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Sample records for e1 strength function

  1. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwengner, Ronald; Massarczyk, Ralph; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton P.; Tornow, Werner; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  2. E1 and M1 γ-strength functions in 144Nd

    DOE PAGES

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.

    2015-12-14

    Both E1 and M1 γ-strength functions below the neutron separation energy were analyzed based on experimental data from 143Nd(n,γ) 144Nd and 143Nd(n,γα) 140Ce reactions. It is confirmed that the commonly adopted E1 model based on the temperature dependence of the width of the giant dipole resonance works well. The popular M1 strength function due to the spin-flip magnetic resonance located near the neutron binding energy is not capable of reproducing experimental data. As a result, the low-energy enhancement of the M1 strength or the energy-independent model of Weisskopf, both leading to the low-energy strength sizable to E1 one, fit experimentalmore » data best.« less

  3. Precision Measurements of the B(E1) Strengths in 11Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.; Summers, N. C.; Hackman, G.; Drake, T. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Ashley, R.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Chester, A.; Close, A.; Cline, D.; Cross, D. S.; Dunlop, R.; Finley, A.; Garnsworthy, A.; Hayes, A. B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Nano, T.; Navrátil, P.; Pearson, C. J.; Pore, J.; Starosta, K.; Thompson, I. J.; Voss, P.; Williams, S. J.; Wang, Z. M.

    2014-09-01

    The electromagnetic transition strength between the two bound states were measured in the one-neutron halo nucleus 11Be from Coulomb excitation on 196Pt at projectile energies of 1.727 and 2.086 MeV/nucleon at TRIUMF. A B(E1) strength of 0.102(2) e2fm2, deduced from the forward-scattering data, is consistent with previous Coulomb excitation measurements at intermediate projectile energies with a model-dependent analysis.

  4. Functional conservation and diversification of the soybean maturity gene E1 and its homologs in legumes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingzheng; Zhai, Hong; Wang, Yaying; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yupeng; Wu, Hongyan; Lü, Shixiang; Yang, Guang; Li, Yuqiu; Wang, Lu; Hu, Bo; Bu, Qingyun; Xia, Zhengjun

    2016-07-13

    Gene regulatory networks involved in flowering time and photoperiodic responses in legumes remain unknown. Although the major maturity gene E1 has been successfully deciphered in soybean, knowledge on the functional conservation of this gene is limited to a certain extent to E1 homologs in legumes. The ectopic expression of Phvul.009G204600 (PvE1L), an E1 homolog from common bean, delayed the onset of flowering in soybean. By contrast, the ectopic expression of Medtr2g058520 (MtE1L) from Medicago truncatula did not affect the flowering of soybean. Characterization of the late-flowering mte1l mutant indicated that MtE1L promoted flowering in Medicago truncatula. Moreover, all transgenic E1, PvE1L and MtE1L soybean lines exhibited phenotypic changes in terms of plant height. Transgenic E1 or PvE1L plants were taller than the wild-type, whereas transgenic MtE1L plants produced dwarf phenotype with few nodes and short internode. Thus, functional conservation and diversification of E1 family genes from legumes in the regulation of flowering and plant growth may be associated with lineage specification and genomic duplication.

  5. A non-redundant function of cyclin E1 in hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Campaner, Stefano; Viale, Andrea; De Fazio, Serena; Doni, Mirko; De Franco, Francesca; D'Artista, Luana; Sardella, Domenico; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Amati, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    A precise balance between quiescence and proliferation is crucial for the lifelong function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Cyclins E1 and E2 regulate exit from quiescence in fibroblasts, but their role in HSCs remains unknown. Here, we report a non-redundant role for cyclin E1 in mouse HSCs. A long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assay indicated that the loss of cyclin E1, but not E2, compromised the colony-forming activity of primitive hematopoietic progenitors. Ccne1(-/-) mice showed normal hematopoiesis in vivo under homeostatic conditions but a severe impairment following myeloablative stress induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Under these conditions, Ccne1(-/-) HSCs were less efficient in entering the cell cycle, resulting in decreased hematopoiesis and reduced survival of mutant mice upon weekly 5-FU treatment. The role of cyclin E1 in homeostatic conditions became apparent in aged mice, where HSC quiescence was increased in Ccne1(-/-) animals. On the other hand, loss of cyclin E1 provided HSCs with a competitive advantage in bone marrow serial transplantation assays, suggesting that a partial impairment of cell cycle entry may exert a protective role by preventing premature depletion of the HSC compartment. Our data support a role for cyclin E1 in controlling the exit from quiescence in HSCs. This activity, depending on the physiological context, can either jeopardize or protect the maintenance of hematopoiesis.

  6. Functional characterisation of an engineered multidomain human P450 2E1 by molecular Lego.

    PubMed

    Fairhead, Michael; Giannini, Silva; Gillam, Elizabeth M J; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2005-12-01

    The human cytochrome P450s constitute an important family of monooxygenase enzymes that carry out essential roles in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and foreign chemicals. We present here results of a fusion between a human P450 enzyme and a bacterial reductase that for the first time is shown does not require the addition of lipids or detergents to achieve wild-type-like activities. The fusion enzyme, P450 2E1-BMR, contains the N-terminally modified residues 22-493 of the human P450 2E1 fused at the C-terminus to residues 473-1049 of the P450 BM3 reductase (BMR). The P450 2E1-BMR enzyme is active, self-sufficient and presents the typical marker activities of the native human P450 2E1: the hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol (KM=1.84+/-0.09 mM and kcat of 2.98+/-0.04 nmol of p-nitrocatechol formed per minute per nanomole of P450) and chlorzoxazone (KM=0.65+/-0.08 mM and kcat of 0.95+/-0.10 nmol of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone formed per minute per nanomole of P450). A 3D model of human P450 2E1 was generated to rationalise the functional data and to allow an analysis of the surface potentials. The distribution of charges on the model of P450 2E1 compared with that of the FMN domain of BMR provides the ground for the understanding of the interaction between the fused domains. The results point the way to successfully engineer a variety of catalytically self-sufficient human P450 enzymes for drug metabolism studies in solution.

  7. Lytic and transforming functions of individual products of the adenovirus E1A gene.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, E; Grodzicker, T; Roberts, R J; Mathews, M B; Zerler, B

    1986-01-01

    To distinguish the individual roles of the 13S, 12S, and 9S adenovirus E1A gene products, we isolated the corresponding cDNA clones and recombined them into both plasmids and viruses. Only the expected E1A mRNA products were made from the corresponding 12S and 13S viruses. The 9S mRNA was detected when the 9S virus was coinfected with the 13S virus but not when either virus was infected alone. The 13S virus formed plaques equally well in 293 cells, HeLa cells, and A549 cells, a human lung oat cell carcinoma line. Plaque titers of the 12S virus were much reduced in HeLa and A549 cells compared with 293 cells, although the 12S virus is multiplicity-dependent leaky in both HeLa and A549 cells. A549 cells were significantly more permissive than HeLa cells for growth of the 12S virus. In A549 cells even at low multiplicities of infection the final yield of 12S virus eventually approached the maximum yield from 293 cells. Expression from the adenovirus early region 2 and early region 3 promoters in HeLa cells was activated in the presence of a 13S cDNA E1A region but not in the presence of a 12S E1A cDNA region. Although defective for lytic growth in HeLa cells, the 12S virus immortalized BRK cells at very high efficiency, whereas infection of these cells with 13S virus, as with wild-type E1A virus, resulted mainly in cell death. The 13S product does have an immortalization function, however, revealed in the absence of adenovirus lytic functions when a plasmid containing the E1A 13S cDNA region was transfected into BRK cells. The 9S virus failed to immortalize infected BRK cells or to interfere with focus formation when coinfected with the 12S virus. Images PMID:2936898

  8. Functional and evolutionary insight from the crystal structure of rubella virus protein E1.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Rebecca M; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Tortorici, M Alejandra; Kurdi, Rana Al; Barba-Spaeth, Giovanna; Krey, Thomas; Rey, Félix A

    2013-01-24

    Little is known about the three-dimensional organization of rubella virus, which causes a relatively mild measles-like disease in children but leads to serious congenital health problems when contracted in utero. Although rubella virus belongs to the same family as the mosquito-borne alphaviruses, in many respects it is more similar to other aerosol-transmitted human viruses such as the agents of measles and mumps. Although the use of the triple MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) live vaccine has limited its incidence in western countries, congenital rubella syndrome remains an important health problem in the developing world. Here we report the 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure of envelope glycoprotein E1, the main antigen and sole target of neutralizing antibodies against rubella virus. E1 is the main player during entry into target cells owing to its receptor-binding and membrane-fusion functions. The structure reveals the epitope and the neutralization mechanism of an important category of protecting antibodies against rubella infection. It also shows that rubella virus E1 is a class II fusion protein, which had hitherto only been structurally characterized for the arthropod-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses. In addition, rubella virus E1 has an extensive membrane-fusion surface that includes a metal site, reminiscent of the T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin family of cellular proteins that bind phosphatidylserine lipids at the plasma membrane of cells undergoing apoptosis. Such features have not been seen in any fusion protein crystallized so far. Structural comparisons show that the class II fusion proteins from alphaviruses and flaviviruses, despite belonging to different virus families, are closer to each other than they are to rubella virus E1. This suggests that the constraints on arboviruses imposed by alternating cycles between vertebrates and arthropods resulted in more conservative evolution. By contrast, in the absence of this constraint, the

  9. Effect of Magnolol on the Function of Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Eun Jung; Lee, Young Soon; Choi, Eun Mi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. In the present study, the ability of magnolol, a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated from Magnolia officinalis, to stimulate osteoblast function and inhibit the release of bone-resorbing mediators was investigated in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Methods. Osteoblast function was measured by cell growth, alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, and mineralization. Glutathione content was also measured in the cells. Bone-resorbing cytokines, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), TNF-α, and IL-6 were measured with an enzyme immunoassay system. Results. Magnolol caused a significant elevation of cell growth, alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, mineralization, and glutathione content in the cells (P < 0.05). Skeletal turnover is orchestrated by a complex network of regulatory factors. Among cytokines, RANKL, TNF-α, and IL-6 were found to be key osteoclastogenetic molecules produced by osteoblasts. Magnolol significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the production of osteoclast differentiation inducing factors such as RANKL, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the presence of antimycin A, which inhibits mitochondrial electron transport and has been used as an ROS generator. Conclusion. Magnolol might be a candidate as an agent for the prevention of bone disorders such as osteoporosis. PMID:22474400

  10. Functional analysis of the C-terminal region of human adenovirus E1A reveals a misidentified nuclear localization signal

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.

    The immortalizing function of the human adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein requires efficient localization to the nucleus. In 1987, a consensus monopartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was identified at the C-terminus of E1A. Since that time, various experiments have suggested that other regions of E1A influence nuclear import. In addition, a novel bipartite NLS was recently predicted at the C-terminal region of E1A in silico. In this study, we used immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis with importin-α to verify that full nuclear localization of E1A requires the well characterized NLS spanning residues 285–289, as well as a second basic patch situatedmore » between residues 258 and 263 ({sup 258}RVGGRRQAVECIEDLLNEPGQPLDLSCKRPRP{sup 289}). Thus, the originally described NLS located at the C-terminus of E1A is actually a bipartite signal, which had been misidentified in the existing literature as a monopartite signal, altering our understanding of one of the oldest documented NLSs. - Highlights: • Human adenovirus E1A is localized to the nucleus. • The C-terminus of E1A contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). • This signal was previously misidentified to be a monopartite NLS. • Key basic amino acid residues within this sequence are highly conserved.« less

  11. Genetic study of the functional organization of the colicin E1 molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Suit, J L; Fan, M L; Kayalar, C; Luria, S E

    1985-01-01

    Colicin E1 fragments obtained by genetic manipulations of the ColE1 plasmid were tested for bactericidal activity, binding to bacterial cells, and reactions with a series of anticolicin monoclonal antibodies. Two of the fragments were also tested for ability to form channels in liposomal vesicles. The results are in agreement with studies from chemically and enzymatically derived colicin fragments, assigning the receptor binding activity to the central part of the molecule and the killing activity to a region near the carboxyl terminus. PMID:2579061

  12. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-08-28

    Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens,more » violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expectssum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Moreover, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).« less

  13. Functional expression of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Takao; Kaneshige, Kota; Kurosaki, Teruko

    2010-05-28

    In the previous study, we reported the gene expression for proteins related to the function of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and elucidated the expression patterns of 5-HT{sub 2} receptor subtypes in mouse osteoblasts. In the present study, we evaluated the possible involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes and its inactivation system in MC3T3-E1 cells, an osteoblast cell line. DOI, a 5-HT{sub 2A} and 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor selective agonist, as well as 5-HT concentration-dependently increased proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in their premature period. This effect of 5-HT on cell proliferation were inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor specific antagonist. Moreover, bothmore » DOI-induced cell proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1 and 2 proteins were inhibited by PD98059 and U0126, selective inhibitors of MEK in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with fluoxetine, a 5-HT specific re-uptake inhibitor which inactivate the function of extracellular 5-HT, significantly increased the proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data indicate that 5-HT fill the role for proliferation of osteoblast cells in their premature period. Notably, 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor may be functionally expressed to regulate mechanisms underlying osteoblast cell proliferation, at least in part, through activation of ERK/MAPK pathways in MC3T3-E1 cells.« less

  14. Predicting hand function in older adults: evaluations of grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Marie, Deana; Fredrick, Aaron; Bertram, Jessica; Utley, Kristen; Fess, Elaine Ewing

    2017-08-01

    Hand function is critical for independence in activities of daily living for older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine how grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterous coordination contributed to time-based versus self-report assessment of hand function in community-dwelling older adults. Adults aged ≥60 years without low vision or neurological disorders were recruited. Purdue Pegboard Test, Jamar hand dynamometer, 30-second arm curl test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument were administered to assess manual dexterous coordination, grip strength, arm curl strength, time-based hand function, and self-report of hand function, respectively. Eighty-four adults (mean age = 72 years) completed the study. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that older adults with better arm curl strength (β = -.25, p < .01) and manual dexterous coordination (β = -.52, p < .01) performed better on the time-based hand function test. In comparison, older adults with better grip strength (β = .40, p < .01), arm curl strength (β = .23, p < .05), and manual dexterous coordination (β = .23, p < .05) were associated with better self-report of upper extremity function. The relationship between grip strength and hand function may be test-specific. Grip strength becomes a significant factor when the test requires grip strength to successfully complete the test tasks. Arm curl strength independently contributed to hand function in both time-based and self-report assessments, indicating that strength of extrinsic muscles of the hand are essential for hand function.

  15. Functional strength of commercial-airline stewardesses.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-11-01

    Data from 13 body measurements and 4 strength tests on 152 female flight attendants are reported herein. The stewardesses are taller (x bar = 165.8 cm) and lighter (x bar = 54.6 kg) than the corresponding age in the civilian population. The strength ...

  16. Effects of different strength training frequencies on maximum strength, body composition and functional capacity in healthy older individuals.

    PubMed

    Turpela, Mari; Häkkinen, Keijo; Haff, Guy Gregory; Walker, Simon

    2017-11-01

    There is controversy in the literature regarding the dose-response relationship of strength training in healthy older participants. The present study determined training frequency effects on maximum strength, muscle mass and functional capacity over 6months following an initial 3-month preparatory strength training period. One-hundred and six 64-75year old volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one (EX1), two (EX2), or three (EX3) times per week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2-5 sets and 4-12 repetitions per exercise and 7-9 exercises per session. Before and after the intervention, maximum dynamic leg press (1-RM) and isometric knee extensor and plantarflexor strength, body composition and quadriceps cross-sectional area, as well as functional capacity (maximum 7.5m forward and backward walking speed, timed-up-and-go test, loaded 10-stair climb test) were measured. All experimental groups increased leg press 1-RM more than CON (EX1: 3±8%, EX2: 6±6%, EX3: 10±8%, CON: -3±6%, P<0.05) and EX3 improved more than EX1 (P=0.007) at month 9. Compared to CON, EX3 improved in backward walk (P=0.047) and EX1 in timed-up-and-go (P=0.029) tests. No significant changes occurred in body composition. The present study found no evidence that higher training frequency would induce greater benefit to maximum walking speed (i.e. functional capacity) despite a clear dose-response in dynamic 1-RM strength, at least when predominantly using machine weight-training. It appears that beneficial functional capacity improvements can be achieved through low frequency training (i.e. 1-2 times per week) in previously untrained healthy older participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hand Strength, Handwriting, and Functional Skills in Children With Autism.

    PubMed

    Alaniz, Michele L; Galit, Eleanor; Necesito, Corina Isabel; Rosario, Emily R

    2015-01-01

    To establish hand strength development trends in children with autism and to investigate correlations between grip and pinch strength, components of handwriting, and functional activities in children with and without autism. Fifty-one children were divided into two groups: typically developing children and children on the autism spectrum. Each child completed testing for pinch and grip strength, handwriting legibility, pencil control, and independence in functional activities. The children with autism followed the same strength development trends as the typically developing children. Grip strength correlated with pencil control in both groups and with handwriting legibility in the typically developing children but not in the children with autism. Grip and pinch strength correlated with independence with functional activities in both groups. This study provides evidence that grip and pinch strength are important components in developing pencil control, handwriting legibility, and independence with functional fine motor tasks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms of genes coding to alcohol-metabolizing enzymes in western Mexicans: association of CYP2E1*c2/CYP2E1*5B allele with cirrhosis and liver function.

    PubMed

    García-Bañuelos, Jesús; Panduro, Arturo; Gordillo-Bastidas, Daniela; Gordillo-Bastidas, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Gurrola-Díaz, Carmen M; Sánchez-Enríquez, Sergio; Ruiz-Madrigal, Bertha; Bastidas-Ramírez, Blanca Estela

    2012-03-01

    Alcoholic cirrhosis constitutes a major public health problem in the world where ADH1B, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 polymorphisms could be playing an important role. We determined ADH1B*2, ALDH2*2, and CYP2E1*c2 allele frequencies in healthy control individuals (C) and patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) from western Mexico. Ninety C and 41 patients with AC were studied. Genotype and allele frequency were determined through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Polymorphic allele distribution in AC was 1.6%ADH1B*2, 0.0%ALDH2*2, and 19.5%CYP2E1*c2; in C: 6.1%ADH1B*2, 0%ALDH2*2, and 10.6%CYP2E1*c2. CYP2E1*c2 polymorphic allele and c1/c2 genotype frequency were significantly higher (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively) in patients with AC when compared to C. Patients with AC, carrying the CYP2E1*c2 allele, exhibited more decompensated liver functioning evaluated by total bilirubin and prothrombin time, than c1 allele carrying patients (p < 0.05). Cirrhosis severity, assessed by Child's Pugh score and mortality, was higher in patients carrying the c2 allele, although not statistically significant. In this study, CYP2E1*c2 allele was associated with susceptibility to AC; meanwhile, ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 alleles were not. CYP2E1*c2 allele was associated with AC severity, which could probably be attributed to the oxidative stress promoted by this polymorphic form. Further studies to clearly establish CYP2E1*c2 clinical relevance in the development of alcohol-induced liver damage and its usefulness as a probable prognostic marker, should be performed. Also, increasing the number of patients and including a control group conformed by alcoholic patients free of liver damage may render more conclusive results. These findings contribute to the understanding of the influence of gene variations in AC development among populations, alcohol metabolism, and pharmacogenetics. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Pulmonary Function, Muscle Strength, and Incident Mobility Disability in Elders

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, Aron S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Evans, Denis A.; Bennett, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle strength, including leg strength and respiratory muscle strength, are relatively independently associated with mobility disability in elders. However, the factors linking muscle strength with mobility disability are unknown. To test the hypothesis that pulmonary function mediates the association of muscle strength with the development of mobility disability in elders, we used data from a longitudinal cohort study of 844 ambulatory elders without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project with a mean follow-up of 4.0 years (SD = 1.39). A composite measure of pulmonary function was based on spirometric measures of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume, and peak expiratory flow. Respiratory muscle strength was based on maximal inspiratory pressure and expiratory pressure and leg strength based on hand-held dynamometry. Mobility disability was defined as a gait speed less than or equal to 0.55 m/s based on annual assessment of timed walk. Secondary analyses considered time to loss of the ability to ambulate. In separate proportional hazards models which controlled for age, sex, and education, composite measures of pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, and leg strength were each associated with incident mobility disability (all P values < 0.001). Further, all three were related to the development of incident mobility disability when considered together in a single model (pulmonary function: hazard ratio [HR], 0.721; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.577, 0.902; respiratory muscle strength: HR, 0.732; 95% CI, 0.593, 0.905; leg strength: HR, 0.791; 95% CI, 0.640, 0.976). Secondary analyses examining incident loss of the ability to ambulate revealed similar findings. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of pulmonary function and muscle strength are relatively independently associated with the development of mobility disability in the elderly. PMID:19934353

  20. Pulmonary Function, Muscle Strength and Mortality in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, A. S.; Boyle, P. A.; Wilson, R.S.; Gu, Liping; Bienias, Julia L.; Bennett, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous reports have linked extremity muscle strength with mortality but the mechanism underlying this association is not known. We used data from 960 older persons without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project to test two sequential hypotheses: first, that extremity muscle strength is a surrogate for respiratory muscle strength, and second, that the association of respiratory muscle strength with mortality is mediated by pulmonary function. In a series of proportional hazards models, we first demonstrated that the association of extremity muscle strength with mortality was no longer significant after including a term for respiratory muscle strength, controlling for age, sex, education, and body mass index. Next, the association of respiratory muscle strength with mortality was attenuated by more than 50% and no longer significant after including a term for pulmonary function. The findings were unchanged after controlling for cognitive function, parkinsonian signs, physical frailty, balance, physical activity, possible COPD, use of pulmonary medications, vascular risk factors including smoking, chronic vascular diseases, musculoskeletal joint pain, and history of falls. Overall, these findings suggest that pulmonary function may partially account for the association of muscle strength and mortality. PMID:18755207

  1. Photon Strength Function at Low Energies in 95Mo

    DOE PAGES

    Wiedeking, M.; Bernstein, L. A.; Allmond, J. M.; ...

    2014-05-01

    A new and model-independent experimental method has been developed to determine the energy dependence of the photon strength function. It is designed to study statistical feeding from the quasi continuum to individual low-lying discrete levels. This new technique is presented and results for 95Mo are compared to data from the University of Oslo. In particular, questions regarding the existence of the low-energy enhancement in the photon strength function are addressed.

  2. The eggshell: strength, structure and function.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S E

    2010-08-01

    In making a journey through the literature of the last 50 years one can easily highlight a sequence of seminal works-but the route has not been direct and to avoid the many profitable diversions and detours that have enriched and deepened our collective understanding of the subject of eggshell structure and function is to do the subject a serious disservice. This is a route march of science enabled by advances in technology.

  3. Circuit strength training improves muscle strength, functional performance and anthropometric indicators in sedentary elderly women.

    PubMed

    Mazini Filho, Mauro L; Aidar, Felipe J; Gama de Matos, Dihogo; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo; Patrocínio de Oliveira, Cláudia E; de Oliveira Venturini, Gabriela R; Magalhães Curty, Victor; Menezes Touguinha, Henrique; Caputo Ferreira, Maria E

    2017-04-26

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of circuit strength training on the muscle strength, functional autonomy and anthropometric indicators of the elderly. Were included 65 women divided in two groups: strength training (TG, n= 34) and control group (CG, n = 31). The strength-training group was subjected to a circuit shaped training program, three days per week, for a period of 12 weeks. In each training session, the circuit was repeated three times. In each circuit, all exercises wereperformed once, with 8 to 12 repetitions per exercise, with 30-seconds intervals between each exercise. TG showed significantly changes in body composition post 12 weeks, as decreases in body weight (Δ -1.5±1.8 kg) and BMI (Δ-0.57 ±0.74 kg/m²), and decreases in abdominal (Δ -3±1.61 cm), waist (Δ -1 ± 1.61 cm), hip (Δ -2.75±1.44 cm) and waist hip ratio circumference (Δ -0.02 ± 0.15 cm). For functional autonomy, TG showed increases post 12 weeks by 30-second chair stand (Δ 3.5±0.4 reps), six minute walk (Δ60.95±7.91 m), back scratch (Δ 3.2 ± 1.36 cm), and time up and go tests (Δ -1,62 ±0,15s). TG also showed increases in muscle strength post 12 weeks in both leg press (Δ 11±1,29 kg) and lat pulldown (Δ11 ±0,75 Kg). For CG, Body composition, functional autonomy and muscle strength did not improved in any moment. Hence, circuit strength training provides significant improvements inmuscle strength, functional performance and anthropometric indicators in sedentary elderly women.

  4. Strength Development: Using Functional Isometrics in an Isotonic Strength Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study was made to determine if a combination of functional isometrics and standard isotonic training would be superior to a standard isotonic program in an instructional setting. The results provide support for functional isometrics as an enhancement where achievement of maximum strength is the goal. (Author/MT)

  5. THE E1 PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Bergvall, Monika; Melendy, Thomas; Archambault, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    E1, an ATP-dependent DNA helicase, is the only enzyme encoded by papillomaviruses (PVs). It is essential for replication and amplification of the viral episome in the nucleus of infected cells. To do so, E1 assembles into a double-hexamer at the viral origin, unwinds DNA at the origin and ahead of the replication fork and interacts with cellular DNA replication factors. Biochemical and structural studies have revealed the assembly pathway of E1 at the origin and how the enzyme unwinds DNA using a spiral escalator mechanism. E1 is tightly regulated in vivo, in particular by post-translational modifications that restrict its accumulation in the nucleus. Here we review how different functional domains of E1 orchestrate viral DNA replication, with an emphasis on their interactions with substrate DNA, host DNA replication factors and modifying enzymes. These studies have made E1 one of the best characterized helicases and provided unique insights on how PVs usurp different host-cell machineries to replicate and amplify their genome in a tightly controlled manner. PMID:24029589

  6. Infectious Hepatitis C Virus Pseudo-particles Containing Functional E1–E2 Envelope Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bartosch, Birke; Dubuisson, Jean; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2003-01-01

    The study of hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of chronic liver disease, has been hampered by the lack of a cell culture system supporting its replication. Here, we have successfully generated infectious pseudo-particles that were assembled by displaying unmodified and functional HCV glycoproteins onto retroviral and lentiviral core particles. The presence of a green fluorescent protein marker gene packaged within these HCV pseudo-particles allowed reliable and fast determination of infectivity mediated by the HCV glycoproteins. Primary hepatocytes as well as hepato-carcinoma cells were found to be the major targets of infection in vitro. High infectivity of the pseudo-particles required both E1 and E2 HCV glycoproteins, and was neutralized by sera from HCV-infected patients and by some anti-E2 monoclonal antibodies. In addition, these pseudo-particles allowed investigation of the role of putative HCV receptors. Although our results tend to confirm their involvement, they provide evidence that neither LDLr nor CD81 is sufficient to mediate HCV cell entry. Altogether, these studies indicate that these pseudo-particles may mimic the early infection steps of parental HCV and will be suitable for the development of much needed new antiviral therapies. PMID:12615904

  7. Poly-γ-glutamic acid productivity of Bacillus subtilis BsE1 has positive function in motility and biocontrol against Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Luyao; Wang, Ning; Mi, Dandan; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jianhua

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between γ-PGA productivity and biocontrol capacity of Bacillus subtilis BsE1; one bacterial isolate displayed 62.14% biocontrol efficacy against Fusarium root rot. The γ-PGA yield assay, motility assay, wheat root colonization assay, and biological control assay were analysed in different γ-PGA yield mutants of BsE1. The pgsB (PGA-synthase-CapB gene) deleted mutant of BsE1 reduced γ-PGA yield and exhibited apparent decline of in vitro motile ability. Deletion of pgsB impaired colonizing capacity of BsE1 on wheat root in 30 days, also lowered biocontrol efficacies from 62.08% (wild type BsE1) to 14.22% in greenhouse experiment against Fusarium root rot. The knockout of pgdS and ggt (genes relate to two γ-PGA degrading enzymes) on BsE1, leads to a considerable improvement in polymer yield and biocontrol efficacy, which attains higher level compared with wild type BsE1. Compared with ΔpgsB mutant, defense genes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phytoalexin expressed changes by notable levels on wheat roots treated with BsE1, demonstrating the functional role γ-PGA plays in biocontrol against Fusarium root rot. γ-PGA is not only important to the motile and plant root colonization ability of BsE1, but also essential to the biological control performed by BsE1 against Fusarium root rot. Our goal in this study is to reveals a new perspective of BCAs screening on bacterial isolates, without good performance during pre-assays of antagonism ability.

  8. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH TRAINING ON PHYSICAL FUNCTION: INFLUENCE OF POWER, STRENGTH, AND BODY COMPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Erik D.; Srivatsan, Sindhu R.; Agrawal, Siddhartha; Menon, Kalapurakkal S.; Delmonico, Matthew J.; Wang, Min Q.; Hurley, Ben F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the effects of strength training (ST) on physical function and (b) the influence of strength, power, muscle volume (MV), and body composition on physical function. Healthy, inactive adults (n = 50) aged 65 years and older underwent strength, power, total body composition (% fat and fat free mass [FFM]), and physical function testing before and after 22 weeks of ST. Physical function testing consisted of tasks designed to mimic common physical activities of daily living (ADL). To improve internal validity of the assessment of mid-thigh intermuscular fat, subcutaneous fat, and knee extensors MV, a 10-week unilateral ST program using the untrained leg as an internal control preceded 12 weeks of whole-body ST. Strength, power, and FFM increased significantly with ST (all p < 0.05), whereas rapid walk, 5 chair stands, and get up and go time decreased significantly with ST in the overall group (all p < 0.05). Women improved significantly in both walking test times (both p < 0.05) but not in the stair climb test, whereas men improved in the stair climb test (p < 0.05) but not in walking test times. Multiple regression analysis revealed the highest R2 (0.28) for the change in chair stands time, followed by stair climb and usual walk at 0.27 and 0.21, respectively. ST improves performance in functional tasks important for ADLs. Changes in strength, power, and FFM are predictors of ST-induced improvements in these tasks. PMID:19910811

  9. Hand grip strength and cognitive function among elderly cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Koyanagi, Ai; Smith, Lee; Hu, Liang; Colditz, Graham A; Toriola, Adetunji T; López Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe; Vancampfort, Davy; Hamer, Mark; Stubbs, Brendon; Waldhör, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the associations of handgrip strength and cognitive function in cancer survivors ≥ 60 years old using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Data in two waves of NHANES (2011-2014) were aggregated. Handgrip strength in kilogram (kg) was defined as the maximum value achieved using either hand. Two cognitive function tests were conducted among adults 60 years and older. The Animal Fluency Test (AFT) examines categorical verbal fluency (a component of executive function), and the Digital Symbol Substitution test (DSST) assesses processing speed, sustained attention, and working memory. Survey analysis procedures were used to account for the complex sampling design of the NHANES. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate associations of handgrip strength with cognitive test scores, adjusting for confounders (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, smoking status, depressive symptoms and leisure time physical activity). Among 383 cancer survivors (58.5% women, mean age = 70.9 years, mean BMI = 29.3 kg/m2), prevalent cancer types were breast (22.9%), prostate (16.4%), colon (6.9%) and cervix (6.2%). In women, each increase in kg of handgrip strength was associated with 0.20 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.33) higher score on AFT and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.30 to 1.35) higher score on DSST. In men, we observed an inverted U-shape association where cognitive function peaked at handgrip strength of 40-42 kg. Handgrip strength, a modifiable factor, appears to be associated with aspects of cognitive functions in cancer survivors. Prospective studies are needed to address their causal relationship.

  10. Adenovirus E1A functions as a cofactor for retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) through direct interaction with RAR beta.

    PubMed

    Folkers, G E; van der Saag, P T

    1995-11-01

    Transcription regulation by DNA-bound activators is thought to be mediated by a direct interaction between these proteins and TATA-binding protein (TBP), TFIIB, or TBP-associated factors, although occasionally cofactors or adapters are required. For ligand-induced activation by the retinoic acid receptor-retinoid X receptor (RAR-RXR) heterodimer, the RAR beta 2 promoter is dependent on the presence of E1A or E1A-like activity, since this promoter is activated by retinoic acid only in cells expressing such proteins. The mechanism underlying this E1A requirement is largely unknown. We now show that direct interaction between RAR and E1A is a requirement for retinoic acid-induced RAR beta 2 activation. The activity of the hormone-dependent activation function 2 (AF-2) of RAR beta is upregulated by E1A, and an interaction between this region and E1A was observed, but not with AF-1 or AF-2 of RXR alpha. This interaction is dependent on conserved region III (CRIII), the 13S mRNA-specific region of E1A. Deletion analysis within this region indicated that the complete CRIII is needed for activation. The putative zinc finger region is crucial, probably as a consequence of interaction with TBP. Furthermore, the region surrounding amino acid 178, partially overlapping with the TBP binding region, is involved in both binding to and activation by AF-2. We propose that E1A functions as a cofactor by interacting with both TBP and RAR, thereby stabilizing the preinitiation complex.

  11. Constraining nuclear photon strength functions by the decay properties of photo-excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaak, J.; Savran, D.; Krtička, M.; Ahmed, M. W.; Beller, J.; Fiori, E.; Glorius, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Löher, B.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Rusev, G.; Scheck, M.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Silva, J.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Zweidinger, M.

    2013-12-01

    A new approach for constraining the low-energy part of the electric dipole Photon Strength Function (E1-PSF) is presented. Experiments at the Darmstadt High-Intensity Photon Setup and the High Intensity γ→-Ray Source have been performed to investigate the decay properties of 130Te between 5.50 and 8.15 MeV excitation energy. In particular, the average γ-ray branching ratio to the ground state and the population intensity of low-lying excited states have been studied. A comparison to the statistical model shows that the latter is sensitive to the low-energy behavior of the E1-PSF, while the average ground state branching ratio cannot be described by the statistical model in the energy range between 5.5 and 6.5 MeV.

  12. Effects of hyperthyroidism on hand grip strength and function.

    PubMed

    Erkol İnal, Esra; Çarlı, Alparslan Bayram; Çanak, Sultan; Aksu, Oğuzhan; Köroğlu, Banu Kale; Savaş, Serpil

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a pathologic condition in which the body is exposed to excessive amounts of circulating thyroid hormones. Skeletal muscle is one of the major target organs of thyroid hormones. We evaluated hand grip strength and function in patients with overt hyperthyroidism. Fifty-one patients newly diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and 44 healthy controls participated in this study. Age, height, weight, and dominant hand of all participants were recorded. The diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was confirmed by clinical examination and laboratory tests. Hand grip strength was tested at the dominant hand with a Jamar hand dynamometer. The grooved pegboard test (PGT) was used to evaluate hand dexterity. The Duruöz Hand Index (DHI) was used to assess hand function. No significant differences were found in terms of clinical and demographic findings between the patients with hyperthyroidism and healthy controls (p > 0.05). Significant differences were found between the patients with hyperthyroidism and healthy controls regarding PGT and DHI scores (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroidism seemed to affect hand dexterity and function more than hand grip strength and seemed to be associated with reduced physical function more than muscle strength. This may also indicate that patients with hyperthyroidism should be evaluated by multidisplinary modalities.

  13. Stiffness and strength of oxygen-functionalized graphene with vacancies

    SciTech Connect

    Zandiatashbar, A.; Ban, E.; Picu, R. C., E-mail: picuc@rpi.edu

    2014-11-14

    The 2D elastic modulus (E{sup 2D}) and strength (σ{sup 2D}) of defective graphene sheets containing vacancies, epoxide, and hydroxyl functional groups are evaluated at 300 K by atomistic simulations. The fraction of vacancies is controlled in the range 0% to 5%, while the density of functional groups corresponds to O:C ratios in the range 0% to 25%. In-plane modulus and strength diagrams as functions of vacancy and functional group densities are generated using models with a single type of defect and with combinations of two types of defects (vacancies and functional groups). It is observed that in models containing only vacancies,more » the rate at which strength decreases with increasing the concentration of defects is largest, followed by models containing only epoxide groups and those with only hydroxyl groups. The effect on modulus of vacancies and epoxides present alone in the model is similar, and much stronger than that of hydroxyl groups. When the concentration of defects is large, the combined effect of the functional groups and vacancies cannot be obtained as the superposition of individual effects of the two types of defects. The elastic modulus deteriorates faster (slower) than predicted by superposition in systems containing vacancies and hydroxyl groups (vacancies and epoxide groups)« less

  14. Anaerobic power and physical function in strength-trained and non-strength-trained older adults.

    PubMed

    Slade, Jill M; Miszko, Tanya A; Laity, Jennifer H; Agrawal, Subodoh K; Cress, M Elaine

    2002-03-01

    Challenging daily tasks, such as transferring heavy items or rising from the floor, may be dependent on the ability to generate short bursts of energy anaerobically. The purposes of this study were to determine if strength-trained (ST) older adults have higher anaerobic power output compared with non-strength-trained (NST) older adults and to determine the relationship between anaerobic power and performance-based physical function. Thirty-five men and women (age 71.5 +/- 6.4 years, mean +/- SD; NST: n = 18, ST: n = 17) were grouped by training status. Outcome variables included relative anaerobic power (Wingate test), physical function measured with the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP, scaled 0 to 100), and anthropometric lean thigh volume (LTV). Analysis of covariance (with age and sex as covariates) was used to determine group differences in the dependent variables listed above. Pearson's r was used to determine the relationship between anaerobic power, CS-PFP total score (TOT), and CS-PFP lower body strength domain score (LBS). The ST group had significantly higher mean anaerobic power (NST 58.9 +/- 16 W/l, ST 96.3 +/- 23 W/l), CS-PFP total (NST 61.2 +/- 13, ST 73.7 +/- 8), and LBS (NST 54.1 +/- 17, ST 70.9 +/- 8) compared with the NST group (p <.05). However, LTV was similar for both groups (NST 3.323 +/- 0.75; ST 3.179 +/- 0.79), which suggests that the ST group had higher muscle quality compared with the NST group. Anaerobic power was significantly related to TOT (r =.611, p =.001) and LBS (r =.650, p =.001). High levels of physical function in ST older adults may in part be explained by higher levels of anaerobic power associated with strength training.

  15. A NEW CLINICAL MUSCLE FUNCTION TEST FOR ASSESSMENT OF HIP EXTERNAL ROTATION STRENGTH: AUGUSTSSON STRENGTH TEST.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, Jesper

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic clinical tests of hip strength applicable on patients, non-athletes and athletes alike, are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and evaluate the reliability of a dynamic muscle function test of hip external rotation strength, using a novel device. A second aim was to determine if gender differences exist in absolute and relative hip strength using the new test. Fifty-three healthy sport science students (34 women and 19 men) were tested for hip external rotation strength using a device that consisted of a strap connected in series with an elastic resistance band loop, and a measuring tape connected in parallel with the elastic resistance band. The test was carried out with the subject side lying, positioned in 45 ° of hip flexion and the knees flexed to 90 ° with the device firmly fastened proximally across the knees. The subject then exerted maximal concentric hip external rotation force against the device thereby extending the elastic resistance band. The displacement achieved by the subject was documented by the tape measure and the corresponding force production was calculated. Both right and left hip strength was measured. Fifteen of the subjects were tested on repeated occasions to evaluate test-retest reliability. No significant test-retest differences were observed. Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged 0.93-0.94 and coefficients of variation 2.76-4.60%. In absolute values, men were significantly stronger in hip external rotation than women (right side 13.2 vs 11.0 kg, p = 0.001, left side 13.2 vs 11.5 kg, p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in hip external rotation strength normalized for body weight (BW) between men and women (right side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.17 kg/BW, p = 0.675, left side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.18 kg/BW, p = 0.156). The new muscle function test showed high reliability and thus could be useful for measuring dynamic hip external rotation strength in patients, non-athletes and athletes

  16. Low-energy modification of the γ strength function of the odd-even nucleus 115In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteegen, Maud; Denis-Petit, David; Méot, Vincent; Bonnet, Thomas; Comet, Maxime; Gobet, Franck; Hannachi, Fazia; Tarisien, Medhi; Morel, Pascal; Martini, Marco; Péru, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    Photoactivation yield measurements on 115In have been performed at the ELSA facility with Bremsstrahlung photon beams over a range of endpoint energies between 4.5 and 18 MeV. The measured photoexcitation yields of the Inm115 metastable state are compared with calculated yields using cross sections obtained with different models of the photon strength function. It is shown that additional photon strength with respect to the general Lorentzian model is needed at 8.1 MeV for the calculated yields to reproduce the data. The origin of this extra strength is unclear, because it is compatible with additional strength predicted in both E 1 and M 1 photon strength distributions by quasiparticle random-phase approximation calculations using the Gogny D1S force.

  17. Functional polymorphisms associated with human muscle size and strength.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul D; Moyna, Niall; Seip, Richard; Price, Thomas; Clarkson, Priscilla; Angelopoulos, Theodore; Gordon, Paul; Pescatello, Linda; Visich, Paul; Zoeller, Robert; Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish, Heather; Bilbie, Stephen; Hoffman, Eric P

    2004-07-01

    Skeletal muscle is critically important to human performance and health, but little is known of the genetic factors influencing muscle size, strength, and its response to exercise training. The Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) Associated with Muscle Size and Strength, or FAMuSS, Study is a multicenter, NIH-funded program to examine the influence of gene polymorphisms on skeletal muscle size and strength before and after resistance exercise training. One thousand men and women, age 18 - 40 yr, will train their nondominant arm for 12 wk. Skeletal muscle size (magnetic resonance imaging) and isometric and dynamic strength will be measured before and after training. Individuals whose baseline values or response to training deviate > or = 1.5 SD will be defined as outliers and examined for genetic variants. Initially candidate genes previously associated with muscle performance will be examined, but the study will ultimately attempt to identify genes associated with muscle performance. FAMuSS should help identify genetic factors associated with muscle performance and the response to exercise training. Such insight should contribute to our ability to predict the individual response to exercise training but may also contribute to understanding better muscle physiology, to identifying individuals who are susceptible to muscle loss with environmental challenge, and to developing pharmacologic agents capable of preserving muscle size and function.

