Expression of this glutamate mutase also reaches a peak increase of up to 5.5-fold coinciding with the onset of antibiotic production. Overexpression of either slgE3 or slgE1-slgE2 in S. lydicus led to an increase in the yield of streptolydigin.

  6. Pyrimidine Biosynthesis in Lactobacillus leichmannii

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, Judith Y.; Downing, Mancourt

    1968-01-01

    Tracer studies of pyrimidine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus leichmannii (ATCC 7830) indicated that, while aspartate is utilized in the usual manner, the guanido carbon of arginine, rather than carbon dioxide, is utilized as a pyrimidine precursor. The guanido carbon of arginine also contributes, to some extent, to the carbon dioxide pool utilized for purine biosynthesis. The enzyme of the first reaction leading from arginine to pyrimidines, arginine deiminase, was investigated in crude bacterial extracts. It was inhibited by thymidylic acid and purine ribonucleotides, and to a lesser extent by purine deoxynucleotides and deoxycytidylic acid. Under the assay conditions employed, a number of nucleotides had no effect on the enzyme activity of the aspartate transcarbamylase of L. leichmannii. Growth of the cells in media containing uracil, compared to growth in media without uracil, resulted in a four- to fivefold decrease in the concentrations of aspartate transcar-bamylase and dihydroorotase and a twofold increase in the concentration of arginine deiminase, as estimated from specific enzyme activity in crude extracts of the cells. A small increase in specific enzyme activity of ornithine transcarbamylase and carbamate kinase was also observed in extracts obtained from cells grown on uracil. No appreciable change in concentration of any of the five enzymes studied was detected when the cells were grown in media containing thymidine or guanylic acid. A hypothetical scheme which suggests a relationship between the control of purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis in this bacterium and which is consistent with the experimental results obtained is presented. PMID:5686000

  7. 26 CFR 1.927(e)-1 - Special sourcing rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special sourcing rule. 1.927(e)-1 Section 1.927(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... sale of export property giving rise to foreign trading gross receipts of a FSC that is treated as from...

  8. 26 CFR 1.167(e)-1 - Change in method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in method. 1.167(e)-1 Section 1.167(e)-1... method. (a) In general. (1) Any change in the method of computing the depreciation allowances with respect to a particular account (other than a change in method permitted or required by reason of the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.642(e)-1 - Depreciation and depletion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation and depletion. 1.642(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(e)-1 Depreciation and depletion. An estate or trust is allowed the deductions for depreciation and depletion, but only to the extent the...

  10. A non-redundant function of cyclin E1 in hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Campaner, Stefano; Viale, Andrea; De Fazio, Serena; Doni, Mirko; De Franco, Francesca; D'Artista, Luana; Sardella, Domenico; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Amati, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    A precise balance between quiescence and proliferation is crucial for the lifelong function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Cyclins E1 and E2 regulate exit from quiescence in fibroblasts, but their role in HSCs remains unknown. Here, we report a non-redundant role for cyclin E1 in mouse HSCs. A long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assay indicated that the loss of cyclin E1, but not E2, compromised the colony-forming activity of primitive hematopoietic progenitors. Ccne1(-/-) mice showed normal hematopoiesis in vivo under homeostatic conditions but a severe impairment following myeloablative stress induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Under these conditions, Ccne1(-/-) HSCs were less efficient in entering the cell cycle, resulting in decreased hematopoiesis and reduced survival of mutant mice upon weekly 5-FU treatment. The role of cyclin E1 in homeostatic conditions became apparent in aged mice, where HSC quiescence was increased in Ccne1(-/-) animals. On the other hand, loss of cyclin E1 provided HSCs with a competitive advantage in bone marrow serial transplantation assays, suggesting that a partial impairment of cell cycle entry may exert a protective role by preventing premature depletion of the HSC compartment. Our data support a role for cyclin E1 in controlling the exit from quiescence in HSCs. This activity, depending on the physiological context, can either jeopardize or protect the maintenance of hematopoiesis.

  11. CYP2E1 Metabolism of Styrene Involves Allostery

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Jessica H.; Boysen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    We are the first to report allosterism during styrene oxidation by recombinant CYP2E1 and human liver microsomes. At low styrene concentrations, oxidation is inefficient because of weak binding to CYP2E1 (Ks = 830 μM). A second styrene molecule then binds CYP2E1 with higher affinity (Kss = 110 μM) and significantly improves oxidation to achieve a kcat of 6.3 nmol · min−1 · nmol CYP2E1−1. The transition between these metabolic cycles coincides with reported styrene concentrations in blood from exposed workers; thus, this CYP2E1 mechanism may be relevant in vivo. Scaled modeling of the in vitro-positive allosteric mechanism for styrene metabolism to its in vivo clearance led to significant deviations from the traditional model based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Low styrene levels were notably much less toxic than generally assumed. We interrogated the allosteric mechanism using the CYP2E1-specific inhibitor and drug 4-methylpyrazole, which we have shown binds two CYP2E1 sites. From the current studies, styrene was a positive allosteric effector on 4-methylpyrazole binding, based on a 10-fold increase in 4-methylpyrazole binding affinity from Ki 0.51 to Ksi 0.043 μM. The inhibitor was a negative allosteric effector on styrene oxidation, because kcat decreased 6-fold to 0.98 nmol · min−1 · nmol CYP2E1−1. Consequently, mixtures of styrene and other molecules can induce allosteric effects on binding and metabolism by CYP2E1 and thus mitigate the efficiency of their metabolism and corresponding effects on human health. Taken together, our elucidation of mechanisms for these allosteric reactions provides a powerful tool for further investigating the complexities of CYP2E1 metabolism of drugs and pollutants. PMID:22807108

  12. Cytosolic invertase contributes to the supply of substrate for cellulose biosynthesis in developing wood.

    PubMed

    Rende, Umut; Wang, Wei; Gandla, Madhavi Latha; Jönsson, Leif J; Niittylä, Totte

    2017-04-01

    Carbon for cellulose biosynthesis is derived from sucrose. Cellulose is synthesized from uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose (UDP-glucose), but the enzyme(s) responsible for the initial sucrose cleavage and the source of UDP-glucose for cellulose biosynthesis in developing wood have not been defined. We investigated the role of CYTOSOLIC INVERTASEs (CINs) during wood formation in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) and characterized transgenic lines with reduced CIN activity during secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Suppression of CIN activity by 38-55% led to a 9-13% reduction in crystalline cellulose. The changes in cellulose were reflected in reduced diameter of acid-insoluble cellulose microfibrils and increased glucose release from wood upon enzymatic digestion of cellulose. Reduced CIN activity decreased the amount of the cellulose biosynthesis precursor UDP-glucose in developing wood, pointing to the likely cause of the cellulose phenotype. The findings suggest that CIN activity has an important role in the cellulose biosynthesis of trees, and indicate that cellulose biosynthesis in wood relies on a quantifiable UDP-glucose pool. The results also introduce a concept of altering cellulose microfibril properties by modifying substrate supply to cellulose biosynthesis. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Establishment of Class e1 Mass Standard of 50 kg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hong; Wang, Jian; Ding, Jingan; Zhong, Ruilin; Ren, Xiaoping

    Because of the equipment limit, the dissemination of large mass has been realized by a large amount of higher class of 20 kg weights since 1950s in China. But with improvement of the technique and customer's requirements, it is necessary to establish the mass standard of 50 kg weight. In 1990s, mass standard laboratory has set up Class E1 weight sets from 20 kg to 1 mg. To extend the mass capacity up to 50 kg of Class E1, it is not only to produce Class E1 50 kg weight and import a mass comparator, but also need to lift the heavy weight from weight box to balance receptor safely. Up to now, the mass comparator has been installed in Hepingli campus of NIM. Two pieces of Class E1 50 kg weights are determined by combination weighing method. A lifting device has been mounted close to the mass comparator in order to move the 50 kg easily.

  14. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration.

  15. Genetic polymorphism analysis of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) in a Chinese Tibetan population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Ren, Guoxia; Li, Jingjie; Zhu, Linhao; Niu, Fanglin; Yan, Mengdan; Li, Jing; Yuan, Dongya; Jin, Tianbo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) gene genetic polymorphisms vary markedly in frequency among different ethnic and racial groups. We studied the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of 3 CYP2E1 polymorphisms: CYP2E1∗1A, CYP2E1∗7A, and CYP2E1∗7C by polymerase chain reaction technique in a sample of 100 healthy subjects representing Tibetan population. The frequencies of CYP2E1∗1A, ∗7A, and ∗7C alleles were 0.705, 0.125, and 0.170, respectively. Compared with other populations, we found that the allele frequencies of the variants −352A>G (rs2070672) and −333A>T (rs2070673) in this Tibetan population have significant differences compared with European-American, African-American, Japanese, Korean, and other different geographic areas in Chinese Han population. Furthermore, the results of protein prediction revealed that the variant 6397G>A (rs61710826) could influence the protein structure and function. These findings in this study would be valuable for pharmacogenetics for drug therapy and drug discovery. However, further studies in larger samples are warranted to confirm our results. PMID:29381998

  16. CYP2E1 hydroxylation of aniline involves negative cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Jessica H; Knott, Katie; Miller, Grover P

    2014-02-01

    CYP2E1 plays a role in the metabolic activation and elimination of aniline, yet there are conflicting reports on its mechanism of action, and hence relevance, in aniline metabolism. Based on our work with similar compounds, we hypothesized that aniline binds two CYP2E1 sites during metabolism resulting in cooperative reaction kinetics and tested this hypothesis through rigorous in vitro studies. The kinetic profile for recombinant CYP2E1 demonstrated significant negative cooperativity based on a fit of data to the Hill equation (n=0.56). Mechanistically, the data were best explained through a two-binding site cooperative model in which aniline binds with high affinity (K(s)=30 μM) followed by a second weaker binding event (K(ss)=1100 uM) resulting in a threefold increase in the oxidation rate. Binding sites for aniline were confirmed by inhibition studies with 4-methylpyrazole. Inhibitor phenotyping experiments with human liver microsomes validated the central role for CYP2E1 in aniline hydroxylation and indicated minor roles for CYP2A6 and CYP2C9. Importantly, inhibition of minor metabolic pathways resulted in a kinetic profile for microsomal CYP2E1 that replicated the preferred mechanism and parameters observed with the recombinant enzyme. Scaled modeling of in vitro CYP2E1 metabolism of aniline to in vivo clearance, especially at low aniline levels, led to significant deviations from the traditional model based on non-cooperative, Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These findings provide a critical mechanistic perspective on the potential importance of CYP2E1 in the metabolic activation and elimination of aniline as well as the first experimental evidence of a negatively cooperative metabolic reaction catalyzed by CYP2E1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0564 TITLE : Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Panagiotis A...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0564 5c... box protein M1, Retinoblastoma 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON

  18. Essential Roles of Local Auxin Biosynthesis in Plant Development and in Adaptation to Environmental Changes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunde

    2018-04-29

    It has been a dominant dogma in plant biology that the self-organizing polar auxin transport system is necessary and sufficient to generate auxin maxima and minima that are essential for almost all aspects of plant growth and development. However, in the past few years, it has become clear that local auxin biosynthesis is required for a suite of developmental processes, including embryogenesis, endosperm development, root development, and floral initiation and patterning. Moreover, it was discovered that local auxin biosynthesis maintains optimal plant growth in response to environmental signals, including light, temperature, pathogens, and toxic metals. In this article, I discuss the recent progress in auxin biosynthesis research and the paradigm shift in recognizing the important roles of local auxin biosynthesis in plant biology.

  19. Biosynthesis and Function of Polyacetylenes and Allied Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Minto, Robert E.; Blacklock, Brenda J.

    2008-01-01

    Polyacetylenic natural products are a substantial class of often unstable compounds containing a unique carbon-carbon triple bond functionality, that are intriguing for their wide variety of biochemical and ecological functions, economic potential, and surprising mode of biosynthesis. Isotopic tracer experiments between 1960 and 1990 demonstrated that the majority of these compounds are derived from fatty acid and polyketide precursors. During the past decade, research into the metabolism of polyacetylenes has swiftly advanced, driven by the cloning of the first genes responsible for polyacetylene biosynthesis in plants, moss, fungi, and actinomycetes, and the initial characterization of the gene products. The current state of knowledge of the biochemistry and molecular genetics of polyacetylenic secondary metabolic pathways will be presented together with an up-to-date survey of new terrestrial and marine natural products, their known biological activities, and a discussion of their likely metabolic origins. PMID:18387369

  20. Anti-E1E2 antibodies status prior therapy favors direct-acting antiviral treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Virlogeux, Victor; Berthillon, Pascale; Bordes, Isabelle; Larrat, Sylvie; Crouy, Stéphanie; Scholtès, Caroline; Pradat, Pierre; Maynard, Marianne; Zoulim, Fabien; Leroy, Vincent; Chemin, Isabelle; Trépo, Christian; Petit, Marie-Anne

    2018-03-15

    Presence of anti-E1E2 antibodies was previously associated with spontaneous cure of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and predictive before treatment of a sustained virological response (SVR) to bi- or tri-therapy in naïve or experienced patients, regardless of HCV genotype. We investigated the impact of anti-E1E2 seroprevalence at baseline on treatment response in patients receiving direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. We screened anti-E1E2 antibodies by ELISA in serum samples collected at treatment initiation for two groups of patients: 59 with SVR at the end of DAA treatment and 44 relapsers after DAA treatment. Nineteen patients received a combination of ribavirin (RBV) or PEG-interferon/ribavirin with sofosbuvir or daclatasvir and others received interferon-free treatment with DAA±RBV. HCV viral load was measured at different time points during treatment in a subgroup of patients. A significant association was observed between presence of anti-E1E2 and HCV viral load<6log10 prior treatment. Among patients with anti-E1E2 at baseline, 70% achieved SVR whereas among patients without anti-E1E2, only 45% achieved SVR. Conversely, 66% of patients experiencing DAA-failure were anti-E1E2 negative at baseline. In the multivariate analysis, presence of anti-E1E2 was significantly associated with SVR after adjustment on potential cofounders such as age, sex, fibrosis stage, prior HCV treatment and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. The presence of anti-E1E2 at treatment initiation is a predictive factor of SVR among patients treated with DAA and more likely among patients with low initial HCV viral load (<6log10). Absence of anti-E1E2 at baseline could predict DAA-treatment failure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The E1 Protein of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Is Dispensable for Maintenance Replication of the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Nakahara, Tomomi; Ohno, Shin-ichi; Narisawa-Saito, Mako; Yugawa, Takashi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Yamato, Kenji; Natori, Yukikazu

    2012-01-01

    Papillomavirus genomes are thought to be amplified to about 100 copies per cell soon after infection, maintained constant at this level in basal cells, and amplified for viral production upon keratinocyte differentiation. To determine the requirement for E1 in viral DNA replication at different stages, an E1-defective mutant of the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) genome featuring a translation termination mutation in the E1 gene was used. The ability of the mutant HPV16 genome to replicate as nuclear episomes was monitored with or without exogenous expression of E1. Unlike the wild-type genome, the E1-defective HPV16 genome became established in human keratinocytes only as episomes in the presence of exogenous E1 expression. Once established, it could replicate with the same efficiency as the wild-type genome, even after the exogenous E1 was removed. However, upon calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation, once again amplification was dependent on exogenous E1. These results demonstrate that the E1 protein is dispensable for maintenance replication but not for initial and productive replication of HPV16. PMID:22238312

  2. Regulation of Oil Biosynthesis in Algae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-25

    for future engineering purposes 3. Biochemical analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferases ( DGATs ). These are key enzymes of oil biosynthesis...catalyzing the assembly of triacylglycerol in many organisms. 5 Genes predicted to encode DGATs and their role in triacylglycerol biosynthesis were identified

  3. Regulation of Oil Biosynthesis in Algae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-14

    transportation fuels can potentially be addressed by exploring oil (triacylglycerol) biosynthesis in microalgae . Many microalgae , including Chlamydomonas...biosynthesis in microalgae have not been studied at the molecular level. Chlamydomonas is being used as a microalgal model to identify genes and regulatory...of this phenomenon will shed light on the physiological significance of oil production in microalgae . A first paper describing this interesting

  4. Resolvin E1 (Rv E1 ) attenuates LPS induced inflammation and subsequent atrophy in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Luke A; Martin, Neil R W; Kimber, Marc C; Pritchard, Gareth J; Lindley, Martin R; Lewis, Mark P

    2018-03-25

    Resolution of inflammation is now known to be an active process which in part is instigated and controlled by specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM's) derived from dietary omega-3 fatty acids. Resolvin E1 (R v E 1 ) is one of these SPM's derived from the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid. Using both molecular and phenotypic functional measures we report that in a model of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation, R v E 1 attenuated mRNA levels of both interlukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 whilst having no effect on tumor necrosis factor-α or interlukin-1β in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes. Findings at the molecular level were transferred into similar changes in extracellular protein levels of the corresponding genes with the greatest attenuation being noted in IL-6 protein concentrations. R v E 1 instigated beneficial morphological changes through the prevention of LPS induced skeletal muscle atrophy, in tandem with attenuation of the LPS induced reduction in contractile force in tissue engineered skeletal muscle. These findings demonstrate, in our model of endotoxin induced inflammation in skeletal muscle, that R v E 1 has pro-resolving properties in this cell type. Our data provides rationale for further investigation into the mechanistic action of R v E 1 in skeletal muscle, with the vision of having potential benefits for the prevention/resolution of in-vivo skeletal muscle atrophy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Impotence evaluated by the use of prostaglandin E1

    SciT

    Hwang, T.I.; Yang, C.R.; Wang, S.J.

    1989-06-01

    We screened 80 patients at our hospital for the differential diagnosis of impotence using intracavernous injection of prostaglandin E1 (20 micrograms). The rate of positive response was 78.8 per cent (63 patients). Neither systemic reactions nor priapism occurred. However, a considerable incidence (23.8 per cent, 19 of 80 patients) of tolerable injection pain was encountered. The 133-xenon penile washout study was conducted routinely in impotent men for hemodynamic evaluation of penile vascularity. In 80 patients a positive correlation between the response of intracavernous prostaglandin E1 injection and the result of the washout study was found (r equals 0.381, p lessmore » than 0.0002). We selected 14 subjects randomly to receive additional intravenous infusions of prostaglandin E1 (6 ampules, 120 micrograms total) for 3 days, after which another 133-xenon washout study was done. The washout studies before and after intravenous prostaglandin E1 infusion were compared, and 10 patients (71.4 per cent) appeared to obtain improvement in half-time clearance and penile blood flow. However, only 3 patients noticed improvement subjectively. We suggest that prostaglandin E1 could be a desirable alternative for the diagnosis and treatment of impotence.« less

  6. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J.; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V.

    2008-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, and the use of molecular tools, including mice deficient in either enzyme, has shed light on their functions. Although DGAT enzymes are involved in TG synthesis, they have distinct protein sequences and differ in their biochemical, cellular, and physiological functions. Both enzymes may be useful as therapeutic targets for diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of DGAT enzymes, focusing on new advances since the cloning of their genes, including possible roles in human health and diseases. PMID:18757836

  7. Pullulan: biosynthesis, production, and applications.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Demirci, Ali; Catchmark, Jeffrey M

    2011-10-01

    Pullulan is a linear glucosic polysaccharide produced by the polymorphic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, which has long been applied for various applications from food additives to environmental remediation agents. This review article presents an overview of pullulan's chemistry, biosynthesis, applications, state-of-the-art advances in the enhancement of pullulan production through the investigations of enzyme regulations, molecular properties, cultivation parameters, and bioreactor design. The enzyme regulations are intended to illustrate the influences of metabolic pathway on pullulan production and its structural composition. Molecular properties, such as molecular weight distribution and pure pullulan content, of pullulan are crucial for pullulan applications and vary with different fermentation parameters. Studies on the effects of environmental parameters and new bioreactor design for enhancing pullulan production are getting attention. Finally, the potential applications of pullulan through chemical modification as a novel biologically active derivative are also discussed.

  8. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. [Chemistry and biosynthesis of prenylflavonoids].

    PubMed

    Nomura, T

    2001-07-01

    Many isoprenylated flavonoids have been isolated from mulberry trees and related plants (Moraceae). Among them, kuwanons G (13) and H (14) were the first isolated active substances exhibiting a hypotensive effect from the Japanese Morus root bark. These compounds are considered to be formed through an enzymatic Diels-Alder reaction of a chalcone (15) and dehydro-kuwanon C (16) or its equivalent. Since that time, about forty kinds of Diels-Alder type adducts structurally similar to that of 13 have been isolated from the moraceous plants. Some strains of Morus alba as well as M. bombycis callus tissues have a high productivity of mulberry Diels-Alder type adducts, such as chalcomoracin (26) and kuwanon J (28). The biosynthesis of the mulberry Diels-Alder type adducts has been studied with the aid of the cell strain. Chalcomoracin (26) and kuwanon J (28) were proved to be enzymatic Diels-Alder type reaction products by the administration experiment with O-methylchalcone derivatives. Furthermore, for the isoprenoid biosynthesis of prenylflavonoids in Morus alba callus tissues, a novel way through the junction of glycolysis and pentose-phosphate cycle was proposed. The crude enzyme fraction catalyzing the Morus Diels-Alder type reaction could be isolated. Studies of phenolic constituents of licorice (Glycyrrhiza species) were carried out. On the course of the structure determination of the phenolic constituents of licorice, two new NMR structure determination methods for prenylflavonoids were found. Furthermore, the prenylphenols isolated from licorice were summarized according to the origin of the materials.

  10. Putrescine biosynthesis in mammalian tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Catherine S; Hu, Guirong; Pegg, Anthony E

    2004-01-01

    L-ornithine decarboxylase provides de novo putrescine biosynthesis in mammals. Alternative pathways to generate putrescine that involve ADC (L-arginine decarboxylase) occur in non-mammalian organisms. It has been suggested that an ADC-mediated pathway may generate putrescine via agmatine in mammalian tissues. Published evidence for a mammalian ADC is based on (i) assays using mitochondrial extracts showing production of 14CO2 from [1-14C]arginine and (ii) cloned cDNA sequences that have been claimed to represent ADC. We have reinvestigated this evidence and were unable to find any evidence supporting a mammalian ADC. Mitochondrial extracts prepared from freshly isolated rodent liver and kidney using a metrizamide/Percoll density gradient were assayed for ADC activity using L-[U-14C]-arginine in the presence or absence of arginine metabolic pathway inhibitors. Although 14CO2 was produced in substantial amounts, no labelled agmatine or putrescine was detected. [14C]Agmatine added to liver extracts was not degraded significantly indicating that any agmatine derived from a putative ADC activity was not lost due to further metabolism. Extensive searches of current genome databases using non-mammalian ADC sequences did not identify a viable candidate ADC gene. One of the putative mammalian ADC sequences appears to be derived from bacteria and the other lacks several residues that are essential for decarboxylase activity. These results indicate that 14CO2 release from [1-14C]arginine is not adequate evidence for a mammalian ADC. Although agmatine is a known constituent of mammalian cells, it can be transported from the diet. Therefore L-ornithine decarboxylase remains the only established route for de novo putrescine biosynthesis in mammals. PMID:14763899

  11. Distinct Prominent Roles for Enzymes of Plasmodium berghei Heme Biosynthesis in Sporozoite and Liver Stage Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Matuschewski, Kai; Haussig, Joana M.

    2016-01-01

    Malarial parasites have evolved complex regulation of heme supply and disposal to adjust to heme-rich and -deprived host environments. In addition to its own pathway for heme biosynthesis, Plasmodium likely harbors mechanisms for heme scavenging from host erythrocytes. Elaborate compartmentalization of de novo heme synthesis into three subcellular locations, including the vestigial plastid organelle, indicates critical roles in life cycle progression. In this study, we systematically profile the essentiality of heme biosynthesis by targeted gene deletion of enzymes in early steps of this pathway. We show that disruption of endogenous heme biosynthesis leads to a first detectable defect in oocyst maturation and sporogony in the Anopheles vector, whereas blood stage propagation, colonization of mosquito midguts, or initiation of oocyst development occurs indistinguishably from that of wild-type parasites. Although sporozoites are produced by parasites lacking an intact pathway for heme biosynthesis, they are absent from mosquito salivary glands, indicative of a vital role for heme biosynthesis only in sporozoite maturation. Rescue of the first defect in sporogony permitted analysis of potential roles in liver stages. We show that liver stage parasites benefit from but do not strictly depend upon their own aminolevulinic acid synthase and that they can scavenge aminolevulinic acid from the host environment. Together, our experimental genetics analysis of Plasmodium enzymes for heme biosynthesis exemplifies remarkable shifts between the use of endogenous and host resources during life cycle progression. PMID:27600503

  12. Genetic evidence for the role of GDP-mannose in plant ascorbic acid (vitamin C) biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Patricia L.; Norris, Susan R.; Wheeler, Glen L.; Williams, Elizabeth H.; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Last, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    Vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid; AsA) acts as a potent antioxidant and cellular reductant in plants and animals. AsA has long been known to have many critical physiological roles in plants, yet its biosynthesis is only currently being defined. A pathway for AsA biosynthesis that features GDP-mannose and l-galactose has recently been proposed for plants. We have isolated a collection of AsA-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that are valuable tools for testing of an AsA biosynthetic pathway. The best-characterized of these mutants (vtc1) contains ≈25% of wild-type AsA and is defective in AsA biosynthesis. By using a combination of biochemical, molecular, and genetic techniques, we have demonstrated that the VTC1 locus encodes a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (mannose-1-P guanyltransferase). This enzyme provides GDP-mannose, which is used for cell wall carbohydrate biosynthesis and protein glycosylation as well as for AsA biosynthesis. In addition to genetically defining the first locus involved in AsA biosynthesis, this work highlights the power of using traditional mutagenesis techniques coupled with the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative to rapidly clone physiologically important genes. PMID:10097187

  13. Pro-resolving actions and stereoselective biosynthesis of 18S E-series resolvins in human leukocytes and murine inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sungwhan F.; Pillai, Padmini S.; Recchiuti, Antonio; Yang, Rong; Serhan, Charles N.

    2011-01-01

    E-series resolvins are antiinflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators derived from the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that actively clear inflammation to promote tissue homeostasis. Aspirin, in addition to exerting antithrombotic actions, also triggers the biosynthesis of these specialized pro-resolving mediators. Here, we used metabolomic profiling to investigate the biosynthesis of E-series resolvins with specific chiral chemistry in serum from human subjects and present evidence for new 18S series resolvins. Aspirin increased endogenous formation of 18S-hydroxyeicosapentaenoate (18S-HEPE) compared with 18R-HEPE, a known resolvin precursor. Human recombinant 5-lipoxygenase used both enantiomers as substrates, and recombinant LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H) converted chiral 5S(6)-epoxide–containing intermediates to resolvin E1 and 18S-resolvin E1 (RvE1 and 18S-RvE1, respectively). 18S-RvE1 bound to the leukocyte GPCRs ChemR23 and BLT1 with increased affinity and potency compared with the R-epimer, but was more rapidly inactivated than RvE1 by dehydrogenase. Like RvE1, 18S-RvE1 enhanced macrophage phagocytosis of zymosan, E. coli, and apoptotic neutrophils and reduced both neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines in murine peritonitis. These results demonstrate two parallel stereospecific pathways in the biosynthesis of E-series resolvins, 18R- and 18S-, which are antiinflammatory, pro-resolving, and non-phlogistic and may contribute to the beneficial actions of aspirin and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21206090

  14. Multi-Laboratory Validation of Estrone (E1) ELISA Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is a round-robin evaluation of commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technology to quantitatively or qualitatively measure the hormone estrone (E1) in combined animal feeding operation (CAFO) receiving streams. ELISA is meant to be a simpl...

  15. 24. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS REINFORCEMENT DETAILS; MONOLITHS E1 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS - REINFORCEMENT DETAILS; MONOLITHS E-1 TO F-4 INCL. & NO. 34. Sheet S-11, June, 1939. File no. SA 342/24(?). - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  16. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-1 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3231(e)-1 Compensation...

  17. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  18. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A; McGhie, Tony K; Andre, Christelle M; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

    2012-09-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple.

  19. Antibacterial Targets in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, H. Tonie; Reynolds, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway is an attractive but still largely unexploited target for development of new anti-bacterial agents. The extended use of the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid and the antiseptic triclosan, which are inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis, validates this pathway as a target for anti-bacterial development. Differences in subcellular organization of the bacterial and eukaryotic multi-enzyme fatty acid synthase systems offer the prospect of inhibitors with host vs. target specificity. Platensimycin, platencin, and phomallenic acids, newly discovered natural product inhibitors of the condensation steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, represent new classes of compounds with antibiotic potential. An almost complete catalogue of crystal structures for the enzymes of the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway can now be exploited in the rational design of new inhibitors, as well as the recently published crystal structures of type I FAS complexes. PMID:17707686

  20. Engineering microorganisms for improving polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo-Qiang; Jiang, Xiao-Ran

    2017-11-20

    Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) has been studied since the 1920s. The biosynthesis pathways have been well understood and various attempts have been made to improve the PHA biosynthesis efficiency. Recent progresses have been focused on systematic improvements on PHA biosynthesis including changing growth pattern for rapid proliferation, engineering to enlarge cell sizes for more PHA accumulation space, reprogramming the PHA synthesis pathways using optimized RBS and promoter, redirecting metabolic flux to PHA synthesis using CRISPR/Cas9 tools, and very importantly, the employment of non-traditional host such as halophiles for reduced complexity on PHA production. All of the efforts should lead to ultrahigh PHA accumulation, controllable PHA compositions and molecular weights, open and continuous PHA production with gravity separation processes, resulting in competitive PHA production cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  2. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  3. Mammalian cytochrome CYP2E1 triggered differential gene regulation in response to trichloroethylene (TCE) in a transgenic poplar.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun Won; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Farin, Federico M; Bammler, Theo K; Beyer, Richard P; Strand, Stuart E; Doty, Sharon L

    2010-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important environmental contaminant of soil, groundwater, and air. Studies of the metabolism of TCE by poplar trees suggest that cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved. Using poplar genome microarrays, we report a number of putative genes that are differentially expressed in response to TCE. In a previous study, transgenic hybrid poplar plants expressing mammalian cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) had increased metabolism of TCE. In the vector control plants for this construct, 24 h following TCE exposure, 517 genes were upregulated and 650 genes were downregulated over 2-fold when compared with the non-exposed vector control plants. However, in the transgenic CYP2E1 plant, line 78, 1,601 genes were upregulated and 1,705 genes were downregulated over 2-fold when compared with the non-exposed transgenic CYP2E1 plant. It appeared that the CYP2E1 transgenic hybrid poplar plants overexpressing mammalian CYP2E1 showed a larger number of differentially expressed transcripts, suggesting a metabolic pathway for TCE to metabolites had been initiated by activity of CYP2E1 on TCE. These results suggest that either the over-expression of the CYP2E1 gene or the abundance of TCE metabolites from CYP450 2E1 activity triggered a strong genetic response to TCE. Particularly, cytochrome p450s, glutathione S-transferases, glucosyltransferases, and ABC transporters in the CYP2E1 transgenic hybrid poplar plants were highly expressed compared with in vector controls.

  4. Project FOOTPRINT: Substation modeling and simulations for E1 pulses

    SciT

    Nelson, Scott D.; Larson, D. J.; Kirkendall, B. A.

    This report includes a presentation with an: Introduction to CW coupling; Introduction to single-pulse coupling; Description of E1 waveforms; Structures in a substation yard --articulated (as part of the substation's defined electrical functionality)--unarticulated (not as part of the substation's defined electrical functionality); Coupling --electrical coupling (capacitive coupling) --magnetic coupling (inductive coupling); Connectivity to long-line transmission lines; Control infrastructure; Summary; and References.

  5. Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0566 TITLE : Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dipanjan...RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND...amplification, Homologous Recombination, Platinum analogues, MicroRNAs, Heat shock protein 90 inhibitors, Forkhead box protein M1, Retinoblastoma 16

  6. Amino Acid Precursor Supply in the Biosynthesis of the RNA Polymerase Inhibitor Streptolydigin by Streptomyces lydicus▿†

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Cristina; Horna, Dina H.; Olano, Carlos; Palomino-Schätzlein, Martina; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio; Carbajo, Rodrigo J.; Braña, Alfredo F.; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptide antibiotic streptolydigin, 3-methylaspartate, is utilized as precursor of the tetramic acid moiety. The three genes from the Streptomyces lydicus streptolydigin gene cluster slgE1-slgE2-slgE3 are involved in 3-methylaspartate supply. SlgE3, a ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase, is responsible for the biosynthesis of glutamate from glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate. In addition to slgE3, housekeeping NADPH- and ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase genes have been identified in S. lydicus. The expression of slgE3 is increased up to 9-fold at the onset of streptolydigin biosynthesis and later decreases to ∼2-fold over the basal level. In contrast, the expression of housekeeping glutamate synthases decreases when streptolydigin begins to be synthesized. SlgE1 and SlgE2 are the two subunits of a glutamate mutase that would convert glutamate into 3-methylaspartate. Deletion of slgE1-slgE2 led to the production of two compounds containing a lateral side chain derived from glutamate instead of 3-methylaspartate. Expression of this glutamate mutase also reaches a peak increase of up to 5.5-fold coinciding with the onset of antibiotic production. Overexpression of either slgE3 or slgE1-slgE2 in S. lydicus led to an increase in the yield of streptolydigin. PMID:21665968

  7. Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, D'Maris Amick; Vlot, A. Corina; Wildermuth, Mary C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to regulate various aspects of growth and development; it also serves as a critical signal for activating disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. This review surveys the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of this critical plant hormone. While a complete biosynthetic route has yet to be established, stressed Arabidopsis appear to synthesize SA primarily via an isochorismate-utilizing pathway in the chloroplast. A distinct pathway utilizing phenylalanine as the substrate also may contribute to SA accumulation, although to a much lesser extent. Once synthesized, free SA levels can be regulated by a variety of chemical modifications. Many of these modifications inactivate SA; however, some confer novel properties that may aid in long distance SA transport or the activation of stress responses complementary to those induced by free SA. In addition, a number of factors that directly or indirectly regulate the expression of SA biosynthetic genes or that influence the rate of SA catabolism have been identified. An integrated model, encompassing current knowledge of SA metabolism in Arabidopsis, as well as the influence other plant hormones exert on SA metabolism, is presented. PMID:22303280

  8. Biosynthesis of trichothecenes and apotrichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Zamir, L O; Nikolakakis, A; Sauriol, F; Mamer, O

    1999-05-01

    Fusarium culmorum produces two major trichothecenes, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and sambucinol, and some minor apotrichothecenes. It was desired to investigate if during their biosynthesis a C-11-keto intermediate was involved. To verify this postulate, trichodiene, a known precursor to trichothecenes, was synthesized with two deuteriums at C-11 and one at C-15. It was then fed to F. culmorum cultures, and the derived metabolites were purified and analyzed. The results ruled out the involvement of an 11-keto intermediate but revealed two novel apotrichothecenes. The characterization of their structures suggested that one of the 2-hydroxy-11alpha-apotrichothecene stereoisomers (2alpha or 2beta) could be converted to sambucinol. These apotrichothecenes were therefore synthesized labeled specifically with two deuteriums at C-4 and C-15 and fed to F. culmorum cultures. Indeed, the result established for the first time that 2alpha-hydroxy-11alpha-apotrichothecene was a precursor to sambucinol. A biosynthetic scheme for the production of trichothecenes and apotrichothecenes is described.

  9. Soybean Fe-S cluster biosynthesis regulated by external iron or phosphate fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lu; Wang, Meihuan; Chen, Liyu; Liang, Xuejiao; Wu, Zhigeng; Lin, Zhihao; Zuo, Jia; Feng, Xiangyang; Zhao, Jing; Liao, Hong; Ye, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Iron and phosphorus are essential for soybean nodulation. Our results suggested that the deficiency of Fe or P impairs nodulation by affecting the assembly of functional iron-sulfur cluster via different mechanisms. Iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) are important mineral nutrients for soybean and are indispensable for nodulation. However, it remains elusive how the pathways of Fe metabolism respond to the fluctuation of external Fe or P. Iron is required for the iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster assembly in higher plant. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of Fe-S cluster biosynthesis genes in the nodulated soybean. Soybean genome encodes 42 putative Fe-S cluster biosynthesis genes, which were expressed differently in shoots and roots, suggesting of physiological relevance. Nodules initiated from roots of soybean after rhizobia inoculation. In comparison with that in shoots, iron concentration was three times higher in nodules. The Fe-S cluster biosynthesis genes were activated and several Fe-S protein activities were increased in nodules, indicating that a more effective Fe-S cluster biosynthesis is accompanied by nodulation. Fe-S cluster biosynthesis genes were massively repressed and some Fe-S protein activities were decreased in nodules by Fe deficiency, leading to tiny nodules. Notably, P deficiency induced a similar Fe-deficiency response in nodules, i.e, certain Fe-S enzyme activity loss and tiny nodules. However, distinct from Fe-deficient nodules, higher iron concentration was accumulated and the Fe-S cluster biosynthesis genes were not suppressed in the P-deficiency-treated nodules. Taken together, our results showed that both Fe deficiency and P deficiency impair nodulation, but they affect the assembly of Fe-S cluster maybe via different mechanisms. The data also suggested that Fe-S cluster biosynthesis likely links Fe metabolism and P metabolism in root and nodule cells of soybean.

  10. A large scale virtual screen of DprE1.

    PubMed

    Wilsey, Claire; Gurka, Jessica; Toth, David; Franco, Jimmy

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis continues to plague the world with the World Health Organization estimating that about one third of the world's population is infected. Due to the emergence of MDR and XDR strains of TB, the need for novel therapeutics has become increasing urgent. Herein we report the results of a virtual screen of 4.1 million compounds against a promising drug target, DrpE1. The virtual compounds were obtained from the Zinc docking site and screened using the molecular docking program, AutoDock Vina. The computational hits have led to the identification of several promising lead compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aromatic Prenylation in Phenazine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Orwah; Gust, Bertolt; Boll, Björn; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Heide, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    The bacterium Streptomyces anulatus 9663, isolated from the intestine of different arthropods, produces prenylated derivatives of phenazine 1-carboxylic acid. From this organism, we have identified the prenyltransferase gene ppzP. ppzP resides in a gene cluster containing orthologs of all genes known to be involved in phenazine 1-carboxylic acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas strains as well as genes for the six enzymes required to generate dimethylallyl diphosphate via the mevalonate pathway. This is the first complete gene cluster of a phenazine natural compound from streptomycetes. Heterologous expression of this cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor M512 resulted in the formation of prenylated derivatives of phenazine 1-carboxylic acid. After inactivation of ppzP, only nonprenylated phenazine 1-carboxylic acid was formed. Cloning, overexpression, and purification of PpzP resulted in a 37-kDa soluble protein, which was identified as a 5,10-dihydrophenazine 1-carboxylate dimethylallyltransferase, forming a C–C bond between C-1 of the isoprenoid substrate and C-9 of the aromatic substrate. In contrast to many other prenyltransferases, the reaction of PpzP is independent of the presence of magnesium or other divalent cations. The Km value for dimethylallyl diphosphate was determined as 116 μm. For dihydro-PCA, half-maximal velocity was observed at 35 μm. Kcat was calculated as 0.435 s-1. PpzP shows obvious sequence similarity to a recently discovered family of prenyltransferases with aromatic substrates, the ABBA prenyltransferases. The present finding extends the substrate range of this family, previously limited to phenolic compounds, to include also phenazine derivatives. PMID:19339241

  12. Mathematical models of lignin biosynthesis

    SciT

    Faraji, Mojdeh; Fonseca, Luis; Escamilla-Trevino, Luis

    Lignin is a natural polymer that is interwoven with cellulose and hemicellulose within plant cell walls. Due to this molecular arrangement, lignin is a major contributor to the recalcitrance of plant materials with respect to the extraction of sugars and their fermentation into ethanol, butanol, and other potential bioenergy crops. The lignin biosynthetic pathway is similar, but not identical in different plant species. It is in each case comprised of a moderate number of enzymatic steps, but its responses to manipulations, such as gene knock-downs, are complicated by the fact that several of the key enzymes are involved in severalmore » reaction steps. This feature poses a challenge to bioenergy production, as it renders it difficult to select the most promising combinations of genetic manipulations for the optimization of lignin composition and amount.Here, we present several computational models than can aid in the analysis of data characterizing lignin biosynthesis. While minimizing technical details, we focus on the questions of what types of data are particularly useful for modeling and what genuine benefits the biofuel researcher may gain from the resulting models. We demonstrate our analysis with mathematical models for black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), alfalfa (Medicago truncatula), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and the grass Brachypodium distachyon. Despite commonality in pathway structure, different plant species show different regulatory features and distinct spatial and topological characteristics. The putative lignin biosynthes pathway is not able to explain the plant specific laboratory data, and the necessity of plant specific modeling should be heeded.« less

  13. Mathematical models of lignin biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Faraji, Mojdeh; Fonseca, Luis; Escamilla-Trevino, Luis; ...

    2018-02-09

    Lignin is a natural polymer that is interwoven with cellulose and hemicellulose within plant cell walls. Due to this molecular arrangement, lignin is a major contributor to the recalcitrance of plant materials with respect to the extraction of sugars and their fermentation into ethanol, butanol, and other potential bioenergy crops. The lignin biosynthetic pathway is similar, but not identical in different plant species. It is in each case comprised of a moderate number of enzymatic steps, but its responses to manipulations, such as gene knock-downs, are complicated by the fact that several of the key enzymes are involved in severalmore » reaction steps. This feature poses a challenge to bioenergy production, as it renders it difficult to select the most promising combinations of genetic manipulations for the optimization of lignin composition and amount.Here, we present several computational models than can aid in the analysis of data characterizing lignin biosynthesis. While minimizing technical details, we focus on the questions of what types of data are particularly useful for modeling and what genuine benefits the biofuel researcher may gain from the resulting models. We demonstrate our analysis with mathematical models for black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), alfalfa (Medicago truncatula), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and the grass Brachypodium distachyon. Despite commonality in pathway structure, different plant species show different regulatory features and distinct spatial and topological characteristics. The putative lignin biosynthes pathway is not able to explain the plant specific laboratory data, and the necessity of plant specific modeling should be heeded.« less

  14. Isolation and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants defective in the induction of ethylene biosynthesis by cytokinin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. P.; Schuerman, P.; Woeste, K.; Brandstatter, I.; Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Cytokinins elevate ethylene biosynthesis in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings via a post-transcriptional modification of one isoform of the key biosynthetic enzyme ACC synthase. In order to begin to dissect the signaling events leading from cytokinin perception to this modification, we have isolated a series of mutants that lack the ethylene-mediated triple response in the presence of cytokinin due to their failure to increase ethylene biosynthesis. Analysis of genetic complementation and mapping revealed that these Cin mutants (cytokinin-insensitive) represent four distinct complementation groups, one of which, cin4, is allelic to the constitutive photomorphogenic mutant fus9/cop10. The Cin mutants have subtle effects on the morphology of adult plants. We further characterized the Cin mutants by analyzing ethylene biosynthesis in response to various other inducers and in adult tissues, as well as by assaying additional cytokinin responses. The cin3 mutant did not disrupt ethylene biosynthesis under any other conditions, nor did it disrupt any other cytokinin responses. Only cin2 disrupted ethylene biosynthesis in multiple circumstances. cin1 and cin2 made less anthocyanin in response to cytokinin. cin1 also displayed reduced shoot initiation in tissue culture in response to cytokinin, suggesting that it affects a cytokinin signaling element.

  15. Targeting CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis by RNA interference-mediated inhibition of cyclin E1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Bangen, Jörg-Martin; Hammerich, Linda; Sonntag, Roland; Baues, Maike; Haas, Ute; Lambertz, Daniela; Longerich, Thomas; Lammers, Twan; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian; Liedtke, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Initiation and progression of liver fibrosis requires proliferation and activation of resting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Cyclin E1 (CcnE1) is the regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and controls cell cycle re-entry. We have recently shown that genetic inactivation of CcnE1 prevents activation, proliferation, and survival of HSCs and protects from liver fibrogenesis. The aim of the present study was to translate these findings into preclinical applications using an RNA interference (RNAi)-based approach. CcnE1-siRNA (small interfering RNA) efficiently inhibited CcnE1 gene expression in murine and human HSC cell lines and in primary HSCs, resulting in diminished proliferation and increased cell death. In C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice, delivery of stabilized siRNA using a liposome-based carrier targeted approximately 95% of HSCs, 70% of hepatocytes, and 40% of CD45 + cells after single injection. Acute CCl 4 -mediated liver injury in WT mice induced endogenous CcnE1 expression and proliferation of surviving hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells, including CD45 + leukocytes. Pretreatment with CcnE1-siRNA reverted CcnE1 induction to baseline levels of healthy mice, which was associated with reduced liver injury, diminished proliferation of hepatocytes and leukocytes, and attenuated overall inflammatory response. For induction of liver fibrosis, WT mice were challenged with CCl 4 for 4-6 weeks. Co-treatment with CcnE1-siRNA once a week was sufficient to continuously block CcnE1 expression and cell-cycle activity of hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells, resulting in significantly ameliorated liver fibrosis and inflammation. Importantly, CcnE1-siRNA also prevented progression of liver fibrosis if applied after onset of chronic liver injury. Therapeutic targeting of CcnE1 in vivo using RNAi is feasible and has high antifibrotic activity. (Hepatology 2017;66:1242-1257). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. Flavonoids: biosynthesis, biological functions, and biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Falcone Ferreyra, María L.; Rius, Sebastián P.; Casati, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids are widely distributed secondary metabolites with different metabolic functions in plants. The elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways, as well as their regulation by MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and WD40-type transcription factors, has allowed metabolic engineering of plants through the manipulation of the different final products with valuable applications. The present review describes the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, as well as the biological functions of flavonoids in plants, such as in defense against UV-B radiation and pathogen infection, nodulation, and pollen fertility. In addition, we discuss different strategies and achievements through the genetic engineering of flavonoid biosynthesis with implication in the industry and the combinatorial biosynthesis in microorganisms by the reconstruction of the pathway to obtain high amounts of specific compounds. PMID:23060891

  17. Biochemistry of Mitochondrial Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Stefely, Jonathan A; Pagliarini, David J

    2017-10-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ, ubiquinone) is a redox-active lipid produced across all domains of life that functions in electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation and whose deficiency causes human diseases. Yet, CoQ biosynthesis has not been fully defined in any organism. Several proteins with unclear molecular functions facilitate CoQ biosynthesis through unknown means, and multiple steps in the pathway are catalyzed by currently unidentified enzymes. Here we highlight recent progress toward filling these knowledge gaps through both traditional biochemistry and cutting-edge 'omics' approaches. To help fill the remaining gaps, we present questions framed by the recently discovered CoQ biosynthetic complex and by putative biophysical barriers. Mapping CoQ biosynthesis, metabolism, and transport pathways has great potential to enhance treatment of numerous human diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biosynthesis and function of chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Tadahisa; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are principal pericellular and extracellular components that form regulatory milieu involving numerous biological and pathophysiological phenomena. Diverse functions of CSPGs can be mainly attributed to structural variability of their polysaccharide moieties, chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAG). Comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for CS biosynthesis and its catabolic processes is required in order to understand those functions. Here, we focus on recent advances in the study of enzymatic regulatory pathways for CS biosynthesis including successive modification/degradation, distinct CS functions, and disease phenotypes that have been revealed by perturbation of the respective enzymes in vitro and in vivo. Fine-tuned machineries for CS production/degradation are crucial for the functional expression of CS chains in developmental and pathophysiological processes. Control of enzymes responsible for CS biosynthesis/catabolism is a potential target for therapeutic intervention for the CS-associated disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    SciT

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed.more » The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.« less

  20. Nucleoside antibiotics: biosynthesis, regulation, and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2015-02-01

    The alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has coincided with a decline in the supply of new antibiotics. It is therefore of great importance to find and create new antibiotics. Nucleoside antibiotics are a large family of natural products with diverse biological functions. Their biosynthesis is a complex process through multistep enzymatic reactions and is subject to hierarchical regulation. Genetic and biochemical studies of the biosynthetic machinery have provided the basis for pathway engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis to create new or hybrid nucleoside antibiotics. Dissection of regulatory mechanisms is leading to strategies to increase the titer of bioactive nucleoside antibiotics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The structural biology of phenazine biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Parsons, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The phenazines are a class of over 150 nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds of bacterial and archeal origin. Their redox properties not only explain their activity as broad-specificity antibiotics and virulence factors but also enable them to function as respiratory pigments, thus extending their importance to the primary metabolism of phenazine-producing species. Despite their discovery in the mid-19th century, the molecular mechanisms behind their biosynthesis have only been unraveled in the last decade. Here, we review the contribution of structural biology that has led to our current understanding of phenazine biosynthesis. PMID:25215885

  2. The expanding universe of alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    De Luca, V; Laflamme, P

    2001-06-01

    Characterization of many of the major gene families responsible for the generation of central intermediates and for their decoration, together with the development of large genomics and proteomics databases, has revolutionized our capability to identify exotic and interesting natural-product pathways. Over the next few years, these tools will facilitate dramatic advances in our knowledge of the biosynthesis of alkaloids, which will far surpass that which we have learned in the past 50 years. These tools will also be exploited for the rapid characterization of regulatory genes, which control the development of specialized cell factories for alkaloid biosynthesis.

  3. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Byun, Hyang-Min; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro; Albores, Arnulfo

    2015-08-01

    CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86+/-7mg/m(3)) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21+/-0.02mg/m(3)) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r=-.36, p<0.05), as well as for IL6 promoter methylation levels (r=.44, p<0.05). Moreover, CYP2E1 promoter methylation levels where higher in toluene-exposed smokers compared to nonsmokers (p=0.009). We also observed significant correlations for CYP2E1 promoter methylation with GSTP1 and SOD1 promoter methylation levels (r=-.37, p<0.05 and r=-.34, p<0.05 respectively). These results highlight the importance of considering CYP2E1 epigenetic modifications, as well as its interactions with other genes, as key factors for unraveling the sub cellular mechanisms of toxicity exerted by oxidative stress, which can initiate disease process in chronic, low-level toluene exposure. People co-exposed to toluene and tobacco smoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit

    SciT

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio, E-mail: ojimenezgarza@ugto.mx; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Byun, Hyang-Min

    Background: CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. Goal: To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. Methods: We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86 +/− 7 mg/m{sup 3}) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21 +/− 0.02 mg/m{sup 3}) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato,more » México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. Results: In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r = − .36, p < 0.05), as well as for IL6 promoter methylation levels (r = .44, p < 0.05). Moreover, CYP2E1 promoter methylation levels where higher in toluene-exposed smokers compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.009). We also observed significant correlations for CYP2E1 promoter methylation with GSTP1 and SOD1 promoter methylation levels (r = − .37, p < 0.05 and r = − .34, p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering CYP2E1 epigenetic modifications, as well as its interactions with other genes, as key factors for unraveling the sub cellular mechanisms of toxicity exerted by oxidative stress, which can initiate disease process in chronic, low-level toluene exposure. People co-exposed to toluene and tobacco smoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. - Highlights: • We investigated gene-specific methylation in persons chronically exposed to toluene. • In a previous study, a reduced CYP2E1 activity was observed in these participants. • CYP

  5. Alcohol intake and folate antagonism via CYP2E1 and ALDH1: Effects on oral carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Phillip H.; Lian, Lisa; Zavras, Athanasios I.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of folate and alcohol consumption has been shown to have an antagonistic effect on the risk of oral cancer. Studies have demonstrated that increased intake of folate decreases the risk of oral cancer, while greater alcohol consumption has an opposite effect. However, what is poorly understood is the biological interaction of these two dietary factors in relation to carcinogenesis. We hypothesize that cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and the family of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) enzymes may play a causal role in the occurrence of oral cancer. Chronic and high alcohol use has been implicated in the induction of CYP2E1, which oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde is a known carcinogen. As the first metabolite of ethanol, it has been shown to interfere with DNA methylation, synthesis and repair, as well as bind to protein and DNA to form stable adducts, which lead to the eventual formation of damaged DNA and cell proliferation. Studies using liver cells have demonstrated that S-adenosyl methionine (SAM), which is a product of folate metabolism, regulates the expression and catalytic activity of CYP2E1. Our first hypothesis is that as increased levels of folate lead to higher concentrations of SAM, SAM antagonizes the expression of CYP2E1, which results in decreased conversion of ethanol into acetaldehyde. Thus, the lower levels of acetaldehyde may lower risk of oral cancer. There are also two enzymes within the ALDH1 family that play an important role both in ethanol metabolism and the folate one-carbon pathway. The first, ALDH1A1, converts acetaldehyde into its non-carcinogenic byproduct, acetate, as part of the second step in the ethanol metabolism pathway. The second, ALDH1L1, also known as FDH, is required for DNA nucleotide biosynthesis, and is upregulated at high concentrations of folate. ALDH1L1 appears to be a chief regulator of cellular metabolism as it is strongly downregulated at certain physiological and pathological conditions

  6. Peroxidase enzymes regulate collagen extracellular matrix biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    DeNichilo, Mark O; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Rayner, Timothy E; Borowicz, Romana A; Greenwood, John E; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase are heme-containing enzymes often physically associated with fibrotic tissue and cancer in various organs, without any direct involvement in promoting fibroblast recruitment and extracellular matrix (ECM) biosynthesis at these sites. We report herein novel findings that show peroxidase enzymes possess a well-conserved profibrogenic capacity to stimulate the migration of fibroblastic cells and promote their ability to secrete collagenous proteins to generate a functional ECM both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies conducted using cultured fibroblasts show that these cells are capable of rapidly binding and internalizing both myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase. Peroxidase enzymes stimulate collagen biosynthesis at a post-translational level in a prolyl 4-hydroxylase-dependent manner that does not require ascorbic acid. This response was blocked by the irreversible myeloperoxidase inhibitor 4-amino-benzoic acid hydrazide, indicating peroxidase catalytic activity is essential for collagen biosynthesis. These results suggest that peroxidase enzymes, such as myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, may play a fundamental role in regulating the recruitment of fibroblast and the biosynthesis of collagen ECM at sites of normal tissue repair and fibrosis, with enormous implications for many disease states where infiltrating inflammatory cells deposit peroxidases. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid mycotoxin produced by some strains of Aspergillus flavus. Characterization of the CPA biosynthesis gene cluster confirmed that formation of CPA is via a three-enzyme pathway. This review examines the structure and organization of the CPA genes, elu...