  18. The effects of a 12-week strength-training program on strength and functionality in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, J Derek; Panton, Lynn B; Toole, Tonya; Sirithienthad, Prawee; Mathis, Reed; McMillan, Victor

    2005-09-01

    To determine whether women with fibromyalgia benefit from strength training. Randomized controlled trial. Testing was completed at the university and training was completed at a local community wellness facility. Twenty-nine women (age range, 18-54 y) with fibromyalgia participated. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control (n=14; wait-listed for exercise) or strength (n=15) group. After the first 4 weeks, 7 (47%) women dropped from the strength group. Subjects underwent 12 weeks of training on 11 exercises, 2 times a week, performing 1 set of 8 to 12 repetitions at 40% to 60% of their maximal lifts and were progressed to 60% to 80%. Subjects were measured for strength, functionality, tender point sensitivity, and fibromyalgia impact. The strength group significantly (P< or =.05) improved upper- (strength, 39+/-11 to 42+/-12 kg; control, 38+/-13 to 38+/-12 kg) and lower- (strength, 68+/-28 to 82+/-25 kg; control, 61+/-25 to 61+/-26 kg) body strength. Upper-body functionality measured by the Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance test improved significantly (strength, 44+/-11 to 50+/-16U; control, 51+/-11 to 49+/-13U) after training. Tender point sensitivity and fibromyalgia impact did not change. Strength training improved strength and some functionality in women with fibromyalgia. Interventions with resistance have important implications on independence and quality of life issues for women with fibromyalgia.

  19. Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults.

    PubMed

    Correa, Cleiton S; Cunha, Giovani; Marques, Nise; Oliveira-Reischak, Ãlvaro; Pinto, Ronei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies presented different results regarding the maintenance time of muscular adaptations after strength training and the ability to resume the gains on muscular performance after resumption of the training programme. This study aimed to verify the effect of strength training on knee extensors and elbow flexor muscle strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional performance in older female adults after 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and followed by 12 weeks of retraining. Twelve sedentary older women performed 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and 12 weeks of retraining. The strength training was performed twice a week, and the assessment was made four times: at the baseline, after the strength training, after the detraining and after the retraining. The knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional task were assessed. Strength of knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles, rectus femoris muscle volume and 30-s sit-to-stand increased from baseline to post-training (respectively, 40%, 70%, 38% and 46%), decreased after detraining (respectively, -36%, -64%, -35% and -43%) and increased again these parameters after retraining (35%, 68%, 36% and 42%). Strength training induces gains on strength and hypertrophy, also increased the performance on functional tasks after the strength training. The stoppage of the strength caused strength loss and reduction of functional performance. The resumption of the strength training promoted the same gains of muscular performance in older female adults. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Large-scale deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation calculations of the γ -ray strength function using the Gogny force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, M.; Péru, S.; Hilaire, S.; Goriely, S.; Lechaftois, F.

    2016-07-01

    Valuable theoretical predictions of nuclear dipole excitations in the whole chart are of great interest for different nuclear applications, including in particular nuclear astrophysics. Here we present large-scale calculations of the E 1 γ -ray strength function obtained in the framework of the axially symmetric deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation based on the finite-range Gogny force. This approach is applied to even-even nuclei, the strength function for odd nuclei being derived by interpolation. The convergence with respect to the adopted number of harmonic oscillator shells and the cutoff energy introduced in the 2-quasiparticle (2 -q p ) excitation space is analyzed. The calculations performed with two different Gogny interactions, namely D1S and D1M, are compared. A systematic energy shift of the E 1 strength is found for D1M relative to D1S, leading to a lower energy centroid and a smaller energy-weighted sum rule for D1M. When comparing with experimental photoabsorption data, the Gogny-QRPA predictions are found to overestimate the giant dipole energy by typically ˜2 MeV. Despite the microscopic nature of our self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov plus QRPA calculation, some phenomenological corrections need to be included to take into account the effects beyond the standard 2 -q p QRPA excitations and the coupling between the single-particle and low-lying collective phonon degrees of freedom. For this purpose, three prescriptions of folding procedure are considered and adjusted to reproduce experimental photoabsorption data at best. All of them are shown to lead to somewhat similar predictions of the E 1 strength, both at low energies and for exotic neutron-rich nuclei. Predictions of γ -ray strength functions and Maxwellian-averaged neutron capture rates for the whole Sn isotopic chain are also discussed and compared with previous theoretical calculations.

  1. Low-energy enhancement and fluctuations of γ -ray strength functions in 56,57 Fe: test of the Brink–Axel hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Blasi, N.

    Nuclear level densities and γ-ray strength functions of 56,57Fe have been extracted from proton-γ coincidences. A low-energy enhancement in the γ-ray strength functions up to a factor of 30 over common theoretical E1 models is confirmed. Angular distributions of the low-energy enhancement in 57Fe indicate its dipole nature, in agreement with findings for 56Fe. The high statistics and the excellent energy resolution of the large-volume LaBr 3(Ce) detectors allowed for a thorough analysis of γ strength as function of excitation energy. Taking into account the presence of strong Porter–Thomas fluctuations, there is no indication of any significant excitation energy dependencemore » in the γ-ray strength function, which is in support of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis.« less

  2. Low-energy enhancement and fluctuations of γ-ray strength functions in 56,57Fe: test of the Brink-Axel hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Crespo Campo, L.; Eriksen, T. K.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Ingeberg, V. W.; Kheswa, B. V.; Leoni, S.; E Midtbø, J.; Million, B.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; E Ruud, I.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A. V.; Wiedeking, M.; Zeiser, F.

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear level densities and γ-ray strength functions of 56,57Fe have been extracted from proton-γ coincidences. A low-energy enhancement in the γ-ray strength functions up to a factor of 30 over common theoretical E1 models is confirmed. Angular distributions of the low-energy enhancement in 57Fe indicate its dipole nature, in agreement with findings for 56Fe. The high statistics and the excellent energy resolution of the large-volume LaBr3(Ce) detectors allowed for a thorough analysis of γ strength as function of excitation energy. Taking into account the presence of strong Porter-Thomas fluctuations, there is no indication of any significant excitation energy dependence in the γ-ray strength function, in support of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis.

  3. Low-energy enhancement and fluctuations of γ -ray strength functions in 56,57 Fe: test of the Brink–Axel hypothesis

    DOE PAGES

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Blasi, N.; ...

    2017-04-24

    Nuclear level densities and γ-ray strength functions of 56,57Fe have been extracted from proton-γ coincidences. A low-energy enhancement in the γ-ray strength functions up to a factor of 30 over common theoretical E1 models is confirmed. Angular distributions of the low-energy enhancement in 57Fe indicate its dipole nature, in agreement with findings for 56Fe. The high statistics and the excellent energy resolution of the large-volume LaBr 3(Ce) detectors allowed for a thorough analysis of γ strength as function of excitation energy. Taking into account the presence of strong Porter–Thomas fluctuations, there is no indication of any significant excitation energy dependencemore » in the γ-ray strength function, which is in support of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis.« less

  4. Fine Structure of Beta Decay Strength Function and Anisotropy of Isovector Nuclear Dencity Component Oscillations in Deformed Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izosimov, I. N.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Khushvaktov, J. H.; Vaganov, Yu. A.

    2018-05-01

    The experimental measurement data on the fine structure of beta-decay strength function S β( E) in spherical, transitional, and deformed nuclei are analyzed. Modern high-resolution nuclear spectroscopy methods made it possible to identify the splitting of peaks in S β( E) for deformed nuclei. By analogy with splitting of the peak of E1 giant dipole resonance (GDR) in deformed nuclei, the peaks in S β( E) are split into two components from the axial nuclear deformation. In this report, the fine structure of S β( E) is discussed. Splitting of the peaks connected with the oscillations of neutrons against protons (E1GDR), of proton holes against neutrons (peaks in S β( E) of β+/ EC-decay), and of protons against neutron holes (peaks in S β( E) of β--decay) is discussed.

  5. Muscle Strength and Changes in Physical Function in Women With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Andrews, James S; Trupin, Laura; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Barton, Jennifer; Margaretten, Mary; Yazdany, Jinoos; Yelin, Edward H; Katz, Patricia P

    2015-08-01

    Cross-sectional studies have observed that muscle weakness is associated with worse physical function among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study examines whether reduced upper and lower extremity muscle strength predict declines in function over time among adult women with SLE. One hundred forty-six women from a longitudinal SLE cohort participated in the study. All measures were collected during in-person research visits approximately 2 years apart. Upper extremity muscle strength was assessed by grip strength. Lower extremity muscle strength was assessed by peak knee torque of extension and flexion. Physical function was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Regression analyses modeled associations of baseline upper and lower extremity muscle strength with followup SPPB scores controlling for baseline SPPB, age, SLE duration, SLE disease activity (Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire), physical activity level, prednisone use, body composition, and depression. Secondary analyses tested whether associations of baseline muscle strength with followup in SPPB scores differed between intervals of varying baseline muscle strength. Lower extremity muscle strength strongly predicted changes over 2 years in physical function even when controlling for covariates. The association of reduced lower extremity muscle strength with reduced physical function in the future was greatest among the weakest women. Reduced lower extremity muscle strength predicted clinically significant declines in physical function, especially among the weakest women. Future studies should test whether therapies that promote preservation of lower extremity muscle strength may prevent declines in function among women with SLE. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Sensory and motor peripheral nerve function and longitudinal changes in quadriceps strength.

    PubMed

    Ward, Rachel E; Boudreau, Robert M; Caserotti, Paolo; Harris, Tamara B; Zivkovic, Sasa; Goodpaster, Bret H; Satterfield, Suzanne; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Schwartz, Ann V; Vinik, Aaron I; Cauley, Jane A; Newman, Anne B; Strotmeyer, Elsa S

    2015-04-01

    Poor peripheral nerve function is common in older adults and may be a risk factor for strength decline, although this has not been assessed longitudinally. We assessed whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve function predicts strength longitudinally in 1,830 participants (age = 76.3 ± 2.8, body mass index = 27.2 ± 4.6kg/m(2), strength = 96.3 ± 34.7 Nm, 51.0% female, 34.8% black) from the Health ABC study. Isokinetic quadriceps strength was measured semiannually over 6 years. Peroneal motor nerve conduction amplitude and velocity were recorded. Sensory nerve function was assessed with 10-g and 1.4-g monofilaments and average vibration detection threshold at the toe. Lower-extremity neuropathy symptoms were self-reported. Worse vibration detection threshold predicted 2.4% lower strength in men and worse motor amplitude and two symptoms predicted 2.5% and 8.1% lower strength, respectively, in women. Initial 10-g monofilament insensitivity predicted 14.2% lower strength and faster strength decline in women and 6.6% lower strength in men (all p < .05). Poor nerve function predicted lower strength and faster strength decline. Future work should examine interventions aimed at preventing declines in strength in older adults with impaired nerve function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effect of isokinetic training on strength, functionality and proprioception in athletes with functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Sekir, Ufuk; Yildiz, Yavuz; Hazneci, Bulent; Ors, Fatih; Aydin, Taner

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on strength, joint position sense and functionality in recreational athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI). Strength, proprioception and balance of 24 recreational athletes with unilateral FAI were evaluated by using isokinetic muscle strength measurement, ankle joint position sense and one leg standing test. The functional ability was evaluated using five different tests. These were; single limb hopping course (SLHC), one legged and triple legged hop for distance (OLHD-TLHD), and six and cross six meter hop for time (SMHT-CSMHT). Isokinetic peak torque of the ankle invertor and evertor muscles were assessed eccentrically and concentrically at test speeds of 120 degrees /s. Isokinetic exercise protocol was carried out at an angular velocity of 120 degrees /s. The exercise session was repeated three times a week and lasted after 6 weeks. At baseline, concentric invertor strength was found to be significantly lower in the functionally unstable ankles compared to the opposite healthy ankles (p < 0.001). This difference was not present after executing the 6 weeks exercise sessions (p > 0.05). Ankle joint position sense in the injured ankles declined significantly from 2.35 +/- 1.16 to 1.33 +/- 0.62 degrees for 10 degrees of inversion angle (p < 0.001) and from 3.10 +/- 2.16 to 2.19 +/- 0.98 degrees for 20 degrees of inversion angle (p < 0.05) following the isokinetic exercise. One leg standing test score decreased significantly from 15.17 +/- 8.50 to 11.79 +/- 7.81 in the injured ankles (p < 0.001). Following the isokinetic exercise protocol, all of the worsened functional test scores in the injured ankles as compared to the opposite healthy ankles displayed a significant improvement (p < 0.01 for OLHD and CSMHT, p < 0.001 for SLHC, TLHD, and SMHT). These results substantiate the deficits of strength, proprioception, balance and functionality in recreational athletes with FAI. The

  8. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    PubMed

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    Clinical guidelines recommend knee muscle strengthening exercises to improve physical function. However, the amount of knee muscle strength increase needed for clinically relevant improvements in physical function is unclear. Understanding how much increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved physical function could assist clinicians in providing appropriate strength gain targets for their patients in order to optimise outcomes from exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved self-reported physical function following exercise; and whether the relationship differs according to physical function status at baseline. Data from 100 participants with medial knee osteoarthritis enrolled in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing neuromuscular exercise to quadriceps strengthening exercise were pooled. Participants were categorised as having mild, moderate or severe physical dysfunction at baseline using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Associations between 12-week changes in physical function (dependent variable) and peak isometric knee extensor and flexor strength (independent variables) were evaluated with and without accounting for baseline physical function status and covariates using linear regression models. In covariate-adjusted models without accounting for baseline physical function, every 1-unit (Nm/kg) increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 17 WOMAC units (95% confidence interval (CI) -29 to -5). When accounting for baseline severity of physical function, every 1-unit increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 24 WOMAC units (95% CI -42 to -7) in participants with severe physical dysfunction. There were no associations between change in strength and change in physical function in participants with mild or moderate physical

  9. Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults.

    PubMed

    Granacher, Urs; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roettger, Katrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Age-related postural misalignment, balance deficits and strength/power losses are associated with impaired functional mobility and an increased risk of falling in seniors. Core instability strength training (CIT) involves exercises that are challenging for both trunk muscles and postural control and may thus have the potential to induce benefits in trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility and balance performance. The objective was to investigate the effects of CIT on measures of trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in seniors. Thirty-two older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT; n = 16, aged 70.8 ± 4.1 years) that conducted a 9-week progressive CIT or to a control group (n = 16, aged 70.2 ± 4.5 years). Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors/extensors/lateral flexors (right, left)/rotators (right, left) as well as of spinal mobility in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured before and after the intervention program. Dynamic balance (i.e. walking 10 m on an optoelectric walkway, the Functional Reach test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test) were additionally tested. Program compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92% of the training sessions. Significant group × test interactions were found for the maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors (34%, p < 0.001), extensors (21%, p < 0.001), lateral flexors (right: 48%, p < 0.001; left: 53%, p < 0.001) and left rotators (42%, p < 0.001) in favor of the INT group. Further, training-related improvements were found for spinal mobility in the sagittal (11%, p < 0.001) and coronal plane (11%, p = 0.06) directions, for stride velocity (9%, p < 0.05), the coefficient of variation in stride velocity (31%, p < 0.05), the Functional Reach test (20%, p < 0.05) and the Timed Up and Go test (4%, p < 0.05) in favor of the INT group. CIT proved to be a feasible exercise program for seniors with a high

  10. Effects of strength training on muscle strength characteristics, functional capabilities, and balance in middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Holviala, Jarkko H S; Sallinen, Janne M; Kraemer, William J; Alen, Markku J; Häkkinen, Keijo K T

    2006-05-01

    Progressive strength training can lead to substantial increases in maximal strength and mass of trained muscles, even in older women and men, but little information is available about the effects of strength training on functional capabilities and balance. Thus, the effects of 21 weeks of heavy resistance training--including lower loads performed with high movement velocities--twice a week on isometric maximal force (ISOmax) and force-time curve (force produced in 500 milliseconds, F0-500) and dynamic 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength of the leg extensors, 10-m walking time (10WALK) and dynamic balance test (DYN.D) were investigated in 26 middle-aged (MI; 52.8 +/- 2.4 years) and 22 older women (O; 63.8 +/- 3.8 years). 1RM, ISOmax, and F0-500 increased significantly in MI by 28 +/- 10%, 20 +/- 19%, 31 +/- 34%, and in O by 27 +/- 8%, 20 +/- 16%, 18 +/- 45%, respectively. 10WALK (MI and O, p < 0.001) shortened and DYN.D improved (MI and O, p < 0.001). The present strength-training protocol led to large increases in maximal and explosive strength characteristics of leg extensors and in walking speed, as well to an improvement in the present dynamic balance test performance in both age groups. Although training-induced increase in explosive strength is an important factor for aging women, there are other factors that contribute to improvements in dynamic balance capacity. This study indicates that total body heavy resistance training, including explosive dynamic training, may be applied in rehabilitation or preventive exercise protocols in aging women to improve dynamic balance capabilities.

  11. Gamma Strength Functions and Level Densities from High-Resolution Proton Scattering under 0°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Neumann-Cosel, Peter; Bassauer, Sergej; Martin, Dirk; Tamii, Atsushi

    2018-05-01

    Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and forward angles including 0° provides a novel method to measure gamma strength functions (GSF) in nuclei in an energy range of about 5 - 20 MeV. The experiments provide not only the E1 but also the M1 part of the GSF. The latter is poorly known in heavy nuclei. Comparison with gamma decay data (e.g. from the Oslo method) allows to test the generalised Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) crucial for the modelling of (n,γ) and (γ,n) reactions in astrophysical reaction networks. From the two test cases studied, 208Pb remains inconclusive in the energy region of the PDR because of large Porter-Thomas fluctuations due to the small level density (LD), while the BA hypothesis seems to hold in case of 96Mo. A fluctuation analysis of the high-resolution data also provides a direct measure of the LD in the energy region of the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR) well above the neutron threshold, where hardly any experimental information is available. This permits an independent test of the decomposition of GSF and LD in Oslo-type experiments.

  12. Shoulder Strength Requirements for Upper Limb Functional Tasks: Do Age and Rotator Cuff Tear Status Matter?

    PubMed

    Santago, Anthony C; Vidt, Meghan E; Li, Xiaotong; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Saul, Katherine R

    2017-12-01

    Understanding upper limb strength requirements for daily tasks is imperative for early detection of strength loss that may progress to disability due to age or rotator cuff tear. We quantified shoulder strength requirements for 5 upper limb tasks performed by 3 groups: uninjured young adults and older adults, and older adults with a degenerative supraspinatus tear prior to repair. Musculoskeletal models were developed for each group representing age, sex, and tear-related strength losses. Percentage of available strength used was quantified for the subset of tasks requiring the largest amount of shoulder strength. Significant differences in strength requirements existed across tasks: upward reach 105° required the largest average strength; axilla wash required the largest peak strength. However, there were limited differences across participant groups. Older adults with and without a tear used a larger percentage of their shoulder elevation (p < .001, p < .001) and external rotation (p < .001, p = .017) strength than the young adults, respectively. Presence of a tear significantly increased percentage of internal rotation strength compared to young (p < .001) and uninjured older adults (p = .008). Marked differences in strength demand across tasks indicate the need for evaluating a diversity of functional tasks to effectively detect early strength loss, which may lead to disability.

  13. Investigation of the Photon Strength Function in 130 Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaak, J.; Beller, J.; Fiori, E.; Glorius, J.; Krtička, M.; Löher, B.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Rusev, G.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Silva, J.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Zweidinger, M.

    2016-01-01

    The dipole strength distribution of 130Te was investigated with the method of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence using continuous-energy bremsstrahlung at the Darmstadt High Intensity Photon Setup and quasi-monoenergetic photons at the High Intensity γ-Ray Source. The average decay properties were determined between 5.50 and 8.15 MeV and compared to simulations within the statistical model.

  14. Alkyl chitosan film-high strength, functional biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Xing, Cao; Xin, Shen; Shitao, Yu; Feng, Su; Shiwei, Liu; Fusheng, Liu; Congxia, Xie

    2017-11-01

    Biofilm with strong tensile strength is a topic item in the area of tissue engineering, medicine engineering, and so forth. Here we introduced an alkyl chitosan film with strong tensile strength and its possibility for an absorbable anticoagulation material in vivo was tested in the series of blood test, such as dynamic coagulation time, plasma recalcification time and hemolysis. Alkyl chitosan film was a better biomaterial than traditional chitosan film in the anticoagulation, tissue compatibility and cell compatibility. The unique trait of alkyl chitosan film may be for its greater contact angle and hydrophobicity ability to reduce the adsorption capacity for the blood component and the activity of fibrinolytic enzymes, enhance the antibacterial capacity than chitosan film. Moreover, none of chitosan film or butyl chitosan film exhibited quick inflammation or other disadvantage and degraded quickly by implanted test. Therefore, Alkyl chitosan film is of prospective properties as an implantable, absorbable agent for tissue heals, and this material need further research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 3034-3041, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Silver oxide-containing hydroxyapatite coating supports osteoblast function and enhances implant anchorage strength in rat femur.

    PubMed

    Eto, Shuichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Shobuike, Takeo; Noda, Iwao; Akiyama, Takayuki; Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Ueno, Masaya; Someya, Shinsuke; Kawano, Shunsuke; Sonohata, Motoki; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Antibacterial silver with hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) is a promising coating material for imparting antibacterial properties to implants. We previously reported that 3% (w/w) silver with HA (3% Ag-HA) has both antibacterial activity and osteoconductivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ag-HA on the in vitro osteoblast function and the in vivo anchorage strength and osteoconductivity of implants. Production of the osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase, but not cytotoxicity, was observed in cells of the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 cultured on the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface. These results were similar to those observed with silver-free HA coating. In contrast, a significant high level of cytotoxicity was observed when the cells were cultured on a 50% Ag-HA-coated surface. The anchorage strength of implants inserted into the femur of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was enhanced by coating the implants with 3% Ag-HA. On the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface, both metaphyseal and diaphyseal areas were largely covered with new bone and had adequate osteoconductivity. These results suggest that 3% Ag-HA, like conventional HA, promotes osteogenesis by supporting osteoblast viability and function and thereby contributes to sufficient anchorage strength of implants. Application of 3% Ag-HA, which combines the osteoconductivity of HA and the antibacterial activity of silver, to prosthetic joints will help prevent postoperative infections. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Handgrip Strength Predicts Functional Decline at Discharge in Hospitalized Male Elderly: A Hospital Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    García-Peña, Carmen; García-Fabela, Luis C.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis M.; García-González, Jose J.; Arango-Lopera, Victoria E.; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario U.

    2013-01-01

    Functional decline after hospitalization is a common adverse outcome in elderly. An easy to use, reproducible and accurate tool to identify those at risk would aid focusing interventions in those at higher risk. Handgrip strength has been shown to predict adverse outcomes in other settings. The aim of this study was to determine if handgrip strength measured upon admission to an acute care facility would predict functional decline (either incident or worsening of preexisting) at discharge among older Mexican, stratified by gender. In addition, cutoff points as a function of specificity would be determined. A cohort study was conducted in two hospitals in Mexico City. The primary endpoint was functional decline on discharge, defined as a 30-point reduction in the Barthel Index score from that of the baseline score. Handgrip strength along with other variables was measured at initial assessment, including: instrumental activities of daily living, cognition, depressive symptoms, delirium, hospitalization length and quality of life. All analyses were stratified by gender. Logistic regression to test independent association between handgrip strength and functional decline was performed, along with estimation of handgrip strength test values (specificity, sensitivity, area under the curve, etc.). A total of 223 patients admitted to an acute care facility between 2007 and 2009 were recruited. A total of 55 patients (24.7%) had functional decline, 23.46% in male and 25.6% in women. Multivariate analysis showed that only males with low handgrip strength had an increased risk of functional decline at discharge (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79–0.98, p = 0.01), with a specificity of 91.3% and a cutoff point of 20.65 kg for handgrip strength. Females had not a significant association between handgrip strength and functional decline. Measurement of handgrip strength on admission to acute care facilities may identify male elderly patients at risk of having functional decline, and

  17. Interfacial Strength and Physical Properties of Functionalized Graphene - Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Heimann, Paula; Scheiman, Daniel; Adamson, Douglas H.; Aksay, Iihan A.; Prud'homme, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    The toughness and coefficient of thermal expansion of a series of functionalized graphene sheet - epoxy nanocomposites are investigated. Functionalized graphene sheets are produced by splitting graphite oxide into single graphene sheets through a rapid thermal expansion process. These graphene sheets contain approx. 10% oxygen due to the presence of hydroxide, epoxide, and carboxyl functional groups which assist in chemical bond formation with the epoxy matrix. Intrinsic surface functionality is used to graft alkyl amine chains on the graphene sheets, and the addition of excess hardener insures covalent bonding between the epoxide matrix and graphene sheets. Considerable improvement in the epoxy dimensional stability is obtained. An increase in nanocomposite toughness is observed in some cases.

  18. The Resilience Function of Character Strengths in the Face of War and Protracted Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of character strengths and virtues in moderating relations between conflict exposure and psychiatric symptoms among 1078 adolescents aged 13–15 living in southern Israel, who were exposed to lengthy periods of war, terrorism and political conflict. Adolescents were assessed for character strengths and virtues, political violence exposure using the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, and psychiatric symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the UCLA PTSD Index. Results confirmed that political violence exposure was positively correlated with psychiatric symptoms. Interpersonal, temperance and transcendence strengths were negatively associated with psychiatric symptoms. Moderating effects of the interpersonal strengths on the relation between political violence exposure and the psychiatric and PTSD indices were confirmed. The findings extend existing knowledge about the resilience function of character strengths in exposure to protracted conflict and have important practical implications for applying strength-building practices for adolescents who grow up in war-affected environments. PMID:26793139

  19. The Resilience Function of Character Strengths in the Face of War and Protracted Conflict.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of character strengths and virtues in moderating relations between conflict exposure and psychiatric symptoms among 1078 adolescents aged 13-15 living in southern Israel, who were exposed to lengthy periods of war, terrorism and political conflict. Adolescents were assessed for character strengths and virtues, political violence exposure using the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, and psychiatric symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the UCLA PTSD Index. Results confirmed that political violence exposure was positively correlated with psychiatric symptoms. Interpersonal, temperance and transcendence strengths were negatively associated with psychiatric symptoms. Moderating effects of the interpersonal strengths on the relation between political violence exposure and the psychiatric and PTSD indices were confirmed. The findings extend existing knowledge about the resilience function of character strengths in exposure to protracted conflict and have important practical implications for applying strength-building practices for adolescents who grow up in war-affected environments.

  20. Benchmarking the Performance of Exchange-Correlation Functionals for Predicting Two-Photon Absorption Strengths.

    PubMed

    Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Alam, Md Mehboob; Bednarska, Joanna; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Ruud, Kenneth; Zaleśny, Robert

    2018-06-15

    The present work investigates the performance of exchange-correlation functionals in the prediction of two-photon absorption (2PA) strengths. For this purpose, we considered six common functionals used for studying 2PA processes and tested these on six organoboron chelates. The set consisted of two semilocal (PBE and BLYP), two hybrid (B3LYP and PBE0), and two range-separated (LC-BLYP and CAM-B3LYP) functionals. The RI-CC2 method was chosen as a reference level and was found to give results consistent with the experimental data that are available for three of the molecules considered. Of the six exchange-correlation functionals studied, only the range-separated functionals predict an ordering of the 2PA strengths that is consistent with experimental and RI-CC2 results. Even though the range-separated functionals predict correct relative trends, the absolute values for the 2PA strengths are underestimated by a factor of 2-6 for the molecules considered. An in-depth analysis, on the basis of the derived generalized few-state model expression for the 2PA strength for a coupled-cluster wave function, reveals that the problem with these functionals can be linked to underestimated excited-state dipole moments and, to a lesser extent, overestimated excitation energies. The semilocal and hybrid functionals exhibit less predictable errors and a variation in the 2PA strengths in disagreement with the reference results. The semilocal and hybrid functionals show smaller average errors than the range-separated functionals, but our analysis reveals that this is due to fortuitous error cancellation between excitation energies and the transition dipole moments. Our results constitute a warning against using currently available exchange-correlation functionals in the prediction of 2PA strengths and highlight the need for functionals that correctly describe the electron density of excited electronic states.

  1. Localization of functional β-xylosidases, encoded by the same single gene, xlsIV (xlnD), from Aspergillus niger E-1.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kotomi; Takahashi, Yui; Obara, Ken; Murakami, Shuichiro

    2017-03-01

    Cell wall-associated β-xylosidase was isolated from Aspergillus niger E-1 and identified as XlsIV, corresponding to the extracellular enzyme XlnD reported previously. xlsIV was transcribed only in the early cultivation period. Cell wall-associated enzyme activity gradually decreased, but extracellular activity increased as the strain grew. These results indicate that XlsIV (XlnD) was secreted into culture after localizing at cell wall.

  2. Reliability of a functional test battery evaluating functionality, proprioception, and strength in recreational athletes with functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Sekir, U; Yildiz, Y; Hazneci, B; Ors, F; Saka, T; Aydin, T

    2008-12-01

    In contrast to the single evaluation methods used in the past, the combination of multiple tests allows one to obtain a global assessment of the ankle joint. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the different tests in a functional test battery. Twenty-four male recreational athletes with unilateral functional ankle instability (FAI) were recruited for this study. One component of the test battery included five different functional ability tests. These tests included a single limb hopping course, single-legged and triple-legged hop for distance, and six and cross six meter hop for time. The ankle joint position sense and one leg standing test were used for evaluation of proprioception and sensorimotor control. The isokinetic strengths of the ankle invertor and evertor muscles were evaluated at a velocity of 120 degrees /s. The reliability of the test battery was assessed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Each subject was tested two times, with an interval of 3-5 days between the test sessions. The ICCs for ankle functional and proprioceptive ability showed high reliability (ICCs ranging from 0.94 to 0.98). Additionally, isokinetic ankle joint inversion and eversion strength measurements represented good to high reliability (ICCs between 0.82 and 0.98). The functional test battery investigated in this study proved to be a reliable tool for the assessment of athletes with functional ankle instability. Therefore, clinicians may obtain reliable information from the functional test battery during the assessment of ankle joint performance in patients with functional ankle instability.

  3. Magnolol protects osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells against antimycin A-induced cytotoxicity through activation of mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Mi

    2012-06-01

    Antimycin A treatment of cells blocks the mitochondrial electron transport chain and leads to elevated ROS generation. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of magnolol, a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated from Magnolia officinalis, on antimycin A-induced toxicity in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were pre-incubated with magnolol before treatment with antimycin A. Cell viability and mineralization of osteoblasts were assessed by MTT assay and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Mitochondrial dysfunction in cells was measured by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), complex IV activity, and ATP level. The cellular antioxidant effect of magnolol in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells was assessed by measuring cardiolipin oxidation, mitochondrial superoxide levels, and nitrotyrosine content. Phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB ) was evaluated using ELISA assay. Pretreatment with magnolol prior to antimycin A exposure significantly reduced antimycin A-induced osteoblast dysfunction by preventing MMP dissipation, ATP loss, and CREB inactivation. Magnolol also reduced cardiolipin peroxidation, mitochondrial superoxide, and nitrotyrosine production induced by antimycin A. These results suggest that magnolol has a protective effect against antimycin A-induced cell damage by its antioxidant effects and the attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction. All these data indicate that magnolol may reduce or prevent osteoblast degeneration in osteoporosis or other degenerative disorders.

  4. Upper Extremity Muscle Volumes and Functional Strength After Resistance Training in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E.; Eggebeen, Joel D.; Simpson, W. Greg; Miller, Michael E.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p < .01 for all exercises). Compared with controls, randomization to RT led to greater functional pulling strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

  5. Lower Cognitive Function in Older Patients with Lower Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Romee; Van Ancum, Jeanine M; Verlaan, Sjors; Scheerman, Kira; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2018-06-18

    Low muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with adverse outcomes in older hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between cognitive functioning and muscle strength and muscle mass in hospitalized older patients. This prospective inception cohort included 378 patients aged 70 years or older. At admission patients were assessed for cognitive functioning by use of the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6-CIT). Muscle strength and muscle mass were assessed using handheld dynamometry and segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, within 48 h after admission and on day 7, or earlier on the day of discharge. The data of 371 patients (mean age ± standard deviation 80.1 ± 6.4 years, 49.3% female) were available for analyses. The median (interquartile range) 6-CIT score was 4 (0-8) points. At admission, lower cognitive functioning was associated with lower muscle strength, lower skeletal muscle mass (SMM), lower appendicular lean mass, and lower SMM index. Cognitive functioning was not associated with change in muscle strength and muscle mass during hospitalization. This study further strengthens evidence for an association between lower cognitive functioning and lower muscle strength and muscle mass, but without a further decline during hospitalization. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P < 0.05). Long-term strength training led to increased concentric (14 %; P < 0.01) and isometric (23 %; P < 0.001) quadriceps and isometric hamstring strength (44 %; P < 0.0001), whereas football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P < 0.05) and RFD (89 %, P < 0.0001). Long-term (1 year) strength training led to increased quadriceps and hamstring strength, whereas the adaptations to football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles

  7. Associations of knee extensor strength and standing balance with physical function in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Liang, Zhiqi; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Bryant, Adam L; Lo, Ngai-Nung; Clark, Ross A

    2011-12-01

    Knee extensor strength is an important correlate of physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis; however, it remains unclear whether standing balance is also a correlate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional associations of knee extensor strength, standing balance, and their interaction with physical function. One hundred four older adults with end-stage knee osteoarthritis awaiting a total knee replacement (mean ± SD age 67 ± 8 years) participated. Isometric knee extensor strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Standing balance performance was measured by the center of pressure displacement during quiet standing on a balance board. Physical function was measured by the self-report Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and by the 10-meter fast-pace gait speed test. After adjustment for demographic and knee pain variables, we detected significant knee strength by standing balance interaction terms for both SF-36 physical function and fast-pace gait speed. Interrogation of the interaction revealed that standing balance in the anteroposterior plane was positively related to physical function among patients with lower knee extensor strength. Conversely, among patients with higher knee extensor strength, the standing balance-physical function associations were, or tended to be, negative. These findings suggest that although standing balance was related to physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis, this relationship was complex and dependent on knee extensor strength level. These results are of importance in developing intervention strategies and refining theoretical models, but they call for further study. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Characterization of Strength and Function in Ambulatory Adults With GNE Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Argov, Zohar; Bronstein, Faye; Esposito, Alicia; Feinsod-Meiri, Yael; Florence, Julaine M; Fowler, Eileen; Greenberg, Marcia B; Malkus, Elizabeth C; Rebibo, Odelia; Siener, Catherine S; Caraco, Yoseph; Kolodny, Edwin H; Lau, Heather A; Pestronk, Alan; Shieh, Perry; Skrinar, Alison M; Mayhew, Jill E

    2017-09-01

    To characterize the pattern and extent of muscle weakness and impact on physical functioning in adults with GNEM. Strength and function were assessed in GNEM subjects (n = 47) using hand-held dynamometry, manual muscle testing, upper and lower extremity functional capacity tests, and the GNEM-Functional Activity Scale (GNEM-FAS). Profound upper and lower muscle weakness was measured using hand-held dynamometry in a characteristic pattern, previously described. Functional tests and clinician-reported outcomes demonstrated the consequence of muscle weakness on physical functioning. The characteristic pattern of upper and lower muscle weakness associated with GNEM and the resulting functional limitations can be reliably measured using these clinical outcome assessments of muscle strength and function.

  9. Characterization of Strength and Function in Ambulatory Adults With GNE Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Argov, Zohar; Bronstein, Faye; Esposito, Alicia; Feinsod-Meiri, Yael; Florence, Julaine M.; Fowler, Eileen; Greenberg, Marcia B.; Malkus, Elizabeth C.; Rebibo, Odelia; Siener, Catherine S.; Caraco, Yoseph; Kolodny, Edwin H.; Lau, Heather A.; Pestronk, Alan; Shieh, Perry; Mayhew, Jill E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To characterize the pattern and extent of muscle weakness and impact on physical functioning in adults with GNEM. Methods: Strength and function were assessed in GNEM subjects (n = 47) using hand-held dynamometry, manual muscle testing, upper and lower extremity functional capacity tests, and the GNEM-Functional Activity Scale (GNEM-FAS). Results: Profound upper and lower muscle weakness was measured using hand-held dynamometry in a characteristic pattern, previously described. Functional tests and clinician-reported outcomes demonstrated the consequence of muscle weakness on physical functioning. Conclusions: The characteristic pattern of upper and lower muscle weakness associated with GNEM and the resulting functional limitations can be reliably measured using these clinical outcome assessments of muscle strength and function. PMID:28827485

  10. E1(-)E4(+) adenoviral gene transfer vectors function as a "pro-life" signal to promote survival of primary human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, R; Rafii, S; Worgall, S; Brough, D E; Crystal, R G

    1999-05-01

    Although endothelial cells are quiescent and long-lived in vivo, when they are removed from blood vessels and cultured in vitro they die within days to weeks. In studies of the interaction of E1(-)E4(+) replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vectors and human endothelium, the cells remained quiescent and were viable for prolonged periods. Evaluation of these cultures showed that E1(-)E4(+) Ad vectors provide an "antiapoptotic" signal that, in association with an increase in the ratio of Bcl2 to Bax levels, induces the endothelial cells to enter a state of "suspended animation," remaining viable for at least 30 days, even in the absence of serum and growth factors. Although the mechanisms initiating these events are unclear, the antiapoptoic signal requires the presence of E4 genes in the vector genome, suggesting that one or more E4 open reading frames of subgroup C Ad initiate a "pro-life" program that modifies cultured endothelial cells to survive for prolonged periods.

  11. Measures of static postural control moderate the association of strength and power with functional dynamic balance.

    PubMed

    Forte, Roberta; Boreham, Colin A G; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Pesce, Caterina

    2014-12-01

    Age-related reductions in strength and power are considered to negatively impact balance control, but the existence of a direct association is still an issue of debate. This is possibly due to the fact that balance assessment is complex, reflects different underlying physiologic mechanisms and involves quantitative measurements of postural sway or timing of performance during balance tasks. The present study evaluated the moderator effect of static postural control on the association of power and strength with dynamic balance tasks. Fifty-seven healthy 65-75 year old individuals performed tests of dynamic functional balance (walking speed under different conditions) and of strength, power and static postural control. Dynamic balance performance (walking speed) was associated with lower limb strength and power, as well as postural control under conditions requiring postural adjustments (narrow surface walking r(2) = 0.31, p < 0.001). An interaction effect between strength and static postural control was found with narrow surface walking and talking while walking (change of β 0.980, p < 0.001 in strength for 1 SD improvements in static postural control for narrow walking, and [Formula: see text] -0.730, p < 0.01 in talking while walking). These results indicate that good static postural control facilitates the utilisation of lower limb strength to better perform complex, dynamic functional balance tasks. Practical implications for assessment and training are discussed.

  12. Relationship between lung function and grip strength in older hospitalized patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Sarah J; Allen, Stephen C; Roberts, Helen C

    2017-01-01

    Objective Older people with reduced respiratory muscle strength may be misclassified as having COPD on the basis of spirometric results. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between lung function and grip strength in older hospitalized patients without known airways disease. Methods Patients in acute medical wards were recruited who were aged ≥70 years; no history, symptoms, or signs of respiratory disease; Mini Mental State Examination ≥24; willing and able to consent to participate; and able to perform hand grip and forced spirometry. Data including lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow rate [PEFR], and slow vital capacity [SVC]), grip strength, age, weight, and height were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression unadjusted and adjusted (for age, height, and weight). Results A total of 50 patients (20 men) were recruited. Stronger grip strength in men was significantly associated with greater FEV1, but this was attenuated by adjustment for age, height, and weight. Significant positive associations were found in women between grip strength and both PEFR and SVC, both of which remained robust to adjustment. Conclusion The association between grip strength and PEFR and SVC may reflect stronger patients generating higher intrathoracic pressure at the start of spirometry and pushing harder against thoracic cage recoil at end-expiration. Conversely, patients with weaker grip strength had lower PEFR and SVC. These patients may be misclassified as having COPD on the basis of spirometric results. PMID:28458532

  13. Spectral characterization of plastic scintillation detector response as a function of magnetic field strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simiele, E.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Ankerhold, U.; Culberson, W.; DeWerd, L.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize intensity and spectral response changes in a plastic scintillation detector (PSD) as a function of magnetic field strength. Spectra measurements as a function of magnetic field strength were performed using an optical spectrometer. The response of both a PSD and PMMA fiber were investigated to isolate the changes in response from the scintillator and the noise signal as a function of magnetic field strength. All irradiations were performed in water at a photon beam energy of 6 MV. Magnetic field strengths of (0, ±0.35, ±0.70, ±1.05, and  ±1.40) T were investigated. Four noise subtraction techniques were investigated to evaluate the impact on the resulting noise-subtracted scintillator response with magnetic field strength. The noise subtraction methods included direct spectral subtraction, the spectral method, and variants thereof. The PMMA fiber exhibited changes in response of up to 50% with magnetic field strength due to the directional light emission from \\breve{C} erenkov radiation. The PSD showed increases in response of up to 10% when not corrected for the noise signal, which agrees with previous investigations of scintillator response in magnetic fields. Decreases in the \\breve{C} erenkov light ratio with negative field strength were observed with a maximum change at  ‑1.40 T of 3.2% compared to 0 T. The change in the noise-subtracted PSD response as a function of magnetic field strength varied with the noise subtraction technique used. Even after noise subtraction, the PSD exhibited changes in response of up to 5.5% over the four noise subtraction methods investigated.

  14. Joint proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    van der Esch, M; Steultjens, M; Harlaar, J; Knol, D; Lems, W; Dekker, J

    2007-06-15

    To test the hypotheses that poor knee joint proprioception is related to limitations in functional ability, and poor proprioception aggravates the impact of muscle weakness on limitations in functional ability in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Sixty-three patients with symptomatic OA of the knee were tested. Proprioceptive acuity was assessed by establishing the joint motion detection threshold (JMDT) in the anteroposterior direction. Muscle strength was measured using a computer-driven isokinetic dynamometer. Functional ability was assessed by the 100-meter walking test, the Get Up and Go (GUG) test, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function (WOMAC-PF) questionnaire. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationship between proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability. Regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of proprioception on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability. Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was related to more limitation in functional ability (walking time r = 0.30, P < 0.05; GUG time r = 0.30, P < 0.05; WOMAC-PF r = 0.26, P <0.05). In regression analyses, the interaction between proprioception and muscle strength was significantly related to functional ability (walking time, P < 0.001 and GUG time, P < 0.001) but not to WOMAC-PF score (P = 0.625). In patients with poor proprioception, reduction of muscle strength was associated with more severe deterioration of functional ability than in patients with accurate proprioception. Patients with poor proprioception show more limitation in functional ability, but this relationship is rather weak. In patients with poor proprioception, muscle weakness has a stronger impact on limitations in functional ability than in patients with accurate proprioception.

  15. Analysis of functional xylanases in xylan degradation by Aspergillus niger E-1 and characterization of the GH family 10 xylanase XynVII.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yui; Kawabata, Hiroaki; Murakami, Shuichiro

    2013-01-01

    Xylanases produced by Aspergillus niger are industrially important and many types of xylanases have been reported. Individual xylanases have been well studied for their enzymatic properties, gene cloning, and heterologous expression. However, less attention has been paid to the relationship between xylanase genes carried on the A. niger genome and xylanases produced by A. niger strains. Therefore, we examined xylanase genes encoded on the genome of A. niger E-1 and xylanases produced in culture. Seven putative xylanase genes, xynI-VII (named in ascending order of the molecular masses of the deduced amino acid sequences), were amplified from the strain E-1 genome using primers designed from the genome sequence of A. niger CBS 513.88 by PCR and phylogenetically classified into three clusters. Additionally, culture supernatant analysis by DE52 anion-exchange column chromatography revealed that this strain produced three xylanases, XynII, XynIII, and XynVII, which were identified by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses, in culture when gown in 0.5% xylan medium supplemented with 50 mM succinate. Furthermore, XynVII, the only GH family 10 xylanase in A. niger E-1, was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme showed a single band with a molecular mass of 35 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The highest activity of purified XynVII was observed at 55°C and pH 5.5. The enzyme was stable in the broad pH range of 3-10 and up to 60°C and was resistant to most metal ions and modifying regents. XynVII showed high specificity against beechwood xylan with K m and V max values of 2.8 mg mL(-1) and 127 μmol min(-1)mg(-1), respectively. TLC and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses showed that the final hydrolyzed products of the enzyme from beechwood xylan were xylose, xylobiose, and xylotriose substituted with a 4-o-metylglucuronic acid residue.

  16. The Relationship of Core Strength and Activation and Performance on Three Functional Movement Screens.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Caleb D; Whitehead, Paul N; Pletcher, Erin R; Faherty, Mallory S; Lovalekar, Mita T; Eagle, Shawn R; Keenan, Karen A

    2018-04-01

    Johnson, CD, Whitehead, PN, Pletcher, ER, Faherty, MS, Lovalekar, MT, Eagle, SR, and Keenan, KA. The relationship of core strength and activation and performance on three functional movement screens. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1166-1173, 2018-Current measures of core stability used by clinicians and researchers suffer from several shortcomings. Three functional movement screens appear, at face-value, to be dependent on the ability to activate and control core musculature. These 3 screens may present a viable alternative to current measures of core stability. Thirty-nine subjects completed a deep squat, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability screen. Scores on the 3 screens were summed to calculate a composite score (COMP). During the screens, muscle activity was collected to determine the length of time that the bilateral erector spinae, rectus abdominis, external oblique, and gluteus medius muscles were active. Strength was assessed for core muscles (trunk flexion and extension, trunk rotation, and hip abduction and adduction) and accessory muscles (knee flexion and extension and pectoralis major). Two ordinal logistic regression equations were calculated with COMP as the outcome variable, and: (a) core strength and accessory strength, (b) only core strength. The first model was significant in predicting COMP (p = 0.004) (Pearson's Chi-Square = 149.132, p = 0.435; Nagelkerke's R-Squared = 0.369). The second model was significant in predicting COMP (p = 0.001) (Pearson's Chi-Square = 148.837, p = 0.488; Nagelkerke's R-Squared = 0.362). The core muscles were found to be active for most screens, with percentages of "time active" for each muscle ranging from 54-86%. In conclusion, performance on the 3 screens is predicted by core strength, even when accounting for "accessory" strength variables. Furthermore, it seems the screens elicit wide-ranging activation of core muscles. Although more investigation is needed, these screens, collectively, seem to be a good

  17. [Correlations Between Joint Proprioception, Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yoa; Yu, Yong; He, Cheng-qi

    2015-11-01

    To establish correlations between joint proprioception, muscle flexion and extension peak torque, and functional ability in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty-six patients with symptomatic knee OA were recruited in this study. Both proprioceptive acuity and muscle strength were measured using the isomed-2000 isokinetic dynamometer. Proprioceptive acuity was evaluated by establishing the joint motion detection threshold (JMDT). Muscle strength was evaluated by Max torque (Nm) and Max torque/weight (Nm/ kg). Functional ability was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function (WOMAC-PF) questionnaire. Correlational analyses were performed between proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability. A multiple stepwise regression model was established, with WOMAC-PF as dependent variable and patient age, body mass index (BMI), visual analogue scale (VAS)-score, mean grade for Kellgren-Lawrance of both knees, mean strength for quadriceps and hamstring muscles of both knees, and mean JMDT of both knees as independent variables. Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was negatively correlated with muscle strength (P<0.05). There was no significant correlation between knee proprioception (high JMDT) and joint pain (WOMAC pain score), and between knee proprioception (high JMDT) and joint stiffness (WOMAC stiffness score). Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was correlated with limitation in functional ability (WOMAC physical function score r=0.659, P<0.05). WOMAC score was correlated with poor muscle strength (quadriceps muscle strength r = -0.511, P<0.05, hamstring muscle strength r = -0.408, P<0.05). The multiple stepwise regression model showed that high JMDT C standard partial regression coefficient (B) = 0.385, P<0.50 and high VAS-scale score (B=0.347, P<0.05) were significant predictors of WOMAC-PF score. Patients with poor proprioception is associated with poor muscle strength and limitation in functional

  18. Residual strength of GFR/POM as a function of damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachariev, G.; Rudolph, H.-V.; Ivers, H.

    2010-07-01

    A relation between the residual strength and the dispersed damage accumulated in a short fiber reinforced polyoximethylene (GFR/POM) samples under tension is found. For that purpose dependencies of damage and residual strength on loading percentage are used. Damage as a function of loading percentage is known for the material under study. To find the dependency of residual strength on loading percentage a subsidiary function is introduced and a method is proposed for determination of the parameters in the dependency on the basis of the experimental data. Both damage and residual strength are measured after unloading samples that have been loaded applying different loading percentages. Damage is the accumulation of new internal surfaces that arise under mechanical loading in the whole volume of the material. They are registered by a new original method of X-ray refraction. The analytical relation between the residual strength and damage accumulated is compared to the experimental results found for the residual strength under different damage degrees.

  19. Strength functions, entropies, and duality in weakly to strongly interacting fermionic systems.

    PubMed

    Angom, D; Ghosh, S; Kota, V K B

    2004-01-01

    We revisit statistical wave function properties of finite systems of interacting fermions in the light of strength functions and their participation ratio and information entropy. For weakly interacting fermions in a mean-field with random two-body interactions of increasing strength lambda, the strength functions F(k) (E) are well known to change, in the regime where level fluctuations follow Wigner's surmise, from Breit-Wigner to Gaussian form. We propose an ansatz for the function describing this transition which we use to investigate the participation ratio xi(2) and the information entropy S(info) during this crossover, thereby extending the known behavior valid in the Gaussian domain into much of the Breit-Wigner domain. Our method also allows us to derive the scaling law lambda(d) approximately 1/sqrt[m] ( m is number of fermions) for the duality point lambda= lambda(d), where F(k) (E), xi(2), and S(info) in both the weak ( lambda=0 ) and strong mixing ( lambda= infinity ) basis coincide. As an application, the ansatz function for strength functions is used in describing the Breit-Wigner to Gaussian transition seen in neutral atoms CeI to SmI with valence electrons changing from 4 to 8.

  20. Nanosecond lifetime measurements of Iπ=9/2- intrinsic excited states and low-lying B(E1) strengths in 183Re using combined HPGe-LaBr3 coincidence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgi, L. A.; Regan, P. H.; Daniel, T.; Podolyák, Zs.; Bruce, A. M.; Mason, P. J. R.; Mǎrginean, N.; Mǎrginean, R.; Werner, V.; Alharbi, T.; Alkhomashi, N.; Bajoga, A. D.; Britton, R.; Cǎta-Danil, I.; Carroll, R. J.; Deleanu, D.; Bucurescu, D.; Florea, N.; Gheorghe, I.; Ghita, D. G.; Glodariu, T.; Lice, R.; Mihai, C.; Mulholland, K. F.; Negret, A.; Olacel, A.; Roberts, O. J.; Sava, T.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stroe, L.; Suvaila, R.; Toma, S.; Wilson, E.; Wood, R. T.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents precision measurements of electromagnetic decay probabilities associated with electric dipole transitions in the prolate-deformed nucleus 183Re. The nucleus of interest was formed using the fusion evaporation reaction 180Hf(7Li,4n)183Re at a beam energy of 30 MeV at the tandem accelerator at the HH-IFIN Institute, Bucharest Romania. Coincident decay gamma rays from near-yrast cascades were detected using the combined HPGe-LaBr3 detector array ROSPHERE. The time differences between cascade gamma rays were measured using the LaBr3 detectors to determine the half-lives of the two lowest lying spin-parity 9/2- states at excitation energies of 496 and 617 keV to be 5.65(5) and 2.08(3) ns respectively. The deduced E1 transition rates from these two states are discussed in terms of the K-hindrance between the low-lying structures in this prolate-deformed nucleus.

  1. An ab initio density functional study of the optical functions of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2e] [1,2,4] Thriazolo [4,3c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester crystals.

    PubMed

    Reshak, Ali H; Kityk, I V; Khenata, R; Al-Douri, Y; Auluck, S

    2012-09-01

    An ab initio investigation of the optical constants of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2e] [1,2,4] Thriazolo [4,3c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester crystal is performed within a framework of local density approximation (LDA), and the Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation (EV-GGA) exchange correlation potentials. It is established that there are two independent molecules (A and B) exhibiting different intra-molecular interactions: C-H⋯O (A) and C-H⋯N (B). These intra-molecular interactions favor stabilization of the crystal structure for molecules A and B. It should be emphasized that there exist remarkable π-π interactions between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules giving extra strengths and stabilizations to the superamolecular structure. These different intra-molecular interactions C-H⋯O (A) and C-H⋯N (B) and the π-π interaction between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules give principal contribution to dispersion of optical properties. With a view to seek deeper insight into the electronic structure, the optical properties were investigated. Our calculations show that the optical constants are very anisotropic. The EVGGA calculation shows a blue spectral shift of around 0.024 eV with significant changes in the spectra compared to the LDA calculation. The observed spectral shifts are in agreement with the calculated band structure and corresponding electron density of states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of strength and neuromuscular training on functional performance in athletes after partial medial meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Min; Lou, Zhen; Liao, Bagen

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine an effective knee function rehabilitation program for athletes undergoing partial medial meniscectomy. Participants were randomly assigned to neuromuscular training (NT) or strength training (ST) group and subjected to functional assessments before surgery and again at 4, and 8 weeks post hoc . Functional knee assessment, such as Lysholm knee scoring, star excursion balance, and BTE PrimusRS isokinetic performance tests were evaluated in each group. All postoperational symptoms were significantly improved after 4 and 8 weeks of NT and ST. Both NT and ST programs showed effective knee function recovery seen as an increase in muscular strength and endurance. However, the NT program showed the most significant functional improvement of dynamic balance and coordination.

  3. Mechanical sea-ice strength parameterized as a function of ice temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Yukie; Tremblay, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical sea-ice strength is key for a better simulation of the timing of landlock ice onset and break-up in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). We estimate the mechanical strength of sea ice in the CAA by analyzing the position record measured by the several buoys deployed in the CAA between 2008 and 2013, and wind data from the Canadian Meteorological Centre's Global Deterministic Prediction System (CMC_GDPS) REforecasts (CGRF). First, we calculate the total force acting on the ice using the wind data. Next, we estimate upper (lower) bounds on the sea-ice strength by identifying cases when the sea ice deforms (does not deform) under the action of a given total force. Results from this analysis show that the ice strength of landlock sea ice in the CAA is approximately 40 kN/m on the landfast ice onset (in ice growth season). Additionally, it becomes approximately 10 kN/m on the landfast ice break-up (in melting season). The ice strength decreases with ice temperature increase, which is in accord with results from Johnston [2006]. We also include this new parametrization of sea-ice strength as a function of ice temperature in a coupled slab ocean sea ice model. The results from the model with and without the new parametrization are compared with the buoy data from the International Arctic Buoy Program (IABP).

  4. Modeling the Residual Strength of a Fibrous Composite Using the Residual Daniels Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonov, Yu.; Cimanis, V.; Varickis, S.; Kleinhofs, M.

    2016-09-01

    The concept of a residual Daniels function (RDF) is introduced. Together with the concept of Daniels sequence, the RDF is used for estimating the residual (after some preliminary fatigue loading) static strength of a unidirectional fibrous composite (UFC) and its S-N curve on the bases of test data. Usually, the residual strength is analyzed on the basis of a known S-N curve. In our work, an inverse approach is used: the S-N curve is derived from an analysis of the residual strength. This approach gives a good qualitive description of the process of decreasing residual strength and explanes the existence of the fatigue limit. The estimates of parameters of the corresponding regression model can be interpreted as estimates of parameters of the local strength of components of the UFC. In order to approach the quantitative experimental estimates of the fatigue life, some ideas based on the mathematics of the semiMarkovian process are employed. Satisfactory results in processing experimental data on the fatigue life and residual strength of glass/epoxy laminates are obtained.

  5. The relationship between vickers microhardness and compressive strength of functional surface geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subaer, Ekaputri, Januari Jaya; Fansuri, Hamzah; Abdullah, Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    An experimental study to investigate the relationship between Vickers microhardness and compressive strength of geopolymers made from metakaolin has been conducted. Samples were prepared by using metakaolin activated with a sodium silicate solution at a different ratio of Si to Al and Na to Al and cured at 70oC for one hour. The resulting geopolymers were stored in an open air for 28 days before conducting any measurement. Bulk density and apparent porosity of the samples were measured by using Archimedes's method. Vickers microhardness measurements were performed on a polished surface of geopolymers with a load ranging from 0.3 - 1.0 kg. The topographic of indented samples were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compressive strength of the resulting geopolymers was measured on the cylindrical samples with a ratio of height to the diameter was 2:1. The results showed that the molar ratios of geopolymers compositions play important roles in the magnitude of bulk density, porosity, Vickers's microhardness as well as the compressive strength. The porosity reduced exponentially the magnitude of the strength of geopolymers. It was found that the relationship between Vickers microhardness and compressive strength was linear. At the request of all authors and with the approval of the proceedings editor, article 020188 titled, "The relationship between vickers microhardness and compressive strength of functional surface geopolymers," is being retracted from the public record due to the fact that it is a duplication of article 020170 published in the same volume.

  6. Relationships between Respiratory Muscle Strength and Daily Living Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Chen, Chien-Chih; Hsiao, Shih-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common childhood disorder characterized by motor disability. Children with CP are at risk of developing significant respiratory problems associated with insufficient respiratory muscle strength. It is crucial to identify important factors which are associated with the limitations in daily living function in such children.…

  7. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  8. Level densities and γ-ray strength functions in Sn isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toft, H. K.; Larsen, A. C.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Bürger, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; Nyhus, H. T.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Voinov, A.

    2010-06-01

    The nuclear level densities of Sn118,119 and the γ-ray strength functions of Sn116,118,119 below the neutron separation energy are extracted with the Oslo method using the (He3,αγ) and (He3,He3'γ) reactions. The level-density function of Sn119 displays steplike structures. The microcanonical entropies are deduced from the level densities, and the single neutron entropy of Sn119 is determined to be 1.7 ± 0.2 kB. Results from a combinatorial model support the interpretation that some of the low-energy steps in the level density function are caused by neutron pair breaking. An enhancement in all the γ-ray strength functions of Sn116-119, compared to standard models for radiative strength, is observed for the γ-ray energy region of ≃4-11 MeV. These small resonances all have a centroid energy of 8.0(1) MeV and an integrated strength corresponding to 1.7(9)% of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. The Sn resonances may be due to electric dipole neutron skin oscillations or to an enhancement of the giant magnetic dipole resonance.

  9. Limited effects of micronutrient supplementation on strength and physical function after abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy.

    PubMed

    Watters, James M; Vallerand, Andrew; Kirkpatrick, Susan M; Abbott, Heather E; Norris, Sonya; Wells, George; Barber, Graeme G

    2002-08-01

    Tissue injury following ischemia-reperfusion is mediated in part by free oxygen radicals. We hypothesized that perioperative micronutrient supplementation would augment antioxidant defenses, minimize muscle injury, and minimize postoperative decreases in muscle strength and physical function following abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy. A university-affiliated hospital and regional referral center. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of supplementation with beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, zinc, and selenium for a period of 2-3 weeks prior to surgery and 1 week thereafter. Patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy (n=18 per group). Handgrip and other measures of strength and physical function. Handgrip and quadriceps strength decreased following surgery, but not to a significantly different extent in the placebo and supplemented groups. Self-rated physical function decreased following surgery in the placebo group and was preserved in the supplemented group. Perioperative supplementation with micronutrients with antioxidant properties has limited effects on strength and physical function following major elective surgery.

  10. [Effects of education and strength training on functional tests among older people with osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Jiménez S, Christian Edgardo; Fernández G, Rubén; Zurita O, Félix; Linares G, Daniel; Farías M, Ariel

    2014-04-01

    Hip and knee osteoarthritis are important causes of pain and disability among older people. Education and strength training can alleviate symptoms and avoid functional deterioration. To assess muscle strength, fall risk and quality of life of older people with osteoarthritis and the effects of physiotherapy education and strength training on these variables. Thirty participants aged 78 ± 5 years (63% women) were randomly assigned to receive physiotherapy (Controls), physiotherapy plus education (Group 1) and physiotherapy plus strength training (group 2). At baseline and after 16 weeks of intervention, patients were evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test, Timed Up and Go and Quality of Life score short form (SF-36). During the intervention period, Senior Fitness Test and Timed Up and Go scores improved in all groups and SF-36 did not change. The improvement in Senior Fitness Test and Timed Up and Go was more marked in Groups 1 and 2 than in the control group. Education and strength training improve functional tests among older people with osteoarthritis.

  11. Effects of functional training on pain, leg strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of 18-week functional training (FT) program consisting in two sessions a week of in-water exercise and one of on-land exercise on pain, strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia. A sample consisting of 36 fibromyalgia patients was included in the study. The patients were allocated randomly into the experimental group (EG, n = 20), and control group (CG, n = 16). Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand and handgrip strength) and agility/dynamic balance and static balance. Fibromyalgia impact and pain were analyzed by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), tender points (TPs), visual analog scale (VAS). We observed a significant reduction in the FIQ (p = 0.042), the algometer scale of TP (p = 0.008), TP (p < 0.001), and VAS (p < 0.001) in the EG. The EG shows better results in leg strength (p < 0.001), handgrip strength (p = 0.025), agility/dynamic balance (p = 0.032) and balance (p = 0.006). An 18-week intervention consisting in two sessions of in-water exercise and one session of on-land exercise of FT reduces pain and improves functional capacity in FM patients. These results suggested that FT could play an important role in maintaining an independent lifestyle in patients with FM.

  12. Functional Capacity in Adults With Cerebral Palsy: Lower Limb Muscle Strength Matters.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the relation between lower limb muscle strength, passive muscle properties, and functional capacity outcomes in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Cross-sectional study. Tertiary institution biomechanics laboratory. Adults with spastic-type CP (N=33; mean age, 25y; range, 15-51y; mean body mass, 70.15±21.35kg) who were either Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I (n=20) or level II (n=13). Not applicable. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) distance (m), lateral step-up (LSU) test performance (total repetitions), timed up-stairs (TUS) performance (s), maximum voluntary isometric strength of plantar flexors (PF) and dorsiflexors (DF) (Nm.kg -1 ), and passive ankle joint and muscle stiffness. Maximum isometric PF strength independently explained 61% of variance in 6MWT performance, 57% of variance in LSU test performance, and 50% of variance in TUS test performance. GMFCS level was significantly and independently related to all 3 functional capacity outcomes, and age was retained as a significant independent predictor of LSU and TUS test performance. Passive medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicle stiffness and ankle joint stiffness were not significantly related to functional capacity measures in any of the multiple regression models. Low isometric PF strength was the most important independent variable related to distance walked on the 6MWT, fewer repetitions on the LSU test, and slower TUS test performance. These findings suggest lower isometric muscle strength contributes to the decline in functional capacity in adults with CP. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Nintendo Wii Fit Plus training on ankle strength with functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Jun, Hyun-Ju; Heo, Myoung

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a training program using the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus on the ankle muscle strengths of subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted using subjects in their 20s who had functional ankle instability. They were randomized to a strengthening training group and a balance training group with 10 subjects in each, and they performed an exercise using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus for 20 minutes. In addition, every participant completed preparation and finishing exercises for 5 minutes, respectively. [Results] The muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion and dorsiflexion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the strengthening training group. Furthermore, the muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, eversion, and inversion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the balance training group. [Conclusion] The balance training group using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus showed better results than the strengthening training group. Consequently, it is recommended to add the balance training program of the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus to conventional exercise programs to improve ankle muscle strength in functional ankle instability at a low cost.

  14. Handgrip Strength Related to Long-Term Electromyography: Application for Assessing Functional Decline in Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth R; Roland, Kaitlyn P; Neubauer, Noelannah A; Jakobi, Jennifer M

    2017-02-01

    To determine which clinical measures of physical function (ie, gait, balance, and grip strength) best represent long-term electromyography in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) compared with those without PD. Cross-sectional study. Local community. A sample (N=37) of men and women with PD (n=23) and those without PD (n=14), living independently at home, older than 50 years of age, from the local community. Not applicable. Measures of gait, balance, and grip strength were completed, and electromyography was examined in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris during a 6.5-hour day. Muscle activity was quantified through burst in electromyography (>2% of the normalized maximum voluntary exertion with a continuous activity period of >0.1s). Stepwise multiple regression models were used to determine the proportion of variance in burst characteristics explained by clinical measures of physical function in PD. Grip strength was the best predictor of muscle activity in persons with PD (R 2 =.17-.33; P<.04), whereas gait characteristics explained muscle activity in healthy controls (R 2 =.40-.82; P<.04). Grip strength could serve as an effective clinical assessment tool to determine changes in muscle activity, which is a precursor to functional loss in persons with PD. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Nintendo Wii Fit Plus training on ankle strength with functional ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Jun, Hyun-Ju; Heo, Myoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a training program using the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus on the ankle muscle strengths of subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted using subjects in their 20s who had functional ankle instability. They were randomized to a strengthening training group and a balance training group with 10 subjects in each, and they performed an exercise using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus for 20 minutes. In addition, every participant completed preparation and finishing exercises for 5 minutes, respectively. [Results] The muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion and dorsiflexion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the strengthening training group. Furthermore, the muscle strengths after conducting plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, eversion, and inversion significantly increased at the angular velocities of 60° and 120° in the balance training group. [Conclusion] The balance training group using Nintendo Wii Fit Plus showed better results than the strengthening training group. Consequently, it is recommended to add the balance training program of the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus to conventional exercise programs to improve ankle muscle strength in functional ankle instability at a low cost. PMID:26696703

  16. [Methodological aspects of functional neuroimaging at high field strength: a critical review].

    PubMed

    Scheef, L; Landsberg, M W; Boecker, H

    2007-09-01

    The last few years have proven that high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is superior in nearly every way to conventional equipment up to 1.5 tesla (T). Following the global success of 3T-scanners in research institutes and medical practices, a new generation of MRI devices with field strengths of 7T and higher is now on the horizon. The introduction of ultra high fields has brought MRI technology closer to the physical limitations and increasingly greater costs are required to achieve this goal. This article provides a critical overview of the advantages and problems of functional neuroimaging using ultra high field strengths. This review is principally limited to T2*-based functional imaging techniques not dependent on contrast agents. The main issues include the significance of high field technology with respect to SNR, CNR, resolution, and sequences, as well as artifacts, noise exposure, and SAR. Of great relevance is the discussion of parallel imaging, which will presumably determine the further development of high and ultra high field strengths. Finally, the importance of high field strengths for functional neuroimaging is explained by selected publications.

  17. Relationships Among Lower Body Strength, Power, and Performance of Functional Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, J.; Hackney, K.; Scott-Pandorf, M.; Redd, E.; Buxton, R.; Bloomberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    There is a large degree of variability among crewmembers with respect to decrements in muscle strength and power following long duration spaceflight, ranging from 0 to approx.30% reductions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of varying decrements in lower body muscle strength and power (relative to body weight) on the performance of 2 occupationally relevant tasks (ladder climb and supine egress & walk). Seventeen participants with leg strength similar to US crewmembers performed a leg press power test, an isokinetic knee extension strength test and they were asked to complete the 2 functional tasks as quickly as possible. On additional test days the participants were asked to repeat the functional tasks under 3 conditions where a different external load was applied each time using a weighted suit in order to experimentally manipulate participants strength/body weight and power/body weight ratios. The weight in the suit ranged from 20-120% of body weight and was distributed in proportion to limb segment weights to minimize changes in center of gravity. The ladder task consisted of climbing 40 rungs on a ladder treadmill as fast as possible. The supine egress & walk task consisted of rising from a supine position and walking through an obstacle course. Results show a relatively linear relationship between strength/body weight and task time and power/body weight with task time such that the fastest performance times are associated with higher strength and power with about half the variance in task time is accounted for by a single variable (either strength or power). For the average person, a 20% reduction in power/body weight (from 18 to 14.4 W/kg) induces an increase (slowing) of about 10 seconds in the ladder climb task from 14 to 24 seconds (approx.70%) and a slowing of the supine egress & walk task from 14 to 21 seconds (approx.50%). Similar relationships were observed with strength/body weight and task performance. For the average

  18. THE EFFECTS OF VARIED TENSIONS OF KINESIOLOGY TAPING ON QUADRICEPS STRENGTH AND LOWER LIMB FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Yuri Rafael dos Santos; Nannini, Stella Bispo; Nakaoka, Gustavo Bezerra; dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Bryk, Flavio Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Background Kinesiology Taping (KT) may promote changes in muscle strength and motor performance, topics of great interest in the sports-medicine sciences. These characteristics are purported to be associated with the tension generated by the KT on the skin. However, the most suitable tension for the attainment of these strength and performance effects has not yet been confirmed. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of different tensions of KT on the isometric contraction of the quadriceps and lower limb function of healthy individuals over a period of seven days. Study Design Blind, randomized, clinical trial. Methods One hundred and thirty healthy individuals were distributed into the following five groups: control (without KT); KT0 (KT without tension); KT50; KT75 and KT100 (approximately 50%, 75% and 100% tension applied to the tape, respectively). Assessments of isometric quadriceps strength were conducted using a hand held dynamometer. Lower limb function was assessed through Single Hop Test for Distance, with five measurement periods: baseline; immediately after KT application; three days after KT; five days after KT; and 72h after KT removal (follow-up). Results There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) at any of the studied periods on participants’ quadriceps strength nor in the function of the lower dominant limb, based on comparisons between the control group and the experimental groups. Conclusion KT applied with different tensions did not produce modulations, in short or long-term, on quadriceps’ strength or lower limb function of healthy individuals. Therefore, this type of KT application, when seeking these objectives, should be reconsidered. Level of Evidence 1b PMID:28217419

  19. Functional trade-off between strength and thermal capacity of dermal armor: Insights from girdled lizards.

    PubMed

    Broeckhoven, Chris; du Plessis, Anton; Hui, Cang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated. Here, we use high-resolution micro-computed tomography and voxel-based simulations to test for a trade-off between the strength and thermal capacity of osteoderms using two armored cordylid lizards as model organisms. We demonstrate that high vascularization, associated with improved thermal capacity might limit the strength of osteoderms. These results call for a holistic, cautionary future approach to studies investigating dermal armor, especially those aiming to inspire artificial protective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CypD-mPTP axis regulates mitochondrial functions contributing to osteogenic dysfunction of MC3T3-E1 cells in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xueqi; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Beilei; Zhu, Zhuoli; He, Yuting; Chen, Junsheng; Zhu, Junfei; Yu, Haiyang

    2018-04-20

    Bone is a dynamic organ, the bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts form the physiological basis of bone remodeling process. During pathological process of numerous inflammatory diseases, these two aspects are uncoupled and the balance is usually tipped in favor of bone destruction. Evidence suggests that the inflammatory destruction of bone is mainly attributed to oxidative stress and is closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction. The mechanisms underlying osteogenic dysfunction in inflammation still need further investigation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular damage. Here, we reported an unexplored role of cyclophilin D (CypD), the major modulator of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), and the CypD-mPTP axis in inflammation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and bone damage. And the protective effects of knocking down CypD by siRNA interference or the addition of cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of CypD, were evidenced by rescued mitochondrial function and osteogenic function of osteoblast under tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) treatment. These findings provide new insights into the role of CypD-mPTP-dependent mitochondrial pathway in the inflammatory bone injury. The protective effect of CsA or other moleculars affecting the mPTP formation may hold promise as a potential novel therapeutic strategy for inflammation-induced bone damage via mitochondrial pathways.

  1. Effects of resistance training, detraining, and retraining on strength and functional capacity in elderly.

    PubMed

    Sakugawa, Raphael Luiz; Moura, Bruno Monteiro; Orssatto, Lucas Bet da Rosa; Bezerra, Ewertton de Souza; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2018-05-17

    The interruption of training (detraining) results in loss of the gains acquired. Partial retention could occur after detraining, and variation in training stimuli may optimize retraining adaptations. To evaluate the effect of a resistance-retraining program on strength and functional capacity performance after a detraining period. Ten elderly men and women (63-68 years) completed 12 weeks of training, 16 weeks of detraining, and 8 weeks of retraining. One-repetition maximum (1-RM) at 45° leg press, maximum isometric knee extension torque, rate of torque development (RTD), 30-s sit-to-stand, timed up and go, and stair ascent and descent tests were assessed. The 1-RM increased after training (p < 0.01) and remained higher after a detraining period when compared to pre-training (p < 0.01). Post-retraining values were not different from post-training period (p > 0.05). For RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand, there was an increase after retraining when compared to pre-training values (p < 0.05). For timed up and go and stair ascent and descent, reductions were observed between pre-training and post-training periods (p < 0.05), only timed up and go increased after the detraining period (p < 0.01). After 16 weeks of detraining, the maximum strength did not return to baseline levels, and a retraining with explosive strength exercise sessions can recover maximum strength gains, RTD, and functional capacity at the same level obtained after a detraining period. The inclusion of an explosive strength session in retraining period improves RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand performance and can accelerate the recovery of strength after a detraining period.

  2. The SpTransformer Gene Family (Formerly Sp185/333) in the Purple Sea Urchin and the Functional Diversity of the Anti-Pathogen rSpTransformer-E1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L. Courtney; Lun, Cheng Man

    2017-01-01

    The complex innate immune system of sea urchins is underpinned by several multigene families including the SpTransformer family (SpTrf; formerly Sp185/333) with estimates of ~50 members, although the family size is likely variable among individuals of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The genes are small with similar structure, are tightly clustered, and have several types of repeats in the second of two exons and that surround each gene. The density of repeats suggests that the genes are positioned within regions of genomic instability, which may be required to drive sequence diversification. The second exon encodes the mature protein and is composed of blocks of sequence called elements that are present in mosaics of defined element patterns and are the major source of sequence diversity. The SpTrf genes respond swiftly to immune challenge, but only a single gene is expressed per phagocyte. Many of the mRNAs appear to be edited and encode proteins with altered and/or missense sequence that are often truncated, of which some may be functional. The standard SpTrf protein structure is an N-terminal glycine-rich region, a central RGD motif, a histidine-rich region, and a C-terminal region. Function is predicted from a recombinant protein, rSpTransformer-E1 (rSpTrf-E1), which binds to Vibrio and Saccharomyces, but not to Bacillus, and binds tightly to lipopolysaccharide, β-1,3-glucan, and flagellin, but not to peptidoglycan. rSpTrf-E1 is intrinsically disordered but transforms to α helical structure in the presence of binding targets including lipopolysaccharide, which may underpin the characteristics of binding to multiple targets. SpTrf proteins associate with coelomocyte membranes, and rSpTrf-E1 binds specifically to phosphatidic acid (PA). When rSpTrf-E1 is bound to PA in liposome membranes, it induces morphological changes in liposomes that correlate with PA clustering and leakage of luminal contents, and it extracts or removes PA from the bilayer. The

  3. Lower limb strength training in children with cerebral palsy – a randomized controlled trial protocol for functional strength training based on progressive resistance exercise principles

    PubMed Central

    Scholtes, Vanessa A; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Rameckers, Eugene A; Verschuren, Olaf; Tempelaars, Els; Hensen, Maartje; Becher, Jules G

    2008-01-01

    Background Until recently, strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) was considered to be inappropriate, because it could lead to increased spasticity or abnormal movement patterns. However, the results of recent studies suggest that progressive strength training can lead to increased strength and improved function, but low methodological quality and incomplete reporting on the training protocols hampers adequate interpretation of the results. This paper describes the design and training protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a school-based progressive functional strength training program for children with CP. Methods/Results Fifty-one children with Gross Motor Function Classification Systems levels I to III, aged of 6 to 13 years, were recruited. Using stratified randomization, each child was assigned to an intervention group (strength training) or a control group (usual care). The strength training was given in groups of 4–5 children, 3 times a week, for a period of 12 weeks. Each training session focussed on four exercises out of a 5-exercise circuit. The training load was gradually increased based on the child's maximum level of strength, as determined by the 8 Repetition Maximum (8 RM). To evaluate the effectiveness of the training, all children were evaluated before, during, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention period. Primary outcomes in this study were gross motor function (measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure and functional muscle strength tests) and walking ability (measured with the 10-meter, the 1-minute and the timed stair test). Secondary outcomes were lower limb muscle strength (measured with a 6 RM test, isometric strength tests, and a sprint capacity test), mobility (measured with a mobility questionnaire), and sport activities (measured with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment). Spasticity and range of motion were assessed to evaluate any adverse events

  4. Quadriceps Strength in Patients With Isolated Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Results of Isokinetic Strength Measurements and Their Correlation With Clinical and Functional Results

    PubMed Central

    Hirschmüller, Anja; Andres, Tasja; Schoch, Wolfgang; Baur, Heiner; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Südkamp, Norbert P.; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have found a significant deficit of maximum quadriceps strength after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) of the knee. However, it is unclear whether muscular strength deficits in patients with cartilage damage exist prior to operative treatment. Purpose: To isokinetically test maximum quadriceps muscle strength and quantify the impact of possible strength deficits on functional and clinical test results. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: To identify clinically relevant muscular strength deficits, 24 patients (5 females, 19 males; mean age, 34.5 years; body mass index, 25.9 kg/m2) with isolated cartilage defects (mean onset, 5.05 years; SD, 7.8 years) in the knee joint underwent isokinetic strength measurements. Maximal quadriceps strength was recorded in 3 different testing modes: pure concentric contraction (flexors and extensors alternating work; con1), concentric-eccentric (only the extensors work concentrically and eccentrically; con2), and eccentric contraction in the alternating mode (ecc). Results were compared for functional performance (single-leg hop test), pain scales (visual analog scale [VAS], numeric rating scale [NRS]), self-reported questionnaires (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale [KOOS]), and defect size (cm2). Results: Compared with the uninjured leg, significantly lower quadriceps strength was detected in the injured leg in all isokinetic working modes (con1 difference, 27.76 N·m [SD 17.47; P = .003]; con2 difference, 21.45 N·m [SD, 18.45; P =.025]; ecc difference, 29.48 N·m [SD, 21.51; P = .001]), with the largest deficits found for eccentric muscle performance. Moderate negative correlations were observed for the subjective pain scales NRS and VAS. The results of the IKDC and KOOS questionnaires showed low, nonsignificant correlations with findings in the isokinetic measurement. Moreover, defect sizes (mean, 3

  5. HPV16 and 18 genome amplification show different E4-dependence, with 16E4 enhancing E1 nuclear accumulation and replicative efficiency via its cell cycle arrest and kinase activation functions

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Deborah; Mahmood, Radma

    2017-01-01

    To clarify E1^E4’s role during high-risk HPV infection, the E4 proteins of HPV16 and 18 were compared side by side using an isogenic keratinocyte differentiation model. While no effect on cell proliferation or viral genome copy number was observed during the early phase of either virus life cycle, time-course experiments showed that viral genome amplification and L1 expression were differently affected upon differentiation, with HPV16 showing a much clearer E4 dependency. Although E4 loss never completely abolished genome amplification, its more obvious contribution in HPV16 focused our efforts on 16E4. As previously suggested, in the context of the virus life cycle, 16E4s G2-arrest capability was found to contribute to both genome amplification success and L1 accumulation. Loss of 16E4 also lead to a reduced maintenance of ERK, JNK and p38MAPK activity throughout the genome amplifying cell layers, with 16E4 (but not 18E4) co-localizing precisely with activated cytoplasmic JNK in both wild type raft tissue, and HPV16-induced patient biopsy tissue. When 16E1 was co-expressed with E4, as occurs during genome amplification in vivo, the E1 replication helicase accumulated preferentially in the nucleus, and in transient replication assays, E4 stimulated viral genome amplification. Interestingly, a 16E1 mutant deficient in its regulatory phosphorylation sites no longer accumulated in the nucleus following E4 co-expression. E4-mediated stabilisation of 16E2 was also apparent, with E2 levels declining in organotypic raft culture when 16E4 was absent. These results suggest that 16E4-mediated enhancement of genome amplification involves its cell cycle inhibition and cellular kinase activation functions, with E4 modifying the activity and function of viral replication proteins including E1. These activities of 16E4, and the different kinase patterns seen here with HPV18, 31 and 45, may reflect natural differences in the biology and tropisms of these viruses, as well as

  6. The validity and reliability of the Functional Strength Measurement (FSM) in children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Aertssen, W F M; Steenbergen, B; Smits-Engelsman, B C M

    2018-06-07

    There is lack of valid and reliable field-based tests for assessing functional strength in young children with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Functional Strength Measurement in children with ID (FSM-ID). Fifty-two children with mild ID (40 boys and 12 girls, mean age 8.48 years, SD = 1.48) were tested with the FSM. Test-retest reliability (n = 32) was examined by a two-way interclass correlation coefficient for agreement (ICC 2.1A). Standard error of measurement and smallest detectable change were calculated. Construct validity was determined by calculating correlations between the FSM-ID and handheld dynamometry (HHD) (convergent validity), FSM-ID, FSM-ID and subtest strength of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency - second edition (BOT-2) (convergent validity) and the FSM-ID and balance subtest of the BOT-2 (discriminant validity). Test-retest reliability ICC ranged 0.89-0.98. Correlation between the items of the FSM-ID and HHD ranged 0.39-0.79 and between FSM-ID and BOT-2 (strength items) 0.41-0.80. Correlation between items of the FSM-ID and BOT-2 (balance items) ranged 0.41-0.70. The FSM-ID showed good test-retest reliability and good convergent validity with the HHD and BOT-2 subtest strength. The correlations assessing discriminant validity were higher than expected. Poor levels of postural control and core stability in children with mild IDs may be the underlying factor of those higher correlations. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of smartphone overuse on hand function, pinch strength, and the median nerve.

    PubMed

    İnal, Esra Erkol; Demİrcİ, kadİr; Çetİntürk, Azİze; Akgönül, Mehmet; Savaş, Serpİl

    2015-08-01

    In this study we investigated the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon and median nerve in smartphone users by ultrasonography to assess the effects of smartphone addiction on the clinical and functional status of the hands. One hundred two students were divided into 3 groups: non-users, and high or low smartphone users. Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) scores and grip and pinch strengths were recorded. Pain in thumb movement and rest and hand function were evaluated on the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Duruöz Hand Index (DHI), respectively. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the median nerve and the FPL tendon were calculated bilaterally using ultrasonography. Significantly higher median nerve CSAs were observed in the dominant hands of the high smartphone users than in the non-dominant hands (P<0.001). SAS scores correlated with VAS pain for movement and rest, DHI scores, and pinch strength (P<0.05; r=0.345, 0.272, 0.245, and 0.281, respectively). Smartphone overuse enlarges the median nerve, causes pain in the thumb, and decreases pinch strength and hand functions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Novel Application of Eddy Current Braking for Functional Strength Training during Gait

    PubMed Central

    Washabaugh, Edward P.; Claflin, Edward S.; Gillespie, R. Brent; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2016-01-01

    Functional strength training is becoming increasingly popular when rehabilitating individuals with neurological injury such as stroke or cerebral palsy. Typically, resistance during walking is provided using cable robots or weights that are secured to the distal shank of the subject. However, there exists no device that is wearable and capable of providing resistance across the joint, allowing over ground gait training. In this study, we created a lightweight and wearable device using eddy current braking to provide resistance to the knee. We then validated the device by having subjects wear it during a walking task through varying resistance levels. Electromyography and kinematics were collected to assess the biomechanical effects of the device on the wearer. We found that eddy current braking provided resistance levels suitable for functional strength training of leg muscles in a package that is both lightweight and wearable. Applying resistive forces at the knee joint during gait resulted in significant increases in muscle activation of many of the muscles tested. A brief period of training also resulted in significant aftereffects once the resistance was removed. These results support the feasibility of the device for functional strength training during gait. Future research is warranted to test the clinical potential of the device in an injured population. PMID:26817456

  9. A Novel Application of Eddy Current Braking for Functional Strength Training During Gait.

    PubMed

    Washabaugh, Edward P; Claflin, Edward S; Gillespie, R Brent; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2016-09-01

    Functional strength training is becoming increasingly popular when rehabilitating individuals with neurological injury such as stroke or cerebral palsy. Typically, resistance during walking is provided using cable robots or weights that are secured to the distal shank of the subject. However, there exists no device that is wearable and capable of providing resistance across the joint, allowing over ground gait training. In this study, we created a lightweight and wearable device using eddy current braking to provide resistance to the knee. We then validated the device by having subjects wear it during a walking task through varying resistance levels. Electromyography and kinematics were collected to assess the biomechanical effects of the device on the wearer. We found that eddy current braking provided resistance levels suitable for functional strength training of leg muscles in a package that is both lightweight and wearable. Applying resistive forces at the knee joint during gait resulted in significant increases in muscle activation of many of the muscles tested. A brief period of training also resulted in significant aftereffects once the resistance was removed. These results support the feasibility of the device for functional strength training during gait. Future research is warranted to test the clinical potential of the device in an injured population.