  8. Biosynthesis of coenzyme Q in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kawamukai, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a component of the electron transport chain that participates in aerobic cellular respiration to produce ATP. In addition, CoQ acts as an electron acceptor in several enzymatic reactions involving oxidation-reduction. Biosynthesis of CoQ has been investigated mainly in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the findings have been extended to various higher organisms, including plants and humans. Analyses in yeast have contributed greatly to current understanding of human diseases related to CoQ biosynthesis. To date, human genetic disorders related to mutations in eight COQ biosynthetic genes have been reported. In addition, the crystal structures of a number of proteins involved in CoQ synthesis have been solved, including those of IspB, UbiA, UbiD, UbiX, UbiI, Alr8543 (Coq4 homolog), Coq5, ADCK3, and COQ9. Over the last decade, knowledge of CoQ biosynthesis has accumulated, and striking advances in related human genetic disorders and the crystal structure of proteins required for CoQ synthesis have been made. This review focuses on the biosynthesis of CoQ in eukaryotes, with some comparisons to the process in prokaryotes.

  9. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwengner, Ronald; Massarczyk, Ralph; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton P.; Tornow, Werner; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  10. Synthetic prostaglandin E1 misoprostol as a treatment for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Briner, W; House, J; O'Leary, M

    1993-06-01

    A pilot study to determine if the synthetic prostaglandin E1 misoprostol is effective in treating severe tinnitus, to test the hypothesis that tinnitus production is related to prostaglandin metabolism. Blinded, placebo controlled, hemicrossover. House Ear Clinic, Los Angeles, Calif. A volunteer and convenience sample of 24 subjects complaining of severe tinnitus was recruited from mailings, telephone calls, and the clinic population. The patients were not preselected except to be in otherwise good health. Subjects were started on a regimen of placebo or 200 micrograms/d of misoprostol. The dosage was increased every 5 days by 200 micrograms until a total of 800 micrograms/d was achieved. After 1 month of drug administration, the placebo group was crossed over to the active drug phase. Outcome was measured in terms of subjective reports of tinnitus severity, sleep patterns, and ability to concentrate. Eight (33%) of the 24 patients reported improvement during the active drug phase. There were no placebo responders. Responders reported improvement in tinnitus severity, sleep, and concentration. Findings support the contention that prostaglandins may be useful in the treatment of tinnitus. Further studies with larger samples are needed before widespread use of this intervention can be recommended.

  11. Therapeutic effect of lipoprostaglandin E1 on sudden hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joong Ho; Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Hyang Cho

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a prospective, comparative clinical trial for the purpose of additional effect of lipoprostaglandin E 1 (lipo-PGE 1 ) on sudden hearing loss. With the approval of the institute ethics committee, a total of 128 consecutive patients with diagnoses of sudden hearing loss were included in the study. The patients in the lipo-PGE 1 group received continuous infusion of 10 microL lipo-PGE 1 and 48 mg methylprednisolone for 5 days, and the patient in the control group were treated with only 48 mg methylprednisolone. The total recovery rate after the treatment was 67.2%. There were 70.5% recovery rate in lipo-PGE 1 group and 60.5% recovery rate in control group. However, no significant differences were observed in the improvements of pure tone average and subjective symptoms between the lipo-PGE 1 and control groups. The results failed to prove a beneficial effect of lipo-PGE 1 in the treatment of sudden hearing loss in spite of its higher cure rate.

  12. Biosynthesis of fibronectin by rabbit aorta.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, I; Chobanian, A V; Brecher, P

    1991-09-15

    The in vitro interactions between vascular cells and fibronectin have been shown to influence phenotypic expression of both cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells. To more effectively assess the potential functional role of fibronectin in vivo in modulating vascular phenotypes, we have established methodology for studying fibronectin biosynthesis in the rabbit aorta using aortic rings that are morphologically and functionally intact and metabolically active. Aortic rings were incubated with 35S-labeled methionine in a supplemented physiological salt solution. The tissue was fractionated, and quantitative immunoprecipitation was performed using a polyclonal antibody directed against human plasma fibronectin. Newly synthesized fibronectin was most abundant in the fraction solubilized using 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate and in the incubation medium. In all fractions studied, fibronectin was present predominantly as a dimer with no detectable aggregates of fibronectin. Pulse-chase experiments showed that a substantial amount of newly synthesized fibronectin was found in the 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate extract after only 1 h, suggesting that fibronectin was rapidly incorporated into the extracellular matrix. The more soluble forms of newly synthesized fibronectin appeared to be the precursors for secreted fibronectin, and no precursor-product relationship between soluble and insoluble fibronectin was found. Dissection of aortic rings following incubation with labeled methionine showed that newly synthesized fibronectin was uniformally distributed in both intima-media and media-adventitia segments. Endothelial cell denudation caused only a 20% decrease of fibronectin biosynthesis concomitant with similar changes in total protein biosynthesis, consistent with the medial smooth muscle cell as the major source of newly synthesized fibronectin. Biosynthesis of fibronectin was increased following a 24-h preincubation of the aortic rings, and concomitant increases in steady

  13. Cellulose Biosynthesis: Current Views and Evolving Concepts

    PubMed Central

    SAXENA, INDER M.; BROWN, R. MALCOLM

    2005-01-01

    • Aims To outline the current state of knowledge and discuss the evolution of various viewpoints put forth to explain the mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis. • Scope Understanding the mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis is one of the major challenges in plant biology. The simplicity in the chemical structure of cellulose belies the complexities that are associated with the synthesis and assembly of this polysaccharide. Assembly of cellulose microfibrils in most organisms is visualized as a multi-step process involving a number of proteins with the key protein being the cellulose synthase catalytic sub-unit. Although genes encoding this protein have been identified in almost all cellulose synthesizing organisms, it has been a challenge in general, and more specifically in vascular plants, to demonstrate cellulose synthase activity in vitro. The assembly of glucan chains into cellulose microfibrils of specific dimensions, viewed as a spontaneous process, necessitates the assembly of synthesizing sites unique to most groups of organisms. The steps of polymerization (requiring the specific arrangement and activity of the cellulose synthase catalytic sub-units) and crystallization (directed self-assembly of glucan chains) are certainly interlinked in the formation of cellulose microfibrils. Mutants affected in cellulose biosynthesis have been identified in vascular plants. Studies on these mutants and herbicide-treated plants suggest an interesting link between the steps of polymerization and crystallization during cellulose biosynthesis. • Conclusions With the identification of a large number of genes encoding cellulose synthases and cellulose synthase-like proteins in vascular plants and the supposed role of a number of other proteins in cellulose biosynthesis, a complete understanding of this process will necessitate a wider variety of research tools and approaches than was thought to be required a few years back. PMID:15894551

  14. Cellulose biosynthesis: current views and evolving concepts.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Inder M; Brown, R Malcolm

    2005-07-01

    To outline the current state of knowledge and discuss the evolution of various viewpoints put forth to explain the mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis. * Understanding the mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis is one of the major challenges in plant biology. The simplicity in the chemical structure of cellulose belies the complexities that are associated with the synthesis and assembly of this polysaccharide. Assembly of cellulose microfibrils in most organisms is visualized as a multi-step process involving a number of proteins with the key protein being the cellulose synthase catalytic sub-unit. Although genes encoding this protein have been identified in almost all cellulose synthesizing organisms, it has been a challenge in general, and more specifically in vascular plants, to demonstrate cellulose synthase activity in vitro. The assembly of glucan chains into cellulose microfibrils of specific dimensions, viewed as a spontaneous process, necessitates the assembly of synthesizing sites unique to most groups of organisms. The steps of polymerization (requiring the specific arrangement and activity of the cellulose synthase catalytic sub-units) and crystallization (directed self-assembly of glucan chains) are certainly interlinked in the formation of cellulose microfibrils. Mutants affected in cellulose biosynthesis have been identified in vascular plants. Studies on these mutants and herbicide-treated plants suggest an interesting link between the steps of polymerization and crystallization during cellulose biosynthesis. * With the identification of a large number of genes encoding cellulose synthases and cellulose synthase-like proteins in vascular plants and the supposed role of a number of other proteins in cellulose biosynthesis, a complete understanding of this process will necessitate a wider variety of research tools and approaches than was thought to be required a few years back.

  15. INTERRELATION BETWEEN ACTIVATION AND POLYMERIZATION IN GRAMICIDIN S BIOSYNTHESIS*

    PubMed Central

    Kleinkauf, Horst; Gevers, Wieland; Lipmann, Fritz

    1969-01-01

    The nucleic acid-independent biosynthesis of the peptide antibiotic gramicidin S results from the interaction of an enzyme bearing phenylalanine in activated form with a polyenzyme system charged with the other four component amino acids. After reaction with ATP, magnesium, and any or all of its amino acid substrates, the polyenzyme system (mol wt 280,000) yields complexes containing AMP and the respective amino acids in the proportion of 1 to 2. Similar complexes are formed by another enzyme (mol wt 100,000) on incubation with ATP, magnesium, and L- or D-phenylalanine. The amino acids are probably bound as aminoacyl adenylates and then transferred to another function on the enzyme. Initiation of polymerization is achieved by combination of the two complexes. No ATP is needed for completion of synthesis, and free intermediates are not released. Enzyme organization and specificity are responsible for the ordering of the amino acid sequence. PMID:5253659

  16. Modelling toxin effects on protein biosynthesis in eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Skakauskas, Vladas; Katauskis, Pranas

    2017-08-01

    We present a rather generic model for toxin (ricin) inhibition of protein biosynthesis in eukaryotic cells. We also study reduction of the ricin toxic effects with application of antibodies against the RTB subunit of ricin molecules. Both species initially are delivered extracellularly. The model accounts for the pinocytotic and receptor-mediated toxin endocytosis and the intact toxin exocytotic removal out of the cell. The model also includes the lysosomal toxin destruction, the intact toxin motion to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for separation of its molecules into the RTA and RTB subunits, and the RTA chain translocation into the cytosol. In the cytosol, one portion of the RTA undergoes degradation via the ERAD. The other its portion can inactivate ribosomes at a large rate. The model is based on a system of deterministic ODEs. The influence of the kinetic parameters on the protein concentration and antibody protection factor is studied in detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel pathway for the biosynthesis of heme in Archaea: genome-based bioinformatic predictions and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Sonja; Rolfes, Sarah; Raux-Deery, Evelyne; Warren, Martin J; Jahn, Dieter; Layer, Gunhild

    2010-12-13

    Heme is an essential prosthetic group for many proteins involved in fundamental biological processes in all three domains of life. In Eukaryota and Bacteria heme is formed via a conserved and well-studied biosynthetic pathway. Surprisingly, in Archaea heme biosynthesis proceeds via an alternative route which is poorly understood. In order to formulate a working hypothesis for this novel pathway, we searched 59 completely sequenced archaeal genomes for the presence of gene clusters consisting of established heme biosynthetic genes and colocalized conserved candidate genes. Within the majority of archaeal genomes it was possible to identify such heme biosynthesis gene clusters. From this analysis we have been able to identify several novel heme biosynthesis genes that are restricted to archaea. Intriguingly, several of the encoded proteins display similarity to enzymes involved in heme d(1) biosynthesis. To initiate an experimental verification of our proposals two Methanosarcina barkeri proteins predicted to catalyze the initial steps of archaeal heme biosynthesis were recombinantly produced, purified, and their predicted enzymatic functions verified.

  18. A Novel Pathway for the Biosynthesis of Heme in Archaea: Genome-Based Bioinformatic Predictions and Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Sonja; Rolfes, Sarah; Raux-Deery, Evelyne; Warren, Martin J.; Jahn, Dieter; Layer, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    Heme is an essential prosthetic group for many proteins involved in fundamental biological processes in all three domains of life. In Eukaryota and Bacteria heme is formed via a conserved and well-studied biosynthetic pathway. Surprisingly, in Archaea heme biosynthesis proceeds via an alternative route which is poorly understood. In order to formulate a working hypothesis for this novel pathway, we searched 59 completely sequenced archaeal genomes for the presence of gene clusters consisting of established heme biosynthetic genes and colocalized conserved candidate genes. Within the majority of archaeal genomes it was possible to identify such heme biosynthesis gene clusters. From this analysis we have been able to identify several novel heme biosynthesis genes that are restricted to archaea. Intriguingly, several of the encoded proteins display similarity to enzymes involved in heme d 1 biosynthesis. To initiate an experimental verification of our proposals two Methanosarcina barkeri proteins predicted to catalyze the initial steps of archaeal heme biosynthesis were recombinantly produced, purified, and their predicted enzymatic functions verified. PMID:21197080

  19. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    SciT

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The structures of those tetracyclic triterpenols in Euphorbia lathyris latex which had not previously been known were elucidated. Many times dependent incubations were done, investigating the stability of the whole latex system and the re-suspended pellet systems. The effects of centrifugation on the biosynthesis were examined. The partitioning of the triterpenoid pool as a function of when the compounds were made was examined. A number of incubations were performed in the hopes of observing some interconversion of the individual triterpenols. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. The effects of the morpholine based fungicides,more » tridemorph and fenpropimorph were examined. The possibility that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-{sup 3} H-mevalonic acid and incubating the latex with a mixture of this and {sup 14}C-mevalonic acid.« less

  20. Deciphering the late steps of rifamycin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feifei; Lei, Chao; Li, Fengwei; Zhang, Xingwang; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Zhen; Li, Weichao; Tang, Gong-Li; Xiao, Youli; Zhao, Guoping; Li, Shengying

    2018-06-14

    Rifamycin-derived drugs, including rifampin, rifabutin, rifapentine, and rifaximin, have long been used as first-line therapies for the treatment of tuberculosis and other deadly infections. However, the late steps leading to the biosynthesis of the industrially important rifamycin SV and B remain largely unknown. Here, we characterize a network of reactions underlying the biosynthesis of rifamycin SV, S, L, O, and B. The two-subunit transketolase Rif15 and the cytochrome P450 enzyme Rif16 are found to mediate, respectively, a unique C-O bond formation in rifamycin L and an atypical P450 ester-to-ether transformation from rifamycin L to B. Both reactions showcase interesting chemistries for these two widespread and well-studied enzyme families.

  1. Occurrence and biosynthesis of carotenoids in phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jim Junhui; Lin, Shaoling; Xu, Wenwen; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung

    2017-09-01

    Naturally occurring carotenoids are important sources of antioxidants, anti-cancer compounds and anti-inflammatory agents and there is thus considerable market demand for their pharmaceutical applications. Carotenoids are widely distributed in marine and freshwater organisms including microalgae, phytoplankton, crustaceans and fish, as well as in terrestrial plants and birds. Recently, phytoplankton-derived carotenoids have received much attention due to their abundance, rapid rate of biosynthesis and unique composition. The carotenoids that accumulate in particular phytoplankton phyla are synthesized by specific enzymes and play unique physiological roles. This review focuses on studies related to the occurrence of carotenoids in different phytoplankton phyla and the molecular aspects of their biosynthesis. Recent biotechnological advances in the isolation and characterization of some representative carotenoid synthases in phytoplankton are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Circular Bacteriocins: Biosynthesis and Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Brede, Dag A.; Nes, Ingolf F.; Diep, Dzung B.

    2014-01-01

    Circular bacteriocins are a group of N-to-C-terminally linked antimicrobial peptides, produced by Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Circular bacteriocins generally exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, including against common food-borne pathogens, such as Clostridium and Listeria spp. These peptides are further known for their high pH and thermal stability, as well as for resistance to many proteolytic enzymes, properties which make this group of bacteriocins highly promising for potential industrial applications and their biosynthesis of particular interest as a possible model system for the synthesis of highly stable bioactive peptides. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on this group of bacteriocins, with emphasis on the recent progress in understanding circular bacteriocin genetics, biosynthesis, and mode of action; in addition, we highlight the current challenges and future perspectives for the application of these peptides. PMID:25172850

  3. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids influence differential biosynthesis of oxylipids and other lipid mediators during bovine coliform mastitis.

    PubMed

    Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Ryman, Valerie E; Daniel Jones, A; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-09-01

    Coliform mastitis is a severe and sometimes fatal disease characterized by an unregulated inflammatory response. The initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammatory responses are regulated, in part, by potent oxylipid metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biosynthesis and diversity of oxylipid metabolites during acute bovine coliform mastitis. Eleven cows diagnosed with naturally occurring acute systemic coliform mastitis and 13 healthy control cows, matched for lactation number and days in milk, were selected for comparison of oxylipid and free fatty acid concentrations in both milk and plasma. Oxylipids and free fatty acids were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All polyunsaturated fatty acids quantified in milk were elevated during coliform mastitis with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Oxylipids synthesized through the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways accounted for the majority of the oxylipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated a complex and diverse oxylipid network, most pronounced at the level of the mammary gland. Substrate availability, biosynthetic pathways, and degree of metabolism influence the biosynthesis of oxylipids during bovine coliform mastitis. Further studies are required to identify targets for novel interventions that modulate oxylipid biosynthesis during coliform mastitis to optimize inflammation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cellular Organization of Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis in Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changcheng; Andre, Carl; Fan, Jilian; Shanklin, John

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells are characterized by compartmentalization and specialization of metabolism within membrane-bound organelles. Nevertheless, many fundamental processes extend across multiple subcellular compartments. Here, we describe and assess the pathways and cellular organization of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in microalgae. In particular, we emphases the dynamic interplay among the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets and chloroplasts in acyl remodeling and triacylglycerol accumulation under nitrogen starvation in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  6. Regulation of gene expression in plasmid ColE1: delayed expression of the kil gene.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S P; Yan, L F; Zubay, G

    1988-01-01

    cea, imm, and kil are a cluster of three functionally related genes of the plasmid ColE1. The cea and kil genes are in the same inducible operon, with transcription being initiated from a promoter adjacent to the cea gene. The imm gene is located between the cea and kil genes, but it is transcribed in the opposite direction. Complementary interaction between the imm mRNA and the anti-imm sequences in the middle of the cea-kil transcript causes a pronounced delay in expression of the kil gene when the cea-kil operon is induced. A segment in the overlapping region between the cea and imm genes causes delayed expression of the kil gene in the absence of imm gene transcription. This delay effect increases the yields of colicin synthesized in induced cells. Images PMID:3142845

  7. Transimulation - protein biosynthesis web service.

    PubMed

    Siwiak, Marlena; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Although translation is the key step during gene expression, it remains poorly characterized at the level of individual genes. For this reason, we developed Transimulation - a web service measuring translational activity of genes in three model organisms: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens. The calculations are based on our previous computational model of translation and experimental data sets. Transimulation quantifies mean translation initiation and elongation time (expressed in SI units), and the number of proteins produced per transcript. It also approximates the number of ribosomes that typically occupy a transcript during translation, and simulates their propagation. The simulation of ribosomes' movement is interactive and allows modifying the coding sequence on the fly. It also enables uploading any coding sequence and simulating its translation in one of three model organisms. In such a case, ribosomes propagate according to mean codon elongation times of the host organism, which may prove useful for heterologous expression. Transimulation was used to examine evolutionary conservation of translational parameters of orthologous genes. Transimulation may be accessed at http://nexus.ibb.waw.pl/Transimulation (requires Java version 1.7 or higher). Its manual and source code, distributed under the GPL-2.0 license, is freely available at the website.

  8. Lipopolysaccharide Structure and Biosynthesis in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Liao, Tingting; Debowski, Aleksandra W; Tang, Hong; Nilsson, Hans-Olof; Stubbs, Keith A; Marshall, Barry J; Benghezal, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    This review covers the current knowledge and gaps in Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure and biosynthesis. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which colonizes the luminal surface of the human gastric epithelium. Both a constitutive alteration of the lipid A preventing TLR4 elicitation and host mimicry of the Lewis antigen decorated O-antigen of H. pylori LPS promote immune escape and chronic infection. To date, the complete structure of H. pylori LPS is not available, and the proposed model is a linear arrangement composed of the inner core defined as the hexa-saccharide (Kdo-LD-Hep-LD-Hep-DD-Hep-Gal-Glc), the outer core composed of a conserved trisaccharide (-GlcNAc-Fuc-DD-Hep-) linked to the third heptose of the inner core, the glucan, the heptan and a variable O-antigen, generally consisting of a poly-LacNAc decorated with Lewis antigens. Although the glycosyltransferases (GTs) responsible for the biosynthesis of the H. pylori O-antigen chains have been identified and characterized, there are many gaps in regard to the biosynthesis of the core LPS. These limitations warrant additional mutagenesis and structural studies to obtain the complete LPS structure and corresponding biosynthetic pathway of this important gastric bacterium. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Molecular Genetics of Ubiquinone Biosynthesis in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquinone (UQ), also known as coenzyme Q (CoQ), is a redox-active lipid present in all cellular membranes where it functions in a variety of cellular processes. The best known functions of UQ are to act as a mobile electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and to serve as a lipid soluble antioxidant in cellular membranes. All eukaryotic cells synthesize their own UQ. Most of the current knowledge on the UQ biosynthetic pathway was obtained by studying Escherichia coli and S. cerevisiae UQ-deficient mutants. The orthologues of all the genes known from yeast studies to be involved in UQ biosynthesis have subsequently been found in higher organisms. Animal mutants with different genetic defects in UQ biosynthesis display very different phenotypes, despite the fact that in all these mutants the same biosynthetic pathway is affected. This review summarizes the present knowledge of the eukaryotic biosynthesis of UQ, with focus on the biosynthetic genes identified in animals, including C. elegans, rodents and humans. Moreover, we review the phenotypes of mutants in these genes and discuss the functional consequences of UQ deficiency in general. PMID:23190198

  10. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  11. Hemosomegenesis and hemoglobin biosynthesis in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Brunner Júnior, A; de Rizzo, E; Morena, D D; Cianciarullo, A M; Jared, C; Morena, P

    1992-08-01

    1. Ultrastructural observations on maturing rabbit embryo erythroid cells led to the finding of hemoglobinized organelles distinguishable from mitochondria due to their highly dense matrix, two or three longitudinally arranged double lamellae, and smaller diameters. Intraorganellar 50-60 A particles identical to those contained in the hemoglobinized cytoplasm were found. 2. Their hemoglobin (Hb) content was demonstrated by electrophoresis of the concentrated supernatant from the isolated, washed, and osmotically lysed organellar fraction. We have proposed that these organelles are the sites for heme integration into the globin (G) polypeptide chains and subunits assembly. The term hemosome has been suggested for such entities. 3. This hypothesis has been sustained by several analytical and experimental works based on the postulation that hemosomes should be found at higher frequencies where the Hb biosynthesis rate is more intensive, or where the induction of this biosynthesis is always dependent on the formation of hemosomes. 4. Maturing erythroid cells of the circulating embryo blood contain hemosomes in higher frequency than in liver erythroid cells, coinciding with the higher Hb biosynthesis rate in peripheral blood than in the liver. In bleeding anemia, the decay of Hb concentration parallels the reduction of the mean number of hemosomes per reticulocyte, in comparison with normal reticulocytes. 5. In HeLa cells and epithelial cultured cells induced to synthesize Hb, it was shown that this biosynthesis is ever concomitant with the formation of hemosomes and depends on the presence of erythropoietin, as occurs in erythroid cells. 6. Studies on hemosomegenesis and Hb biosynthesis experimentally effected in epithelial cultured cells, allowed the interpretation of the sequence of events leading to hemosome formation in maturing erythroid cells. Simultaneously with iron uptake, mitochondria differentiate to lamellated bodies and, successively, expansions rise for

  12. Functional conservation and diversification of the soybean maturity gene E1 and its homologs in legumes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingzheng; Zhai, Hong; Wang, Yaying; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yupeng; Wu, Hongyan; Lü, Shixiang; Yang, Guang; Li, Yuqiu; Wang, Lu; Hu, Bo; Bu, Qingyun; Xia, Zhengjun

    2016-07-13

    Gene regulatory networks involved in flowering time and photoperiodic responses in legumes remain unknown. Although the major maturity gene E1 has been successfully deciphered in soybean, knowledge on the functional conservation of this gene is limited to a certain extent to E1 homologs in legumes. The ectopic expression of Phvul.009G204600 (PvE1L), an E1 homolog from common bean, delayed the onset of flowering in soybean. By contrast, the ectopic expression of Medtr2g058520 (MtE1L) from Medicago truncatula did not affect the flowering of soybean. Characterization of the late-flowering mte1l mutant indicated that MtE1L promoted flowering in Medicago truncatula. Moreover, all transgenic E1, PvE1L and MtE1L soybean lines exhibited phenotypic changes in terms of plant height. Transgenic E1 or PvE1L plants were taller than the wild-type, whereas transgenic MtE1L plants produced dwarf phenotype with few nodes and short internode. Thus, functional conservation and diversification of E1 family genes from legumes in the regulation of flowering and plant growth may be associated with lineage specification and genomic duplication.

  13. Biosynthesis of allene oxides in Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The moss Physcomitrella patens contains C18- as well as C20-polyunsaturated fatty acids that can be metabolized by different enzymes to form oxylipins such as the cyclopentenone cis(+)-12-oxo phytodienoic acid. Mutants defective in the biosynthesis of cyclopentenones showed reduced fertility, aberrant sporophyte morphology and interrupted sporogenesis. The initial step in this biosynthetic route is the conversion of a fatty acid hydroperoxide to an allene oxide. This reaction is catalyzed by allene oxide synthase (AOS) belonging as hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) to the cytochrome P450 family Cyp74. In this study we characterized two AOS from P. patens, PpAOS1 and PpAOS2. Results Our results show that PpAOS1 is highly active with both C18 and C20-hydroperoxy-fatty acid substrates, whereas PpAOS2 is fully active only with C20-substrates, exhibiting trace activity (~1000-fold lower kcat/KM) with C18 substrates. Analysis of products of PpAOS1 and PpHPL further demonstrated that both enzymes have an inherent side activity mirroring the close inter-connection of AOS and HPL catalysis. By employing site directed mutagenesis we provide evidence that single amino acid residues in the active site are also determining the catalytic activity of a 9-/13-AOS – a finding that previously has only been reported for substrate specific 13-AOS. However, PpHPL cannot be converted into an AOS by exchanging the same determinant. Localization studies using YFP-labeled AOS showed that PpAOS2 is localized in the plastid while PpAOS1 may be found in the cytosol. Analysis of the wound-induced cis(+)-12-oxo phytodienoic acid accumulation in PpAOS1 and PpAOS2 single knock-out mutants showed that disruption of PpAOS1, in contrast to PpAOS2, results in a significantly decreased cis(+)-12-oxo phytodienoic acid formation. However, the knock-out mutants of neither PpAOS1 nor PpAOS2 showed reduced fertility, aberrant sporophyte morphology or interrupted sporogenesis. Conclusions Our study

  14. Identification of a molecular recognition feature in the E1A oncoprotein that binds the SUMO conjugase UBC9 and likely interferes with polySUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Yousef, A F; Fonseca, G J; Pelka, P; Ablack, J N G; Walsh, C; Dick, F A; Bazett-Jones, D P; Shaw, G S; Mymryk, J S

    2010-08-19

    Hub proteins have central roles in regulating cellular processes. By targeting a single cellular hub, a viral oncogene may gain control over an entire module in the cellular interaction network that is potentially comprised of hundreds of proteins. The adenovirus E1A oncoprotein is a viral hub that interacts with many cellular hub proteins by short linear motifs/molecular recognition features (MoRFs). These interactions transform the architecture of the cellular protein interaction network and virtually reprogram the cell. To identify additional MoRFs within E1A, we screened portions of E1A for their ability to activate yeast pseudohyphal growth or differentiation. This identified a novel functional region within E1A conserved region 2 comprised of the sequence EVIDLT. This MoRF is necessary and sufficient to bind the N-terminal region of the SUMO conjugase UBC9, which also interacts with SUMO noncovalently and is involved in polySUMOylation. Our results suggest that E1A interferes with polySUMOylation, but not with monoSUMOylation. These data provide the first insight into the consequences of the interaction of E1A with UBC9, which was initially described in 1996. We further demonstrate that polySUMOylation regulates pseudohyphal growth and promyelocytic leukemia body reorganization by E1A. In conclusion, the interaction of the E1A oncogene with UBC9 mimics the normal binding between SUMO and UBC9 and represents a novel mechanism to modulate polySUMOylation.

  15. Primary Metabolism during Biosynthesis of Secondary Wall Polymers of Protoxylem Vessel Elements1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Morisaki, Keiko; Sawada, Yuji; Sano, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kurata, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shiro; Matsuda, Mami; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2016-01-01

    Xylem vessels, the water-conducting cells in vascular plants, undergo characteristic secondary wall deposition and programmed cell death. These processes are regulated by the VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN (VND) transcription factors. Here, to identify changes in metabolism that occur during protoxylem vessel element differentiation, we subjected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 suspension culture cells carrying an inducible VND7 system to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based wide-target metabolome analysis and transcriptome analysis. Time-course data for 128 metabolites showed dynamic changes in metabolites related to amino acid biosynthesis. The concentration of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, an important intermediate of the glycolysis pathway, immediately decreased in the initial stages of cell differentiation. As cell differentiation progressed, specific amino acids accumulated, including the shikimate-related amino acids and the translocatable nitrogen-rich amino acid arginine. Transcriptome data indicated that cell differentiation involved the active up-regulation of genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing fructose 6-phosphate biosynthesis from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate biosynthesis from oxaloacetate, and phenylalanine biosynthesis, which includes shikimate pathway enzymes. Concomitantly, active changes in the amount of fructose 6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate were detected during cell differentiation. Taken together, our results show that protoxylem vessel element differentiation is associated with changes in primary metabolism, which could facilitate the production of polysaccharides and lignin monomers and, thus, promote the formation of the secondary cell wall. Also, these metabolic shifts correlate with the active transcriptional regulation of specific enzyme genes. Therefore, our observations indicate that primary metabolism is actively regulated during protoxylem vessel element differentiation to alter the cell’s metabolic

  16. Genetics and Assembly Line Enzymology of Siderophore Biosynthesis in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Crosa, Jorge H.; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2002-01-01

    The regulatory logic of siderophore biosynthetic genes in bacteria involves the universal repressor Fur, which acts together with iron as a negative regulator. However in other bacteria, in addition to the Fur-mediated mechanism of regulation, there is a concurrent positive regulation of iron transport and siderophore biosynthetic genes that occurs under conditions of iron deprivation. Despite these regulatory differences the mechanisms of siderophore biosynthesis follow the same fundamental enzymatic logic, which involves a series of elongating acyl-S-enzyme intermediates on multimodular protein assembly lines: nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). A substantial variety of siderophore structures are produced from similar NRPS assembly lines, and variation can come in the choice of the phenolic acid selected as the N-cap, the tailoring of amino acid residues during chain elongation, the mode of chain termination, and the nature of the capturing nucleophile of the siderophore acyl chain being released. Of course the specific parts that get assembled in a given bacterium may reflect a combination of the inventory of biosynthetic and tailoring gene clusters available. This modular assembly logic can account for all known siderophores. The ability to mix and match domains within modules and to swap modules themselves is likely to be an ongoing process in combinatorial biosynthesis. NRPS evolution will try out new combinations of chain initiation, elongation and tailoring, and termination steps, possibly by genetic exchange with other microorganisms and/or within the same bacterium, to create new variants of iron-chelating siderophores that can fit a particular niche for the producer bacterium. PMID:12040125

  17. Facile synthesis of covalent probes to capture enzymatic intermediates during E1 enzyme catalysis.

    PubMed

    An, Heeseon; Statsyuk, Alexander V

    2016-02-11

    We report a facile synthetic strategy to prepare UBL-AMP electrophilic probes that form a covalent bond with the catalytic cysteine of cognate E1s, mimicking the tetrahedral intermediate of the E1-UBL-AMP complex. These probes enable the structural and biochemical study of both canonical- and non-canonical E1s.

  18. Novel mechanism of JNK pathway activation by adenoviral E1A

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Helen; Pospelova, Tatiana V.; Pospelov, Valery A.; Herrlich, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The adenoviral oncoprotein E1A influences cellular regulation by interacting with a number of cellular proteins. In collaboration with complementary oncogenes, E1A fully transforms primary cells. As part of this action, E1A inhibits transcription of c-Jun:Fos target genes while promoting that of c-Jun:ATF2-dependent genes including jun. Both c-Jun and ATF2 are hyperphosphorylated in response to E1A. In the current study, E1A was fused with the ligand binding domain of the estrogen receptor (E1A-ER) to monitor the immediate effect of E1A activation. With this approach we now show that E1A activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), the upstream kinases MKK4 and MKK7, as well as the small GTPase Rac1. Activation of the JNK pathway requires the N-terminal domain of E1A, and, importantly, is independent of transcription. In addition, it requires the presence of ERM proteins. Downregulation of signaling components upstream of JNK inhibits E1A-dependent JNK/c-Jun activation. Taking these findings together, we show that E1A activates the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway upstream of Rac1 in a transcription-independent manner, demonstrating a novel mechanism of E1A action. PMID:24742962

  19. 26 CFR 1.263(e)-1 - Expenditures in connection with certain railroad rolling stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rolling stock. 1.263(e)-1 Section 1.263(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.263(e)-1 Expenditures in connection with certain railroad rolling stock. (a) Allowance of deduction—(1) Election. Under section 263(e...

  20. Structural basis for LeishIF4E-1 modulation by an interacting protein in the human parasite Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Meleppattu, Shimi; Arthanari, Haribabu; Zinoviev, Alexandra; Boeszoermenyi, Andras; Wagner, Gerhard; Shapira, Michal; Léger-Abraham, Mélissa

    2018-03-19

    Leishmania parasites are unicellular pathogens that are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected sandflies. Most of the regulation of their gene expression occurs post-transcriptionally, and the different patterns of gene expression required throughout the parasites' life cycle are regulated at the level of translation. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the Leishmania cap-binding isoform 1, LeishIF4E-1, bound to a protein fragment of previously unknown function, Leish4E-IP1, that binds tightly to LeishIF4E-1. The molecular structure, coupled to NMR spectroscopy experiments and in vitro cap-binding assays, reveal that Leish4E-IP1 allosterically destabilizes the binding of LeishIF4E-1 to the 5' mRNA cap. We propose mechanisms through which Leish4E-IP1-mediated LeishIF4E-1 inhibition could regulate translation initiation in the human parasite.

  1. The zebrafish orphan nuclear receptor genes nr2e1 and nr2e3 are expressed in developing eye and forebrain.

    PubMed

    Kitambi, Satish Srinivas; Hauptmann, Giselbert

    2007-02-01

    Mammalian Nr2e1 (Tailless, Mtll or Tlx) and Nr2e3 (photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor, Pnr) are highly related orphan nuclear receptors, that are expressed in eye and forebrain-derived structures. In this study, we analyzed the developmental expression patterns of zebrafish nr2e1 and nr2e3. RT-PCR analysis showed that nr2e1 and nr2e3 are both expressed during embryonic and post-embryonic development. To examine the spatial distribution of nr2e1 and nr2e3 during development whole-mount in situ hybridization was performed. At tailbud stage, initial nr2e1 expression was localized to the rostral brain rudiment anterior to pax2.1 and eng2 expression at the prospective midbrain-hindbrain boundary. During subsequent stages, nr2e1 became widely expressed in fore- and midbrain primordia, eye and olfactory placodes. At 24hpf, strong nr2e1 expression was detected in telencephalon, hypothalamus, dorsal thalamus, pretectum, midbrain tectum, and retina. At 2dpf, the initially widespread nr2e1 expression became more restricted to distinct regions within the fore- and midbrain and to the retinal ciliary margin, the germinal zone which gives rise to retina and presumptive iris. Expression of nr2e3 was exclusively found in the developing retina and epiphysis. In both structures, nr2e3 expression was found in photoreceptor cells. The developmental expression profile of zebrafish nr2e1 and nr2e3 is consistent with evolutionary conserved functions in eye and rostral brain structures.

  2. The Biosynthesis of Capuramycin-type Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wenlong; Goswami, Anwesha; Yang, Zhaoyong; Liu, Xiaodong; Green, Keith D.; Barnard-Britson, Sandra; Baba, Satoshi; Funabashi, Masanori; Nonaka, Koichi; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Spork, Anatol P.; Ducho, Christian; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Thorson, Jon S.; Van Lanen, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    A-500359s, A-503083s, and A-102395 are capuramycin-type nucleoside antibiotics that were discovered using a screen to identify inhibitors of bacterial translocase I, an essential enzyme in peptidoglycan cell wall biosynthesis. Like the parent capuramycin, A-500359s and A-503083s consist of three structural components: a uridine-5′-carboxamide (CarU), a rare unsaturated hexuronic acid, and an aminocaprolactam, the last of which is substituted by an unusual arylamine-containing polyamide in A-102395. The biosynthetic gene clusters for A-500359s and A-503083s have been reported, and two genes encoding a putative non-heme Fe(II)-dependent α-ketoglutarate:UMP dioxygenase and an l-Thr:uridine-5′-aldehyde transaldolase were uncovered, suggesting that C–C bond formation during assembly of the high carbon (C6) sugar backbone of CarU proceeds from the precursors UMP and l-Thr to form 5′-C-glycyluridine (C7) as a biosynthetic intermediate. Here, isotopic enrichment studies with the producer of A-503083s were used to indeed establish l-Thr as the direct source of the carboxamide of CarU. With this knowledge, the A-102395 gene cluster was subsequently cloned and characterized. A genetic system in the A-102395-producing strain was developed, permitting the inactivation of several genes, including those encoding the dioxygenase (cpr19) and transaldolase (cpr25), which abolished the production of A-102395, thus confirming their role in biosynthesis. Heterologous production of recombinant Cpr19 and CapK, the transaldolase homolog involved in A-503083 biosynthesis, confirmed their expected function. Finally, a phosphotransferase (Cpr17) conferring self-resistance was functionally characterized. The results provide the opportunity to use comparative genomics along with in vivo and in vitro approaches to probe the biosynthetic mechanism of these intriguing structures. PMID:25855790

  3. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis: A Colorful Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Sola, M. Águila; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are a family of pigments that participate in light harvesting and are essential for photoprotection against excess light. Furthermore, they act as precursors for the production of apocarotenoid hormones such as abscisic acid and strigolactones. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the genes and enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway (which is now almost completely elucidated) and on the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We also discuss the relevance of Arabidopsis as a model system for the study of carotenogenesis and how metabolic engineering approaches in this plant have taught important lessons for carotenoid biotechnology. PMID:22582030

  4. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    SciT

    Abd El-Aziz, M.; Badr, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2007-02-14

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginos ATCC 90271, P. aeruginos (2) and P. aeruginos (1). The UV-Vis. and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extracellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs.

  5. Wybutosine biosynthesis: Structural and mechanistic overview

    PubMed Central

    Perche-Letuvée, Phanélie; Molle, Thibaut; Forouhar, Farhad; Mulliez, Etienne; Atta, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, significant progress has been made in understanding the genetics, enzymology and structural components of the wybutosine (yW) biosynthetic pathway. These studies have played a key role in expanding our understanding of yW biosynthesis and have revealed unexpected evolutionary ties, which are presently being unraveled. The enzymes catalyzing the 5 steps of this pathway, from genetically encoded guanosine to wybutosine base, provide an ensemble of amazing reaction mechanisms that are to be discussed in this review article. PMID:25629788

  6. Ultrafast transient photocarrier dynamics of the bulk-insulating topological insulator B i1.5S b0.5T e1.7S e1.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young Gwan; Zhung, Chan June; Park, Sun-Hee; Park, Joonbum; Kim, Jun Sung; Kim, Seongheun; Park, Jaehun; Lee, J. S.

    2018-02-01

    Using optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy, we investigated an ultrafast photocarrier relaxation behavior in a B i1.5S b0.5T e1.7S e1.3 (BSTS) single crystal, which is one of the most bulk-insulating topological insulators. Compared to n -type bulk-metallic B i2S e3 , we found that BSTS endows distinct behaviors in its photocarrier dynamics; the relaxation time turns out to be an order of magnitude longer, and the transient conductance spectrum exhibits a nonlinear increase as a function of the pumping power. Also, we observed an abrupt reduction of the photocarrier scattering rate in several picoseconds after the initial photoexcitation. We discuss these intriguing experimental observations based on a bulk-to-surface carrier injection assisted by the built-in electric field near the surface and electron-phonon scattering.

  7. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl as a screening tool for recombinant monoterpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Behrendorff, James Byh; Vickers, Claudia E; Chrysanthopoulos, Panagiotis; Nielsen, Lars K

    2013-08-23

    Monoterpenes are a class of natural C10 compounds with a range of potential applications including use as fuel additives, fragrances, and chemical feedstocks. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes in heterologous systems is yet to reach commercially-viable levels, and therefore is the subject of strain engineering and fermentation optimization studies. Detection of monoterpenes typically relies on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; this represents a significant analytical bottleneck which limits the potential to analyse combinatorial sets of conditions. To address this, we developed a high-throughput method for pre-screening monoterpene biosynthesis. An optimised DPPH assay was developed for detecting monoterpenes from two-phase microbial cultures using dodecane as the extraction solvent. The assay was useful for reproducible qualitative ranking of monoterpene concentrations, and detected standard preparations of myrcene and γ-terpinene dissolved in dodecane at concentrations as low as 10 and 15 μM, respectively, and limonene as low as 200 μM. The assay could not be used quantitatively due to technical difficulties in capturing the initial reaction rate in a multi-well plate and the presence of minor DPPH-reactive contaminants. Initially, limonene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was tested using two different limonene synthase enzymes and three medium compositions. The assay indicated that limonene biosynthesis was enhanced in a supplemented YP medium and that the Citrus limon limonene synthase (CLLS) was more effective than the Mentha spicata limonene synthase (MSLS). GC-MS analysis revealed that the DPPH assay had correctly identified the best limonene synthase (CLLS) and culture medium (supplemented YP medium). Because only traces of limonene were detected in SD medium, we subsequently identified medium components that improved limonene production and developed a defined medium based on these findings. The best limonene titres obtained were 1.48 ± 0.22 mg

  8. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl as a screening tool for recombinant monoterpene biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Monoterpenes are a class of natural C10 compounds with a range of potential applications including use as fuel additives, fragrances, and chemical feedstocks. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes in heterologous systems is yet to reach commercially-viable levels, and therefore is the subject of strain engineering and fermentation optimization studies. Detection of monoterpenes typically relies on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; this represents a significant analytical bottleneck which limits the potential to analyse combinatorial sets of conditions. To address this, we developed a high-throughput method for pre-screening monoterpene biosynthesis. Results An optimised DPPH assay was developed for detecting monoterpenes from two-phase microbial cultures using dodecane as the extraction solvent. The assay was useful for reproducible qualitative ranking of monoterpene concentrations, and detected standard preparations of myrcene and γ-terpinene dissolved in dodecane at concentrations as low as 10 and 15 μM, respectively, and limonene as low as 200 μM. The assay could not be used quantitatively due to technical difficulties in capturing the initial reaction rate in a multi-well plate and the presence of minor DPPH-reactive contaminants. Initially, limonene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was tested using two different limonene synthase enzymes and three medium compositions. The assay indicated that limonene biosynthesis was enhanced in a supplemented YP medium and that the Citrus limon limonene synthase (CLLS) was more effective than the Mentha spicata limonene synthase (MSLS). GC-MS analysis revealed that the DPPH assay had correctly identified the best limonene synthase (CLLS) and culture medium (supplemented YP medium). Because only traces of limonene were detected in SD medium, we subsequently identified medium components that improved limonene production and developed a defined medium based on these findings. The best limonene titres obtained

  9. Subcellular localization of rat CYP2E1 impacts metabolic efficiency toward common substrates.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Jessica H; Martin, H Cass; Caro, Andres A; Pearce, Amy R; Miller, Grover P

    2015-12-02

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) detoxifies or bioactivates many low molecular-weight compounds. Most knowledge about CYP2E1 activity relies on studies of the enzyme localized to endoplasmic reticulum (erCYP2E1); however, CYP2E1 undergoes transport to mitochondria (mtCYP2E1) and becomes metabolically active. We report the first comparison of in vitro steady-state kinetic profiles for erCYP2E1 and mtCYP2E1 oxidation of probe substrate 4-nitrophenol and pollutants styrene and aniline using subcellular fractions from rat liver. For all substrates, metabolic efficiency changed with substrate concentration for erCYP2E1 reflected in non-hyperbolic kinetic profiles but not for mtCYP2E1. Hyperbolic kinetic profiles for the mitochondrial enzyme were consistent with Michaelis-Menten mechanism in which metabolic efficiency was constant. By contrast, erCYP2E1 metabolism of 4-nitrophenol led to a loss of enzyme efficiency at high substrate concentrations when substrate inhibited the reaction. Similarly, aniline metabolism by erCYP2E1 demonstrated negative cooperativity as metabolic efficiency decreased with increasing substrate concentration. The opposite was observed for erCYP2E1 oxidation of styrene; the sigmoidal kinetic profile indicated increased efficiency at higher substrate concentrations. These mechanisms and CYP2E1 levels in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum were used to estimate the impact of CYP2E1 subcellular localization on metabolic flux of pollutants. Those models showed that erCYP2E1 mainly carries out aniline metabolism at all aniline concentrations. Conversely, mtCYP2E1 dominates styrene oxidation at low styrene concentrations and erCYP2E1 at higher concentrations. Taken together, subcellular localization of CYP2E1 results in distinctly different enzyme activities that could impact overall metabolic clearance and/or activation of substrates and thus impact the interpretation and prediction of toxicological outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  10. Ethylene Upregulates Auxin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Seedlings to Enhance Inhibition of Root Cell Elongation[W

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Ranjan; Perry, Paula; Hagenbeek, Dik; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Sandberg, Göran; Bhalerao, Rishikesh; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2007-01-01

    Ethylene represents an important regulatory signal for root development. Genetic studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have demonstrated that ethylene inhibition of root growth involves another hormone signal, auxin. This study investigated why auxin was required by ethylene to regulate root growth. We initially observed that ethylene positively controls auxin biosynthesis in the root apex. We subsequently demonstrated that ethylene-regulated root growth is dependent on (1) the transport of auxin from the root apex via the lateral root cap and (2) auxin responses occurring in multiple elongation zone tissues. Detailed growth studies revealed that the ability of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to inhibit root cell elongation was significantly enhanced in the presence of auxin. We conclude that by upregulating auxin biosynthesis, ethylene facilitates its ability to inhibit root cell expansion. PMID:17630275

  11. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lemeng; Jongedijk, Esmer; Bouwmeester, Harro; Van Der Krol, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated local GDP availability for each compartment but resulted in different product levels. A GDP synthase from Picea abies (PaGDPS1) was shown to boost GDP production. PaGDPS1 was also targeted to plastids, cytosol or mitochondria and PaGDPS1 and GES were coexpressed in all possible combinations. Geraniol and geraniol-derived products were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively. GES product levels were highest for plastid-targeted GES, followed by mitochondrial- and then cytosolic-targeted GES. For each compartment local boosting of GDP biosynthesis increased GES product levels. GDP exchange between compartments is not equal: while no GDP is exchanged from the cytosol to the plastids, 100% of GDP in mitochondria can be exchanged to plastids, while only 7% of GDP from plastids is available for mitochondria. This suggests a direct exchange mechanism for GDP between plastids and mitochondria. Cytosolic PaGDPS1 competes with plastidial GES activity, suggesting an effective drain of isopentenyl diphosphate from the plastids to the cytosol. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. BIOSYNTHESIS OF ERGOTHIONEINE AND HERCYNINE BY MYCOBACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Genghof, Dorothy S.; Damme, Olga Van

    1964-01-01

    Genghof, Dorothy S. (Yeshiva University, New York, N.Y.), and Olga Van Damme. Biosynthesis of ergothioneine and hercynine by mycobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 87:852–862. 1964.—Ergothioneine and hercynine were found to be synthesized by a wide variety of mycobacteria grown in chemically defined media free from these compounds. The cultures examined included 53 recently isolated and laboratory strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 26 “unclassified” mycobacteria (Runyon groups I to IV), and representatives of most other species in the genus. Purification and separation of the betaines was achieved by means of chromatography on two successive alumina columns. Photometric measurement of the diazotized effluents from the second column permitted amounts of each compound to be determined. Measurement of hercynine by this method was made possible for the first time by the development of a standard curve. The pathway of ergothioneine biosynthesis in mycobacteria, as judged by the use S35-sulfate and l-histidine-2-C14 as tracers, appears similar to that found in Neurospora crassa and Claviceps purpurea, that is, from histidine to ergothioneine via hercynine. None of a small group of bacteria other than mycobacteria was found to produce ergothioneine. Two strains of group A streptococci and one of Escherichia coli produced hercyninelike material, as yet unidentified. PMID:14137624

  13. Biosynthesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer pheromone.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Rebecca A; Ragains, Justin R; Li, Weiqing; Ruvkun, Gary; Clardy, Jon; Mak, Ho Yi

    2009-02-10

    To sense its population density and to trigger entry into the stress-resistant dauer larval stage, Caenorhabditis elegans uses the dauer pheromone, which consists of ascaroside derivatives with short, fatty acid-like side chains. Although the dauer pheromone has been studied for 25 years, its biosynthesis is completely uncharacterized. The daf-22 mutant is the only known mutant defective in dauer pheromone production. Here, we show that daf-22 encodes a homolog of human sterol carrier protein SCPx, which catalyzes the final step in peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. We also show that dhs-28, which encodes a homolog of the human d-bifunctional protein that acts just upstream of SCPx, is also required for pheromone production. Long-term daf-22 and dhs-28 cultures develop dauer-inducing activity by accumulating less active, long-chain fatty acid ascaroside derivatives. Thus, daf-22 and dhs-28 are required for the biosynthesis of the short-chain fatty acid-derived side chains of the dauer pheromone and link dauer pheromone production to metabolic state.

  14. Metabolic plasticity for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil, Jordi; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2013-05-15

    Isoprenoids are a large family of compounds synthesized by all free-living organisms. In most bacteria, the common precursors of all isoprenoids are produced by the MEP (methylerythritol 4-phosphate) pathway. The MEP pathway is absent from archaea, fungi and animals (including humans), which synthesize their isoprenoid precursors using the completely unrelated MVA (mevalonate) pathway. Because the MEP pathway is essential in most bacterial pathogens (as well as in the malaria parasites), it has been proposed as a promising new target for the development of novel anti-infective agents. However, bacteria show a remarkable plasticity for isoprenoid biosynthesis that should be taken into account when targeting this metabolic pathway for the development of new antibiotics. For example, a few bacteria use the MVA pathway instead of the MEP pathway, whereas others possess the two full pathways, and some parasitic strains lack both the MVA and the MEP pathways (probably because they obtain their isoprenoids from host cells). Moreover, alternative enzymes and metabolic intermediates to those of the canonical MVA or MEP pathways exist in some organisms. Recent work has also shown that resistance to a block of the first steps of the MEP pathway can easily be developed because several enzymes unrelated to isoprenoid biosynthesis can produce pathway intermediates upon spontaneous mutations. In the present review, we discuss the major advances in our knowledge of the biochemical toolbox exploited by bacteria to synthesize the universal precursors for their essential isoprenoids.

  15. Isoprenoid Biosynthesis Inhibitors Targeting Bacterial Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Desai, Janish; Wang, Yang; Wang, Ke; Malwal, Satish R; Oldfield, Eric

    2016-10-06

    We synthesized potential inhibitors of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS), or undecaprenyl diphosphate phosphatase (UPPP), and tested them in bacterial cell growth and enzyme inhibition assays. The most active compounds were found to be bisphosphonates with electron-withdrawing aryl-alkyl side chains which inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria (Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at ∼1-4 μg mL -1 levels. They were found to be potent inhibitors of FPPS; cell growth was partially "rescued" by the addition of farnesol or overexpression of FPPS, and there was synergistic activity with known isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway inhibitors. Lipophilic hydroxyalkyl phosphonic acids inhibited UPPS and UPPP at micromolar levels; they were active (∼2-6 μg mL -1 ) against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative organisms, and again exhibited synergistic activity with cell wall biosynthesis inhibitors, but only indifferent effects with other inhibitors. The results are of interest because they describe novel inhibitors of FPPS, UPPS, and UPPP with cell growth inhibitory activities as low as ∼1-2 μg mL -1 . © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles using microbes- a review.

    PubMed

    Hulkoti, Nasreen I; Taranath, T C

    2014-09-01

    The biosynthesis of nanoparticles by microorganism is a green and eco-friendly technology. This review focuses on the use of consortium of diverse microorganisms belonging to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles viz. silver, gold, platinum, zirconium, palladium, iron, cadmium and metal oxides such as titanium oxide, zinc oxide, etc. These microorganisms include bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and algae. The synthesis of nanoparticles may be intracellular or extracellular. The several workers have reported that NADH dependent nitrate reductase enzyme plays a vital role in the conversion of metallic ions to nanoparticles. The FTIR study reveals that diverse biomolecules viz. carboxyl group, primary and secondary amines, amide I, II, and III bands etc serve as a tool for bioreduction and capping agents there by offering stability to particles by preventing agglomeration and growth. The size and shape of the nanoparticles vary with the organism employed and conditions employed during the synthesis which included pH, temperature and substrate concentration. The microorganisms provide diverse environment for biosynthesis of nanoparticles. These particles are safe and eco-friendly with a lot of applications in medicine, agriculture, cosmetic industry, drug delivery and biochemical sensors. The challenges for redressal include optimal production and minimal time to obtain desired size and shape, to enhance the stability of nanoparticles and optimization of specific microorganisms for specific application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. BIOSYNTHESIS AND ACTION OF JASMONATES IN PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.

    1997-06-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives can modulate aspects of fruit ripening, production of viable pollen, root growth, tendril coiling, and plant resistance to insects and pathogens. Jasmonate activates genes involved in pathogen and insect resistance, and genes encoding vegetative storage proteins, but represses genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis. Jasmonic acid is derived from linolenic acid, and most of the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway have been extensively characterized. Modulation of lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase gene expression in transgenic plants raises new questions about the compartmentation of the biosynthetic pathway and its regulation. The activation of jasmonic acid biosynthesis by cell wall elicitors, the peptide systemin, and other compounds will be related to the function of jasmonates in plants. Jasmonate modulates gene expression at the level of translation, RNA processing, and transcription. Promoter elements that mediate responses to jasmonate have been isolated. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of how jasmonate biosynthesis is regulated and relates this information to knowledge of jasmonate modulated gene expression.