  10. An alternative approach for modeling strength differential effect in sheet metals with symmetric yield functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurukuri, Srihari; Worswick, Michael J.

    2013-12-01

    An alternative approach is proposed to utilize symmetric yield functions for modeling the tension-compression asymmetry commonly observed in hcp materials. In this work, the strength differential (SD) effect is modeled by choosing separate symmetric plane stress yield functions (for example, Barlat Yld 2000-2d) for the tension i.e., in the first quadrant of principal stress space, and compression i.e., third quadrant of principal stress space. In the second and fourth quadrants, the yield locus is constructed by adopting interpolating functions between uniaxial tensile and compressive stress states. In this work, different interpolating functions are chosen and the predictive capability of each approach is discussed. The main advantage of this proposed approach is that the yield locus parameters are deterministic and relatively easy to identify when compared to the Cazacu family of yield functions commonly used for modeling SD effect observed in hcp materials.

  11. Evaluation of Suited and Unsuited Human Functional Strength Using Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazadeh, Fred

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the planned summer research was to develop a procedure to determine the isokinetic functional strength of suited and unsuited participants in order to estimate the coefficient of micro-gravity suit on human strength. To accomplish this objective, the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility's Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic dynamometer (MMID) was used. Development of procedure involved selection and testing of seven routines to be tested on MMID. We conducted the related experiments and collected the data for 12 participants. In addition to the above objective, we developed a procedure to assess the fatiguing characteristics of suited and unsuited participants using EMG technique. We collected EMG data on 10 participants while performing a programmed routing on MMID. EMG data along with information on the exerted forces, effector speed, number of repetitions, and duration of each routine were recorded for further analysis. Finally, gathering and tabulation Of data for various human strengths for updating of MSIS (HSIS) strength requirement, which started in summer 2003, also continued.

  12. Size dependence of yield strength simulated by a dislocation-density function dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, P. S. S.; Leung, H. S.; Cheng, B.; Ngan, A. H. W.

    2015-04-01

    The size dependence of the strength of nano- and micron-sized crystals is studied using a new simulation approach in which the dynamics of the density functions of dislocations are modeled. Since any quantity of dislocations can be represented by a density, this approach can handle large systems containing large quantities of dislocations, which may handicap discrete dislocation dynamics schemes due to the excessive computation time involved. For this reason, pillar sizes spanning a large range, from the sub-micron to micron regimes, can be simulated. The simulation results reveal the power-law relationship between strength and specimen size up to a certain size, beyond which the strength varies much more slowly with size. For specimens smaller than ∼4000b, their strength is found to be controlled by the dislocation depletion condition, in which the total dislocation density remains almost constant throughout the loading process. In specimens larger than ∼4000b, the initial dislocation distribution is of critical importance since the presence of dislocation entanglements is found to obstruct deformation in the neighboring regions within a distance of ∼2000b. This length scale suggests that the effects of dense dislocation clusters are greater in intermediate-sized specimens (e.g. 4000b and 8000b) than in larger specimens (e.g. 16 000b), according to the weakest-link concept.

  13. Changes in physical functioning and muscle strength in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a controlled comparison.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Brian D; Jim, Heather S L; Small, Brent J; Sutton, Steven K; Fishman, Mayer N; Zachariah, Babu; Heysek, Randy V; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine changes in muscle strength and self-reported physical functioning in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer compared to matched controls. Prostate cancer patients scheduled to begin ADT (n = 62) were assessed within 20 days of starting ADT and 6 and 12 months later. Age and geographically matched prostate cancer controls treated with prostatectomy only (n = 86) were assessed at similar time intervals. Grip strength measured upper body strength, the Chair Rise Test measured lower body strength, and the SF-12 Physical Functioning scale measured self-reported physical functioning. As expected, self-reported physical functioning and upper body muscle strength declined in ADT recipients but remained stable in prostate cancer controls. Contrary to expectations, lower body muscle strength remained stable in ADT recipients but improved in prostate cancer controls. Higher Gleason scores, more medical comorbidities, and less exercise at baseline predicted greater declines in physical functioning in ADT recipients. ADT is associated with declines in self-reported physical functioning and upper body muscle strength as well as worse lower body muscle strength relative to prostate cancer controls. These findings should be included in patient education regarding the risks and benefits of ADT. Findings also underscore the importance of conducting research on ways to prevent or reverse declines in physical functioning in this patient population.

  14. Measures of Functional Performance and Their Association With Hip and Thigh Strength

    PubMed Central

    Kollock, Roger; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Ringleb, Stacie I.; Oñate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Insufficient hip and thigh strength may increase an athlete's susceptibility to injury. However, screening for strength deficits using isometric and isokinetic instrumentation may not be practical in all clinical scenarios. Objective: To determine if functional performance tests are valid indicators of hip and thigh strength. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty-two recreationally athletic men (n = 30, age = 21.07 years, height = 173.84 cm, mass = 81.47 kg) and women (n = 32, age = 21.03 years, height = 168.77 cm, mass = 68.22 kg) participants were recruited. Intervention(s): During session 1, we measured isometric peak force and rate of force development for 8 lower extremity muscle groups, followed by an isometric endurance test. During session 2, participants performed functional performance tests. Main Outcome Measure(s): Peak force, rate of force development, fatigue index, hop distance (or height), work (joules), and number of hops performed during the 30-second lateral-hop test were assessed. The r values were squared to calculate r 2. We used Pearson correlations to evaluate the associations between functional performance and strength. Results: In men, the strongest relationship was observed between triple-hop work and hip-adductor peak force (r2 = 50, P ≤ .001). Triple-hop work also was related to hip-adductor (r2 = 38, P ≤ .01) and hip-flexor (r2 = 37, P ≤ .01) rate of force development. For women, the strongest relationships were between single-legged vertical-jump work and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.44, P ≤ .01) and single-legged vertical-jump height and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.42, P ≤ .01). Single-legged vertical-jump height also was related to knee-flexor rate of force development (r2 = 0.49, P ≤ .001). The 30-second lateral-hop test did not account for a significant portion of the variance in strength endurance. Conclusions: Hop tests alone did not

  15. Measures of functional performance and their association with hip and thigh strength.

    PubMed

    Kollock, Roger; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Ringleb, Stacie I; Oñate, James A

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient hip and thigh strength may increase an athlete's susceptibility to injury. However, screening for strength deficits using isometric and isokinetic instrumentation may not be practical in all clinical scenarios. To determine if functional performance tests are valid indicators of hip and thigh strength. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Sixty-two recreationally athletic men (n = 30, age = 21.07 years, height = 173.84 cm, mass = 81.47 kg) and women (n = 32, age = 21.03 years, height = 168.77 cm, mass = 68.22 kg) participants were recruited. During session 1, we measured isometric peak force and rate of force development for 8 lower extremity muscle groups, followed by an isometric endurance test. During session 2, participants performed functional performance tests. Peak force, rate of force development, fatigue index, hop distance (or height), work (joules), and number of hops performed during the 30-second lateral-hop test were assessed. The r values were squared to calculate r (2). We used Pearson correlations to evaluate the associations between functional performance and strength. In men, the strongest relationship was observed between triple-hop work and hip-adductor peak force (r(2) = 50, P ≤ .001). Triple-hop work also was related to hip-adductor (r(2) = 38, P ≤ .01) and hip-flexor (r(2) = 37, P ≤ .01) rate of force development. For women, the strongest relationships were between single-legged vertical-jump work and knee-flexor peak force (r(2) = 0.44, P ≤ .01) and single-legged vertical-jump height and knee-flexor peak force (r(2) = 0.42, P ≤ .01). Single-legged vertical-jump height also was related to knee-flexor rate of force development (r(2) = 0.49, P ≤ .001). The 30-second lateral-hop test did not account for a significant portion of the variance in strength endurance. Hop tests alone did not provide clinicians with enough information to make evidence-based decisions about lower extremity strength in isolated

  16. Strength of Structural and Functional Frontostriatal Connectivity Predicts Self-Control in the Healthy Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Lohrey, Corinna; Drobetz, Reinhard; Baetschmann, Hansruedi; Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation refers to the successful use of executive functions and initiation of top-down processes to control one's thoughts, behavior, and emotions, and it is crucial to perform self-control. Self-control is needed to overcome impulses and can be assessed by delay of gratification (DoG) and delay discounting (DD) paradigms. In children/adolescents, good DoG/DD ability depends on the maturity of frontostriatal connectivity, and its decline in strength with advancing age might adversely affect self-control because prefrontal brain regions are more prone to normal age-related atrophy than other regions. Here, we aimed at highlighting the relationship between frontostriatal connectivity strength and DoG performance in advanced age. We recruited 40 healthy elderly individuals (mean age 74.0 ± 7.7 years) and assessed the DoG ability using the German version of the DoG test for adults in addition to the delay discounting (DD) paradigm. Based on diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, respectively, the structural and functional whole-brain connectome were reconstructed based on 90 different brain regions of interest in addition to a 12-node frontostriatal DoG-specific network and the resulting connectivity matrices were subjected to network-based statistics. The 90-nodes whole-brain connectome analyses revealed subnetworks significantly associated with DoG and DD with a preponderance of frontostriatal nodes involved suggesting a high specificity of the findings. Structural and functional connectivity strengths between the putamen, caudate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens on the one hand and orbitofrontal, dorsal, and ventral lateral prefrontal cortices on the other hand showed strong positive correlations with DoG and negative correlations with DD corrected for age, sex, intracranial volume, and head motion parameters. These associations cannot be explained by differences in impulsivity and executive functioning. This pattern

  17. Extracellular calcium-sensing-receptor (CaR)-mediated opening of an outward K(+) channel in murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells: evidence for expression of a functional CaR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, C. P.; Yamaguchi, T.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Sanders, J. L.; Vassilev, P. M.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The existence in osteoblasts of the G-protein-coupled extracellular calcium (Ca(o)(2+))-sensing receptor (CaR) that was originally cloned from parathyroid and kidney remains controversial. In our recent studies, we utilized multiple detection methods to demonstrate the expression of CaR transcripts and protein in several osteoblastic cell lines, including murine MC3T3-E1 cells. Although we and others have shown that high Ca(o)(2+) and other polycationic CaR agonists modulate the function of MC3T3-E1 cells, none of these actions has been unequivocally shown to be mediated by the CaR. Previous investigations using neurons and lens epithelial cells have shown that activation of the CaR stimulates Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. Because osteoblastic cells express a similar type of channel, we have examined the effects of specific "calcimimetic" CaR activators on the activity of a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel in MC3T3-E1 cells as a way of showing that the CaR is not only expressed in those cells but is functionally active. Patch-clamp analysis in the cell-attached mode showed that raising Ca(o)(2+) from 0.75 to 2.75 mmol/L elicited about a fourfold increase in the open state probability (P(o)) of an outward K(+) channel with a conductance of approximately 92 pS. The selective calcimimetic CaR activator, NPS R-467 (0.5 micromol/L), evoked a similar activation of the channel, while its less active stereoisomer, NPSS-467 (0.5 micromol/L), did not. Thus, the CaR is not only expressed in MC3T3-E1 cells, but is also functionally coupled to the activity of a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel. This receptor, therefore, could transduce local or systemic changes in Ca(o)(2+) into changes in the activity of this ion channel and related physiological processes in these and perhaps other osteoblastic cells.

  18. Strength, body composition, and functional outcomes in the squat versus leg press exercises.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Fabrício E; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ocetnik, Skyler; Young, Jonathan; Vigotsky, Andrew; Contreras, Bret; Krieger, James W; Miller, Michael G; Cholewa, Jason

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare strength, body composition, and functional outcome measures following performance of the back squat, leg press, or a combination of the two exercises. Subjects were pair-matched based on initial strength levels and then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a squat-only group (SQ) that solely performed squats for the lower body; a leg press-only group (LP) that solely performed leg presses for the lower body, or a combined squat and leg press group (SQ-LP) that performed both squats and leg presses for the lower body. All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 10 weeks with subjects performing 2 lower body workouts per week comprising 6 sets per session at loads corresponding to 8-12 RM with 90- to 120-second rest intervals. Results showed that SQ had greater transfer to maximal squat strength compared to the leg press. Effect sizes favored SQ and SQ-LP versus LP with respect to countermovement jump while greater effect sizes for dynamic balance were noted for SQ-LP and LP compared to SQ, although no statistical differences were noted between conditions. These findings suggest that both free weights and machines can improve functional outcomes, and that the extent of transfer may be specific to the given task.

  19. Joint laxity and the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    van der Esch, M; Steultjens, M; Knol, D L; Dinant, H; Dekker, J

    2006-12-15

    To establish the impact of knee joint laxity on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A cross-sectional study of 86 patients with OA of the knee was conducted. Tests were performed to determine varus-valgus laxity, muscle strength, and functional ability. Laxity was assessed using a device that measures the angular deviation of the knee in the frontal plane. Muscle strength was measured using a computer-driven isokinetic dynamometer. Functional ability was assessed by observation (100-meter walking test) and self report (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC]). Regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of joint laxity on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability. In regression analyses, the interaction between muscle strength and joint laxity contributed to the variance in both walking time (P = 0.002) and WOMAC score (P = 0.080). The slope of the regression lines indicated that the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability (walking time, WOMAC) was stronger in patients with high knee joint laxity. Patients with knee OA and high knee joint laxity show a stronger relationship between muscle strength and functional ability than patients with OA and low knee joint laxity. Patients with OA, high knee joint laxity, and low muscle strength are most at risk of being disabled.

  20. Radial basis function network learns ceramic processing and predicts related strength and density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Vary, Alex; Tjia, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Radial basis function (RBF) neural networks were trained using the data from 273 Si3N4 modulus of rupture (MOR) bars which were tested at room temperature and 135 MOR bars which were tested at 1370 C. Milling time, sintering time, and sintering gas pressure were the processing parameters used as the input features. Flexural strength and density were the outputs by which the RBF networks were assessed. The 'nodes-at-data-points' method was used to set the hidden layer centers and output layer training used the gradient descent method. The RBF network predicted strength with an average error of less than 12 percent and density with an average error of less than 2 percent. Further, the RBF network demonstrated a potential for optimizing and accelerating the development and processing of ceramic materials.

  1. Cross-sectional association between muscle strength and self-reported physical function in 195 hip osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michelle; Wrigley, Tim V; Kasza, Jessica; Dobson, Fiona; Pua, Yong Hao; Metcalf, Ben R; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate associations between strength of selected hip and knee muscles and self-reported physical function, and their clinical relevance, in men and women with hip osteoarthritis (OA). Cross-sectional data from 195 participants with symptomatic hip OA were used. Peak isometric torque of hip extensors, flexors, and abductors, and knee extensors were measured, along with physical function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire. Separate linear regressions in men and women were used to determine the association between strength and physical function accounting for age, pain, and radiographic disease severity. Subsequently, magnitudes of strength associated with estimates of minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) in physical function were estimated according to severity of difficulty with physical function. For men, greater strength of the hip extensors, hip flexors and knee extensors were each associated with better physical function. For women, greater muscle strength of all tested muscles were each associated with better physical function. For men and women, increases in muscle strength between 17-32%, 133-223%, and 151-284% may be associated with estimates of MCII in physical function for those with mild, moderate, and severe physical dysfunction, respectively. Greater isometric strength of specific hip and thigh muscle groups may be associated with better self-reported physical function in men and women. In people with mild physical dysfunction, an estimate of MCII in physical function may be associated with attainable increases in strength. However, in patients with more severe dysfunction, greater and perhaps unattainable strength increases may be associated with an estimate of MCII in physical function. Longitudinal studies are required to validate these observations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 206Pb+n resonances for E=600-900 keV: Neutron strength functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horen, D. J.; Harvey, J. A.; Hill, N. W.

    1981-11-01

    Data from high resolution neutron transmission and differential scattering measurements performed on 206Pb have been analyzed for E=600-900 keV. Resonance parameters (i.e., E, l, J, and Γn) have been deduced for many of the 161 resonances observed. Strength functions and potential phase shifts for s-, p-, and d-wave neutrons for En-0-900 keV are compared with optical model calculations. It is found that the phase contributed by the external R function as well as the integrated neutron strength functions can be reproduced for the s and d waves with a well depth of V0=50.4 MeV for the real potential and WD=6.0 MeV for an imaginary surface potential. Somewhat smaller values (V0=48.7 MeV and WD=2.0 MeV) are required to reproduce the p-wave data. These values of the real potential are also found to give the experimentally observed binding energies for the 4s12, 3d32, and 3d52 single particle levels (V0=50.4 MeV), and the 3p12 single particle level (V0=48.7 MeV). Nuclear level densities for s and d waves are found to be well represented by a constant temperature model. However, the model under estimates the number of p-wave resonances. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 206Pb(n), (n,n), E=600-900 keV; measured σT(E), σ(E,θ). 207Pb deduced resonance parameters, Jπ, Γn, neutron strength functions, optical model parameters for l=0,1,2.

  3. Chronic effects of strength training vs. Hydro aerobics on functional and cardiorespiratory ability in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Giovanni S; Novaes, Jefferson S; Vilaça-Alves, José; Silva, Gabriel Costa E; Garrido, Nuno D; Furtado, Hélio; Reis, Victor M

    2014-09-29

    The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics) on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m). Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14), another performed 24 weeks of hydro gymnastics (GH; n = 17) and a control group (CG; n = 7), where the subjects continued with their regular daily activities without involvement in any physical exercise program. Three assessments were performed: before the beginning of the program, 12 weeks after the start of the training program and 24 weeks after the start of the program. To assess the functional ability of the participants, several tests proposed by Jones and Rikli (2002) were performed. To evaluate the cardiorespiratory ability of the participants, a modified treadmill Bruce test was applied. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found between the two training methods in the tests, which primarily demanded muscular strength. Body mass and the body mass index showed significant differences during the three stages of assessment in the GST group (p<0.05). With respect to the values that represent the variables of cardiorespiratory ability, positive and significant changes were observed in the two experimental groups. It was concluded that both exercise programs promoted improvements in some indicators of the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women.

  4. A longitudinal study of muscle strength and function in patients with cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Gale, Nichola; Wasley, David; Roberts, Sioned; Backx, Karianne; Nelson, Annemarie; van Deursen, Robert; Byrne, Anthony

    2018-06-02

    Patients with cancer frequently experience an involuntary loss of weight (in particular loss of muscle mass), defined as cachexia, with profound implications for independence and quality of life. The rate at which such patients' physical performance declines has not been well established. The aim of this study was to determine the change in muscle strength and function over 8 weeks in patients with already established cancer cachexia, to help inform the design and duration of physical activity interventions applicable to this patient group. Patients with thoracic and gastrointestinal cancer and with unintentional weight loss of > 5% in 6 months or BMI < 20 plus 2% weight loss were included. Physical and functional assessments (baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks) included isometric quadriceps and hamstring strength, handgrip, standing balance, 10-m walk time and timed up and go. Fifty patients (32 male), mean ± SD age 65 ± 10 years and BMI 24.9 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 , were recruited. Thoracic cancer patients had lower muscle strength and function (p < 0.05). Despite notable attrition, in patients who completed all assessments (8 thoracic and 12 gastrointestinal), there was little change in performance over 8 weeks (p > 0.05). Baseline variables did not differentiate between completers and non-completers (p > 0.05). More than a third of patients with established cancer cachexia in our study were stable over 8 weeks, suggesting a subgroup who may benefit from targeted interventions of reasonable duration. Better understanding the physical performance parameters which characterise and differentiate these patients has important clinical implications for cancer multidisciplinary team practice.

  5. Rehabilitation of Swallowing and Cough Functions Following Stroke: An Expiratory Muscle Strength Training Trial.

    PubMed

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Davenport, Paul W; Brandimore, Alexandra E; Singletary, Floris F; Troche, Michelle S

    2016-08-01

    To determine the effect of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) on both cough and swallow function in stroke patients. Prospective pre-post intervention trial with 1 participant group. Two outpatient rehabilitation clinics. Adults (N=14) with a history of ischemic stroke in the preceding 3 to 24 months. EMST. The training program was completed at home and consisted of 25 repetitions per day, 5 days per week, for 5 weeks. Baseline and posttraining measures were maximum expiratory pressure, voluntary cough airflows, reflex cough challenge to 200μmol/L of capsaicin, sensory perception of urge to cough, and fluoroscopic swallow evaluation. Repeated measures and 1-way analyses of variance were used to determine significant differences pre- and posttraining. Maximum expiratory pressure increased in all participants by an average of 30cmH2O posttraining. At baseline, all participants demonstrated a blunted reflex cough response to 200μmol/L of capsaicin. After 5 weeks of training, measures of urge to cough and cough effectiveness increased for reflex cough; however, voluntary cough effectiveness did not increase. Swallow function was minimally impaired at baseline, and there were no significant changes in the measures of swallow function posttraining. EMST improves expiratory muscle strength, reflex cough strength, and urge to cough. Voluntary cough and swallow measures were not significantly different posttraining. It may be that stroke patients benefit from the training for upregulation of reflex cough and thus improved airway protection. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pulmonary Function and Muscle Strength: The Chinese Twin Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaocao; Xu, Chunsheng; Wu, Yili; Sun, Jianping; Duan, Haiping; Zhang, Dongfeng; Jiang, Baofa; Pang, Zengchang; Li, Shuxia; Tan, Qihua

    2017-02-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on predictors of decline in daily functioning, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), handgrip, and five-times-sit-to-stand test (FTSST), have not been addressed in the aging Chinese population. We performed classical twin modeling on FEV1, FVC, handgrip, and FTSST in 379 twin pairs (240 MZ and 139 DZ) with median age of 50 years (40-80 years). Data were analyzed by fitting univariate and bivariate twin models to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on these measures of physical function. Heritability was moderate for FEV1, handgrip, and FTSST (55-60%) but insignificant for FVC. Only FVC showed moderate control, with shared environmental factors accounting for about 50% of the total variance. In contrast, all measures of pulmonary function and muscle strength showed modest influences from the unique environment (40-50%). Bivariate analysis showed highly positive genetic correlations between FEV1 and FVC (r G = 1.00), and moderately negative genetic correlations between FTSST and FEV1 (r G = -0.33) and FVC (r G = -0.42). FEV1 and FVC, as well as FEV1 and handgrip, displayed high common environmental correlations (r C = 1.00), and there were moderate correlations between FVC and handgrip (r C = 0.44). FEV1 and FVC showed high unique environmental correlations (r E = 0.76) and low correlations between handgrip and FEV1 (r E = 0.17), FVC (r E = 0.14), and FTSST (r E = -0.13) with positive or negative direction. We conclude that genetic factors contribute significantly to the individual differences in common indicators of daily functioning (FEV1, handgrip, and FTSST). FEV1 and FVC were genetically and environmentally correlated. Pulmonary function and FTSST may share similar sets of genes but in the negative direction. Pulmonary function and muscle strength may have a shared environmental background.

  7. Examination of the low-energy enhancement of the γ -ray strength function of 56Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. D.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Wiedeking, M.; Bernstein, L. A.; Crawford, H. L.; Campbell, C. M.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Salathe, M.; Wiens, A.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bottoni, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Davids, H. M.; Elson, J.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kinnison, J. E.; Kirsch, L.; Larsen, A. C.; Lauritsen, T.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Siem, S.; Voinov, A. V.; Zhu, S.

    2018-02-01

    A model-independent technique was used to determine the γ -ray strength function (γ SF ) of 56Fe down to γ -ray energies less than 1 MeV for the first time with GRETINA using the (p ,p') reaction at 16 MeV. No difference was observed in the energy dependence of the γ SF built on 2+ and 4+ final states, supporting the Brink hypothesis. In addition, angular distribution and polarization measurements were performed. The angular distributions are consistent with dipole radiation. The polarization results show a small bias towards magnetic character in the region of the enhancement.

  8. Examination of the low-energy enhancement of the γ -ray strength function of Fe 56

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, M. D.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Wiedeking, M.; ...

    2018-02-22

    A model-independent technique was used to determine the γ-ray strength function (γSF) of 56Fe down to γ-ray energies less than 1 MeV for the first time with GRETINA using the (p,p') reaction at 16 MeV. No difference was observed in the energy dependence of the γSF built on 2 + and 4 + final states, supporting the Brink hypothesis. In addition, angular distribution and polarization measurements were performed. The angular distributions are consistent with dipole radiation. In conclusion, the polarization results show a small bias towards magnetic character in the region of the enhancement.

  9. Examination of the low-energy enhancement of the γ -ray strength function of Fe 56

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M. D.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Wiedeking, M.

    A model-independent technique was used to determine the γ-ray strength function (γSF) of 56Fe down to γ-ray energies less than 1 MeV for the first time with GRETINA using the (p,p') reaction at 16 MeV. No difference was observed in the energy dependence of the γSF built on 2 + and 4 + final states, supporting the Brink hypothesis. In addition, angular distribution and polarization measurements were performed. The angular distributions are consistent with dipole radiation. In conclusion, the polarization results show a small bias towards magnetic character in the region of the enhancement.

  10. Study of photon strength functions via (γ→, γ', γ″) reactions at the γ3-setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaak, Johann; Savran, Deniz; Beck, Tobias; Gayer, Udo; Krishichayan; Löher, Bastian; Pietralla, Norbert; Scheck, Marcus; Tornow, Werner; Werner, Volker; Zilges, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    One of the basic ingredients for the modelling of the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements are so-called photon strength functions and the assumption of the Brink-Axel hypothesis. This hypothesis has been studied for many years by numerous experiments using different and complementary reactions. The present manuscript aims to introduce a model-independent approach to study photon strength functions via γ-γ coincidence spectroscopy of photoexcited states in 128Te. The experimental results provide evidence that the photon strength function extracted from photoabsorption cross sections is not in an overall agreement with the one determined from direct transitions to low-lying excited states.

  11. Effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on facial muscle strength and oral function in stroke patients with facial palsy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong-Bae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on facial muscle strength and oral function in stroke patients with facial palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Nine subjects received the electrical stimulation and traditional dysphagia therapy. Electrical stimulation was applied to stimulate each subject’s facial muscles 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks. [Results] Subjects showed significant improvement in cheek and lip strength and oral function after the intervention. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that electrical stimulation improves facial muscle strength and oral function in stroke patients with dysphagia. PMID:27799689

  12. The Effects of Music Intervention on Functional Connectivity Strength of the Brain in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mi; He, Hui; Duan, Mingjun; Chen, Xi; Chang, Xin; Lai, Yongxiu; Li, Jianfu; Liu, Tiejun; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often associated with behavior abnormality in the cognitive and affective domain. Music intervention is used as a complementary treatment for improving symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. However, the neurophysiological correlates of these remissions remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of music intervention in neural circuits through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in schizophrenic subjects. Under the standard care, patients were randomly assigned to music and non-music interventions (MTSZ, UMTSZ) for 1 month. Resting-state fMRI were acquired over three time points (baseline, 1 month, and 6 months later) in patients and analyzed using functional connectivity strength (FCS) and seed-based functional connection (FC) approaches. At baseline, compared with healthy controls, decreased FCS in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was observed in patients. However, after music intervention, the functional circuitry of the right MTG, which was related with the function of emotion and sensorimotor, was improved in MTSZ. Furthermore, the FC increments were significantly correlated with the improvement of symptoms, while vanishing 6 months later. Together, these findings provided evidence that music intervention might positively modulate the functional connectivity of MTG in patients with schizophrenia; such changes might be associated with the observed therapeutic effects of music intervention on neurocognitive function. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-OPC-14005339.

  13. Training-specific functional, neural, and hypertrophic adaptations to explosive- vs. sustained-contraction strength training.

    PubMed

    Balshaw, Thomas G; Massey, Garry J; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Tillin, Neale A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Training specificity is considered important for strength training, although the functional and underpinning physiological adaptations to different types of training, including brief explosive contractions, are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of 12 wk of explosive-contraction (ECT, n = 13) vs. sustained-contraction (SCT, n = 16) strength training vs. control (n = 14) on the functional, neural, hypertrophic, and intrinsic contractile characteristics of healthy young men. Training involved 40 isometric knee extension repetitions (3 times/wk): contracting as fast and hard as possible for ∼1 s (ECT) or gradually increasing to 75% of maximum voluntary torque (MVT) before holding for 3 s (SCT). Torque and electromyography during maximum and explosive contractions, torque during evoked octet contractions, and total quadriceps muscle volume (QUADSVOL) were quantified pre and post training. MVT increased more after SCT than ECT [23 vs. 17%; effect size (ES) = 0.69], with similar increases in neural drive, but greater QUADSVOL changes after SCT (8.1 vs. 2.6%; ES = 0.74). ECT improved explosive torque at all time points (17-34%; 0.54 ≤ ES ≤ 0.76) because of increased neural drive (17-28%), whereas only late-phase explosive torque (150 ms, 12%; ES = 1.48) and corresponding neural drive (18%) increased after SCT. Changes in evoked torque indicated slowing of the contractile properties of the muscle-tendon unit after both training interventions. These results showed training-specific functional changes that appeared to be due to distinct neural and hypertrophic adaptations. ECT produced a wider range of functional adaptations than SCT, and given the lesser demands of ECT, this type of training provides a highly efficient means of increasing function. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Progressive resistance strength training for improving physical function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chiung-ju; Latham, Nancy K

    2014-01-01

    Background Muscle weakness in old age is associated with physical function decline. Progressive resistance strength training (PRT) exercises are designed to increase strength. Objectives To assess the effects of PRT on older people and identify adverse events. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (to March 2007), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to May 01, 2008), EMBASE (1980 to February 06 2007), CINAHL (1982 to July 01 2007) and two other electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles, reviewed conference abstracts and contacted authors. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials reporting physical outcomes of PRT for older people were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were pooled where appropriate. Main results One hundred and twenty one trials with 6700 participants were included. In most trials, PRT was performed two to three times per week and at a high intensity. PRT resulted in a small but significant improvement in physical ability (33 trials, 2172 participants; SMD 0.14, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.22). Functional limitation measures also showed improvements: e.g. there was a modest improvement in gait speed (24 trials, 1179 participants, MD 0.08 m/s, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.12); and a moderate to large effect for getting out of a chair (11 trials, 384 participants, SMD -0.94, 95% CI -1.49 to -0.38). PRT had a large positive effect on muscle strength (73 trials, 3059 participants, SMD 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.00). Participants with osteoarthritis reported a reduction in pain following PRT (6 trials, 503 participants, SMD -0.30, 95% CI -0.48 to -0.13). There was no evidence from 10 other trials (587 participants) that PRT had an effect on bodily pain. Adverse events were poorly recorded but adverse events related to

  15. Relation between isokinetic muscle strength and functional capacity in recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Y; Aydin, T; Sekir, U; Cetin, C; Ors, F; Alp Kalyon, T

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on pain and functional test scores of recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae (CMP) and to examine the correlation between isokinetic parameters and functional tests or pain score. The functional ability of 30 recreational athletes with unilateral CMP was evaluated using six different tests. Pain scores were assessed during daily activities before and after the treatment protocol. Isokinetic exercise sessions were carried out at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s (25-90 degrees range of flexion) and 180 degrees /s (full range). These sessions were repeated three times a week for six weeks. Quadriceps and hamstring peak torque, total work, and endurance ratios had improved significantly after the treatment, as did the functional parameters and pain scores. There was a poor correlation between the extensor endurance ratio and one leg standing test. A moderate correlation between the visual analogue scale and the extensor endurance ratio or flexion endurance ratio was also found. The isokinetic exercise programme used in this study had a positive effect on muscle strength, pain score, and functional ability of knees with CMP. The improvement in the functional capacity did not correlate with the isokinetic parameters.

  16. Relation between isokinetic muscle strength and functional capacity in recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Y; Aydin, T; Sekir, U; Cetin, C; Ors, F; Alp, K

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on pain and functional test scores of recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae (CMP) and to examine the correlation between isokinetic parameters and functional tests or pain score. Methods: The functional ability of 30 recreational athletes with unilateral CMP was evaluated using six different tests. Pain scores were assessed during daily activities before and after the treatment protocol. Isokinetic exercise sessions were carried out at angular velocities of 60°/s (25–90° range of flexion) and 180°/s (full range). These sessions were repeated three times a week for six weeks. Results: Quadriceps and hamstring peak torque, total work, and endurance ratios had improved significantly after the treatment, as did the functional parameters and pain scores. There was a poor correlation between the extensor endurance ratio and one leg standing test. A moderate correlation between the visual analogue scale and the extensor endurance ratio or flexion endurance ratio was also found. Conclusions: The isokinetic exercise programme used in this study had a positive effect on muscle strength, pain score, and functional ability of knees with CMP. The improvement in the functional capacity did not correlate with the isokinetic parameters. PMID:14665581

  17. Assessment of neuromuscular function after different strength training protocols using tensiomyography.

    PubMed

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Á; Harms, Nico; Raeder, Christian; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze tensiomyography (TMG) sensitivity to changes in muscle force and neuromuscular function of the muscle rectus femoris (RF) using TMG muscle properties after 5 different lower-limb strength training protocols (multiple sets; DS = drop sets; eccentric overload; FW = flywheel; PL = plyometrics). After baseline measurements, 14 male strength trained athletes completed 1 squat training protocol per week over a 5-week period in a randomized controlled order. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), TMG measurements of maximal radial displacement of the muscle belly (Dm), contraction time between 10 and 90% of Dm (Tc), and mean muscle contraction velocities from the beginning until 10% (V10) and 90% of Dm (V90) were analyzed up to 0.5 (post-train), 24 (post-24), and 48 hours (post-48) after the training interventions. Significant analysis of variance main effects for measurement points were found for all TMG contractile properties and MVIC (p < 0.01). Dm and V10 post-train values were significantly lower after protocols DS and FW compared with protocol PL (p = 0.032 and 0.012, respectively). Dm, V10, and V90 decrements correlated significantly to the decreases in MVIC (r = 0.64-0.67, p ≤ 0.05). Some TMG muscle properties are sensitive to changes in muscle force, and different lower-limb strength training protocols lead to changes in neuromuscular function of RF. In addition, those protocols involving high and eccentric load and a high total time under tension may induce higher changes in TMG muscle properties.

  18. Functional mobility and balance in community-dwelling elderly submitted to multisensory versus strength exercises

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Fábio Marcon; Riberto, Marcelo; Gatz, Lucila Silveira; Ribeiro, Carla Paschoal Corsi; Lopes, José Augusto Fernandes; Santarém, José Maria; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2010-01-01

    It is well documented that aging impairs balance and functional mobility. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of multisensory versus strength exercises on these parameters. We performed a simple blinded randomized controlled trial with 46 community-dwelling elderly allocated to strength ([GST], N = 23, 70.2-years-old ± 4.8 years) or multisensory ([GMS], N = 23, 68.8-years-old ± 5.9 years) exercises twice a week for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated by blinded raters using the timed ‘up and go’ test (TUG), the Guralnik test battery, and a force platform. By the end of the treatment, the GMS group showed a significant improvement in TUG (9.1 ± 1.9 seconds (s) to 8.0 ± 1.0 s, P = 0.002); Guralnik test battery (10.6 ± 1.2 to 11.3 ± 0.8 P = 0.009); lateromedial (6.1 ± 11.7 cm to 3.1 ± 1.6 cm, P = 0.02) and anteroposterior displacement (4.7 ± 4.2 cm to 3.4 ± 1.0 cm, P = 0.03), which were not observed in the GST group. These results reproduce previous findings in the literature and mean that the stimulus to sensibility results in better achievements for the control of balance and dynamic activities. Multisensory exercises were shown to be more efficacious than strength exercises to improve functional mobility. PMID:20711437

  19. Monopole transition strength function of 12C in a three-α model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Souichi

    2016-12-01

    The energy-level structure of the 12C nucleus at a few MeV above the three-α (3 α ) threshold is still unsatisfactorily known. For instance, most microscopic calculations predicted that there exist one 0+ state in this energy region besides the well-known Hoyle state, whereas some experimental and theoretical studies show the existence of two 0+ states. In this paper, I will take a 3 α -boson model for bound and continuum states in 12C and study a transition process from the 12C(01+) ground state to 3 α 0+ continuum states by the electric monopole (E 0 ) operator. The strength distribution of the process will be calculated as a function of 3 α energy using the Faddeev three-body theory. The Hamiltonian for the 3 α system consists of two- and three-α potentials, and some three-α potentials with different range parameters will be examined. Results of the strength function show a double-peaked bump at the low-energy region, which can be considered as two 0+ states. The peak at higher energy may originate from a 3 α resonant state. However, it is unlikely that the peak at the lower energy is related to a resonant state, which suggests that it may be due to a so-called "ghost anomaly." Distributions of decaying particles are also calculated.

  20. Improved Strength and Toughness of Carbon Woven Fabric Composites with Functionalized MWCNTs

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Eslam; Kandil, Usama; Reda Taha, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examines the role of carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs) in the on- and off-axis flexure and the shear responses of thin carbon woven fabric composite plates. The chemically functionalized COOH-MWCNTs were used to fabricate epoxy nanocomposites and, subsequently, carbon woven fabric plates to be tested on flexure and shear. In addition to the neat epoxy, three loadings of COOH-MWCNTs were examined: 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 1.5 wt% of epoxy. While no significant statistical difference in the flexure response of the on-axis specimens was observed, significant increases in the flexure strength, modulus and toughness of the off-axis specimens were observed. The average increase in flexure strength and flexure modulus with the addition of 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs improved by 28% and 19%, respectively. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate fiber domination in on-axis flexure behavior and matrix domination in off-axis flexure behavior. Furthermore, the 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs increased the toughness of carbon woven composites tested on shear by 33%. Microstructural investigation using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) proves the existence of chemical bonds between the COOH-MWCNTs and the epoxy matrix. PMID:28788698

  1. Quadriceps Strength Asymmetry Following ACL Reconstruction Alters Knee Joint Biomechanics and Functional Performance at Time of Return to Activity

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri-Smith, RM; Lepley, LK

    2016-01-01

    Background Quadriceps strength deficits are observed clinically following anterior cruciate injury and reconstruction and are often not overcome despite rehabilitation. Given that quadriceps strength may be important for achieving symmetrical joint biomechanics and promoting long-term joint health, determining the magnitude of strength deficits that lead to altered mechanics is critical. Purpose To determine if the magnitude of quadriceps strength asymmetry alters knee and hip biomechanical symmetry, as well as functional performance and self-reported function. Study Design Cross-Sectional study. Methods Seventy-three patients were tested at the time they were cleared for return to activity following ACL reconstruction. Quadriceps strength and activation, scores on the International Knee Documentation Committee form, the hop for distance test, and sagittal plane lower extremity biomechanics were recorded while patients completed a single-legged hop. Results Patients with high and moderate quadriceps strength symmetry had larger central activation ratios as well as greater limb symmetry indices on the hop for distance compared to patients with low quadriceps strength symmetry (P<0.05). Similarly, knee flexion angle and external moment symmetry was higher in the patients with high and moderate quadriceps symmetry compared to those with low symmetry (P<0.05). Quadriceps strength was found to be associated with sagittal plane knee angle and moment symmetry (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with low quadriceps strength displayed greater movement asymmetries at the knee in the sagittal plane. Quadriceps strength was related to movement asymmetries and functional performance. Rehabilitation following ACL reconstruction needs to focus on maximizing quadriceps strength, which likely will lead to more symmetrical knee biomechanics. PMID:25883169

  2. Large-scale deformed QRPA calculations of the gamma-ray strength function based on a Gogny force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, M.; Goriely, S.; Hilaire, S.; Péru, S.; Minato, F.

    2016-01-01

    The dipole excitations of nuclei play an important role in nuclear astrophysics processes in connection with the photoabsorption and the radiative neutron capture that take place in stellar environment. We present here the results of a large-scale axially-symmetric deformed QRPA calculation of the γ-ray strength function based on the finite-range Gogny force. The newly determined γ-ray strength is compared with experimental photoabsorption data for spherical as well as deformed nuclei. Predictions of γ-ray strength functions and Maxwellian-averaged neutron capture rates for Sn isotopes are also discussed.

  3. Strength of knee flexors of the paretic limb as an important determinant of functional status in post-stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kostka, Joanna; Czernicki, Jan; Pruszyńska, Magdalena; Miller, Elżbieta

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the multi-modal exercise program (MMEP) in patients after stroke, and to identify muscles that are the best predictors of functional performance and changes in functional status in a 3-week rehabilitation program. Thirty-one post-stroke patients (60.6±12.7 years) participating in a 3-week MMEP took part in the study. Measurements of extensor and flexor strength of the knee (F ext , F flex ) were done. Functional performance was measured using Timed Up & Go test (TUG), 6-Minute Walk Test (6-MWT) and Tinetti Test. The rehabilitation program improved all the results of functional tests, as well as the values of strength in the patients. Both baseline and post-rehabilitation functional status was associated with knee flexor and extensor muscle strength of paretic but not of non-paretic limbs. At baseline examination muscle strength difference between both F flex kg -1 and F ext kg -1 had an influence on functional status. After rehabilitation the effect of muscle strength difference on functional status was not evident for F ext kg -1 and, interestingly, even more prominent for F flex kg -1 . MMEP can effectively increase muscle strength and functional capacity in post-stroke patients. Knee flexor muscle strength of the paretic limb and the knee flexor difference between the limbs is the best predictor of functional performance in stroke survivors. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Is exercise used as medicine? Association of meeting strength training guidelines and functional limitations among older US adults.

    PubMed

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Rovniak, Liza S; Lehman, Erik B; Candotti, Carolina; Ballentine, Noel H

    2014-09-01

    To determine the association between meeting strength training guidelines (≥2 times per week) and the presence of functional limitations among older adults. This cross-sectional study used data from older adult participants (N=6763) of the National Health Interview Survey conducted in 2011 in the United States. Overall, 16.1% of older adults reported meeting strength training guidelines. For each of nine functional limitations, those with the limitation were less likely to meet strength training recommendations than those without the limitation. For example, 20.0% of those who reported no difficulty walking one-quarter mile met strength training guidelines, versus only 10.1% of those who reported difficulty (p<.001). In sum, 21.7% of those with no limitations (33.7% of sample) met strength training guidelines, versus only 15.9% of those reporting 1-4 limitations (38.5% of sample) and 9.8% of those reporting 5-9 limitations (27.8% of sample) (p<.001). Strength training is uncommon among older adults and even less common among those who need it the most. The potential for strength training to improve the public's health is therefore substantial, as those who have the most to gain from strength training participate the least. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microfluidic perfusion culture chip providing different strengths of shear stress for analysis of vascular endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Koji; Munehira, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Hideki; Satoh, Taku; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2014-09-01

    We developed a microfluidic perfusion cell culture chip that provides three different shear stress strengths and a large cell culture area for the analysis of vascular endothelial functions. The microfluidic network was composed of shallow flow-control channels of three different depths and deep cell culture channels. The flow-control channels with high fluidic resistances created shear stress strengths ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 dyn/cm(2) in the cell culture channels. The large surface area of the culture channels enabled cultivation of a large number (approximately 6.0 × 10(5)) of cells. We cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and evaluated the changes in cellular morphology and gene expression in response to applied shear stress. The HUVECs were aligned in the direction of flow when exposed to a shear stress of 10.0 dyn/cm(2). Compared with conditions of no shear stress, endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression increased by 50% and thrombomodulin mRNA expression increased by 8-fold under a shear stress of 9.5 dyn/cm(2). Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling of the interaction between osteoblasts and biocompatible substrates as a function of adhesion strength.

    PubMed

    Portan, D V; Deligianni, D D; Deligianni, K; Kroustalli, A A; Tyllianakis, M; Papanicolaou, G C

    2018-03-01

    A goal of current implantology research is to design devices that induce controlled, guided, and rapid healing. Nanoscale structured substrates [e.g., titania nanotubes (TNTs) or carbon nanotubes (CNTs)] dramatically improve the functions of conventional biomaterials. The present investigation evaluated the behavior of osteoblasts cells cultured on smooth and nanostructured substrates, by measuring osteoblasts specific biomarkers [alkaline phosphatase (AP) and total protein] and cells adhesion strength to substrates, followed by semi-empirical modeling to predict the experimental results. Findings were in total agreement with the current state of the art. The proliferation, as well as the AP and total protein levels were higher on the nanostructure phases (TNTs, CNTs) comparing to the smooth ones (plastic and pure titanium). Cells adhesion strength measured was found higher on the nanostructured materials. This coincided with a higher value of proteins which are directly implicated in the process of adherence. Results were accurately predicted through the Viscoelastic Hybrid Interphase Model. A gradual adherence of bone cells to implants using multilayered biomaterials that involve biodegradable polymeric films and a nanoscale modification of titanium surface is suggested to improve performance through an interphase-mediated osteointegration of orthopedic implants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 621-628, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pseudospectral calculation of helium wave functions, expectation values, and oscillator strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Paul E.; Chernoff, David F.

    2011-10-01

    We show that the pseudospectral method is a powerful tool for finding precise solutions of Schrödinger’s equation for two-electron atoms with general angular momentum. Realizing the method’s full promise for atomic calculations requires special handling of singularities due to two-particle Coulomb interactions. We give a prescription for choosing coordinates and subdomains whose efficacy we illustrate by solving several challenging problems. One test centers on the determination of the nonrelativistic electric dipole oscillator strength for the helium 11S→21P transition. The result achieved, 0.27616499(27), is comparable to the best in the literature. The formally equivalent length, velocity, and acceleration expressions for the oscillator strength all yield roughly the same accuracy. We also calculate a diverse set of helium ground-state expectation values, reaching near state-of-the-art accuracy without the necessity of implementing any special-purpose numerics. These successes imply that general matrix elements are directly and reliably calculable with pseudospectral methods. A striking result is that all the relevant quantities tested in this paper—energy eigenvalues, S-state expectation values and a bound-bound dipole transition between the lowest energy S and P states—converge exponentially with increasing resolution and at roughly the same rate. Each individual calculation samples and weights the configuration space wave function uniquely but all behave in a qualitatively similar manner. These results suggest that the method has great promise for similarly accurate treatment of few-particle systems.

  8. Associations between aging-related changes in grip strength and cognitive function in older adults: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zammit, Andrea R; Robitaille, Annie; Piccinin, Andrea; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Hofer, Scott M

    2018-03-08

    Grip strength and cognitive function reflect upper body muscle strength and mental capacities. Cross-sectional research has suggested that in old age these two processes are moderately to highly associated, and that an underlying common cause drives this association. Our aim was to synthesize and evaluate longitudinal research addressing whether changes in grip strength are associated with changes in cognitive function in healthy older adults. We systematically reviewed English-language research investigating the longitudinal association between repeated measures of grip strength and of cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults to evaluate the extent to which the two indices decline concurrently. We used four search engines: Embase, PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Of 459 unique citations, 6 met our full criteria: 4 studies reported a longitudinal association between rates of change in grip strength and cognitive function in older adults, 2 of which reported the magnitudes of these associations as ranging from low to moderate; 2 studies reported significant cross-sectional but not longitudinal associations among rates of change. All studies concluded that cognitive function and grip strength declined, on average, with increasing age, although with little to no evidence for longitudinal associations among rates of change. Future research is urged to expand the study of physical and cognitive associations in old age using a within-person and multi-study integrative approach to evaluate the reliability of longitudinal results with greater emphasis on the magnitude of this association.

  9. Gamma Strength Functions and Level Densities from 300 MeV Proton Scatttering at 0°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Neumann-Cosel, Peter; Bassauer, Sergej; Martin, Dirk

    The gamma strength function (GSF) as well as total level densities (LDs) in 208Pb and 96Mo were extracted from high-resolution forward angle inelastic proton scattering data taken at RCNP, Osaka, Japan, and compared to experimental results obtained with the Oslo method in order to test the validity of the Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance. The case of 208Pb is inconclusive because of strong fluctuations of the GSF due to the small level density in a doubly closed-shell nucleus. In 96Mo the data are consistent with the BA hypothesis. The good agreement of LDs provides an independent confirmation of the approach underlying the decomposition of GSF and LDs in Oslo-type experiments.

  10. Body composition and functional assessment of nutritional status in adults: a narrative review of imaging, impedance, strength and functional techniques.

    PubMed

    Smith, S; Madden, A M

    2016-12-01

    The accurate and valid assessment of body composition is essential for the diagnostic evaluation of nutritional status, identifying relevant outcome measures, and determining the effectiveness of current and future nutritional interventions. Developments in technology and our understanding of the influences of body composition on risk and outcome will provide practitioners with new opportunities to enhance current practice and to lead future improvements in practice. This is the second of a two-part narrative review that aims to critically evaluate body composition methodology in diverse adult populations, with a primary focus on its use in the assessment and monitoring of under-nutrition. Part one focused on anthropometric variables [Madden and Smith (2016) J Hum Nutr Diet 29: 7-25] and part two focuses on the use of imaging techniques, bioelectrical impedance analysis, markers of muscle strength and functional status, with particular reference to developments relevant to practice. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV-Visible), Fukui function, antimicrobial and molecular docking study of (E)-1-(3-bromobenzylidene)semicarbazide by DFT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, M.; Raj Muhamed, R.; Muthu, S.; Suresh, M.; Muthu, K.

    2017-02-01

    The title compound, (E)-1-(3-bromobenzylidene)semicarbazide (3BSC) was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectral analysis. The optimized molecular geometry, the vibrational wavenumbers, the infrared intensities and the Raman scattering activities were calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer within the molecule. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). The hyperpolarizability calculation reveals the present material has a reasonably good propensity for nonlinear optical activity. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and Fukui functions were also performed. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the 3BSC at different temperatures have been calculated. The biological applications of 3BSC have been screened for its antimicrobial activity and found to exhibit antifungal and antibacterial effects. In addition, the Molecular docking was also performed for the different receptors.

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV-Visible), NLO, NBO, HOMO-LUMO, Fukui function and molecular docking study of (E)-1-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)semicarbazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, M.; Raj Muhamed, R.; Muthu, S.; Suresh, M.

    2017-08-01

    The title compound, (E)-1-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)semicarbazide (15BHS) was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectral analysis. The optimized molecular geometry, the vibrational wavenumbers, the infrared intensities and the Raman scattering activities were calculated by using density functional theory(DFT) B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out by VEDA program. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer within the molecule. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). The first order hyperpolarizability, Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and Fukui functions were also performed. To study the biological activity of the investigation molecule, molecular docking was done to identify the hydrogen bond lengths and binding energy with different antifungal proteins. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the 15BHS at different temperatures have been calculated.

  13. Strength, functionality and beauty of university buildings in earthquake-prone countries

    PubMed Central

    WADA, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Strength, functionality and beauty are the three qualities identifying well-designed architecture. For buildings in earthquake-prone countries such as Japan, emphasis on seismic safety frequently leads to the sacrifice of functionality and beauty. Therefore, it is important to develop new structural technologies that can ensure the seismic performance of a building without hampering the pursuit of functionality and beauty. The moment-resisting frame structures widely used for buildings in Japan are likely to experience weak-story collapse. Pin-supported walls, which can effectively enhance the structural story-by-story integrity of a building, were introduced to prevent such an unfavorable failure pattern in the seismic retrofit of an eleven-story building on a university campus in Tokyo, while also greatly aesthetically enhancing the façade of the building. The slight damage observed and monitoring records of the retrofitted building during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan demonstrate that the pin-supported walls worked as intended, protecting the building and guaranteeing the safety of its occupants during the earthquake. PMID:29434079

  14. Sensory and motor peripheral nerve function and lower-extremity quadriceps strength: the health, aging and body composition study.

    PubMed

    Strotmeyer, Elsa S; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Schwartz, Ann V; Resnick, Helaine E; Goodpaster, Bret H; Faulkner, Kimberly A; Shorr, Ronald I; Vinik, Aaron I; Harris, Tamara B; Newman, Anne B

    2009-11-01

    To determine whether sensory and motor nerve function is associated cross-sectionally with quadriceps or ankle dorsiflexion strength in an older community-based population. Cross-sectional analyses within a longitudinal cohort study. Two U.S. clinical sites. Two thousand fifty-nine Health, Aging and Body Composition Study (Health ABC) participants (49.5% male, 36.7% black, aged 73-82) in 2000/01. Quadriceps and ankle strength were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in the legs and feet was assessed using 10-g and 1.4-g monofilaments, vibration threshold, and peroneal motor nerve conduction amplitude and velocity. Monofilament insensitivity, poorest vibration threshold quartile (>60 mu), and poorest motor nerve conduction amplitude quartile (<1.7 mV) were associated with 11%, 7%, and 8% lower quadriceps strength (all P<.01), respectively, than in the best peripheral nerve function categories in adjusted linear regression models. Monofilament insensitivity and lowest amplitude quartile were both associated with 17% lower ankle strength (P<.01). Multivariate analyses were adjusted for demographic characteristics, diabetes mellitus, body composition, lifestyle factors, and chronic health conditions and included all peripheral nerve measures in the same model. Monofilament insensitivity (beta=-7.19), vibration threshold (beta=-0.097), and motor nerve conduction amplitude (beta=2.01) each contributed independently to lower quadriceps strength (all P<.01). Monofilament insensitivity (beta=-5.29) and amplitude (beta=1.17) each contributed independently to lower ankle strength (all P<.01). Neither diabetes mellitus status nor lean mass explained the associations between peripheral nerve function and strength. Reduced sensory and motor peripheral nerve function is related to poorer lower extremity strength in older adults, suggesting a mechanism for the relationship with lower extremity disability.

  15. Experimental tobacco marketplace: substitutability of e-cigarette liquid for cigarettes as a function of nicotine strength.

    PubMed

    Pope, Derek A; Poe, Lindsey; Stein, Jeffrey S; Kaplan, Brent A; Heckman, Bryan W; Epstein, Leonard H; Bickel, Warren K

    2018-04-18

    The experimental tobacco marketplace (ETM) provides a method to estimate, prior to implementation, the effects of new products or policies on purchasing across various products in a complex tobacco marketplace. We used the ETM to examine the relationship between nicotine strength and substitutability of alternative products for cigarettes to contribute to the literature on regulation of e-liquid nicotine strength. The present study contained four sampling and four ETM purchasing sessions. During sampling sessions, participants were provided 1 of 4 e-liquid strengths (randomised) to sample for 2 days followed by an ETM purchasing session. The nicotine strength sampled in the 2 days prior to an ETM session was the same strength available for purchase in the next ETM. Each participant sampled and could purchase 0 mg/mL, 6 mg/mL, 12 mg/mL and 24 mg/mL e-liquid, among other products, during the study. Cigarette demand was unaltered across e-liquid strength. E-liquid was the only product to substitute for cigarettes across more than one e-liquid strength. Substitutability increased as a function of e-liquid strength, with the 24 mg/mL displaying the greatest substitutability of all products. The present study found that e-liquid substitutability increased with nicotine strength, at least up to 24 mg/mL e-liquid. However, the effects of e-liquid nicotine strength on cigarette purchasing were marginal and total nicotine purchased increased as e-liquid nicotine strength increased. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Hand grip strength and dexterity function in children aged 6-12 years: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Omar, Mohammed T A; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Zafar, Hamayun; Al Baker, Shaheerah

    Cross-sectional and clinical measurement. Assessment of hand function considers an essential part in clinical practice. To develop normative values of hand grip strength and dexterity function for 6-12-year-old children in Saudi Arabia. Grip strength and dexterity function was measured in 525 children using Grip Track hand dynamometer (JTECH Medical, Midvale, UT, USA) and 9-hole pegboard test respectively. The grip strength and dexterity function was improved as age progressed regardless of gender. Across all age groups, the hand grip strength of boys was significantly higher than girls for dominant hand (31.75 ± 10.33 vs 28.24 ± 9.35; P < .001) and nondominant hand (31.01 ± 10.27 vs 27.27 ± 9.30; P < .001). The girls performed slightly faster than boys for dominant hand (19.70 vs 20.68; P < .05) and nondominant hand (21.79 vs 23.46; P < .05). In general, girls completed a 9-HPT faster than boys in the 2 of 7 age groups: 11 years (9-HPT scores = 2.10 seconds; P < .01) and 12 years (9-HPT scores = 1.93 seconds; P < .01). The overall patterns of hand grip strength and dexterity function observed in the present study are similar to the previous studies that established acceleration of grip strength with advanced age, and faster performance scores in older children than younger children in both genders. Norms of hand grip strength and dexterity enable therapists to identify some developmental characteristics of hand function among Saudi children, determine the presence of impairment, and compare scores from children in different clinical settings. Not applicable. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyung-Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Materials and Methods Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Results Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). Conclusion There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait. PMID:26632404

  18. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyung Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok; Park, Moon Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait.

  19. Insulator function and topological domain border strength scale with architectural protein occupancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chromosome conformation capture studies suggest that eukaryotic genomes are organized into structures called topologically associating domains. The borders of these domains are highly enriched for architectural proteins with characterized roles in insulator function. However, a majority of architectural protein binding sites localize within topological domains, suggesting sites associated with domain borders represent a functionally different subclass of these regulatory elements. How topologically associating domains are established and what differentiates border-associated from non-border architectural protein binding sites remain unanswered questions. Results By mapping the genome-wide target sites for several Drosophila architectural proteins, including previously uncharacterized profiles for TFIIIC and SMC-containing condensin complexes, we uncover an extensive pattern of colocalization in which architectural proteins establish dense clusters at the borders of topological domains. Reporter-based enhancer-blocking insulator activity as well as endogenous domain border strength scale with the occupancy level of architectural protein binding sites, suggesting co-binding by architectural proteins underlies the functional potential of these loci. Analyses in mouse and human stem cells suggest that clustering of architectural proteins is a general feature of genome organization, and conserved architectural protein binding sites may underlie the tissue-invariant nature of topologically associating domains observed in mammals. Conclusions We identify a spectrum of architectural protein occupancy that scales with the topological structure of chromosomes and the regulatory potential of these elements. Whereas high occupancy architectural protein binding sites associate with robust partitioning of topologically associating domains and robust insulator function, low occupancy sites appear reserved for gene-specific regulation within topological domains. PMID

  20. Finite-Temperature Relativistic Time-Blocking Approximation for Nuclear Strength Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, Herlik; Litvinova, Elena

    2017-09-01

    This work presents an extension of the relativistic nuclear field theory (RNFT) developed throughout the last decade as an approach to the nuclear many-body problem, based on QHD meson-nucleon Lagrangian and relativistic field theory. The unique feature of RNFT is a consistent connection of the high-energy scale of heavy mesons, the medium-energy range of pion, and the low-energy domain of emergent collective vibrations (phonons). RNFT has demonstrated a very good performance in various nuclear structure calculations across the nuclear chart and, in particular, provides a consistent input for description of the two phases of r-process nucleosynthesis: neutron capture and beta decay. Further inclusion of finite temperature effects presented here allows for an extension of the method to highly excited compound nuclei. The covariant response theory in the relativistic time-blocking approximation (RTBA) is generalized for thermal effects, adopting the Matsubara Green's function formalism to the RNFT framework. The finite-temperature RTBA is implemented numerically to calculate multipole strength functions in medium-mass and heavy nuclei. The obtained results will be discussed in comparison to available experimental data and in the context of possible consequences for astrophysics.

  1. Relationship between lower limb muscle strength, self-reported pain and function, and frontal plane gait kinematics in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Kyoon; Kobsar, Dylan; Ferber, Reed

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between muscle strength, gait biomechanics, and self-reported physical function and pain for patients with knee osteoarthritis is not well known. The objective of this study was to investigate these relationships in this population. Twenty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis and 24 healthy controls were recruited. Self-reported pain and function, lower-limb maximum isometric force, and frontal plane gait kinematics during treadmill walking were collected on all patients. Between-group differences were assessed for 1) muscle strength and 2) gait biomechanics. Linear regressions were computed within the knee osteoarthritis group to examine the effect of muscle strength on 1) self-reported pain and function, and 2) gait kinematics. Patients with knee osteoarthritis exhibited reduced hip external rotator, knee extensor, and ankle inversion muscle force output compared with healthy controls, as well as increased peak knee adduction angles (effect size=0.770; p=0.013). Hip abductor strength was a significant predictor of function, but not after controlling for covariates. Ankle inversion, hip abduction, and knee flexion strength were significant predictors of peak pelvic drop angle after controlling for covariates (34.4% unique variance explained). Patients with knee osteoarthritis exhibit deficits in muscle strength and while they play an important role in the self-reported function of patients with knee osteoarthritis, the effect of covariates such as sex, age, mass, and height was more important in this relationship. Similar relationships were observed from gait variables, except for peak pelvic drop, where hip, knee, and ankle strength remained important predictors of this variable after controlling for covariates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Return to sport: Does excellent 6-month strength and function following ACL reconstruction predict midterm outcomes?

    PubMed

    Sousa, Paul L; Krych, Aaron J; Cates, Robert A; Levy, Bruce A; Stuart, Michael J; Dahm, Diane L

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with excellent 6-month functional testing after ACL reconstruction had (1) higher risk of subsequent ACL tears, (2) superior knee function, and (3) increased activity levels compared to those with delayed clearance for return to sports at midterm follow-up. A total of 223 patients underwent primary ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon and had functional and isokinetic testing performed 6 months post-operatively between 1998 and 2005. Of the 223 patients, 52 (23 %) made the excellent group and were allowed return to sport at 6 months, and the remaining 171 (77 %) constituted the delayed group. Rate of ACL graft tear and native contralateral ACL tear was compared between groups. In addition, IKDC and Tegner scores were compared at a mean 4-year follow-up. The graft rupture rate was similar in the excellent group (3.8 %, n = 2) compared to the delayed group (4.7 %, n = 8; p = 0.30). However, there was a higher rate of contralateral ACL tear in the excellent group (15.4 %, n = 8 vs. 5.3 %, n = 9; p = 0.003). The excellent 6-month group had superior IKDC scores (94.3 ± 6.4 vs. 90.9 ± 9.7; p = 0.04) and Tegner scores (6.6 ± 1.8 vs. 5.7 ± 1.6; p = 0.01). Patients with an excellent performance on their isokinetic strength and functional testing at 6 months after ACL reconstruction have superior knee function and higher activity levels at midterm follow-up. However, these patients appear to be at greater risk of contralateral ACL injury, which may be related to their increased activity level. When isokinetic and functional testing is used for return-to-sport decisions, physicians should caution patients about the risk of contralateral ACL injury for high performing patients. Retrospective Review with Control, Level III.

  3. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p < 0.001) and similarly in both groups after training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Both groups also improved their functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p < 0.001), with no difference between groups. The present study showed that TRT and PT using RPE scale to control intensity were significantly and similarly effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  4. Effect of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Outpatients (N=42, 21 per group; age range 40-65 years; 13 men and 29 women) with osteoarthritis of the knee participated in the study. The experimental group performed isometric exercises including isometric quadriceps, straight leg raising, and isometric hip adduction exercise 5 days a week for 5 weeks, whereas the control group did not performed any exercise program. The outcome measures or dependent variables selected for this study were pain intensity, isometric quadriceps strength, and knee function. These variables were measured using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), strength gauge device, and reduced WOMAC index, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline (week 0) and at the end of the trial at week 5. [Results] In between-group comparisons, the maximum isometric quadriceps strength, reduction in pain intensity, and improvement in function in the isometric exercise group at the end of the 5th week were significantly greater than those of the control group (p<0.05). [Conclusion] The 5-week isometric quadriceps exercise program showed beneficial effects on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, and functional disability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

  5. Do muscle mass, muscle density, strength, and physical function similarly influence risk of hospitalization in older adults?

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy Mannen; Fox, Kathleen M; Gandra, Shravanthi R; Delmonico, Matthew J; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Anthony, Mary S; Sewall, Ase; Goodpaster, Bret; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steven R; Harris, Tamara B

    2009-08-01

    To examine the association between strength, function, lean mass, muscle density, and risk of hospitalization. Prospective cohort study. Two U.S. clinical centers. Adults aged 70 to 80 (N=3,011) from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Measurements were of grip strength, knee extension strength, lean mass, walking speed, and chair stand pace. Thigh computed tomography scans assessed muscle area and density (a proxy for muscle fat infiltration). Hospitalizations were confirmed by local review of medical records. Negative binomial regression models estimated incident rate ratios (IRRs) of hospitalization for race- and sex-specific quartiles of each muscle and function parameter separately. Multivariate models adjusted for age, body mass index, health status, and coexisting medical conditions. During an average 4.7 years of follow-up, 1,678 (55.7%) participants experienced one or more hospitalizations. Participants in the lowest quartile of muscle density were more likely to be subsequently hospitalized (multivariate IRR=1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.24-1.73) than those in the highest quartile. Similarly, participants with the weakest grip strength were at greater risk of hospitalization (multivariate IRR=1.52, 95% CI=1.30-1.78, Q1 vs. Q4). Comparable results were seen for knee strength, walking pace, and chair stands pace. Lean mass and muscle area were not associated with risk of hospitalization. Weak strength, poor function, and low muscle density, but not muscle size or lean mass, were associated with greater risk of hospitalization. Interventions to reduce the disease burden associated with sarcopenia should focus on increasing muscle strength and improving physical function rather than simply increasing lean mass.

  6. Calmodulin Methyltransferase Is Required for Growth, Muscle Strength, Somatosensory Development and Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Haziza, Sitvanit; Magnani, Roberta; Lan, Dima; Keinan, Omer; Saada, Ann; Hershkovitz, Eli; Yanay, Nurit; Cohen, Yoram; Nevo, Yoram; Houtz, Robert L.; Sheffield, Val C.; Golan, Hava; Parvari, Ruti

    2015-01-01

    Calmodulin lysine methyl transferase (CaM KMT) is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved from plants to vertebrates. CaM is frequently trimethylated at Lys-115, however, the role of CaM methylation in vertebrates has not been studied. CaM KMT was found to be homozygously deleted in the 2P21 deletion syndrome that includes 4 genes. These patients present with cystinuria, severe intellectual disabilities, hypotonia, mitochondrial disease and facial dysmorphism. Two siblings with deletion of three of the genes included in the 2P21 deletion syndrome presented with cystinuria, hypotonia, a mild/moderate mental retardation and a respiratory chain complex IV deficiency. To be able to attribute the functional significance of the methylation of CaM in the mouse and the contribution of CaM KMT to the clinical presentation of the 2p21deletion patients, we produced a mouse model lacking only CaM KMT with deletion borders as in the human 2p21deletion syndrome. No compensatory activity for CaM methylation was found. Impairment of complexes I and IV, and less significantly III, of the mitochondrial respiratory chain was more pronounced in the brain than in muscle. CaM KMT is essential for normal body growth and somatosensory development, as well as for the proper functioning of the adult mouse brain. Developmental delay was demonstrated for somatosensory function and for complex behavior, which involved both basal motor function and motivation. The mutant mice also had deficits in motor learning, complex coordination and learning of aversive stimuli. The mouse model contributes to the evaluation of the role of methylated CaM. CaM methylation appears to have a role in growth, muscle strength, somatosensory development and brain function. The current study has clinical implications for human patients. Patients presenting slow growth and muscle weakness that could result from a mitochondrial impairment and mental retardation should be considered for sequence analysis of the Ca

  7. Calmodulin Methyltransferase Is Required for Growth, Muscle Strength, Somatosensory Development and Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Haziza, Sitvanit; Magnani, Roberta; Lan, Dima; Keinan, Omer; Saada, Ann; Hershkovitz, Eli; Yanay, Nurit; Cohen, Yoram; Nevo, Yoram; Houtz, Robert L; Sheffield, Val C; Golan, Hava; Parvari, Ruti

    2015-08-01

    Calmodulin lysine methyl transferase (CaM KMT) is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved from plants to vertebrates. CaM is frequently trimethylated at Lys-115, however, the role of CaM methylation in vertebrates has not been studied. CaM KMT was found to be homozygously deleted in the 2P21 deletion syndrome that includes 4 genes. These patients present with cystinuria, severe intellectual disabilities, hypotonia, mitochondrial disease and facial dysmorphism. Two siblings with deletion of three of the genes included in the 2P21 deletion syndrome presented with cystinuria, hypotonia, a mild/moderate mental retardation and a respiratory chain complex IV deficiency. To be able to attribute the functional significance of the methylation of CaM in the mouse and the contribution of CaM KMT to the clinical presentation of the 2p21deletion patients, we produced a mouse model lacking only CaM KMT with deletion borders as in the human 2p21deletion syndrome. No compensatory activity for CaM methylation was found. Impairment of complexes I and IV, and less significantly III, of the mitochondrial respiratory chain was more pronounced in the brain than in muscle. CaM KMT is essential for normal body growth and somatosensory development, as well as for the proper functioning of the adult mouse brain. Developmental delay was demonstrated for somatosensory function and for complex behavior, which involved both basal motor function and motivation. The mutant mice also had deficits in motor learning, complex coordination and learning of aversive stimuli. The mouse model contributes to the evaluation of the role of methylated CaM. CaM methylation appears to have a role in growth, muscle strength, somatosensory development and brain function. The current study has clinical implications for human patients. Patients presenting slow growth and muscle weakness that could result from a mitochondrial impairment and mental retardation should be considered for sequence analysis of the Ca

  8. Study of the Photon Strength Functions for Gadolinium Isotopes with the DANCE Array

    SciTech Connect

    Dashdorj, D.; Mitchell, G. E.; Baramsai, B.

    2009-03-10

    The gadolinium isotopes are interesting for reactor applications as well as for medicine and astrophysics. The gadolinium isotopes have some of the largest neutron capture cross sections. As a consequence they are used in the control rod in reactor fuel assembly. From the basic science point of view, there are seven stable isotopes of gadolinium with varying degrees of deformation. Therefore they provide a good testing ground for the study of deformation dependent structure such as the scissors mode. Decay gamma rays following neutron capture on Gd isotopes are detected by the DANCE array, which is located at flight pathmore » 14 at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The high segmentation and close packing of the detector array enable gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The calorimetric properties of the DANCE array coupled with the neutron time-of-flight technique enables one to gate on a specific resonance of a specific isotope in the time-of-flight spectrum and obtain the summed energy spectrum for that isotope. The singles gamma-ray spectrum for each multiplicity can be separated by their DANCE cluster multiplicity. Various photon strength function models are used for comparison with experimentally measured DANCE data and provide insight for understanding the statistical decay properties of deformed nuclei.« less

  9. Identification of poly(cis-1,4-Isoprene) degradation intermediates during growth of moderately thermophilic actinomycetes on rubber and cloning of a functional lcp homologue from Nocardia farcinica strain E1.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ebaid M A; Arenskötter, Matthias; Luftmann, Heinrich; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-05-01

    The enrichment and isolation of thermophilic bacteria capable of rubber [poly(cis-1,4-isoprene)] degradation revealed eight different strains exhibiting both currently known strategies used by rubber-degrading mesophilic bacteria. Taxonomic characterization of these isolates by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated closest relationships to Actinomadura nitritigenes, Nocardia farcinica, and Thermomonospora curvata. While strains related to N. farcinica exhibited adhesive growth as described for mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes belonging to the genus Gordonia, strains related to A. nitritigenes and T. curvata formed translucent halos on natural rubber latex agar as described for several mycelium-forming actinomycetes. For all strains, optimum growth rates were observed at 50 degrees C. The capability of rubber degradation was confirmed by mineralization experiments and by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Intermediates resulting from early degradation steps were purified by preparative GPC, and their analysis by infrared spectroscopy revealed the occurrence of carbonyl carbon atoms. Staining with Schiff's reagent also revealed the presence of aldehyde groups in the intermediates. Bifunctional isoprenoid species terminated with a keto and aldehyde function were found by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analyses. Evidence was obtained that biodegradation of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) is initiated by endocleavage, rather than by exocleavage. A gene (lcp) coding for a protein with high homology to Lcp (latex-clearing protein) from Streptomyces sp. strain K30 was identified in Nocardia farcinica E1. Streptomyces lividans TK23 expressing this Lcp homologue was able to cleave synthetic poly(cis-1,4-isoprene), confirming its involvement in initial polymer cleavage.

  10. Identification of Poly(cis-1,4-Isoprene) Degradation Intermediates during Growth of Moderately Thermophilic Actinomycetes on Rubber and Cloning of a Functional lcp Homologue from Nocardia farcinica Strain E1

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ebaid M. A.; Arenskötter, Matthias; Luftmann, Heinrich; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The enrichment and isolation of thermophilic bacteria capable of rubber [poly(cis-1,4-isoprene)] degradation revealed eight different strains exhibiting both currently known strategies used by rubber-degrading mesophilic bacteria. Taxonomic characterization of these isolates by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated closest relationships to Actinomadura nitritigenes, Nocardia farcinica, and Thermomonospora curvata. While strains related to N. farcinica exhibited adhesive growth as described for mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes belonging to the genus Gordonia, strains related to A. nitritigenes and T. curvata formed translucent halos on natural rubber latex agar as described for several mycelium-forming actinomycetes. For all strains, optimum growth rates were observed at 50°C. The capability of rubber degradation was confirmed by mineralization experiments and by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Intermediates resulting from early degradation steps were purified by preparative GPC, and their analysis by infrared spectroscopy revealed the occurrence of carbonyl carbon atoms. Staining with Schiff's reagent also revealed the presence of aldehyde groups in the intermediates. Bifunctional isoprenoid species terminated with a keto and aldehyde function were found by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analyses. Evidence was obtained that biodegradation of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) is initiated by endocleavage, rather than by exocleavage. A gene (lcp) coding for a protein with high homology to Lcp (latex-clearing protein) from Streptomyces sp. strain K30 was identified in Nocardia farcinica E1. Streptomyces lividans TK23 expressing this Lcp homologue was able to cleave synthetic poly(cis-1,4-isoprene), confirming its involvement in initial polymer cleavage. PMID:16672480

  11. Determining Criteria to Predict Repeatability of Performance in Older Adults: Using Coefficients of Variation for Strength and Functional Measures.

    PubMed

    Raj, Isaac Selva; Bird, Stephen R; Westfold, Ben A; Shield, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measures of muscle strength and functional capacity in older adults are essential. The aim of this study was to determine whether coefficients of variation (CVs) of individuals obtained at the first session can infer repeatability of performance in a subsequent session. Forty-eight healthy older adults (mean age 68.6 ± 6.1 years; age range 60-80 years) completed two assessment sessions, and on each occasion undertook: dynamometry for isometric and isokinetic quadriceps strength, 6 meter fast walk (6MFWT), timed up and go (TUG), stair climb and descent, and vertical jump. Significant linear relationships were observed between CVs in session 1 and the percentage difference between sessions 1 and 2 for torque at 60, 120, 240 and 360°/s, 6MFWT, TUG, stair climb, and stair descent. The results of this study could be used to establish criteria for determining an acceptably reliable performance in strength and functional tests.

  12. Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Steven R.; Laymon, Robert A.; Himmel, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol.

  13. Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, S.R.; Laymon, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

    1996-07-16

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol. 6 figs.

  14. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Applied Early After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Pulmonary Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Functional Capacity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Borges, Daniel L; Silva, Mayara Gabrielle; Silva, Luan Nascimento; Fortes, João Vyctor; Costa, Erika Thalita; Assunção, Rebeca Pessoa; Lima, Carlos Magno; da Silva Nina, Vinícius José; Bernardo-Filho, Mário; Caputo, Danúbia Sá

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity is beneficial in several clinical situations and recommended for patients with ischemic heart disease, as well as for those undergoing cardiac surgery. In a randomized controlled trial, 34 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A randomized control group (n = 15) submitted to conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group (n = 19) received the same protocol plus additional aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function by spirometry, respiratory muscle strength by manovacuometry, and functional capacity through 6-minute walking test was assessed before surgery and at hospital discharge. There was significant reduction in pulmonary function in both groups. In both groups, inspiratory muscle strength was maintained while expiratory muscle strength significantly decreased. Functional capacity was maintained in the intervention group (364.5 [324.5 to 428] vs. 348 [300.7 to 413.7] meters, P = .06), but it decreased significantly in control group patients (320 [288.5 to 393.0] vs. 292 [237.0 to 336.0] meters, P = .01). A significant difference in functional capacity was also found in intergroup analyses at hospital discharge (P = .03). Aerobic exercise applied early on coronary artery bypass grafting patients may promote maintenance of functional capacity, with no impact on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength when compared with conventional physiotherapy.

  15. To What Extent Is Mean EMG Frequency during Gait a Reflection of Functional Muscle Strength in Children with Cerebral Palsy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gestel, L.; Wambacq, H.; Aertbelien, E.; Meyns, P.; Bruyninckx, H.; Bar-On, L.; Molenaers, G.; De Cock, P.; Desloovere, K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current paper was to analyze the potential of the mean EMG frequency, recorded during 3D gait analysis (3DGA), for the evaluation of functional muscle strength in children with cerebral palsy (CP). As walking velocity is known to also influence EMG frequency, it was investigated to which extent the mean EMG frequency is a reflection…

  16. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  17. Physical function, grip strength and frailty in people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Charlotte; Dabis, François; de Rekeneire, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    To present the current knowledge on physical function, grip strength and frailty in HIV-infected patients living in sub-Saharan Africa, where the phenomenon is largely underestimated. A systematic search was conducted on MEDLINE, Scopus and African Index Medicus. We reviewed articles on sub-Saharan African people living with HIV (PLHIV) >18 years old, published until November 2016. Of 537 articles, 12 were conducted in six African countries and included in this review. Five articles reported information on functional limitation and one on disability. Two of these five articles reported functional limitation (low gait speed) in PLHIV. Disability was observed in 27% and 3% of PLHIV living in rural and urban places, respectively. Two of three studies reporting grip strength reported lower grip strength (nearly 4 kg) in PLHIV in comparison with uninfected patients. One study reported that PLHIV were more likely to be frail than HIV-uninfected individuals (19.4% vs. 13.3%), whereas another reported no statistical difference. Decline in physical function, grip strength and frailty are now part of the burden of PLHIV living in SSA countries, but current data are insufficient to characterise the real public health dimension of these impairments. Further studies are needed to depict this major public health challenge. As this is likely to contribute to a significant burden on the African healthcare systems and human resources in the near future, a holistic care approach should be developed to inform guidelines. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Carboxyl functionalization of carbon fibers via aryl diazonium reaction in molten urea to enhance interfacial shear strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuwei; Meng, Linghui; Fan, Liquan; Wu, Guangshun; Ma, Lichun; Zhao, Min; Huang, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    Using molten urea as the solvent, carbon fibers were functionalized with carboxylic acid groups via aryl diazonium reaction in 15 min to improve their interfacial bonding with epoxy resin. The surface functionalization was quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which showed that the relative surface coverage of carboxylic acid groups increased from an initial percentage of 3.17-10.41%. Mechanical property test results indicated that the aryl diazonium reaction in this paper could improve the interfacial shear strength by 66%. Meanwhile, the technique did not adopt any pre-oxidation step to produce functional groups prior to grafting and was shown to maintain the tensile strength of the fibers. This methodology provided a rapid, facile and economically viable route to produce covalently functionalized carbon fibers in large quantities with an eco-friendly method.

  19. Immunization information systems in Canada: Attributes, functionality, strengths and challenges. A Canadian Immunization Research Network study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah E; Quach, Susan; MacDonald, Shannon E; Naus, Monika; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Mahmud, Salaheddin M; Tran, Dat; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Tu, Karen; Johnson, Caitlin; Desai, Shalini

    2017-03-01

    Canada does not have a national immunization registry. Diverse systems to record vaccine uptake exist, but these have not been systematically described. Our objective was to describe the immunization information systems (IISs) and non-IIS processes used to record childhood and adolescent vaccinations, and to outline the strengths and limitations of the systems and processes. We collected information from key informants regarding their provincial, territorial or federal organization's surveillance systems for assessing immunization coverage. Information collection consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and a follow-up interview. We evaluated systems against attributes derived from the literature using content analysis. Twenty-six individuals across 16 public health organizations participated over the period of April to August 2015. Twelve of Canada's 13 provinces and territories (P/Ts) and two organizations involved in health service delivery for on-reserve First Nations people participated. Across systems, there were differences in data collection processes, reporting capabilities and advanced functionality. Commonly cited challenges included timeliness and data completeness of records, particularly for physician-administered immunizations. Privacy considerations and the need for data standards were stated as challenges to the goal of information sharing across P/T systems. Many P/Ts have recently implemented new systems and, in some cases, legislation to improve timeliness and/or completeness. Considerable variability exists among IISs and non-IIS processes used to assess immunization coverage in Canada. Although some P/Ts have already pursued legislative or policy initiatives to address the completeness and timeliness of information, many additional opportunities exist in the information technology realm.

  20. Strength and Power Training Effects on Lower Limb Force, Functional Capacity, and Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Female Adults.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paula Born; Pereira, Gleber; Lodovico, Angélica; Bento, Paulo C B; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-03-03

    It has been proposed that muscle power is more effective to prevent falls than muscle force production capacity, as rapid reactions are required to allow the postural control. This study aimed to compare the effects of strength and power training on lower limb force, functional capacity, and static and dynamic balance in older female adults. Thirty-seven volunteered healthy women had been allocated into the strength-training group (n = 14; 69 ± 7.3 years, 155 ± 5.6 cm, 72 ± 9.7 kg), the power-training group (n = 12; 67 ± 7.4 years, 153 ± 5.5 cm, 67.2 ± 7 kg), and control group (n = 11; 65 ± 3.1 years, 154 ± 5.6 cm, 70.9 ± 3 kg). After 12 weeks of training, the strength-training and power-training groups increased significantly maximum dynamic strength (29% and 27%), isometric strength (26% and 37%), and step total time (13% and 14%, dynamic balance), respectively. However, only the power-training group increased the rate of torque development (55%) and the functional capacity in 30-second chair stand (22%) and in time up and go tests (-10%). Empirically, power training may reduce the risk of injuries due to lower loads compared to strength training, and consequently, the physical effort demand during the training session is lower. Therefore, power training should be recommended as attractive training stimuli to improve lower limb force, functional capacity, and postural control of older female adults.