  18. Enzymology of retinoic acid biosynthesis and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Kedishvili, Natalia Y.

    2013-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid is a biologically active derivative of vitamin A that regulates numerous physiological processes. The concentration of retinoic acid in the cells is tightly regulated, but the exact mechanisms responsible for this regulation are not completely understood, largely because the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid have not been fully defined. Recent studies using in vitro and in vivo models suggest that several members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily of proteins are essential for retinoic acid biosynthesis and the maintenance of retinoic acid homeostasis. However, the exact roles of some of these recently identified enzymes are yet to be characterized. The properties of the known contributors to retinoid metabolism have now been better defined and allow for more detailed understanding of their interactions with retinoid-binding proteins and other retinoid enzymes. At the same time, further studies are needed to clarify the interactions between the cytoplasmic and membrane-bound proteins involved in the processing of hydrophobic retinoid metabolites. This review summarizes current knowledge about the roles of various biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes in the regulation of retinoic acid homeostasis and outlines the remaining questions in the field. PMID:23630397

  19. Brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signalling in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Nathalie; Yokota, Takao; Shibata, Kyomi; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Gerats, Tom; Vandenbussche, Michiel; Koes, Ronald; Souer, Erik

    2013-05-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones that play an important role in the growth and development of plants. The biosynthesis of sterols and BRs as well as the signalling cascade they induce in plants have been elucidated largely through metabolic studies and the analysis of mutants in Arabidopsis and rice. Only fragmentary details about BR signalling in other plant species are known. Here a forward genetics strategy was used in Petunia hybrida, by which 19 families with phenotypic alterations typical for BR deficiency mutants were identified. In all mutants, the endogenous BR levels were severely reduced. In seven families, the tagged genes were revealed as the petunia BR biosynthesis genes CYP90A1 and CYP85A1 and the BR receptor gene BRI1. In addition, several homologues of key regulators of the BR signalling pathway were cloned from petunia based on homology with their Arabidopsis counterparts, including the BRI1 receptor, a member of the BES1/BZR1 transcription factor family (PhBEH2), and two GSK3-like kinases (PSK8 and PSK9). PhBEH2 was shown to interact with PSK8 and 14-3-3 proteins in yeast, revealing similar interactions to those during BR signalling in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, PhBEH2 also interacted with proteins implicated in other signalling pathways. This suggests that PhBEH2 might function as an important hub in the cross-talk between diverse signalling pathways.

  20. Brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signalling in Petunia hybrida

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Nathalie; Yokota, Takao; Shibata, Kyomi; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Gerats, Tom; Vandenbussche, Michiel; Koes, Ronald; Souer, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones that play an important role in the growth and development of plants. The biosynthesis of sterols and BRs as well as the signalling cascade they induce in plants have been elucidated largely through metabolic studies and the analysis of mutants in Arabidopsis and rice. Only fragmentary details about BR signalling in other plant species are known. Here a forward genetics strategy was used in Petunia hybrida, by which 19 families with phenotypic alterations typical for BR deficiency mutants were identified. In all mutants, the endogenous BR levels were severely reduced. In seven families, the tagged genes were revealed as the petunia BR biosynthesis genes CYP90A1 and CYP85A1 and the BR receptor gene BRI1. In addition, several homologues of key regulators of the BR signalling pathway were cloned from petunia based on homology with their Arabidopsis counterparts, including the BRI1 receptor, a member of the BES1/BZR1 transcription factor family (PhBEH2), and two GSK3-like kinases (PSK8 and PSK9). PhBEH2 was shown to interact with PSK8 and 14-3-3 proteins in yeast, revealing similar interactions to those during BR signalling in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, PhBEH2 also interacted with proteins implicated in other signalling pathways. This suggests that PhBEH2 might function as an important hub in the cross-talk between diverse signalling pathways. PMID:23599276

  1. Plant Sterols: Diversity, Biosynthesis, and Physiological Functions.

    PubMed

    Valitova, J N; Sulkarnayeva, A G; Minibayeva, F V

    2016-08-01

    Sterols, which are isoprenoid derivatives, are structural components of biological membranes. Special attention is now being given not only to their structure and function, but also to their regulatory roles in plants. Plant sterols have diverse composition; they exist as free sterols, sterol esters with higher fatty acids, sterol glycosides, and acylsterol glycosides, which are absent in animal cells. This diversity of types of phytosterols determines a wide spectrum of functions they play in plant life. Sterols are precursors of a group of plant hormones, the brassinosteroids, which regulate plant growth and development. Furthermore, sterols participate in transmembrane signal transduction by forming lipid microdomains. The predominant sterols in plants are β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. These sterols differ in the presence of a methyl or an ethyl group in the side chain at the 24th carbon atom and are named methylsterols or ethylsterols, respectively. The balance between 24-methylsterols and 24-ethylsterols is specific for individual plant species. The present review focuses on the key stages of plant sterol biosynthesis that determine the ratios between the different types of sterols, and the crosstalk between the sterol and sphingolipid pathways. The main enzymes involved in plant sterol biosynthesis are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, C24-sterol methyltransferase, and C22-sterol desaturase. These enzymes are responsible for maintaining the optimal balance between sterols. Regulation of the ratios between the different types of sterols and sterols/sphingolipids can be of crucial importance in the responses of plants to stresses.

  2. Inhibitors of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Schaller, G Eric; Binder, Brad M

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene is a gas biosynthesized by plants which has many physiological and developmental effects on their growth. Ethylene affects agriculturally and horticulturally important traits such as fruit ripening, post-harvest physiology, senescence, and abscission, and so ethylene action is often inhibited to improve the shelf life of fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers. Chemical inhibitors of ethylene action are also useful for research to characterize the mechanisms of ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction, and the role that ethylene plays in various physiological processes. Here, we describe the use of three inhibitors commonly used for the study of ethylene action in plants: 2-aminoethoxyvinyl glycine (AVG), silver ions (Ag), and the gaseous compound 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). AVG is an inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, a key enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis. Silver and 1-MCP are both inhibitors of the ethylene receptors. Inhibitor use as well as off-target effects are described with a focus on ethylene responses in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings. Methods for the use of these inhibitors can be applied to other plant growth assays.

  3. Molecular Regulation of Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Chandra, Govind; Niu, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptomycetes are the most abundant source of antibiotics. Typically, each species produces several antibiotics, with the profile being species specific. Streptomyces coelicolor, the model species, produces at least five different antibiotics. We review the regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in S. coelicolor and other, nonmodel streptomycetes in the light of recent studies. The biosynthesis of each antibiotic is specified by a large gene cluster, usually including regulatory genes (cluster-situated regulators [CSRs]). These are the main point of connection with a plethora of generally conserved regulatory systems that monitor the organism's physiology, developmental state, population density, and environment to determine the onset and level of production of each antibiotic. Some CSRs may also be sensitive to the levels of different kinds of ligands, including products of the pathway itself, products of other antibiotic pathways in the same organism, and specialized regulatory small molecules such as gamma-butyrolactones. These interactions can result in self-reinforcing feed-forward circuitry and complex cross talk between pathways. The physiological signals and regulatory mechanisms may be of practical importance for the activation of the many cryptic secondary metabolic gene cluster pathways revealed by recent sequencing of numerous Streptomyces genomes. PMID:23471619

  4. Resolvin E1 (RX-10001) reduces corneal epithelial barrier disruption and protects against goblet cell loss in a murine model of dry eye.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Cintia S; Schwartz, C Eric; Gjörstrup, Per; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2012-11-01

    Resolvin E1 (RvE1; RX-10001) belongs to a new class of endogenous immunoregulating mediators, originally identified as a metabolite of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid. Based on its proven efficacy in models of chronic inflammation, this study investigated the efficacy of resolvin E1 in a murine model of dry eye. C57/B6 mice, aged 6 to 8 weeks, were treated with systemic scopolamine and exposed to air draft and low humidity for 16 hours/day for 5 days and allocated to the following groups: unexposed controls, disease controls, treatment with vehicle or RvE1 delivered topically as its methyl ester prodrug, RX-10005, to enhance corneal surface penetration. Treatment was initiated at the time of desiccating stress induction. Treatment efficacy was assessed by corneal permeability using Oregon Green Dextran and by conjunctival goblet cell density using periodic acid-Schiff reagent. RvE1 reduced the increase in corneal staining by 80% compared with untreated disease controls. Goblet cell density was reduced by 20% in disease controls but fully maintained in the group receiving RvE1. RvE1, delivered as its methyl ester prodrug, improved the outcome measures of corneal staining and goblet cell density in this murine model of dry eye, indicating the potential utility of endogenous resolvins and resolvin analogues in the treatment of dry eye.

  5. Ant Trail Pheromone Biosynthesis Is Triggered by a Neuropeptide Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (∼200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

  6. The anti-tumor activity of E1A and its implications in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Wen; Hung, Mien-Chie; Su, Jen-Liang

    2014-06-01

    The adenovirus type 5 E1A protein (E1A) plays a critical role in anti-cancer gene therapy and has been tested in clinical trials. The expression of E1A significantly reduces tumorigenesis, promotes cell death, and inhibits cancer cell mobility. Chemosensitization is one of the anti-tumor effects of E1A, increasing in vitro and in vivo sensitization of anti-cancer drugs, including cisplatin, gemcitabine, etoposide, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and histone deacetylase inhibitors in different types of cancer cells. E1A also demonstrates anti-metastasis activity through various molecular mechanisms such as the repression of protease expression, suppression of HER2/neu and downregulation of microRNA (miR-520h). Moreover, E1A has been reported to reprogram transcription in tumor cells and stabilize tumor suppressors such as PP2A/C, p21 and p53. Because E1A plays a potentially significant role in anti-tumor therapy, there exists an urgent need to study the anti-cancer activities of E1A. This paper presents a review of our current understanding of the tumor-suppressive functions and molecular regulation of E1A, as well as the potential clinical applications of E1A.

  7. Starch Biosynthesis in Developing Wheat Grain 1

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Peter L.; Wood, John R.; Tyson, R. Huw; Bridges, Ian G.

    1988-01-01

    We have used 13C-labeled sugars and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry to study the metabolic pathway of starch biosynthesis in developing wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Mardler). Our aim was to examine the extent of redistribution of 13C between carbons atoms 1 and 6 of [1-13C] or [6-13C]glucose (or fructose) incorporated into starch, and hence provide evidence for or against the involvement of triose phosphates in the metabolic pathway. Starch synthesis in the endosperm tissue was studied in two experimental systems. First, the 13C sugars were supplied to isolated endosperm tissue incubated in vitro, and second the 13C sugars were supplied in vivo to the intact plant. The 13C starch produced by the endosperm tissue of the grain was isolated and enzymically degraded to glucose using amyloglucosidase, and the distribution of 13C in all glucosyl carbons was quantified by 13C-NMR spectrometry. In all of the experiments, irrespective of the incubation time or incubation conditions, there was a similar pattern of partial (between 15 and 20%) redistribution of label between carbons 1 and 6 of glucose recovered from starch. There was no detectable increase over background 13C incidence in carbons 2 to 5. Within each experiment, the same pattern of partial redistribution of label was found in the glucosyl and fructosyl moieties of sucrose extracted from the tissue. Since it is unlikely that sucrose is present in the amyloplast, we suggest that the observed redistribution of label occurred in the cytosolic compartment of the endosperm cells and that both sucrose and starch are synthesized from a common pool of intermediates, such as hexose phosphate. We suggest that redistribution of label occurs via a cytosolic pathway cycle involving conversion of hexose phosphate to triose phosphate, interconversion of triose phosphate by triose phosphate isomerase, and resynthesis of hexose phosphate in the cytosol. A further round of triose phosphate interconversion in

  8. Cysteine Biosynthesis Controls Serratia marcescens Phospholipase Activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark T; Mitchell, Lindsay A; Mobley, Harry L T

    2017-08-15

    Serratia marcescens causes health care-associated opportunistic infections that can be difficult to treat due to a high incidence of antibiotic resistance. One of the many secreted proteins of S. marcescens is the PhlA phospholipase enzyme. Genes involved in the production and secretion of PhlA were identified by screening a transposon insertion library for phospholipase-deficient mutants on phosphatidylcholine-containing medium. Mutations were identified in four genes ( cyaA , crp , fliJ , and fliP ) that are involved in the flagellum-dependent PhlA secretion pathway. An additional phospholipase-deficient isolate harbored a transposon insertion in the cysE gene encoding a predicted serine O -acetyltransferase required for cysteine biosynthesis. The cysE requirement for extracellular phospholipase activity was confirmed using a fluorogenic phospholipase substrate. Phospholipase activity was restored to the cysE mutant by the addition of exogenous l-cysteine or O -acetylserine to the culture medium and by genetic complementation. Additionally, phlA transcript levels were decreased 6-fold in bacteria lacking cysE and were restored with added cysteine, indicating a role for cysteine-dependent transcriptional regulation of S. marcescens phospholipase activity. S. marcescens cysE mutants also exhibited a defect in swarming motility that was correlated with reduced levels of flhD and fliA flagellar regulator gene transcription. Together, these findings suggest a model in which cysteine is required for the regulation of both extracellular phospholipase activity and surface motility in S. marcescens IMPORTANCE Serratia marcescens is known to secrete multiple extracellular enzymes, but PhlA is unusual in that this protein is thought to be exported by the flagellar transport apparatus. In this study, we demonstrate that both extracellular phospholipase activity and flagellar function are dependent on the cysteine biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, a disruption of cysteine

  9. Cysteine Biosynthesis Controls Serratia marcescens Phospholipase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Mark T.; Mitchell, Lindsay A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Serratia marcescens causes health care-associated opportunistic infections that can be difficult to treat due to a high incidence of antibiotic resistance. One of the many secreted proteins of S. marcescens is the PhlA phospholipase enzyme. Genes involved in the production and secretion of PhlA were identified by screening a transposon insertion library for phospholipase-deficient mutants on phosphatidylcholine-containing medium. Mutations were identified in four genes (cyaA, crp, fliJ, and fliP) that are involved in the flagellum-dependent PhlA secretion pathway. An additional phospholipase-deficient isolate harbored a transposon insertion in the cysE gene encoding a predicted serine O-acetyltransferase required for cysteine biosynthesis. The cysE requirement for extracellular phospholipase activity was confirmed using a fluorogenic phospholipase substrate. Phospholipase activity was restored to the cysE mutant by the addition of exogenous l-cysteine or O-acetylserine to the culture medium and by genetic complementation. Additionally, phlA transcript levels were decreased 6-fold in bacteria lacking cysE and were restored with added cysteine, indicating a role for cysteine-dependent transcriptional regulation of S. marcescens phospholipase activity. S. marcescens cysE mutants also exhibited a defect in swarming motility that was correlated with reduced levels of flhD and fliA flagellar regulator gene transcription. Together, these findings suggest a model in which cysteine is required for the regulation of both extracellular phospholipase activity and surface motility in S. marcescens. IMPORTANCE Serratia marcescens is known to secrete multiple extracellular enzymes, but PhlA is unusual in that this protein is thought to be exported by the flagellar transport apparatus. In this study, we demonstrate that both extracellular phospholipase activity and flagellar function are dependent on the cysteine biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, a disruption of cysteine

  10. The Regulation of Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis in Eukaryotic Cells: All That Yeast Can Tell Us

    PubMed Central

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; García-Testón, Elena; Padilla, Sergio; Martín-Montalvo, Alejandro; Pomares Viciana, Teresa; Vazquez-Fonseca, Luis; Gandolfo Domínguez, Pablo; Santos-Ocaña, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a mitochondrial lipid, which functions mainly as an electron carrier from complex I or II to complex III at the mitochondrial inner membrane, and also as antioxidant in cell membranes. CoQ is needed as electron acceptor in β-oxidation of fatty acids and pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis, and it is responsible for opening the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. The yeast model has been very useful to analyze the synthesis of CoQ, and therefore, most of the knowledge about its regulation was obtained from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. CoQ biosynthesis is regulated to support 2 processes: the bioenergetic metabolism and the antioxidant defense. Alterations of the carbon source in yeast, or in nutrient availability in yeasts or mammalian cells, upregulate genes encoding proteins involved in CoQ synthesis. Oxidative stress, generated by chemical or physical agents or by serum deprivation, modifies specifically the expression of some COQ genes by means of stress transcription factors such as Msn2/4p, Yap1p or Hsf1p. In general, the induction of COQ gene expression produced by metabolic changes or stress is modulated downstream by other regulatory mechanisms such as the protein import to mitochondria, the assembly of a multi-enzymatic complex composed by Coq proteins and also the existence of a phosphorylation cycle that regulates the last steps of CoQ biosynthesis. The CoQ biosynthetic complex assembly starts with the production of a nucleating lipid such as HHB by the action of the Coq2 protein. Then, the Coq4 protein recognizes the precursor HHB acting as the nucleus of the complex. The activity of Coq8p, probably as kinase, allows the formation of an initial pre-complex containing all Coq proteins with the exception of Coq7p. This pre-complex leads to the synthesis of 5-demethoxy-Q6 (DMQ6), the Coq7p substrate. When de novo CoQ biosynthesis is required, Coq7p becomes dephosphorylated by the action of Ptc7p increasing the synthesis

  11. Phenylpropenes: Occurrence, Distribution, and Biosynthesis in Fruit.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Ross G

    2018-03-14

    Phenylpropenes such as eugenol, chavicol, estragole, and anethole contribute to the flavor and aroma of a number of important herbs and spices. They have been shown to function as floral attractants for pollinators and to have antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Phenylpropenes are also detected as free volatiles and sequestered glycosides in a range of economically important fresh fruit species including apple, strawberry, tomato, and grape. Although they contribute a relatively small percentage of total volatiles compared with esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, phenylpropenes have been shown to contribute spicy anise- and clove-like notes to fruit. Phenylpropenes are typically found in fruit throughout development and to reach maximum concentrations in ripe fruit. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropenes have been characterized and manipulated in strawberry and apple, which has validated the importance of these compounds to fruit aroma and may help elucidate other functions for phenylpropenes in fruit.

  12. Biosynthesis and Heterologous Production of Epothilones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Rolf

    Although a variety of chemical syntheses for the epothilones and various derivatives have been described, modifying the backbone of those natural products remains a major challenge. One alternative to chemical alteration is the elucidation and subsequent manipulation of the biosynthetic pathway via genetic engineering in the producing organism. This type of approach is known as “combinatorial biosynthesis” and holds great promise, especially in conjunction with semi-synthesis methods to alter the structure of the natural product. In parallel, production can be optimized in the natural producer if the regulatory mechanisms governing the biosynthesis are understood. Alternatively, the entire gene cluster can be transferred into a heterologous host, more amenable both to genetic alteration and overexpression.

  13. Terpenoids and Their Biosynthesis in Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pattanaik, Bagmi; Lindberg, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids, or isoprenoids, are a family of compounds with great structural diversity which are essential for all living organisms. In cyanobacteria, they are synthesized from the methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway, using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate produced by photosynthesis as substrates. The products of the MEP pathway are the isomeric five-carbon compounds isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, which in turn form the basic building blocks for formation of all terpenoids. Many terpenoid compounds have useful properties and are of interest in the fields of pharmaceuticals and nutrition, and even potentially as future biofuels. The MEP pathway, its function and regulation, and the subsequent formation of terpenoids have not been fully elucidated in cyanobacteria, despite its relevance for biotechnological applications. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about cyanobacterial terpenoid biosynthesis, both regarding the native metabolism and regarding metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for heterologous production of non-native terpenoids. PMID:25615610

  14. Collagens--structure, function, and biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gelse, K; Pöschl, E; Aigner, T

    2003-11-28

    The extracellular matrix represents a complex alloy of variable members of diverse protein families defining structural integrity and various physiological functions. The most abundant family is the collagens with more than 20 different collagen types identified so far. Collagens are centrally involved in the formation of fibrillar and microfibrillar networks of the extracellular matrix, basement membranes as well as other structures of the extracellular matrix. This review focuses on the distribution and function of various collagen types in different tissues. It introduces their basic structural subunits and points out major steps in the biosynthesis and supramolecular processing of fibrillar collagens as prototypical members of this protein family. A final outlook indicates the importance of different collagen types not only for the understanding of collagen-related diseases, but also as a basis for the therapeutical use of members of this protein family discussed in other chapters of this issue.

  15. Flavones: From Biosynthesis to Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Flavones correspond to a flavonoid subgroup that is widely distributed in the plants, and which can be synthesized by different pathways, depending on whether they contain C- or O-glycosylation and hydroxylated B-ring. Flavones are emerging as very important specialized metabolites involved in plant signaling and defense, as well as key ingredients of the human diet, with significant health benefits. Here, we appraise flavone formation in plants, emphasizing the emerging theme that biosynthesis pathway determines flavone chemistry. Additionally, we briefly review the biological activities of flavones, both from the perspective of the functions that they play in biotic and abiotic plant interactions, as well as their roles as nutraceutical components of the human and animal diet. PMID:27338492

  16. Biosynthesis of Modular Ascarosides in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Oishika; Akagi, Allison E.; Artyukhin, Alexander B.; Judkins, Joshua C.; Le, Henry H.; Mahanti, Parag; Cohen, Sarah M.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans uses simple building blocks from primary metabolism and a strategy of modular assembly to build a great diversity of signaling molecules, the ascarosides, which function as a chemical language in this model organism. In the ascarosides, the dideoxysugar ascarylose serves as a scaffold to which diverse moieties from lipid, amino acid, neurotransmitter, and nucleoside metabolism are attached. However, the mechanisms that underlie the highly specific assembly of ascarosides are not understood. We show that the acyl-CoA synthetase ACS-7, which localizes to lysosome-related organelles, is specifically required for the attachment of different building blocks to the 4′-position of ascr#9. We further show that mutants lacking lysosome-related organelles are defective in the production of all 4′-modified ascarosides, thus identifying the waste disposal system of the cell as a hotspot for ascaroside biosynthesis. PMID:28371259

  17. A Molecular Description of Cellulose Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Joshua T.; Morgan, Jacob L.W.; Zimmer, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, and certain organisms from bacteria to plants and animals synthesize cellulose as an extracellular polymer for various biological functions. Humans have used cellulose for millennia as a material and an energy source, and the advent of a lignocellulosic fuel industry will elevate it to the primary carbon source for the burgeoning renewable energy sector. Despite the biological and societal importance of cellulose, the molecular mechanism by which it is synthesized is now only beginning to emerge. On the basis of recent advances in structural and molecular biology on bacterial cellulose synthases, we review emerging concepts of how the enzymes polymerize glucose molecules, how the nascent polymer is transported across the plasma membrane, and how bacterial cellulose biosynthesis is regulated during biofilm formation. Additionally, we review evolutionary commonalities and differences between cellulose synthases that modulate the nature of the cellulose product formed. PMID:26034894

  18. Biosynthesis of the phytoalexin pisatin. [Pisum sativum

    SciT

    Preisig, C.L.; Bell, J.N.; Matthews, D.E.

    1990-11-01

    NADPH-dependent reduction of 2{prime},7-dihydroxy-4{prime},5{prime}-methylenedioxyisoflavone to the isoflavanone sophorol, a proposed intermediate step in pisatin biosynthesis, was detected in extracts of Pisum sativum. This isoflavone reductase activity was inducible by treatment of pea seedlings with CuCl{sub 2}. The timing of induction coincided with that of the 6a-hydroxymaackiain 3-O-methyltransferase, which catalyzes the terminal biosynthetic step. Neither enzyme was light inducible. Further NADPH-dependent metabolism of sophorol by extracts of CuCl{sub 2}-treated seedlings was also observed; three products were radiolabeled when ({sup 3}H)sophorol was the substrate, one of which is tentatively identified as maackiain.

  19. Substrate Control in Stereoselective Lanthionine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weixin; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Houk, K. N.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes are typically highly stereoselective catalysts that enforce a reactive conformation on their native substrates. We report here a rare example where the substrate controls the stereoselectivity of an enzyme-catalyzed Michael-type addition during the biosynthesis of lanthipeptides. These natural products contain thioether crosslinks formed by cysteine attack on dehydrated Ser and Thr residues. We demonstrate that several lanthionine synthetases catalyze highly selective anti additions in which the substrate (and not the enzyme) determines whether the addition occurs from the Re or Si face. A single point mutation in the peptide substrate completely inverted the stereochemical outcome of the enzymatic modification. Quantum mechanical calculations reproduced the experimentally observed selectivity and suggest that conformational restraints imposed by the amino acid sequence on the transition states determine the face selectivity of the Michael-type cyclization. PMID:25515891

  20. Polyamine biosynthesis during germination of yeast ascospores.

    PubMed Central

    Brawley, J V; Ferro, A J

    1979-01-01

    The role of the diamine putrescine during germination and outgrowth of ascospores of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined. Ornithine decarboxylase activity increased and declined rapidly during germination and outgrowth; peak activity was attained after the cells had proceeded through the G1 interval of the cell cycle, whereas minimal activity was present at the completion of the first cell division. alpha-Methylornithine inhibited both ornithine decarboxylase activity and the in vivo accumulation of putrescine. In the presence of alpha-methylornithireak dormancy and proceed through one cell division. Subsequent cellular growth, however, was retarded but not completely inhibited. The supplementation of Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) to sporulation medium greatly inhibited this sexual process. These data suggest that the synthesis of putrescine is not required for the breaking of spore dormancy, but that polyamine biosynthesis may be essential for meiosis and sporulation. PMID:387744

  1. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis. PMID:26169681

  2. Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Kolby; Wegener, Frederik; Abrell, Leif; van Haren, Joost; Werner, Christiane

    2014-02-01

    Acetylation of plant metabolites fundamentally changes their volatility, solubility and activity as semiochemicals. Here we present a new technique termed dynamic (13) C-pulse chasing to track the fate of C1-3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into the biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate (MA) and CO2 . (13) C-labelling of MA and CO2 branch emissions respond within minutes to changes in (13) C-positionally labelled pyruvate solutions fed through the transpiration stream. Strong (13) C-labelling of MA emissions occurred only under pyruvate-2-(13) C and pyruvate-2,3-(13) C feeding, but not pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. In contrast, strong (13) CO2 emissions were only observed under pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. These results demonstrate that MA (and other volatile and non-volatile metabolites) derive from the C2,3 atoms of pyruvate while the C1 atom undergoes decarboxylation. The latter is a non-mitochondrial source of CO2 in the light generally not considered in studies of CO2 sources and sinks. Within a tropical rainforest mesocosm, we also observed atmospheric concentrations of MA up to 0.6 ppbv that tracked light and temperature conditions. Moreover, signals partially attributed to MA were observed in ambient air within and above a tropical rainforest in the Amazon. Our study highlights the potential importance of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis as a source of acetate esters and CO2 to the atmosphere. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. MreB and MurG as scaffolds for the cytoplasmic steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Favini-Stabile, Sandy; Contreras-Martel, Carlos; Thielens, Nicole; Dessen, Andréa

    2013-12-01

    Peptidoglycan is a major determinant of cell shape in bacteria, and its biosynthesis involves the concerted action of cytoplasmic, membrane-associated and periplasmic enzymes. Within the cytoplasm, Mur enzymes catalyse the first steps leading to peptidoglycan precursor biosynthesis, and have been suggested as being part of a multicomponent complex that could also involve the transglycosylase MurG and the cytoskeletal protein MreB. In order to initialize the characterization of a potential Mur interaction network, we purified MurD, MurE, MurF, MurG and MreB from Thermotoga maritima and characterized their interactions using membrane blotting and surface plasmon resonance. MurD, MurE and MurF all recognize MurG and MreB, but not each other, while the two latter proteins interact. In addition, we solved the crystal structures of MurD, MurE and MurF, which indicate that their C-termini display high conformational flexibilities. The differences in Mur conformations could be important parameters for the stability of an intracytoplasmic murein biosynthesis complex. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A balanced ATP driving force module for enhancing photosynthetic biosynthesis of 3-hydroxybutyrate from CO2.

    PubMed

    Ku, Jason T; Lan, Ethan I

    2018-03-01

    Using engineered photoautotrophic microorganisms for the direct chemical synthesis from CO 2 is an attractive direction for both sustainability and CO 2 mitigation. However, the behaviors of non-native metabolic pathways may be difficult to control due to the different intracellular contexts between natural and heterologous hosts. While most metabolic engineering efforts focus on strengthening driving forces in pathway design to favor biochemical production in these organisms, excessive driving force may be detrimental to product biosynthesis due to imbalanced cellular intermediate distribution. In this study, an ATP-hydrolysis based driving force module was engineered into cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to produce 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), a valuable chemical feedstock for the synthesis of biodegradable plastics and antibiotics. However, while the ATP driving force module is effective for increasing product formation, uncontrolled accumulation of intermediate metabolites likely led to metabolic imbalance and thus to cell growth inhibition. Therefore, the ATP driving force module was reengineered by providing a reversible outlet for excessive carbon flux. Upon expression of this balanced ATP driving force module with 3HB biosynthesis, engineered strain produced 3HB with a cumulative titer of 1.2 g/L, a significant increase over the initial strain. This result highlighted the importance of pathway reversibility as an effective design strategy for balancing driving force and intermediate accumulation, thereby achieving a self-regulated control for increased net flux towards product biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nosiheptide Biosynthesis Featuring a Unique Indole Side Ring Formation on the Characteristic Thiopeptide Framework

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Qi; Liao, Rijing; Ding, Ying; Pan, Haixue; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Tang, Gongli; Shen, Ben; Liu, Wen

    2009-01-01

    Nosiheptide (NOS), belonging to the e series of thiopeptide antibiotics that exhibit potent activity against various bacterial pathogens, bears a unique indole side ring system and regiospecific hydroxyl groups on the characteristic macrocyclic core. Here, cloning, sequencing and characterization of the nos gene cluster from Streptomyces actuosus ATCC 25421 as a model for this series of thiopeptides has unveiled new insights into their biosynthesis. Bioinformatics-based sequence analysis and in vivo investigation into the gene functions show that NOS biosynthesis shares a common strategy with recently characterized b or c series thiopeptides for forming the characteristic macrocyclic core, which features a ribosomally synthesized precursor peptide with conserved posttranslational modifications. However, it apparently proceeds via a different route for tailoring the thiopeptide framework, allowing the final product to exhibit the distinct structural characteristics of e series thiopeptides, such as the indole side ring system. Chemical complementation supports the notion that the S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent protein NosL may play a central role in converting Trp to the key 3-methylindole moiety by an unusual carbon side chain rearrangement, most likely via a radical-initiated mechanism. Characterization of the indole side ring-opened analog of NOS from the nosN mutant strain is consistent with the proposed methyltransferase activity of its encoded protein, shedding light into the timing of the individual steps for indole side ring biosynthesis. These results also suggest the feasibility of engineering novel thiopeptides for drug discovery by manipulating the NOS biosynthetic machinery. PMID:19678698

  6. The possible effect of reaction wheel unloading on orbit determination for Chang'E-1 lunar mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianguo, Yan; Jingsong, Ping; Fei, Li

    During the flight of 3-axis stabilized lunar orbiter i e SELENE main orbiter Chang E-1 due to the overflow of the accumulated angular momentum the reaction-wheel will be unloaded during certain period so as to release the angular momentum for initialization Then the momentum wheel will be reloaded for satellite attitude measurement and control Above action will not only change the attitude but also change the orbit of the spacecraft Assuming the reaction-wheel unloading is carried out twice a day according to the current engineering designation and plan for SELENE main orbiter and Chang E-1 missions considering the algebra configuration of the tracking stations the Moon and the lunar orbiter the orbit determination is simulated for 14 days evolution of lunar orbiter In the simulation the satellite orbit is generated using GEODYNII code Based on the generated orbit the common view time period of the satellite by VLBI and USB network in every day is computed the orbit determination is processed for all the arcs of the orbit The orbit determination result of 28 orbits in 14 days is provided The orbits cover most of the possible geometrical configuration among orbiter the Moon and the tracking network The analysis here can benefit the tracking designation and plan for Chang E-1 mission

  7. The preferred conformation of dipeptides in the context of biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bywater, Robert P.; Veryazov, Valera

    2013-09-01

    Globular proteins are folded polypeptide structures comprising stretches of secondary structures (helical (α- or 310 helix type), polyproline helix or β-strands) interspersed by regions of less well-ordered structure ("random coil"). Protein fold prediction is a very active field impacting inte alia on protein engineering and misfolding studies. Apart from the many studies of protein refolding from the denatured state, there has been considerable interest in studying the initial formation of peptides during biosynthesis, when there are at the outset only a few residues in the emerging polypeptide. Although there have been many studies employing quantum chemical methods of the conformation of dipeptides, these have mostly been carried out in the gas phase or simulated water. None of these conditions really apply in the interior confines of the ribosome. In the present work, we are concerned with the conformation of dipeptides in this low dielectric environment. Furthermore, only the residue types glycine and alanine have been studied by previous authors, but we extend this repertoire to include leucine and isoleucine, position isomers which have very different structural propensities.

  8. ADP1 Affects Plant Architecture by Regulating Local Auxin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs. PMID:24391508

  9. ADP1 affects plant architecture by regulating local auxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruixi; Li, Jieru; Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs.

  10. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are not property of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1031(e)-1 - Exchange of livestock of different sexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exchange of livestock of different sexes. 1.1031(e)-1 Section 1.1031(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Exchange of livestock of different sexes. Section 1031(e) provides that livestock of different sexes are...

  15. Resolvin E1 inhibits dendritic cell migration in the skin and attenuates contact hypersensitivity responses

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Yu; Hanakawa, Sho; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Murata, Teruasa; Ueharaguchi-Tanada, Yuri; Ono, Sachiko; Amano, Wataru; Nakajima, Saeko; Egawa, Gyohei; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kitoh, Akihiko; Dainichi, Teruki; Ogawa, Narihito; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Arita, Makoto; Nakamura, Motonobu; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is a lipid mediator derived from ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that exerts potent antiinflammatory roles in several murine models. The antiinflammatory mechanism of RvE1 in acquired immune responses has been attributed to attenuation of cytokine production by dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we newly investigated the effect of RvE1 on DC motility using two-photon microscopy in a contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model and found that RvE1 impaired DC motility in the skin. In addition, RvE1 attenuated T cell priming in the draining lymph nodes and effector T cell activation in the skin, which led to the reduced skin inflammation in CHS. In contrast, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) induced actin filament reorganization in DCs and increased DC motility by activating Cdc42 and Rac1 via BLT1, which was abrogated by RvE1. Collectively, our results suggest that RvE1 attenuates cutaneous acquired immune responses by inhibiting cutaneous DC motility, possibly through LTB4-BLT1 signaling blockade. PMID:26438363

  16. 26 CFR 31.3121(e)-1 - State, United States, and citizen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State, United States, and citizen. 31.3121(e)-1... § 31.3121(e)-1 State, United States, and citizen. (a) When used in the regulations in this subpart, the..., the term “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, means the several states (including the...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3121(e)-1 - State, United States, and citizen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State, United States, and citizen. 31.3121(e)-1... § 31.3121(e)-1 State, United States, and citizen. (a) When used in the regulations in this subpart, the..., the term “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, means the several states (including the...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3121(e)-1 - State, United States, and citizen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State, United States, and citizen. 31.3121(e)-1... § 31.3121(e)-1 State, United States, and citizen. (a) When used in the regulations in this subpart, the..., the term “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, means the several states (including the...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3402(e)-1 - Included and excluded wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Included and excluded wages. 31.3402(e)-1... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(e)-1 Included and excluded wages. (a) If a portion of... not more than 31 consecutive days constitutes wages, and the remainder does not constitute wages, all...

  20. PLANT VOLATILES. Biosynthesis of monoterpene scent compounds in roses.

    PubMed

    Magnard, Jean-Louis; Roccia, Aymeric; Caissard, Jean-Claude; Vergne, Philippe; Sun, Pulu; Hecquet, Romain; Dubois, Annick; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, Laurence; Jullien, Frédéric; Nicolè, Florence; Raymond, Olivier; Huguet, Stéphanie; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Meyer, Sophie; Claudel, Patricia; Jeauffre, Julien; Rohmer, Michel; Foucher, Fabrice; Hugueney, Philippe; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Baudino, Sylvie

    2015-07-03

    The scent of roses (Rosa x hybrida) is composed of hundreds of volatile molecules. Monoterpenes represent up to 70% percent of the scent content in some cultivars, such as the Papa Meilland rose. Monoterpene biosynthesis in plants relies on plastid-localized terpene synthases. Combining transcriptomic and genetic approaches, we show that the Nudix hydrolase RhNUDX1, localized in the cytoplasm, is part of a pathway for the biosynthesis of free monoterpene alcohols that contribute to fragrance in roses. The RhNUDX1 protein shows geranyl diphosphate diphosphohydrolase activity in vitro and supports geraniol biosynthesis in planta. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Expression of CYP2E1 in human nasopharynx and its metabolic effect in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hou, De-Fu; Wang, Shui-Liang; He, Zhi-Min; Yang, Fang; Chen, Zhu-Chu

    2007-04-01

    It was evident that nitrosamines can act directly on target tissue and result in carcinogenesis. As has been shown, the carcinogenic activity of nitrosamines relied on its bioactivation by Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). In this study, we investigated the expression of CYP2E1 in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, embryonic nasopharyngeal epithelial tissue (ENET) specimens, and NPC biopsies by RT-PCR analysis. CYP2E1 was expressed in all NPC cell lines (6/6, including 7429) and ENET (6/6), and 80% of NPC biopsie (8/10). The fact that Human nasopharynx expresses CYP2E1 suggests that CYP2E1 may play an important role in the course of NPC by indirect carcinogens nitrosamines. To further evaluate the function of CYP2E1, the CYP2E1 was stably expressed in the cell line NIH 3T3/rtTA under a tetracycline-controlled transactivator. The expression of CYP2E1 was tightly regulated in a dose-dependent manner by Doxycycline (Dox) When the catalytic activity of CYP2E1 was assayed, the result showed that the generation of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6-OH-CZ) from chlorzoxazone (CZ) was dose- and time-dependent on Dox addition to the medium. In the presence of 1 microg/ml Dox, the CZ 6-hydroxylase activity of the cell line was found to be 0.986 +/- 0.034 nmol/10(6) cells/h. The metabolic activation of Tet/3T3/2E1-6 cells was also assayed by N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine (DNP) cytotoxicity, and the viability of Tet/3T3/2E1-6 cells treated with Dox was lower than that of untreated cells with a significant difference between them in 80 and 160 microg/ml DNP (P ( 0.05, t test. This cell line will be useful not only to assess the metabolic characteristics of CYP2E1, but also will be useful to investigate the role of CYP2E1 in metabolic activation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in vitro.

  2. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) regulates the response to oxidative stress and migration of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are a class of heme-containing enzymes involved in phase I metabolism of a large number of xenobiotics. The CYP family member CYP2E1 metabolises many xenobiotics and pro-carcinogens, it is not just expressed in the liver but also in many other tissues such as the kidney, the lung, the brain, the gastrointestinal tract and the breast tissue. It is induced in several pathological conditions including cancer, obesity, and type II diabetes implying that this enzyme is implicated in other biological processes beyond its role in phase I metabolism. Despite the detailed description of the role of CYP2E1 in the liver, its functions in other tissues have not been extensively studied. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of CYP2E1 in breast carcinogenesis. Methods Cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by H2DCFDA (2 2.9.2 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) staining and autophagy was assessed by tracing the cellular levels of autophagy markers using western blot assays. The endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) were detected by luciferase assays reflecting the splicing of mRNA encoding the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) transcription factor and cell migration was evaluated using the scratch wound assay. Gene expression was recorded with standard transcription assays including luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results Ectopic expression of CYP2E1 induced ROS generation, affected autophagy, stimulated endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibited migration in breast cancer cells with different metastatic potential and p53 status. Furthermore, evidence is presented indicating that CYP2E1 gene expression is under the transcriptional control of the p53 tumor suppressor. Conclusions These results support the notion that CYP2E1 exerts an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, provide a potential link between ethanol metabolism

  3. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) regulates the response to oxidative stress and migration of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, Travis; Rajendran, Ramkumar; Singh, Subir; Garva, Richa; Krstic-Demonacos, Marija; Demonacos, Constantinos

    2013-11-08

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are a class of heme-containing enzymes involved in phase I metabolism of a large number of xenobiotics. The CYP family member CYP2E1 metabolises many xenobiotics and pro-carcinogens, it is not just expressed in the liver but also in many other tissues such as the kidney, the lung, the brain, the gastrointestinal tract and the breast tissue. It is induced in several pathological conditions including cancer, obesity, and type II diabetes implying that this enzyme is implicated in other biological processes beyond its role in phase I metabolism. Despite the detailed description of the role of CYP2E1 in the liver, its functions in other tissues have not been extensively studied. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of CYP2E1 in breast carcinogenesis. Cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by H2DCFDA (2 2.9.2 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) staining and autophagy was assessed by tracing the cellular levels of autophagy markers using western blot assays. The endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) were detected by luciferase assays reflecting the splicing of mRNA encoding the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) transcription factor and cell migration was evaluated using the scratch wound assay. Gene expression was recorded with standard transcription assays including luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Ectopic expression of CYP2E1 induced ROS generation, affected autophagy, stimulated endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibited migration in breast cancer cells with different metastatic potential and p53 status. Furthermore, evidence is presented indicating that CYP2E1 gene expression is under the transcriptional control of the p53 tumor suppressor. These results support the notion that CYP2E1 exerts an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, provide a potential link between ethanol metabolism and breast cancer and suggest that

  4. Role of cleavage at the core-E1 junction of hepatitis C virus polyprotein in viral morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pène, Véronique; Lemasson, Matthieu; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Gérard; Rosenberg, Arielle R

    2017-01-01

    In hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein sequence, core protein terminates with E1 envelope signal peptide. Cleavage by signal peptidase (SP) separates E1 from the complete form of core protein, anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by the signal peptide. Subsequent cleavage of the signal peptide by signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) releases the mature form of core protein, which preferentially relocates to lipid droplets. Both of these cleavages are required for the HCV infectious cycle, supporting the idea that HCV assembly begins at the surface of lipid droplets, yet SPP-catalyzed cleavage is dispensable for initiation of budding in the ER. Here we have addressed at what step(s) of the HCV infectious cycle SP-catalyzed cleavage at the core-E1 junction is required. Taking advantage of the sole system that has allowed visualization of HCV budding events in the ER lumen of mammalian cells, we showed that, unexpectedly, mutations abolishing this cleavage did not prevent but instead tended to promote the initiation of viral budding. Moreover, even though no viral particles were released from Huh-7 cells transfected with a full-length HCV genome bearing these mutations, intracellular viral particles containing core protein protected by a membrane envelope were formed. These were visualized by electron microscopy as capsid-containing particles with a diameter of about 70 nm and 40 nm before and after delipidation, respectively, comparable to intracellular wild-type particle precursors except that they were non-infectious. Thus, our results show that SP-catalyzed cleavage is dispensable for HCV budding per se, but is required for the viral particles to acquire their infectivity and secretion. These data support the idea that HCV assembly occurs in concert with budding at the ER membrane. Furthermore, capsid-containing particles did not accumulate in the absence of SP-catalyzed cleavage, suggesting the quality of newly formed viral particles is controlled before

  5. Role of cleavage at the core-E1 junction of hepatitis C virus polyprotein in viral morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pène, Véronique; Lemasson, Matthieu; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Gérard; Rosenberg, Arielle R.

    2017-01-01

    In hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein sequence, core protein terminates with E1 envelope signal peptide. Cleavage by signal peptidase (SP) separates E1 from the complete form of core protein, anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by the signal peptide. Subsequent cleavage of the signal peptide by signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) releases the mature form of core protein, which preferentially relocates to lipid droplets. Both of these cleavages are required for the HCV infectious cycle, supporting the idea that HCV assembly begins at the surface of lipid droplets, yet SPP-catalyzed cleavage is dispensable for initiation of budding in the ER. Here we have addressed at what step(s) of the HCV infectious cycle SP-catalyzed cleavage at the core-E1 junction is required. Taking advantage of the sole system that has allowed visualization of HCV budding events in the ER lumen of mammalian cells, we showed that, unexpectedly, mutations abolishing this cleavage did not prevent but instead tended to promote the initiation of viral budding. Moreover, even though no viral particles were released from Huh-7 cells transfected with a full-length HCV genome bearing these mutations, intracellular viral particles containing core protein protected by a membrane envelope were formed. These were visualized by electron microscopy as capsid-containing particles with a diameter of about 70 nm and 40 nm before and after delipidation, respectively, comparable to intracellular wild-type particle precursors except that they were non-infectious. Thus, our results show that SP-catalyzed cleavage is dispensable for HCV budding per se, but is required for the viral particles to acquire their infectivity and secretion. These data support the idea that HCV assembly occurs in concert with budding at the ER membrane. Furthermore, capsid-containing particles did not accumulate in the absence of SP-catalyzed cleavage, suggesting the quality of newly formed viral particles is controlled before

  6. Biosynthesis and molecular genetics of polyketides in marine dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Kellmann, Ralf; Stüken, Anke; Orr, Russell J S; Svendsen, Helene M; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2010-03-31

    Marine dinoflagellates are the single most important group of algae that produce toxins, which have a global impact on human activities. The toxins are chemically diverse, and include macrolides, cyclic polyethers, spirolides and purine alkaloids. Whereas there is a multitude of studies describing the pharmacology of these toxins, there is limited or no knowledge regarding the biochemistry and molecular genetics involved in their biosynthesis. Recently, however, exciting advances have been made. Expressed sequence tag sequencing studies have revealed important insights into the transcriptomes of dinoflagellates, whereas other studies have implicated polyketide synthase genes in the biosynthesis of cyclic polyether toxins, and the molecular genetic basis for the biosynthesis of paralytic shellfish toxins has been elucidated in cyanobacteria. This review summarises the recent progress that has been made regarding the unusual genomes of dinoflagellates, the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of dinoflagellate toxins. In addition, the evolution of these metabolic pathways will be discussed, and an outlook for future research and possible applications is provided.

  7. A proton pump ATPase with testis-specific E1-subunit isoform required for acrosome acidification.

    PubMed

    Sun-Wada, Ge-Hong; Imai-Senga, Yoko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Murata, Yoshiko; Hirata, Tomoyuki; Wada, Yoh; Futai, Masamitsu

    2002-05-17

    The vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are a family of multimeric proton pumps involved in a wide variety of physiological processes. We have identified two novel mouse genes, Atp6e1 and Atp6e2, encoding testis-specific (E1) and ubiquitous (E2) V-ATPase subunit E isoforms, respectively. The E1 transcript appears about 3 weeks after birth, corresponding to the start of meiosis, and is expressed specifically in round spermatids in seminiferous tubules. Immunohistochemistry with isoform-specific antibodies revealed that the V-ATPase with E1 and a2 isoforms is located specifically in developing acrosomes of spermatids and acrosomes in mature sperm. In contrast, the E2 isoform was expressed in all tissues examined and present in the perinuclear compartments of spermatocytes. The E1 isoform exhibits 70% identity with the E2, and both isoforms functionally complemented a null mutation of the yeast counterpart VMA4, indicating that they are bona fide V-ATPase subunits. The chimeric enzymes showed slightly lower K(m)(ATP) than yeast V-ATPase. Consistent with the temperature-sensitive growth of Deltavma4-expressing E1 isoform, vacuolar membrane vesicles exhibited temperature-sensitive coupling between ATP hydrolysis and proton transport. These results suggest that E1 isoform is essential for energy coupling involved in acidification of acrosome.

  8. Electrostatic interactions of colicin E1 with the surface of Escherichia coli total lipid.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunhong; Tétreault, Elaine; Huang, Christopher K; Dahms, Tanya E S

    2006-06-01

    The surface properties of colicin E1, a 522-amino acid protein, and its interaction with monolayers of Escherichia coli (E. coli) total lipid and 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DOPC) were studied using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Colicin E1 is amphiphilic, forming a protein monolayer at the air/buffer interface. The protein is thought to interact with the E. coli total lipid head groups through electrostatic interactions, followed by its insertion into the lipid monolayers. Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) of E. coli total lipid and DOPC, deposited onto mica at the cell membrane equivalence pressure for E. coli and incubated with colicin E1, were imaged by contact mode atomic force microscopy (CM-AFM). Colicin E1 formed protein aggregates on DOPC SLBs, while E. coli total lipid SLB was deformed following its incubation with colicin E1. Corresponding lateral force images, along with electrostatic surface potentials for colicin E1 P190, imply a direct interaction of colicin E1 with lipid head groups facilitating their charge neutralization.

  9. CYP 2E1 mutant mice are resistant to DDC-induced enhancement of MPTP toxicity.

    PubMed

    Viaggi, C; Vaglini, F; Pardini, C; Sgadò, P; Caramelli, A; Corsini, G U

    2007-01-01

    In order to reach a deeper insight into the mechanism of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC)-induced enhancement of MPTP toxicity in mice, we showed that CYP450 (2E1) inhibitors, such as diallyl sulfide (DAS) or phenylethylisothiocyanate (PIC), also potentiate the selective DA neuron degeneration in C57/bl mice. Furthermore we showed that CYP 2E1 is present in the brain and in the basal ganglia of mice (Vaglini et al., 2004). However, because DAS and PIC are not selective CYP 2E1 inhibitors and in order to provide direct evidence for CYP 2E1 involvement in the enhancement of MPTP toxicity, CYP 2E1 knockout mice (GONZ) and wild type animals (SVI) of the same genetic background were treated with MPTP or the combined DDC + MPTP treatment. In CYP 2E1 knockout mice, DDC pretreatment completely fails to enhance MPTP toxicity, although enhancement of MPTP toxicity was regularly present in the SVI control animals. The immunohistochemical study confirms our results and suggests that CYP 2E1 may have a detoxifying role.

  10. Induction of mesenchymal cell phenotypes in lung epithelial cells by adenovirus E1A.

    PubMed

    Behzad, A R; Morimoto, K; Gosselink, J; Green, J; Hogg, J C; Hayashi, S

    2006-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation is now recognised as an important feature of tissue remodelling. The present report concerns the role of adenovirus infection in inducing this transformation in an animal model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Guinea pig primary peripheral lung epithelial cells (PLECs) transfected with adenovirus E1A (E1A-PLECs) were compared to guinea pig normal lung fibroblasts (NLFs) transfected with E1A (E1A-NLFs). These cells were characterised by PCR, immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, and Western and Northern blot analyses. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed in order to examine nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and activator protein (AP)-1 binding activities. E1A-PLECs and E1A-NLFs positive for E1A DNA, mRNA and protein expressed cytokeratin and vimentin but not smooth muscle alpha-actin. Both exhibited cuboidal morphology and junctional complexes, but did not contain lamellar bodies or express surfactant protein A, B or C mRNAs. These two cell types differed, however, in their NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding after lipopolysaccharide stimulation, possibly due to differences in the expression of the subunits that comprise these transcriptional complexes. E1A transfection results in the transformation of peripheral lung epithelial cells and normal lung fibroblasts to a phenotype intermediate between that of the two primary cells. It is postulated that this intermediate phenotype may play a major role in the remodelling of the airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with persistence of adenovirus E1A DNA.

  11. Biosynthesis of putrescine in the prostate gland of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Pegg, A. E.; Williams-Ashman, H. G.

    1968-01-01

    In the rat ventral prostate gland the biosynthesis of putrescine, a precursor of spermidine and spermine, is shown to occur by the direct decarboxylation of l-ornithine. Some properties of a soluble pyridoxal phosphate-dependent l-ornithine decarboxylase are described. The findings are discussed in relation to other enzymic reactions involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines by the prostate gland. PMID:5667265

  12. [Stimulation of human hepatic stellate cells by cytochrome P4502E1-mediated oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Liu, Tian-hui; You, Hong; Xu, You-qing; Wang, Chen

    2010-08-01

    To explore the stimulation of human hepatic stellate cells by Cytochrome P4502E1-mediated oxidative stress. HepG2-line was transfected with human CYP2E1 plasmid (HepG2/CYP2E1) and empty plasmid (HepG2/PCI) respectively. The CYP2E1 expression was evaluated with RT-PCR and Western blot. MDA was measured in culture medium of HepG2 cell lines. LX2 was co-incubated with HepG2/CYP2E1, HepG2/PCI and HepG2 respectively. The level of hydroxyproline in culture medium was examined in 48 hours and the cells were lysated and total RNA and protein were extracted. COL-1 and MMP2 mRNA levels were detected by RT-PCR and analyzed semi-quantitatively. PICP proteins were measured by ELISA. Zymography was performed to investigate MMP2 enzymatic activities. (1) MDA from the HepG2 which (HepG2/CYP2E1)express human CYP2E1 (6.51+/-0.25) was significantly higher than that from the HepG2 which do not (HepG2/PCI) express human CYP2E1 (3.07+/-0.29) and HepG2 alone (2.57+/-0.29). (F=22.66, all P<0.01). (2) After co-incubated for 48 hours,the level of hydroxyproline in culture medium (35.24+/-3.52) excreted from CYP2E1/LX2 could significantly increase (F=58.89, P is less than 0.01). PICP protein (540.01+/-11.38) excreted from CYP2E1/LX2 was significantly increased (F=124.97, P<0.01). Zymography showed MMP2 gene expression and enzymatic activities of MMP2 had no difference among the groups (F=0.29, P>0.05) (F=0.33, P>0.05). CYP2E1 derived oxidative stress mediated stimulation of collagen I synthesis by hepatic stellate cells. Hydroxyproline excreted by LX2 was increased by CYP2E1. COL-1mRNA had no difference among the groups (F=0.73, P>0.05).

  13. Tyramine and phenylethylamine biosynthesis by food bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marcobal, Angela; De las Rivas, Blanca; Landete, José María; Tabera, Laura; Muñoz, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Tyramine poisoning is caused by the ingestion of food containing high levels of tyramine, a biogenic amine. Any foods containing free tyrosine are subject to tyramine formation if poor sanitation and low quality foods are used or if the food is subject to temperature abuse or extended storage time. Tyramine is generated by decarboxylation of the tyrosine through tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) enzymes derived from the bacteria present in the food. Bacterial TDC have been only unequivocally identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in lactic acid bacteria. Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent TDC encoding genes (tyrDC) appeared flanked by a similar genetic organization in several species of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting a common origin by a single mobile genetic element. Bacterial TDC are also able to decarboxylate phenylalanine to produce phenylethylamine (PEA), another biogenic amine. The molecular knowledge of the genes involved in tyramine production has led to the development of molecular methods for the detection of bacteria able to produce tyramine and PEA. These rapid and simple methods could be used for the analysis of the ability to form tyramine by bacteria in order to evaluate the potential risk of tyramine biosynthesis in food products.

  14. Biosynthesis and maturation of cellular membrane glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Hunt, L A

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis and the processing of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides of cellular membrane glycoproteins were examined in monolayer cultures of BHK21 cells and human diploid fibroblasts after pulse- and pulse-chase labeling with [2-3H]mannose. After pronase digestion, radiolabeled glycopeptides were characterized by high-resolution gel filtration, with or without additional digestion with various exoglycosidases and endoglycosidases. Pulse-labeled glycoproteins contained a relatively homogenous population of neutral oligosaccharides (major species: Man9GlcNAc2ASN). The vast majority of these asparagine-linked oligosaccharides was smaller than the major fraction of lipid-linked oligosaccharides from the cell and was apparently devoid of terminal glucose. After pulse-chase or long labeling periods, a significant fraction of the large oligomannosyl cores was processed by removal of mannose units and addition of branch sugars (NeuNAc-Gal-GlcNAc), resulting in complex acidic structures containing three and possibly five mannoses. In addition, some of the large oligomannosyl cores were processed by the removal of only several mannoses, resulting in a mixture of neutral structures with 5-9 mannoses. This oligomannosyl core heterogeneity in both neutral and acidic oligosaccharides linked to asparagine in cellular membrane glycoproteins was analogous to the heterogeneity reported for the oligosaccharides of avian RNA tumor virus glycoproteins (Hunt LA, Wright SE, Etchison JR, Summers DF: J Virol 29:336, 1979).

  15. Exploring glycogen biosynthesis through Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Nada, Sharif S; Tan, Xinle; Deng, Bin; Sullivan, Mitchell A; Gilbert, Robert G

    2018-05-08

    Glycogen, a complex branched polymer of glucose (average chain length ~10 monomer units), is the blood-sugar reservoir in humans and other animals. Certain aspects of its molecular structure relevant to its biological functions are currently unamenable to experimental exploration. Knowledge of these is needed to develop future models for quantitative data-fitting to obtain mechanistic understanding of the biosynthetic processes that give rise to glycogen structure. Monte Carlo simulations of the biosynthesis of this structure with realistic macromolecular parameters reveal how chain growth and stoppage (the latter assumed to be through both the action of glycogen branching enzyme and other degradative enzymes, and by hindrance) control structural features. The simulated chain-length, pair-distance and radial density distributions agree semi-quantitatively with the limited available data. The simulations indicate that a steady state in molecular structure and size is rapidly obtained, that molecular density reaches a maximum near the center of the particle (not at the periphery, as is the case with dendrimers), and that particle size is controlled by both enzyme activity and hindrance. This knowledge will aid in the understanding of diabetes (loss of blood-sugar control), which has been found to involve subtle differences in glycogen molecular structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthetic Biological Approaches to Natural Product Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Jaclyn M; Tang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules produced in Nature continue to be an inspiration for the development of new therapeutic agents. These natural products possess exquisite chemical diversity, which gives rise to their wide range of biological activities. In their host organism, natural products are assembled and modified by dedicated biosynthetic pathways that Nature has meticulously developed. Often times, the complex structures or chemical modifications instated by these pathways are difficult to replicate using traditional synthetic methods. An alternative approach for creating or enhancing the structural variation of natural products is through combinatorial biosynthesis. By rationally reprogramming and manipulating the biosynthetic machinery responsible for their production, unnatural metabolites that were otherwise inaccessible can be obtained. Additionally, new chemical structures can be synthesized or derivatized by developing the enzymes that carry out these complicated chemical reactions into biocatalysts. In this review, we will discuss a variety of combinatorial biosynthetic strategies, their technical challenges, and highlight some recent (since 2007) examples of rationally designed unnatural metabolites, as well as platforms that have been established for the production and modification of clinically important pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:22221832

  17. Biosynthesis of the trehalase inhibitor trehazolin.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Suzuki, Akinori; Sakuda, Shohei

    2002-03-01

    Trehazolin (1) is a trehalase inhibitor produced by Micromonospora coriacea. Biosynthesis of 1 was studied by feeding experiments with a variety of labeled precursors. Feeding experiments with [1-13C]- and [6-13C]-D-glucose revealed that the carbon skeletons of both a glucose residue and a cyclopentane ring moiety in 1 were each derived from glucose, and that C-C bond formation between C-1 and C-5 of glucose occurred during the cyclopentane ring formation. Furthermore, an experiment with [guanidino-13C, 15N2]-L-arginine revealed that two nitrogen atoms and a quaternary carbon atom involved in the aminooxazoline moiety of 1 originated from an amidino group of arginine. Further feeding experiments with [1-2H]-, [2-2H]-, [4-2H]-, [6,6-2H2]- and [1,2,3,4,5,6,6-2H7]-D-glucose as well as [1-13C]-D-fructose showed that deuteriums on C-1, C-3, C-4 and C-6 of glucose were retained during the formation of the cyclopentane ring moiety of 1.

  18. Designing microorganisms for heterologous biosynthesis of cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ângela; Hansen, Esben Halkjær; Kayser, Oliver; Stehle, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Abstract During the last decade, the use of medical Cannabis has expanded globally and legislation is getting more liberal in many countries, facilitating the research on cannabinoids. The unique interaction of cannabinoids with the human endocannabinoid system makes these compounds an interesting target to be studied as therapeutic agents for the treatment of several medical conditions. However, currently there are important limitations in the study, production and use of cannabinoids as pharmaceutical drugs. Besides the main constituent tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, the structurally related compound cannabidiol is of high interest as drug candidate. From the more than 100 known cannabinoids reported, most can only be extracted in very low amounts and their pharmacological profile has not been determined. Today, cannabinoids are isolated from the strictly regulated Cannabis plant, and the supply of compounds with sufficient quality is a major problem. Biotechnological production could be an attractive alternative mode of production. Herein, we explore the potential use of synthetic biology as an alternative strategy for synthesis of cannabinoids in heterologous hosts. We summarize the current knowledge surrounding cannabinoids biosynthesis and present a comprehensive description of the key steps of the genuine and artificial pathway, systems biotechnology needs and platform optimization. PMID:28582498

  19. Biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Gibeaut, D M; Carpita, N C

    1994-09-01

    The cell wall is the principal structural element of plant form. Cellulose, long crystals of several dozen glucan chains, forms the microfibrillar foundation of plant cell walls and is synthesized at the plasma membrane. Except for callose, all other noncellulosic components are secreted to the cell surface and form a porous matrix assembled around the cellulose microfibrils. These diverse noncellulosic polysaccharides and proteins are made in the endomembrane system. Many questions about the biosynthesis and modification within the Golgi apparatus and integration of cell components at the cell surface remain unanswered. The lability of synthetic complexes upon isolation is one reason for slow progress. However, with new methods of membrane isolation and analysis of products in vitro, recent advances have been made in purifying active synthases from plasma membrane and Golgi apparatus. Likely synthase polypeptides have been identified by affinity-labeling techniques, but we are just beginning to understand the unique features of the coordinated assembly of complex polysaccharides. Nevertheless, such progress renews hope that the first gene of a synthase for a wall polysaccharide from higher plants is within our grasp.

  20. A Biotin Biosynthesis Gene Restricted to Helicobacter

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Hongkai; Zhu, Lei; Jia, Jia; Cronan, John E.

    2016-01-01

    In most bacteria the last step in synthesis of the pimelate moiety of biotin is cleavage of the ester bond of pimeloyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) methyl ester. The paradigm cleavage enzyme is Escherichia coli BioH which together with the BioC methyltransferase allows synthesis of the pimelate moiety by a modified fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Analyses of the extant bacterial genomes showed that bioH is absent from many bioC-containing bacteria and is replaced by other genes. Helicobacter pylori lacks a gene encoding a homologue of the known pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester cleavage enzymes suggesting that it encodes a novel enzyme that cleaves this intermediate. We isolated the H. pylori gene encoding this enzyme, bioV, by complementation of an E. coli bioH deletion strain. Purified BioV cleaved the physiological substrate, pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester to pimeloyl-ACP by use of a catalytic triad, each member of which was essential for activity. The role of BioV in biotin biosynthesis was demonstrated using a reconstituted in vitro desthiobiotin synthesis system. BioV homologues seem the sole pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester esterase present in the Helicobacter species and their occurrence only in H. pylori and close relatives provide a target for development of drugs to specifically treat Helicobacter infections. PMID:26868423

  1. Tyrosine biosynthesis, metabolism, and catabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Schenck, Craig A; Maeda, Hiroshi A

    2018-05-01

    L-Tyrosine (Tyr) is an aromatic amino acid (AAA) required for protein synthesis in all organisms, but synthesized de novo only in plants and microorganisms. In plants, Tyr also serves as a precursor of numerous specialized metabolites that have diverse physiological roles as electron carriers, antioxidants, attractants, and defense compounds. Some of these Tyr-derived plant natural products are also used in human medicine and nutrition (e.g. morphine and vitamin E). While the Tyr biosynthesis and catabolic pathways have been extensively studied in microbes and animals, respectively, those of plants have received much less attention until recently. Accumulating evidence suggest that the Tyr biosynthetic pathways differ between microbes and plants and even within the plant kingdom, likely to support the production of lineage-specific plant specialized metabolites derived from Tyr. The interspecies variations of plant Tyr pathway enzymes can now be used to enhance the production of Tyr and Tyr-derived compounds in plants and other synthetic biology platforms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants

    SciT

    Not Available

    1993-01-31

    Seeds of most species of the Umbelliferae (Apiaciae), Araliaceae, and Garryaceae families are characterized by their high content of the unusual C[sub 18] monounsaturated fatty acid petroselinic acid (18:l[Delta][sup 6cis]). Prior to a recent report of this lab, little was known of the biosynthetic origin of the cis[Delta][sup 6] double bond of petroselinic acid. Such knowledge may be of both biochemical and biotechnological significance. Because petroselinic acid is potentially the product of a novel desaturase, information regarding its synthesis may contribute to an understanding of fatty acid desaturation mechanisms in plants. Through chemical cleavage at its double bond, petroselinic acidmore » can be used as a precursor of lauric acid (12:0), a component of detergents and surfactants, and adipic acid (6:0 dicarboxylic), the monomeric component of nylon 6,6. Therefore, the development of an agronomic source of an oil rich in petroselinic acid is of biotechnological interest. As such, studies of petroselinic acid biosynthesis may provide basic information required for any attempt to genetically engineer the production and accumulation of this fatty acid in an existing oilseed.« less

  3. Designing microorganisms for heterologous biosynthesis of cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ângela; Hansen, Esben Halkjær; Kayser, Oliver; Carlsen, Simon; Stehle, Felix

    2017-06-01

    During the last decade, the use of medical Cannabis has expanded globally and legislation is getting more liberal in many countries, facilitating the research on cannabinoids. The unique interaction of cannabinoids with the human endocannabinoid system makes these compounds an interesting target to be studied as therapeutic agents for the treatment of several medical conditions. However, currently there are important limitations in the study, production and use of cannabinoids as pharmaceutical drugs. Besides the main constituent tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, the structurally related compound cannabidiol is of high interest as drug candidate. From the more than 100 known cannabinoids reported, most can only be extracted in very low amounts and their pharmacological profile has not been determined. Today, cannabinoids are isolated from the strictly regulated Cannabis plant, and the supply of compounds with sufficient quality is a major problem. Biotechnological production could be an attractive alternative mode of production. Herein, we explore the potential use of synthetic biology as an alternative strategy for synthesis of cannabinoids in heterologous hosts. We summarize the current knowledge surrounding cannabinoids biosynthesis and present a comprehensive description of the key steps of the genuine and artificial pathway, systems biotechnology needs and platform optimization. © FEMS 2017.

  4. Regulation of Strigolactone Biosynthesis by Gibberellin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shinsaku; Yamagami, Daichi; Umehara, Mikihisa; Hanada, Atsushi; Yoshida, Satoko; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke; Kyozuka, Junko; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Shirasu, Ken; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Asami, Tadao

    2017-06-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones that regulate diverse physiological processes, including shoot branching and root development. They also act as rhizosphere signaling molecules to stimulate the germination of root parasitic weeds and the branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Although various types of cross talk between SLs and other hormones have been reported in physiological analyses, the cross talk between gibberellin (GA) and SLs is poorly understood. We screened for chemicals that regulate the level of SLs in rice ( Oryza sativa ) and identified GA as, to our knowledge, a novel SL-regulating molecule. The regulation of SL biosynthesis by GA is dependent on the GA receptor GID1 and F-box protein GID2. GA treatment also reduced the infection of rice plants by the parasitic plant witchers weed ( Striga hermonthica ). These data not only demonstrate, to our knowledge, the novel plant hormone cross talk between SL and GA, but also suggest that GA can be used to control parasitic weed infections. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Biosynthesis and function of plant lipids

    SciT

    Thomson, W.W.; Mudd, J.B.; Gibbs, M.

    The Sixth Annual Symposium in Botany and Plant Physiology was held January 13-15, 1983, at the University of California, Riverside. This volume comprises the papers that were presented. Subjects discussed at the symposium covered a wide range in the field of plant lipids. Biosynthesis of lipids occupied an important fraction of the presentations at the symposium. Subjects included detailed studies of the enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, several discussions of the incorporation of fatty acids into glycerolipids and the further modification of the fatty acids, and the synthesis of glycerolipids and desaturation of fatty acids in both maturing oilseeds andmore » chloroplasts. The physicochemical studies of glycerolipids and sterols in artificial membranes have led to distinct conclusions about their behaviour which must be relevant in the biological membrane. Results on the functional consequences of modifying the galactolipid composition in the chloroplast were an encouraging sign of progress in the attempts to relate membrane lipid composition to physiological function.« less

  6. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the biological action of pineal allopregnanolone on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum during development in juvenile birds. Pinealectomy (Px) induces apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks prevents cell death. Furthermore, Px increases the number of Purkinje cells that express active caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, and allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks decreases the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. It thus appears that pineal allopregnanolone prevents cell death of Purkinje cells by suppressing the activity of caspase-3 during development. This paper highlights new aspects of the biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone. PMID:24834027

  7. Bacterial polyesters: biosynthesis, biodegradable plastics and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Robert W; Marchessault, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    The discovery and chemical identification, in the 1920s, of the aliphatic polyester: poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB, as a granular component in bacterial cells proceeded without any of the controversies which marked the recognition of macromolecules by Staudinger. Some thirty years after its discovery, PHB was recognized as the prototypical biodegradable thermoplastic to solve the waste disposal challenge. The development effort led by Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., encouraged interdisciplinary research from genetic engineering and biotechnology to the study of enzymes involved in biosynthesis and biodegradation. From the simple PHB homopolyester discovered by Maurice Lemoigne in the mid-twenties, a family of over 100 different aliphatic polyesters of the same general structure has been discovered. Depending on bacterial species and substrates, these high molecular weight stereoregular polyesters have emerged as a new family of natural polymers ranking with nucleic acids, polyamides, polyisoprenoids, polyphenols, polyphosphates, and polysaccharides. In this historical review, the chemical, biochemical and microbial highlights are linked to personalities and locations involved with the events covering a discovery timespan of 75 years.

  8. Biosynthesis of o-succinylbenzoic acid in Bacillus subtilis: identification of menD mutants and evidence against the involvement of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, C; Taber, H; Meganathan, R

    1994-01-01

    The biosynthesis of o-succinylbenzoic acid (OSB), the first aromatic intermediate involved in the biosynthesis of menaquinone (vitamin K2) is demonstrated for the first time in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Cell extracts were found to contain isochorismate synthase, 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid (SHCHC) synthase-alpha-ketoglutarate decarboxylase and o-succinylbenzoic acid synthase activities. An odhA mutant which lacks the decarboxylase component (usually termed E1, EC 1.2.4.2, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase [lipoamide]) of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex was found to synthesize SHCHC and form succinic semialdehyde-thiamine pyrophosphate. Thus, the presence of an alternate alpha-ketoglutarate decarboxylase activity specifically involved in menaquinone biosynthesis is established for B. subtilis. A number of OSB-requiring mutants were also assayed for the presence of the various enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of OSB. All mutants were found to lack only the SHCHC synthase activity. PMID:8169214

  9. Adenovirus E1A and E1B-19K Proteins Protect Human Hepatoma Cells from Transforming Growth Factor β1-induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Tarakanova, Vera L.; Wold, William S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Primary and some transformed hepatocytes undergo apoptosis in response to transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ). We report that infection with species C human adenovirus conferred resistance to TGFβ-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Huh-7). Protection against TGFβ-mediated cell death in adenovirus-infected cells correlated with the maintenance of normal nuclear morphology, lack of pro-caspases 8 and 3 processing, maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and lack of cellular DNA degradation. The TGFβ pro-apoptotic signaling pathway was blocked upstream of mitochondria in adenovirus-infected cells. Both the N-terminal sequences of the E1A proteins and the E1B-19K protein were necessary to protect infected cells against TGFβ-induced apoptosis. PMID:19854227

  10. Effects of orbital and spin current interference in E1 and M2 nuclear excitations

    SciT

    Goncharova, N. G., E-mail: n.g.goncharova@gmail.com

    The interference of contributions from the orbital and spin currents to the E1 and M2 resonances is investigated. The results of the current interference analysis within the shell model are compared with the experimental data.

  11. 42 CFR 52e.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.1 To what programs do... the prevention and control of heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases, with special...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus hirae Strain INF E1 Isolated from Cultured Milk.

    PubMed

    Porcellato, Davide; Ostlie, Hilde M; Skeie, Siv B

    2014-07-17

    Here, we present the draft genome of Enterococcus hirae INF E1, found as a contaminant in cultured milk and studied for its ability to metabolize milk fat globule membrane glycoconjugates. Copyright © 2014 Porcellato et al.

  13. 42 CFR 52e.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.1 To what programs do... the prevention and control of heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases, with special...

  14. 42 CFR 52e.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.1 To what programs do... the prevention and control of heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases, with special...

  15. 42 CFR 52e.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.1 To what programs do... the prevention and control of heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases, with special...

  16. 42 CFR 52e.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.1 To what programs do... the prevention and control of heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases, with special...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1059(e)-1 - Non-pro rata redemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)(6) (exception where stock held during entire existence of corporation) and section 1059(e)(2... dividend is a qualifying dividend. (b) Reorganizations. For purposes of section 1059(e)(1), any exchange...

  18. Red light regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and gravitropism in etiolated pea stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steed, C. L.; Taylor, L. K.; Harrison, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    During gravitropism, the accumulation of auxin in the lower side of the stem causes increased growth and the subsequent curvature, while the gaseous hormone ethylene plays a modulating role in regulating the kinetics of growth asymmetries. Light also contributes to the control of gravitropic curvature, potentially through its interaction with ethylene biosynthesis. In this study, red-light pulse treatment of etiolated pea epicotyls was evaluated for its effect on ethylene biosynthesis during gravitropic curvature. Ethylene biosynthesis analysis included measurements of ethylene; the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC); malonyl-conjugated ACC (MACC); and expression levels of pea ACC oxidase (Ps-ACO1) and ACC synthase (Ps-ACS1, Ps-ACS2) genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Red-pulsed seedlings were given a 6 min pulse of 11 micromoles m-2 s-1 red-light 15 h prior to horizontal reorientation for consistency with the timeline of red-light inhibition of ethylene production. Red-pulse treatment significantly reduced ethylene production and MACC levels in epicotyl tissue. However, there was no effect of red-pulse treatment on ACC level, or expression of ACS or ACO genes. During gravitropic curvature, ethylene production increased from 60 to 120 min after horizontal placement in both control and red-pulsed epicotyls. In red-pulsed tissues, ACC levels increased by 120 min after horizontal reorientation, accompanied by decreased MACC levels in the lower portion of the epicotyl. Overall, our results demonstrate that ethylene production in etiolated epicotyls increases after the initiation of curvature. This ethylene increase may inhibit cell growth in the lower portion of the epicotyl and contribute to tip straightening and reduced overall curvature observed after the initial 60 min of curvature in etiolated pea epicotyls.

  19. Inflammatory mediator mRNA expression by adenovirus E1A-transfected bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Higashimoto, Yuji; Elliott, W Mark; Behzad, Ali R; Sedgwick, Edward G; Takei, Tatsuo; Hogg, James C; Hayashi, Shizu

    2002-07-15

    Lung tissue from patients with emphysema and airway obstruction carries excess adenoviral E1A DNA that is expressed as protein in airway surface epithelium and is associated with an increased inflammatory response. To examine mechanisms by which latent adenoviral infection might amplify the inflammatory process, we transfected primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells from three separate patients undergoing lung resection so that they stably expressed adenovirus E1A. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of the E1A-transfected HBE cells increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-8 mRNA and protein expression compared with control cells from the same patient. It also induced greater intercellular adhesion molecule-1 promoter activity and greater nuclear factor-kappa B binding activity of nuclear extracts in E1A transfectants than controls. E1A-positive transfectants constitutively expressed transforming growth factor-beta 1 mRNA and protein, whereas this expression was either very low or not detected in control cells. We conclude that adenoviral E1A transfection transforms primary HBE cells and upregulates their production of mediators that are clinically relevant to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  20. In vitro characterization of the NAD+ synthetase NadE1 from Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    PubMed

    Laskoski, Kerly; Santos, Adrian R S; Bonatto, Ana C; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Huergo, Luciano F

    2016-05-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase enzyme (NadE) catalyzes the amination of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD) to form NAD(+). This reaction represents the last step in the majority of the NAD(+) biosynthetic routes described to date. NadE enzymes typically use either glutamine or ammonium as amine nitrogen donor, and the reaction is energetically driven by ATP hydrolysis. Given the key role of NAD(+) in bacterial metabolism, NadE has attracted considerable interest as a potential target for the development of novel antibiotics. The plant-associative nitrogen-fixing bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae encodes two putative NadE, namely nadE1 and nadE2. The nadE1 gene is linked to glnB encoding the signal transduction protein GlnB. Here we report the purification and in vitro characterization of H. seropedicae NadE1. Gel filtration chromatography analysis suggests that NadE1 is an octamer. The NadE1 activity was assayed in vitro, and the Michaelis-Menten constants for substrates NaAD, ATP, glutamine and ammonium were determined. Enzyme kinetic and in vitro substrate competition assays indicate that H. seropedicae NadE1 uses glutamine as a preferential nitrogen donor.

  1. Differential role of CYP2E1-mediated metabolism in the lethal and vestibulotoxic effects of cis-crotononitrile in the mouse

    SciT

    Boadas-Vaello, Pere; Jover, Eric; Diez-Padrisa, Nuria

    2007-12-15

    Several alkylnitriles are toxic to sensory systems, including the vestibular system, through yet undefined mechanisms. This study addressed the hypothesis that the vestibular toxicity of cis-crotononitrile depends on CYP2E1-mediated bioactivation. Wild-type (129S1) and CYP2E1-null female mice were exposed to cis-crotononitrile at 0, 2, 2.25 or 2.5 mmol/kg (p.o.) in either a baseline condition or following exposure to 1% acetone in drinking water to induce CYP2E1 expression. The exposed animals were assessed for vestibular toxicity using a behavioral test battery and through surface observation of the vestibular sensory epithelia by scanning electron microscopy. In parallel groups, concentrations of cis-crotononitrile and cyanidemore » were assessed in whole blood. Contrary to our hypothesis, CYP2E1-null mice were slightly more susceptible to the vestibular toxicity of cis-crotononitrile than were control 129S1 mice. Similarly, rather than enhance vestibular toxicity, acetone pretreatment actually reduced it slightly in 129S1 controls, although not in CYP2E1-null mice. In addition, significant differences in mortality were recorded, with the greatest mortality occurring in 129S1 mice after acetone pretreatment. The highest mortality recorded in the 129S1 + acetone mice was associated with the lowest blood concentrations of cis-crotononitrile and the highest concentrations of cyanide at 6 h after nitrile exposure, the time when deaths were initially recorded. We conclude that cis-crotononitrile is a CYP2E1 substrate as hypothesized, but that CYP2E1-mediated metabolism of this nitrile is not necessary for vestibular toxicity; rather, this metabolism constitutes a major pathway for cyanide release and subsequent lethality.« less

  2. The response regulator Npun_F1278 is essential for scytonemin biosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133.

    PubMed

    Naurin, Sejuti; Bennett, Janine; Videau, Patrick; Philmus, Benjamin; Soule, Tanya

    2016-08-01

    Following exposure to long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA), some cyanobacteria produce the indole-alkaloid sunscreen scytonemin. The genomic region associated with scytonemin biosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme includes 18 cotranscribed genes. A two-component regulatory system (Npun_F1277/Npun_F1278) directly upstream from the biosynthetic genes was identified through comparative genomics and is likely involved in scytonemin regulation. In this study, the response regulator (RR), Npun_F1278, was evaluated for its ability to regulate scytonemin biosynthesis using a mutant strain of N. punctiforme deficient in this gene, hereafter strain Δ1278. Following UVA radiation, the typical stimulus to initiate scytonemin biosynthesis, Δ1278 was incapable of producing scytonemin. A phenotypic characterization of Δ1278 suggests that aside from the ability to produce scytonemin, the deletion of the Npun_F1278 gene does not affect the cellular morphology, cellular differentiation capability, or lipid-soluble pigment complement of Δ1278 compared to the wildtype. The mutant, however, had a slower specific growth rate under white light and produced ~2.5-fold more phycocyanin per cell under UVA than the wildtype. Since Δ1278 does not produce scytonemin, this study demonstrates that the RR gene, Npun_F1278, is essential for scytonemin biosynthesis in N. punctiforme. While most of the evaluated effects of this gene appear to be specific for scytonemin, this regulator may also influence the overall health of the cell and phycobiliprotein synthesis, directly or indirectly. This is the first study to identify a regulatory gene involved in the biosynthesis of the sunscreen scytonemin and posits a link between cell growth, pigment synthesis, and sunscreen production. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Characterization of two TT2-type MYB transcription factors regulating proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Lu, Nan; Roldan, Marissa; Dixon, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Two TT2-type MYB transcription factors identified from tetraploid cotton are involved in regulating proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, providing new strategies for engineering condensed tannins in crops. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also known as condensed tannins, are important secondary metabolites involved in stress resistance in plants, and are health supplements that help to reduce cholesterol levels. As one of the most widely grown crops in the world, cotton provides the majority of natural fabrics and is a supplemental food for ruminant animals. The previous studies have suggested that PAs present in cotton are a major contributor to fiber color. However, the biosynthesis of PAs in cotton still remains to be elucidated. AtTT2 (transparent testa 2) is a MYB family transcription factor from Arabidopsis that initiates the biosynthesis of PAs by inducing the expression of multiple genes in the pathway. In this study, we isolated two R2R3-type MYB transcription factors from Gossypium hirsutum that are homologous to AtTT2. Expression analysis showed that both genes were expressed at different levels in various cotton tissues, including leaf, seed coat, and fiber. Protoplast transactivation assays revealed that these two GhMYBs were able to activate promoters of genes encoding enzymes in the PA biosynthesis pathway, namely anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase. Complementation experiments showed that both of the GhMYBs were able to recover the transparent testa seed coat phenotype of the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant by restoring PA biosynthesis. Ectopic expression of either of the two GhMYBs in Medicago truncatula hairy roots increased the contents of anthocyanins and PAs compared to control lines expressing the GUS gene, and expression levels of MtDFR, MtLAR, and MtANR were also elevated in lines expressing GhMYBs. Together, these data provide new insights into engineering condensed tannins in cotton.

  4. Penicillium expansum (compatible) and Penicillium digitatum (non-host) pathogen infection differentially alter ethylene biosynthesis in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Laura; Vall-Llaura, Núria; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Teixidó, Neus; Larrigaudière, Christian; Giné-Bordonaba, Jordi

    2017-11-01

    The role of ethylene on inducing plant resistance or susceptibility to certain fungal pathogens clearly depends on the plant pathogen interaction with little or no-information available focused on the apple-Penicillium interaction. Taken advantage that Penicillium expansum is the compatible pathogen and P. digitatum is the non-host of apples, the present study aimed at deciphering how each Penicillium spp. could interfere in the fruit ethylene biosynthesis at the biochemical and molecular level. The infection capacity and different aspects related to the ethylene biosynthesis were conducted at different times post-inoculation. The results show that the fruit ethylene biosynthesis was differently altered during the P. expansum infection than in response to other biotic (non-host pathogen P. digitatum) or abiotic stresses (wounding). The first symptoms of the disease due to P. expansum were visible before the initiation of the fruit ethylene climacteric burst. Indeed, the ethylene climacteric burst was reduced in response to P. expansum concomitant to an important induction of MdACO3 gene expression and an inhibition (ca. 3-fold) and overexpression (ca. 2-fold) of ACO (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase) and ACS (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) enzyme activities, indicating a putative role of MdACO3 in the P. expansum-apple interaction which may, in turn, be related to System-1 ethylene biosynthesis. System-1 is auto-inhibited by ethylene and is characteristic of non-climateric or pre-climacteric fruit. Accordingly, we hypothesise that P. expansum may 'manipulate' the endogenous ethylene biosynthesis in apples, leading to the circumvention or suppression of effective defences hence facilitating its colonization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytochrome p450 2E1 polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cardia cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lin; Zheng, Zong-Li; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes have recently been shown to affect susceptibility to chemical carcinogenesis. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) enzyme catalyzes the metabolism of many procarcinogens, such as N-nitrosamines and related compounds. The gene coding for this enzyme is polymorphic and thus may play a role in gastric cardia cancer (GCC) etiology. In this hospital-based case-control study, we evaluate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and the risk of GCC. METHODS: The study subjects comprised 159 histologically confirmed GCC cases identified via hospital cancer registry and surgical records at five hospitals in Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China, between April and November 2001. Controls were 192 patients admitted to the same hospitals for nonmalignant conditions. The genotypes of CYP2E1 were detected by a PCR-based RFLP assay. The odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression analyses and were adjusted for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: The distribution of three genotypes of CYP2E1 in GCC cases and controls was significantly different (χ2 = 16.04, P<0.01). The frequency of the CYP2E1 (c1/c1) genotype in GCC cases and controls was 60.4% and 40.1%, respectively. The CYP2E1 (c1/c1) genotype was associated with an increased risk for GCC (the adjusted (OR) was 2.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.52-3.70). Subjects who carried the CYP2E1 (c1/c1) genotype and were habitual smokers were at a significantly higher risk of developing GCC (OR = 4.68, 95%CI: 2.19-10.04) compared with those who had the CYP2E1 (c1/c2 or c2/c2) genotype and did not smoke. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the CYP2E1 genotype may influence individual susceptibility to development of GCC, and that the risk increases significantly in smokers. PMID:15793883

  6. Soybean oil biosynthesis: role of diacylglycerol acyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Li, Runzhi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Fukushige, Hirotada; Hildebrand, David

    2013-03-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG). To understand the features of genes encoding soybean (Glycine max) DGATs and possible roles in soybean seed oil synthesis and accumulation, two full-length cDNAs encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases (GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B) were cloned from developing soybean seeds. These coding sequences share identities of 94 % and 95 % in protein and DNA sequences. The genomic architectures of GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B both contain 15 introns and 16 exons. Differences in the lengths of the first exon and most of the introns were found between GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B genomic sequences. Furthermore, detailed in silico analysis revealed a third predicted DGAT1, GmDGAT1C. GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B were found to have similar activity levels and substrate specificities. Oleoyl-CoA and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol were preferred substrates over vernoloyl-CoA and sn-1,2-divernoloylglycerol. Both transcripts are much more abundant in developing seeds than in other tissues including leaves, stem, roots, and flowers. Both soybean DGAT1A and DGAT1B are highly expressed at developing seed stages of maximal TAG accumulation with DGAT1B showing highest expression at somewhat later stages than DGAT1A. DGAT1A and DGAT1B show expression profiles consistent with important roles in soybean seed oil biosynthesis and accumulation.

  7. Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Developing Pumpkin Seedlings12

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Theo; Kappler, Jeannette; Fischer, Andreas; Frisse, Andrea; Padeffke, Tania; Schmidtke, Sabine; Lange, Maria João Pimenta

    2005-01-01

    A gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathway was discovered operating in root tips of 7-d-old pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seedlings. Stepwise analysis of GA metabolism in cell-free systems revealed the conversion of GA12-aldehyde to bioactive GA4 and inactive GA34. Highest levels of endogenous GA4 and GA34 were found in hypocotyls and root tips of 3-d-old seedlings. cDNA molecules encoding two GA oxidases, CmGA20ox3 and CmGA3ox3, were isolated from root tips of 7-d-old LAB150978-treated seedlings. Recombinant CmGA20ox3 fusion protein converted GA12 to GA9, GA24 to GA9, GA14 to GA4, and, less efficiently, GA53 to GA20, and recombinant CmGA3ox3 protein oxidized GA9 to GA4. Transcript profiles were determined for four GA oxidase genes from pumpkin revealing relatively high transcript levels for CmGA7ox in shoot tips and cotyledons, for CmGA20ox3 in shoot tips and hypocotyls, and for CmGA3ox3 in hypocotyls and roots of 3-d-old seedlings. Transcripts of CmGA2ox1 were mainly found in roots of 7-d-old seedlings. In roots of 7-d-old seedlings, transcripts of CmGA7ox, CmGA20ox3, and CmGA3ox3 were localized in the cap and the rhizodermis by in situ hybridization. We conclude that hypocotyls and root tips are important sites of GA biosynthesis in the developing pumpkin seedling. PMID:16126862

  8. Coenzyme Q biosynthesis in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Manuel Jesús; Vazquez Fonseca, Luis; Desbats, Maria Andrea; Cerqua, Cristina; Zordan, Roberta; Trevisson, Eva; Salviati, Leonardo

    2016-08-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ, or ubiquinone) is a remarkable lipid that plays an essential role in mitochondria as an electron shuttle between complexes I and II of the respiratory chain, and complex III. It is also a cofactor of other dehydrogenases, a modulator of the permeability transition pore and an essential antioxidant. CoQ is synthesized in mitochondria by a set of at least 12 proteins that form a multiprotein complex. The exact composition of this complex is still unclear. Most of the genes involved in CoQ biosynthesis (COQ genes) have been studied in yeast and have mammalian orthologues. Some of them encode enzymes involved in the modification of the quinone ring of CoQ, but for others the precise function is unknown. Two genes appear to have a regulatory role: COQ8 (and its human counterparts ADCK3 and ADCK4) encodes a putative kinase, while PTC7 encodes a phosphatase required for the activation of Coq7. Mutations in human COQ genes cause primary CoQ(10) deficiency, a clinically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with onset from birth to the seventh decade, and with clinical manifestation ranging from fatal multisystem disorders, to isolated encephalopathy or nephropathy. The pathogenesis of CoQ(10) deficiency involves deficient ATP production and excessive ROS formation, but possibly other aspects of CoQ(10) function are implicated. CoQ(10) deficiency is unique among mitochondrial disorders since an effective treatment is available. Many patients respond to oral CoQ(10) supplementation. Nevertheless, treatment is still problematic because of the low bioavailability of the compound, and novel pharmacological approaches are currently being investigated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Maresin conjugates in tissue regeneration biosynthesis enzymes in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dalli, Jesmond; Vlasakov, Iliyan; Riley, Ian R; Rodriguez, Ana R; Spur, Bernd W; Petasis, Nicos A; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N

    2016-10-25

    Macrophages are central in coordinating immune responses, tissue repair, and regeneration, with different subtypes being associated with inflammation-initiating and proresolving actions. We recently identified a family of macrophage-derived proresolving and tissue regenerative molecules coined maresin conjugates in tissue regeneration (MCTR). Herein, using lipid mediator profiling we identified MCTR in human serum, lymph nodes, and plasma and investigated MCTR biosynthetic pathways in human macrophages. With human recombinant enzymes, primary cells, and enantiomerically pure compounds we found that the synthetic maresin epoxide intermediate 13S,14S-eMaR (13S,14S-epoxy- 4Z,7Z,9E,11E,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid) was converted to MCTR1 (13R-glutathionyl, 14S-hydroxy-4Z,7Z,9E,11E,13R,14S,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid) by LTC 4 S and GSTM4. Incubation of human macrophages with LTC 4 S inhibitors blocked LTC 4 and increased resolvins and lipoxins. The conversion of MCTR1 to MCTR2 (13R-cysteinylglycinyl, 14S-hydroxy-4Z,7Z,9E,11E,13R,14S,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid) was catalyzed by γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in human macrophages. Biosynthesis of MCTR3 was mediated by dipeptidases that cleaved the cysteinyl-glycinyl bond of MCTR2 to give 13R-cysteinyl, 14S-hydroxy-4Z,7Z,9E,11E,13R,14S,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid. Of note, both GSTM4 and GGT enzymes displayed higher affinity to 13S,14S-eMaR and MCTR1 compared with their classic substrates in the cysteinyl leukotriene metabolome. Together these results establish the MCTR biosynthetic pathway and provide mechanisms in tissue repair and regeneration.

  10. Requirement for the E1 Helicase C-Terminal Domain in Papillomavirus DNA Replication In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bergvall, Monika; Gagnon, David; Titolo, Steve; Lehoux, Michaël; D'Abramo, Claudia M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The papillomavirus (PV) E1 helicase contains a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), located next to its ATP-binding site, whose function in vivo is still poorly understood. The CTD is comprised of an alpha helix followed by an acidic region (AR) and a C-terminal extension termed the C-tail. Recent biochemical studies on bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1) E1 showed that the AR and C-tail regulate the oligomerization of the protein into a double hexamer at the origin. In this study, we assessed the importance of the CTD of human papillomavirus 11 (HPV11) E1 in vivo, using a cell-based DNA replication assay. Our results indicate that combined deletion of the AR and C-tail drastically reduces DNA replication, by 85%, and that further truncation into the alpha-helical region compromises the structural integrity of the E1 helicase domain and its interaction with E2. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail alone or mutation of highly conserved residues within the domain still allows significant levels of DNA replication (55%). This is in contrast to the absolute requirement for the C-tail reported for BPV1 E1 in vitro and confirmed here in vivo. Characterization of chimeric proteins in which the AR and C-tail from HPV11 E1 were replaced by those of BPV1 indicated that while the function of the AR is transferable, that of the C-tail is not. Collectively, these findings define the contribution of the three CTD subdomains to the DNA replication activity of E1 in vivo and suggest that the function of the C-tail has evolved in a PV type-specific manner. IMPORTANCE While much is known about hexameric DNA helicases from superfamily 3, the papillomavirus E1 helicase contains a unique C-terminal domain (CTD) adjacent to its ATP-binding site. We show here that this CTD is important for the DNA replication activity of HPV11 E1 in vivo and that it can be divided into three functional subdomains that roughly correspond to the three conserved regions of the CTD: an alpha helix, needed

  11. Requirement for the E1 Helicase C-Terminal Domain in Papillomavirus DNA Replication In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Bergvall, Monika; Gagnon, David; Titolo, Steve; Lehoux, Michaël; D'Abramo, Claudia M; Melendy, Thomas; Archambault, Jacques

    2016-01-06

    The papillomavirus (PV) E1 helicase contains a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), located next to its ATP-binding site, whose function in vivo is still poorly understood. The CTD is comprised of an alpha helix followed by an acidic region (AR) and a C-terminal extension termed the C-tail. Recent biochemical studies on bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1) E1 showed that the AR and C-tail regulate the oligomerization of the protein into a double hexamer at the origin. In this study, we assessed the importance of the CTD of human papillomavirus 11 (HPV11) E1 in vivo, using a cell-based DNA replication assay. Our results indicate that combined deletion of the AR and C-tail drastically reduces DNA replication, by 85%, and that further truncation into the alpha-helical region compromises the structural integrity of the E1 helicase domain and its interaction with E2. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail alone or mutation of highly conserved residues within the domain still allows significant levels of DNA replication (55%). This is in contrast to the absolute requirement for the C-tail reported for BPV1 E1 in vitro and confirmed here in vivo. Characterization of chimeric proteins in which the AR and C-tail from HPV11 E1 were replaced by those of BPV1 indicated that while the function of the AR is transferable, that of the C-tail is not. Collectively, these findings define the contribution of the three CTD subdomains to the DNA replication activity of E1 in vivo and suggest that the function of the C-tail has evolved in a PV type-specific manner. While much is known about hexameric DNA helicases from superfamily 3, the papillomavirus E1 helicase contains a unique C-terminal domain (CTD) adjacent to its ATP-binding site. We show here that this CTD is important for the DNA replication activity of HPV11 E1 in vivo and that it can be divided into three functional subdomains that roughly correspond to the three conserved regions of the CTD: an alpha helix, needed for the structural

  12. PDH E1β deficiency with novel mutations in two patients with Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Quintana, E; Mayr, J A; García Silva, M T; Font, A; Tortoledo, M A; Moliner, S; Ozaez, L; Lluch, M; Cabello, A; Ricoy, J R; Koch, J; Ribes, A; Sperl, W; Briones, P

    2009-12-01

    Most cases of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) deficiency are attributable to mutations in the PDHA1 gene which encodes the E(1)α subunit, with few cases of mutations in the genes for E(3), E3BP (E(3) binding protein), E(2) and E(1)-phosphatase being reported. Only seven patients with deficiency of the E(1)β subunit have been described, with mutations in the PDHB gene in six of them. Clinically they presented with a non-specific encephalomyopathy. We report two patients with new mutations in PDHB and Leigh syndrome. Patient 1 was a boy with neonatal onset of hyperlactataemia, corpus callosum hypoplasia and a convulsive encephalopathy. After neurological deterioration, he died at age 5 months. Autopsy revealed the characteristic features of Leigh syndrome. Patient 2, also a boy, presented a milder clinical course. First symptoms were noticed at age 16 months with muscular hypotonia, lactic acidosis and recurrent episodes of somnolence and transient tetraparesis. MRI revealed bilateral signal hyperintensities in the globus pallidus, midbrain and crura cerebri. PDHc and E(1) activities were deficient in fibroblasts in patient 1; in patient 2 PDHc deficiency was found in skeletal muscle. Mutations in PDHA1 were excluded. Sequencing of PDHB revealed a homozygous point mutation (c.302T>C), causing a predicted amino acid change (p.M101T) in patient 1. Patient 2 is compound heterozygote for mutations c.301A>G (p.M101V) and c.313G>A (p.R105Q). All three mutations appear to destabilize the E(1) enzyme with a decrease of both E(1)α and E(1)β subunits in immunoblot analysis. To our knowledge, these patients with novel PDHB mutations are the first reported with Leigh syndrome.

  13. Adenovirus E1B 19-Kilodalton Protein Modulates Innate Immunity through Apoptotic Mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Grigera, Fernando; Ucker, David S.; Cook, James L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cells that undergo apoptosis in response to chemical or physical stimuli repress inflammatory reactions, but cells that undergo nonapoptotic death in response to such stimuli lack this activity. Whether cells dying from viral infection exhibit a cell death-type modulatory effect on inflammatory reactions is unknown. We compared the effects on macrophage inflammatory responses of cells dying an apoptotic or a nonapoptotic death as a result of adenoviral infection. The results were exactly opposite to the predictions from the conventional paradigm. Cells dying by apoptosis induced by infection with an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B 19-kilodalton (E1B 19K) gene deletion mutant did not repress macrophage NF-κB activation or cytokine responses to proinflammatory stimuli, whereas cells dying a nonapoptotic death from infection with E1B 19K-competent, wild-type Ad5 repressed these macrophage inflammatory responses as well as cells undergoing classical apoptosis in response to chemical injury. The immunorepressive, E1B 19K-related cell death activity depended upon direct contact of the virally infected corpses with responder macrophages. Replacement of the viral E1B 19K gene with the mammalian Bcl-2 gene in cis restored the nonapoptotic, immunorepressive cell death activity of virally infected cells. These results define a novel function of the antiapoptotic, adenoviral E1B 19K protein that may limit local host innate immune inflammation during accumulation of virally infected cells at sites of infection and suggest that E1B 19K-deleted, replicating adenoviral vectors might induce greater inflammatory responses to virally infected cells than E1B 19K-positive vectors, because of the net effect of their loss-of-function mutation. IMPORTANCE We observed that cells dying a nonapoptotic cell death induced by adenovirus infection repressed macrophage proinflammatory responses while cells dying by apoptosis induced by infection with an E1B 19K deletion mutant virus did not

  14. Jasmonate-induced biosynthesis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shiv Narayan; Jha, Zenu; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar; Geda, Arvind Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Andrographolide is a prominent secondary metabolite found in Andrographis paniculata that exhibits enormous pharmacological effects. In spite of immense value, the normal biosynthesis of andrographolide results in low amount of the metabolite. To induce the biosynthesis of andrographolide, we attempted elicitor-induced activation of andrographolide biosynthesis in cell cultures of A. paniculata. This was carried out by using methyl jasmonate (MeJA) as an elicitor. Among the various concentrations of MeJA tested at different time periods, 5 µM MeJA yielded 5.25 times more andrographolide content after 24 h of treatment. The accumulation of andrographolide was correlated with the expression level of known regulatory genes (hmgs, hmgr, dxs, dxr, isph and ggps) of mevalonic acid (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways. These results established the involvement of MeJA in andrographolide biosynthesis by inducing the transcription of its biosynthetic pathways genes. The coordination of isph, ggps and hmgs expression highly influenced the andrographolide biosynthesis. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Roles of lignin biosynthesis and regulatory genes in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jinmi; Choi, Heebak

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lignin is an important factor affecting agricultural traits, biofuel production, and the pulping industry. Most lignin biosynthesis genes and their regulatory genes are expressed mainly in the vascular bundles of stems and leaves, preferentially in tissues undergoing lignification. Other genes are poorly expressed during normal stages of development, but are strongly induced by abiotic or biotic stresses. Some are expressed in non‐lignifying tissues such as the shoot apical meristem. Alterations in lignin levels affect plant development. Suppression of lignin biosynthesis genes causes abnormal phenotypes such as collapsed xylem, bending stems, and growth retardation. The loss of expression by genes that function early in the lignin biosynthesis pathway results in more severe developmental phenotypes when compared with plants that have mutations in later genes. Defective lignin deposition is also associated with phenotypes of seed shattering or brittle culm. MYB and NAC transcriptional factors function as switches, and some homeobox proteins negatively control lignin biosynthesis genes. Ectopic deposition caused by overexpression of lignin biosynthesis genes or master switch genes induces curly leaf formation and dwarfism. PMID:26297385

  16. Prevalence of ColE1-like plasmids and kanamycin resistance genes in Salmonella enterica serovars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Lindsey, Rebecca L; Strobaugh, Terence P; Frye, Jonathan G; Meinersmann, Richard J

    2010-10-01

    Multi-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica strains frequently carry resistance genes on plasmids. Recent studies focus heavily on large conjugative plasmids, and the role that small plasmids play in resistance gene transfer is largely unknown. To expand our previous studies in assessing the prevalence of the isolates harboring ColE1-like plasmids carrying the aph gene responsible for kanamycin resistance (Kan(r)) phenotypes, 102 Kan(r) Salmonella isolates collected through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) in 2005 were screened by PCR using ColE1 primer sets. Thirty isolates were found to be positive for ColE1-like replicon. Plasmids from 23 isolates were able to propagate in Escherichia coli and were subjected to further characterization. Restriction mapping revealed three major plasmid groups found in three or more isolates, with each group consisting of two to three subtypes. The aph genes from the Kan(r) Salmonella isolates were amplified by PCR, sequenced, and showed four different aph(3')-I genes. The distribution of the ColE1 plasmid groups in association with the aph gene, Salmonella serovar, and isolate source demonstrated a strong linkage of the plasmid with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104. Due to their high copy number and mobility, the ColE1-like plasmids may play a critical role in transmission of antibiotic resistance genes among enteric pathogens, and these findings warrant a close monitoring of this plasmid incompatibility group.

  17. Plasmid ColE1 as a Molecular Vehicle for Cloning and Amplification of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hershfield, Vickers; Boyer, Herbert W.; Yanofsky, Charles; Lovett, Michael A.; Helinski, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    DNA fragments obtained from EcoRI endonuclease digestion of bacteriophage ϕ80pt190 (trp+) and the plasmid ColE1 were covalently joined with polynucleotide ligase. Transformation of Escherichia coli trp- strains to tryptophan independence with the recombined DNA selected for reconstituted ColE1 plasmids containing the tryptophan operon and the ϕ80 immunity region. Similarly, an EcoRI endonuclease generated fragment of plasmid pSC105 DNA containing the genetic determinant of kanamycin resistance was inserted into the ColE1 plasmid and recovered in E. coli. The plasmids containing the trp operon (ColE1-trp) and the kanamycin resistance gene were maintained under logarithmic growth conditions at a level of 25-30 copies per cell and accumulate to the extent of several hundred copies per cell in the presence of chloramphenicol. Cells carrying the ColE1-trp plasmid determined the production of highly elevated levels of trp operon-specific mRNA and tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes. Images PMID:4610576

  18. Active sites prediction and binding analysis E1-E2 protein human papillomavirus with biphenylsulfonacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iryani, I.; Amelia, F.; Iswendi, I.

    2018-04-01

    Cervix cancer triggered by Human papillomavirus infection is the second cause to woman death in worldwide. The binding site of E1-E2 protein of HPV 16 is not known from a 3-D structure yet, so in this study we address this issue to study the structure of E1-E2 protein from Human papillomavirus type 16 and to find its potential binding sites using biphenylsulfonacetic acid as inhibitor. Swiss model was used for 3D structure prediction and PDB: 2V9P (E1 protein) and 2NNU (E2 protein) having 52.32% and 100% identity respectively was selected as a template. The 3D model structure developed of E1 and E2 in the core and allowed regions were 99.2% and 99.5%. The ligand binding sites were predicted using online server meta pocket 2.0 and MOE 2009.10 was used for docking. E1-and E2 protein of HPV-16 has three potential binding site that can interact with the inhibitors. The Docking biphenylsulfonacetic acid using these binding sites shows that ligand interact with the protein through hydrogen bonds on Lys 403, Arg 410, His 551 in the first pocket, on Tyr 32, Leu 99 in the second pocket, and Lys 558m Lys 517 in the third pocket.

  19. Expression and Characterization of Acidothermus celluloyticus E1 Endoglucanase in Transgenic Duckweed Lemna minor 8627

    SciT

    Sun, Y.; Cheng, J. J.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Endoglucanase E1 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was expressed cytosolically under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic duckweed, Lemna minor 8627 without any obvious observable phenotypic effects on morphology or rate of growth. The recombinant enzyme co-migrated with the purified catalytic domain fraction of the native E1 protein on western blot analysis, revealing that the cellulose-binding domain was cleaved near or in the linker region. The duckweed-expressed enzyme was biologically active and the expression level was up to 0.24% of total soluble protein. The endoglucanase activity with carboxymethylcellulose averaged 0.2 units mg protein{sup -1} extracted from fresh duckweed.more » The optimal temperature and pH for E1 enzyme activity were about 80 C and pH 5, respectively. While extraction with HEPES (N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N{prime}-[2-ethanesulfonic acid]) buffer (pH 8) resulted in the highest recovery of total soluble proteins and E1 enzyme, extraction with citrate buffer (pH 4.8) at 65 C enriched relative amounts of E1 enzyme in the extract. This study demonstrates that duckweed may offer new options for the expression of cellulolytic enzymes in transgenic plants.« less

  20. E1B and E4 oncoproteins of adenovirus antagonize the effect of apoptosis inducing factor

    SciT

    Turner, Roberta L.; Wilkinson, John C., E-mail: john.wilkinson@ndsu.edu; Ornelles, David A., E-mail: ornelles@wakehealth.edu

    2014-05-15

    Adenovirus inundates the productively infected cell with linear, double-stranded DNA and an abundance of single-stranded DNA. The cellular response to this stimulus is antagonized by the adenoviral E1B and E4 early genes. A mutant group C adenovirus that fails to express the E1B-55K and E4ORF3 genes is unable to suppress the DNA-damage response. Cells infected with this double-mutant virus display significant morphological heterogeneity at late times of infection and frequently contain fragmented nuclei. Nuclear fragmentation was due to the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus. The release of AIF was dependent on active poly(ADP-ribose)more » polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which appeared to be activated by viral DNA replication. Nuclear fragmentation did not occur in AIF-deficient cells or in cells treated with a PARP-1 inhibitor. The E1B-55K or E4ORF3 proteins independently prevented nuclear fragmentation subsequent to PARP-1 activation, possibly by altering the intracellular distribution of PAR-modified proteins. - Highlights: • E1B-55K or E4orf3 prevents nuclear fragmentation. • Nuclear fragmentation requires AIF and PARP-1 activity. • Adenovirus DNA replication activates PARP-1. • E1B-55K or E4orf3 proteins alter the distribution of PAR.« less

  1. Cooperative effects for CYP2E1 differ between styrene and its metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Jessica H.; Boysen, Gunnar; Miller, Grover P.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative interactions are frequently observed in the metabolism of drugs and pollutants by cytochrome P450s; nevertheless, the molecular determinants for cooperativity remain elusive. Previously, we demonstrated that steady-state styrene metabolism by CYP2E1 exhibits positive cooperativity.We hypothesized that styrene metabolites have lower affinity than styrene toward CYP2E1 and limited ability to induce cooperative effects during metabolism. To test the hypothesis, we determined the potency and mechanism of inhibition for styrene and its metabolites toward oxidation of 4-nitrophenol using CYP2E1 Supersomes® and human liver microsomes.Styrene inhibited the reaction through a mixed cooperative mechanism with high affinity for the catalytic site (67 μM) and lower affinity for the cooperative site (1100 μM), while increasing substrate turnover at high concentrations. Styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol possessed similar affinity for CYP2E1. Styrene oxide behaved cooperatively like styrene, but 4-vinylphenol decreased turnover at high concentrations. Styrene glycol was a very poor competitive inhibitor. Among all compounds, there was a positive correlation with binding and hydrophobicity.Taken together, these findings for CYP2E1 further validate contributions of cooperative mechanisms to metabolic processes, demonstrate the role of molecular structure on those mechanisms and underscore the potential for heterotropic cooperative effects between different compounds. PMID:23327532

  2. Ports Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Ports Initiative works in collaboration with the port industry, communities, and government to improve environmental performance and increase economic prosperity. This effort helps people near ports breath cleaner air and live better lives.