  1. The effectiveness of orthoses in the conservative management of thumb CMC joint osteoarthritis: An analysis of functional pinch strength.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Marie-Lyne; Mendonca, Rochelle; Dalley, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The study was a retrospective cohort analysis for a 19-month period from May 2013 to December 2014. Although the use of orthoses has long been a staple of conservative treatment measures for individuals with osteoarthritis of the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, there remains little evidence exploring its effectiveness in improving functional outcomes for this client population. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 3 frequently used orthoses in improving the functional pinch strength of adults with a diagnosis of thumb CMC joint osteoarthritis. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted to determine whether pinch strength improved after orthotic fabrication, and fitting in patients referred to a hand therapy clinic. Patients who received a Colditz design orthosis had a mean increase of 2.64 lb with regard to functional pinch strength after orthotic fabrication and fitting. Patients who received a Comfort Cool orthosis (North Coast Medical, Morgan Hill, CA) had a mean increase of 2.47 lb, whereas patients who received a Thumb Spica orthosis had a mean increase of 3.25 lb. There was no evidence of any statistically significant difference in the average improvements in pinch strength between the Colditz design orthosis and the Comfort Cool orthosis. Results from this study demonstrate that orthosis wear consistently increases the functional pinch strength of individuals with thumb CMC joint osteoarthritis. Large-scale multisite research studies comparing various orthotic designs are necessary to help therapists determine best practice interventions for the conservative management of thumb CMC joint osteoarthritis. 2(c). Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and validation of a subject-specific finite element model of the functional spinal unit to predict vertebral strength.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chu-Hee; Landham, Priyan R; Eastell, Richard; Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia; Yang, Lang

    2017-09-01

    Finite element models of an isolated vertebral body cannot accurately predict compressive strength of the spinal column because, in life, compressive load is variably distributed across the vertebral body and neural arch. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a patient-specific finite element model of a functional spinal unit, and then use the model to predict vertebral strength from medical images. A total of 16 cadaveric functional spinal units were scanned and then tested mechanically in bending and compression to generate a vertebral wedge fracture. Before testing, an image processing and finite element analysis framework (SpineVox-Pro), developed previously in MATLAB using ANSYS APDL, was used to generate a subject-specific finite element model with eight-node hexahedral elements. Transversely isotropic linear-elastic material properties were assigned to vertebrae, and simple homogeneous linear-elastic properties were assigned to the intervertebral disc. Forward bending loading conditions were applied to simulate manual handling. Results showed that vertebral strengths measured by experiment were positively correlated with strengths predicted by the functional spinal unit finite element model with von Mises or Drucker-Prager failure criteria ( R 2  = 0.80-0.87), with areal bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ( R 2  = 0.54) and with volumetric bone mineral density from quantitative computed tomography ( R 2  = 0.79). Large-displacement non-linear analyses on all specimens did not improve predictions. We conclude that subject-specific finite element models of a functional spinal unit have potential to estimate the vertebral strength better than bone mineral density alone.

  3. Effects of endurance and endurance-strength exercise on biochemical parameters of liver function in women with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Skrypnik, Damian; Ratajczak, Marzena; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Mądry, Edyta; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Hansdorfer-Korzon, Rita; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Bogdański, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the standard therapy for obesity involves physical exercise, well-planned studies of the changes in liver function in response to different exercise intensities in obese subjects are scarce. The aim of the present study was to examine a question of how does exercise mode affect the liver function. 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into two exercise groups: endurance (group A) and endurance-strength (group B). Women in each group exercised for 60min 3 times/week for a 3-month period. Markers of liver function: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and bilirubin levels were quantified. We found significant differences in ALT (p<0.01) and AST (p<0.05) activities between group A and B after training exercise. Blood ALT and AST tended to decrease in group B, increase in group A. Significant reduction in serum GGT level after exercise in both groups was observed (p<0.001, group A; p<0.01, group B). Neither endurance nor endurance-strength exercise led to changes in serum ALP activity and total or direct bilirubin level. However, endurance-strength training resulted in significant decreases in serum indirect bilirubin (p<0.05). Strong positive correlations between serum indirect bilirubin and body mass (r=0.615; p=0.0085) and BMI (r=0.576; p=0.0154) were found after endurance-strength exercise (group B). The mode of exercise does matter: endurance-strength exercise led to a greater improvement, compared to endurance exercise, in the liver function in women with abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Tongue-to-palate resistance training improves tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in subacute stroke survivors with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Kim, H D; Choi, J B; Yoo, S J; Chang, M Y; Lee, S W; Park, J S

    2017-01-01

    Tongue function can affect both the oral and pharyngeal stages of the swallowing process, and proper tongue strength is vital for safe oropharyngeal swallowing. This trial investigated the effect of tongue-to-palate resistance training (TPRT) on tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in stroke with dysphagia patients. This trial was performed using a 4-week, two-group, pre-post-design. Participants were allocated to the experimental group (n = 18) or the control group (n = 17). The experimental group performed TPRT for 4 weeks (5 days per week) and traditional dysphagia therapy, whereas the control group performed traditional dysphagia therapy on the same schedule. Tongue strength was measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Swallowing function was measured using the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) based on a videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Experimental group showed more improved in the tongue strength (both anterior and posterior regions, P = 0·009, 0·015). In addition, the experimental group showed more improved scores on the oral and pharyngeal phase of VDS (P = 0·029, 0·007), but not on the PAS (P = 0·471), compared with the control group. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of TPRT in increasing tongue muscle strength and improving swallowing function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. Therefore, we recommend TPRT as an easy and simple rehabilitation strategy for improving swallowing in patients with dysphagia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Can repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increase muscle strength in functional neurological paresis? A proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    Broersma, M; Koops, E A; Vroomen, P C; Van der Hoeven, J H; Aleman, A; Leenders, K L; Maurits, N M; van Beilen, M

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic options are limited in functional neurological paresis disorder. Earlier intervention studies did not control for a placebo effect, hampering assessment of effectivity. A proof-of-principle investigation was conducted into the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), using a single-blind two-period placebo-controlled cross-over design. Eleven patients received active 15 Hz rTMS over the contralateral motor cortex (hand area), in two periods of 5 days, for 30 min once a day at 80% of resting motor threshold, with a train length of 2 s and an intertrain interval of 4 s. Eight of these eleven patients were also included in the placebo treatment condition. Primary outcome measure was change in muscle strength as measured by dynamometry after treatment. Secondary outcome measure was the subjective change in muscle strength after treatment. In patients who received both treatments, active rTMS induced a significantly larger median increase in objectively measured muscle strength (24%) compared to placebo rTMS (6%; P < 0.04). Subjective ratings showed no difference due to treatment, i.e. patients did not perceive these objectively measured motor improvements (P = 0.40). Our findings suggest that rTMS by itself can potentially improve muscle weakness in functional neurological paresis disorder. Whereas patients' muscle strength increased as measured with dynamometry, patients did not report increased functioning of the affected hand, subjectively. The results may indicate that decreased muscle strength is not the core symptom and that rTMS should be added to behavioral approaches in functional neurological paresis. © 2015 EAN.

  6. Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Test Rate for Various Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength of five different continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/BSAS (2D 2 types), SiC/MAS-5 (2D), SiC/SiC (2D enhanced), and C/SiC(2D) was determined as a function of test rate at I 100 to 1200 'C in air. All five composite materials exhibited a significant dependency of ultimate strength on test rate such that the ultimate strength decreased with decreasing test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress rate) to another (constant stress loading) for SiC/BSAS suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics.

  7. Effects of an Exercise Protocol for Improving Handgrip Strength and Walking Speed on Cognitive Function in Patients with Chronic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeeun; Yim, Jongeun

    2017-11-13

    BACKGROUND Handgrip strength and walking speed predict and influence cognitive function. We aimed to investigate an exercise protocol for improving handgrip strength and walking speed, applied to patients with chronic stroke who had cognitive function disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-nine patients with cognitive function disorder participated in this study, and were randomly divided into one of two groups: exercise group (n=14) and control group (n=15). Both groups underwent conventional physical therapy for 60 minutes per day. Additionally, the exercise group followed an exercise protocol for handgrip using the hand exerciser, power web exerciser, Digi-Flex (15 minutes); and treadmill-based weight loading training on their less-affected leg (15 minutes) using a sandbag for 30 minutes, three times per day, for six weeks. Outcomes, including cognitive function and gait ability, were measured before and after the training. RESULTS The Korean version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (K-MoCA), Stroop test (both simple and interference), Trail Making-B, Timed Up and Go, and 10-Meter Walk tests (p<0.05) yielded improved results for the exercise group compared with the control group. Importantly, the K-MoCA, Timed Up and Go, and 10-Meter Walk test results were significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The exercise protocol for improving handgrip strength and walking speed had positive effects on cognitive function in patients with chronic stroke.

  8. Solubilization of myofibrillar proteins in water or low ionic strength media: Classical techniques, basic principles, and novel functionalities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Tume, Ron K; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-10-13

    The qualitative characteristics of meat products are closely related to the functionality of muscle proteins. Myofibrillar proteins (MPs), comprising approximately 50% of total muscle proteins, are generally considered to be insoluble in solutions of low ionic strength (< 0.2 M), requiring high concentrations of salt (> 0.3 M) for solubilization. These soluble proteins are the ones which determine many functional properties of meat products, including emulsification and thermal gelation. In order to increase the utilization of meat and meat products, many studies have investigated the solubilization of MPs in water or low ionic strength media and determining their functionality. However, there still remains a lack of systematic information on the functional properties of MPs solubilized in this manner. Hence, this review will explore some typical techniques that have been used. The main procedures used for their solubilization, the fundamental principles and their functionalities in water (low ionic strength medium) are comprehensively discussed. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of each technique are summarized. Finally, future considerations are presented to facilitate progress in this new area and to enable water soluble muscle MPs to be utilized as novel meat ingredients in the food industry.

  9. The relationship between Vickers microhardness and compressive strength of functional surface geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subaer, Ekaputri, Januari Jaya; Fansuri, Hamzah; Abdullah, Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    An experimental study to investigate the relationship between Vickers microhardness and compressive strength of geopolymers made from metakaolin has been conducted. Samples were prepared by using metakaolin activated with a sodium silicate solution at a different ratio of Si to Al and Na to Al and cured at 70°C for one hour. The resulting geopolymers were stored in an open air for 28 days before conducting any measurement. Bulk density and apparent porosity of the samples were measured by using Archimedes's method. Vickers microhardness measurements were performed on a polished surface of geopolymers with a load ranging from 0.3 - 1.0 kg. The topographic of indented samples were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compressive strength of the resulting geopolymers was measured on the cylindrical samples with a ratio of height to the diameter was 2:1. The results showed that the molar ratios of geopolymers compositions play important roles in the magnitude of bulk density, porosity, Vickers's microhardness as well as the compressive strength. The porosity reduced exponentially the magnitude of the strength of geopolymers. It was found that the relationship between Vickers microhardness and compressive strength was linear.

  10. Effects of rest interval on isokinetic strength and functional performance after short-term high intensity training.

    PubMed

    Pincivero, D M; Lephart, S M; Karunakara, R G

    1997-09-01

    The ability to maximally generate active muscle tension during resistance training has been established to be a primary determinant for strength development. The influence of intrasession rest intervals may have a profound effect on strength gains subsequent to short-term high intensity training. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of rest interval on strength and functional performance after four weeks of isokinetic training. Fifteen healthy college aged individuals were randomly assigned to either a short rest interval group (group 1, n = 8) or a long rest interval group (group 2, n = 7). Subjects were evaluated for quadriceps and hamstring isokinetic strength at 60 (five repetitions) and 180 (30 repetitions) degrees/second and functional performance with the single leg hop for distance test. One leg of each subject was randomly assigned to a four week, three days/week isokinetic strength training programme for concentric knee extension and flexion performed at 90 degrees/second. Subjects in group 1 received a 40 second rest interval in between exercise sets, whereas subjects in group 2 received a 160 second rest period. A two factor analysis of variance for the pre-test--post-test gain scores (%) showed significantly greater improvements for isokinetic hamstring total work and average power at 180 degrees/second for the trained limb of subjects in group 2 than their contralateral non-trained limb and the subjects in group 1. Significantly greater improvements for the single leg hop for distance were also found for the trained limbs of subjects in both groups as compared with the non-trained limbs. The findings indicate that a relatively longer intrasession rest period resulted in a greater improvement in hamstring muscle strength during short term high intensity training.

  11. The strength of negative plant-soil feedback increases from the intraspecific to the interspecific and the functional group level.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Alexandra R; Schittko, Conrad; Petermann, Jana S

    2018-02-01

    One of the processes that may play a key role in plant species coexistence and ecosystem functioning is plant-soil feedback, the effect of plants on associated soil communities and the resulting feedback on plant performance. Plant-soil feedback at the interspecific level (comparing growth on own soil with growth on soil from different species) has been studied extensively, while plant-soil feedback at the intraspecific level (comparing growth on own soil with growth on soil from different accessions within a species) has only recently gained attention. Very few studies have investigated the direction and strength of feedback among different taxonomic levels, and initial results have been inconclusive, discussing phylogeny, and morphology as possible determinants. To test our hypotheses that the strength of negative feedback on plant performance increases with increasing taxonomic level and that this relationship is explained by morphological similarities, we conducted a greenhouse experiment using species assigned to three taxonomic levels (intraspecific, interspecific, and functional group level). We measured certain fitness-related aboveground traits and used them along literature-derived traits to determine the influence of morphological similarities on the strength and direction of the feedback. We found that the average strength of negative feedback increased from the intraspecific over the interspecific to the functional group level. However, individual accessions and species differed in the direction and strength of the feedback. None of our results could be explained by morphological dissimilarities or individual traits. Synthesis . Our results indicate that negative plant-soil feedback is stronger if the involved plants belong to more distantly related species. We conclude that the taxonomic level is an important factor in the maintenance of plant coexistence with plant-soil feedback as a potential stabilizing mechanism and should be addressed explicitly

  12. The importance of trunk muscle strength for balance, functional performance, and fall prevention in seniors: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Kressig, Reto W; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The aging process results in a number of functional (e.g., deficits in balance and strength/power performance), neural (e.g., loss of sensory/motor neurons), muscular (e.g., atrophy of type-II muscle fibers in particular), and bone-related (e.g., osteoporosis) deteriorations. Traditionally, balance and/or lower extremity resistance training were used to mitigate these age-related deficits. However, the effects of resistance training are limited and poorly translate into improvements in balance, functional tasks, activities of daily living, and fall rates. Thus, it is necessary to develop and design new intervention programs that are specifically tailored to counteract age-related weaknesses. Recent studies indicate that measures of trunk muscle strength (TMS) are associated with variables of static/dynamic balance, functional performance, and falls (i.e., occurrence, fear, rate, and/or risk of falls). Further, there is preliminary evidence in the literature that core strength training (CST) and Pilates exercise training (PET) have a positive influence on measures of strength, balance, functional performance, and falls in older adults. The objectives of this systematic literature review are: (a) to report potential associations between TMS/trunk muscle composition and balance, functional performance, and falls in old adults, and (b) to describe and discuss the effects of CST/PET on measures of TMS, balance, functional performance, and falls in seniors. A systematic approach was employed to capture all articles related to TMS/trunk muscle composition, balance, functional performance, and falls in seniors that were identified using the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science (1972 to February 2013). A systematic approach was used to evaluate the 582 articles identified for initial review. Cross-sectional (i.e., relationship) or longitudinal (i.e., intervention) studies were included if they investigated TMS and an outcome-related measure of balance, functional

  13. Assignment of function to Histidines 260 and 298 by engineering the E1 component of the Escherichia coli 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex; substitutions that lead to acceptance of substrates lacking the 5-carboxyl group.†

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Da Jeong; Nemeria, Natalia S.; Balakrishnan, Anand; Patel, Hetalben; Song, Jaeyoung; Wang, Junjie; Jordan, Frank; Farinas, Edgardo T.

    2011-01-01

    The first component (E1o) of the Escherichia coli 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHc) was engineered to accept substrates lacking the 5-carboxylate group by subjecting H260 and H298 to saturation mutagenesis. Apparently, H260 is required for substrate recognition, but H298 could be replaced by hydrophobic residues of similar molecular volume. To interrogate whether the second component would enable synthesis of acyl-coenzymeA derivatives, hybrid complexes consisting of recombinant components of OGDHc (o) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (p) enzymes were constructed, suggesting that a different component is the ‘gatekeeper’ for specificity for these two multienzyme complexes in bacteria, E1p for pyruvate, but E2o for 2-oxoglutarate. PMID:21809826

  14. Strength Recovery Following Rhythmic or Sustained Exercise as a Function of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Jay T.

    The relative rates of strength recovery subsequent to bouts of rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise were investigated. The 72 undergraduates who served as subjects were tested seven times within the framework of a repeated measures design. Each testing session involved two bouts of either rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise separated by a…

  15. Strength, Pain, Function in OIF/OEF Amputees: A Nurse-Managed Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-25

    resistance training and neuromuscular electrical stimulation in knee osteoarthritis : a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 13, 118... systematic review of the effects of different electromyostimulation methods on selected strength parameters in trained and elite athletes. Journal of...electrical stimulation on rehabilitation after ligament and meniscal injuries: a systematic review . Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 129(6), 414-423

  16. Managing Knee Osteoarthritis: The Effects of Body Weight Supported Physical Activity on Joint Pain, Function, and Thigh Muscle Strength.

    PubMed

    Peeler, Jason; Christian, Mathew; Cooper, Juliette; Leiter, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week lower body positive pressure (LBPP)-supported low-load treadmill walking program on knee joint pain, function, and thigh muscle strength in overweight patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, observational, repeated measures investigation. Community-based, multidisciplinary sports medicine clinic. Thirty-one patients aged between 55 and 75 years, with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m and mild-to-moderate knee OA. Twelve-week LBPP-supported low-load treadmill walking regimen. Acute knee joint pain (visual analog scale) during full weight bearing treadmill walking, chronic knee pain, and joint function [Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire] during normal activities of daily living, and thigh muscle strength (isokinetic testing). Appropriate methods of statistical analysis were used to compare data from baseline and follow-up evaluation. Participants reported significant improvements in knee joint pain and function and demonstrated significant increases in thigh muscle strength about the degenerative knee. Participants also experienced significant reductions in acute knee pain during full weight bearing treadmill walking and required dramatically less LBPP support to walk pain free on the treadmill. Data suggest that an LBPP-supported low-load exercise regimen can be used to significantly diminish knee pain, enhance joint function, and increase thigh muscle strength, while safely promoting pain-free walking exercise in overweight patients with knee OA. These findings have important implications for the development of nonoperative treatment strategies that can be used in the management of joint symptoms associated with progressive knee OA in at-risk patient populations. This research suggests that LBPP-supported low-load walking is a safe user-friendly mode of exercise that can be successfully used in the management of day-to-day joint symptoms associated with knee OA, helping to improve the

  17. Decreased muscle strength is associated with impaired long-term functional outcome after intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Larsen, P; Elsoe, R; Graven-Nielsen, T; Laessoe, U; Rasmussen, S

    2015-12-01

    To examine the long-term outcome after intramedullary nailing of femoral diaphysial fractures measured as disease-specific patient reported function, walking ability, muscle strength, pain and quality of life (QOL). Cross-sectional study. Retrospective review and follow-up with clinical examination of 48 patients treated with intramedullary nailing after femoral shaft fracture between 2007 and 2010. The patients underwent a clinical examination and assessment of walking ability, maximal muscle strength during knee flexion and extension and hip abduction. Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) and questionnaire evaluating QOL (Eq5D-5L) were completed by patients. Fourty-eight patients agreed to participate. Mean time for follow-up was 4.7 years. The mean HOOS scores were 84.9 (Pain), 86.6 (ADL), 85.0 (Symptoms), 72.6 (QOL), and 69.1 (Sport). The mean muscle strength of knee flexion with the injured leg (226.0 N) was significantly lower then knee flexion with the non-injured leg (259.5 N, P < 0.0001). Likewise for knee extension (335.2 vs 406.4 N, P < 0.001) and hip abduction (129.2 vs 156.0 N, P < 0.001). Significant association between HOOS and an increase in the difference in muscle strength were observed as well as between worse HOOS outcome and increasing body mass index. This study showed that decreased muscle strength for knee flexion, knee extension and hip abduction was associated with worse long-term functional outcome measured with a disease-specific questionnaire (HOOS) after intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fracture.

  18. Genetic polymorphism analysis of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) in a Chinese Tibetan population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Ren, Guoxia; Li, Jingjie; Zhu, Linhao; Niu, Fanglin; Yan, Mengdan; Li, Jing; Yuan, Dongya; Jin, Tianbo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) gene genetic polymorphisms vary markedly in frequency among different ethnic and racial groups. We studied the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of 3 CYP2E1 polymorphisms: CYP2E1∗1A, CYP2E1∗7A, and CYP2E1∗7C by polymerase chain reaction technique in a sample of 100 healthy subjects representing Tibetan population. The frequencies of CYP2E1∗1A, ∗7A, and ∗7C alleles were 0.705, 0.125, and 0.170, respectively. Compared with other populations, we found that the allele frequencies of the variants −352A>G (rs2070672) and −333A>T (rs2070673) in this Tibetan population have significant differences compared with European-American, African-American, Japanese, Korean, and other different geographic areas in Chinese Han population. Furthermore, the results of protein prediction revealed that the variant 6397G>A (rs61710826) could influence the protein structure and function. These findings in this study would be valuable for pharmacogenetics for drug therapy and drug discovery. However, further studies in larger samples are warranted to confirm our results. PMID:29381998

  19. Highlights from the functional single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human muscle size and strength or FAMuSS study.

    PubMed

    Pescatello, Linda S; Devaney, Joseph M; Hubal, Monica J; Thompson, Paul D; Hoffman, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength study or FAMuSS was to identify genetic factors that dictated the response of health-related fitness phenotypes to resistance exercise training (RT). The phenotypes examined were baseline muscle strength and muscle, fat, and bone volume and their response to RT. FAMuSS participants were 1300 young (24 years), healthy men (42%) and women (58%) that were primarily of European-American descent. They were genotyped for ~500 polymorphisms and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess energy expenditure and time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity habitual physical activity and sitting. Subjects then performed a 12-week progressive, unilateral RT program of the nondominant arm with the dominant arm used as a comparison. Before and after RT, muscle strength was measured with the maximum voluntary contraction and one repetition maximum, while MRI measured muscle, fat, and bone volume. We will discuss the history of how FAMuSS originated, provide a brief overview of the FAMuSS methods, and summarize our major findings regarding genotype associations with muscle strength and size, body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and physical activity.

  20. Highlights from the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength or FAMuSS Study

    PubMed Central

    Pescatello, Linda S.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Hubal, Monica J.; Thompson, Paul D.; Hoffman, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength study or FAMuSS was to identify genetic factors that dictated the response of health-related fitness phenotypes to resistance exercise training (RT). The phenotypes examined were baseline muscle strength and muscle, fat, and bone volume and their response to RT. FAMuSS participants were 1300 young (24 years), healthy men (42%) and women (58%) that were primarily of European-American descent. They were genotyped for ~500 polymorphisms and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess energy expenditure and time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity habitual physical activity and sitting. Subjects then performed a 12-week progressive, unilateral RT program of the nondominant arm with the dominant arm used as a comparison. Before and after RT, muscle strength was measured with the maximum voluntary contraction and one repetition maximum, while MRI measured muscle, fat, and bone volume. We will discuss the history of how FAMuSS originated, provide a brief overview of the FAMuSS methods, and summarize our major findings regarding genotype associations with muscle strength and size, body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and physical activity. PMID:24455711

  1. High-Intensity Strength Training Improves Function of Chronically Painful Muscles: Case-Control and RCT Studies

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Christoffer H.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Suetta, Charlotte; Søgaard, Karen; Saltin, Bengt; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    Aim. This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. Methods. Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n = 42) and healthy controls (CON, n = 20) participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST, n = 18), general fitness training (GFT, n = 16), or a reference group without physical training (REF, n = 8). Participants performed tests of 100 consecutive cycles of 2 s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of shoulder elevation followed by 2 s relaxation at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Results. In the case-control study, peak force, rate of force development, and rate of force relaxation as well as EMG amplitude were lower in MYA than CON throughout all 100 MVC. Muscle fiber capillarization was not significantly different between MYA and CON. In the intervention study, SST improved all force parameters significantly more than the two other groups, to levels comparable to that of CON. This was seen along with muscle fiber hypertrophy and increased capillarization. Conclusion. Women with trapezius myalgia have lower strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the trapezius muscle than healthy controls. High-intensity strength training effectively improves strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the painful trapezius muscle. PMID:24707475

  2. A density functional theory study of the correlation between analyte basicity, ZnPc adsorption strength, and sensor response.

    PubMed

    Tran, N L; Bohrer, F I; Trogler, W C; Kummel, A C

    2009-05-28

    Density functional theory (DFT) simulations were used to determine the binding strength of 12 electron-donating analytes to the zinc metal center of a zinc phthalocyanine molecule (ZnPc monomer). The analyte binding strengths were compared to the analytes' enthalpies of complex formation with boron trifluoride (BF(3)), which is a direct measure of their electron donating ability or Lewis basicity. With the exception of the most basic analyte investigated, the ZnPc binding energies were found to correlate linearly with analyte basicities. Based on natural population analysis calculations, analyte complexation to the Zn metal of the ZnPc monomer resulted in limited charge transfer from the analyte to the ZnPc molecule, which increased with analyte-ZnPc binding energy. The experimental analyte sensitivities from chemiresistor ZnPc sensor data were proportional to an exponential of the binding energies from DFT calculations consistent with sensitivity being proportional to analyte coverage and binding strength. The good correlation observed suggests DFT is a reliable method for the prediction of chemiresistor metallophthalocyanine binding strengths and response sensitivities.

  3. Bulk flow strength of forsterite?enstatite composites as a function of forsterite content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shaocheng; Wang, Zichao; Wirth, Richard

    2001-11-01

    Creep experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of varying forsterite content ( VFo) on the bulk flow strength of dry forsterite-enstatite (Fo-En) aggregates in order to evaluate the applicability of existing theoretical models to two-phase rocks, as well as to understand the rheology of polyphase systems in general. The experiments were performed at temperatures of 1423-1593 K, stresses of 18-100 MPa, oxygen fugacities of 10 -14-10 -2.5 MPa and 0.1 MPa total pressure. The fine-grained (Fo: 10-17 μm; En: 14-31 μm) composites of various Fo volume fractions ( VFo=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8 and 1) were synthesized by isostatically hot-pressing in a gas-medium apparatus at 1523 and 350 MPa. Our experiments show that flow strength contrasts between Fo and En are in the range of 3-8 at the given experimental conditions, with Fo as the stronger phase. The measured stress exponent ( n) and activation energy ( Q) values of the Fo-En composites fall between those of the end-members. The n values show a nearly linear increase from 1.3 to 2.0, while the Q values display a non-linear increase from 472 to 584 kJ/mol with En volume fraction from 0 to 1.0. There is no clear dependence of creep rates on oxygen fugacity for the Fo-En composites. The mechanical data and TEM microstructural observations suggest no change in deformation mechanism of each phase when in the composites, compared to when in a single-phase aggregate, the En deformed mainly by dislocation creep while the Fo deformed by dislocation-accommodated diffusion creep for our grain sizes and experimental conditions. Comparisons between the measured composite strengths and various theoretical models indicate that none of the existing theoretical models can give a precise predication over the entire VFo range from 0 to 1. However, the theoretical models based on weak-phase supported structures (WPS) yield a good prediction for the flow strengths of the composites with VFo<0.4, while those based on

  4. E1 transitions from octupole vibration states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottle, P. D.

    1993-04-01

    Electric dipole moments are extracted from data for E1 transitions deexciting octupole vibration states in nineteen nuclei. The moments are then compared to values calculated using the droplet model prescription of Dorso, Myers, and Swiatecki. It is found that the E1 moments in quadrupole deformed nuclei can be reproduced with the droplet model using the same model parameters that reproduce atomic masses and fission barriers. This result supports the suggestion of Butler and Nazarewicz that single particle effects are usually much smaller than macroscopic effects in E1 transitions associated with octupole vibrations in reflection symmetric deformed nuclei.

  5. Molecular structure, FT-IR, NBO, HOMO and LUMO, MEP and first order hyperpolarizability of (2E)-1-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one by HF and density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Sheena Mary, Y; Yohannan Panicker, C; Anto, P L; Sapnakumari, M; Narayana, B; Sarojini, B K

    2015-01-25

    (2E)-1-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one is synthesized by using 2,4-dichloroacetophenone and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde in ethanol. The structure of the compound was confirmed by IR and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. FT-IR spectrum of (2E)-1-(2,4-dichloro-phenyl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one was recorded and analyzed. The crystal structure is also described. The vibrational wavenumbers were computed using HF and DFT methods and are assigned with the help of potential energy distribution method. The first hyperpolarizability and infrared intensities are also reported. The geometrical parameters of the title compound obtained from XRD studies are in agreement with the calculated (DFT) values. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The HOMO and LUMO analysis are used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. MEP was performed by the DFT method. From the MEP map of the title molecule, negative region is mainly localized over the electronegative oxygen atoms, in the carbonyl group and the oxygen atom O4 of the methoxy group and the maximum positive region is localized on the phenyl rings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of low back pain on trunk muscle size/function and hip strength in elite football (soccer) players.

    PubMed

    Hides, Julie A; Oostenbroek, Tim; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Mendis, M Dilani

    2016-12-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common problem in football (soccer) players. The effect of LBP on the trunk and hip muscles in this group is unknown. The relationship between LBP and trunk muscle size and function in football players across the preseason was examined. A secondary aim was to assess hip muscle strength. Twenty-five elite soccer players participated in the study, with assessments conducted on 23 players at both the start and end of the preseason. LBP was assessed with questionnaires and ultrasound imaging was used to assess size and function of trunk muscles at the start and end of preseason. Dynamometry was used to assess hip muscle strength at the start of the preseason. At the start of the preseason, 28% of players reported the presence of LBP and this was associated with reduced size of the multifidus, increased contraction of the transversus abdominis and multifidus muscles. LBP decreased across the preseason, and size of the multifidus muscle improved over the preseason. Ability to contract the abdominal and multifidus muscles did not alter across the preseason. Asymmetry in hip adductor and abductor muscle strength was found between players with and without LBP. Identifying modifiable factors in players with LBP may allow development of more targeted preseason rehabilitation programmes.

  7. Effects of isokinetic calf muscle exercise program on muscle strength and venous function in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Sabriye; Çetin, Cem; Yavuz, Turhan; Demir, Hilmi M; Atalay, Yurdagül B

    2018-05-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to observe the change of the ankle joint range of motion, the muscle strength values measured with an isokinetic dynamometer, pain scores, quality of life scale, and venous return time in chronic venous insufficiency diagnosed patients by prospective follow-up after 12-week exercise program including isokinetic exercises. Methods The patient group of this study comprised 27 patients (23 female, 4 male) who were diagnosed with chronic venous insufficiency. An exercise program including isokinetic exercise for the calf muscle was given to patients three days per week for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, five of the patients left the study due to inadequate compliance with the exercise program. As a result, control data of 22 patients were included. Ankle joint range of active motion, isokinetic muscle strength, pain, quality of life, and photoplethysmography measurements were assessed before starting and after the exercise program. Results Evaluating changes of the starting and control data depending on time showed that all isokinetic muscle strength measurement parameters, range of motion, and overall quality of life values of patients improved. Venous return time values have also increased significantly ( p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, increase in muscle strength has been provided with exercise therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. It has been determined that the increase in muscle strength affected the venous pump and this ensured improvement in venous function and range of motion of the ankle. In addition, it has been detected that pain reduced and quality of life improved after the exercise program.

  8. Effect of Physical Activity versus Health Education on Physical Function, Grip Strength and Mobility.

    PubMed

    Santanasto, Adam J; Glynn, Nancy W; Lovato, Laura C; Blair, Steven N; Fielding, Roger A; Gill, Thomas M; Guralnik, Jack M; Hsu, Fang-Chi; King, Abby C; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; McDermott, Mary M; Goodpaster, Bret H; Pahor, Marco; Newman, Anne B

    2017-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) reduces the rate of mobility disability, compared with health education (HE), in at risk older adults. It is important to understand aspects of performance contributing to this benefit. To evaluate intervention effects on tertiary physical performance outcomes. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) was a multi-centered, single-blind randomized trial of older adults. Eight field centers throughout the United States. 1635 adults aged 78.9 ± 5.2 years, 67.2% women at risk for mobility disability (Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB] <10). Moderate PA including walking, resistance and balance training compared with HE consisting of topics relevant to older adults. Grip strength, SPPB score and its components (balance, 4 m gait speed, and chair-stands), as well as 400 m walking speed. Total SPPB score was higher in PA versus HE across all follow-up times (overall P = .04) as was the chair-stand component (overall P < .001). No intervention effects were observed for balance (overall P = .12), 4 m gait speed (overall P = .78), or grip strength (overall P = .62). However, 400 m walking speed was faster in PA versus HE group (overall P =<.001). In separate models, 29% of the rate reduction of major mobility disability in the PA versus HE group was explained by change in SPPB score, while 39% was explained by change in the chair stand component. Lower extremity performance (SPPB) was significantly higher in the PA compared with HE group. Changes in chair-stand score explained a considerable portion of the effect of PA on the reduction of major mobility disability-consistent with the idea that preserving muscle strength/power may be important for the prevention of major mobility disability. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Changes in Lower Limb Strength and Function Following Lumbar Spinal Mobilization.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Tsoi Sze; Lam, Pui Yu; Lau, Mei Yan; Siu, Wai Lam; Yu, Ka Man; Lo, Chi Ngai; Ng, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether grade III passive lumbar rotational mobilization on L2-3 can improve hip flexor strength and performance in the single-leg triple-hop test in asymptomatic young adults. Twenty-four participants (12 men, 12 women) aged from 19 to 26 years who were positive in the hip flexor "break" test were recruited in this study. They were randomly allocated to the treatment group or sham group. Isometric hip flexor torque (N·m) and single-leg triple-hop distance (cm) were measured before and after a passive lumbar rotational mobilization or a sham intervention. After the intervention, both the treatment and sham groups exhibited a significant increase in longest hop distance (P = .040 and .044, respectively). The treatment group had a significantly higher (3.41 ± 5.44%) positive percentage change in torque than the sham group (-2.36 ± 5.81%) (P = .02). The study results indicated a potential effect of grade III passive lumbar rotational mobilization in improving hip flexor strength. However, whether the improvement in hopping performance was the result of a treatment effect or a learning effect could not be determined. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Resolvin E1 (Rv E1 ) attenuates LPS induced inflammation and subsequent atrophy in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Luke A; Martin, Neil R W; Kimber, Marc C; Pritchard, Gareth J; Lindley, Martin R; Lewis, Mark P

    2018-03-25

    Resolution of inflammation is now known to be an active process which in part is instigated and controlled by specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM's) derived from dietary omega-3 fatty acids. Resolvin E1 (R v E 1 ) is one of these SPM's derived from the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid. Using both molecular and phenotypic functional measures we report that in a model of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation, R v E 1 attenuated mRNA levels of both interlukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 whilst having no effect on tumor necrosis factor-α or interlukin-1β in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes. Findings at the molecular level were transferred into similar changes in extracellular protein levels of the corresponding genes with the greatest attenuation being noted in IL-6 protein concentrations. R v E 1 instigated beneficial morphological changes through the prevention of LPS induced skeletal muscle atrophy, in tandem with attenuation of the LPS induced reduction in contractile force in tissue engineered skeletal muscle. These findings demonstrate, in our model of endotoxin induced inflammation in skeletal muscle, that R v E 1 has pro-resolving properties in this cell type. Our data provides rationale for further investigation into the mechanistic action of R v E 1 in skeletal muscle, with the vision of having potential benefits for the prevention/resolution of in-vivo skeletal muscle atrophy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Near-infrared line-strengths in elliptical galaxies: evidence for initial mass function variations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenarro, A. J.; Gorgas, J.; Vazdekis, A.; Cardiel, N.; Peletier, R. F.

    2003-02-01

    We present new relations between recently defined line-strength indices in the near-infrared (CaT*, CaT, PaT, MgI and sTiO) and central velocity dispersion (σ0) for a sample of 35 early-type galaxies, showing evidence for significant anti-correlations between CaII triplet indices (CaT* and CaT) and log σ0. These relations are interpreted in the light of our recent evolutionary synthesis model predictions, suggesting the existence of important Ca underabundances with respect to Fe and/or an increase of the dwarf to giant stars ratio along the mass sequence of elliptical galaxies.

  12. Relationship between isometric thigh muscle strength and minimum clinically important differences in knee function in osteoarthritis: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    PubMed

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2015-04-01

    To determine the relationship between thigh muscle strength and clinically relevant differences in self-assessed lower leg function. Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength of 4,553 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants (2,651 women and 1,902 men) was related to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function scores by linear regression. Further, groups of male and female participant strata with minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) in WOMAC function scores (6 of 68 units) were compared across the full range of observed values and to participants without functional deficits (WOMAC score 0). The effect of WOMAC knee pain and body mass index on the above relationships was explored using stepwise regression. Per regression equations, a 3.7% reduction in extensor strength and a 4.0% reduction in flexor strength were associated with an MCID in WOMAC function in women, and, respectively, a 3.6% and 4.8% reduction in men. For strength divided by body weight, reductions were 5.2% and 6.7%, respectively, in women and 5.8% and 6.7%, respectively, in men. Comparing MCID strata across the full observed range of WOMAC function confirmed the above estimates and did not suggest nonlinear relationships across the spectrum of observed values. WOMAC pain correlated strongly with WOMAC function, but extensor (and flexor) muscle strength contributed significant independent information. Reductions of approximately 4% in isometric muscle strength and of 6% in strength per body weight were related to a clinically relevant difference in WOMAC functional disability. Longitudinal studies will need to confirm these relationships within persons. Muscle extensor (and flexor) strength (per body weight) provided significant independent information in addition to pain in explaining variability in lower leg function. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Genetic perturbations that impair functional trait interactions lead to reduced bone strength and increased fragility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lauren M.; Bigelow, Erin M.R.; Nolan, Bonnie T.; Faillace, Meghan E.; Nadeau, Joseph H.; Jepsen, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Functional adaptation may complicate the choice of phenotype used in genetic studies that seek to identify genes contributing to fracture susceptibility. Often, genetic variants affecting one trait are compensated by coordinated changes in other traits. Bone fracture is a prototypic example because mechanical function of long bones (stiffness and strength) depends on how the system coordinately adjusts the amount (cortical area) and quality (tissue-mineral density, TMD) of bone tissue to mechanically offset the natural variation in bone robustness (total area/length). We propose that efforts aimed at identifying genes regulating fracture resistance will benefit from better understanding how functional adaptation contributes to the genotype-phenotype relationship. We analyzed the femurs of C57BL/6J – ChrA/J/NaJ Chromosome Substitution Strains (CSSs) to systemically interrogate the mouse genome for chromosomes harboring genes that regulate mechanical function. These CSSs (CSS-i, i = the substituted chromosome) showed changes in mechanical function on the order of -26.6 to 11.5% relative to the B6 reference strain after adjusting for body size. Seven substitutions showed altered robustness, cortical area, or TMD, but no effect on mechanical function (CSS-4, 5, 8, 9, 17, 18, 19); six substitutions showed altered robustness, cortical area, or TMD, and reduced mechanical function (CSS-1, 2, 6, 10, 12, 15); and one substitution also showed reduced mechanical function but exhibited no significant changes in the three physical traits analyzed in this study (CSS-3). A key feature that distinguished CSSs that maintained function from those with reduced function was whether the system adjusted cortical area and TMD to the levels needed to compensate for the natural variation in bone robustness. These results provide a novel biomechanical mechanism linking genotype with phenotype, indicating that genes control function not only by regulating individual traits, but also by

  14. Screen-based sedentary behavior and associations with functional strength in 6-15 year-old children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Lisa R; Mathias, Kevin C; Fulgoni, Victor L; Karagounis, Leonidas G

    2016-02-04

    Physical strength is associated with improved health outcomes in children. Heavier children tend to have lower functional strength and mobility. Physical activity can increase children's strength, but it is unknown how different types of electronic media use impact physical strength. Data from the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) from children ages 6-15 were analyzed in this study. Regression models were conducted to determine if screen-based sedentary behaviors (television viewing time, computer/video game time) were associated with strength measures (grip, leg extensions, modified pull-ups, plank) while controlling for potential confounders including child age, sex, BMI z-score, and days per week with 60+ minutes of physical activity. Grip strength and leg extensions divided by body weight were analyzed to provide measures of relative strength together with pull-ups and plank, which require lifting the body. The results from the regression models showed the hypothesized inverse association between TV time and all strength measures. Computer time was only significantly inversely associated with the ability to do one or more pull-ups. This study shows that television viewing, but not computer/videogames, is inversely associated with measures of child strength while controlling for child characteristics and physical activity. These findings suggest that "screen time" may not be a unified construct with respect to strength outcomes and that further exploration of the potential benefits of reducing television time on children's strength and related mobility is needed.

  15. Effects of eccentric-focused and conventional resistance training on strength and functional capacity of older adults.

    PubMed

    Dias, Caroline Pieta; Toscan, Rafael; de Camargo, Mainara; Pereira, Evelyn Possobom; Griebler, Nathália; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of eccentric training using a constant load with longer exposure time at the eccentric phase on knee extensor muscle strength and functional capacity of elderly subjects in comparison with a conventional resistance training program. Twenty-six healthy elderly women (age = 67 ± 6 years) were randomly assigned to an eccentric-focused training group (ETG; n = 13) or a conventional training group (CTG; n = 13). Subjects underwent 12 weeks of resistance training twice a week. For the ETG, concentric and eccentric phases were performed using 1.5 and 4.5 s, respectively, while for CTG, each phase lasted 1.5 s. Maximum dynamic strength was assessed by the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test in the leg press and knee extension exercises, and for functional capacity, subjects performed specific tests (6-m walk test, timed up-and-go test, stair-climbing test, and chair-rising test). Both groups improved knee extension 1RM (24-26 %; p = 0.021), timed up-and-go test (11-16 %; p < 0.001), 6-m walk test (9-12 %; p = 0.004), stair-climbing test (8-13 %; p = 0.007), and chair-rising test (15-16 %; p < 0.001), but there was no significant difference between groups. In conclusion, the strategy of increasing the exposure time at the eccentric phase of movement using the same training volume and intensity does not promote different adaptations in strength or functional capacity compared to conventional resistance training in elderly woman.

  16. Influence of Porous Spherical-Shaped Hydroxyapatite on Mechanical Strength and Bioactive Function of Conventional Glass Ionomer Cement.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Szu-Yu; Shinonaga, Yukari; Abe, Yoko; Harada, Kyoko; Arita, Kenji

    2017-01-03

    Glass-ionomer-cement (GIC) is helpful in Minimal Intervention Dentistry because it releases fluoride ions and is highly biocompatible. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms by which hydroxyapatite (HAp) improves the mechanical strength and bioactive functioning of GIC when these materials are combined to make apatite ionomer cement (AIC). A conventional GIC powder was mixed with porous, spherical-HAp particles (HApS), crystalline HAp (HAp200) or one of two types of cellulose. The micro-compressive strengths of the additive particles were measured, and various specimens were evaluated with regard to their compressive strengths (CS), fluoride release concentrations (fluoride electrode) and multi-element release concentrations. The AIC was found to release higher concentrations of fluoride (1.2 times) and strontium ions (1.5 times) compared to the control GIC. It was detected the more release of calcium originated from HApS than HAp200 in AIC. The CS of the AIC incorporating an optimum level of HAp was also significantly higher than that of the GIC. These results suggest that adding HAp can increase the release concentration of ions required for remineralization while maintaining the CS of the GIC. This effect does not result from a physical phenomenon, but rather from chemical reactions between the HAp and polyacrylic acid of GIC.