  3. Activation of RNA polymerase III transcription of human Alu repetitive elements by adenovirus type 5: requirement for the E1b 58-kilodalton protein and the products of E4 open reading frames 3 and 6.

    PubMed Central

    Panning, B; Smiley, J R

    1993-01-01

    We found that transcription of endogenous human Alu elements by RNA polymerase III was strongly stimulated following infection of HeLa cells with adenovirus type 5, leading to the accumulation of high levels of Alu transcripts initiated from Alu polymerase III promoters. In contrast to previously reported cases of adenovirus-induced activation of polymerase III transcription, induction required the E1b 58-kDa protein and the products of E4 open reading frames 3 and 6 in addition to the 289-residue E1a protein. In addition, E1a function was not required at high multiplicities of infection, suggesting that E1a plays an indirect role in Alu activation. These results suggest previously unsuspected regulatory properties of the adenovirus E1b and E4 gene products and provide a novel approach to the study of the biology of the most abundant class of dispersed repetitive DNA in the human genome. Images PMID:7684492

  4. Multiple transcriptional regulatory domains in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat are involved in basal and E1A/E1B-induced promoter activity.

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, S; Garcia, J; Pearson, L; Soultanakis, E; Dasgupta, A; Gaynor, R

    1989-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 long terminal repeat (LTR) is the site of activation of the HIV tat protein. However, additional transactivators, such as the adenovirus E1A and herpesvirus ICPO proteins, have also been shown to be capable of activating the HIV LTR. Analysis of adenovirus mutants indicated that complete transactivation of the HIV LTR was dependent on both the E1A and E1B proteins. To determine which regions of the HIV LTR were important for complete E1A/E1B activation, a variety of oligonucleotide-directed mutations in HIV transcriptional regulatory domains were assayed both in vivo and in vitro. S1 nuclease analysis of RNA prepared after transfection of these HIV constructs into HeLa cells infected with wild-type adenovirus indicated that the enhancer, SP1, TATA, and a portion of the transactivation-responsive element were each required for complete E1A/E1B-mediated activation of the HIV LTR. These same promoter elements were required for both basal and E1A/E1B-induced levels of transcription in in vitro transcription reactions performed with cellular extracts prepared from cells infected with dl434, an E1A/E1B deletion mutant, or wild-type adenovirus. No mutations were found that reduced only E1A/E1B-induced expression without proportionally reducing basal levels of transcription, suggesting that E1A/E1B-mediated induction of the HIV LTR requires multiple promoter elements which are also required for basal transcriptional levels. Unlike activation by the tat protein, there was not a rigid dependence on maintenance of the transactivation-responsive stem base pairing for E1A/E1B-mediated activation either in vivo or in vitro, indicating that activation occurs by a mechanism distinct from that of tat induction. Images PMID:2529378

  5. CYP2E1 Potentiates Ethanol-induction of Hypoxia and HIF-1α in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wu, Defeng; Yang, Lili; Gan, Lixia; Cederbaum, Arthur I

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol induces hypoxia and elevates HIF-1α in the liver. CYP2E1 plays a role in the mechanisms by which ethanol generates oxidative stress, fatty liver and liver injury. The current study evaluated whether CYP2E1 contributes to ethanol-induced hypoxia and activation of HIF-1α in vivo and whether HIF-1α protects against or promotes CYP2E1-dependent toxicity in vitro. Wild type (WT), CYP2E1-knockin (KI) and CYP2E1 knockout (KO) mice were fed ethanol chronically; pair fed controls received isocaloric dextrose. Ethanol produced liver injury in the KI mice to a much greater extent than in the WT and KO mice. Protein levels of HIF-1α and downstream targets of HIF-1α activation were elevated in the ethanol-fed KI mice compared to the WT and KO mice. Levels of HIF prolylhydroxlase 2 which promotes HIF-1α degradation were decreased in the ethanol-fed KI mice in association with the increases in HIF-1α. Hypoxia occurred in the ethanol-fed CYP2E1 KI mice as shown by an increased area of staining using the hypoxia-specific marker pimonidazole. Hypoxia was lower in the ethanol-fed WT mice and lowest in the ethanol fed KO mice and all the dextrose-fed mice. In situ double staining showed that pimonidazole and CYP2E1 were co-localized to the same area of injury in the hepatic centrilobule. Increased protein levels of HIF-1α were also found after acute ethanol treatment of KI mice. Treatment of HepG2 E47 cells which express CYP2E1 with ethanol plus arachidonic (AA) acid or ethanol plus buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) which depletes GSH caused loss of cell viability to greater extent than in HepG2 C34 cells which do not express CYP2E1. These treatments elevated protein levels of HIF-1α to a greater extent in E47 cells than C34 cells. 2-Methoxyestradiol, an inhibitor of HIF-1α, blunted the toxic effects of ethanol plus AA and ethanol plus BSO in the E47 cells in association with inhibition of HIF-1α. The HIF-1α inhibitor also blocked the elevated oxidative stress produced

  6. Calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on titanium and zirconium.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Takayuki; Chen, Peng; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Doi, Hisashi; Ashida, Maki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Moriyama, Keiji; Hanawa, Takao

    2015-01-01

    To confirm similarity of hard tissue compatibility between titanium and zirconium, calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on titanium and zirconium was evaluated in this study. Mirror-polished titanium (Ti) and zirconium (Zr) disks and zirconium-sputter deposited titanium (Zr/Ti) were employed in this study. The surface of specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Then, the cellular proliferation, differentiation and calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on specimens were investigated. The surface of Zr/Ti was much smoother and cleaner than those of Ti and Zr. The proliferation of the cell was the same among three specimens, while the differentiation and calcification on Zr/Ti were faster than those on Ti and Zr. Therefore, Ti and Zr showed the identical hard tissue compatibility according to the evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells. Sputter deposition may improve cytocompatibility.

  7. E1 and M1 γ-strength functions in 144Nd

    DOE PAGES

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.

    2015-12-14

    Both E1 and M1 γ-strength functions below the neutron separation energy were analyzed based on experimental data from 143Nd(n,γ) 144Nd and 143Nd(n,γα) 140Ce reactions. It is confirmed that the commonly adopted E1 model based on the temperature dependence of the width of the giant dipole resonance works well. The popular M1 strength function due to the spin-flip magnetic resonance located near the neutron binding energy is not capable of reproducing experimental data. As a result, the low-energy enhancement of the M1 strength or the energy-independent model of Weisskopf, both leading to the low-energy strength sizable to E1 one, fit experimentalmore » data best.« less

  8. Melanoma cultures show different susceptibility towards E1A-, E1B-19 kDa- and fiber-modified replication-competent adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, M; Graf, C; Gut, T; Sirena, D; Peter, I; Dummer, R; Greber, U F; Hemmi, S

    2006-06-01

    Replicating adenovirus (Ad) vectors with tumour tissue specificity hold great promise for treatment of cancer. We have recently constructed a conditionally replicating Ad5 AdDeltaEP-TETP inducing tumour regression in a xenograft mouse model. For further improvement of this vector, we introduced four genetic modifications and analysed the viral cytotoxicity in a large panel of melanoma cell lines and patient-derived melanoma cells. (1) The antiapoptotic gene E1B-19 kDa (Delta19 mutant) was deleted increasing the cytolytic activity in 18 of 21 melanoma cells. (2) Introduction of the E1A 122-129 deletion (Delta24 mutant), suggested to attenuate viral replication in cell cycle-arrested cells, did not abrogate this activity and increased the cytolytic activity in two of 21 melanoma cells. (3) We inserted an RGD sequence into the fiber to extend viral tropism to alphav integrin-expressing cells, and (4) swapped the fiber with the Ad35 fiber (F35) enhancing the tropism to malignant melanoma cells expressing CD46. The RGD-fiber modification strongly increased cytolysis in all of the 11 CAR-low melanoma cells. The F35 fiber-chimeric vector boosted the cytotoxicity in nine of 11 cells. Our results show that rational engineering additively enhances the cytolytic potential of Ad vectors, a prerequisite for the development of patient-customized viral therapies.

  9. Inhibition of chitin biosynthesis in cultured imaginal discs: Effects of alpha-amanitin, actinomycin-D, cycloheximide, and puromycin.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Herbert; Ferkovich, Stephen; Leach, Eddie; Van Essen, Frank

    1980-02-01

    Wing imaginal discs isolated from last instar larvae of the Indian meal moth,Plodia interpunctella, produced chitin when incubated in vitro with ≧2×10 -7 M 20-hydroxyecdysone. Chitin biosynthesis was initiated 8 h after the conclusion of a 24-h treatment with hormone. Simulataneous incubation of wing discs with 20-hydroxyecdysone and either inhibitors of RNA synthesis (alpha-amanitin, actinomycin-D) or inhibitors of protein systhesis (cycloheximide, puromycin) prevented chitin biosynthesis. We conclude from our results that RNA and protein synthesis must continue undiminished during the hormone-contact period, and that synthesis of protein, but not of new RNA is required during the posthormone culture period. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ecdysteroids stimulate insect metamorphosis by promoting the synthesis of new RNA and protein during a hormone-dependent phase followed by hormone-independent protein synthesis.

  10. Association between CYP2E1 polymorphisms and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pellé, Lucia; Cipollini, Monica; Tremmel, Roman; Romei, Cristina; Figlioli, Gisella; Gemignani, Federica; Melaiu, Ombretta; De Santi, Chiara; Barone, Elisa; Elisei, Rossella; Seiser, Eric; Innocenti, Federico; Zanger, Ulrich M; Landi, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) results from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Known etiological factors include exposure to ionizing radiations, previous thyroid diseases, and hormone factors. It has been speculated that dietary acrylamide (AA) formed in diverse foods following the Maillard's reaction could be a contributing factor for DTC in humans. Upon absorption, AA is biotransformed mainly by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to glycidamide (GA). Considering that polymorphisms within CYP2E1 were found associated with endogenous levels of AA-Valine and GA-Valine hemoglobin adducts in humans, we raised the hypothesis that specific CYP2E1 genotypes could be associated with the risk of DTC. Analysis of four haplotype tagging SNPs (ht-SNPs) within the locus in a discovery case-control study (N = 350/350) indicated an association between rs2480258 and DTC risk. This ht-SNP resides within a linkage disequilibrium block spanning intron VIII and the 3'-untranslated region. Extended analysis in a large replication set (2429 controls and 767 cases) confirmed the association, with odds ratios for GA and AA genotypes of 1.24 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.48) and 1.56 (95 % CI, 1.06-2.30), respectively. Functionally, the minor allele was associated with low levels of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein expression as well as lower enzymatic activity in a series of 149 human liver samples. Our data support the hypothesis that inter-individual differences in CYP2E1 activity could modulate the risk of developing DTC suggesting that the exposure to specific xenobiotics, such as AA, could play a role in this process.

  11. Functional characterisation of an engineered multidomain human P450 2E1 by molecular Lego.

    PubMed

    Fairhead, Michael; Giannini, Silva; Gillam, Elizabeth M J; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2005-12-01

    The human cytochrome P450s constitute an important family of monooxygenase enzymes that carry out essential roles in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and foreign chemicals. We present here results of a fusion between a human P450 enzyme and a bacterial reductase that for the first time is shown does not require the addition of lipids or detergents to achieve wild-type-like activities. The fusion enzyme, P450 2E1-BMR, contains the N-terminally modified residues 22-493 of the human P450 2E1 fused at the C-terminus to residues 473-1049 of the P450 BM3 reductase (BMR). The P450 2E1-BMR enzyme is active, self-sufficient and presents the typical marker activities of the native human P450 2E1: the hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol (KM=1.84+/-0.09 mM and kcat of 2.98+/-0.04 nmol of p-nitrocatechol formed per minute per nanomole of P450) and chlorzoxazone (KM=0.65+/-0.08 mM and kcat of 0.95+/-0.10 nmol of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone formed per minute per nanomole of P450). A 3D model of human P450 2E1 was generated to rationalise the functional data and to allow an analysis of the surface potentials. The distribution of charges on the model of P450 2E1 compared with that of the FMN domain of BMR provides the ground for the understanding of the interaction between the fused domains. The results point the way to successfully engineer a variety of catalytically self-sufficient human P450 enzymes for drug metabolism studies in solution.

  12. Domain alternation and active site remodeling are conserved structural features of ubiquitin E1.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zongyang; Yuan, Lingmin; Atkison, James H; Aldana-Masangkay, Grace; Chen, Yuan; Olsen, Shaun K

    2017-07-21

    E1 enzymes for ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like modifiers (Ubls) harbor two catalytic activities that are required for Ub/Ubl activation: adenylation and thioester bond formation. Structural studies of the E1 for the Ubl s mall u biquitin-like mo difier (SUMO) revealed a single active site that is transformed by a conformational switch that toggles its competency for catalysis of these two distinct chemical reactions. Although the mechanisms of adenylation and thioester bond formation revealed by SUMO E1 structures are thought to be conserved in Ub E1, there is currently a lack of structural data supporting this hypothesis. Here, we present a structure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Uba1 in which the second catalytic cysteine half-domain (SCCH domain) harboring the catalytic cysteine has undergone a 106° rotation that results in a completely different network of intramolecular interactions between the SCCH and adenylation domains and translocation of the catalytic cysteine 12 Å closer to the Ub C terminus compared with previous Uba1 structures. SCCH domain alternation is accompanied by conformational changes within the Uba1 adenylation domains that effectively disassemble the adenylation active site. Importantly, the structural and biochemical data suggest that domain alternation and remodeling of the adenylation active site are interconnected and are intrinsic structural features of Uba1 and that the overall structural basis for adenylation and thioester bond formation exhibited by SUMO E1 is indeed conserved in Ub E1. Finally, the mechanistic insights provided by the novel conformational snapshot of Uba1 presented in this study may guide efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors of this critically important enzyme that is an active target for anticancer therapeutics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Methoxypyrazines biosynthesis and metabolism in grape: A review.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yujuan; Xie, Sha; Guan, Xueqiang; Song, Changzheng; Zhang, Zhenwen; Meng, Jiangfei

    2018-04-15

    This review summarizes research on the discovery, biosynthesis, accumulation, transport, and metabolism of 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) in grape. The MPs are a family of potent volatile compounds distributed throughout biological kingdoms. These compounds impart herbaceous/green/vegetal sensory attributes to certain varieties of wine. Generally, high levels of MPs in wine are derived mainly from the corresponding grapes. Although two pathways for MPs biosynthesis have been proposed, only the final step and the enzymes that catalyze it has been confirmed in grape, and the metabolic intermediates and key enzymes involved in other steps are still unknown. The limited understanding of MPs metabolism has restricted research on these compounds, and some empirical results cannot be explained by the current knowledge of MPs metabolism. This review provides insights into research on MPs biosynthesis and metabolism, and proposes directions for further research on this important class of flavour/odour compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethylene induced shikonin biosynthesis in shoot culture of Lithospermum erythrorhizon.

    PubMed

    Touno, Kaori; Tamaoka, Jin; Ohashi, Yuko; Shimomura, Koichiro

    2005-02-01

    Lithospermum erythrorhizon shoots, cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog solid medium, produced shikonin derivatives, whereas shoots cultured in well-ventilated petri dishes, produced small amount. Analysis by gas chromatography revealed the presence of ethylene in non-ventilated petri dishes where the shoots, producing shikonin derivatives, were cultured. Therefore, the possible involvement of ethylene in shikonin biosynthesis of shoot cultures was investigated. Treatment of ethylene or the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, resulted in increasing shikonin derivatives contents in cultured shoots. Silver ion, an ethylene-response inhibitor, or aminoethoxyvinylglycine, an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, decreased production of shikonin derivatives in cultured shoots. Our results indicate that ethylene is one of the regulatory elements of shikonin biosynthesis in L. erythrorhizon shoot culture.

  15. Inhibitors of amino acids biosynthesis as antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębowska, Kamila; Gabriel, Iwona

    2015-02-01

    Fungal microorganisms, including the human pathogenic yeast and filamentous fungi, are able to synthesize all proteinogenic amino acids, including nine that are essential for humans. A number of enzymes catalyzing particular steps of human-essential amino acid biosynthesis are fungi specific. Numerous studies have shown that auxotrophic mutants of human pathogenic fungi impaired in biosynthesis of particular amino acids exhibit growth defect or at least reduced virulence under in vivo conditions. Several chemical compounds inhibiting activity of one of these enzymes exhibit good antifungal in vitro activity in minimal growth media, which is not always confirmed under in vivo conditions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge on pathways of amino acids biosynthesis in fungi, with a special emphasis put on enzymes catalyzing particular steps of these pathways as potential targets for antifungal chemotherapy.

  16. Inhibitors targeting on cell wall biosynthesis pathway of MRSA.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Wu, Qinghua; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-11-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), widely known as a type of new superbug, has aroused world-wide concern. Cell wall biosynthesis pathway is an old but good target for the development of antibacterial agents. Peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acids (WTAs) biosynthesis are two main processes of the cell wall biosynthesis pathway (CWBP). Other than penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), some key factors (Mur enzymes, lipid I or II precursor, etc.) in CWBP are becoming attractive molecule targets for the discovery of anti-MRSA compounds. A number of new compounds, with higher affinity for PBPs or with inhibitory activity on such molecule targets in CWBP of MRSA, have been in the pipeline recently. This review concludes recent research achievements and provides a complete picture of CWBP of MRSA, including the peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acids synthesis pathway. The potential inhibitors targeting on CWBP are subsequently presented to improve development of novel therapeutic strategies for MRSA.

  17. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciT

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-typemore » mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.« less

  18. Thionin-D4E1 chimeric protein protects plants against bacterial infections

    DOEpatents

    Stover, Eddie W; Gupta, Goutam; Hao, Guixia

    2017-08-08

    The generation of a chimeric protein containing a first domain encoding either a pro-thionon or thionin, a second domain encoding D4E1 or pro-D4E1, and a third domain encoding a peptide linker located between the first domain and second domain is described. Either the first domain or the second domain is located at the amino terminal of the chimeric protein and the other domain (second domain or first domain, respectively) is located at the carboxyl terminal. The chimeric protein has antibacterial activity. Genetically altered plants and their progeny expressing a polynucleotide encoding the chimeric protein resist diseases caused by bacteria.

  19. Divalent Metal Ions Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of MC3T3E1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoshou; Su, Wenta; Chen, Pohung; Huang, Teyang

    2017-12-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds blended with biochemical signal molecules with adequate osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties have attracted significant interest in bone tissue engineering regeneration. The divalent metal ions can gradually release from the scaffold into the culture medium and then induced osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3E1. These MC3T3E1 cells expressed high activity of alkaline phosphatase, bone-related gene expression of collagen type I, Runx2, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and significantly enhanced deposited minerals on scaffold after 21 days of culture. This experiment provided a useful inducer for osteogenic differentiation in bone repair.

  20. Genetic study of the functional organization of the colicin E1 molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Suit, J L; Fan, M L; Kayalar, C; Luria, S E

    1985-01-01

    Colicin E1 fragments obtained by genetic manipulations of the ColE1 plasmid were tested for bactericidal activity, binding to bacterial cells, and reactions with a series of anticolicin monoclonal antibodies. Two of the fragments were also tested for ability to form channels in liposomal vesicles. The results are in agreement with studies from chemically and enzymatically derived colicin fragments, assigning the receptor binding activity to the central part of the molecule and the killing activity to a region near the carboxyl terminus. PMID:2579061

  1. Characterization of the biosynthesis, processing, and sorting of human HBP/CAP37/azurocidin.

    PubMed

    Lindmark, A; Garwicz, D; Rasmussen, P B; Flodgaard, H; Gullberg, U

    1999-10-01

    Azurocidin is a multifunctional endotoxin-binding serine protease homolog synthesized during the promyelocytic stage of neutrophil development. To characterize the biosynthesis and processing of azurocidin, cDNA encoding human preproazurocidin was stably transfected to the rat basophilic leukemia cell line RBL-1 and the murine myeloblast-like cell line 32D cl3; cell lines previously utilized to study the related proteins cathepsin G and proteinase 3. After 30 min of pulse radiolabeling, two forms of newly synthesized proazurocidin (34.5 and 37 kDa), differing in carbohydrate content but with protein cores of identical sizes, were recognized. With time, the 34.5-kDa form disappeared, while the 37-kDa form was further processed proteolytically, as judged by digestion with N-glycosidase F. Conversion of high-mannose oligosaccharides into complex forms was shown by acquisition of complete resistance to endoglycosidase H. Radiosequence analysis demonstrated that the amino-terminal seven amino acid propeptide of proazurocidin was removed in a stepwise manner during processing; initial removal of five amino acids was followed by cleavage of a dipeptide. Presence of the protease inhibitors Gly-Phe-diazomethyl ketone, bestatin, or leupeptin inhibited only the cleavage of the dipeptide, thus indicating the involvement of at least two amino-terminal processing enzymes. Translocation of azurocidin to granules was shown by subcellular fractionation. Similar results, with efficient biosynthesis, processing, and targeting to granules in both cell lines, were obtained with a mutant form of human preproazurocidin lacking the amino-terminal heptapropeptide. In conclusion, this investigation is an important addition to our previous studies on related azurophil granule proteins, and provides novel information concerning the biosynthesis and distinctive amino-terminal processing of human azurocidin.

  2. Biosynthesis of the nargenicin A1 pyrrole moiety from Nocardia sp. CS682.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Sushila; Aryal, Niraj; Bhattarai, Saurabh; Koju, Dinesh; Lamichhane, Janardan; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2012-01-01

    A number of structurally diverse natural products harboring pyrrole moieties possess a wide range of biological activities. Studies on biosynthesis of pyrrole ring have shown that pyrrole moieties are derived from L-proline. Nargenicin A(1), a saturated alicyclic polyketide from Nocardia sp. CS682, is a pyrrole-2-carboxylate ester of nodusmicin. We cloned and identified a set of four genes from Nocardia sp. CS682 that show sequence similarity to the respective genes involved in the biosynthesis of the pyrrole moieties of pyoluteorin in Pseudomonas fluorescens, clorobiocin in Streptomyces roseochromogenes subsp. Oscitans, coumermycin A(1) in Streptomyces rishiriensis, one of the pyrrole rings of undecylprodigiosin in Streptomyces coelicolor, and leupyrrins in Sorangium cellulosum. These genes were designated as ngnN4, ngnN5, ngnN3, and ngnN2. In this study, we presented the evidences that the pyrrole moiety of nargenicin A(1) was also derived from L-proline by the coordinated action of three proteins, NgnN4 (proline adenyltransferase), NgnN5 (proline carrier protein), and NgnN3 (flavine-dependent acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenases). Biosynthesis of pyrrole moiety in nargenicin A(1) is initiated by NgnN4 that catalyzes ATP-dependent activation of L-proline into L-prolyl-AMP, and the latter is transferred to NgnN5 to create prolyl-S-peptidyl carrier protein (PCP). Later, NgnN3 catalyzes the two-step oxidation of prolyl-S-PCP into pyrrole-2-carboxylate. Thus, this study presents another example of a pyrrole moiety biosynthetic pathway that uses a set of three genes to convert L-proline into pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid moiety.

  3. Significance of oxygen supply in jarosite biosynthesis promoted by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qingjie; Fang, Di; Liang, Jianru; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-01-01

    Jarosite [(Na+, K+, NH4+, H3O+)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6] is an efficient scavenger for trace metals in Fe- and SO42--rich acidic water. During the biosynthesis of jarosite promoted by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, the continuous supply of high oxygen levels is a common practice that results in high costs. To evaluate the function of oxygen in jarosite production by A. ferrooxidans, three groups of batch experiments with different oxygen supply levels (i.e., loading volume percentages of FeSO4 solution of 20%, 40%, and 70% v/v in the flasks), as well as three groups of sealed flask experiments with different limiting oxygen supply conditions (i.e., the solutions were not sealed at the initial stage of the ferrous oxidation reaction by paraffin but were rather sealed at the end of the ferrous oxidation reaction at 48 h), were tested. The formed Fe-precipitates were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectral analysis. The results showed that the biosynthesis of jarosite by A. ferrooxidans LX5 could be achieved at a wide range of solution loading volume percentages. The rate and efficiency of the jarosite biosynthesis were poorly correlated with the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reaction solution. Similar jarosite precipitates, expressed as KFe3 (SO4) 2(OH)6 with Fe/S molar ratios between 1.61 and 1.68, were uniformly formed in unsealed and 48 h sealed flasks. These experimental results suggested that the supply of O2 was only essential in the period of the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric but was not required in the period of ferric precipitation.

  4. Significance of Oxygen Supply in Jarosite Biosynthesis Promoted by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jianru; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-01-01

    Jarosite [(Na+, K+, NH4 +, H3O+)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6] is an efficient scavenger for trace metals in Fe- and SO4 2--rich acidic water. During the biosynthesis of jarosite promoted by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, the continuous supply of high oxygen levels is a common practice that results in high costs. To evaluate the function of oxygen in jarosite production by A. ferrooxidans, three groups of batch experiments with different oxygen supply levels (i.e., loading volume percentages of FeSO4 solution of 20%, 40%, and 70% v/v in the flasks), as well as three groups of sealed flask experiments with different limiting oxygen supply conditions (i.e., the solutions were not sealed at the initial stage of the ferrous oxidation reaction by paraffin but were rather sealed at the end of the ferrous oxidation reaction at 48 h), were tested. The formed Fe-precipitates were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectral analysis. The results showed that the biosynthesis of jarosite by A. ferrooxidans LX5 could be achieved at a wide range of solution loading volume percentages. The rate and efficiency of the jarosite biosynthesis were poorly correlated with the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reaction solution. Similar jarosite precipitates, expressed as KFe3 (SO4) 2(OH)6 with Fe/S molar ratios between 1.61 and 1.68, were uniformly formed in unsealed and 48 h sealed flasks. These experimental results suggested that the supply of O2 was only essential in the period of the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric but was not required in the period of ferric precipitation. PMID:25807372

  5. Human frataxin activates Fe-S cluster biosynthesis by facilitating sulfur transfer chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bridwell-Rabb, Jennifer; Fox, Nicholas G; Tsai, Chi-Lin; Winn, Andrew M; Barondeau, David P

    2014-08-05

    Iron-sulfur clusters are ubiquitous protein cofactors with critical cellular functions. The mitochondrial Fe-S assembly complex, which consists of the cysteine desulfurase NFS1 and its accessory protein (ISD11), the Fe-S assembly protein (ISCU2), and frataxin (FXN), converts substrates l-cysteine, ferrous iron, and electrons into Fe-S clusters. The physiological function of FXN has received a tremendous amount of attention since the discovery that its loss is directly linked to the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich's ataxia. Previous in vitro results revealed a role for human FXN in activating the cysteine desulfurase and Fe-S cluster biosynthesis activities of the Fe-S assembly complex. Here we present radiolabeling experiments that indicate FXN accelerates the accumulation of sulfur on ISCU2 and that the resulting persulfide species is viable in the subsequent synthesis of Fe-S clusters. Additional mutagenesis, enzyme kinetic, UV-visible, and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies suggest conserved ISCU2 residue C104 is critical for FXN activation, whereas C35, C61, and C104 are all essential for Fe-S cluster formation on the assembly complex. These results cannot be fully explained by the hypothesis that FXN functions as an iron donor for Fe-S cluster biosynthesis, and further support an allosteric regulator role for FXN. Together, these results lead to an activation model in which FXN accelerates persulfide formation on NFS1 and favors a helix-to-coil interconversion on ISCU2 that facilitates the transfer of sulfur from NFS1 to ISCU2 as an initial step in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis.

  6. Human Frataxin Activates Fe–S Cluster Biosynthesis by Facilitating Sulfur Transfer Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Iron–sulfur clusters are ubiquitous protein cofactors with critical cellular functions. The mitochondrial Fe–S assembly complex, which consists of the cysteine desulfurase NFS1 and its accessory protein (ISD11), the Fe–S assembly protein (ISCU2), and frataxin (FXN), converts substrates l-cysteine, ferrous iron, and electrons into Fe–S clusters. The physiological function of FXN has received a tremendous amount of attention since the discovery that its loss is directly linked to the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich’s ataxia. Previous in vitro results revealed a role for human FXN in activating the cysteine desulfurase and Fe–S cluster biosynthesis activities of the Fe–S assembly complex. Here we present radiolabeling experiments that indicate FXN accelerates the accumulation of sulfur on ISCU2 and that the resulting persulfide species is viable in the subsequent synthesis of Fe–S clusters. Additional mutagenesis, enzyme kinetic, UV–visible, and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies suggest conserved ISCU2 residue C104 is critical for FXN activation, whereas C35, C61, and C104 are all essential for Fe–S cluster formation on the assembly complex. These results cannot be fully explained by the hypothesis that FXN functions as an iron donor for Fe–S cluster biosynthesis, and further support an allosteric regulator role for FXN. Together, these results lead to an activation model in which FXN accelerates persulfide formation on NFS1 and favors a helix-to-coil interconversion on ISCU2 that facilitates the transfer of sulfur from NFS1 to ISCU2 as an initial step in Fe–S cluster biosynthesis. PMID:24971490

  7. Paleoproterozoic sterol biosynthesis and the rise of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, David A.; Caron, Abigail; Fournier, Gregory P.; Summons, Roger E.

    2017-03-01

    Natural products preserved in the geological record can function as ‘molecular fossils’, providing insight into organisms and physiologies that existed in the deep past. One important group of molecular fossils is the steroidal hydrocarbons (steranes), which are the diagenetic remains of sterol lipids. Complex sterols with modified side chains are unique to eukaryotes, although simpler sterols can also be synthesized by a few bacteria. Sterol biosynthesis is an oxygen-intensive process; thus, the presence of complex steranes in ancient rocks not only signals the presence of eukaryotes, but also aerobic metabolic processes. In 1999, steranes were reported in 2.7 billion year (Gyr)-old rocks from the Pilbara Craton in Australia, suggesting a long delay between photosynthetic oxygen production and its accumulation in the atmosphere (also known as the Great Oxidation Event) 2.45-2.32 Gyr ago. However, the recent reappraisal and rejection of these steranes as contaminants pushes the oldest reported steranes forward to around 1.64 Gyr ago (ref. 6). Here we use a molecular clock approach to improve constraints on the evolution of sterol biosynthesis. We infer that stem eukaryotes shared functionally modern sterol biosynthesis genes with bacteria via horizontal gene transfer. Comparing multiple molecular clock analyses, we find that the maximum marginal probability for the divergence time of bacterial and eukaryal sterol biosynthesis genes is around 2.31 Gyr ago, concurrent with the most recent geochemical evidence for the Great Oxidation Event. Our results therefore indicate that simple sterol biosynthesis existed well before the diversification of living eukaryotes, substantially predating the oldest detected sterane biomarkers (approximately 1.64 Gyr ago), and furthermore, that the evolutionary history of sterol biosynthesis is tied to the first widespread availability of molecular oxygen in the ocean-atmosphere system.

  8. Paleoproterozoic sterol biosynthesis and the rise of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Gold, David A; Caron, Abigail; Fournier, Gregory P; Summons, Roger E

    2017-03-16

    Natural products preserved in the geological record can function as 'molecular fossils', providing insight into organisms and physiologies that existed in the deep past. One important group of molecular fossils is the steroidal hydrocarbons (steranes), which are the diagenetic remains of sterol lipids. Complex sterols with modified side chains are unique to eukaryotes, although simpler sterols can also be synthesized by a few bacteria. Sterol biosynthesis is an oxygen-intensive process; thus, the presence of complex steranes in ancient rocks not only signals the presence of eukaryotes, but also aerobic metabolic processes. In 1999, steranes were reported in 2.7 billion year (Gyr)-old rocks from the Pilbara Craton in Australia, suggesting a long delay between photosynthetic oxygen production and its accumulation in the atmosphere (also known as the Great Oxidation Event) 2.45-2.32 Gyr ago. However, the recent reappraisal and rejection of these steranes as contaminants pushes the oldest reported steranes forward to around 1.64 Gyr ago (ref. 6). Here we use a molecular clock approach to improve constraints on the evolution of sterol biosynthesis. We infer that stem eukaryotes shared functionally modern sterol biosynthesis genes with bacteria via horizontal gene transfer. Comparing multiple molecular clock analyses, we find that the maximum marginal probability for the divergence time of bacterial and eukaryal sterol biosynthesis genes is around 2.31 Gyr ago, concurrent with the most recent geochemical evidence for the Great Oxidation Event. Our results therefore indicate that simple sterol biosynthesis existed well before the diversification of living eukaryotes, substantially predating the oldest detected sterane biomarkers (approximately 1.64 Gyr ago), and furthermore, that the evolutionary history of sterol biosynthesis is tied to the first widespread availability of molecular oxygen in the ocean-atmosphere system.

  9. In vitro biosynthesis of unnatural enterocin and wailupemycin polyketides.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzis, John A; Cheng, Qian; Thomas, Paul M; Kelleher, Neil L; Moore, Bradley S

    2009-03-27

    Nature has evolved finely tuned strategies to synthesize rare and complex natural products such as the enterocin family of polyketides from the marine bacterium Streptomyces maritimus. Herein we report the directed ex vivo multienzyme syntheses of 24 unnatural 5-deoxyenterocin and wailupemycin F and G analogues, 18 of which are new. We have generated molecular diversity by priming the enterocin biosynthesis enzymes with unnatural substrates and have illustrated further the uniqueness of this type II polyketide synthase by way of exploiting its unusual starter unit biosynthesis pathways.

  10. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao

    2009-01-01

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

  11. Sequential enzymatic epoxidation involved in polyether lasalocid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Minami, Atsushi; Shimaya, Mayu; Suzuki, Gaku; Migita, Akira; Shinde, Sandip S; Sato, Kyohei; Watanabe, Kenji; Tamura, Tomohiro; Oguri, Hiroki; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2012-05-02

    Enantioselective epoxidation followed by regioselective epoxide opening reaction are the key processes in construction of the polyether skeleton. Recent genetic analysis of ionophore polyether biosynthetic gene clusters suggested that flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) could be involved in the oxidation steps. In vivo and in vitro analyses of Lsd18, an FMO involved in the biosynthesis of polyether lasalocid, using simple olefin or truncated diene of a putative substrate as substrate mimics demonstrated that enantioselective epoxidation affords natural type mono- or bis-epoxide in a stepwise manner. These findings allow us to figure out enzymatic polyether construction in lasalocid biosynthesis. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  12. Biosynthesis of oxygen and nitrogen-containing heterocycles in polyketides

    PubMed Central

    Hemmerling, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Summary This review highlights the biosynthesis of heterocycles in polyketide natural products with a focus on oxygen and nitrogen-containing heterocycles with ring sizes between 3 and 6 atoms. Heterocycles are abundant structural elements of natural products from all classes and they often contribute significantly to their biological activity. Progress in recent years has led to a much better understanding of their biosynthesis. In this context, plenty of novel enzymology has been discovered, suggesting that these pathways are an attractive target for future studies. PMID:27559404

  13. N-Hydroxylation of 4-Aminobiphenyl by CYP2E1 Produces Oxidative Stress in a Mouse Model of Chemically Induced Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Sugamori, Kim S.; Tung, Aveline; McPherson, J. Peter; Grant, Denis M.

    2015-01-01

    4-Aminobiphenyl (ABP) is a trace component of cigarette smoke and hair dyes, a suspected human carcinogen and a potent rodent liver carcinogen. Postnatal exposure of mice to ABP results in a higher incidence of liver tumors in males than in females, paralleling the sex difference in human liver cancer incidence. A traditional model of ABP tumorigenesis involves initial CYP1A2-mediated N-hydroxylation, which eventually leads to production of mutagenic ABP-DNA adducts that initiate tumor growth. However, several studies have found no correlation between sex or CYP1A2 function and the DNA-damaging, mutagenic, or tumorigenic effects of ABP. Oxidative stress may be an important etiological factor for liver cancer, and it has also been linked to ABP exposure. The goals of this study were to identify novel enzyme(s) that contribute to ABP N-oxidation, and to investigate a potential role for oxidative stress in ABP liver tumorigenicity. Isozyme-selective inhibition experiments using liver microsomes from wild-type and genetically modified mice identified CYP2E1 as a major ABP N-hydroxylating enzyme. The N-hydroxylation of ABP by transiently expressed CYP2E1 produced oxidative stress in cultured mouse hepatoma cells. In vivo postnatal exposure of mice to a tumorigenic dose of ABP also produced oxidative stress in male wild-type mice, but not in male Cyp2e1(−/−) mice or in female mice. However, a stronger NRF2-associated antioxidant response was observed in females. Our results identify CYP2E1 as a novel ABP-N-oxidizing enzyme, and suggest that sex differences in CYP2E1-dependent oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to ABP may contribute to the observed sex difference in tumor incidence. PMID:25601990

  14. Substitution of specific cysteine residues in E1 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus strain Brescia affects formation of E1-E2 heterodimers and alters virulence in swine

    E1, along with E^rns and E2, is one of the three envelope glycoproteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). E1 and E2 are anchored to the virus envelope at their carboxyl termini and E^rns loosely associates with the viral envelope. In infected cells, E2 forms homodimers and heterodimers with E1,...

  15. Specialized proresolving mediator targets for RvE1 and RvD1 in peripheral blood and mechanisms of resolution

    PubMed Central

    Fredman, Gabrielle; Serhan, Charles N.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation when unchecked is associated with many prevalent disorders such as the classic inflammatory diseases arthritis and periodontal disease, as well as the more recent additions that include diabetes and cardiovascular maladies. Hence mechanisms to curtail the inflammatory response and promote catabasis are of immense interest. In recent years, evidence has prompted a paradigm shift whereby the resolution of acute inflammation is a biochemically active process regulated in part by endogenous PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)-derived autacoids. Among these are a novel genus of SPMs (specialized proresolving mediators) that comprise novel families of mediators including lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins. SPMs have distinct structures and act via specific G-protein seven transmembrane receptors that signal intracellular events on selective cellular targets activating proresolving programmes while countering pro-inflammatory signals. An appreciation of these endogenous pathways and mediators that control timely resolution opened a new terrain for therapeutic approaches targeted at stimulating resolution of local inflammation. In the present review, we provide an overview of the biosynthesis and actions of resolvin E1, underscoring its protective role in vascular systems and regulating platelet responses. We also give an overview of newly described resolution circuitry whereby resolvins govern miRNAs (microRNAs), and transcription factors that counter-regulate pro-inflammatory chemokines, cytokines and lipid mediators. PMID:21711247

  16. 11 CFR 101.1 - Candidate designations (2 U.S.C. 432(e)(1)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate designations (2 U.S.C. 432(e)(1)). 101.1 Section 101.1 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CANDIDATE STATUS AND... and address, party affiliation, and office sought, the District and State in which Federal office is...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar... Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(e)-1 Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as... the person entitled thereto. Such right accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar... Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(e)-1 Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as... the person entitled thereto. Such right accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar... Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(e)-1 Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as... the person entitled thereto. Such right accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article...

  20. The Adenovirus E1A C Terminus Suppresses a Delayed Antiviral Response and Modulates RAS Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zemke, Nathan R; Berk, Arnold J

    2017-12-13

    The N-terminal half of adenovirus e1a assembles multimeric complexes with host proteins that repress innate immune responses and force host cells into S-phase. In contrast, the functions of e1a's C-terminal interactions with FOXK, DCAF7, and CtBP are unknown. We found that these interactions modulate RAS signaling, and that a single e1a molecule must bind all three of these host proteins to suppress activation of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs were otherwise induced in primary respiratory epithelial cells at 12 hr p.i. This delayed activation of ISGs required IRF3 and coincided with an ∼10-fold increase in IRF3 from protein stabilization. The induced IRF3 bound to chromatin and localized to the promoters of activated ISGs. While IRF3, STAT1/2, and IRF9 all greatly increased in concentration, there were no corresponding mRNA increases, suggesting that e1a regulates the stabilities of these key activators of innate immune responses, as shown directly for IRF3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 26 CFR 301.6323(e)-1 - Priority of interest and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interest is not subrogated to the rights of the holder of the State sales tax lien. However, if the holder...)-1, to the rights of the holder of the sales tax lien, he will also be entitled to any additional....6323(e)-1 Priority of interest and expenses. (a) In general. If the lien imposed by section 6321 is not...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar... Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(e)-1 Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as... the person entitled thereto. Such right accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6511(e)-1 - Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar... Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(e)-1 Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar. (a) Use as... the person entitled thereto. Such right accrues as of the date the manufactured sugar, or article...

  4. Induction of CYP2E1 in non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Aljomah, Ghanim; Baker, Susan S.; Liu, Wensheng; Kozielski, Rafal; Oluwole, Janet; Lupu, Benita; Baker, Robert D.; Zhu, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports a contribution of endogenous alcohol metabolism in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, it is not known whether the expression of alcohol metabolism genes is altered in the livers of simple steatosis. There is also a current debate on whether fatty acids induce CYP2E1 in fatty livers. In this study, expression of alcohol metabolizing genes in the liver biopsies of simple steatosis patients was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), in comparison to biopsies of NASH livers and normal controls. Induction of alcohol metabolizing genes was also examined in cultured HepG2 cells treated with ethanol or oleic acid, by qRT-PCR and Western blots. We found that the mRNA expression of alcohol metabolizing genes including ADH1C, ADH4, ADH6, catalase and CYP2E1 were elevated in the livers of simple steatosis, to similar levels found in NASH livers. In cultured HepG2 cells, ethanol induced the expression of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein, but not ADH4 or ADH6; oleic acid did not induce any of these genes. These results suggest that elevated alcohol metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD at the stage of simple steatosis as well as more severe stages. Our in vitro data support that CYP2E1 is induced by endogenous alcohol but not by fatty acids. PMID:26551085

  5. NOVEL ASSAY TO ASSESS CYP-2E1-LIKE ACTIVITY IN THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liver microsomes and S-9 fraction of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) metabolized the CYP2E1 specific substrate, p-nitrophenol (PNP), to a single hydroxylated product, 4-nitrocatechol. The use of liver S-9 fraction proved to be a viable alternative to liver microsomes and allowe...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1397E-1 - Qualified zone academy bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1397E-1 Qualified zone... section 1397E(d)(2)(B)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv) or (v). Services of employees of the eligible local education... empowerment zone or enterprise community (as defined in section 1393), or there is a reasonable expectation...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1397E-1 - Qualified zone academy bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1397E-1 Qualified zone... section 1397E(d)(2)(B)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv) or (v). Services of employees of the eligible local education... empowerment zone or enterprise community (as defined in section 1393), or there is a reasonable expectation...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1397E-1 - Qualified zone academy bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1397E-1 Qualified zone... section 1397E(d)(2)(B)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv) or (v). Services of employees of the eligible local education... empowerment zone or enterprise community (as defined in section 1393), or there is a reasonable expectation...

  9. A New Measurement of the E1 Component of the ^12C(,)^16O Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X. D.; Notani, M.; Rehm, K. E.; Ahmad, I.; Greene, J.; Hecht, A. A.; Henderson, D.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Jiang, C. L.; Moore, E. F.; Patel, N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Schiffer, J. P.; Sinha, S.; Paul, M.; Jisonna, L.; Segel, R. E.; Brune, C.; Champagne, A.; Wuosmaa, A.

    2006-10-01

    Durin the past few years we have been involved in a measurement of the E1 component of the ^12C(,)^16O reaction. Using a new approach with a set of high acceptance ionization chambers, we have measured the beta-delayed alpha decay in ^16N. The subthreshold 1^- state, which dominates the S-factor S(E1) at astrophysical energies, produces a small interference peak in the alpha spectrum, whose strength is sensitive to S(E1). The data have been analyzed using extrapolations obtained from R-matrix theory. The results from two independent runs will be presented and compared to previous experiments. The contributions from systematic uncertainties as well as the sensitivity of S(E1) to various R-matrix parameters will be discussed. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics Division, under contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38 and by the NSF Grant No. PHY-02-16783 (Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics).

  10. The 8-Pyrrole-Benzothiazinones Are Noncovalent Inhibitors of DprE1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, Vadim; Neres, João; Hartkoorn, Ruben C.; Ryabova, Olga B.; Kazakova, Elena; Šarkan, Michal; Huszár, Stanislav; Piton, Jérémie; Kolly, Gaëlle S.; Vocat, Anthony; Conroy, Trent M.; Mikušová, Katarína

    2015-01-01

    8-Nitro-benzothiazinones (BTZs), such as BTZ043 and PBTZ169, inhibit decaprenylphosphoryl-β-d-ribose 2′-oxidase (DprE1) and display nanomolar bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed the 8-nitro group of the BTZ scaffold to be crucial for the mechanism of action, which involves formation of a semimercaptal bond with Cys387 in the active site of DprE1. To date, substitution of the 8-nitro group has led to extensive loss of antimycobacterial activity. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of the pyrrole-benzothiazinones PyrBTZ01 and PyrBTZ02, non-nitro-benzothiazinones that retain significant antimycobacterial activity, with MICs of 0.16 μg/ml against M. tuberculosis. These compounds inhibit DprE1 with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of <8 μM and present favorable in vitro absorption-distribution-metabolism-excretion/toxicity (ADME/T) and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles. The most promising compound, PyrBTZ01, did not show efficacy in a mouse model of acute tuberculosis, suggesting that BTZ-mediated killing through DprE1 inhibition requires a combination of both covalent bond formation and compound potency. PMID:25987616

  11. 17 CFR 270.30e-1 - Reports to stockholders of management companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... delivered separately from other communications to investors, this statement may appear either on the notice... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports to stockholders of... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.30e-1 Reports to...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6501(e)-1T - Omission from return (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or business, means the total of the amounts received or accrued from the sale of goods or services... to any income other than from the sale of goods or services in a trade or business, has the same...)-1T Section 301.6501(e)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  13. 17 CFR 270.30e-1 - Reports to stockholders of management companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.30e-1 Reports to... Corporation] Shareholders,” “Jane Doe and Household,” “The Smith Family”) or to each of the shareholders...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1397E-1 - Qualified zone academy bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1397E-1 Qualified zone... empowerment zone or enterprise community (as defined in section 1393), or there is a reasonable expectation... located in an empowerment zone or enterprise community for the entire term of the issue if the public...

  15. cea-kil operon of the ColE1 plasmid.

    PubMed Central

    Sabik, J F; Suit, J L; Luria, S E

    1983-01-01

    We isolated a series of Tn5 transposon insertion mutants and chemically induced mutants with mutations in the region of the ColE1 plasmid that includes the cea (colicin) and imm (immunity) genes. Bacterial cells harboring each of the mutant plasmids were tested for their response to the colicin-inducing agent mitomycin C. All insertion mutations within the cea gene failed to bring about cell killing after mitomycin C treatment. A cea- amber mutation exerted a polar effect on killing by mitomycin C. Two insertions beyond the cea gene but within or near the imm gene also prevented the lethal response to mitomycin C. These findings suggest the presence in the ColE1 plasmid of an operon containing the cea and kil genes whose product is needed for mitomycin C-induced lethality. Bacteria carrying ColE1 plasmids with Tn5 inserted within the cea gene produced serologically cross-reacting fragments of the colicin E1 molecule, the lengths of which were proportional to the distance between the insertion and the promoter end of the cea gene. Images PMID:6298187

  16. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Installment obligations transmitted at death... Decedents § 1.691(e)-1 Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied. (a) In general... obligations at the death of a holder of such obligations were required to be reported in the return of the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.691(e)-1 - Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Installment obligations transmitted at death....691(e)-1 Installment obligations transmitted at death when prior law applied. (a) In general—(1... death of a holder of such obligations were required to be reported in the return of the decedent for the...

  18. Osteogenic gene expression of murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells under cyclic tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, C. T.; Chen, C. C.; Cheong, U.-I.; Liu, S. L.; Huang, T. H.

    2014-08-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can promote cell proliferation. The remodeling ability of the tension side of orthodontic teeth affects post-orthodontic stability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the osteogenic effects of LLLT on osteoblast-like cells treated with a simulated tension system that provides a mechanical tension regimen. Murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells were cultured in a Flexcell strain unit with programmed loads of 12% elongation at a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 24 and 48 h. The cultured cells were treated with a low-level diode laser using powers of 5 J and 10 J. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The expression of osteogenic genes (type I collagen (Col-1), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), bone morphologic protein (BMP-2), and bone morphologic protein (BMP-4)) in MC3T3-E1 cells was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The proliferation rate of tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells under 5 J and 10 J LLLT increased compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Prominent mineralization of the MC3T3-E1 cells was visible using a von Kossa stain in the 5 J LLLT group. Osteogenic genes (Col-1, OC, OPG and BMP-2) were significantly expressed in the MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 5 J and 10 J LLLT (p < 0.05). LLLT in tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells showed synergistic osteogenic effects, including increases in cell proliferation and Col-1, OPN, OC, OPG and BMP-2 gene expression. LLLT might be beneficial for bone remodeling on the tension side of orthodontics.

  19. Gender difference in NASH susceptibility: Roles of hepatocyte Ikkβ and Sult1e1

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Noriko; Hassanein, Mohamed T.; Martinez-Clemente, Marcos; Lazaro, Raul; French, Samuel W.; Xie, Wen; Lai, Keane; Karin, Michael; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2017-01-01

    Myeloid cell and hepatocyte IKKβ may mediate the genesis of obesity and insulin resistance in mice fed high fat diet. However, their gender-specific roles in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not known. Here we demonstrate myeloid IKKβ deficiency prevents Western diet-induced obesity and visceral adiposity in females but not in males, and attenuates hyperglycemia, global IR, and NASH in both genders. In contrast, all metabolic sequela including NASH are aggravated by hepatocyte IKKβ deficiency (IkbkbΔhep) in male but not female mice. Gene profiling identifies sulfotransferase family 1E (Sult1e1), which encodes a sulfotransferase E1 responsible for inactivation of estrogen, as a gene upregulated in NASH in both genders and most conspicuously in male IkbkbΔhep mice having worst NASH and lowest plasma estradiol levels. LXRα is enriched to LXRE on Sult1e1 promoter in male WT and IkbkbΔhep mice with NASH, and a Sult1e1 promoter activity is increased by LXRα and its ligand and augmented by expression of a S32A mutant of IκBα. These results demonstrate striking gender differences in regulation by IKKβ of high cholesterol saturated fat diet-induced metabolic changes including NASH and suggest hepatocyte IKKβ is protective in male due at least in part to its ability to repress LXR-induced Sult1e1. Our findings also raise a caution for systemic IKK inhibition for the treatment of NASH as it may exacerbate the disease in male patients. PMID:28797077

  20. Role of CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms association with hepatitis risk in Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Manab; Bose, Moumita; Baruah, Bharati; Bose, Purabi Deka; Medhi, Subhash; Bose, Sujoy; Saikia, Anjan; Kar, Premashish

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate hepatitis virus, genetic and environmental factors, and their interactions in predisposing patients to liver diseases in Northeast India. METHODS: A total of 104 jaundice patients and 124 community controls were included. Serological analysis was performed by routine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and nucleic acid testing for hepatitis viruses was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by PCR direct sequencing for viral genotyping. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) polymorphism was studied by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Nitrite and volatile nitrosamines in indigenous foods consumed routinely by the Northeast Indian ethnic population were estimated by Griess’s reagent and GC-MS, respectively. RESULTS: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection was predominantly prevalent (36.5%) in our cohort, followed by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis E virus (HEV) and hepatitis C virus. HBV genotype D and HEV genotype 1 were the most dominant. CYP2E1 c1/c2 genotype frequency was comparatively higher in alcoholic (P < 0.0001, OR = 30.5) and cryptogenic (P = 0.014, OR = 8.714) patients, and was associated with significantly higher hepatitis risk (P = 0.0.007, OR = 6.489). Mutant C allele of Cyp2E1 DraI frequency was comparatively higher in HAV (P = 0.006), alcoholic (P = 0.003) and cryptogenic (P = 0.014) cases, and was associated with overall hepatitis risk (P = 0.026, OR = 5.083). Indigenous foods, Gundruk, Kharoli, betel leaf and nuts were found to have the highest nitrite content. CONCLUSION: Apart from viral factors, CYP2E1 polymorphism might be associated with increased risk of liver diseases in Northeast India. Indigenous foods that contain nitrite and nitrosamine might be an associated risk factor. PMID:20939108

  1. CYP109E1 is a novel versatile statin and terpene oxidase from Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Putkaradze, Natalia; Litzenburger, Martin; Abdulmughni, Ammar; Milhim, Mohammed; Brill, Elisa; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita

    2017-12-01

    CYP109E1 is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium with a hydroxylation activity for testosterone and vitamin D3. This study reports the screening of a focused library of statins, terpene-derived and steroidal compounds to explore the substrate spectrum of this enzyme. Catalytic activity of CYP109E1 towards the statin drug-precursor compactin and the prodrugs lovastatin and simvastatin as well as biotechnologically relevant terpene compounds including ionones, nootkatone, isolongifolen-9-one, damascones, and β-damascenone was found in vitro. The novel substrates induced a type I spin-shift upon binding to P450 and thus permitted to determine dissociation constants. For the identification of conversion products by NMR spectroscopy, a B. megaterium whole-cell system was applied. NMR analysis revealed for the first time the ability of CYP109E1 to catalyze an industrially highly important reaction, the production of pravastatin from compactin, as well as regioselective oxidations generating drug metabolites (6'β-hydroxy-lovastatin, 3'α-hydroxy-simvastatin, and 4″-hydroxy-simvastatin) and valuable terpene derivatives (3-hydroxy-α-ionone, 4-hydroxy-β-ionone, 11,12-epoxy-nootkatone, 4(R)-hydroxy-isolongifolen-9-one, 3-hydroxy-α-damascone, 4-hydroxy-β-damascone, and 3,4-epoxy-β-damascone). Besides that, a novel compound, 2-hydroxy-β-damascenone, produced by CYP109E1 was identified. Docking calculations using the crystal structure of CYP109E1 rationalized the experimentally observed regioselective hydroxylation and identified important amino acid residues for statin and terpene binding.