  17. Influence of Porous Spherical-Shaped Hydroxyapatite on Mechanical Strength and Bioactive Function of Conventional Glass Ionomer Cement

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Szu-Yu; Shinonaga, Yukari; Abe, Yoko; Harada, Kyoko; Arita, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Glass-ionomer-cement (GIC) is helpful in Minimal Intervention Dentistry because it releases fluoride ions and is highly biocompatible. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms by which hydroxyapatite (HAp) improves the mechanical strength and bioactive functioning of GIC when these materials are combined to make apatite ionomer cement (AIC). A conventional GIC powder was mixed with porous, spherical-HAp particles (HApS), crystalline HAp (HAp200) or one of two types of cellulose. The micro-compressive strengths of the additive particles were measured, and various specimens were evaluated with regard to their compressive strengths (CS), fluoride release concentrations (fluoride electrode) and multi-element release concentrations. The AIC was found to release higher concentrations of fluoride (1.2 times) and strontium ions (1.5 times) compared to the control GIC. It was detected the more release of calcium originated from HApS than HAp200 in AIC. The CS of the AIC incorporating an optimum level of HAp was also significantly higher than that of the GIC. These results suggest that adding HAp can increase the release concentration of ions required for remineralization while maintaining the CS of the GIC. This effect does not result from a physical phenomenon, but rather from chemical reactions between the HAp and polyacrylic acid of GIC. PMID:28772386

  18. Effect of eccentric strengthening on pain, muscle strength, endurance, and functional fitness factors in male patients with achilles tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yu, JaeHo; Park, DaeSung; Lee, GyuChang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eccentric strengthening on pain, muscle strength, endurance, and functional fitness factors in Achilles tendinopathy patients. Thirty-two male patients with Achilles tendinopathy were assigned to either the experimental group that performed eccentric strengthening or the control group that performed concentric strengthening (n = 16, both groups) for 8 wks (50 mins per day, three times per week). A visual analog scale, an isokinetic muscle testing equipment, the side-step test, and the Sargent jump test were used to assess pain, muscle strength, endurance, and functional fitness factors before and after the intervention. In comparison with the control group, the experimental group showed significant improvement in pain, ankle dorsiflexion endurance, total balance index, and agility after the intervention (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in dexterity between the two groups. Eccentric strengthening was more effective than concentric strengthening in reducing pain and improving function in patients with Achilles tendinopathy; therefore, regular eccentric strengthening is important for patients in a clinical setting.

  19. The Effect of Glenohumeral Internal-Rotation Deficit on Functional Rotator-Strength Ratio in Adolescent Overhead Athletes.

    PubMed

    Guney, Hande; Harput, Gulcan; Colakoglu, Filiz; Baltaci, Gul

    2016-02-01

    Glenohumeral (GH) internal-rotation deficit (GIRD) and lower eccentric external-rotator (ER) to concentric internal-rotator (IR) strength (ER:IR) ratio have been documented as risk factors for shoulder injuries, but there is no information on whether GIRD has an adverse effect on ER:IR ratio in adolescent overhead athletes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GIRD on functional ER:IR ratio of the adolescent overhead athletes. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. 52 adolescent overhead athletes. To determine GIRD, the range of GH IR and ER motion was measured with a digital inclinometer. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess eccentric and concentric IR and ER muscle strength of the dominant and nondominant shoulders. One-way ANCOVA where sport type was set as a covariate was used to analyze the difference between athletes with and without GIRD. After standardized examinations of all shoulders, the athletes were divided into 2 groups, shoulders with (n = 27) and without GIRD (n = 25). There was a significant difference between groups in functional ER:IR ratio (P < .001). Athletes with GIRD had lower ER:IR ratio (0.56) than athletes without GIRD (0.83). As GIRD has an adverse effect on functional ratio of the shoulder-rotator muscles, interventions for adolescent overhead athletes should include improving GH-rotation range of motion.

  20. Effect of anaemia on hand grip strength, walking speed, functionality and 1 year mortality in older hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Etienne; Detroyer, Elke; Milisen, Koen

    2016-08-19

    Anaemia is a common problem in hospitalized older patients and is recognized as a risk factor for a significant number of adverse outcomes. Data of the effect of anaemia on functional status during hospitalization and mortality after discharge are limited. Aim of the study is to examine whether there is an association between anaemia, hand grip strength, gait speed and basic activities of daily living (ADL) during hospitalization and mortality 1 year after discharge in geriatric patients. In a prospective study, data on age, sex, body mass index, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), main clinical diagnosis, number of comorbidities, hand grip strength, gait speed, ADL, haemoglobin, C-reactive protein and estimated Glomerular filtration ratio (eGFR) were recorded in 220 older patients, admitted to the acute geriatric ward of a university hospital. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin level <13 g/dL for men and <12 g/dL for women and was further specified into severe (haemoglobin level <10 g/dL for both men and women) and moderate anaemia (haemoglobin between 10 and 12 g/dL for women and 10 and 13 g/dL for men). Gait speed (in meters per second) was calculated after a 4.5 m walk and hand grip strength (in kilogram) was assessed with a hydraulic hand dynamometer. Functionality was assessed in the six basic activities of daily living. Information about the vital status was obtained 1 year after discharge with a telephone call. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the effect of the anaemia status on the walking speed, hand grip strength and premorbid ADL index and logistic regression analysis was used to examine whether anaemia could be identified as risk factors for mortality 12 months after discharge. Overall, 106 (48 %) patients had anaemia. Hand-grip strength, gait speed and ADL score were not significantly different between anaemic and non-anaemic hospitalized geriatric patients. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, eGFR, MMSE

  1. Strength in numbers? Cognitive reappraisal tendencies and psychological functioning among Latinos in the context of oppression.

    PubMed

    Soto, José A; Armenta, Brian E; Perez, Christopher R; Zamboanga, Byron L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Lee, Richard M; Schwartz, Seth J; Park, Irene J K; Huynh, Que-Lam; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Le, Thao N; Ham, Lindsay S

    2012-10-01

    The typically positive relationship between cognitive reappraisal and psychological functioning may be nullified for Latinos embedded within multiple contexts of oppression (Perez & Soto, 2011). Multiply oppressive contexts are characterized by exposure to oppression at a societal level (distal oppression), in the immediate environment (proximal oppression), and at an individual level (personal oppression). We replicated and extended Perez and Soto's (2011) findings by examining whether the reappraisal-psychological functioning association was moderated by (a) relative numerical representation of Latinos within the environment (proximal oppression) and (b) personal perceptions of discrimination (personal oppression) among 425 Latino college students throughout the United States. For Latinos in high-Latino counties, greater use of reappraisal was associated with better psychological functioning, regardless of perceived discrimination; this relationship was absent for Latinos in low-Latino counties who perceived greater discrimination. Findings highlight the importance of considering how contextual factors can alter the adaptive functions of emotion regulation strategies.

  2. Korean consumers' perceptions of health/functional food claims according to the strength of scientific evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Eun Jin; Kwon, Oran

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated that consumers could differentiate between levels of claims and clarify how a visual aid influences consumer understanding of the different claim levels. We interviewed 2,000 consumers in 13 shopping malls on their perception of and confidence in different levels of health claims using seven point scales. The average confidence scores given by participants were 4.17 for the probable level and 4.07 for the possible level; the score for the probable level was significantly higher than that for the possible level (P < 0.05). Scores for confidence in claims after reading labels with and without a visual aid were 5.27 and 4.43, respectively; the score for labeling with a visual aid was significantly higher than for labeling without a visual aid (P < 0.01). Our results provide compelling evidence that providing health claims with qualifying language differentiating levels of scientific evidence can help consumers understand the strength of scientific evidence behind those claims. Moreover, when a visual aid was included, consumers perceived the scientific levels more clearly and had greater confidence in their meanings than when a visual aid was not included. Although this result suggests that consumers react differently to different claim levels, it is not yet clear whether consumers understand the variations in the degree of scientific support. PMID:21103090

  3. The beetle elytron plate: a lightweight, high-strength and buffering functional-structural bionic material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Xie, Juan; Chen, Jinxiang; Okabe, Yoji; Pan, Longcheng; Xu, Mengye

    2017-06-30

    To investigate the characteristics of compression, buffering and energy dissipation in beetle elytron plates (BEPs), compression experiments were performed on BEPs and honeycomb plates (HPs) with the same wall thickness in different core structures and using different molding methods. The results are as follows: 1) The compressive strength and energy dissipation capacity in the BEP are 2.44 and 5.0 times those in the HP, respectively, when the plates are prepared using the full integrated method (FIM). 2) The buckling stress is directly proportional to the square of the wall thickness (t). Thus, for core structures with equal wall thicknesses, although the core volume of the BEP is 42 percent greater than that of the HP, the mechanical properties of the BEP are several times higher than those of the HP. 3) It is also proven that even when the single integrated method (SIM) is used to prepare BEPs, the properties discussed above remain superior to those of HPs by a factor of several; this finding lays the foundation for accelerating the commercialization of BEPs based on modern manufacturing processes.

  4. Genetic randomization reveals functional relationships among morphologic and tissue-quality traits that contribute to bone strength and fragility

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bin; Tommasini, Steven M.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Price, Christopher; Terranova, Carl J.; Nadeau, Joseph H.

    2007-01-01

    We examined femora from adult AXB/BXA recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to identify skeletal traits that are functionally related and to determine how functional interactions among these traits contribute to genetic variability in whole-bone stiffness, strength, and toughness. Randomization of A/J and C57BL/6J genomic regions resulted in each adult male and female RI strain building mechanically functional femora by assembling unique sets of morphologic and tissue-quality traits. A correlation analysis was conducted using the mean trait values for each RI strain. A third of the 66 correlations examined were significant, indicating that many bone traits covaried or were functionally related. Path analysis revealed important functional interactions among bone slenderness, cortical thickness, and tissue mineral density. The path coefficients describing these functional relations were similar for both sexes. The causal relationship among these three traits suggested that cellular processes during growth simultaneously regulate bone slenderness, cortical thickness, and tissue mineral density so that the combination of traits is sufficiently stiff and strong to satisfy daily loading demands. A disadvantage of these functional interactions was that increases in tissue mineral density also deleteriously affected tissue ductility. Consequently, slender bones with high mineral density may be stiff and strong but they are also brittle. Thus, genetically randomized mouse strains revealed a basic biological paradigm that allows for flexibility in building bones that are functional for daily activities but that creates preferred sets of traits under extreme loading conditions. Genetic or environmental perturbations that alter these functional interactions during growth would be expected to lead to loss of function and suboptimal adult bone quality. PMID:17557179

  5. Project FOOTPRINT: Substation modeling and simulations for E1 pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Scott D.; Larson, D. J.; Kirkendall, B. A.

    This report includes a presentation with an: Introduction to CW coupling; Introduction to single-pulse coupling; Description of E1 waveforms; Structures in a substation yard --articulated (as part of the substation's defined electrical functionality)--unarticulated (not as part of the substation's defined electrical functionality); Coupling --electrical coupling (capacitive coupling) --magnetic coupling (inductive coupling); Connectivity to long-line transmission lines; Control infrastructure; Summary; and References.

  6. [Case-control study on the effect of core strength training on the function of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Zheng, Song; Cai, Zhen-Hai; Wang, Yue-Li; Zeng, Ming

    2017-08-25

    To observe the effect of core strength training on knee joint function and postural stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). A total of 80 ACLR patients were randomly allocated into conventional rehabilitation training group and core strength training group from May 2013 to May 2015 with 40 patients in each group. The patients in conventional rehabilitation training group underwent conventional ACLR rehabilitation training, in which 28 males and 12 females. The mean age was(30.5±5.2) years old(ranged, 22 to 42 years old). The mean BMI was(23.8±2.4) kg/m²(ranged, 18.2 to 25.9 kg/m²). Thirty patients had injuries on the dominant side and 10 patients had injuries on the non-dominant side. The core strength training group received conventional ACLR rehabilitation training and core strength training, in which 31 males and 9 females. The mean age was(31.1±4.8) years old(ranged, 21 to 45 years old). The mean BMI was(24.1±2.7) kg/m²(ranged, 18.5 to 26.1 kg/m²) . Twenty-seven patients had injuries on the dominant side and 13 patients had injuries on the non-dominant side. The Lysholm score, tibial anterior transition measured by KT-1000 before and after treatment, and the Star Excursion Balance Test results after treatment were compared between the two groups. Six months after rehabilitation training, the tibial anterior transition of the conventional rehabilitation training group and the core strength training group were(3.4±1.0) mm and(3.3±1.2) mm respectively, which were less than(12.1±1.8) mm and(12.5±2.0) mm before treatment. But there was no significant difference in anterior tibial translation between two groups( P >0.05). The Lysholm score of the conventional rehabilitation training group and the core strength training group were 91.8±4.3 and 92.1±3.9 individually, which were higher than 69.2±5.8 and 70.2±5.1 before treatment. But there was no significant difference in Lysholm score between two groups( P >0.05). Six months

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOMETRIC THIGH MUSCLE STRENGTH AND MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES (MCIDS) IN KNEE FUNCTION IN OSTEOARTHRITIS – DATA FROM THE OSTEOARTHRITIS INITIATIVE

    PubMed Central

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between thigh muscle strength and clinically relevant differences in self-assessed lower limb function. Methods Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength of 4553 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants (2651 women/1902 men) was related to Western Ontario McMasters Universities (WOMAC) physical function scores by linear regression. Further, groups of Male and female participant strata with minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) in WOMAC function scores (6/68) were compared across the full range of observed values, and to participants without functional deficits (WOMAC=0). The effect of WOMAC knee pain and body mass index on the above relationships was explored using stepwise regression. Results Per regression equations, a 3.7% reduction in extensor and a 4.0% reduction in flexor strength were associated with an MCID in WOMAC function in women, and a 3.6%/4.8% reduction in men. For strength divided by body weight, reductions were 5.2%/6.7% in women and 5.8%/6.7% in men. Comparing MCID strata across the full observed range of WOMAC function confirmed the above estimates and did not suggest non-linear relationships across the spectrum of observed values. WOMAC pain correlated strongly with WOMAC function, but extensor (and flexor) muscle strength contributed significant independent information. Conclusion Reductions of approximately 4% in isometric muscle strength and of 6% in strength/weight were related to a clinically relevant difference in WOMAC functional disability. Longitudinal studies will need to confirm these relationships within persons. Muscle extensor (and flexor) strength (per body weight) provided significant independent information in addition to pain in explaining variability in lower limb function. PMID:25303012

  8. Using Anisotropic 3D Minkowski Functionals for Trabecular Bone Characterization and Biomechanical Strength Prediction in Proximal Femur Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; De, Titas; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Eckstein, Felix; Wismüller, Axel

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Anisotropic Minkowski Functionals (AMFs) to capture local anisotropy while evaluating topological properties of the underlying gray-level structures has been previously demonstrated. We evaluate the ability of this approach to characterize local structure properties of trabecular bone micro-architecture in ex vivo proximal femur specimens, as visualized on multi-detector CT, for purposes of biomechanical bone strength prediction. To this end, volumetric AMFs were computed locally for each voxel of volumes of interest (VOI) extracted from the femoral head of 146 specimens. The local anisotropy captured by such AMFs was quantified using a fractional anisotropy measure; the magnitude and direction of anisotropy at every pixel was stored in histograms that served as a feature vectors that characterized the VOIs. A linear multi-regression analysis algorithm was used to predict the failure load (FL) from the feature sets; the predicted FL was compared to the true FL determined through biomechanical testing. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each feature set. The best prediction performance was obtained from the fractional anisotropy histogram of AMF Euler Characteristic (RMSE = 1.01 ± 0.13), which was significantly better than MDCT-derived mean BMD (RMSE = 1.12 ± 0.16, p<0.05). We conclude that such anisotropic Minkowski Functionals can capture valuable information regarding regional trabecular bone quality and contribute to improved bone strength prediction, which is important for improving the clinical assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. PMID:29170581

  9. Adolescents with a history of specific language impairment (SLI): strengths and difficulties in social, emotional and behavioral functioning.

    PubMed

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Mok, Pearl L H; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) are at a greater risk of emotional and behavioral problems compared to their typically developing (TD) peers, but little is known about their self-perceived strengths and difficulties. In this study, the self-reported social, emotional and behavioral functioning of 139 adolescents with a history of SLI and 124 TD individuals at age 16 was examined. The self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess their prosocial behavior and levels of peer, emotional and behavioral difficulties. Associations of these areas of functioning with gender, verbal and non-verbal skills were also investigated. Adolescents with a history of SLI were more likely than their TD peers to report higher levels of peer problems, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity and conduct problems. The majority of adolescents in both groups (87% SLI and 96% TD), however, reported prosocial behavior within the typical range. Difficulty with peer relations was the strongest differentiator between the groups, with the odds of reporting borderline or abnormally high levels of peer problems being 12 times higher for individuals with a history of SLI. Adolescents with poorer receptive language skills were also more likely to report higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties. The findings of this study identify likely traits that may lead to referral to services. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogen bonding strength of diblock copolymers affects the self-assembled structures with octa-functionalized phenol POSS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Syuan; Yu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Yung-Chih; Kuo, Shiao-Wei

    2016-02-28

    In this study, the influence of the functional groups by the diblock copolymers of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP), poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), and poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) on their blends with octa-functionalized phenol polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (OP-POSS) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated. The relative hydrogen bonding strengths in these blends follow the order PS-b-P4VP/OP-POSS > PS-b-P2VP/OP-POSS > PS-b-PMMA/OP-POSS based on the Kwei equation from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopic analyses show that the morphologies of the self-assembly structures are strongly dependent on the hydrogen bonding strength at relatively higher OP-POSS content. The PS-b-P4VP/OP-POSS hybrid complex system with the strongest hydrogen bonds shows the order-order transition from lamellae to cylinders and finally to body-centered cubic spheres upon increasing OP-POSS content. However, PS-b-P2VP/OP-POSS and PS-b-PMMA/OP-POSS hybrid complex systems, having relatively weaker hydrogen bonds, transformed from lamellae to cylinder structures at lower OP-POSS content (<50 wt%), but formed disordered structures at relatively high OP-POSS contents (>50 wt%).

  11. Trade-off between the Mechanical Strength and Microwave Electrical Properties of Functionalized and Irradiated Carbon Nanotube Sheets.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tiffany S; Orloff, Nathan D; Baker, James S; Miller, Sandi G; Natarajan, Bharath; Obrzut, Jan; McCorkle, Linda S; Lebron-Colón, Marisabel; Gaier, James; Meador, Michael A; Liddle, J Alexander

    2016-04-13

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets represent a novel implementation of CNTs that enable the tailoring of electrical and mechanical properties for applications in the automotive and aerospace industries. Small molecule functionalization and postprocessing techniques, such as irradiation with high-energy particles, are methods that can enhance the mechanical properties of CNTs. However, the effect that these modifications have on the electrical conduction mechanisms has not been extensively explored. By characterizing the mechanical and electrical properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheets with different functional groups and irradiation doses, we can expand our insights into the extent of the trade-off that exists between mechanical strength and electrical conductivity for commercially available CNT sheets. Such insights allow for the optimization of design pathways for engineering applications that require a balance of material property enhancements.

  12. Acetabular shell deformation as a function of shell stiffness and bone strength.

    PubMed

    Dold, Philipp; Pandorf, Thomas; Flohr, Markus; Preuss, Roman; Bone, Martin C; Joyce, Tom J; Holland, James; Deehan, David

    2016-04-01

    Press-fit acetabular shells used for hip replacement rely upon an interference fit with the bone to provide initial stability. This process may result in deformation of the shell. This study aimed to model shell deformation as a process of shell stiffness and bone strength. A cohort of 32 shells with two different wall thicknesses (3 and 4 mm) and 10 different shell sizes (44- to 62-mm outer diameter) were implanted into eight cadavers. Shell deformation was then measured in the cadavers using a previously validated ATOS Triple Scan III optical system. The shell-bone interface was then considered as a spring system according to Hooke's law and from this the force exerted on the shell by the bone was calculated using a combined stiffness consisting of the measured shell stiffness and a calculated bone stiffness. The median radial stiffness for the 3-mm wall thickness was 4192 N/mm (range, 2920-6257 N/mm), while for the 4-mm wall thickness the median was 9633 N/mm (range, 6875-14,341 N/mm). The median deformation was 48 µm (range, 3-187 µm), while the median force was 256 N (range, 26-916 N). No statistically significant correlation was found between shell stiffness and deformation. Deformation was also found to be not fully symmetric (centres 180° apart), with a median angle discrepancy of 11.5° between the two maximum positive points of deformation. Further work is still required to understand how the bone influences acetabular shell deformation. © IMechE 2016.

  13. Strengths and Weaknesses in Executive Functioning in Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielsson, Henrik; Henry, Lucy; Messer, David; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2012-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) were given a comprehensive range of executive functioning measures, which systematically varied in terms of verbal and non-verbal demands. Their performance was compared to the performance of groups matched on mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA), respectively. Twenty-two children were included in…

  14. Role of executive functions in prospective memory in multiple sclerosis: Impact of the strength of cue-action association.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Emmanuelle; Rouleau, Isabelle; Tremblay, Alexandra; Demers, Mélanie; Roger, Élaine; Jobin, Céline; Duquette, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) often report prospective memory (PM) deficits. Although PM is important for daily functioning, it is not formally assessed in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to examine the role of executive functions in MS patients' PM revealed by the effect of strength of cue-action association on PM performance. Thirty-nine MS patients were compared to 18 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education on a PM task modulating the strength of association between the cue and the intended action. Deficits in MS patients affecting both prospective and retrospective components of PM were confirmed using 2 × 2 × 2 mixed analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Among patients, multiple regression analyses revealed that the impairment was modulated by the efficiency of executive functions, whereas retrospective memory seemed to have little impact on PM performance, contrary to expectation. More specifically, results of 2 × 2 × 2 mixed-model analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) showed that low-executive patients had more difficulty detecting and, especially, retrieving the appropriate action when the cue and the action were unrelated, whereas high-executive patients' performance seemed to be virtually unaffected by the cue-action association. Using an objective measure, these findings confirm the presence of PM deficits in MS. They also suggest that such deficits depend on executive functioning and can be reduced when automatic PM processes are engaged through semantic cue-action association. They underscore the importance of assessing PM in clinical settings through a cognitive evaluation and offer an interesting avenue for rehabilitation.

  15. Quadriceps Strength Asymmetry After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Alters Knee Joint Biomechanics and Functional Performance at Time of Return to Activity.

    PubMed

    Palmieri-Smith, Riann M; Lepley, Lindsey K

    2015-07-01

    Quadriceps strength deficits are observed clinically after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction and are often not overcome despite rehabilitation. Given that quadriceps strength may be important for achieving symmetrical joint biomechanics and promoting long-term joint health, determining the magnitude of strength deficits that lead to altered mechanics is critical. To determine if the magnitude of quadriceps strength asymmetry alters knee and hip biomechanical symmetry as well as functional performance and self-reported function. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 73 patients were tested at the time they were cleared for return to activity after ACL reconstruction. Quadriceps strength and activation, scores on the International Knee Documentation Committee form, the hop for distance test, and sagittal plane lower extremity biomechanics were recorded while patients completed a single-legged hop. Patients with high and moderate quadriceps strength symmetry had larger central activation ratios as well as greater limb symmetry indices on the hop for distance compared with patients with low quadriceps strength symmetry (P < .05). Similarly, knee flexion angle and external moment symmetry were higher in the patients with high and moderate quadriceps symmetry compared with those with low symmetry (P < .05). Quadriceps strength was found to be associated with sagittal plane knee angle and moment symmetry (P < .05). Patients with low quadriceps strength displayed greater movement asymmetries at the knee in the sagittal plane. Quadriceps strength was related to movement asymmetries and functional performance. Rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction needs to focus on maximizing quadriceps strength, which likely will lead to more symmetrical knee biomechanics. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Influence of Hip Abductor Strength on Functional Outcomes Before and After Total Knee Arthroplasty: Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Loyd, Brian J; Jennings, Jason M; Judd, Dana L; Kim, Raymond H; Wolfe, Pamela; Dennis, Douglas A; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E

    2017-09-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with declines in hip abductor (HA) muscle strength; however, a longitudinal analysis demonstrating the influence of TKA on trajectories of HA strength change has not been conducted. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in HA strength from pre-TKA through 3 months post-TKA and to characterize the relationship between HA strength changes and physical performance. This study is a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Data from 162 participants (89 women, mean age = 63 y) were used for analysis. Data were collected by masked assessors preoperatively and at 1 and 3 months following surgery. Outcomes included: Timed "Up and Go" test (TUG), Stair Climbing Test (SCT), Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and walking speed. Paired t tests were used for between- and within-limb comparisons of HA strength. Multivariable regression was used to determine contributions of independent variables, HA and knee extensor strength, to the dependent variables of TUG, SCT, 6MWT, and walking speed at each time point. Hip abductor strength was significantly lower in the surgical limb pre-TKA (mean = 0.015; 95% CI = 0.010-0.020), 1 month post-TKA (0.028; 0.023-0.034), and 3 months post-TKA (0.02; 0.014-0.025) compared with the nonsurgical limb. Hip abductor strength declined from pre-TKA to 1 month post-TKA (18%), but not at the 3-month time point (0%). Hip abductor strength independently contributed to performance-based outcomes pre-TKA; however, this contribution was not observed post-TKA. The post hoc analysis prevents examining all outcomes likely to be influenced by HA strength. Surgical limb HA strength is impaired prior to TKA, and worsens following surgery. Furthermore, HA strength contributes to performance-based outcomes, supporting the hypothesis that HA strength influences functional recovery. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association

  17. Diaphragmatic mobility: relationship with lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Flávia Roberta; Brüggemann, Ana Karla Vieira; Francisco, Davi de Souza; Medeiros, Caroline Semprebom de; Rosal, Danielle; Paulin, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate diaphragmatic mobility in relation to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life (PADL) in patients with COPD. We included 25 patients with COPD, classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria, and 25 healthy individuals. For all of the participants, the following were evaluated: anthropometric variables, spirometric parameters, respiratory muscle strength, diaphragmatic mobility (by X-ray), PADL, and the perception of dyspnea. In the COPD group, diaphragmatic mobility was found to correlate with lung function variables, inspiratory muscle strength, and the perception of dyspnea, whereas it did not correlate with expiratory muscle strength or PADL. In patients with COPD, diaphragmatic mobility seems to be associated with airway obstruction and lung hyperinflation, as well as with ventilatory capacity and the perception of dyspnea, although not with PADL. Avaliar a relação da mobilidade diafragmática com a função pulmonar, força muscular respiratória, dispneia e atividade física de vida diária (AFVD) em pacientes com DPOC. Foram avaliados 25 pacientes com diagnóstico de DPOC, classificados de acordo com critérios da Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, e 25 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos foram submetidos às seguintes avaliações: mensuração antropométrica, espirometria, força muscular respiratória, mobilidade diafragmática (por radiografia), AFVD e percepção de dispneia. No grupo DPOC, houve correlações da mobilidade diafragmática com variáveis de função pulmonar, força muscular inspiratória e percepção de dispneia. Não houve correlações da mobilidade diafragmática com força muscular expiratória e AFVD. A mobilidade diafragmática parece estar associada tanto com a obstrução das vias aéreas quanto com a hiperinsuflação pulmonar em pacientes com DPOC, assim como com a capacidade ventilatória e percep

  18. Knee joint laxity does not moderate the relationship between quadriceps strength and physical function in knee osteoarthritis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Altubasi, Ibrahim M

    2018-06-07

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common and a disabling musculoskeletal disorder. Patients with knee osteoarthritis have activity limitations which are linked to the strength of the quadriceps muscle. Previous research reported that the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function is moderated by the level of knee joint frontal plane laxity. The purpose of the current study is to reexamine the moderation effect of the knee joint laxity as measured by stress radiographs on the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function. One-hundred and sixty osteoarthritis patients participated in this cross-sectional study. Isometric quadriceps muscle strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Self-rated and performance-based physical function were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function subscale and Get Up and Go test, respectively. Stress radiographs which were taken while applying varus and valgus loads to knee using the TELOS device. Knee joint laxity was determined by measuring the distance between joint surfaces on the medial and lateral sides. Hierarchical multiple regression models were constructed to study the moderation effect of laxity on the strength function relationship. Two regression models were constructed for self-rated and performance-based function. After controlling for demographics, strength contributed significantly in the models. The addition of laxity and laxity-strength interaction did not add significant contributions in the regression models. Frontal plane knee joint laxity measured by stress radiographs does not moderate the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of Muscle Endurance, Fatigability, and Strength With Functional Limitation and Mortality in the Health Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushang V.; Fried, Linda F.; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Boer, Ian H.; Harris, Tamara; Murphy, Rachel A.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Shlipak, Michael; Newman, Anne B.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mobility limitation is highly prevalent among older adults and is central to the loss of functional independence. Dynamic isokinetic muscle fatigue testing may reveal increased vulnerability to disability and mortality beyond strength testing. Methods: We studied community-dwelling older adults enrolled in the Health Aging and Body Composition study (age range: 71–82) free of mobility disability and who underwent isokinetic muscle fatigue testing in 1999–2000 (n = 1,963). Isokinetic quadriceps work and fatigue index was determined over 30 repetitions and compared with isometric quadriceps maximum torque. Work was normalized to leg lean mass accounting for gender-specific differences (specific work). The primary outcome was incident persistent severe lower extremity limitation (PSLL), defined as two consecutive reports of either having a lot of difficulty or being unable to walk 1/4 mile or climb 10 steps without resting. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. Results: There were 608 (31%) occurrences of incident PSLL and 488 (25%) deaths during median follow-up of 9.3 years. After adjustment, lower isokinetic work was associated with significantly greater risks of PSLL and mortality across the full measured range. Hazard ratios per standard deviation lower specific isokinetic work were 1.22 (95% CI 1.12, 1.33) for PSLL and 1.21 (95% CI 1.13, 1.30) for mortality, respectively. Lower isometric strength was associated with PSLL, but not mortality. Fatigue index was not associated with PSLL or mortality. Conclusions: Muscle endurance, estimated by isokinetic work, is an indicator of muscle health associated with mobility limitation and mortality providing important insight beyond strength testing. PMID:27907890

  20. Short-term effects of upper extremity circuit resistance training on muscle strength and functional independence in patients with paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Adem; Sürücü, Gülseren Dost; Karamercan, Ayşe; Gedik, Dilay Eken; Atci, Nermin; Dülgeroǧlu, Deniz; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2016-11-21

    A number of exercises to strengthen the upper extremities are recommended to increase functional independence and quality of life (QoL) in patients with paraplegia. Circuit resistance training (CRT) is a type of progressive resistive exercise performed repeatedly at fixed mechanical exercise stations. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of CRT for upper extremity muscle strength, functional independence, and QoL in patients with paraplegia. Twenty-six patients with paraplegia who were participating in a conventional rehabilitation program at a tertiary education and research hospital were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. The exercise group participated in the CRT program, which consisted of repetitive exercises for the upper extremities performed at fixed mechanical stations 5 sessions per week for 6 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Participants in the control group received only conventional rehabilitation over the same period. We compared the groups with respect to QoL, as well as isokinetic muscle test outcomes in the upper extremities, using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Borg's scale. We observed significant increases in scores on the physical component of the FIM, Borg's scale, and QoL in both the exercise and control groups. Furthermore, the large majority of isokinetic values were significantly more improved in the exercise group compared to the control group. When post-treatment outcomes were compared between the groups, improvements in scores on the physical component of the FIM and in most isokinetic values were significantly greater in the exercise group. This study showed that CRT has positive effects on muscle strength in the upper extremities and the physical disability components of the FIM when added to conventional rehabilitation programs for paraplegic patients. However, we observed no significant improvement in QoL scores after adding CRT

  1. Prostaglandin E2 is essential for efficacious skeletal muscle stem-cell function, augmenting regeneration and strength.

    PubMed

    Ho, Andrew T V; Palla, Adelaida R; Blake, Matthew R; Yucel, Nora D; Wang, Yu Xin; Magnusson, Klas E G; Holbrook, Colin A; Kraft, Peggy E; Delp, Scott L; Blau, Helen M

    2017-06-27

    Skeletal muscles harbor quiescent muscle-specific stem cells (MuSCs) capable of tissue regeneration throughout life. Muscle injury precipitates a complex inflammatory response in which a multiplicity of cell types, cytokines, and growth factors participate. Here we show that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an inflammatory cytokine that directly targets MuSCs via the EP4 receptor, leading to MuSC expansion. An acute treatment with PGE2 suffices to robustly augment muscle regeneration by either endogenous or transplanted MuSCs. Loss of PGE2 signaling by specific genetic ablation of the EP4 receptor in MuSCs impairs regeneration, leading to decreased muscle force. Inhibition of PGE2 production through nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration just after injury similarly hinders regeneration and compromises muscle strength. Mechanistically, the PGE2 EP4 interaction causes MuSC expansion by triggering a cAMP/phosphoCREB pathway that activates the proliferation-inducing transcription factor, Nurr1 Our findings reveal that loss of PGE2 signaling to MuSCs during recovery from injury impedes muscle repair and strength. Through such gain- or loss-of-function experiments, we found that PGE2 signaling acts as a rheostat for muscle stem-cell function. Decreased PGE2 signaling due to NSAIDs or increased PGE2 due to exogenous delivery dictates MuSC function, which determines the outcome of regeneration. The markedly enhanced and accelerated repair of damaged muscles following intramuscular delivery of PGE2 suggests a previously unrecognized indication for this therapeutic agent.

  2. In-season monitoring of hip and groin strength, health and function in elite youth soccer: Implementing an early detection and management strategy over two consecutive seasons.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Martin; Thorborg, Kristian; Welvaert, Marijke; Pizzari, Tania

    2018-03-14

    The primary purpose of this study was to describe an early detection and management strategy when monitoring in-season hip and groin strength, health and function in soccer. Secondly to compare pre-season to in-season test results. Longitudinal cohort study. Twenty-seven elite male youth soccer players (age: 15.07±0.73years) volunteered to participate in the study. Monitoring tests included: adductor strength, adductor/abductor strength ratio and hip and groin outcome scores (HAGOS). Data were recorded at pre-season and at 22 monthly intervals in-season. Thresholds for alerts to initiate further investigations were defined as any of the following: adductor strength reductions >15%, adductor/abductor strength ratio <0.90, and HAGOS subscale scores <75 out of 100 in any of the six subscales. Overall, 105 alerts were detected involving 70% of players. Strength related alerts comprised 40% and remaining 60% of alerts were related to HAGOS. Hip adductor strength and adductor/abductor strength ratio were lowest at pre-season testing and had increased significantly by month two (p<0.01, mean difference 0.26, CI95%: 0.12, 0.41N/kg and p<0.01, mean difference 0.09, CI95%: 0.04, 0.13 respectively). HAGOS subscale scores were lowest at baseline with all, except Physical Activity, showing significant improvements at time-point one (p<0.01). Most (87%) time-loss were classified minimal or mild. In-season monitoring aimed at early detection and management of hip and groin strength, health and function appears promising. Hip and groin strength, health and function improved quickly from pre-season to in-season in a high-risk population for ongoing hip and groin problems. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance on the Functional Movement Screen Is Related to Hop Performance But Not to Hip and Knee Strength in Collegiate Football Players.

    PubMed

    Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-03-01

    To define the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Cross-sectional cohort. Freshmen of a Division I collegiate American football team (n = 59). The athletes performed the FMS, and also a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength, and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS score, peak strength, and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman correlation coefficients quantified the relationships between these measures, and χ analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. We observed significant correlations (r = 0.38-0.56, P ≤ 0.02) between FMS scores and hop distance but not between FMS scores and hip or knee strength (all P ≥ 0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6-m hop (r = 0.44, P < 0.01) but not to hip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all P ≥ 0.34). Functional Movement Screen score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6-m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS score and hip and knee strength or between FMS asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time-efficient and cost-efficient alternative to FMS testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries.

  4. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Woods, Julie L; Iuliano-Burns, Sandra; King, Susannah J; Strauss, Boyd J; Walker, Karen Z

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care. Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years) participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by 'timed up and go' (TUG) and walking speed (WS) over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years) provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia. Elderly women had higher body mass index (P < 0.001), lower lean mass (P < 0.001), and higher fat mass (P < 0.01) than the young reference group. Only a small proportion (3.2%) had absolute sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared) whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass). Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01). Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted.

  5. Exploring the Associations Between Intrinsic Brain Connectivity and Creative Ability Using Functional Connectivity Strength and Connectome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenni; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Aiying; Liang, Bishan; Wang, Zengjian; Cai, Yuxuan; Li, Junchao; Gao, Mengxia; Liu, Xiaojin; Chang, Song; Jiao, Bingqing; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to explore the association between resting-state functional connectivity and creativity ability. Toward this end, the figural Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) scores were collected from 180 participants. Based on the figural TTCT measures, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data for participants with two different levels of creativity ability (a high-creativity group [HG, n = 22] and a low-creativity group [LG, n = 20]). For the aspect of group difference, this study combined voxel-wise functional connectivity strength (FCS) and seed-based functional connectivity to identify brain regions with group-change functional connectivity. Furthermore, the connectome properties of the identified regions and their associations with creativity were investigated using the permutation test, discriminative analysis, and brain-behavior correlation analysis. The results indicated that there were 4 regions with group differences in FCS, and these regions were linked to 30 other regions, demonstrating different functional connectivity between the groups. Together, these regions form a creativity-related network, and we observed higher network efficiency in the HG compared with the LG. The regions involved in the creativity network were widely distributed across the modality-specific/supramodality cerebral cortex, subcortex, and cerebellum. Notably, properties of regions in the supramodality networks (i.e., the default mode network and attention network) carried creativity-level discriminative information and were significantly correlated with the creativity performance. Together, these findings demonstrate a link between intrinsic brain connectivity and creative ability, which should provide new insights into the neural basis of creativity.

  6. Long-term functional results and isokinetic strength evaluation after arthroscopic tenotomy of the long head of biceps tendon

    PubMed Central

    The, Bertram; Brutty, Mike; Wang, Allan; Campbell, Peter T.; Halliday, Michael J. C.; Ackland, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical function of the upper arm after arthroscopic long head of biceps (LHB) tenotomy at long-term follow-up. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five male subjects ranging from 30 to 63 years old were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 7.0 years after tenotomy. Bilateral isokinetic testing was performed to obtain peak torque values, as well as total work done throughout the full range of elbow flexion and supination. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed nine unrecognized LHB ruptures in the contralateral arm, leaving 16 subjects to complete the testing protocol. The mean quickDASH score was 8.1 (standard error [SE] 2.5). The mean oxford elbow score was 97.9 (SE 1.6). The tenotomy arm recorded a decrease in peak flexion torque of 7.0% (confidence interval [CI] 1.2-12.8), and a decrease in the peak supination torque of 9.1% (CI 1.8-16.4) relative to the contralateral arm. The total work carried out through the full range of joint motion was reduced in elbow flexion by 5.1% (CI −1.3-11.4) and in forearm supination by 5.7% (CI-2.4-13.9). Discussion: Maximum strength in elbow flexion and forearm supination is significantly reduced compared with the contralateral arm. However, this impairment is partially compensated for by relatively greater strength sustained through the latter stages of joint motion. This results in comparable total work measurements between the tenotomised and contralateral side, potentially accounting for ongoing high levels of patient satisfaction and clinical function in the long term after LHB tenotomy. Level of Evidence IV: Case series without comparison group. PMID:25258498

  7. Long-term functional results and isokinetic strength evaluation after arthroscopic tenotomy of the long head of biceps tendon.

    PubMed

    The, Bertram; Brutty, Mike; Wang, Allan; Campbell, Peter T; Halliday, Michael J C; Ackland, Timothy R

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical function of the upper arm after arthroscopic long head of biceps (LHB) tenotomy at long-term follow-up. Twenty-five male subjects ranging from 30 to 63 years old were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 7.0 years after tenotomy. Bilateral isokinetic testing was performed to obtain peak torque values, as well as total work done throughout the full range of elbow flexion and supination. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed nine unrecognized LHB ruptures in the contralateral arm, leaving 16 subjects to complete the testing protocol. The mean quickDASH score was 8.1 (standard error [SE] 2.5). The mean oxford elbow score was 97.9 (SE 1.6). The tenotomy arm recorded a decrease in peak flexion torque of 7.0% (confidence interval [CI] 1.2-12.8), and a decrease in the peak supination torque of 9.1% (CI 1.8-16.4) relative to the contralateral arm. The total work carried out through the full range of joint motion was reduced in elbow flexion by 5.1% (CI -1.3-11.4) and in forearm supination by 5.7% (CI-2.4-13.9). Maximum strength in elbow flexion and forearm supination is significantly reduced compared with the contralateral arm. However, this impairment is partially compensated for by relatively greater strength sustained through the latter stages of joint motion. This results in comparable total work measurements between the tenotomised and contralateral side, potentially accounting for ongoing high levels of patient satisfaction and clinical function in the long term after LHB tenotomy. Case series without comparison group.