  2. Safety study and characterization of E1A-liposome complex gene-delivery protocol in an ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Xing, X; Zhang, S; Chang, J Y; Tucker, S D; Chen, H; Huang, L; Hung, M C

    1998-11-01

    A phase I clinical trial of E1A-liposome complex is currently ongoing in patients with HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast or ovarian cancers. To optimize the E1A-liposome complex for a further stage of clinical trial, several aspects of the current protocol have been examined in an animal model. In the orthotopic ovarian cancer model, different doses of lipid in the the E1A-liposome complex, which is currently used in clinical trials, were tested for the in vivo gene-transfer efficacy and tumor-suppression function. A lowered lipid dose--1/13 of the previous amount--produced gene expression level and E1A tumor-suppression efficacy similar to that of the original protocol. Mini-E1A, an E1A construct without its immortalization domain and yet capable of repressing HER-2/neu, was proved to be as potent as E1A in suppressing tumor development in vivo. These changes in the E1A-liposome complex will significantly reduce any potential adverse effects caused by lipid vector and E1A DNA. To examine further whether residual E1A DNA may still exist in normal organs after the E1A-liposome treatment, PCR was used to detect E1A DNA in mice that survived for 1 1/2 years after the last treatment. E1A DNA was detected only in the lungs and kidneys, but not in livers, hearts, spleens, brains, uterus or the ovaries. Furthermore, resistance of the E1A DNA extracted from tissues to the digestion of Dpnl restriction enzyme, which can cleave the methylated E1A plasmid DNA generated by methylation-competent bacteria, suggested integration of E1A DNA into the chromosome of the lungs and kidneys. Experimental results presented here provide important information for safety concerns and for the design of future phase II and phase III trials.

  3. Inducible knock-down of GNOM during root formation reveals tissue-specific response to auxin transport and its modulation of local auxin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    In plants, active transport of auxin plays an essential role in root development. Localization of the PIN1 auxin transporters to the basal membrane of cells directs auxin flow and depends on the trafficking mediator GNOM. GNOM-dependent auxin transport is vital for root development and thus offers a useful tool for the investigation of a possible tissue-specific response to dynamic auxin transport. To avoid pleiotropic effects, DEX-inducible expression of GNOM antisense RNA was used to disrupt GNOM expression transiently or persistently during embryonic root development. It was found that the elongation zone and the pericycle layer are the most sensitive to GNOM-dependent auxin transport variations, which is shown by the phenotypes in cell elongation and the initiation of lateral root primordia, respectively. This suggests that auxin dynamics is critical to cell differentiation and cell fate transition, but not to cell division. The results also reveal that GNOM-dependent auxin transport could affect local auxin biosynthesis. This suggests that local auxin biosynthesis may also contribute to the establishment of GNOM-dependent auxin gradients in specific tissues, and that auxin transport and local auxin biosynthesis may function together in the regulatory network for initiation and development of lateral root primordia. Thus, the data reveal a tissue-specific response to auxin transport and modulation of local auxin biosynthesis by auxin transport. PMID:24453227

  4. SbCOMT (Bmr12) is involved in the biosynthesis of tricin-lignin in sorghum

    SciT

    Eudes, Aymerick; Dutta, Tanmoy; Deng, Kai

    Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, tricin has been shown to be part of the native lignin polymer in certain monocot species. Because tricin is considered to initiate the polymerization of lignin chains, elucidating its biosynthesis and mechanism of export to the cell wall constitute novel challenges for the engineering of bioenergy crops. Late steps of tricin biosynthesis require two methylation reactions involving the pathway intermediate selgin. It has recently been demonstrated in rice and maizemore » that caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT) involved in the synthesis syringyl (S) lignin units derived from sinapyl alcohol also participates in the synthesis of tricin in planta. In this work, we validate in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) that the O-methyltransferase responsible for the production of S lignin units (SbCOMT / Bmr12) is also involved in the synthesis of lignin-linked tricin. In particular, we show that biomass from the sorghum bmr12 mutant contains lower level of tricin incorporated into lignin, and that SbCOMT can methylate the tricin precursors luteolin and selgin. Our genetic and biochemical data point toward a general mechanism whereby COMT is involved in the synthesis of both tricin and S lignin units.« less

  5. SbCOMT (Bmr12) is involved in the biosynthesis of tricin-lignin in sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Eudes, Aymerick; Dutta, Tanmoy; Deng, Kai; Jacquet, Nicolas; Sinha, Anagh; Benites, Veronica T.; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Richel, Aurore; Sattler, Scott E.; Northen, Trent R.; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.

    2017-01-01

    Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, tricin has been shown to be part of the native lignin polymer in certain monocot species. Because tricin is considered to initiate the polymerization of lignin chains, elucidating its biosynthesis and mechanism of export to the cell wall constitute novel challenges for the engineering of bioenergy crops. Late steps of tricin biosynthesis require two methylation reactions involving the pathway intermediate selgin. It has recently been demonstrated in rice and maize that caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT) involved in the synthesis syringyl (S) lignin units derived from sinapyl alcohol also participates in the synthesis of tricin in planta. In this work, we validate in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) that the O-methyltransferase responsible for the production of S lignin units (SbCOMT / Bmr12) is also involved in the synthesis of lignin-linked tricin. In particular, we show that biomass from the sorghum bmr12 mutant contains lower level of tricin incorporated into lignin, and that SbCOMT can methylate the tricin precursors luteolin and selgin. Our genetic and biochemical data point toward a general mechanism whereby COMT is involved in the synthesis of both tricin and S lignin units. PMID:28594846

  6. SbCOMT (Bmr12) is involved in the biosynthesis of tricin-lignin in sorghum

    DOE PAGES

    Eudes, Aymerick; Dutta, Tanmoy; Deng, Kai; ...

    2017-06-08

    Lignin in plant biomass represents a target for engineering strategies towards the development of a sustainable bioeconomy. In addition to the conventional lignin monomers, namely p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, tricin has been shown to be part of the native lignin polymer in certain monocot species. Because tricin is considered to initiate the polymerization of lignin chains, elucidating its biosynthesis and mechanism of export to the cell wall constitute novel challenges for the engineering of bioenergy crops. Late steps of tricin biosynthesis require two methylation reactions involving the pathway intermediate selgin. It has recently been demonstrated in rice and maizemore » that caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT) involved in the synthesis syringyl (S) lignin units derived from sinapyl alcohol also participates in the synthesis of tricin in planta. In this work, we validate in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) that the O-methyltransferase responsible for the production of S lignin units (SbCOMT / Bmr12) is also involved in the synthesis of lignin-linked tricin. In particular, we show that biomass from the sorghum bmr12 mutant contains lower level of tricin incorporated into lignin, and that SbCOMT can methylate the tricin precursors luteolin and selgin. Our genetic and biochemical data point toward a general mechanism whereby COMT is involved in the synthesis of both tricin and S lignin units.« less

  7. Cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibition prevents hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in alcohol-fed rats

    Chronic alcohol ingestion increases hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with chlormethiazole (CMZ), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, protects against alcohol-associated hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were fed either an ethan...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1033(e)-1 - Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of drought. 1.1033(e)-1 Section 1.1033(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.1033(e)-1 Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought. (a) The sale or exchange of... applicable if the sale or exchange of such livestock by the taxpayer is solely on account of drought. Section...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1033(e)-1 - Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of drought. 1.1033(e)-1 Section 1.1033(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.1033(e)-1 Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought. (a) The sale or exchange of... applicable if the sale or exchange of such livestock by the taxpayer is solely on account of drought. Section...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1033(e)-1 - Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of drought. 1.1033(e)-1 Section 1.1033(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.1033(e)-1 Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought. (a) The sale or exchange of... applicable if the sale or exchange of such livestock by the taxpayer is solely on account of drought. Section...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1033(e)-1 - Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of drought. 1.1033(e)-1 Section 1.1033(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.1033(e)-1 Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought. (a) The sale or exchange of... applicable if the sale or exchange of such livestock by the taxpayer is solely on account of drought. Section...

  12. Anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Amrita B.; Han, Andrew W.; Mehta, Angad P.; Mok, Kenny C.; Osadchiy, Vadim; Begley, Tadhg P.; Taga, Michiko E.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required by humans and other organisms for diverse metabolic processes, although only a subset of prokaryotes is capable of synthesizing B12 and other cobamide cofactors. The complete aerobic and anaerobic pathways for the de novo biosynthesis of B12 are known, with the exception of the steps leading to the anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we report the identification and characterization of the complete pathway for anaerobic DMB biosynthesis. This pathway, identified in the obligate anaerobic bacterium Eubacterium limosum, is composed of five previously uncharacterized genes, bzaABCDE, that together direct DMB production when expressed in anaerobically cultured Escherichia coli. Expression of different combinations of the bza genes revealed that 5-hydroxybenzimidazole, 5-methoxybenzimidazole, and 5-methoxy-6-methylbenzimidazole, all of which are lower ligands of cobamides produced by other organisms, are intermediates in the pathway. The bza gene content of several bacterial and archaeal genomes is consistent with experimentally determined structures of the benzimidazoles produced by these organisms, indicating that these genes can be used to predict cobamide structure. The identification of the bza genes thus represents the last remaining unknown component of the biosynthetic pathway for not only B12 itself, but also for three other cobamide lower ligands whose biosynthesis was previously unknown. Given the importance of cobamides in environmental, industrial, and human-associated microbial metabolism, the ability to predict cobamide structure may lead to an improved ability to understand and manipulate microbial metabolism. PMID:26246619

  13. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken’Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective ‘single pgFARs’ produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a ‘single reductase’ can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  14. Shedding light on ovothiol biosynthesis in marine metazoans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; D'Aniello, Salvatore; Merlino, Antonello; Napolitano, Alessandra; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Ovothiol, isolated from marine invertebrate eggs, is considered one of the most powerful antioxidant with potential for drug development. However, its biological functions in marine organisms still represent a matter of debate. In sea urchins, the most accepted view is that ovothiol protects the eggs by the high oxidative burst at fertilization. In this work we address the role of ovothiol during sea urchin development to give new insights on ovothiol biosynthesis in metazoans. The gene involved in ovothiol biosynthesis OvoA was identified in Paracentrotus lividus genome (PlOvoA). PlOvoA embryo expression significantly increased at the pluteus stage and was up-regulated by metals at concentrations mimicking polluted sea-water and by cyclic toxic algal blooms, leading to ovothiol biosynthesis. In silico analyses of the PlOvoA upstream region revealed metal and stress responsive elements. Structural protein models highlighted conserved active site residues likely responsible for ovothiol biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OvoA evolved in most marine metazoans and was lost in bony vertebrates during the transition from the aquatic to terrestrial environment. These results highlight the crucial role of OvoA in protecting embryos released in seawater from environmental cues, thus allowing the survival under different conditions.

  15. Sampangine inhibits heme biosynthesis in both yeast and human

    The azaoxoaporphine alkaloid sampangine exhibits strong antiproliferation activity in various organisms. Previous studies suggested that it somehow affects heme metabolism and stimulates production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we show that inhibition of heme biosynthesis is the p...

  16. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines w...

  17. The substances of plant origin that inhibit protein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gałasiński, W; Chlabicz, J; Paszkiewicz-Gadek, A; Marcinkiewicz, C; Gindzieński, A

    1996-01-01

    Some plants were used for a long time in folk medicine as sources of anti-tumour remedies. Their effects on protein biosynthesis in vitro have been examined and described. The separate features of the peptide elongation system, isolated from tumoural cells, have been demonstrated. Some elongation factors or ribosomes have been shown to be a target site for the inhibition of protein biosynthesis caused by the substances isolated from various sources. The glycoside and caffeic acid, isolated from Melissa officinalis leaves, inhibited protein biosynthesis by direct influence the elongation factor eEF-2. The activity of this factor was also inhibited by aloin and aloeemodin. Saponin glycoside and its aglycon, isolated from Verbascum thapsiforme flowers, as well as digoxin, emetine and cepheline directly inactivated ribosomes. "Chagi" fraction, isolated from Inonotus obliquus, is responsible for the inhibitory effect caused by the aqueous tannin--less extract from this fungus. The target site for quercetin has been found to be the subunit form EF-1 alpha. It may be supposed that, the plant inhibitors of protein biosynthesis could be utilized for searching specific antitumoural preparations.

  18. Biosynthesis and Molecular Genetics of Polyketides in Marine Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Kellmann, Ralf; Stüken, Anke; Orr, Russell J. S.; Svendsen, Helene M.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2010-01-01

    Marine dinoflagellates are the single most important group of algae that produce toxins, which have a global impact on human activities. The toxins are chemically diverse, and include macrolides, cyclic polyethers, spirolides and purine alkaloids. Whereas there is a multitude of studies describing the pharmacology of these toxins, there is limited or no knowledge regarding the biochemistry and molecular genetics involved in their biosynthesis. Recently, however, exciting advances have been made. Expressed sequence tag sequencing studies have revealed important insights into the transcriptomes of dinoflagellates, whereas other studies have implicated polyketide synthase genes in the biosynthesis of cyclic polyether toxins, and the molecular genetic basis for the biosynthesis of paralytic shellfish toxins has been elucidated in cyanobacteria. This review summarises the recent progress that has been made regarding the unusual genomes of dinoflagellates, the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of dinoflagellate toxins. In addition, the evolution of these metabolic pathways will be discussed, and an outlook for future research and possible applications is provided. PMID:20479965

  19. Shedding light on ovothiol biosynthesis in marine metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; D’Aniello, Salvatore; Merlino, Antonello; Napolitano, Alessandra; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Ovothiol, isolated from marine invertebrate eggs, is considered one of the most powerful antioxidant with potential for drug development. However, its biological functions in marine organisms still represent a matter of debate. In sea urchins, the most accepted view is that ovothiol protects the eggs by the high oxidative burst at fertilization. In this work we address the role of ovothiol during sea urchin development to give new insights on ovothiol biosynthesis in metazoans. The gene involved in ovothiol biosynthesis OvoA was identified in Paracentrotus lividus genome (PlOvoA). PlOvoA embryo expression significantly increased at the pluteus stage and was up-regulated by metals at concentrations mimicking polluted sea-water and by cyclic toxic algal blooms, leading to ovothiol biosynthesis. In silico analyses of the PlOvoA upstream region revealed metal and stress responsive elements. Structural protein models highlighted conserved active site residues likely responsible for ovothiol biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OvoA evolved in most marine metazoans and was lost in bony vertebrates during the transition from the aquatic to terrestrial environment. These results highlight the crucial role of OvoA in protecting embryos released in seawater from environmental cues, thus allowing the survival under different conditions. PMID:26916575

  20. Origin of the Allyl Group in FK506 Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Goranovič, Dušan; Kosec, Gregor; Mrak, Peter; Fujs, Štefan; Horvat, Jaka; Kuščer, Enej; Kopitar, Gregor; Petković, Hrvoje

    2010-01-01

    FK506 (tacrolimus) is a secondary metabolite with a potent immunosuppressive activity, currently registered for use as immunosuppressant after organ transplantation. FK506 and FK520 are biogenetically related natural products that are synthesized by combined polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase systems. The entire gene cluster for biosynthesis of FK520 from Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus has been cloned and sequenced. On the other hand, the FK506 gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. MA6548 (ATCC55098) was sequenced only partially, and it was reasonable to expect that additional genes would be required for the provision of substrate supply. Here we report the identification of a previously unknown region of the FK506 gene cluster from Streptomyces tsukubaensis NRRL 18488 containing genes encoding the provision of unusual building blocks for FK506 biosynthesis as well as a regulatory gene. Among others, we identified a group of genes encoding biosynthesis of the extender unit that forms the allyl group at carbon 21 of FK506. Interestingly, we have identified a small independent diketide synthase system involved in the biosynthesis of the allyl group. Inactivation of one of these genes, encoding an unusual ketosynthase domain, resulted in an FK506 nonproducing strain, and the production was restored when a synthetic analog of the allylmalonyl-CoA extender unit was added to the cultivation medium. Based on our results, we propose a biosynthetic pathway for the provision of an unusual five-carbon extender unit, which is carried out by a novel diketide synthase complex. PMID:20194504

  1. Hacking an Algal Transcription Factor for Lipid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulai; Hu, Guipeng; Liu, Liming

    2018-03-01

    Transcriptional engineering is a viable means for engineering microalgae to produce lipid, but it often results in a trade-off between production and growth. A recent study shows that engineering a single transcriptional regulator enables efficient carbon partitioning to lipid biosynthesis with high biomass productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-genome research on the biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Ming; Unsöld, Inge A

    2006-10-01

    Genome sequencing provides new opportunities and challenges for identifying genes for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. A putative biosynthetic gene cluster of fumigaclavine C, an ergot alkaloid of the clavine type, was identified in the genome sequence of ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS by a bioinformatic approach. This cluster spans 22 kb of genomic DNA and comprises at least 11 open reading frames (ORFs). Seven of them are orthologous to genes from the biosynthetic gene cluster of ergot alkaloids in CLAVICEPS PURPUREA. Experimental evidence of the identified cluster was provided by heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of two ORFs, FgaPT1 and FgaPT2, in the cluster of A. FUMIGATUS, which show remarkable similarities to dimethylallyltryptophan synthase from C. PURPUREA and function as prenyltransferases. FgaPT2 converts L-tryptophan to dimethylallyltryptophan and thereby catalyzes the first step of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis, whilst FgaPT1 catalyzes the last step of the fumigaclavine C biosynthesis, i. e., the prenylation of fumigaclavine A at C-2 position of the indole nucleus. In addition to information obtained from the gene cluster of ergot alkaloids from C. PURPUREA, the identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster of fumigaclavine C in A. FUMIGATUS opens an alternative way to study the biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids in fungi.

  3. Brassinosteroids Are Master Regulators of Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Unterholzner, Simon J.; Rozhon, Wilfried; Papacek, Michael; Ciomas, Jennifer; Lange, Theo; Kugler, Karl G.; Mayer, Klaus F.; Sieberer, Tobias; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and development are highly regulated processes that are coordinated by hormones including the brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of steroids with structural similarity to steroid hormones of mammals. Although it is well understood how BRs are produced and how their signals are transduced, BR targets, which directly confer the hormone’s growth-promoting effects, have remained largely elusive. Here, we show that BRs regulate the biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs), another class of growth-promoting hormones, in Arabidopsis thaliana. We reveal that Arabidopsis mutants deficient in BR signaling are severely impaired in the production of bioactive GA, which is correlated with defective GA biosynthetic gene expression. Expression of the key GA biosynthesis gene GA20ox1 in the BR signaling mutant bri1-301 rescues many of its developmental defects. We provide evidence that supports a model in which the BR-regulated transcription factor BES1 binds to a regulatory element in promoters of GA biosynthesis genes in a BR-induced manner to control their expression. In summary, our study underscores a role of BRs as master regulators of GA biosynthesis and shows that this function is of major relevance for the growth and development of vascular plants. PMID:26243314

  4. Ad E1A 243R oncoprotein promotes association of proto-oncogene product MYC with the NuA4/Tip60 complex via the E1A N-terminal repression domain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling-Jun; Loewenstein, Paul M; Green, Maurice

    2016-12-01

    The adenovirus E1A 243R oncoprotein targets TRRAP, a scaffold protein that assembles histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes, such as the NuA4/Tip60 complex which mediates transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene MYC and helps determine the cancer cell phenotype. How E1A transforms cells through TRRAP remains obscure. We performed proteomic analysis with the N-terminal transcriptional repression domain of E1A 243R (E1A 1-80) and showed that E1A 1-80 interacts with TRRAP, p400, and three other members of the NuA4 complex - DMAP1, RUVBL1 and RUVBL2 - not previously shown to associate with E1A 243R. E1A 1-80 interacts with these NuA4 components and MYC through the E1A TRRAP-targeting domain. E1A 243R association with the NuA4 complex was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and analysis with DMAP1, Tip60, and MYC. Significantly, E1A 243R promotes association of MYC/MAX with the NuA4/Tip60 complex, implicating the importance of the MYC/NuA4 pathway in cellular transformation by both MYC and E1A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lytic and transforming functions of individual products of the adenovirus E1A gene.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, E; Grodzicker, T; Roberts, R J; Mathews, M B; Zerler, B

    1986-01-01

    To distinguish the individual roles of the 13S, 12S, and 9S adenovirus E1A gene products, we isolated the corresponding cDNA clones and recombined them into both plasmids and viruses. Only the expected E1A mRNA products were made from the corresponding 12S and 13S viruses. The 9S mRNA was detected when the 9S virus was coinfected with the 13S virus but not when either virus was infected alone. The 13S virus formed plaques equally well in 293 cells, HeLa cells, and A549 cells, a human lung oat cell carcinoma line. Plaque titers of the 12S virus were much reduced in HeLa and A549 cells compared with 293 cells, although the 12S virus is multiplicity-dependent leaky in both HeLa and A549 cells. A549 cells were significantly more permissive than HeLa cells for growth of the 12S virus. In A549 cells even at low multiplicities of infection the final yield of 12S virus eventually approached the maximum yield from 293 cells. Expression from the adenovirus early region 2 and early region 3 promoters in HeLa cells was activated in the presence of a 13S cDNA E1A region but not in the presence of a 12S E1A cDNA region. Although defective for lytic growth in HeLa cells, the 12S virus immortalized BRK cells at very high efficiency, whereas infection of these cells with 13S virus, as with wild-type E1A virus, resulted mainly in cell death. The 13S product does have an immortalization function, however, revealed in the absence of adenovirus lytic functions when a plasmid containing the E1A 13S cDNA region was transfected into BRK cells. The 9S virus failed to immortalize infected BRK cells or to interfere with focus formation when coinfected with the 12S virus. Images PMID:2936898

  6. CYP2E1 immunoglobulin G4 subclass antibodies after desflurane anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Michalopoulos, George; Matsota, Paraskevi; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Riga, Maria; Nakou, Maria; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate CYP2E1 IgG4 autoantibody levels and liver biochemical markers in adult patients after anesthesia with desflurane. METHODS: Forty patients who were > 18 years old and undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia with desflurane were studied. Alpha-glutathione-S-transferase (αGST) and IgG4 antibodies against CYP2E1 were measured preoperatively and 96 h postoperatively, as well as complete blood count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), international normalized ratio (INR), aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (SGPT), g-glutamyl-transpeptidase (gGT), alkaline phosphatase, total serum proteins, albumin and bilirubin. A separate group of 8 patients who received regional anesthesia was also studied for calibration of the methodology used for CYP2E1 IgG4 and αGST measurements. Student’s t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison of the continuous variables, and Fisher’s exact test was used for the categorical variables. All tests were two-tailed, with statistical significance set as P < 0.05. RESULTS: None of the patients developed postoperative liver dysfunction, and all patients were successfully discharged from the hospital. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding liver function tests (SGOT, SGPT, γGT, bilirubin, INR), αGST and CYP2E1 IgG4, before and after exposure to desflurane. After dividing patients into two subgroups based on whether or not they had received general anesthesia in the past, no significant difference in the levels of CYP2E1 IgG4 was observed at baseline or 96 h after desflurane administration (P = 0.099 and P = 0.051, respectively). Alpha-GST baseline levels and levels after the intervention also did not differ significantly between these two subgroups (P > 0.1). The mean αGST differences were statistically elevated in men by 2.15 ng/mL compared to women when adjusted for BMI, duration of anesthesia, number of times

  7. Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis as the mechanism of analgesia of aspirin-like drugs in the dog knee joint.

    PubMed

    Moncada, S; Ferreira, S H; Vane, J R

    1975-04-01

    A method has been developed to measure the analgesic action of aspirin-like drugs in knee joints of anaesthetized dogs. Bradykinin, injected into the joint cavity, induced a reflex rise in blood pressure which was dose-dependent; this was used as a measure of nociceptive activity. The joint cavity became more sensitive to bradykinin as the experiment proceeded, or when a low concentration of prostaglandin E1 or E2 was infused locally. The increase in sensitivity with time was prevented by local injection of aspirin or indomethacin, but that induced by exogenous prostaglandin infusion was not. Injections of carrageenin into dog knee joints increased the prostaglandin E2 content of synovial fluid by up to 160 ng per joint; indomethacin prevented this increase. These experiments support our previous conclusion that local biosynthesis of a prostaglandin (induced by mild trauma) sensitizes pain receptors to mechanical or chemical stimuli. Aspirin-like drugs are analgesic because they prevent prostaglandin biosynthesis, thereby preventing this sensitization.

  8. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-11-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  9. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  10. YCZ-18 Is a New Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Keimei; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Yamagami, Ayumi; Ogawa, Atushi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Sawada, Takayuki; Fujioka, Shozo; Yoshizawa, Yuko; Nakano, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of polyhydroxylated steroids that play critical roles in regulating broad aspects of plant growth and development. The structural diversity of BRs is generated by the action of several groups of P450s. Brassinazole is a specific inhibitor of C-22 hydroxylase (CYP90B1) in BR biosynthesis, and the application use of brassinazole has emerged as an effective way of complementing BR-deficient mutants to elucidate the functions of BRs. In this article, we report a new triazole-type BR biosynthesis inhibitor, YCZ-18. Quantitative analysis the endogenous levels of BRs in Arabidopsis indicated that YCZ-18 significantly decreased the BR contents in plant tissues. Assessment of the binding affinity of YCZ-18to purified recombinant CYP90D1 indicated that YCZ-18 induced a typical type II binding spectrum with a Kd value of approximately 0.79 μM. Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the dwarf phenotype associated with YCZ-18 treatment of Arabidopsis indicated that the chemically induced dwarf phenotype was caused by a failure of cell elongation. Moreover, dissecting the effect of YCZ-18 on the induction or down regulation of genes responsive to BRs indicated that YCZ-18 regulated the expression of genes responsible for BRs deficiency in Arabidopsis. These findings indicate that YCZ-18 is a potent BR biosynthesis inhibitor and has a new target site, C23-hydroxylation in BR biosynthesis. Application of YCZ-18 will be a good starting point for further elucidation of the detailed mechanism of BR biosynthesis and its regulation. PMID:25793645

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Nine Tissues to Discover Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Active Ingredients in Sophora flavescens.

    PubMed

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Bunsupa, Somnuk; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Yamamoto, Hirobumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Sophora flavescens AITON (kurara) has long been used to treat various diseases. Although several research findings revealed the biosynthetic pathways of its characteristic chemical components as represented by matrine, insufficient analysis of transcriptome data hampered in-depth analysis of the underlying putative genes responsible for the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical chemical components. In this study, more than 200 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina's next-generation sequencing approach using nine types of tissue from S. flavescens, followed by CLC de novo assembly, ultimately yielding 83,325 contigs in total. By mapping the reads back to the contigs, reads per kilobase of the transcript per million mapped reads values were calculated to demonstrate gene expression levels, and overrepresented gene ontology terms were evaluated using Fisher's exact test. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential metabolic pathways, all 1350 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. By analyzing expression patterns, we proposed some candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of isoflavonoids and quinolizidine alkaloids. Adopting RNA-Seq analysis, we obtained substantially credible contigs for downstream work. The preferential expression of the gene for putative lysine/ornithine decarboxylase committed in the initial step of matrine biosynthesis in leaves and stems was confirmed in semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The findings in this report may serve as a stepping-stone for further research into this promising medicinal plant.

  12. Genetic control of ColE1 plasmid stability that is independent of plasmid copy number regulation.

    PubMed

    Standley, Melissa S; Million-Weaver, Samuel; Alexander, David L; Hu, Shuai; Camps, Manel

    2018-06-16

    ColE1-like plasmid vectors are widely used for expression of recombinant genes in E. coli. For these vectors, segregation of individual plasmids into daughter cells during cell division appears to be random, making them susceptible to loss over time when no mechanisms ensuring their maintenance are present. Here we use the plasmid pGFPuv in a recA relA strain as a sensitized model to study factors affecting plasmid stability in the context of recombinant gene expression. We find that in this model, plasmid stability can be restored by two types of genetic modifications to the plasmid origin of replication (ori) sequence: point mutations and a novel 269 nt duplication at the 5' end of the plasmid ori, which we named DAS (duplicated anti-sense) ori. Combinations of these modifications produce a range of copy numbers and of levels of recombinant expression. In direct contradiction with the classic random distribution model, we find no correlation between increased plasmid copy number and increased plasmid stability. Increased stability cannot be explained by reduced levels of recombinant gene expression either. Our observations would be more compatible with a hybrid clustered and free-distribution model, which has been recently proposed based on detection of individual plasmids in vivo using super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. This work suggests a role for the plasmid ori in the control of segregation of ColE1 plasmids that is distinct from replication initiation, opening the door for the genetic regulation of plasmid stability as a strategy aimed at enhancing large-scale recombinant gene expression or bioremediation.

  13. Throughput Calibration of the 52x0.2E1 Aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Sara

    2009-07-01

    The Next Generation Spectral Library {NGSL} is a library of low-dispersion STIS spectra extending from 0.2-1.0 microns. So far, 378 stars with a wide range in metallicity have been observed. Despite their high S/N>100, many NGSL spectra have 5-10% systematic errors in their spectral energy distributions, which can be traced to throughput variations in the 52x0.2E1 aperture caused by vignetting of a wavelength-dependent asymmetric PSF. We propose to obtain STIS spectra of the HST standard star, BD+75D325, at several positions in the 52x0.2E1 aperture, which will enable us to calibrate the NGSL spectra properly.

  14. M1 polarization bias and subsequent nonalcoholic steatohepatitis progression is attenuated by nitric oxide donor DETA NONOate via inhibition of CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Das, Suvarthi; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Dattaroy, Diptadip; Igwe, Stephen; Ray, Julie Basu; Fan, Daping; Michelotti, Gregory A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Activation of M1 macrophages in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is produced by several external or endogenous factors: inflammatory stimuli, oxidative stress, and cytokines are known. However, any direct role of oxidative stress in causing M1 polarization in NASH has been unclear. We hypothesized that CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress causes M1 polarization in experimental NASH, and that nitric oxide (NO) donor administration inhibits CYP2E1-mediated inflammation with concomitant attenuation of M1 polarization. Because CYP2E1 takes center stage in these studies, we used a toxin model of NASH that uses a ligand and a substrate of CYP2E1 for inducing NASH. Subsequently, we used a methionine and choline-deficient diet-induced rodent NASH model where the role of CYP2E1 in disease progression has been shown. Our results show that CYP2E1 causes M1 polarization bias, which includes a significant increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-12 in both models of NASH, whereas CYP2E1-null mice or diallyl sulfide administration prevented it. Administration of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), a macrophage toxin, attenuated both the initial M1 response and the subsequent M2 response, showing that the observed increase in cytokine levels is primarily from macrophages. Based on the evidence of an adaptive NO increase, the NO donor administration in vivo that mechanistically inhibited CYP2E1 catalyzed the oxidative stress during the entire study in NASH-abrogated M1 polarization and NASH progression. The results obtained show the association of CYP2E1 in M1 polarization, and that inhibition of CYP2E1 catalyzed oxidative stress by an NO donor (DETA NONOate [(Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate]) can be a promising therapeutic strategy in NASH. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. M1 Polarization Bias and Subsequent Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Progression Is Attenuated by Nitric Oxide Donor DETA NONOate via Inhibition of CYP2E1-Induced Oxidative Stress in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Das, Suvarthi; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Dattaroy, Diptadip; Igwe, Stephen; Ray, Julie Basu; Fan, Daping; Michelotti, Gregory A.; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2015-01-01

    Activation of M1 macrophages in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is produced by several external or endogenous factors: inflammatory stimuli, oxidative stress, and cytokines are known. However, any direct role of oxidative stress in causing M1 polarization in NASH has been unclear. We hypothesized that CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress causes M1 polarization in experimental NASH, and that nitric oxide (NO) donor administration inhibits CYP2E1-mediated inflammation with concomitant attenuation of M1 polarization. Because CYP2E1 takes center stage in these studies, we used a toxin model of NASH that uses a ligand and a substrate of CYP2E1 for inducing NASH. Subsequently, we used a methionine and choline–deficient diet-induced rodent NASH model where the role of CYP2E1 in disease progression has been shown. Our results show that CYP2E1 causes M1 polarization bias, which includes a significant increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-12 in both models of NASH, whereas CYP2E1-null mice or diallyl sulfide administration prevented it. Administration of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), a macrophage toxin, attenuated both the initial M1 response and the subsequent M2 response, showing that the observed increase in cytokine levels is primarily from macrophages. Based on the evidence of an adaptive NO increase, the NO donor administration in vivo that mechanistically inhibited CYP2E1 catalyzed the oxidative stress during the entire study in NASH-abrogated M1 polarization and NASH progression. The results obtained show the association of CYP2E1 in M1 polarization, and that inhibition of CYP2E1 catalyzed oxidative stress by an NO donor (DETA NONOate [(Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate]) can be a promising therapeutic strategy in NASH. PMID:25347994

  16. Prenatal antidepressant exposure associated with CYP2E1 DNA methylation change in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Gurnot, Cécile; Martin-Subero, Ignacio; Mah, Sarah M; Weikum, Whitney; Goodman, Sarah J; Brain, Ursula; Werker, Janet F; Kobor, Michael S; Esteller, Manel; Oberlander, Tim F; Hensch, Takao K

    2015-01-01

    Some but not all neonates are affected by prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SRI) and maternal mood disturbances. Distinguishing the impact of these 2 exposures is challenging and raises critical questions about whether pharmacological, genetic, or epigenetic factors can explain the spectrum of reported outcomes. Using unbiased DNA methylation array measurements followed by a detailed candidate gene approach, we examined whether prenatal SRI exposure was associated with neonatal DNA methylation changes and whether such changes were associated with differences in birth outcomes. Prenatal SRI exposure was first associated with increased DNA methylation status primarily at CYP2E1(βNon-exposed = 0.06, βSRI-exposed = 0.30, FDR = 0); however, this finding could not be distinguished from the potential impact of prenatal maternal depressed mood. Then, using pyrosequencing of CYP2E1 regulatory regions in an expanded cohort, higher DNA methylation status—both the mean across 16 CpG sites (P < 0.01) and at each specific CpG site (P < 0.05)—was associated with exposure to lower 3rd trimester maternal depressed mood symptoms only in the SRI-exposed neonates, indicating a maternal mood x SRI exposure interaction. In addition, higher DNA methylation levels at CpG2 (P = 0.04), CpG9 (P = 0.04) and CpG10 (P = 0.02), in the interrogated CYP2E1 region, were associated with increased birth weight independently of prenatal maternal mood, SRI drug exposure, or gestational age at birth. Prenatal SRI antidepressant exposure and maternal depressed mood were associated with altered neonatal CYP2E1 DNA methylation status, which, in turn, appeared to be associated with birth weight. PMID:25891251

  17. Chromosomal 16S Ribosomal RNA Methyltransferase RmtE1 in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 448

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Pacey, Marissa P.

    2017-01-01

    We identified rmtE1, an uncommon 16S ribosomal methyltransferase gene, in an aminoglycoside- and cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli sequence type 448 clinical strain co-harboring blaCMY-2. Long-read sequencing revealed insertion of a 101,257-bp fragment carrying both resistance genes to the chromosome. Our findings underscore E. coli sequence type 448 as a potential high-risk multidrug-resistant clone. PMID:28418308

  18. Precision Measurements of the B(E1) Strengths in 11Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.; Summers, N. C.; Hackman, G.; Drake, T. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Ashley, R.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Chester, A.; Close, A.; Cline, D.; Cross, D. S.; Dunlop, R.; Finley, A.; Garnsworthy, A.; Hayes, A. B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Nano, T.; Navrátil, P.; Pearson, C. J.; Pore, J.; Starosta, K.; Thompson, I. J.; Voss, P.; Williams, S. J.; Wang, Z. M.

    2014-09-01

    The electromagnetic transition strength between the two bound states were measured in the one-neutron halo nucleus 11Be from Coulomb excitation on 196Pt at projectile energies of 1.727 and 2.086 MeV/nucleon at TRIUMF. A B(E1) strength of 0.102(2) e2fm2, deduced from the forward-scattering data, is consistent with previous Coulomb excitation measurements at intermediate projectile energies with a model-dependent analysis.

  19. Genetic basis of coaggregation receptor polysaccharide biosynthesis in Streptococcus sanguinis and related species.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Yoshida, Y; Cisar, J O

    2014-02-01

    Interbacterial adhesion between streptococci and actinomyces promotes early dental plaque biofilm development. Recognition of coaggregation receptor polysaccharides (RPS) on strains of Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus oralis by Actinomyces spp. type 2 fimbriae is the principal mechanism of these interactions. Previous studies of genetic loci for synthesis of RPS (rps) and RPS precursors (rml, galE1 and galE2) in S. gordonii 38 and S. oralis 34 revealed differences between these strains. To determine whether these differences are strain-specific or species-specific, we identified and compared loci for polysaccharide biosynthesis in additional strains of these species and in several strains of the previously unstudied species, S. sanguinis. Genes for synthesis of RPS precursors distinguished the rps loci of different streptococci. Hence, rml genes for synthesis of TDP-L-Rha were in rps loci of S. oralis strains but at other loci in S. gordonii and S. sanguinis. Genes for two distinct galactose epimerases were also distributed differently. Hence, galE1 for epimerization of UDP-Glc and UDP-Gal was in galactose operons of S. gordonii and S. sanguinis strains but surprisingly, this gene was not present in S. oralis. Moreover, galE2 for epimerization of both UDP-Glc and UDP-Gal and UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GalNAc was at a different locus in each species, including rps operons of S. sanguinis. The findings provide insight into cell surface properties that distinguish different RPS-producing streptococci and open an approach for identifying these bacteria based on the arrangement of genes for synthesis of polysaccharide precursors. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Homology between Escherichia coli plasmids ColE1 and p15A.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, R E

    1981-01-01

    The location and extent of the homology between plasmids ColE1 and p15A were determined by analysis of heteroduplexes formed between them as well as with a related plasmid, pBR322, and by hybridization of radioactive deoxyribonucleic acids to restriction fragments of p15A and ColE1. The homology between the plasmids contained the entire region of ColE1 required for its replication as well as an additional 400 base pairs downstream from the origin of replication. This region on p15A, which was 980 +/- 43 base pairs, started at 0.1 of the molecular length from one end formed by cleavage with the restriction endonuclease BglI and extended to 0.54 of the molecular length from the same end. Restriction cleavage maps for the enzymes BglI, HpaI, HaeII, HaeIII, and HincII are also presented. Images PMID:6259130

  1. Vector competence of Italian Aedes albopictus populations for the chikungunya virus (E1-226V).

    PubMed

    Severini, Francesco; Boccolini, Daniela; Fortuna, Claudia; Di Luca, Marco; Toma, Luciano; Amendola, Antonello; Benedetti, Eleonora; Minelli, Giada; Romi, Roberto; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Remoli, Maria Elena

    2018-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus, belonging to the Togaviridae family, Alphavirus genus, transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Since 2007, two different CHIKV strains (E1-226A and E1-226V) have been responsible for outbreaks in European countries, including Italy, sustained by Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility to the CHIKV E1-226V, strain responsible for the Italian 2007 outbreak, of eight Ae. albopictus populations collected in Northern, Central, Southern, and Island Italy, by experimental infections. Vector competence was evaluated by estimating infection, dissemination, and transmission rates (IR, DR, TR), through detection of the virus in the bodies, legs plus wings, and saliva, respectively. Additionally, vertical transmission was evaluated by the detection of the virus in the offspring. The results of our study demonstrated that the Italian populations of Ae. albopictus tested were susceptible to CHIKV infection, and can disseminate the virus outside the midgut barrier with high values of IR and DR. Viral infectious RNA was detected in the saliva of three populations from Central, Southern, and Island Italy, also tested for TR and population transmission rate (PTR) values. No progeny of the first and second gonotrophic cycle were positive for CHIKV. This study strongly confirms the role of Ae. albopictus as a potential CHIKV vector in Italy. This may represent a threat, especially considering both the high density of this species, which is widespread throughout the country, and the increasing number of cases of imported arboviruses.

  2. Cytochrome P450 2E1 genetic polymorphism and gastric cancer in Changle, Fujian Province

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lin; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Genetic polymorphism in enzymes of carcinogen metabolism has been found to have the influence on the susceptibility to cancer. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is considered to play an important role in the metabolic activation of procarcinogens such as N-nitrosoamines and low molecular weight organic compounds. The purpose of this study is to determine whether CYP450 2E1 polymorphisms are associated with risks of gastric cancer. METHODS: We conducted a population based case-control study in Changle county, Fujian Province, a high-risk region of gastric cancer in China. Ninety-one incident gastric cancer patients and ninety-four healthy controls were included in our study. Datas including demographic characteristcs, diet intake, and alcohol and tobacco consumption of indivduals in our study were completed by a standardized questionnaire. PCR-RFLP revealed three genotypes:heterozygote (C1/C2) and two homozygotes (C1/C1 and C2/C2) in CYP2E1. RESULTS: The frequency of variant genotypes (C1/C2 and C2/C2) in gastric cancer cases and controls was 36.3% and 24.5%, respectively. The rare homozygous C2/C2 genotype was found in 6 indivduals in gastric cancer group (6.6%), whereas there was only one in the control group (1.1%). However, there was no statistically significan difference between the two groups (two-tailed Fisher’s exact test, P = 0.066). Indivduals in gastric cancer group were more likely to carry genotype C1/C2 (odds ratio, OR = 1.50) and C2/C2 (OR = 7.34) than indivduals in control group (χ² = 4.597, for trend P = 0.032). The frequencies of genotypes with the C2 allele (C1/C2 and C2/C2 genotypes) were compared with those of genotypes without C2 allele (C1/C1 genotype) among indivduals in gastric cancer group and control group according to the pattern of gastric cancer risk factors. The results show that indivduals who exposed to these gastric cancer risk factors and carry the C2 allele seemed to have a higher risk of developing gastric cancer. CONCLUSION

  3. Functional and evolutionary insight from the crystal structure of rubella virus protein E1.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Rebecca M; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Tortorici, M Alejandra; Kurdi, Rana Al; Barba-Spaeth, Giovanna; Krey, Thomas; Rey, Félix A

    2013-01-24

    Little is known about the three-dimensional organization of rubella virus, which causes a relatively mild measles-like disease in children but leads to serious congenital health problems when contracted in utero. Although rubella virus belongs to the same family as the mosquito-borne alphaviruses, in many respects it is more similar to other aerosol-transmitted human viruses such as the agents of measles and mumps. Although the use of the triple MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) live vaccine has limited its incidence in western countries, congenital rubella syndrome remains an important health problem in the developing world. Here we report the 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure of envelope glycoprotein E1, the main antigen and sole target of neutralizing antibodies against rubella virus. E1 is the main player during entry into target cells owing to its receptor-binding and membrane-fusion functions. The structure reveals the epitope and the neutralization mechanism of an important category of protecting antibodies against rubella infection. It also shows that rubella virus E1 is a class II fusion protein, which had hitherto only been structurally characterized for the arthropod-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses. In addition, rubella virus E1 has an extensive membrane-fusion surface that includes a metal site, reminiscent of the T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin family of cellular proteins that bind phosphatidylserine lipids at the plasma membrane of cells undergoing apoptosis. Such features have not been seen in any fusion protein crystallized so far. Structural comparisons show that the class II fusion proteins from alphaviruses and flaviviruses, despite belonging to different virus families, are closer to each other than they are to rubella virus E1. This suggests that the constraints on arboviruses imposed by alternating cycles between vertebrates and arthropods resulted in more conservative evolution. By contrast, in the absence of this constraint, the

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL TOXICITY-ASSOCIATED METABOLITES BY METABOLOMICS AND MASS ISOTOPOMER ANALYSIS OF ACETAMINOPHEN METABOLISM IN WILD-TYPE AND CYP2E1-NULL MICE

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Idle, Jeffrey R.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2008-01-01

    CYP2E1 is recognized as the most important enzyme for initiation of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxicity. In this study, the resistance of Cyp2e1-null mice to APAP treatment was confirmed by comparing serum aminotransferase activities and blood urea nitrogen levels in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. However, unexpectedly, profiling of major known APAP metabolites in urine and serum revealed that the contribution of CYP2E1 to APAP metabolism decreased with increasing APAP doses administered. Measurement of hepatic glutathione and hydrogen peroxide levels exposed the importance of oxidative stress in determining the consequence of APAP overdose. Subsequent metabolomic analysis was capable of constructing a principal components analysis (PCA) model that delineated a relationship between urinary metabolomes and the responses to APAP treatment. Urinary ions high in wild-type mice treated with 400 mg/kg APAP were elucidated as 3-methoxy-APAP glucuronide (VII) and three novel APAP metabolites, including S-(5-acetylamino-2-hydroxyphenyl)mercaptopyruvic acid (VI, formed by a Cys-APAP transamination reaction in kidney), 3,3′-biacetaminophen (VIII, an APAP dimer) and a benzothiazine compound (IX, originated from deacetylated APAP), through mass isotopomer analysis, accurate mass measurement, tandem MS fragmentation, in vitro reactions and chemical treatments. Dose-, time- and genotype-dependent appearance of these minor APAP metabolites implied their association with the APAP-induced toxicity and potential biomarker application. Overall, the oxidative stress elicited by CYP2E1-mediated APAP metabolism might significantly contribute to APAP-induced toxicity. The combination of genetically-modified animal models, mass isotopomer analysis and metabolomics provides a powerful and efficient technical platform to characterize APAP-induced toxicity through identifying novel biomarkers and unravelling novel mechanisms. PMID:18093979

  5. Downregulation of a putative plastid PDC E1α subunit impairs photosynthetic activity and triacylglycerol accumulation in nitrogen-starved photoautotrophic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Shtaida, Nastassia; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Solovchenko, Alexei; Chekanov, Konstantin; Didi-Cohen, Shoshana; Leu, Stefan; Cohen, Zvi; Boussiba, Sammy

    2014-01-01

    The chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (cpPDC) catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate forming acetyl-CoA, an immediate primer for the initial reactions of de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Little is known about the source of acetyl-CoA in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic microalgae, which are capable of producing high amounts of the storage lipid triacylglycerol (TAG) under conditions of nutrient stresses. We generated Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-1618 mutants with decreased expression of the PDC2_E1α gene, encoding the putative chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit E1α, using artificial microRNA. A comparative study on the effects of PDC2_E1α silencing on FAs and TAG production in C. reinhardtii, grown photoautotrophically and mixotrophically, with and without a nitrogen source in the nutrient medium, was carried out. Reduced expression of PDC2 _E1α led to a severely hampered photoautotrophic growth phenotype with drastic impairment in TAG accumulation under nitrogen deprivation. In the presence of acetate, downregulation of PDC2_E1α exerted little to no effect on TAG production and photosynthetic activity. In contrast, under photoautotrophic conditions, especially in the absence of a nitrogen source, a dramatic decline in photosynthetic oxygen evolution and photosystem II quantum yield against a background of the apparent over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron chain was recorded. Our results suggest an essential role of cpPDC in the supply of carbon precursors for de novo FA synthesis in microalgae under conditions of photoautotrophy. A shortage of this supply is detrimental to the nitrogen-starvation-induced synthesis of storage TAG, an important carbon and energy sink in stressed Chlamydomonas cells, thereby impairing the acclimation ability of the microalga. PMID:25210079

  6. Downregulation of a putative plastid PDC E1α subunit impairs photosynthetic activity and triacylglycerol accumulation in nitrogen-starved photoautotrophic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Shtaida, Nastassia; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Solovchenko, Alexei; Chekanov, Konstantin; Didi-Cohen, Shoshana; Leu, Stefan; Cohen, Zvi; Boussiba, Sammy

    2014-12-01

    The chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (cpPDC) catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate forming acetyl-CoA, an immediate primer for the initial reactions of de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Little is known about the source of acetyl-CoA in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic microalgae, which are capable of producing high amounts of the storage lipid triacylglycerol (TAG) under conditions of nutrient stresses. We generated Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-1618 mutants with decreased expression of the PDC2_E1α gene, encoding the putative chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit E1α, using artificial microRNA. A comparative study on the effects of PDC2_E1α silencing on FAs and TAG production in C. reinhardtii, grown photoautotrophically and mixotrophically, with and without a nitrogen source in the nutrient medium, was carried out. Reduced expression of PDC2 _E1α led to a severely hampered photoautotrophic growth phenotype with drastic impairment in TAG accumulation under nitrogen deprivation. In the presence of acetate, downregulation of PDC2_E1α exerted little to no effect on TAG production and photosynthetic activity. In contrast, under photoautotrophic conditions, especially in the absence of a nitrogen source, a dramatic decline in photosynthetic oxygen evolution and photosystem II quantum yield against a background of the apparent over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron chain was recorded. Our results suggest an essential role of cpPDC in the supply of carbon precursors for de novo FA synthesis in microalgae under conditions of photoautotrophy. A shortage of this supply is detrimental to the nitrogen-starvation-induced synthesis of storage TAG, an important carbon and energy sink in stressed Chlamydomonas cells, thereby impairing the acclimation ability of the microalga. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Metabolism of styrene to styrene oxide and vinylphenols in cytochrome P450 2F2- and P450 2E1-knockout mouse liver and lung microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shuijie; Li, Lei; Ding, Xinxin; Zheng, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicity of styrene is initiated by cytochromes P450-dependent metabolic activation. P450 2E1 and P450 2F2 are considered to be two main cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes responsible for styrene metabolism in mice. The objective of the current study was to determine the correlation between the formation of styrene metabolites (i.e. styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol) and pulmonary toxicity of styrene, using Cyp2e1- and Cyp2f2-null mouse models. Dramatic decrease in the formation of styrene glycol and 4-vinylphenol was found in Cyp2f2-null mouse lung microsomes, relative to that in the wild-type mouse lung microsomes. However, no significant difference in the production of the styrene metabolites was observed between lung microsomes obtained from Cyp2e1-null and the wild-type mice. The knock–out and wild-type mice were treated with styrene (6.0 mmol/kg, ip), and cell counts and LDH activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were monitored to evaluate the pulmonary toxicity induced by styrene. Cyp2e1-null mice displayed similar susceptibility to lung toxicity of styrene as the wild-type animals. However, Cyp2f2-null mice were resistant to styrene-induced pulmonary toxicity. In conclusion, both P450 2E1 and P450 2F2 are responsible for the metabolic activation of styrene. The latter enzyme plays an important role in styrene-induced pulmonary toxicity. Both styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol are suggested to participate in the development of lung injury induced by styrene. PMID:24320693

  8. Metabolism of styrene to styrene oxide and vinylphenols in cytochrome P450 2F2- and P450 2E1-knockout mouse liver and lung microsomes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuijie; Li, Lei; Ding, Xinxin; Zheng, Jiang

    2014-01-21

    Pulmonary toxicity of styrene is initiated by cytochromes P450-dependent metabolic activation. P450 2E1 and P450 2F2 are considered to be two main cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for styrene metabolism in mice. The objective of the current study was to determine the correlation between the formation of styrene metabolites (i.e., styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol) and pulmonary toxicity of styrene, using Cyp2e1- and Cyp2f2-null mouse models. A dramatic decrease in the formation of styrene glycol and 4-vinylphenol was found in Cyp2f2-null mouse lung microsomes relative to that in the wild-type mouse lung microsomes; however, no significant difference in the production of the styrene metabolites was observed between lung microsomes obtained from Cyp2e1-null and the wild-type mice. The knockout and wild-type mice were treated with styrene (6.0 mmol/kg, ip), and cell counts and LDH activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were monitored to evaluate the pulmonary toxicity induced by styrene. Cyp2e1-null mice displayed a susceptibility to lung toxicity of styrene similar to that of the wild-type animals; however, Cyp2f2-null mice were resistant to styrene-induced pulmonary toxicity. In conclusion, both P450 2E1 and P450 2F2 are responsible for the metabolic activation of styrene. The latter enzyme plays an important role in styrene-induced pulmonary toxicity. Both styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol are suggested to participate in the development of lung injury induced by styrene.

  9. Biosynthesis of ilamycins featuring unusual building blocks and engineered production of enhanced anti-tuberculosis agents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junying; Huang, Hongbo; Xie, Yunchang; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jin; Zhang, Chunyan; Jia, Yanxi; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Tianyu; Ju, Jianhua

    2017-08-30

    Tuberculosis remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases, novel anti-tuberculosis agents are urgently needed due to severe drug resistance and the co-epidemic of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus. Here, we show the isolation of six anti-mycobacterial ilamycin congeners (1-6) bearing rare L-3-nitro-tyrosine and L-2-amino-4-hexenoic acid structural units from the deep sea-derived Streptomyces atratus SCSIO ZH16. The biosynthesis of the rare L-3-nitrotyrosine and L-2-amino-4-hexenoic acid units as well as three pre-tailoring and two post-tailoring steps are probed in the ilamycin biosynthetic machinery through a series of gene inactivation, precursor chemical complementation, isotope-labeled precursor feeding experiments, as well as structural elucidation of three intermediates (6-8) from the respective mutants. Most impressively, ilamycins E 1 /E 2 , which are produced in high titers by a genetically engineered mutant strain, show very potent anti-tuberculosis activity with an minimum inhibitory concentration value ≈9.8 nM to Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv constituting extremely potent and exciting anti-tuberculosis drug leads.Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases, novel anti-TB agents are urgently needed due to severe drug resistance and the co-epidemic of TB/HIV. Here, the authors show that anti-mycobacterial ilamycin congeners bearing unusual structural units possess extremely potent anti-tuberculosis activities.

  10. Revealing the first uridyl peptide antibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster and probing pacidamycin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Rackham, Emma J; Grüschow, Sabine; Goss, Rebecca J M

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antibiotics with resistance continuing to emerge toward existing classes. The pacidamycin antibiotics possess a novel scaffold and exhibit unexploited bioactivity rendering them attractive research targets. We recently reported the first identification of a biosynthetic cluster encoding uridyl peptide antibiotic assembly and the engineering of pacidamycin biosynthesis into a heterologous host. We report here our methods toward identifying the biosynthetic cluster. Our initial experiments employed conventional methods of probing a cosmid library using PCR and Southern blotting, however it became necessary to adopt a state-of-the-art genome scanning  and in silico hybridization approach  to pin point the cluster. Here we describe our "real" and "virtual" probing methods and contrast the benefits and pitfalls of each approach. 

  11. Dextransucrase and the mechanism for dextran biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Robyt, John F; Yoon, Seung-Heon; Mukerjea, Rupendra

    2008-12-08

    Remaud-Simeon and co-workers [Moulis, C.; Joucla, G.; Harrison, D.; Fabre, E.; Potocki-Veronese, G.; Monsan, P.; Remaud-Simeon, M. J. Biol. Chem., 2006, 281, 31254-31267] have recently proposed that a truncated Escherichia coli recombinant B-512F dextransucrase uses sucrose and the hydrolysis product of sucrose, D-glucose, as initiator primers for the nonreducing-end synthesis of dextran. Using (14)C-labeled D-glucose in a dextransucrase-sucrose digest, it was found that <0.02% of the D-glucose appears in a dextran of M(n) 84,420, showing that D-glucose is not an initiator primer, and when the dextran was treated with 0.01 M HCl at 80 degrees C for 90 min and a separate sample with invertase at 50 degrees C for 24h, no D-fructose was formed, indicating that sucrose is not present at the reducing-end of dextran, showing that sucrose also was not an initiator primer. It is further shown that both d-glucose and dextran are covalently attached to B-512FMC dextransucrase at the active site during polymerization. A pulse reaction with [(14)C]-sucrose and a chase reaction with nonlabeled sucrose, followed by dextran isolation, reduction, and acid hydrolysis, gave (14)C-glucitol in the pulsed dextran, which was significantly decreased in the chased dextran, showing that the D-glucose moieties of sucrose are added to the reducing-ends of the covalently linked growing dextran chains. The molecular size of dextran is shown to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the enzyme, indicating a highly processive mechanism in which D-glucose is rapidly added to the reducing-ends of the growing chains, which are extruded from the active site of dextransucrase. It is also shown how the three conserved amino acids (Asp551, Glu589, and Asp 622) at the active sites of glucansucrases participate in the polymerization of dextran and related glucans from a single active site by the addition of the D-glucose moiety of sucrose to the reducing-ends of the covalently linked glucan

  12. FK506 biosynthesis is regulated by two positive regulatory elements in Streptomyces tsukubaensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background FK506 (Tacrolimus) is an important immunosuppressant, produced by industrial biosynthetic processes using various Streptomyces species. Considering the complex structure of FK506, it is reasonable to expect complex regulatory networks controlling its biosynthesis. Regulatory elements, present in gene clusters can have a profound influence on the final yield of target product and can play an important role in development of industrial bioprocesses. Results Three putative regulatory elements, namely fkbR, belonging to the LysR-type family, fkbN, a large ATP-binding regulator of the LuxR family (LAL-type) and allN, a homologue of AsnC family regulatory proteins, were identified in the FK506 gene cluster from Streptomyces tsukubaensis NRRL 18488, a progenitor of industrial strains used for production of FK506. Inactivation of fkbN caused a complete disruption of FK506 biosynthesis, while inactivation of fkbR resulted in about 80% reduction of FK506 yield. No functional role in the regulation of the FK506 gene cluster has been observed for the allN gene. Using RT-PCR and a reporter system based on a chalcone synthase rppA, we demonstrated, that in the wild type as well as in fkbN- and fkbR-inactivated strains, fkbR is transcribed in all stages of cultivation, even before the onset of FK506 production, whereas fkbN expression is initiated approximately with the initiation of FK506 production. Surprisingly, inactivation of fkbN (or fkbR) does not abolish the transcription of the genes in the FK506 gene cluster in general, but may reduce expression of some of the tested biosynthetic genes. Finally, introduction of a second copy of the fkbR or fkbN genes under the control of the strong ermE* promoter into the wild type strain resulted in 30% and 55% of yield improvement, respectively. Conclusions Our results clearly demonstrate the positive regulatory role of fkbR and fkbN genes in FK506 biosynthesis in S. tsukubaensis NRRL 18488. We have shown that regulatory

  13. A Case–control and a family-based association study revealing an association between CYP2E1 polymorphisms and nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk in Cantonese

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wei-Hua; Pan, Qing-Hua; Qin, Hai-De; Xu, Ya-Fei; Shen, Guo-Ping; Chen, Lina; Chen, Li-Zhen; Feng, Qi-Sheng; Hong, Ming-Huang; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Shugart, Yin Yao

    2009-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare in most parts of the world but is more prevalent in Southern China, especially in Guangdong. The cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) has been recognized as one of the critically important enzymes involved in oxidizing carcinogens and is probably to be associated with NPC carcinogenesis. To systematically investigate the association between genetic variants in CYP2E1 and NPC risk in Cantonese, two independent studies, a family-based association study and a case–control study, were conducted using the haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism approach. A total of 2499 individuals from 546 nuclear families were initially genotyped for the family-based association study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs9418990, rs915908, rs8192780, rs1536826, rs3827688 and one haplotype h2 (CGTGTTAA) were revealed to be significantly associated with the NPC phenotype (P = 0.045–0.003 and P = 0.003, respectively). To follow up the initial study, a case–control study including 755 cases and 755 controls was conducted. Similar results were observed in the case–control study in individuals <46 years of age and had a history of cigarette smoking, with odds ratios (ORs) of specific genotypes ranging from 1.88 to 2.99 corresponding to SNP rs9418990, rs3813865, rs915906, rs2249695, rs8192780, rs1536826, rs3827688 and of haplotypes h2 with OR = 1.65 (P = 0.026), h5 (CCCGTTAA) with OR = 2.58 (P = 0.007). The values of false-positive report probability were <0.015 for six SNPs, suggesting that the reported associations are less probably to be false. This study provides robust evidence for associations between genetic variants of CYP2E1 and NPC risk. PMID:19805575

  14. Evolution of camel CYP2E1 and its associated power of binding toxic industrial chemicals and drugs.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Mahmoud; Altaher, Abdullah; Kitade, Yukio; Abdelaziz, Magdi; Alnazawi, Mohamed; Elshazli, Kamal

    2016-10-01

    Camels are raised in harsh desert environment for hundreds of years ago. By modernization of live and the growing industrial revolution in camels rearing areas, camels are exposed to considerable amount of chemicals, industrial waste, environmental pollutions and drugs. Furthermore, camels have unique gene evolution of some genes to withstand living in harsh environments. In this work, the camel cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is compromised to detect its evolution rate and its power to bind with various chemicals, protoxins, procarcinogens, industrial toxins and drugs. In comparison with human CYP2E1, camel CYP2E1 more efficiently binds to small toxins as aniline, benzene, catechol, amides, butadiene, toluene and acrylamide. Larger compounds were more preferentially bound to the human CYP2E1 in comparison with camel CYP2E1. The binding of inhalant anesthetics was almost similar in both camel and human CYP2E1 coinciding with similar anesthetic effect as well as toxicity profiles. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis indicated the high evolution rate of camel CYP2E1 in comparison with human, farm and companion animals. The evolution rate of camel CYP2E1 was among the highest evolution rate in a subset of 57 different organisms. These results indicate rapid evolution and potent toxin binding power of camel CYP2E1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Mechanism of protein biosynthesis in mammalian mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Christian, Brooke E; Spremulli, Linda L

    2012-01-01

    Protein synthesis in mammalian mitochondria produces 13 proteins that are essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. This review provides a detailed outline of each phase of mitochondrial translation including initiation, elongation, termination, and ribosome recycling. The roles of essential proteins involved in each phase are described. All of the products of mitochondrial protein synthesis in mammals are inserted into the inner membrane. Several proteins that may help bind ribosomes to the membrane during translation are described, although much remains to be learned about this process. Mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear genes encoding components of the translation system often lead to severe deficiencies in oxidative phosphorylation, and a summary of these mutations is provided. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Gene Expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanism of Protein Biosynthesis in Mammalian Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Brooke E.; Spremulli, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    Protein synthesis in mammalian mitochondria produces 13 proteins that are essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. This review provides a detailed outline of each phase of mitochondrial translation including initiation, elongation, termination, and ribosome recycling. The roles of essential proteins involved in each phase are described. All of the products of mitochondrial protein synthesis in mammals are inserted into the inner membrane. Several proteins that may help bind ribosomes to the membrane during translation are described, although much remains to be learned about this process. Mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear genes encoding components of the translation system often lead to severe deficiencies in oxidative phosphorylation, and a summary of these mutations is provided. PMID:22172991

  17. In Vivo Roles of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Enzymes in Biosynthesis of Biotin and α-Lipoic Acid in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masato; Nagashima, Takashi; Nakamura, Eri; Kato, Ryosuke; Ohshita, Masakazu; Hayashi, Mikiro; Takeno, Seiki

    2017-10-01

    For fatty acid biosynthesis, Corynebacterium glutamicum uses two type I fatty acid synthases (FAS-I), FasA and FasB, in addition to acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC) consisting of AccBC, AccD1, and AccE. The in vivo roles of the enzymes in supplying precursors for biotin and α-lipoic acid remain unclear. Here, we report genetic evidence demonstrating that the biosynthesis of these cofactors is linked to fatty acid biosynthesis through the FAS-I pathway. For this study, we used wild-type C. glutamicum and its derived biotin vitamer producer BFI-5, which was engineered to express Escherichia coli bioBF and Bacillus subtilis bioI Disruption of either fasA or fasB in strain BFI-5 led to decreased production of biotin vitamers, whereas its amplification contributed to increased production, with a larger impact of fasA in both cases. Double disruptions of fasA and fasB resulted in no biotin vitamer production. The acc genes showed a positive effect on production when amplified simultaneously. Augmented fatty acid biosynthesis was also reflected in pimelic acid production when carbon flow was blocked at the BioF reaction. These results indicate that carbon flow down the FAS-I pathway is destined for channeling into the biotin biosynthesis pathway, and that FasA in particular has a significant impact on precursor supply. In contrast, fasB disruption resulted in auxotrophy for lipoic acid or its precursor octanoic acid in both wild-type and BFI-5 strains. The phenotypes were fully complemented by plasmid-mediated expression of fasB but not fasA These results reveal that FasB plays a specific physiological role in lipoic acid biosynthesis in C. glutamicum IMPORTANCE For the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids, C. glutamicum exceptionally uses a eukaryotic multifunctional type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) system comprising FasA and FasB, in contrast to most bacteria, such as E. coli and B. subtilis , which use an individual nonaggregating type II fatty acid synthase

  18. In Vivo Roles of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Enzymes in Biosynthesis of Biotin and α-Lipoic Acid in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Takashi; Nakamura, Eri; Kato, Ryosuke; Ohshita, Masakazu; Hayashi, Mikiro; Takeno, Seiki

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT For fatty acid biosynthesis, Corynebacterium glutamicum uses two type I fatty acid synthases (FAS-I), FasA and FasB, in addition to acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC) consisting of AccBC, AccD1, and AccE. The in vivo roles of the enzymes in supplying precursors for biotin and α-lipoic acid remain unclear. Here, we report genetic evidence demonstrating that the biosynthesis of these cofactors is linked to fatty acid biosynthesis through the FAS-I pathway. For this study, we used wild-type C. glutamicum and its derived biotin vitamer producer BFI-5, which was engineered to express Escherichia coli bioBF and Bacillus subtilis bioI. Disruption of either fasA or fasB in strain BFI-5 led to decreased production of biotin vitamers, whereas its amplification contributed to increased production, with a larger impact of fasA in both cases. Double disruptions of fasA and fasB resulted in no biotin vitamer production. The acc genes showed a positive effect on production when amplified simultaneously. Augmented fatty acid biosynthesis was also reflected in pimelic acid production when carbon flow was blocked at the BioF reaction. These results indicate that carbon flow down the FAS-I pathway is destined for channeling into the biotin biosynthesis pathway, and that FasA in particular has a significant impact on precursor supply. In contrast, fasB disruption resulted in auxotrophy for lipoic acid or its precursor octanoic acid in both wild-type and BFI-5 strains. The phenotypes were fully complemented by plasmid-mediated expression of fasB but not fasA. These results reveal that FasB plays a specific physiological role in lipoic acid biosynthesis in C. glutamicum. IMPORTANCE For the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids, C. glutamicum exceptionally uses a eukaryotic multifunctional type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) system comprising FasA and FasB, in contrast to most bacteria, such as E. coli and B. subtilis, which use an individual nonaggregating type II fatty

  19. A Protein Interaction Map of the Kalimantacin Biosynthesis Assembly Line

    PubMed Central

    Uytterhoeven, Birgit; Lathouwers, Thomas; Voet, Marleen; Michiels, Chris W.; Lavigne, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial secondary metabolite kalimantacin (also called batumin) is produced by a hybrid polyketide/non-ribosomal peptide system in Pseudomonas fluorescens BCCM_ID9359. In this study, the kalimantacin biosynthesis gene cluster is analyzed by yeast two-hybrid analysis, creating a protein–protein interaction map of the entire assembly line. In total, 28 potential interactions were identified, of which 13 could be confirmed further. These interactions include the dimerization of ketosynthase domains, a link between assembly line modules 9 and 10, and a specific interaction between the trans-acting enoyl reductase BatK and the carrier proteins of modules 8 and 10. These interactions reveal fundamental insight into the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. This study is the first to reveal interactions in a complete biosynthetic pathway. Similar future studies could build a strong basis for engineering strategies in such clusters. PMID:27853452

  20. Enzymatic Reductive Dehalogenation Controls the Biosynthesis of Marine Bacterial Pyrroles.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Abrahim; Agarwal, Vinayak; Rahman, Imran; Moore, Bradley S

    2016-10-12

    Enzymes capable of performing dehalogenating reactions have attracted tremendous contemporary attention due to their potential application in the bioremediation of anthropogenic polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants. Nature, in particular the marine environment, is also a prolific source of polyhalogenated organic natural products. The study of the biosynthesis of these natural products has furnished a diverse array of halogenation biocatalysts, but thus far no examples of dehalogenating enzymes have been reported from a secondary metabolic pathway. Here we show that the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the highly brominated marine bacterial product pentabromopseudilin is catalyzed by an unusual debrominase Bmp8 that utilizes a redox thiol mechanism to remove the C-2 bromine atom of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromopyrrole to facilitate oxidative coupling to 2,4-dibromophenol. To the best of our knowledge, Bmp8 is first example of a dehalogenating enzyme from the established genetic and biochemical context of a natural product biosynthetic pathway.

  1. Biosynthesis and function of simple amides in Xenorhabdus doucetiae.

    PubMed

    Bode, Edna; He, Yue; Vo, Tien Duy; Schultz, Roland; Kaiser, Marcel; Bode, Helge B

    2017-11-01

    Xenorhabdus doucetiae, the bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema diaprepesi produces several different fatty acid amides. Their biosynthesis has been studied using a combination of analysis of gene deletions and promoter exchanges in X. doucetiae and heterologous expression of candidate genes in E. coli. While a decarboxylase is required for the formation of all observed phenylethylamides and tryptamides, the acyltransferase XrdE encoded in the xenorhabdin biosynthesis gene cluster is responsible for the formation of short chain acyl amides. Additionally, new, long-chain and cytotoxic acyl amides were identified in X. doucetiae infected insects and when X. doucetiae was grown in Galleria Instant Broth (GIB). When the bioactivity of selected amides was tested, a quorum sensing modulating activity was observed for the short chain acyl amides against the two different quorum sensing systems from Chromobacterium and Janthinobacterium. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Biosynthesis and therapeutic properties of Lavandula essential oil constituents.

    PubMed

    Woronuk, Grant; Demissie, Zerihun; Rheault, Mark; Mahmoud, Soheil

    2011-01-01

    Lavenders and their essential oils have been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. The volatile compounds that comprise lavender essential oils, including linalool and linalyl acetate, have demonstrative therapeutic properties, and the relative abundance of these metabolites is greatly influenced by the genetics and environment of the developing plants. With the rapid progress of molecular biology and the genomic sciences, our understanding of essential oil biosynthesis has greatly improved over the past few decades. At the same time, there is a recent surge of interest in the use of natural remedies, including lavender essential oils, in alternative medicine and aromatherapy. This article provides a review of recent developments related to the biosynthesis and medicinal properties of lavender essential oils. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Engineering fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for sustainable biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Blatti, Jillian L; Michaud, Jennifer; Burkart, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel and other liquid fuels due to their fast growth rate, high lipid yields, and ability to grow in a broad range of environments. However, many microalgae achieve maximal lipid yields only under stress conditions hindering growth and providing compositions not ideal for biofuel applications. Metabolic engineering of algal fatty acid biosynthesis promises to create strains capable of economically producing fungible and sustainable biofuels. The algal fatty acid biosynthetic pathway has been deduced by homology to bacterial and plant systems, and much of our understanding is gleaned from basic studies in these systems. However, successful engineering of lipid metabolism in algae will necessitate a thorough characterization of the algal fatty acid synthase (FAS) including protein-protein interactions and regulation. This review describes recent efforts to engineer fatty acid biosynthesis toward optimizing microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enzyme-catalyzed cationic epoxide rearrangements in quinolone alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Garcia-Borràs, Marc; Tang, Mancheng C; Hirayama, Yuichiro; Li, Dehai H; Li, Li; Watanabe, Kenji; Houk, K N; Tang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    Epoxides are highly useful synthons and biosynthons for the construction of complex natural products during total synthesis and biosynthesis, respectively. Among enzyme-catalyzed epoxide transformations, a reaction that is notably missing, in regard to the synthetic toolbox, is cationic rearrangement that takes place under strong acid. This is a challenging transformation for enzyme catalysis, as stabilization of the carbocation intermediate upon epoxide cleavage is required. Here, we discovered two Brønsted acid enzymes that can catalyze two unprecedented epoxide transformations in biology. PenF from the penigequinolone pathway catalyzes a cationic epoxide rearrangement under physiological conditions to generate a quaternary carbon center, while AsqO from the aspoquinolone pathway catalyzes a 3-exo-tet cyclization to forge a cyclopropane-tetrahydrofuran ring system. The discovery of these new epoxide-modifying enzymes further highlights the versatility of epoxides in complexity generation during natural product biosynthesis.

  5. GA3 and other signal regulators (MeJA and IAA) improve xanthumin biosynthesis in different manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Li, Changfu; Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-08-25

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment.

  6. Reduced Biosynthesis of Digalactosyldiacylglycerol, a Major Chloroplast Membrane Lipid, Leads to Oxylipin Overproduction and Phloem Cap Lignification in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lih-Jen; Herrfurth, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    DIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL SYNTHASE1 (DGD1) is a chloroplast outer membrane protein responsible for the biosynthesis of the lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) from monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG). The Arabidopsis thaliana dgd1 mutants have a greater than 90% reduction in DGDG content, reduced photosynthesis, and altered chloroplast morphology. However, the most pronounced visible phenotype is the extremely short inflorescence stem, but how deficient DGDG biosynthesis causes this phenotype is unclear. We found that, in dgd1 mutants, phloem cap cells were lignified and jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes were highly upregulated under normal growth conditions. The coronative insensitive1 dgd1 and allene oxide synthase dgd1 double mutants no longer exhibited the short inflorescence stem and lignification phenotypes but still had the same lipid profile and reduced photosynthesis as dgd1 single mutants. Hormone and lipidomics analyses showed higher levels of JA, JA-isoleucine, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and arabidopsides in dgd1 mutants. Transcript and protein level analyses further suggest that JA biosynthesis in dgd1 is initially activated through the increased expression of genes encoding 13-lipoxygenases (LOXs) and phospholipase A-Iγ3 (At1g51440), a plastid lipase with a high substrate preference for MGDG, and is sustained by further increases in LOX and allene oxide cyclase mRNA and protein levels. Our results demonstrate a link between the biosynthesis of DGDG and JA. PMID:26721860

  7. Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    SciT

    Masiello, Lisa M.; Fotos, Joseph S.; Galileo, Deni S.

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis of osteoblast migration after wounds were introduced into cell monolayers indicated that LPA stimulated both migration velocity and the average migration distance per cell. LPA also elicited substantial changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal structure; lipid-treated cells contained fewermore » stress fibers and displayed long membrane processes that were enriched in F-actin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells express all four known LPA-specific G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA4) with a relative mRNA abundance of LPA1 > LPA4 > LPA2 >> LPA3. LPA-induced changes in osteoblast motility and morphology were antagonized by both pertussis toxin and Ki16425, a subtype-specific blocker of LPA1 and LPA3 receptor function. Cell migration in many cell types is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+. Ki16425 also inhibited LPA-induced Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a link between LPA-induced Ca2+ transients and osteoblast chemotaxis. Our data show that LPA stimulates MC3T3-E1 osteoblast motility via a mechanism that is linked primarily to the G protein-coupled receptor LPA1.« less

  8. Ubiquitination independent of E1 and E2 enzymes by bacterial effectors

    SciT

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Sheedlo, Michael J.; Yu, Kaiwen

    Signaling by ubiquitination regulates virtually every cellular process in eukaryotes. Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate is catalyzed by the E1, E2 and E3 three-enzyme cascade 1, which links the C terminus of ubiquitin via an isopeptide bond mostly to the ε-amino group of a lysine of the substrate. Given the essential roles of ubiquitination in the regulation of the immune system, it is not surprising that the ubiquitination network is a common target for diverse infectious agents 2. For example, many bacterial pathogens exploit ubiquitin signaling using virulence factors that function as E3 ligases, deubiquitinases 3 or asmore » enzymes that directly attack ubiquitin 4. The bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila utilizes approximately 300 effectors that modulate diverse host processes to create a niche permissive for its replication in phagocytes 5. Here we demonstrate that members of the SidE effector family (SidEs) of L. pneumophila ubiquitinate multiple Rab small GTPases associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, we show that these proteins are capable of catalyzing ubiquitination without the need for the E1 and E2 enzymes. The E1/E2-independent ubiquitination catalyzed by these enzymes requires NAD but not ATP and Mg2+. A putative mono ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) motif critical for the ubiquitination activity is also essential for the role of SidEs in intracellular bacterial replication in a protozoan host. These results establish that ubiquitination can be catalyzed by a single enzyme.« less

  9. Alternative forms of lethality in mitomycin C-induced bacteria carrying ColE1 plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Suit, Joan L.; Fan, M.-L. Judy; Sabik, Joseph F.; Labarre, Robert; Luria, S. E.

    1983-01-01

    We have studied the physiological effects of mitomycin C induction on cells carrying ColE1 plasmids with differing configurations of three genes: the structural gene coding for colicin (cea), a gene responsible for mitomycin C lethality (kil) that we located as part of an operon with cea, and the immunity (imm) gene, which lies near cea but is not in the same operon. kil is close to or overlaps imm. When cea+ plasmids are present mitomycin C induction results in 100-fold or greater increases in the level of colicin. Within an hour after induction more than 90% of cells carrying cea+kil+ plasmids are killed and macromolecular synthesis stops, capacity for transport of proline, thiomethyl β-D-galactoside, and α-methyl glucoside is lost, and the membrane becomes abnormally permeable as indicated by an increased accessibility of intracellular β-galactosidase to the substrate o-nitrophenyl β-D-galactoside. All of these events occur when a cea-kil+imm+ plasmid is present and none does when the plasmid is cea+kil-imm+, so the damage can be attributed solely to the Kil function and not to the presence of colicin. However, cells carrying a cea+kil-imm- plasmid are killed upon induction, apparently by action of endogenous colicin on the nonimmune cytoplasmic membrane. The pattern of accompanying physiological damage is distinguished from the kil+-associated damage by an enhancement of α-methyl glucoside uptake and accumulation and efflux of α-methyl glucoside 6-phosphate and by an absence of the alteration in membrane permeability for o-nitrophenyl β-D-galactoside. These features are typical of colicin E1 action on the membrane. The induced damage is not prevented by trypsin and occurs in cells of a strain specifically tolerant to exogenous colicin E1, indicating that the attack is from inside the cell. PMID:6403939

  10. Role of S-Adenosylmethionine in Methionine Biosynthesis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Botsford, J. L.; Parks, L. W.

    1967-01-01

    Extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used to develop a cell-free system capable of converting the β-carbon of serine into the methyl group of methionine. No requirement for either S-adenosylmethionine or S-adenosylhomocysteine could be demonstrated for net methionine biosynthesis. Growth of the cells in B12 did not affect the reaction. The mechanism for the methylation of homocysteine in yeast appears to be similar to the non-B12 system in Escherichia coli. PMID:4293082

  11. Nucleotide Intermediates in the Biosynthesis of Heteropolymeric Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Strominger, Jack L.

    1964-01-01

    The role of nucleotides as “carriers” of small molecules for biosynthetic reactions is discussed. Following this introduction, the particular problem of nucleotide intermediates in chondroitin sulfate synthesis is presented. The egg shell of the hen contains a form of chondroitin sulfate and particular emphasis is placed on the biosynthesis of sulfated polysaccharides in the hen oviduct, which has been studied in the author's laboratory. ImagesFigure 16Figure 19 PMID:14104074

  12. Negative feedback regulation of wild-type p53 biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Mosner, J; Mummenbrauer, T; Bauer, C; Sczakiel, G; Grosse, F; Deppert, W

    1995-01-01

    When growth-arrested mouse fibroblasts re-entered the cell-cycle, the rise in tumour suppressor p53 mRNA level markedly preceded the rise in expression of the p53 protein. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation of such cells led to a rapid increase in p53 protein biosynthesis even in the presence of the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D. Both findings strongly suggest that p53 biosynthesis in these cells is regulated at the translational level. We present evidence for an autoregulatory control of p53 expression by a negative feed-back loop: p53 mRNA has a predicted tendency to form a stable stem-loop structure that involves the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) plus some 280 nucleotides of the coding sequence. p53 binds tightly to the 5'-UTR region and inhibits the translation of its own mRNA, most likely mediated by the p53-intrinsic RNA re-annealing activity. The inhibition of p53 biosynthesis requires wild-type p53, as it is not observed with MethA mutant p53, p53-catalysed translational inhibition is selective; it might be restricted to p53 mRNA and a few other mRNAs that are able to form extensive stem-loop structures. Release from negative feed-back regulation of p53 biosynthesis, e.g. after damage-induced nuclear transport of p53, might provide a means for rapidly increasing p53 protein levels when p53 is required to act as a cell-cycle checkpoint determinant after DNA damage. Images PMID:7556087

  13. Spectral Dependence of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis Pathways in Plant Leaves.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, O B; Litvin, F F

    2015-12-01

    This review covers studies on the dependence of chlorophyll photobiosynthesis reactions from protochlorophyllide on the spectral composition of actinic light. A general scheme of the reaction sequence for the photochemical stage in chlorophyll biosynthesis for etiolated plant leaves is presented. Comparative analysis of the data shows that the use of light with varied wavelengths for etiolated plant illumination reveals parallel transformation pathways of different protochlorophyllide forms into chlorophyllide, including a pathway for early photosystem II reaction center P-680 pigment formation.

  14. Cerebral polyamine metabolism: inhibition of spermidine biosynthesis by dicyclohexylamine.

    PubMed

    Porta, R; Camardella, M; Gentile, V; De Santis, A

    1984-02-01

    Since a specific inhibition of cerebral spermidine (Spd) synthase activity by alicyclic amines was preliminarily observed in vitro, we examined the in vivo inhibitory effectiveness of dicyclohexylamine (DCHA) on Spd biosynthesis in 21-day-old rat brain. For this purpose a previously reported HPLC procedure (Porta et al., 1981a) was modified to analyze the cerebral levels of DCHA at the time of polyamine determinations. The intraperitoneally injected DCHA was shown to cross the blood-brain barrier easily, reaching high levels in the cerebral tissue (approximately 750 nmol/g brain) within 1 h of its administration. The effect of the drug on the polyamine metabolism resulted in a significant depletion of Spd biosynthesis from the sixth hour after the treatment and in an earlier and prolonged increase of the putrescine (Pt) steady-state levels. Conversely, the spermine (Spm) endogenous pools remained unchanged throughout the 24-h post-DCHA period. Moreover, following the intracerebral administration of [1,4-14C]Pt, significantly lower specific radioactivity (s.r.a.) values for labeled Pt and Spd were recorded in the brains of DCHA-treated animals. Conversely, after intracerebral [14C]Spd injection, the s.r.a. of newly formed [14C]Spm remained unchanged, confirming the specificity of the DCHA effect on the Spd biosynthesis.

  15. Biosynthesis and Metabolic Fate of Phenylalanine in Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, María B.; El-Azaz, Jorge; de la Torre, Fernando N.; Cañas, Rafael A.; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    The amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) is a critical metabolic node that plays an essential role in the interconnection between primary and secondary metabolism in plants. Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant reproduction, growth, development, and defense against different types of stresses. The metabolism of Phe plays a central role in the channeling of carbon from photosynthesis to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. The study of this metabolic pathway is particularly relevant in trees, which divert large amounts of carbon into the biosynthesis of Phe-derived compounds, particularly lignin, an important constituent of wood. The trunks of trees are metabolic sinks that consume a considerable percentage of carbon and energy from photosynthesis, and carbon is finally immobilized in wood. This paper reviews recent advances in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of Phe in conifer trees. Two alternative routes have been identified: the ancient phenylpyruvate pathway that is present in microorganisms, and the arogenate pathway that possibly evolved later during plant evolution. Additionally, an efficient nitrogen recycling mechanism is required to maintain sustained growth during xylem formation. The relevance of phenylalanine metabolic pathways in wood formation, the biotic interactions, and ultraviolet protection is discussed. The genetic manipulation and transcriptional regulation of the pathways are also outlined. PMID:27468292

  16. Biosynthesis and Metabolic Fate of Phenylalanine in Conifers.

    PubMed

    Pascual, María B; El-Azaz, Jorge; de la Torre, Fernando N; Cañas, Rafael A; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    The amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) is a critical metabolic node that plays an essential role in the interconnection between primary and secondary metabolism in plants. Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant reproduction, growth, development, and defense against different types of stresses. The metabolism of Phe plays a central role in the channeling of carbon from photosynthesis to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. The study of this metabolic pathway is particularly relevant in trees, which divert large amounts of carbon into the biosynthesis of Phe-derived compounds, particularly lignin, an important constituent of wood. The trunks of trees are metabolic sinks that consume a considerable percentage of carbon and energy from photosynthesis, and carbon is finally immobilized in wood. This paper reviews recent advances in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of Phe in conifer trees. Two alternative routes have been identified: the ancient phenylpyruvate pathway that is present in microorganisms, and the arogenate pathway that possibly evolved later during plant evolution. Additionally, an efficient nitrogen recycling mechanism is required to maintain sustained growth during xylem formation. The relevance of phenylalanine metabolic pathways in wood formation, the biotic interactions, and ultraviolet protection is discussed. The genetic manipulation and transcriptional regulation of the pathways are also outlined.

  17. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products, and functions.

    PubMed

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits - which differ among various taxa - affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating (i) the expression of the biosynthesis apparatus, (ii) the export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and (iii) the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of resulting biofilms, which is particularly important for the interactions of bacteria with higher organisms - leading to rhizosphere colonization and modulating the virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. We review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operon found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms and in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcriptional regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mondino, S.; Gago, G.; Gramajo, H.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The main purpose of our study is to understand how mycobacteria exert control over the biosynthesis of their membrane lipids and find out the key components of the regulatory network that control fatty acid biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. In this paper we describe the identification and purification of FasR, a transcriptional regulator from Mycobacterium sp. that controls the expression of the fatty acid synthase (fas) and the 4-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (acpS) encoding genes, whose products are involved in the fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis pathways. In vitro studies demonstrated that fas and acpS genes are part of the same transcriptional unit and that FasR specifically binds to three conserved operator sequences present in the fas-acpS promoter region (Pfas). The construction and further characterization of a fasR conditional mutant confirmed that FasR is a transcriptional activator of the fas-acpS operon and that this protein is essential for mycobacteria viability. Furthermore, the combined used of Pfas-lacZ fusions in different fasR backgrounds and electrophoretic mobility shift assays experiments, strongly suggested that long-chain acyl-CoAs are the effector molecules that modulate the affinity of FasR for its DNA binding sequences and therefore the expression of the essential fas-acpS operon. PMID:23721164

  19. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    PubMed Central

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  20. Microbial Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles in Different Culture Media.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke; Jung, Samuel; Park, Kyu-Hwan; Kim, Young-Rok

    2018-01-31

    Microbial biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles has been extensively studied for the applications in biomedical sciences and engineering. However, the mechanism for their synthesis through microorganism is not completely understood. In this study, several culture media were investigated for their roles in the microbial biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The size and morphology of the synthesized AgNPs were analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform-infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results demonstrated that nutrient broth (NB) and Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) among tested media effectively reduced silver ions to form AgNPs with different particle size and shape. Although the involved microorganism enhanced the reduction of silver ions, the size and shape of the particles were shown to mainly depend on the culture media. Our findings suggest that the growth media of bacterial culture play an important role in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles with regard to their size and shape. We believe our findings would provide useful information for further exploration of microbial biosynthesis of AgNPs and their biomedical applications.

  1. Arabidopsis DREB2C modulates ABA biosynthesis during germination.

    PubMed

    Je, Jihyun; Chen, Huan; Song, Chieun; Lim, Chae Oh

    2014-09-12

    Plant dehydration-responsive element binding factors (DREBs) are transcriptional regulators of the APETELA2/Ethylene Responsive element-binding Factor (AP2/ERF) family that control expression of abiotic stress-related genes. We show here that under conditions of mild heat stress, constitutive overexpression seeds of transgenic DREB2C overexpression Arabidopsis exhibit delayed germination and increased abscisic acid (ABA) content compared to untransformed wild-type (WT). Treatment with fluridone, an inhibitor of the ABA biosynthesis abrogated these effects. Expression of an ABA biosynthesis-related gene, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 9 (NCED9) was up-regulated in the DREB2C overexpression lines compared to WT. DREB2C was able to trans-activate expression of NCED9 in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts in vitro. Direct and specific binding of DREB2C to a complete DRE on the NCED9 promoter was observed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Exogenous ABA treatment induced DREB2C expression in germinating seeds of WT. Vegetative growth of transgenic DREB2C overexpression lines was more strongly inhibited by exogenous ABA compared to WT. These results suggest that DREB2C is a stress- and ABA-inducible gene that acts as a positive regulator of ABA biosynthesis in germinating seeds through activating NCED9 expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fungal biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles: mechanism and scale up.

    PubMed

    Kitching, Michael; Ramani, Meghana; Marsili, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a widespread research tool because of their oxidation resistance, biocompatibility and stability. Chemical methods for AuNP synthesis often produce toxic residues that raise environmental concern. On the other hand, the biological synthesis of AuNPs in viable microorganisms and their cell-free extracts is an environmentally friendly and low-cost process. In general, fungi tolerate higher metal concentrations than bacteria and secrete abundant extracellular redox proteins to reduce soluble metal ions to their insoluble form and eventually to nanocrystals. Fungi harbour untapped biological diversity and may provide novel metal reductases for metal detoxification and bioreduction. A thorough understanding of the biosynthetic mechanism of AuNPs in fungi is needed to reduce the time of biosynthesis and to scale up the AuNP production process. In this review, we describe the known mechanisms for AuNP biosynthesis in viable fungi and fungal protein extracts and discuss the most suitable bioreactors for industrial AuNP biosynthesis. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Fungal biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles: mechanism and scale up

    PubMed Central

    Kitching, Michael; Ramani, Meghana; Marsili, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a widespread research tool because of their oxidation resistance, biocompatibility and stability. Chemical methods for AuNP synthesis often produce toxic residues that raise environmental concern. On the other hand, the biological synthesis of AuNPs in viable microorganisms and their cell-free extracts is an environmentally friendly and low-cost process. In general, fungi tolerate higher metal concentrations than bacteria and secrete abundant extracellular redox proteins to reduce soluble metal ions to their insoluble form and eventually to nanocrystals. Fungi harbour untapped biological diversity and may provide novel metal reductases for metal detoxification and bioreduction. A thorough understanding of the biosynthetic mechanism of AuNPs in fungi is needed to reduce the time of biosynthesis and to scale up the AuNP production process. In this review, we describe the known mechanisms for AuNP biosynthesis in viable fungi and fungal protein extracts and discuss the most suitable bioreactors for industrial AuNP biosynthesis. PMID:25154648

  4. Deconvoluting heme biosynthesis to target blood-stage malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Sigala, Paul A; Crowley, Jan R; Henderson, Jeffrey P; Goldberg, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Heme metabolism is central to blood-stage infection by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Parasites retain a heme biosynthesis pathway but do not require its activity during infection of heme-rich erythrocytes, where they can scavenge host heme to meet metabolic needs. Nevertheless, heme biosynthesis in parasite-infected erythrocytes can be potently stimulated by exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), resulting in accumulation of the phototoxic intermediate protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). Here we use photodynamic imaging, mass spectrometry, parasite gene disruption, and chemical probes to reveal that vestigial host enzymes in the cytoplasm of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes contribute to ALA-stimulated heme biosynthesis and that ALA uptake depends on parasite-established permeability pathways. We show that PPIX accumulation in infected erythrocytes can be harnessed for antimalarial chemotherapy using luminol-based chemiluminescence and combinatorial stimulation by low-dose artemisinin to photoactivate PPIX to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen. This photodynamic strategy has the advantage of exploiting host enzymes refractory to resistance-conferring mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09143.001 PMID:26173178

  5. Lipophagy Contributes to Testosterone Biosynthesis in Male Rat Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Yin-Ci; Wang, Si-Qi; Ping, Ping; Chen, Xiang-Feng

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, autophagy was found to regulate lipid metabolism through a process termed lipophagy. Lipophagy modulates the degradation of cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol (FC), which is the substrate of testosterone biosynthesis. However, the role of lipophagy in testosterone production is unknown. To investigate this, primary rat Leydig cells and varicocele rat models were administered to inhibit or promote autophagy, and testosterone, lipid droplets (LDs), total cholesterol (TC), and FC were evaluated. The results demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy in primary rat Leydig cells reduced testosterone production. Further studies demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy increased the number and size of LDs and the level of TC, but decreased the level of FC. Furthermore, hypoxia promoted autophagy in Leydig cells. We found that short-term hypoxia stimulated testosterone secretion; however, the inhibition of autophagy abolished stimulated testosterone release. Hypoxia decreased the number and size of LDs in Leydig cells, but the changes could be largely rescued by blocking autophagy. In experimental varicocele rat models, the administration of autophagy inhibitors substantially reduced serum testosterone. These data demonstrate that autophagy contributes to testosterone biosynthesis at least partially through degrading intracellular LDs/TC. Our observations might reveal an autophagic regulatory mode regarding testosterone biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  6. Activation of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Alleviates Total ROS in Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Kenne, Gabriel J.; Gummadidala, Phani M.; Omebeyinje, Mayomi H.; Mondal, Ananda M.; Bett, Dominic K.; McFadden, Sandra; Bromfield, Sydney; Banaszek, Nora; Velez-Martinez, Michelle; Mitra, Chandrani; Mikell, Isabelle; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Wee, Josephine; Chanda, Anindya

    2018-01-01

    An aspect of mycotoxin biosynthesis that remains unclear is its relationship with the cellular management of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we conduct a comparative study of the total ROS production in the wild-type strain (SU-1) of the plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus, and its mutant strain, AFS10, in which the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway is blocked by disruption of its pathway regulator, aflR. We show that SU-1 demonstrates a significantly faster decrease in total ROS than AFS10 between 24 h to 48 h, a time window within which aflatoxin synthesis is activated and reaches peak levels in SU-1. The impact of aflatoxin synthesis in alleviation of ROS correlated well with the transcriptional activation of five superoxide dismutases (SOD), a group of enzymes that protect cells from elevated levels of a class of ROS, the superoxide radicals (O2−). Finally, we show that aflatoxin supplementation to AFS10 growth medium results in a significant reduction of total ROS only in 24 h cultures, without resulting in significant changes in SOD gene expression. Our findings show that the activation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. parasiticus alleviates ROS generation, which in turn, can be both aflR dependent and aflatoxin dependent. PMID:29382166

  7. Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Unver, Turgay; Wu, Zhangyan; Sterck, Lieven; Turktas, Mine; Lohaus, Rolf; Li, Zhen; Yang, Ming; He, Lijuan; Deng, Tianquan; Escalante, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Carlos; Roig, Francisco J.; Parmaksiz, Iskender; Dundar, Ekrem; Xie, Fuliang; Zhang, Baohong; Ipek, Arif; Uranbey, Serkan; Erayman, Mustafa; Ilhan, Emre; Badad, Oussama; Ghazal, Hassan; Lightfoot, David A.; Kasarla, Pavan; Colantonio, Vincent; Tombuloglu, Huseyin; Hernandez, Pilar; Mete, Nurengin; Cetin, Oznur; Van Montagu, Marc; Yang, Huanming; Gao, Qiang; Dorado, Gabriel; Van de Peer, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Here we present the genome sequence and annotation of the wild olive tree (Olea europaea var. sylvestris), called oleaster, which is considered an ancestor of cultivated olive trees. More than 50,000 protein-coding genes were predicted, a majority of which could be anchored to 23 pseudochromosomes obtained through a newly constructed genetic map. The oleaster genome contains signatures of two Oleaceae lineage-specific paleopolyploidy events, dated at ∼28 and ∼59 Mya. These events contributed to the expansion and neofunctionalization of genes and gene families that play important roles in oil biosynthesis. The functional divergence of oil biosynthesis pathway genes, such as FAD2, SACPD, EAR, and ACPTE, following duplication, has been responsible for the differential accumulation of oleic and linoleic acids produced in olive compared with sesame, a closely related oil crop. Duplicated oleaster FAD2 genes are regulated by an siRNA derived from a transposable element-rich region, leading to suppressed levels of FAD2 gene expression. Additionally, neofunctionalization of members of the SACPD gene family has led to increased expression of SACPD2, 3, 5, and 7, consequently resulting in an increased desaturation of steric acid. Taken together, decreased FAD2 expression and increased SACPD expression likely explain the accumulation of exceptionally high levels of oleic acid in olive. The oleaster genome thus provides important insights into the evolution of oil biosynthesis and will be a valuable resource for oil crop genomics. PMID:29078332

  8. Biosynthesis of anatoxin-a and analogues (anatoxins) in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Méjean, Annick; Paci, Guillaume; Gautier, Valérie; Ploux, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater cyanobacteria produce secondary metabolites that are toxic to humans and animals, the so-called cyanotoxins. Among them, anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a are potent neurotoxins that are agonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. These alkaloids provoke a rapid death if ingested at low doses. Recently, the cluster of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of these toxins, the ana cluster, has been identified in Oscillatoria sp. PCC 6506, and a biosynthetic pathway was proposed. This biosynthesis was reconstituted in vitro using purified enzymes confirming the predicted pathway. One of the enzymes, AnaB a prolyl-acyl carrier protein oxidase, was crystallized and its three dimensional structure solved confirming its reaction mechanism. Three other ana clusters have now been identified and sequenced in other cyanobacteria. These clusters show similarities and some differences suggesting a common evolutionary origin. In particular, the cluster from Cylindrospermum stagnale PCC 7417, possesses an extra gene coding for an F420-dependent oxidoreductase that is likely involved in the biosynthesis of dihydroanatoxin-a. This review summarizes all these new data and discusses them in relation to the production of anatoxins in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd.-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd.-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2012-01-01

    The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees. PMID:22162870

  10. Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex.

    PubMed

    Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2012-03-01

    The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees.

  11. Elucidation of an Alternate Isoleucine Biosynthesis Pathway in Geobacter sulfurreducens▿

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Carla; Van Dien, Stephen J.; Orloff, Amber; Lovley, Derek R.; Coppi, Maddalena V.

    2008-01-01

    The central metabolic model for Geobacter sulfurreducens included a single pathway for the biosynthesis of isoleucine that was analogous to that of Escherichia coli, in which the isoleucine precursor 2-oxobutanoate is generated from threonine. 13C labeling studies performed in G. sulfurreducens indicated that this pathway accounted for a minor fraction of isoleucine biosynthesis and that the majority of isoleucine was instead derived from acetyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate, possibly via the citramalate pathway. Genes encoding citramalate synthase (GSU1798), which catalyzes the first dedicated step in the citramalate pathway, and threonine ammonia-lyase (GSU0486), which catalyzes the conversion of threonine to 2-oxobutanoate, were identified and knocked out. Mutants lacking both of these enzymes were auxotrophs for isoleucine, whereas single mutants were capable of growth in the absence of isoleucine. Biochemical characterization of the single mutants revealed deficiencies in citramalate synthase and threonine ammonia-lyase activity. Thus, in G. sulfurreducens, 2-oxobutanoate can be synthesized either from citramalate or threonine, with the former being the main pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis. The citramalate synthase of G. sulfurreducens constitutes the first characterized member of a phylogenetically distinct clade of citramalate synthases, which contains representatives from a wide variety of microorganisms. PMID:18245290

  12. Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Unver, Turgay; Wu, Zhangyan; Sterck, Lieven; Turktas, Mine; Lohaus, Rolf; Li, Zhen; Yang, Ming; He, Lijuan; Deng, Tianquan; Escalante, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Carlos; Roig, Francisco J; Parmaksiz, Iskender; Dundar, Ekrem; Xie, Fuliang; Zhang, Baohong; Ipek, Arif; Uranbey, Serkan; Erayman, Mustafa; Ilhan, Emre; Badad, Oussama; Ghazal, Hassan; Lightfoot, David A; Kasarla, Pavan; Colantonio, Vincent; Tombuloglu, Huseyin; Hernandez, Pilar; Mete, Nurengin; Cetin, Oznur; Van Montagu, Marc; Yang, Huanming; Gao, Qiang; Dorado, Gabriel; Van de Peer, Yves

    2017-10-31

    Here we present the genome sequence and annotation of the wild olive tree ( Olea europaea var. sylvestris ), called oleaster, which is considered an ancestor of cultivated olive trees. More than 50,000 protein-coding genes were predicted, a majority of which could be anchored to 23 pseudochromosomes obtained through a newly constructed genetic map. The oleaster genome contains signatures of two Oleaceae lineage-specific paleopolyploidy events, dated at ∼28 and ∼59 Mya. These events contributed to the expansion and neofunctionalization of genes and gene families that play important roles in oil biosynthesis. The functional divergence of oil biosynthesis pathway genes, such as FAD2 , SACPD, EAR , and ACPTE , following duplication, has been responsible for the differential accumulation of oleic and linoleic acids produced in olive compared with sesame, a closely related oil crop. Duplicated oleaster FAD2 genes are regulated by an siRNA derived from a transposable element-rich region, leading to suppressed levels of FAD2 gene expression. Additionally, neofunctionalization of members of the SACPD gene family has led to increased expression of SACPD2 , 3 , 5 , and 7 , consequently resulting in an increased desaturation of steric acid. Taken together, decreased FAD2 expression and increased SACPD expression likely explain the accumulation of exceptionally high levels of oleic acid in olive. The oleaster genome thus provides important insights into the evolution of oil biosynthesis and will be a valuable resource for oil crop genomics.

  13. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    PubMed

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.

  14. Biosynthesis and Metabolic Engineering of Anthocyanins in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ming-Zhu; Xie, De-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the first model plant, the genome of which has been sequenced. In general, intensive studies on this model plant over the past nearly 30 years have led to many new revolutionary understandings in every single aspect of plant biology. Here, we review the current understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis in this model plant. Although the investigation of anthocyanin structures in this model plant was not performed until 2002, numerous studies over the past three decades have been conducted to understand the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. To date, it appears that all pathway genes of anthocyanins have been molecularly, genetically and biochemically characterized in this plant. These fundamental accomplishments have made Arabidopsis an ideal model to understand the regulatory mechanisms of anthocyanin pathway. Several studies have revealed that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is controlled by WD40-bHLH-MYB (WBM) transcription factor complexes under lighting conditions. However, how different regulatory complexes coordinately and specifically regulate the pathway genes of anthocyanins remains unclear. In this review, we discuss current progresses and findings including structural diversity, regulatory properties and metabolic engineering of anthocyanins in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:24354533

  15. Pneumocandin biosynthesis: involvement of a trans-selective proline hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Houwaart, Stefanie; Youssar, Loubna; Hüttel, Wolfgang

    2014-11-03

    Echinocandins are cyclic nonribosomal hexapeptides based mostly on nonproteinogenic amino acids and displaying strong antifungal activity. Despite previous studies on their biosynthesis by fungi, the origin of three amino acids, trans-4- and trans-3-hydroxyproline, as well as trans-3-hydroxy-4-methylproline, is still unknown. Here we describe the identification, overexpression, and characterization of GloF, the first eukaryotic α-ketoglutarate/Fe(II) -dependent proline hydroxylase from the pneumocandin biosynthesis cluster of the fungus Glarea lozoyensis ATCC 74030. In in vitro transformations with L-proline, GloF generates trans-4- and trans-3-hydroxyproline simultaneously in a ratio of 8:1; the latter reaction was previously unknown for proline hydroxylase catalysis. trans-4-Methyl-L-proline is converted into the corresponding trans-3-hydroxyproline. All three hydroxyprolines required for the biosynthesis of the echinocandins pneumocandins A0 and B0 in G. lozoyensis are thus provided by GloF. Sequence analyses revealed that GloF is not related to bacterial proline hydroxylases, and none of the putative proteins with high sequence similarity in the databases has been characterized so far. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 regulates hepcidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Rhee, David K.; Malhotra, Rajeev; Mayeur, Claire; Hurst, Liam A.; Ager, Emily; Shelton, Georgia; Kramer, Yael; McCulloh, David; Keefe, David; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Bloch, Donald B.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated by the membrane iron exporter ferroportin and its regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin. The hepcidin/ferroportin axis is considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases of iron overload or deficiency. Here, we conducted a chemical screen in zebrafish to identify small molecules that decrease ferroportin protein levels. The chemical screen led to the identification of 3 steroid molecules, epitiostanol, progesterone, and mifepristone, which decrease ferroportin levels by increasing the biosynthesis of hepcidin. These hepcidin-inducing steroids (HISs) did not activate known hepcidin-inducing pathways, including the BMP and JAK/STAT3 pathways. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) was required for HIS-dependent increases in hepcidin biosynthesis, as PGRMC1 depletion in cultured hepatoma cells and zebrafish blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Neutralizing antibodies directed against PGRMC1 attenuated the ability of HISs to induce hepcidin gene expression. Inhibiting the kinases of the SRC family, which are downstream of PGRMC1, blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Furthermore, HIS treatment increased hepcidin biosynthesis in mice and humans. Together, these data indicate that PGRMC1 regulates hepcidin gene expression through an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. These studies have identified drug candidates and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases of abnormal iron metabolism. PMID:26657863

  17. Openness initiative

    SciT

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need tomore » make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.« less

  18. Ethanol Induction of CYP2A5: Role of CYP2E1-ROS-Nrf2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yongke; Zhang, Xu Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption was previously shown to induce CYP2A5 in mice, and this induction of CYP2A5 by ethanol was CYP2E1 dependent. In this study, the mechanisms of CYP2E1-dependent ethanol induction of CYP2A5 were investigated. CYP2E1 was induced by chronic ethanol consumption to the same degree in wild-type (WT) mice and CYP2A5 knockout (Cyp2a5 –/–) mice, suggesting that unlike the CYP2E1-dependent ethanol induction of CYP2A5, ethanol induction of CYP2E1 is not CYP2A5 dependent. Microsomal ethanol oxidation was about 25% lower in Cyp2a5 –/– mice compared with that in WT mice, suggesting that CYP2A5 can oxidize ethanol although to a lesser extent than CYP2E1 does. CYP2A5 was induced by short-term ethanol consumption in human CYP2E1 transgenic knockin (Cyp2e1 –/– KI) mice but not in CYP2E1 knockout (Cyp2e1 –/–) mice. The redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was also induced by acute ethanol in Cyp2e1 –/– KI mice but not in Cyp2e1 –/– mice. Ethanol induction of CYP2A5 in Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2 –/–) mice was lower compared with that in WT mice, whereas CYP2E1 induction by ethanol was comparable in WT and Nrf2 –/– mice. Antioxidants (N-acetyl-cysteine and vitamin C), which blocked oxidative stress induced by chronic ethanol in WT mice and acute ethanol in Cyp2e1 –/– KI mice, also blunted the induction of CYP2A5 and Nrf2 by ethanol but not the induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol. These results suggest that oxidative stress induced by ethanol via induction of CYP2E1 upregulates Nrf2 activity, which in turn regulates ethanol induction of CYP2A5. Results obtained from primary hepatocytes, mice gavaged with binge ethanol or fed chronic ethanol, show that Nrf2-regulated ethanol induction of CYP2A5 protects against ethanol-induced steatosis. PMID:22552773

  19. Mechanically induced c-fos expression is mediated by cAMP in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    In serum-deprived MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, mechanical stimulation caused by mild (287 x g) centrifugation induced a 10-fold increase in mRNA levels of the proto-oncogene, c-fos. Induction of c-fos was abolished by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89, suggesting that the transient c-fos mRNA increase is mediated by cAMP. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment failed to significantly reduce c-fos induction, suggesting that TPA-sensitive isoforms of PKC are not responsible for c-fos up-regulation. In addition, 287 x g centrifugation increased intracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels 2.8-fold (P<0. 005). Since we have previously shown that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can induce c-fos expression via a cAMP-mediated mechanism, we asked whether the increase in c-fos mRNA was due to centrifugation-induced PGE2 release. Pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and flurbiprofen did not hinder the early induction of c-fos by mechanical stimulation. We conclude that c-fos expression induced by mild mechanical loading is dependent primarily on cAMP, not PKC, and initial induction of c-fos is not necessarily dependent on the action of newly synthesized PGE2.

  20. Modulation of ColE1-like Plasmid Replication for Recombinant Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Manel

    2010-01-01

    ColE1-like plasmids constitute the most popular vectors for recombinant protein expression. ColE1 plasmid replication is tightly controlled by an antisense RNA mechanism that is highly dynamic, tuning plasmid metabolic burden to the physiological state of the host. Plasmid homeostasis is upset upon induction of recombinant protein expression because of non-physiological levels of expression and because of the frequently biased amino acid composition of recombinant proteins. Disregulation of plasmid replication is the main cause of collapse of plasmid-based expression systems because of a simultaneous increase in the metabolic burden (due to increased average copy number) and in the probability of generation of plasmid-free cells (due to increased copy number variation). Interference between regulatory elements of co-resident plasmids causes comparable effects on plasmid stability (plasmid incompatibility). Modulating plasmid copy number for recombinant gene expression aims at achieving a high gene dosage while preserving the stability of the expression system. Here I present strategies targeting plasmid replication for optimizing recombinant gene expression. Specifically, I review approaches aimed at modulating the antisense regulatory system (as well as their implications for plasmid incompatibility) and innovative strategies involving modulation of host factors, of R-loop formation, and of the timing of recombinant gene expression. PMID:20218961

  1. Active sites of two orthologous cytochromes P450 2E1: Differences revealed by spectroscopic methods

    SciT

    Anzenbacherova, Eva; Hudecek, Jiri; Murgida, Daniel

    2005-12-09

    Cytochromes P450 2E1 of human and minipig origin were examined by absorption spectroscopy under high hydrostatic pressure and by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Human enzyme tends to denature to the P420 form more easily than the minipig form; moreover, the apparent compressibility of the heme active site (as judged from a redshift of the absorption maximum with pressure) is greater than that of the minipig counterpart. Relative compactness of the minipig enzyme is also seen in the Raman spectra, where the presence of planar heme conformation was inferred from band positions characteristic of the low-spin heme with high degree of symmetry.more » In this respect, the CYP2E1 seems to be another example of P450 conformational heterogeneity as shown, e.g., by Davydov et al. for CYP3A4 [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 312 (2003) 121-130]. The results indicate that the flexibility of the CYP active site is likely one of its basic structural characteristics.« less

  2. Cellular immunity to viral antigens limits E1-deleted adenoviruses for gene therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y; Nunes, F A; Berencsi, K; Furth, E E; Gönczöl, E; Wilson, J M

    1994-01-01

    An important limitation that has emerged in the use of adenoviruses for gene therapy has been loss of recombinant gene expression that occurs concurrent with the development of pathology in the organ expressing the transgene. We have used liver-directed approaches to gene therapy in mice to study mechanisms that underlie the problems with transient expression and pathology that have characterized in vivo applications of first-generation recombinant adenoviruses (i.e., those deleted of E1a and E1b). Our data are consistent with the following hypothesis. Cells harboring the recombinant viral genome express the transgene as desired; however, low-level expression of viral genes also occurs. A virus-specific cellular immune response is stimulated that leads to destruction of the genetically modified hepatocytes, massive hepatitis, and repopulation of the liver with nontransgene-containing hepatocytes. These findings suggest approaches for improving recombinant adenoviruses that are based on further crippling the virus to limit expression of nondeleted viral genes. Images PMID:8183921

  3. Interaction of Adenovirus E1A with the HHV8 Promoter of Latent Genes: E1A Proteins are Able to Activate the HHV-8 LANAp in MV3 Reporter Cells

    PubMed Central

    Koehler-Hansner, Karin; Flore, Ornella; Opalka, Bertram; Hengge, Ulrich R

    2008-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma, body cavity-based lymphoma, and Castleman’s disease. Adenoviral (Ad) E1A proteins regulate the activity of cellular and viral promoters/enhancers and transcription factors and can suppress tumorigenicity of human cancers. As (i) HHV-8 and Ad may co-exist in immunocompromised patients and (ii) E1A might be considered as therapeutic transgene for HHV-8-associated neoplasms we investigated whether the promoter of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANAp) controlling expression of vCyclin, vFLIP, and LANA proteins required for latent type infection is regulated by E1A. Transfection experiments in MV3 melanoma cells revealed activation of the LANAp by Ad5 E1A constructs containing an intact N terminus (aa 1-119). In particular, an Ad12 E1A mutant, Spm2, lacking six consecutive alanine residues in the “spacer” region activated the HHV-8 promoter about 15-fold compared to vector controls. In summary, we report the activation of the LANAp by E1A as a novel interaction of E1A with a viral promoter. These data may have relevance for the management of viral infections in immunocompromised patients. A role for E1A as a therapeutic in this context remains to be defined. PMID:19440465

  4. Modeling central metabolism and energy biosynthesis across microbial life

    DOE PAGES

    Edirisinghe, Janaka N.; Weisenhorn, Pamela; Conrad, Neal; ...

    2016-08-08

    Here, automatically generated bacterial metabolic models, and even some curated models, lack accuracy in predicting energy yields due to poor representation of key pathways in energy biosynthesis and the electron transport chain (ETC). Further compounding the problem, complex interlinking pathways in genome-scale metabolic models, and the need for extensive gapfilling to support complex biomass reactions, often results in predicting unrealistic yields or unrealistic physiological flux profiles. As a result, to overcome this challenge, we developed methods and tools to build high quality core metabolic models (CMM) representing accurate energy biosynthesis based on a well studied, phylogenetically diverse set of modelmore » organisms. We compare these models to explore the variability of core pathways across all microbial life, and by analyzing the ability of our core models to synthesize ATP and essential biomass precursors, we evaluate the extent to which the core metabolic pathways and functional ETCs are known for all microbes. 6,600 (80 %) of our models were found to have some type of aerobic ETC, whereas 5,100 (62 %) have an anaerobic ETC, and 1,279 (15 %) do not have any ETC. Using our manually curated ETC and energy biosynthesis pathways with no gapfilling at all, we predict accurate ATP yields for nearly 5586 (70 %) of the models under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. This study revealed gaps in our knowledge of the central pathways that result in 2,495 (30 %) CMMs being unable to produce ATP under any of the tested conditions. We then established a methodology for the systematic identification and correction of inconsistent annotations using core metabolic models coupled with phylogenetic analysis. In conclusion, we predict accurate energy yields based on our improved annotations in energy biosynthesis pathways and the implementation of diverse ETC reactions across the microbial tree of life. We highlighted missing annotations that were essential

  5. Modeling central metabolism and energy biosynthesis across microbial life

    SciT

    Edirisinghe, Janaka N.; Weisenhorn, Pamela; Conrad, Neal

    Here, automatically generated bacterial metabolic models, and even some curated models, lack accuracy in predicting energy yields due to poor representation of key pathways in energy biosynthesis and the electron transport chain (ETC). Further compounding the problem, complex interlinking pathways in genome-scale metabolic models, and the need for extensive gapfilling to support complex biomass reactions, often results in predicting unrealistic yields or unrealistic physiological flux profiles. As a result, to overcome this challenge, we developed methods and tools to build high quality core metabolic models (CMM) representing accurate energy biosynthesis based on a well studied, phylogenetically diverse set of modelmore » organisms. We compare these models to explore the variability of core pathways across all microbial life, and by analyzing the ability of our core models to synthesize ATP and essential biomass precursors, we evaluate the extent to which the core metabolic pathways and functional ETCs are known for all microbes. 6,600 (80 %) of our models were found to have some type of aerobic ETC, whereas 5,100 (62 %) have an anaerobic ETC, and 1,279 (15 %) do not have any ETC. Using our manually curated ETC and energy biosynthesis pathways with no gapfilling at all, we predict accurate ATP yields for nearly 5586 (70 %) of the models under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. This study revealed gaps in our knowledge of the central pathways that result in 2,495 (30 %) CMMs being unable to produce ATP under any of the tested conditions. We then established a methodology for the systematic identification and correction of inconsistent annotations using core metabolic models coupled with phylogenetic analysis. In conclusion, we predict accurate energy yields based on our improved annotations in energy biosynthesis pathways and the implementation of diverse ETC reactions across the microbial tree of life. We highlighted missing annotations that were essential

  6. Modeling central metabolism and energy biosynthesis across microbial life.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, Janaka N; Weisenhorn, Pamela; Conrad, Neal; Xia, Fangfang; Overbeek, Ross; Stevens, Rick L; Henry, Christopher S

    2016-08-08

    Automatically generated bacterial metabolic models, and even some curated models, lack accuracy in predicting energy yields due to poor representation of key pathways in energy biosynthesis and the electron transport chain (ETC). Further compounding the problem, complex interlinking pathways in genome-scale metabolic models, and the need for extensive gapfilling to support complex biomass reactions, often results in predicting unrealistic yields or unrealistic physiological flux profiles. To overcome this challenge, we developed methods and tools ( http://coremodels.mcs.anl.gov ) to build high quality core metabolic models (CMM) representing accurate energy biosynthesis based on a well studied, phylogenetically diverse set of model organisms. We compare these models to explore the variability of core pathways across all microbial life, and by analyzing the ability of our core models to synthesize ATP and essential biomass precursors, we evaluate the extent to which the core metabolic pathways and functional ETCs are known for all microbes. 6,600 (80 %) of our models were found to have some type of aerobic ETC, whereas 5,100 (62 %) have an anaerobic ETC, and 1,279 (15 %) do not have any ETC. Using our manually curated ETC and energy biosynthesis pathways with no gapfilling at all, we predict accurate ATP yields for nearly 5586 (70 %) of the models under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. This study revealed gaps in our knowledge of the central pathways that result in 2,495 (30 %) CMMs being unable to produce ATP under any of the tested conditions. We then established a methodology for the systematic identification and correction of inconsistent annotations using core metabolic models coupled with phylogenetic analysis. We predict accurate energy yields based on our improved annotations in energy biosynthesis pathways and the implementation of diverse ETC reactions across the microbial tree of life. We highlighted missing annotations that were essential to

  7. Human Placental Lactogen Induces CYP2E1 Expression via PI 3-Kinase Pathway in Female Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Chung, Hye Jin; Fischer, Liam; Fischer, James; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    The state of pregnancy is known to alter hepatic drug metabolism. Hormones that rise during pregnancy are potentially responsible for the changes. Here we report the effects of prolactin (PRL), placental lactogen (PL), and growth hormone variant (GH-v) on expression of major hepatic cytochromes P450 expression and a potential molecular mechanism underlying CYP2E1 induction by PL. In female human hepatocytes, PRL and GH-v showed either no effect or small and variable effects on mRNA expression of CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4, and 3A5. On the other hand, PL increased expression level of CYP2E1 mRNA with corresponding increases in CYP2E1 protein and activity levels. Results from hepatocytes and HepaRG cells indicate that PL does not affect the expression or activity of HNF1α, the known transcriptional activator of basal CYP2E1 expression. Furthermore, transient transfection studies and Western blot results showed that STAT signaling, the previously known mediator of PL actions in certain tissues, does not play a role in CYP2E1 induction by PL. A chemical inhibitor of PI3-kinase signaling significantly repressed the CYP2E1 induction by PL in human hepatocytes, suggesting involvement of PI3-kinase pathway in CYP2E1 regulation by PL. CYP2E1-humanized mice did not exhibit enhanced CYP2E1 expression during pregnancy, potentially because of interspecies differences in PL physiology. Taken together, these results indicate that PL induces CYP2E1 expression via PI3-kinase pathway in human hepatocytes. PMID:24408518

  8. The cognition-enhancing activity of E1R, a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Zvejniece, L; Vavers, E; Svalbe, B; Vilskersts, R; Domracheva, I; Vorona, M; Veinberg, G; Misane, I; Stonans, I; Kalvinsh, I; Dambrova, M

    2014-02-01

    Here, we describe the in vitro and in vivo effects of (4R,5S)-2-(5-methyl-2-oxo-4-phenyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-acetamide (E1R), a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors. E1R was tested for sigma receptor binding activity in a [³H](+)-pentazocine assay, in bradykinin (BK)-induced intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺](i)) assays and in an electrically stimulated rat vas deferens model. E1R's effects on cognitive function were tested using passive avoidance (PA) and Y-maze tests in mice. A selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist (NE-100), was used to study the involvement of the sigma-1 receptor in the effects of E1R. The open-field test was used to detect the effects of E1R on locomotion. Pretreatment with E1R enhanced the selective sigma-1 receptor agonist PRE-084's stimulating effect during a model study employing electrically stimulated rat vasa deferentia and an assay measuring the BK-induced [Ca²⁺](i) increase. Pretreatment with E1R facilitated PA retention in a dose-related manner. Furthermore, E1R alleviated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment during the PA and Y-maze tests in mice. The in vivo and in vitro effects of E1R were blocked by treatment with the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist NE-100. E1R did not affect locomotor activity. E1R is a novel 4,5-disubstituted derivative of piracetam that enhances cognition and demonstrates efficacy against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. These effects are attributed to its positive modulatory action on the sigma-1 receptor and this activity may be relevant when developing new drugs for treating cognitive symptoms related to neurodegenerative diseases. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. The cognition-enhancing activity of E1R, a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zvejniece, L; Vavers, E; Svalbe, B; Vilskersts, R; Domracheva, I; Vorona, M; Veinberg, G; Misane, I; Stonans, I; Kalvinsh, I; Dambrova, M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Here, we describe the in vitro and in vivo effects of (4R,5S)-2-(5-methyl-2-oxo-4-phenyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-acetamide (E1R), a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors. Experimental Approach E1R was tested for sigma receptor binding activity in a [3H](+)-pentazocine assay, in bradykinin (BK)-induced intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) assays and in an electrically stimulated rat vas deferens model. E1R's effects on cognitive function were tested using passive avoidance (PA) and Y-maze tests in mice. A selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist (NE-100), was used to study the involvement of the sigma-1 receptor in the effects of E1R. The open-field test was used to detect the effects of E1R on locomotion. Key Results Pretreatment with E1R enhanced the selective sigma-1 receptor agonist PRE-084's stimulating effect during a model study employing electrically stimulated rat vasa deferentia and an assay measuring the BK-induced [Ca2+]i increase. Pretreatment with E1R facilitated PA retention in a dose-related manner. Furthermore, E1R alleviated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment during the PA and Y-maze tests in mice. The in vivo and in vitro effects of E1R were blocked by treatment with the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist NE-100. E1R did not affect locomotor activity. Conclusion and Implications E1R is a novel 4,5-disubstituted derivative of piracetam that enhances cognition and demonstrates efficacy against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. These effects are attributed to its positive modulatory action on the sigma-1 receptor and this activity may be relevant when developing new drugs for treating cognitive symptoms related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24490863

  10. Cryptic Production of trans-3-Hydroxyproline in Echinocandin B Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mattay, Johanna; Houwaart, Stefanie; Hüttel, Wolfgang

    2018-04-01

    Echinocandins are antifungal nonribosomal hexapeptides produced by fungi. Two of the amino acids are hydroxy-l-prolines: trans -4-hydroxy-l-proline and, in most echinocandin structures, ( trans -2,3)-3-hydroxy-( trans -2,4)-4-methyl-l-proline. In the case of echinocandin biosynthesis by Glarea lozoyensis , both amino acids are found in pneumocandin A 0 , while in pneumocandin B 0 the latter residue is replaced by trans -3-hydroxy-l-proline (3-Hyp). We have recently reported that all three amino acids are generated by the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent proline hydroxylase GloF. In echinocandin B biosynthesis by Aspergillus species, 3-Hyp derivatives have not been reported. Here we describe the heterologous production and kinetic characterization of HtyE, the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent proline hydroxylase from the echinocandin B biosynthetic cluster in Aspergillus pachycristatus Surprisingly, l-proline hydroxylation with HtyE resulted in an even higher proportion (∼30%) of 3-Hyp than that with GloF. This suggests that the selectivity for methylated 3-Hyp in echinocandin B biosynthesis is due solely to a substrate-specific adenylation domain of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Moreover, we observed that one product of HtyE catalysis, 3-hydroxy-4-methyl-l-proline, is slowly further oxidized at the methyl group, giving 3-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-l-proline, upon prolonged incubation with HtyE. This dihydroxylated amino acid has been reported as a building block of cryptocandin, an echinocandin produced by Cryptosporiopsis IMPORTANCE Secondary metabolites from bacteria and fungi are often produced by sets of biosynthetic enzymes encoded in distinct gene clusters. Usually, each enzyme catalyzes one biosynthetic step, but multiple reactions are also possible. Pneumocandins A 0 and B 0 are produced by the fungus Glarea lozoyensis They belong to the echinocandin family, a group of nonribosomal cyclic lipopeptides that exhibit a strong antifungal activity. Chemical derivatives

  11. EUROANDRILL Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florindo, Fabio; Steering Committee, Euroandrill

    2010-05-01

    EuroANDRILL is a new initiative to create a European network with the goal to increase future involvement of European countries in the ANDRILL [ANtarctic geological DRILLing] Programme. Antarctica has been heavily glaciated for approximately 34 million years, but its ice sheets have fluctuated considerably and are one of the major driving forces for changes in climate throughout the Cenozoic Era. The spatial scale and temporal pattern of these fluctuations is subject to considerable debate. Understanding the response of large ice masses to climatic forcing is of vital importance because ice volume variations drive global sea level changes and also alter the capacity of ice sheets and sea-ice to act as major heat sinks/insulators. It is particularly important to assess the stability of the cryosphere in the face of rising CO2 levels, as modelling of the climate shift from a warm, vegetated Antarctica to a cold, ice-covered state 34 million years ago suggests a powerful greenhouse gas influence. As Antarctica is the major driver of Earth's climate and sea level, much effort has been expended in deriving models of its behaviour. Some of these models have been successfully validated against modern conditions. EuroANDRILL will provide a coherent, integrated platform for European leadership and involvement in the international ANDRILL programme. The coordination and networking provided by EuroANDRILL will seek to expand participation by European nations, institutions, and individual scientists in the study of the geologic history of the polar regions and their paleoclimatic significance. During the IPY, ANDRILL has been a highly visible and successful programme. This programme seeks to expand on this legacy beyond the IPY and make these contributions sustainable in the European Research Area through networking of research projects and future planning efforts, which establish Europe as a key player in future polar sediment and rock drilling. EuroANDRILL is set up under

  12. Covalent modification and time-dependent inhibition of human CYP2E1 by the meta-isomer of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Harrelson, John P; Stamper, Brendan D; Chapman, John D; Goodlett, David R; Nelson, Sidney D

    2012-08-01

    The hypothesis that N-acetyl-m-aminophenol (AMAP), the meta isomer of acetaminophen, will covalently bind to and inhibit human CYP2E1 in a time- and NADPH-dependent manner was investigated. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that AMAP metabolites (i.e., AMAP*) selectively and covalently modified CYP2E1 apoprotein in a ratio of 1.4:1 (AMAP*/CYP2E1) in a reconstituted system. The deconvoluted spectra of CYP2E1 apoprotein from incubations containing NADPH and AMAP displayed mass shifts of 167.2 ± 7.1 and 334.4 ± 6.5 Da, suggesting the addition of one and two hydroxylated AMAP metabolites to CYP2E1, respectively. Mass shifts in cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome b(5), and heme from these samples were not observed. CYP2E1 inhibition by AMAP increased with time in the presence of NADPH; a reversible inhibition component was also observed. The results support a bioactivation process that involves formation of a hydroquinone metabolite that undergoes further oxidation to a quinone, which reacts with CYP2E1 nucleophilic residues. The data are consistent with evidence from previous studies that identified hydroxylated AMAP glutathione conjugates collected from mice and indicate that cysteine residues are the most likely sites for adduct formation. This study reports the first direct evidence of AMAP-derived hydroquinone metabolites bound to human CYP2E1.

  13. 26 CFR 1.72(e)-1T - Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions (temporary). 1.72(e)-1T Section 1.72(e)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in...

  14. Cytochrome P4502E1 inhibitor, chlormethiazole, decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in rat Kupffer cells with ethanol treatment

    To investigate the role of Cytochrome P4502E1 in sensitizing Kupffer cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation after ethanol induction. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid ethanol diet, control diet or ethanol diet supplemented with CYP2E1 inhibitor, chlormethiazole (CMZ), for 4'week...

  15. Functional analysis of the C-terminal region of human adenovirus E1A reveals a misidentified nuclear localization signal

    SciT

    Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.

    The immortalizing function of the human adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein requires efficient localization to the nucleus. In 1987, a consensus monopartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was identified at the C-terminus of E1A. Since that time, various experiments have suggested that other regions of E1A influence nuclear import. In addition, a novel bipartite NLS was recently predicted at the C-terminal region of E1A in silico. In this study, we used immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis with importin-α to verify that full nuclear localization of E1A requires the well characterized NLS spanning residues 285–289, as well as a second basic patch situatedmore » between residues 258 and 263 ({sup 258}RVGGRRQAVECIEDLLNEPGQPLDLSCKRPRP{sup 289}). Thus, the originally described NLS located at the C-terminus of E1A is actually a bipartite signal, which had been misidentified in the existing literature as a monopartite signal, altering our understanding of one of the oldest documented NLSs. - Highlights: • Human adenovirus E1A is localized to the nucleus. • The C-terminus of E1A contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). • This signal was previously misidentified to be a monopartite NLS. • Key basic amino acid residues within this sequence are highly conserved.« less

  16. 26 CFR 1.1033(e)-1 - Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of drought. 1.1033(e)-1 Section 1.1033(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought. (a) The sale or exchange of livestock... if the sale or exchange of such livestock by the taxpayer is solely on account of drought. Section...

  17. RORα switches transcriptional mode of ERRγ that results in transcriptional repression of CYP2E1 under ethanol-exposure

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Don-Kyu; Na, Tae-Young; Ka, Na-Lee; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Lee, Mi-Ock

    2016-01-01

    Increased cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression is the main cause of oxidative stress, which exacerbates alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs). Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) induces CYP2E1 expression and contributes to enhancing alcohol-induced liver injury. Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) has antioxidative functions; however, potential cross-talk between ERRγ and RORα in the regulation of CYP2E1 has not been studied. We report that RORα suppressed ERRγ-mediated CYP2E1 expression. A physical interaction of RORα with ERRγ at the ERRγ−response element in the CYP2E1 promoter was critical in this suppression. At this site, coregulator recruitment of ERRγ was switched from coactivator p300 to the nuclear receptor corepressor 1 in the presence of RORα. Cross-talk between ERRγ and RORα was demonstrated in vivo, in that administration of JC1–40, a RORα activator, significantly decreased both CYP2E1 expression and the signs of liver injury in ethanol-fed mice, and this was accompanied by coregulator switching. Thus, this non-classical RORα pathway switched the transcriptional mode of ERRγ, leading to repression of alcohol-induced CYP2E1 expression, and this finding may provide a new therapeutic strategy against ALDs. PMID:26464440

  18. Evolutionary acquisition and loss of saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates: the second "core" gene, sxtG.

    PubMed

    Orr, Russell J S; Stüken, Anke; Murray, Shauna A; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2013-04-01

    Saxitoxin and its derivatives are potent neurotoxins produced by several cyanobacteria and dinoflagellate species. SxtA is the initial enzyme in the biosynthesis of saxitoxin. The dinoflagellate full mRNA and partial genomic sequences have previously been characterized, and it appears that sxtA originated in dinoflagellates through a horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium. So far, little is known about the remaining genes involved in this pathway in dinoflagellates. Here we characterize sxtG, an amidinotransferase enzyme gene that putatively encodes the second step in saxitoxin biosynthesis. In this study, the entire sxtG transcripts from Alexandrium fundyense CCMP1719 and Alexandrium minutum CCMP113 were amplified and sequenced. The transcripts contained typical dinoflagellate spliced leader sequences and eukaryotic poly(A) tails. In addition, partial sxtG transcript fragments were amplified from four additional Alexandrium species and Gymnodinium catenatum. The phylogenetic inference of dinoflagellate sxtG, congruent with sxtA, revealed a bacterial origin. However, it is not known if sxtG was acquired independently of sxtA. Amplification and sequencing of the corresponding genomic sxtG region revealed noncanonical introns. These introns show a high interspecies and low intraspecies variance, suggesting multiple independent acquisitions and losses. Unlike sxtA, sxtG was also amplified from Alexandrium species not known to synthesize saxitoxin. However, amplification was not observed for 22 non-saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellate species other than those of the genus Alexandrium or G. catenatum. This result strengthens our hypothesis that saxitoxin synthesis has been secondarily lost in conjunction with sxtA for some descendant species.

  19. LIL3, a Light-Harvesting Complex Protein, Links Terpenoid and Tetrapyrrole Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hey, Daniel; Rothbart, Maxi; Herbst, Josephine; Wang, Peng; Müller, Jakob; Wittmann, Daniel; Gruhl, Kirsten; Grimm, Bernhard

    2017-06-01

    The LIL3 protein of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) belongs to the light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein family, which also includes the light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding proteins of photosystems I and II, the early-light-inducible proteins, PsbS involved in nonphotochemical quenching, and the one-helix proteins and their cyanobacterial homologs designated high-light-inducible proteins. Each member of this family is characterized by one or two LHC transmembrane domains (referred to as the LHC motif) to which potential functions such as chlorophyll binding, protein interaction, and integration of interacting partners into the plastid membranes have been attributed. Initially, LIL3 was shown to interact with geranylgeranyl reductase (CHLP), an enzyme of terpene biosynthesis that supplies the hydrocarbon chain for chlorophyll and tocopherol. Here, we show another function of LIL3 for the stability of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Multiple protein-protein interaction analyses suggest the direct physical interaction of LIL3 with POR but not with chlorophyll synthase. Consistently, LIL3-deficient plants exhibit substantial loss of POR as well as CHLP, which is not due to defective transcription of the POR and CHLP genes but to the posttranslational modification of their protein products. Interestingly, in vitro biochemical analyses provide novel evidence that LIL3 shows high binding affinity to protochlorophyllide, the substrate of POR. Taken together, this study suggests a critical role for LIL3 in the organization of later steps in chlorophyll biosynthesis. We suggest that LIL3 associates with POR and CHLP and thus contributes to the supply of the two metabolites, chlorophyllide and phytyl pyrophosphate, required for the final step in chlorophyll a synthesis. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Isolation and characterisation of a dwarf rice mutant exhibiting defective gibberellins biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ji, S H; Gururani, M A; Lee, J W; Ahn, B-O; Chun, S-C

    2014-03-01

    We have isolated a severe dwarf mutant derived from a Ds (Dissociation) insertion mutant rice (Oryza sativa var. japonica c.v. Dongjin). This severe dwarf phenotype, has short and dark green leaves, reduced shoot growth early in the seedling stage, and later severe dwarfism with failure to initiate flowering. When treated with bioactive GA3 , mutants are restored to the normal wild-type phenotype. Reverse transcription PCR analyses of 22 candidate genes related to the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway revealed that among 22 candidate genes tested, a dwarf mutant transcript was not expressed only in one OsKS2 gene. Genetic analysis revealed that the severe dwarf phenotype was controlled by recessive mutation of a single nuclear gene. The putative OsKS2 gene was a chromosome 4-located ent-kaurene synthase (KS), encoding the enzyme that catalyses an early step of the GA biosynthesis pathway. Sequence analysis revealed that osks2 carried a 1-bp deletion in the ORF region of OsKS2, which led to a loss-of-function mutation. The expression pattern of OsKS2 in wild-type cv Dongjin, showed that it is expressed in all organs, most prominently in the stem and floral organs. Morphological characteristics of the dwarf mutant showed dramatic modifications in internal structure and external morphology. We propose that dwarfism in this mutant is caused by a point mutation in OsKS2, which plays a significant role in growth and development of higher plants. Further investigation on OsKS2 and other OsKS-like proteins is underway and may yield better understanding of the putative role of OsKS in severe dwarf mutants. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Non-shivering thermogenesis during prostaglandin E1 fever in rats: role of the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Monda, M; Amaro, S; De Luca, B

    1994-07-18

    We have tested the hypothesis that there is a role for the cerebral cortex in the control of non-shivering thermogenesis during fever induced by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). While under urethan anesthesia, the firing rate of nerves innervating interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), IBAT and colonic temperatures (TIBAT and Tc) and oxygen (O2) consumption were monitored during the fever from PGE1 injection (400 and 800 ng) in a lateral cerebral ventricle in controls and in functionally decorticated Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were functionally decorticated by applying 3.3 M KCl solution on the frontal cortex which causes cortical spreading depression (CSD). Pyrogen injections caused dose-related increases in firing rate, TIBAT, Tc and O2 consumption and CSD reduced these enhancements. Our findings indicate that the cerebral cortex could be involved in the control of non-shivering thermogenesis during PGE1-induced febrile response.

  2. Microwave brightness temperature features of lunar craters: observation from Chang'E-1 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guo-Ping; Chen, Ke; Guo, Wei; Li, Qing-Xia; Su, Hong-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Topographic features of lunar craters have been found from the brightness temperature (TB) observed by the multichannel (3.0, 7.8, 19.35, and 37 GHz) microwave radiometer (MRM) aboard Chang'E-1 (CE-1) in a single track view. As the topographic effect is more obvious at 37 GHz, 37 GHz TB has been focused on in this work. The variation of 37 GHz daytime (nighttime) TB along the profile of a crater is found to show an oscillatory behavior. The amplitude of daytime TB is significantly affected by the observation time and the shape of the crater, whose diameter is bigger than the spatial resolution of MRM onboard CE-1. The large and typical diurnal TB difference (nighttime TB minus daytime TB) at 37 GHz over selected young craters due to the large rock abundance in craters, have been discussed and compared with the altitude profile.

  3. Combined System of Activated Sludge and Ozonation for the Treatment of Kraft E1 Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Assalin, Marcia Regina; dos Santos Almeida, Edna; Durán, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of paper mill effluent for COD, TOC, total phenols and color removal was investigated using combined activated sludge-ozonation processes and single processes. The combined activated sludge-O3/pH 10 treatment was able to remove around 80% of COD, TOC and color from Kraft E1 effluent. For the total phenols, the efficiency removal was around 70%. The ozonation post treatment carried out at pH 8.3 also showed better results than the single process. The COD, TOC, color and total phenols removal efficiency obtained were 75.5, 59.1, 77 and 52.3%, respectively. The difference in the concentrations of free radical produced by activated sludge-O3/pH 10 and activated sludge-O3/pH 8.3 affected mainly the TOC and total phenol removal values. PMID:19440438

  4. Expression of the cloned ColE1 kil gene in normal and Kilr Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Altieri, M; Suit, J L; Fan, M L; Luria, S E

    1986-01-01

    The kil gene of the ColE1 plasmid was cloned under control of the lac promoter. Its expression under this promoter gave rise to the same pattern of bacterial cell damage and lethality as that which accompanies induction of the kil gene in the colicin operon by mitomycin C. This confirms that cell damage after induction is solely due to expression of kil and is independent of the cea or imm gene products. Escherichia coli derivatives resistant to the lethal effects of kil gene expression under either the normal or the lac promoter were isolated and found to fall into several classes, some of which were altered in sensitivity to agents that affect the bacterial envelope. PMID:2946661

  5. Mutation of E1 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus affects viral virulence in swine.

    PubMed

    Risatti, G R; Holinka, L G; Lu, Z; Kutish, G F; Tulman, E R; French, R A; Sur, J H; Rock, D L; Borca, M V

    2005-12-05

    Transposon linker insertion mutagenesis of a full-length infectious clone (IC) (pBIC) of the pathogenic classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Brescia was used to identify genetic determinants of CSFV virulence and host range. Here, we characterize a virus mutant, RB-C22v, possessing a 19-residue insertion at the carboxyl terminus of E1 glycoprotein. Although RB-C22v exhibited normal growth characteristics in primary porcine macrophage cell cultures, the major target cell of CSFV in vivo, it was markedly attenuated in swine. All RB-C22v-infected pigs survived infection remaining clinically normal in contrast to the 100% mortality observed for BICv-infected animals. Comparative pathogenesis studies demonstrated a delay in RB-C22v spread to, and decreased replication in the tonsils, a 10(2) to 10(7) log10 reduction in virus titers in lymphoid tissues and blood, and an overall delay in generalization of infection relative to BICv. Notably, RB-C22v-infected animals were protected from clinical disease when challenged with pathogenic BICv at 3, 5, 7, and 21 days post-RB-C22v inoculation. Viremia, viral replication in tissues, and oronasal shedding were reduced in animals challenged at 7 and 21 DPI. Notably BICv-specific RNA was not detected in tonsils of challenged animals. These results indicate that a carboxyl-terminal domain of E1 glycoprotein affects virulence of CSFV in swine, and they demonstrate that mutation of this domain provides the basis for a rationally designed and efficacious live-attenuated CSF vaccine.

  6. Antibiotic resistance due to an unusual ColE1-type replicon plasmid in Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Antony T; Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Barbeau, Xavier; Attéré, Sabrina A; Frenette, Michel; Lagüe, Patrick; Charette, Steve J

    2016-06-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a fish pathogen known to have a rich plasmidome. In the present study, we discovered an isolate of this bacterium bearing an additional unidentified small plasmid. After having sequenced the DNA of that isolate by next-generation sequencing, it appeared that the new small plasmid is a ColE1-type replicon plasmid, named here pAsa7. This plasmid bears a functional chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase-encoding gene (cat-pAsa7) previously unknown in A. salmonicida and responsible for resistance to chloramphenicol. A comparison of pAsa7 with pAsa2, the only known ColE1-type replicon plasmid usually found in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, revealed that even if both plasmids share a high structural similarity, it is still unclear if pAsa7 is a derivative of pAsa2 since they showed several mutations at the nucleotide level. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the cat-pAsa4 gene, another chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase-encoding gene, found on the large plasmid pAsa4, was significantly more transcribed than cat-pAsa7. This was correlated with a higher chloramphenicol resistance for isolates bearing pAsa4 compared with the one having pAsa7. Finally, a phylogenetic analysis showed that both CAT-pAsa4 and CAT-pAsa7 proteins were in different clusters. The clustering was supported by the identity of residues involved in the catalytic site. In addition, to give a better understanding of the large drug-resistance panel of A. salmonicida, this study reinforces the hypothesis that A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a considerable reservoir for mobile genetic elements such as plasmids.

  7. The inactivation of human CYP2E1 by phenethyl isothiocyanate, a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent, and its oxidative bioactivation.

    PubMed

    Yoshigae, Yasushi; Sridar, Chitra; Kent, Ute M; Hollenberg, Paul F

    2013-04-01

    Phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate and potent cancer chemopreventive agent, works by multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, such as CYP2E1, that are involved in the bioactivation of carcinogens. PEITC has been reported to be a mechanism-based inactivator of some P450s. We describe here the possible mechanism for the inactivation of human CYP2E1 by PEITC, as well as the putative intermediate that might be involved in the bioactivation of PEITC. PEITC inactivated recombinant CYP2E1 with a partition ratio of 12, and the inactivation was not inhibited in the presence of glutathione (GSH) and not fully recovered by dialysis. The inactivation of CYP2E1 by PEITC is due to both heme destruction and protein modification, with the latter being the major pathway for inactivation. GSH-adducts of phenethyl isocyanate (PIC) and phenethylamine were detected during the metabolism by CYP2E1, indicating formation of PIC as a reactive intermediate following P450-catalyzed desulfurization of PEITC. Surprisingly, PIC bound covalently to CYP2E1 to form protein adducts but did not inactivate the enzyme. Liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis of the inactivated CYP2E1 apo-protein suggests that a reactive sulfur atom generated during desulfurization of PEITC is involved in the inactivation of CYP2E1. Our data suggest that the metabolism of PEITC by CYP2E1 that results in the inactivation of CYP2E1 may occur by a mechanism similar to that observed with other sulfur-containing compounds, such as parathion. Digestion of the inactivated enzyme and analysis by SEQUEST showed that Cys 268 may be the residue modified by PIC.

  8. The Inactivation of Human CYP2E1 by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate, a Naturally Occurring Chemopreventive Agent, and Its Oxidative Bioactivation

    PubMed Central

    Yoshigae, Yasushi; Sridar, Chitra; Kent, Ute M.

    2013-01-01

    Phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate and potent cancer chemopreventive agent, works by multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, such as CYP2E1, that are involved in the bioactivation of carcinogens. PEITC has been reported to be a mechanism-based inactivator of some P450s. We describe here the possible mechanism for the inactivation of human CYP2E1 by PEITC, as well as the putative intermediate that might be involved in the bioactivation of PEITC. PEITC inactivated recombinant CYP2E1 with a partition ratio of 12, and the inactivation was not inhibited in the presence of glutathione (GSH) and not fully recovered by dialysis. The inactivation of CYP2E1 by PEITC is due to both heme destruction and protein modification, with the latter being the major pathway for inactivation. GSH-adducts of phenethyl isocyanate (PIC) and phenethylamine were detected during the metabolism by CYP2E1, indicating formation of PIC as a reactive intermediate following P450-catalyzed desulfurization of PEITC. Surprisingly, PIC bound covalently to CYP2E1 to form protein adducts but did not inactivate the enzyme. Liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis of the inactivated CYP2E1 apo-protein suggests that a reactive sulfur atom generated during desulfurization of PEITC is involved in the inactivation of CYP2E1. Our data suggest that the metabolism of PEITC by CYP2E1 that results in the inactivation of CYP2E1 may occur by a mechanism similar to that observed with other sulfur-containing compounds, such as parathion. Digestion of the inactivated enzyme and analysis by SEQUEST showed that Cys 268 may be the residue modified by PIC. PMID:23371965

  9. Inhibition of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication by an E1-Derived p80/UAF1-Binding Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Lehoux, Michaël; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Lussier-Price, Mathieu; Omichinski, James G.

    2012-01-01

    The papillomavirus E1 helicase is recruited by E2 to the viral origin, where it assembles into a double hexamer that orchestrates replication of the viral genome. We previously identified the cellular WD40 repeat-containing protein p80/UAF1 as a novel interaction partner of E1 from anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) types. p80 was found to interact with the first 40 residues of HPV type 31 (HPV31) E1, and amino acid substitutions within this domain abrogated the maintenance of the viral episome in keratinocytes. In this study, we report that these p80-binding substitutions reduce by 70% the ability of E1 to support transient viral DNA replication without affecting its interaction with E2 and assembly at the origin in vivo. Microscopy studies revealed that p80 is relocalized from the cytoplasm to discrete subnuclear foci by E1 and E2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further revealed that p80 is recruited to the viral origin in an E1- and E2-dependent manner. Interestingly, overexpression of a 40-amino-acid-long p80-binding peptide, derived from HPV31 E1, was found to inhibit viral DNA replication by preventing the recruitment of endogenous p80 to the origin. Mutant peptides defective for p80 interaction were not inhibitory, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Characterization of this E1 peptide by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that it is intrinsically disordered in solution, while mapping studies indicated that the WD repeats of p80 are required for E1 interaction. These results provide additional evidence for the requirement for p80 in anogenital HPV DNA replication and highlight the potential of E1-p80 interaction as a novel antiviral target. PMID:22278251

  10. Characterization of the functional interactions of plastidial starch phosphorylase and starch branching enzymes from rice endosperm during reserve starch biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasunori; Ono, Masami; Sawada, Takayuki; Crofts, Naoko; Fujita, Naoko; Steup, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Functional interactions of plastidial phosphorylase (Pho1) and starch branching enzymes (BEs) from the developing rice endosperm are the focus of this study. In the presence of both Pho1 and BE, the same branched primer molecule is elongated and further branched almost simultaneously even at very low glucan concentrations present in the purified enzyme preparations. By contrast, in the absence of any BE, glucans are not, to any significant extent, elongated by Pho1. Based on our in vitro data, in the developing rice endosperm, Pho1 appears to be weakly associated with any of the BE isozymes. By using fluorophore-labeled malto-oligosaccharides, we identified maltose as the smallest possible primer for elongation by Pho1. Linear dextrins act as carbohydrate substrates for BEs. By functionally interacting with a BE, Pho1 performs two essential functions during the initiation of starch biosynthesis in the rice endosperm: First, it elongates maltodextrins up to a degree of polymerization of at least 60. Second, by closely interacting with BEs, Pho1 is able to elongate branched glucans efficiently and thereby synthesizes branched carbohydrates essential for the initiation of amylopectin biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular basis of maple syrup urine disease: Novel mutations at the E1[alpha] locus that impair E1([alpha][sub 2][beta][sub 2]) assembly or decrease steady-state E1[alpha] mRNA levels of branched-chain [alpha]-keto acid dehydrogenase complex

    SciT

    Chuang, J.L.; Fisher, C.R.; Chuang, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    The authors report the occurrence of three novel mutations in the E1[alpha] (BCKDHA) locus of the branched-chain [alpha]-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex that cause maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). An 8-bp deletion in exon 7 is present in one allele of a compound-heterozygous patient (GM-649). A single C nucleotide insertion in exon 2 occurs in one allele of an intermediate-MSUD patient (Lo). The second allele of patient Lo carries an A-to-G transition in exon 9 of the E1[alpha] gene. This missense mutation changes Tyr-368 to Cys (Y368C) in the E1[alpha] subunit. Both the 8-bp deletion and the single C insertionmore » generate a downstream nonsense codon. Both mutations appear to be associated with a low abundance of the mutant E1[alpha] mRNA, as determined by allele-specific oligonucleotide probing. Transfection studies strongly suggest that the Y368C substitution in the E1[alpha] subunit impairs its proper assembly with the normal E1[beta]. Unassembled as well as misassembled E1[alpha] and E1[beta] subunits are degraded in the cell. 32 refs., 8 figs.« less

  12. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris and Copaifera spp

    SciT

    Skrukrud, C.L.

    1987-07-01

    Biosynthesis of triterpenoids by isolated latex of Euphorbia lathyris was investigated. The rate of in vitro incorporation of mevalonic acid into triterpenoids was thirty times greater than acetate incorporation indicating that the rate-limiting step in the pathway occurs prior to mevalonate. Both HMG-CoA reductase (EC 1.1.1.34) and HMG-CoA lyase (EC 4.1.3.4) activities were detected in isolated latex. HMG-CoA reductase was localized to a membrane-bound fraction of a 5000g pellet of latex. The rate of conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by this enzyme is comparable to the overall rate of acetate incorporation into the triterpenoids suggesting that this enzyme is rate-determiningmore » in the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in E. lathyris latex. HMG-CoA reductase of E. lathyris vegetative tissue was localized to the membrane-bound portion of a particulate fraction (18,000g), and was solubilized by treatment with 2% polyoxyethylene ether W-1. Differences in the optimal pH for activity of HMG-CoA reductase from the latex and vegetative tissue suggest that isozymes of the enzyme may be present in the two tissue types. Studies of the incorporation of various precursors into leaf discs and cuttings taken from Copaifera spp. show differences in the rate of incorporation into Copaifera sesquiterpenes suggesting that the site of sesquiterpene biosynthesis may differ in its accessibility to the different substrates and/or reflecting the metabolic controls on carbon allocation to the terpenes. Mevalonate incorporation by Copaifera langsdorfii cuttings into sesquiterpenes was a hundred-fold greater than either acetate or glucose incorporation, however, its incorporation into squalene and triterpenoids was also a hundred-fold greater than the incorporation into sesquiterpenes. 119 refs., 58 figs., 16 tabs.« less

  13. Bacterial genome mining of enzymatic tools for alkyne biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuejun; Su, Michael; Manickam, Kadhirvel; Zhang, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    The alkyne is an important functionality widely used in material science, pharmaceutical science, and chemical biology, but the importance of this functionality is contrasted by the very limited number of enzymes known to be involved in alkyne biosynthesis. We recently reported the first known carrier protein-dependent pathway for terminal alkyne formation, and in silico analysis suggested that this mechanism could be widespread in bacteria. In this paper, we screened additional homologous gene cassettes presumed to be involved in alkyne biosynthesis using both in vitro biochemical study and an E. coli-polyketide synthase (PKS) reporting system for in vivo analysis. We discovered and characterized a new terminal alkyne biosynthetic pathway comprised of TtuA, B, and C from Teredinibacter turnerae T7901. While the acyl-CoA ligase homolog (TtuA) demonstrated promiscuity in the activation and loading of medium-chain fatty acids onto the carrier protein (TtuC), the desaturase homolog (TtuB) showed stringent substrate specificity towards C10 fatty acyl moieties. In addition, TtuB was demonstrated to be a bifunctional desaturase/acetylenase that efficiently catalyzed two sequential O2-dependent dehydrogenation reactions. A novel terminal-alkyne bearing polyketide was further produced upon co-expression of ttuABC and a PKS gene in E. coli. The discovery and characterization of TtuA, B, and C provides us with a new bifunctional desaturase/acetylenase for mechanistic and structural study and expands the scarce enzyme inventory for the biosynthesis of the alkyne functionality, which has important applications in synthetic and chemical biology. PMID:26441143

  14. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B.; O'Brien, Thomas J.; Stevenson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using 13C-labeled sugars and [15N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. PMID:26070680

  15. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B; O'Brien, Thomas J; Stevenson, David M; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using (13)C-labeled sugars and [(15)N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. Copyright © 2015, Pisithkul et al.

  16. Two Cycloartenol Synthases for Phytosterol Biosynthesis in Polygala tenuifolia Willd.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mei Lan; Lee, Woo Moon; Kim, Ok Tae

    2017-11-15

    Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) are enzymes that play a key role in control of the biosynthesis of phytosterols and triterpene saponins. In order to uncover OSC genes from Polygala tenuifolia seedlings induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), RNA-sequencing analysis was performed using the Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 148,488,632 high-quality reads from two samples (control and the MeJA treated) were generated. We screened genes related to phytosterol and triterpene saponin biosynthesis and analyzed the transcriptional changes of differentially expressed unigene (DEUG) values calculated by fragments per kilobase million (FPKM). In our datasets, two full-length cDNAs of putative OSC genes, PtCAS1 , and PtCAS2 , were found, in addition to the PtBS (β-amyrin synthase) gene reported in our previous studies and the two cycloartenol synthase genes of P. tenuifolia . All genes were isolated and characterized in yeast cells. The functional expression of the two PtCAS genes in yeast cells showed that the genes all produce a cycloartenol as the sole product. When qRT-PCR analysis from different tissues was performed, the expressions of PtCAS1 and PtCAS2 were highest in flowers and roots, respectively. After MeJA treatment, the transcripts of PtCAS1 and PtCAS2 genes increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively. Given these results, we discuss the potential roles of the two PtCAS genes in relation to triterpenoid biosynthesis.

  17. Secondary cell walls: biosynthesis, patterned deposition and transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Secondary walls are mainly composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses (xylan and glucomannan) and lignin, and are deposited in some specialized cells, such as tracheary elements, fibers and other sclerenchymatous cells. Secondary walls provide strength to these cells, which lend mechanical support and protection to the plant body and, in the case of tracheary elements, enable them to function as conduits for transporting water. Formation of secondary walls is a complex process that requires the co-ordinated expression of secondary wall biosynthetic genes, biosynthesis and targeted secretion of secondary wall components, and patterned deposition and assembly of secondary walls. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of genes involved in secondary wall biosynthesis and deposition. Most of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary wall components, including cellulose, xylan, glucomannan and lignin, have been identified and their co-ordinated activation has been shown to be mediated by a transcriptional network encompassing the secondary wall NAC and MYB master switches and their downstream transcription factors. It has been demonstrated that cortical microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins play important roles in the targeted secretion of cellulose synthase complexes, the oriented deposition of cellulose microfibrils and the patterned deposition of secondary walls. Further investigation of many secondary wall-associated genes with unknown functions will provide new insights into the mechanisms controlling the formation of secondary walls that constitute the bulk of plant biomass. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Phenolic amides are potent inhibitors of De Novo nucleotide biosynthesis

    SciT

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B.; O'Brien, Thomas J.

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposuremore » leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using 13C-labeled sugars and [ 15N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. Furthermore, the results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals.« less

  19. Phenolic amides are potent inhibitors of De Novo nucleotide biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B.; O'Brien, Thomas J.; ...

    2015-06-12

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposuremore » leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using 13C-labeled sugars and [ 15N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. Furthermore, the results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals.« less

  20. E1(-)E4(+) adenoviral gene transfer vectors function as a "pro-life" signal to promote survival of primary human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, R; Rafii, S; Worgall, S; Brough, D E; Crystal, R G

    1999-05-01

    Although endothelial cells are quiescent and long-lived in vivo, when they are removed from blood vessels and cultured in vitro they die within days to weeks. In studies of the interaction of E1(-)E4(+) replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vectors and human endothelium, the cells remained quiescent and were viable for prolonged periods. Evaluation of these cultures showed that E1(-)E4(+) Ad vectors provide an "antiapoptotic" signal that, in association with an increase in the ratio of Bcl2 to Bax levels, induces the endothelial cells to enter a state of "suspended animation," remaining viable for at least 30 days, even in the absence of serum and growth factors. Although the mechanisms initiating these events are unclear, the antiapoptoic signal requires the presence of E4 genes in the vector genome, suggesting that one or more E4 open reading frames of subgroup C Ad initiate a "pro-life" program that modifies cultured endothelial cells to survive for prolonged periods.

  1. [Advances in metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for isoprene biosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Cao, Yujin; Xian, Mo; Liu, Huizhou

    2016-08-25

    As an important industrial chemical, isoprene is mainly used as a precursor for synthetic rubbers. In addition, it also has wide applications in the field of pharmaceutical and chemical intermediates, food, adhesives and aviation fuel. Compared with conventional petrochemical routes, production of isoprene in microbial systems has been the research focus considering environment friendly and sustainable development features. This article summarizes the metabolic pathways and key enzymes of isoprene biosynthesis, reviews current methods and strategies in improving isoprene production of Escherichia coli, and also gives some basic ideas and expectation.

  2. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Extracts of Mexican Medicinal Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. L.; Baltazar, C.; Torres, M.; Ruız, A.; Esparza, R.; Rosas, G.

    The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of Agastache mexicana and Tecoma stans was carried out. The AgNO3 concentration and extract concentration was varied to evaluate their influence on the nanoparticles characteristics such as size and shape. Several characterization techniques were employed. UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the surface plasmon resonance in the range of 400-500 nm. The X-Ray diffraction results showed that the nanoparticles have a face-centered cubic structure. SEM results confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles with spherical morphologies. Finally, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Escherichia coli bacteria.

  3. Natural and engineered biosynthesis of nucleoside antibiotics in Actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenqing; Qi, Jianzhao; Wu, Pan; Wan, Dan; Liu, Jin; Feng, Xuan; Deng, Zixin

    2016-03-01

    Nucleoside antibiotics constitute an important family of microbial natural products bearing diverse bioactivities and unusual structural features. Their biosynthetic logics are unique with involvement of complex multi-enzymatic reactions leading to the intricate molecules from simple building blocks. Understanding how nature builds this family of antibiotics in post-genomic era sets the stage for rational enhancement of their production, and also paves the way for targeted persuasion of the cell factories to make artificial designer nucleoside drugs and leads via synthetic biology approaches. In this review, we discuss the recent progress and perspectives on the natural and engineered biosynthesis of nucleoside antibiotics.

  4. Step of Dichlorvos Inhibition in the Pathway of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Raymond C.; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Dichlorvos (dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate) inhibits the biosynthesis of aflatoxin by Aspergillus parasiticus. Cultures treated with dichlorvos excrete an orange pigment which can be converted into aflatoxin B1 by the untreated mycelia. The orange pigment was partially identified as an acetyl derivative of versiconol-type compound. In the presence of dichlorvos, sterigmatocystin is converted into aflatoxin B1 without being interfered, but averufin is converted into the orange pigment instead of aflatoxin B1. Therefore, dichlorvos appears to block an enzymatic step in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, which lies beyond averufin but before sterigmatocystin, at the formation of the orange pigment. PMID:4844267

  5. Conserved tyrosine 182 residue in hyperthermophilic esterase EstE1 plays a critical role in stabilizing the active site.

    PubMed

    Truongvan, Ngoc; Chung, Hye-Shin; Jang, Sei-Heon; Lee, ChangWoo

    2016-03-01

    An aromatic amino acid, Tyr or Trp, located in the esterase active site wall, is highly conserved, with hyperthermophilic esterases showing preference for Tyr and lower temperature esterases showing preference for Trp. In this study, we investigated the role of Tyr(182) in the active site wall of hyperthermophilic esterase EstE1. Mutation of Tyr to Phe or Ala had a moderate effect on EstE1 thermal stability. However, a small-to-large mutation such as Tyr to His or Trp had a devastating effect on thermal stability. All mutant EstE1 enzymes showed reduced catalytic rates and enhanced substrate affinities as compared with wild-type EstE1. Hydrogen bond formation involving Tyr(182) was unimportant for maintaining EstE1 thermal stability, as the EstE1 structure is already adapted to high temperatures via increased intramolecular interactions. However, removal of hydrogen bond from Tyr(182) significantly decreased EstE1 catalytic activity, suggesting its role in stabilization of the active site. These results suggest that Tyr is preferred over a similarly sized Phe residue or bulky His or Trp residue in the active site walls of hyperthermophilic esterases for stabilizing the active site and regulating catalytic activity at high temperatures.

  6. Appendix. Cloning and sequence of the gene encoding enzyme E-1 from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, R; Frohlich, M; Rahaim, P T; Backman, K; Yocum, R R

    1993-11-25

    The methionine salvage pathway converts the methylthioribose moiety of 5'-(methylthio)-adenosine to methionine via a series of biochemical steps. One enzyme active in this pathway, a bifunctional enolase-phosphatase called E-1 that promotes oxidative cleavage of the synthetic substrate 2,3-diketo-1-phosphohexane to 2-keto-pentanoate, has been purified from Klebsiella pneumoniae and is characterized in the preceding paper (Myers, R., Wray, J., Fish, S., and Abeles, R. H. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 24785-24791). We synthesized degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to portions of the amino terminus of E-1. These oligonucleotides were used as polymerase chain reaction primers on whole genomic DNA from Klebsiella oxytoca. This resulted in an 82-base pair DNA fragment that was used as a hybridization probe to obtain a clone of the E-1 gene from a K. oxytoca gene library. The DNA sequence of the E-1 coding region was determined, and the amino acid sequence of E-1 was deduced. E-1 appears to represent a novel class of enzymes since no homology to known enzymes was found. Cloning the gene from K. oxytoca on a multicopy plasmid leads to overproduction of E-1 enzyme that has properties indistinguishable from those of the enzyme from K. pneumoniae.

  7. Leishmania dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase LmDAT is important for ether lipid biosynthesis but not for the integrity of detergent resistant membranes.

    PubMed

    Zufferey, Rachel; Al-Ani, Gada K; Dunlap, Kara

    2009-12-01

    Glycerolipid biosynthesis in Leishmania initiates with the acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate by a single glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, LmGAT, or of dihydroxyacetonephosphate by a dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase, LmDAT. We previously reported that acylation of the precursor dihydroxyacetonephosphate rather than glycerol-3-phosphate is the physiologically relevant pathway for Leishmania parasites. We demonstrated that LmDAT is important for normal growth, survival during the stationary phase, and for virulence. Here, we assessed the role of LmDAT in glycerolipid metabolism and metacy