  8. Bending energy penalty enhances the adhesive strength of functional amyloid curli to surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Wang, Ao; DeBenedictis, Elizabeth P.; Keten, Sinan

    2017-11-01

    The functional amyloid curli fiber, a major proteinaceous component of biofilm extracellular matrices, plays an important role in biofilm formation and enterobacteriaceae adhesion. Curli nanofibers exhibit exceptional underwater adhesion to various surfaces, have high rigidity and strong tensile mechanical properties, and thus hold great promise in biomaterials. The mechanisms of how curli fibers strongly attach to surfaces and detach under force remain elusive. To investigate curli fiber adhesion to surfaces, we developed a coarse-grained curli fiber model, in which the protein subunit CsgA (curli specific gene A) self-assembles into the fiber. The coarse-grained model yields physiologically relevant and tunable bending rigidity and persistence length. The force-induced desorption of a single curli fiber is examined using coarse-grained modeling and theoretical analysis. We find that the bending energy penalty arising from high persistence length enhances the resistance of the curli fiber against desorption and thus strengthens the adhesion of the curli fiber to surfaces. The CsgA-surface adhesion energy and the curli fiber bending rigidity both play crucial roles in the resistance of curli fiber against desorption from surfaces. To enable the desorption process, the applied peeling force must overcome both the interfacial adhesion energy and the energy barrier for bending the curli fiber at the peeling front. We show that the energy barrier to desorption increases with the interfacial adhesion energy, however, the bending induced failure of a single curli fiber limits the work of adhesion if the proportion of the CsgA-surface adhesion energy to the CsgA-CsgA cohesive energy becomes large. These results illustrate that the optimal adhesion performance of nanofibers is dictated by the interplay between bending, surface energy and cohesive energy. Our model provides timely insight into enterobacteriaceae adhesion mechanisms as well as future designs of engineered

  9. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zeren, Melih; Demir, Rengin; Yigit, Zerrin; Gurses, Hulya N

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. Prospective randomized controlled single-blind study. Cardiology department of a university hospital. A total of 38 patients with permanent atrial fibrillation were randomly allocated to either a treatment group (n = 19; age 66.2 years (8.8)) or a control group (n = 19; age 67.1 years (6.4)). The training group received inspiratory muscle training at 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure for 15 minutes twice a day, 7 days a week, for 12 weeks alongside the standard medical treatment. The control group received standard medical treatment only. Spirometry, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and 6-minute walking distance was measured at the beginning and end of the study. There was a significant increase in maximal inspiratory pressure (27.94 cmH 2 O (8.90)), maximal expiratory pressure (24.53 cmH 2 O (10.34)), forced vital capacity (10.29% (8.18) predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (13.88% (13.42) predicted), forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (14.82% (12.44) predicted), peak expiratory flow (19.82% (15.62) predicted) and 6-minute walking distance (55.53 m (14.13)) in the training group (p < 0.01). No significant changes occurred in the control group (p > 0.05). Inspiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Non-elite gymnastics participation is associated with greater bone strength, muscle size, and function in pre- and early pubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Burt, L A; Naughton, G A; Greene, D A; Courteix, D; Ducher, G

    2012-04-01

    Recent reports indicate an increase in forearm fractures in children. Bone geometric properties are an important determinant of bone strength and therefore fracture risk. Participation in non-elite gymnastics appears to contribute to improving young girls' musculoskeletal health, more specifically in the upper body. The primary aim of this study was to determine the association between non-elite gymnastics participation and upper limb bone mass, geometry, and strength in addition to muscle size and function in young girls. Eighty-eight pre- and early pubertal girls (30 high-training gymnasts [HGYM, 6-16 hr/ wk], 29 low-training gymnasts [LGYM, 1-5 h r/wk] and 29 non-gymnasts [NONGYM]), aged 6-11 years were recruited. Upper limb lean mass, BMD and BMC were derived from a whole body DXA scan. Forearm volumetric BMD, bone geometry, estimated strength, and muscle CSA were determined using peripheral QCT. Upper body muscle function was investigated with muscle strength, explosive power, and muscle endurance tasks. HGYM showed greater forearm bone strength compared with NGYM, as well as greater arm lean mass, BMC, and muscle function (+5% to +103%, p < 0.05). LGYM displayed greater arm lean mass, BMC, muscle power, and endurance than NGYM (+4% to +46%, p < 0.05); however, the difference in bone strength did not reach significance. Estimated fracture risk at the distal radius, which accounted for body weight, was lower in both groups of gymnasts. Compared with NONGYM, HGYM tended to show larger skeletal differences than LGYM; yet, the two groups of gymnasts only differed for arm lean mass and muscle CSA. Non-elite gymnastics participation was associated with musculoskeletal benefits in upper limb bone geometry, strength and muscle function. Differences between the two gymnastic groups emerged for arm lean mass and muscle CSA, but not for bone strength.

  11. In hip osteoarthritis, Nordic Walking is superior to strength training and home-based exercise for improving function.

    PubMed

    Bieler, T; Siersma, V; Magnusson, S P; Kjaer, M; Christensen, H E; Beyer, N

    2017-08-01

    This observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial compared the short- and long-term effects of 4 months of supervised strength training (ST) in a local fitness center, supervised Nordic Walking (NW) in a local park, and unsupervised home-based exercise (HBE, control) on functional performance in 60+-year-old persons (n = 152) with hip osteoarthritis (OA) not awaiting hip replacement. Functional performance [i.e., 30-s chair stand test (primary outcome), timed stair climbing, and 6-min walk test] and self-reported outcomes (i.e., physical function, pain, physical activity level, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life) were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, and 12 months. Based on intention-to-treat-analyses improvements [mean (95% CI)] after intervention in number of chair stands were equal in all three groups at 4 months [ST: 0.9 (0.2-1.6), NW: 1.9 (0.8-3.0), HBE: 1.1 (0.1-2.0)] but greater in the NW group [1.4 (0.02-2.8)] than in the ST group at 12 months. Generally, improvements in functional performance were greater (P < 0.001-P < 0.03) after NW compared with HBE and ST at all follow-up time points. Furthermore, NW was superior (P < 0.01) to HBE for improving vigorous physical activity and to both ST and HBE for improving (P < 0.01) mental health. These data suggest that NW is the recommended exercise modality compared with ST and HBE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of Elastic Resistance Exercise on Muscle Strength and Functional Performance in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Poliana Alves; Blasczyk, Juscelino Castro; Souza Junior, Gerson; Lagoa, Karina Ferreira; Soares, Milene; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Filho, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Martins, Wagner Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Elastic Resistance Exercise (ERE) has already demonstrated its effectiveness in older adults and, when combined with the resistance generated by fixed loads, in adults. This review summarizes the effectiveness of ERE performed as isolated method on muscle strength and functional performance in healthy adults. A database search was performed (MEDLine, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Web of Knowledge) to identify controlled clinical trials in English language. The mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and overall effect size were calculated for all comparisons. The PEDro scale was used assess the methodological quality. From the 93 articles identified by the search strategy, 5 met the inclusion criteria, in which 3 presented high quality (PEDro > 6). Meta-analyses demonstrated that the effects of ERE were superior when compared with passive control on functional performance and muscle strength. When compared with active controls, the effect of ERE was inferior on function performance and with similar effect on muscle strength. ERE are effective to improve functional performance and muscle strength when compared with no intervention, in healthy adults. ERE are not superior to other methods of resistance training to improve functional performance and muscle strength in health adults.

  13. Knee extension range of motion and self-report physical function in total knee arthroplasty: mediating effects of knee extensor strength

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knee extensor strength and knee extension range of motion (ROM) are important predictors of physical function in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the relationship between the two knee measures remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in knee extensor strength mediate the association between changes in knee extension ROM and self-report physical function. Methods Data from 441 patients with a TKA were collected preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Self-report measure of physical function was assessed by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Knee extensor strength was measured by handheld dynamometry and knee extension ROM by goniometry. A bootstrapped cross product of coefficients approach was used to evaluate mediation effects. Results Mediation analyses, adjusted for clinicodemographic measures, revealed that the association between changes in knee extension ROM and SF-36 physical function was mediated by changes in knee extensor strength. Conclusions In patients with TKA, knee extensor strength mediated the influence of knee extension ROM on physical function. These results suggest that interventions to improve the range of knee extension may be useful in improving knee extensor performance. PMID:23332039

  14. Resting-state functional connectivity predicts the strength of hemispheric lateralization for language processing in temporal lobe epilepsy and normals.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Gaëlle E; Pustina, Dorian; Skidmore, Christopher; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R; Tracy, Joseph I

    2015-01-01

    In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), determining the hemispheric specialization for language before surgery is critical to preserving a patient's cognitive abilities post-surgery. To date, the major techniques utilized are limited by the capacity of patients to efficiently realize the task. We determined whether resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a reliable predictor of language hemispheric dominance in right and left TLE patients, relative to controls. We chose three subregions of the inferior frontal cortex (pars orbitalis, pars triangularis, and pars opercularis) as the seed regions. All participants performed both a verb generation task and a resting-state fMRI procedure. Based on the language task, we computed a laterality index (LI) for the resulting network. This revealed that 96% of the participants were left-hemisphere dominant, although there remained a large degree of variability in the strength of left lateralization. We tested whether LI correlated with rsFC values emerging from each seed. We revealed a set of regions that was specific to each group. Unique correlations involving the epileptic mesial temporal lobe were revealed for the right and left TLE patients, but not for the controls. Importantly, for both TLE groups, the rsFC emerging from a contralateral seed was the most predictive of LI. Overall, our data depict the broad patterns of rsFC that support strong versus weak left hemisphere language laterality. This project provides the first evidence that rsFC data may potentially be used on its own to verify the strength of hemispheric dominance for language in impaired or pathologic populations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Resting-state functional connectivity predicts the strength of hemispheric lateralization for language processing in temporal lobe epilepsy and normals

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Gaëlle E.; Pustina, Dorian; Skidmore, Christopher; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R.; Tracy, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), determining the hemispheric specialization for language before surgery is critical to preserving a patient's cognitive abilities post-surgery. To date, the major techniques utilized are limited by the capacity of patients to efficiently realize the task. We determined whether resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a reliable predictor of language hemispheric dominance in right and left TLE patients, relative to controls. We chose three subregions of the inferior frontal cortex (pars orbitalis, pars triangularis and pars opercularis) as the seed regions. All participants performed both a verb generation task and a resting-state fMRI procedure. Based on the language task, we computed a laterality index (LI) for the resulting network. This revealed that 96% of the participants were left-hemisphere dominant, although there remained a large degree of variability in the strength of left lateralization. We tested whether LI correlated with rsFC values emerging from each seed. We revealed a set of regions that was specific to each group. Unique correlations involving the epileptic mesial temporal lobe were revealed for the right and left TLE patients, but not for the controls. Importantly, for both TLE groups, the rsFC emerging from a contralateral seed was the most predictive of LI. Overall, our data depict the broad patterns of rsFC that support strong versus weak left hemisphere language laterality. This project provides the first evidence that rsFC data may potentially be used on its own to verify the strength of hemispheric dominance for language in impaired or pathologic populations. PMID:25187327

  16. Degree of disability, pain levels, muscle strength, and electromyographic function in patients with Hansen's disease with common peroneal nerve damage.

    PubMed

    Véras, Larissa Sales Téles; Vale, Rodrigo Gomesde Souza; Mello, Danielli Braga de; Castro, José Adail Fonseca de; Lima, Vicente; Silva, Kelson Nonato Gomes da; Trott, Alexis; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the degree of disability, pain levels, muscle strength, and electromyographic function (RMS) in individuals with leprosy. We assessed 29 individuals with leprosy showing common peroneal nerve damage and grade 1 or 2 disability who were referred for physiotherapeutic treatment, as well as a control group of 19 healthy participants without leprosy. All subjects underwent analyses of degree of disability, electromyographic tests, voluntary muscle force, and the Visual Analog Pain Scale. McNemar's test found higher levels of grade 2 of disability (Δ = 75.9%; p = 0.0001) among individuals with leprosy. The Mann-Whitney test showed greater pain levels (Δ = 5.0; p = 0.0001) in patients with leprosy who had less extension strength in the right and left extensor hallucis longus muscles (Δ = 1.28, p = 0.0001; Δ = 1.55, p = 0.0001, respectively) and dorsiflexion of the right and left feet (Δ = 1.24, p = 0.0001; Δ = 1.45, p = 0.0001, respectively) than control subjects. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the RMS score for dorsiflexion of the right (Δ = 181.66 m·s-2, p = 0.001) and left (Δ = 102.57m·s-2, p = 0.002) feet was lower in patients with leprosy than in control subjects, but intragroup comparisons showed no difference. Leprosy had a negative influence on all of the study variables, indicating the need for immediate physiotherapeutic intervention in individuals with leprosy. This investigation opens perspectives for future studies that analyze leprosy treatment with physical therapeutic intervention.

  17. Functional properties of protein from frozen mantle and fin of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas in function of pH and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Estrada, J G; Córdova-Murueta, J H; García-Carreño, F L

    2010-10-01

    Functional properties of protein from mantle and fin of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas were explained based on microscopic muscle fiber and protein fractions profiles as observed in SDS-PAGE. Fin has higher content of connective tissue and complex fiber arrangement, and we observed higher hardness of fin gels as expected. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) was found in sarcoplasmic, myofibril and soluble-in-alkali fractions of mantle and only in sarcoplasmic and soluble-in-alkali fractions of fin. An additive effect of salt concentration and pH affected the solubility and foaming properties. Fin and mantle proteins yielded similar results in solubility tests, but significant differences occurred for specific pH and concentrations of salt. Foaming capacity was proportional to solubility; foam stability was also affected by pH and salt concentration. Hardness and fracture strength of fin gels were significantly higher than mantle gels; gels from proteins of both tissues reached the highest level in the folding test. Structural and molecular properties, such as MHC and paramyosin solubility, arrangement of muscle fibers and the content of connective tissue were useful to explain the differences observed in these protein properties. High-strength gels can be formed from squid mantle or fin muscle. Fin displayed similar or better properties than mantle in all tests.

  18. The role of sleep in regulating structural plasticity and synaptic strength: Implications for memory and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Raven, Frank; Van der Zee, Eddy A; Meerlo, Peter; Havekes, Robbert

    2018-06-01

    Dendritic spines are the major sites of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Alterations in the strength of synaptic connections directly affect the neuronal communication, which is crucial for brain function as well as the processing and storage of information. Sleep and sleep loss bidirectionally alter structural plasticity, by affecting spine numbers and morphology, which ultimately can affect the functional output of the brain in terms of alertness, cognition, and mood. Experimental data from studies in rodents suggest that sleep deprivation may impact structural plasticity in different ways. One of the current views, referred to as the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis, suggests that wake promotes synaptic potentiation whereas sleep facilitates synaptic downscaling. On the other hand, several studies have now shown that sleep deprivation can reduce spine density and attenuate synaptic efficacy in the hippocampus. These data are the basis for the view that sleep promotes hippocampal structural plasticity critical for memory formation. Altogether, the impact of sleep and sleep loss may vary between regions of the brain. A better understanding of the role that sleep plays in regulating structural plasticity may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic approaches for brain disorders that are accompanied by sleep disturbances and sleep loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dissipative particle dynamics study of velocity autocorrelation function and self-diffusion coefficient in terms of interaction potential strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohravi, Elnaz; Shirani, Ebrahim; Pishevar, Ahmadreza; Karimpour, Hossein

    2018-07-01

    This research focuses on numerically investigating the self-diffusion coefficient and velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) of a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) fluid as a function of the conservative interaction strength. Analytic solutions to VACF and self-diffusion coefficients in DPD were obtained by many researchers in some restricted cases including ideal gases, without the account of conservative force. As departure from the ideal gas conditions are accentuated with increasing the relative proportion of conservative force, it is anticipated that the VACF should gradually deviate from its normally expected exponentially decay. This trend is confirmed through numerical simulations and an expression in terms of the conservative force parameter, density and temperature is proposed for the self-diffusion coefficient. As it concerned the VACF, the equivalent Langevin equation describing Brownian motion of particles with a harmonic potential is adapted to the problem and reveals an exponentially decaying oscillatory pattern influenced by the conservative force parameter, dissipative parameter and temperature. Although the proposed model for obtaining the self-diffusion coefficient with consideration of the conservative force could not be verified due to computational complexities, nonetheless the Arrhenius dependency of the self-diffusion coefficient to temperature and pressure permits to certify our model over a definite range of DPD parameters.

  20. Quantification of hand function by power grip and pinch strength force measurements in ulnar nerve lesion simulated by ulnar nerve block.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Nikolaus Johannes; Mentzel, Martin; Krischak, Gert D; Gülke, Joachim

    2017-06-24

    In the assessment of hand and upper limb function, grip strength is of the major importance. The measurement by dynamometers has been established. In this study, the effect of a simulated ulnar nerve lesion on different grip force measurements was evaluated. In 25 healthy volunteers, grip force measurement was done by the JAMAR dynamometer (Fabrication Enterprises Inc, Irvington, NY) for power grip and by a pinch strength dynamometer for tip pinch strength, tripod grip, and key pinch strength. A within-subject research design was used in this prospective study. Each subject served as the control by preinjection measurements of grip and pinch strength. Subsequent measurements after ulnar nerve block were used to examine within-subject change. In power grip, there was a significant reduction of maximum grip force of 26.9% with ulnar nerve block compared with grip force without block (P < .0001). Larger reductions in pinch strength were observed with block: 57.5% in tip pinch strength (P < .0001), 61.0% in tripod grip (P < .0001), and 58.3% in key pinch strength (P < .0001). The effect of the distal ulnar nerve block on grip and pinch force could be confirmed. However, the assessment of other dimensions of hand strength as tip pinch, tripod pinch and key pinch had more relevance in demonstrating hand strength changes resulting from an distal ulnar nerve lesion. The measurement of tip pinch, tripod grip and key pinch can improve the follow-up in hand rehabilitation. II. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance on the Functional Movement Screen™ is related to hop performance, but not to hip and knee strength in collegiate football players

    PubMed Central

    Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To define the relationship between FMS™ scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Design Cross-sectional cohort. Participants Freshmen of a division I collegiate American football team (n=59). Main Outcome Measures The athletes performed the FMS™, as well as a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS™ score, peak strength and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman’s correlation coefficients quantified the relationships these measures, and chi-square analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. Results We observed significant correlations (r=0.38–0.56, p≤0.02) between FMS™ scores and hop distance, but not between FMS™ scores and hip or knee strength (all p≥0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS™ test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6m hop (r=0.44, p<0.01), but not to hip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all p≥0.34). Conclusions FMS™ score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS™ tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS™ score and hip and knee strength, or between FMS™ asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time and cost efficient alternative to FMS™ testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries. PMID:26886801

  2. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men.

    PubMed

    Vorup, J; Pedersen, M T; Melcher, P S; Dreier, R; Bangsbo, J

    2017-11-01

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12 weeks. In FG and PG, average heart rate (HR) during training was 80% and 57%, respectively, of maximal HR. In FG, plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were 11% and 8% lower (P < 0.05), respectively. Insulin resistance determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) was reduced (P < 0.05) by 18%. HR during submaximal cycling was 5% lower (P < 0.05), and maximal voluntary contraction force was 8% higher (P < 0.05). Total and visceral fat content was lowered (P < 0.05) by 5% and 14%, respectively, HR at rest was 8% lower (P < 0.05) and performance in four different functional capacity tests were better (P < 0.05) after compared to before the training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used as a health-promoting activity in elderly men. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A comparison of respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, activities of daily living and physical fitness in patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Hulya; Yatar, İlker; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Aribas, Zeynep; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Savci, Sema; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Ozcelik, Ugur; Kiper, Nural

    2015-01-01

    There are limited reports that compare muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, activities of daily living (ADL) and parameters of physical fitness of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with healthy peers in the literature. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, ADL and physical fitness in patients with CF and healthy subjects. Nineteen patients with CF (mean forced expiratory volume in one second-FEV1: 86.56±18.36%) and 20 healthy subjects were included in this study. Respiratory (maximal inspiratory pressure-MIP and maximal expiratory pressure-MEP) and peripheral muscle strength (quadriceps, shoulder abductors and hand grip strength) were evaluated. Functional exercise capacity was determined with 6min walk test (6MWT). ADL was assessed with Glittre ADL test and physical fitness was assessed with Munich fitness test (MFT). There were not any statistically significant difference in MIP, %MIP, MEP and %MEP values between two groups (p>0.05). %Peripheral muscle strength (% quadriceps and shoulder abductors strength), 6MWT distance and %6MWT distance were significantly lower in patients with CF than those of healthy subjects (p<0.05). Glittre ADL-test time was significantly longer in patients with CF than healthy subjects (p<0.05). According to Munich fitness test, the number of bouncing a ball, hanging score, distance of standing vertical jumping and standing vertical jumping score were significantly lower in patients with CF than those of healthy subjects (p<0.05). Peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, ADL performance and speed, coordination, endurance and power components of physical fitness are adversely affected in mild-severe patients with CF compared to healthy peers. Evaluations must be done in comprehensive manner in patients with CF with all stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve mobility in people with acquired brain injury and its effects on strength are unclear: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Davide G; Harvey, Lisa A; Dorsch, Simone; Leung, Joan; Harris, Whitney

    2016-10-01

    Does 4 weeks of active functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling in addition to usual care improve mobility and strength more than usual care alone in people with a sub-acute acquired brain injury caused by stroke or trauma? Multi centre, randomised, controlled trial. Forty patients from three Sydney hospitals with recently acquired brain injury and a mean composite strength score in the affected lower limb of 7 (SD 5) out of 20 points. Participants in the experimental group received an incremental, progressive, FES cycling program five times a week over a 4-week period. All participants received usual care. Outcome measures were taken at baseline and at 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were mobility and strength of the knee extensors of the affected lower limb. Mobility was measured with three mobility items of the Functional Independence Measure and strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. Secondary outcomes were strength of the knee extensors of the unaffected lower limb, strength of key muscles of the affected lower limb and spasticity of the affected plantar flexors. All but one participant completed the study. The mean between-group differences for mobility and strength of the knee extensors of the affected lower limb were -0.3/21 points (95% CI -3.2 to 2.7) and 7.5 Nm (95% CI -5.1 to 20.2), where positive values favoured the experimental group. The only secondary outcome that suggested a possible treatment effect was strength of key muscles of the affected lower limb with a mean between-group difference of 3.0/20 points (95% CI 1.3 to 4.8). Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve mobility in people with acquired brain injury and its effects on strength are unclear. ACTRN12612001163897. [de Sousa DG, Harvey LA, Dorsch S, Leung J, Harris W (2016) Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve mobility in people with acquired brain injury and its effects on strength are unclear: a randomised controlled trial.Journal of

  5. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Julie L; Iuliano-Burns, Sandra; King, Susannah J; Strauss, Boyd J; Walker, Karen Z

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care. Subjects and methods: Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years) participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by ‘timed up and go’ (TUG) and walking speed (WS) over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years) provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia. Results: Elderly women had higher body mass index (P < 0.001), lower lean mass (P < 0.001), and higher fat mass (P < 0.01) than the young reference group. Only a small proportion (3.2%) had absolute sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared) whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass). Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01). Conclusion: Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted. PMID:21472094

  6. Abnormal pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength findings in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy--comparison with normal elderly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Shao, Wei-bo; Gao, Li; Lu, Jie; Gu, Hao; Sun, Li-hua; Tan, Yan; Zhang, Ying-dong

    2014-01-01

    There have been limited comparative data regarding the investigations on pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in the patients with different parkinsonism disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) versus normal elderly. The present study is aiming to characterize the performance of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in PD and MSA, and to investigate the association with severity of motor symptoms and disease duration. Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength tests were performed in 30 patients with PD, 27 with MSA as well as in 20 age-, sex-, height-, weight-matched normal elderly controls. All the patients underwent United Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) or united multiple system atrophy rating scale (UMSARS) separately as diagnosed. Vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity decreased, residual volume and ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity increased in both PD and MSA groups compared to controls (p<0.05). Diffusing capacity was decreased in the MSA group, compared with PD and normal elderly control groups (p<0.05). Respiratory muscle strength was lower in both PD and MSA groups than in controls (p<0.05). The values representing spirometry function and respiratory muscle strength were found to have a negative linear correlation with mean score of UPDRS-III in PD and mean score of UMSARS-I in MSA. Respiratory muscle strength showed a negative linear correlation with the mean score of UMSARS-II and disease duration in MSA patients. These findings suggest that respiratory dysfunction is involved in PD and MSA. Respiratory muscle strength is remarkably reduced, and some of the parameters correlate with disease duration and illness severity. The compromised respiratory function in neurodegenerative disorders should be the focus of further researches.

  7. Knee Extensor Strength and Risk of Structural, Symptomatic, and Functional Decline in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Culvenor, Adam G; Ruhdorfer, Anja; Juhl, Carsten; Eckstein, Felix; Øiestad, Britt Elin

    2017-05-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor strength and the risk of structural, symptomatic, or functional deterioration in individuals with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We systematically identified and methodologically appraised all longitudinal studies (≥1-year followup) reporting an association between knee extensor strength and structural (tibiofemoral, patellofemoral), symptomatic (self-reported, knee replacement), or functional (subjective, objective) decline in individuals with or at risk of radiographic or symptomatic KOA. Results were pooled for each of the above associations using meta-analysis, or if necessary, summarized according to a best-evidence synthesis. Fifteen studies were included, evaluating >8,000 participants (51% female), with a followup time between 1.5 and 8 years. Meta-analysis revealed that lower knee extensor strength was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC] pain: odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.10-1.67) and functional decline (WOMAC function: OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.00-1.89, and chair-stand task: OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.03-1.04), but not increased risk of radiographic tibiofemoral joint space narrowing (JSN) (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.84-1.56). No trend in risk was observed for KOA status (present versus absent). Best-evidence synthesis showed inconclusive evidence for lower knee extensor strength being associated with increased risk of patellofemoral deterioration. Meta-analysis showed that lower knee extensor strength is associated with an increased risk of symptomatic and functional deterioration, but not tibiofemoral JSN. The risk of patellofemoral deterioration in the presence of knee extensor strength deficits is inconclusive. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. The effects of exercise on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and the inflammatory profile of older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Keliane; Forti, Louis N; Beyer, Ingo; Bautmans, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review reports the most recent literature regarding the effects of physical exercise on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and inflammation in older adults. All articles were assessed for methodological quality and where possible effect size was calculated. Thirty-four articles were included - four involving frail, 24 healthy and five older adults with a specific disease. One reported on both frail and nonfrail patients. Several types of exercise were used: resistance training, aerobic training, combined resistance training and aerobic training and others. In frail older persons, moderate-to-large beneficial exercise effects were noted on inflammation, muscle strength and physical functioning. In healthy older persons, effects of resistance training (most frequently investigated) on inflammation or muscle strength can be influenced by the exercise modalities (intensity and rest interval between sets). Muscle strength seemed the most frequently used outcome measure, with moderate-to-large effects obtained regardless the exercise intervention studied. Similar effects were found in patients with specific diseases. Exercise has moderate-to-large effects on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and inflammation in older adults. Future studies should focus on the influence of specific exercise modalities and target the frail population more.

  9. Effects of gastrocnemius recession on ankle motion, strength, and functional outcomes: a systematic review and national healthcare database analysis.

    PubMed

    Gianakos, Arianna; Yasui, Youichi; Murawski, Christopher D; Kennedy, John G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to report the effects of gastrocnemius recession on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, function, and push-off power. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were reviewed with terms "gastrocnemius recession". The inclusion criteria were: (1) clinical studies, (2) published in a peer-reviewed journal within the past 10 years, and (3) published in English. Excluded were: (1) review articles, (2) cadaveric studies, (3) studies including patients under the age of 18 years, (4) studies evaluating a neurologic condition, (5) level of evidence 5, and (6) Quality of Evidence Score <3. Data were then extracted and analysed for trends. The PearlDiver Database was also used to review de-identified patient information retrospectively between 2007 and 2011. Full-text review yielded 23 articles that fit the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one of 23 (91%) and 2/23 (9%) studies were level of evidence 4 and 3, respectively. Twelve of 23 (52%) studies reported follow-up assessment between 12 and 36 months, and no studies reported longer-term follow-up. Twelve of 12 (100%) studies reported improved dorsiflexion range of motion 9/9 (100%) reported improved AOFAS, and 11/11 (100%) reported improved VAS. Five of 23 (22%) studies reported strength in a measured and controlled fashion with variable results, but of these, no study reported a return to normal power. The mean complication rate was 14%. The available evidence supports that GR improves functional outcomes and increases dorsiflexion range of motion. Furthermore, GR affects gait kinematics, which may cause compensatory effects at the knee, ankle, and subtalar joints. Evidence has shown that power does not return to normal levels. Clinicians may utilize these data clinically to determine whether patients may benefit from GR or not. IV.

  10. Respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function in children with rhinitis and asthma after a six-minute walk test.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Alice de Almeida; Barros, Camila Moraes; Santos, Cássia Giulliane Costa; Dos Santos, Maria Renata Aragão; Silva, José Rodrigo Santos; Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro da; Simões, Silvia de Magalhães

    2018-03-01

    Rhinitis and asthma decrease quality of life. Few studies have assessed the performance of children with asthma or rhinitis under submaximal exercise. We evaluated maximal respiratory pressures, spirometric parameters, and ability to sustain submaximal exercise in these children before and after the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), compared to healthy children. This cross-sectional, analytical study included 89 children aged 6-12 years in outpatient follow-up: 27 healthy (H), 31 with rhinitis (R), and 31 with mild asthma under control (A). Pulmonary function parameters and maximal respiratory pressures were measured before and 5, 10, and 30 minutes after the 6MWT. Wilcoxon test was used to compare numerical numerical variables between two groups and analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison among three groups. Total distance traveled in the 6MWT was similar among the three groups. Compared to pre-test values, VEF1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second), VEF0.75 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 0.75 second), and FEF25-75 (Forced Expiratory Flow 25-75% of the Forced Vital Capacity - CVF - curve) decreased significantly after the 6MWT in group A, and VEF0.75, FEF25-75, and VEF1/CVF decreased significantly in group R. Groups A and R had lower Maximum Inspiratory Pressure values than group H before and after the 6MWT at all time points assessed. The findings suggest that children with rhinitis and mild asthma present with alterations in respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function not associated with clinical complaints, reinforcing the concept of the united airways.

  11. POSTOPERATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL THERAPY RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, Josélia Jucirema Jarschel; de FREITAS, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira; de ALMEIDA, Andréa Adriana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Respiratory physiotherapy plays an important role preventing complications in bariatric surgery. Aim: To assess the effects of out-patient physiotherapy during post-operative period through respiratory pressures and functional capacity in individuals submitted to bariatric surgery. Method: A prospective longitudinal and controlled study was done in adults with body mass index (BMI) equal or greater than 40 kg/m², who have been submitted to bariatric surgery. They were divided into two groups: intervention-group, who performed out-patient physiotherapy twice a week, from thirty to sixty days after surgery; and the control-group, who only followed home instructions. Both groups were evaluated before surgery and sixty days after surgery through manovacuometry, six-minute walk test and the Borg Scale of perceived exertion. Results: Twenty participants were included the intervention-group and twenty-three in the control-group. Both groups had significant and similar weight loss after surgery. The manovacuometry presented no differences comparing pre- and post-surgery and in the comparison between the groups. The result of the six-minute walk test for the intervention-group increased by 10.1% in the post-operative period in relation to pre-. The Borg scale of perceived exertion in the intervention-group in pre-surgery decreased by 13.5% in the post-surgery compared to pre-surgery. In the control-group there was no difference comparing pre- and post-operative values, as in the comparison with the intervention-group. Conclusion: The low-intensity exercise program, carried out between the 30th and the 60th day after bariatric surgery provided better functional capacity; did not change respiratory muscle strength; and improved the perceived exertion rate. PMID:27683775

  12. Prostaglandin E1 fever induced in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Stitt, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    1. Micro-injections of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) into the anterior hypothalamus of the rabbit produced fever which was nearly immediate in onset. The prostaglandin sensitive region appears to be identical to that described as being fever sensitive to leucocytic pyrogen. 2. Micro-injections of PGE1 into the posterior hypothalamus and midbrain reticular formation of the rabbit did not produce fever. 3. The febrile response to PGE1 injected into the anterior hypothalamus was dose dependent over a range of 20-1000 ng. 4. Ambient temperature influenced the thermoregulatory mechanism by which PGE1 fever evolved. In the cold, PGE1 fever was due to increased heat production while during heat exposure both evaporative and dry heat losses were reduced without significant changes in heat production. Vasoconstriction, confined mainly to the ears, was effective in producing fever in standard room environments (24-25° C) along with a small increase in heat production. 5. The preoptic anterior hypothalamic area retained its thermosensitivity during PGE1 fever; heating this area attenuated, while cooling augmented the fever. 6. The results support the view that PGE1 is a mediator of pyrogen induced fever. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4733481

  13. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  14. Low- and High-Volume Water-Based Resistance Training Induces Similar Strength and Functional Capacity Improvements in Older Women: A Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Thaís; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Prado, Alexandre Konig Garcia; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Simmer, Nicole Monticelli; Meinerz, Andressa Pellegrini; Barroso, Bruna Machado; Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2018-03-27

    Water-based resistance training (WRT) has been indicated to promote strength gains in elderly population. However, no study has compared different training strategies to identify the most efficient one. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 WRT strategies on the strength and functional capacity of older women. In total, 36 women were randomly allocated to training groups: simple set of 30 seconds [1 × 30s; 66.41 (1.36) y; n = 12], multiple sets of 10 seconds [3 × 10s; 66.50 (1.43) y; n = 11], and simple set of 10 seconds [1 × 10s; 65.23 (1.09) y; n = 13]. Training lasted for 12 weeks. The maximal dynamic strength (in kilograms) and muscular endurance (number of repetitions) of knee extension, knee flexion, elbow flexion, and bench press, as well as functional capacity (number of repetitions), were evaluated. All types of training promoted similar gains in maximal dynamic strength of knee extension and flexion as well as elbow flexion. Only the 1 × 30s and 1 × 10s groups presented increments in bench press maximal strength. All 3 groups showed increases in muscular endurance in all exercises and functional capacity. WRT using long- or short-duration simple sets promotes the same gains in strength and functional capacity in older women as does WRT using multiple sets.

  15. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle strength, lean mass, and function in mobility-limited older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...

  16. Effects of bioDensity Training and Power Plate Whole-Body Vibration on Strength, Balance, and Functional Independence in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek T; Judge, Stacey; Malone, Ashley; Moynes, Rebecca C; Conviser, Jason; Skinner, James S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 ± 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22-51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P < .001), with no changes in control and PP. Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy.

  17. FAST INdiCATE Trial protocol. Clinical efficacy of functional strength training for upper limb motor recovery early after stroke: neural correlates and prognostic indicators.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Valerie M; Ward, Nick S; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; van Vliet, Paulette; Burridge, Jane; Hunter, Susan M; Lemon, Roger N; Rothwell, John; Weir, Christopher J; Wing, Alan; Walker, Andrew A; Kennedy, Niamh; Barton, Garry; Greenwood, Richard J; McConnachie, Alex

    2014-02-01

    Functional strength training in addition to conventional physical therapy could enhance upper limb recovery early after stroke more than movement performance therapy plus conventional physical therapy. To determine (a) the relative clinical efficacy of conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training and conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy for upper limb recovery; (b) the neural correlates of response to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training and conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy; (c) whether any one or combination of baseline measures predict motor improvement in response to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training or conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy. Randomized, controlled, observer-blind trial. The sample will consist of 288 participants with upper limb paresis resulting from a stroke that occurred within the previous 60 days. All will be allocated to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training or conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy. Functional strength training and movement performance therapy will be undertaken for up to 1·5 h/day, five-days/week for six-weeks. Measurements will be undertaken before randomization, six-weeks thereafter, and six-months after stroke. Primary efficacy outcome will be the Action Research Arm Test. Explanatory measurements will include voxel-wise estimates of brain activity during hand movement, brain white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy), and brain-muscle connectivity (e.g. latency of motor evoked potentials). The primary clinical efficacy analysis will compare treatment groups using a multilevel normal linear model adjusting for stratification variables and for which therapist administered the treatment. Effect of conventional physical therapy combined

  18. Influence of fish oil supplementation and strength training on some functional aspects of immune cells in healthy elderly women.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Nahhas Rodacki, Cintia; Rodacki, André Luiz Felix; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Krause, Maressa; Bonatto, Sandro; Naliwaiko, Katya; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2015-07-14

    Immune function changes with ageing and is influenced by physical activity (strength training, ST) and diet (fish oil, FO). The present study investigated the effect of FO and ST on the immune system of elderly women. Forty-five women (64 (sd 1.4) years) were assigned to ST for 90 d (ST; n 15), ST plus 2 g/d FO for 90 d (ST90; n 15) or 2 g/d FO for 60 d followed by ST plus FO for 90 d (ST150; n 15). Training was performed three times per week, for 12 weeks. A number of innate (zymosan phagocytosis, lysosomal volume, superoxide anion, peroxide of hydrogen) and adaptive (cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), CD8, TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 produced by lymphocytes) immune parameters were assessed before supplementation (base), before (pre-) and after (post-) training. ST induced no immune changes. FO supplementation caused increased phagocytosis (48 %), lysosomal volume (100 %) and the production of superoxide anion (32 %) and H₂O₂(70 %) in the ST90. Additional FO supplementation (ST150) caused no additive influence on the immune system, as ST150 and ST90 did not differ, but caused greater changes when compared to the ST (P< 0·05). FO increased CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the ST150, which remained unchanged when training was introduced. The combination of ST and FO reduced TNF-α in the ST150 from base to post-test. FO supplementation (ST150, base-pre) when combined with exercise (ST150, pre-post) increased IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 production. The immune parameters improved in response to FO supplementation; however, ST alone did not enhance the immune system.

  19. Translational recognition of the 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine of globin messenger RNA as a function of ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Chu, L Y; Rhoads, R E

    1978-06-13

    The translation of rabbit globin mRNA in cell-free systems derived from either wheat germ or rabbit reticulocyte was studied in the presence of various analogues of the methylated 5' terminus (cap) as a function of ionic strength. Inhibition by these analogues was strongly enhanced by increasing concentrations of KCl, K(OAc), Na(OAc), or NH4(OAc). At appropriate concentrations of K(OAc), both cell-free systems were equally sensitive to inhibition by m7GTP. At 50 mM K(OAc), the reticulocyte system was not sensitive to m7GMP or m7GTP, but at higher concentrations up to 200 mM K(OAc), both nucleotides caused strong inhibition. The compound in m7G5'ppp5'Am was inhibitory at all concentrations of K(OAc) ranging from 50 to 200 mM, although more strongly so at the higher concentrations. Over the same range of nucleotide concentrations, the compounds GMP, GTP, and G5'ppp5'Am were not inhibitors. The mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis of the translation product was that of globin at all K(OAc) concentrations in the presence of m7GTP. Globin mRNA from which the terminal m7GTP group had been removed by chemical treatment (periodate-cyclohexylamine-alkaline phosphatase) or enzymatic treatment (tobacco acid pyrophosphatase-alkaline phosphatase) was translated less efficiently than untreated globin mRNA at higher K(OAc) concentrations, but retained appreciable activity at low K(OAc) concentrations.

  20. The anti-tumor activity of E1A and its implications in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Wen; Hung, Mien-Chie; Su, Jen-Liang

    2014-06-01

    The adenovirus type 5 E1A protein (E1A) plays a critical role in anti-cancer gene therapy and has been tested in clinical trials. The expression of E1A significantly reduces tumorigenesis, promotes cell death, and inhibits cancer cell mobility. Chemosensitization is one of the anti-tumor effects of E1A, increasing in vitro and in vivo sensitization of anti-cancer drugs, including cisplatin, gemcitabine, etoposide, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and histone deacetylase inhibitors in different types of cancer cells. E1A also demonstrates anti-metastasis activity through various molecular mechanisms such as the repression of protease expression, suppression of HER2/neu and downregulation of microRNA (miR-520h). Moreover, E1A has been reported to reprogram transcription in tumor cells and stabilize tumor suppressors such as PP2A/C, p21 and p53. Because E1A plays a potentially significant role in anti-tumor therapy, there exists an urgent need to study the anti-cancer activities of E1A. This paper presents a review of our current understanding of the tumor-suppressive functions and molecular regulation of E1A, as well as the potential clinical applications of E1A.

  1. Effect of elastic band-based high-speed power training on cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength in older women with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kang, Dongheon; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Jin-Soo; Song, Han Sol; Song, Wook

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of resistance training in improving cognitive function in older adults is well demonstrated. In particular, unconventional high-speed resistance training can improve muscle power development. In the present study, the effectiveness of 12 weeks of elastic band-based high-speed power training (HSPT) was examined. Participants were randomly assigned into a HSPT group (n = 14, age 75.0 ± 0.9 years), a low-speed strength training (LSST) group (n = 9, age 76.0 ± 1.3 years) and a control group (CON; n = 7, age 78.0 ± 1.0 years). A 1-h exercise program was provided twice a week for 12 weeks for the HSPT and LSST groups, and balance and tone exercises were carried out by the CON group. Significant increases in levels of cognitive function, physical function, and muscle strength were observed in both the HSPT and LSST groups. In cognitive function, significant improvements in the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment were seen in both the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In physical functions, Short Physical Performance Battery scores were increased significantly in the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In the 12 weeks of elastic band-based training, the HSPT group showed greater improvements in older women with mild cognitive impairment than the LSST group, although both regimens were effective in improving cognitive function, physical function and muscle strength. We conclude that elastic band-based HSPT, as compared with LSST, is more efficient in helping older women with mild cognitive impairment to improve cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 765-772. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Functional capacity improves in-line with neuromuscular performance after 12 weeks of non-linear periodization strength training in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Moura, Bruno Monteiro de; Sakugawa, Raphael Luiz; Orssatto, Lucas Bet da Rosa; de Lima, Luis Antonio Pereira; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Walker, Simon; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2017-12-06

    While it is accepted that resistance training can improve functional capacity in older individuals, the neuromuscular source of this improvement has yet to be identified. This study investigated the link between improved neuromuscular performance and functional capacity after a 12-week resistance training period in untrained healthy older individuals. Fifteen older men and women (60-71 years) adhered to a 4-week control period, followed by 12 weeks of non-linear resistance training for the lower limbs. Maximum dynamic leg press strength (1-RM), maximum isometric knee extension torque and rate of torque development (RTD) were evaluated at - 4, 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, and muscle activity was assessed at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Functional capacity tests (chair rise, stair ascent and descent, and timed up and go) were performed at - 4, 0, and 12 weeks. No changes occurred during the control period, but the group increased their 1-RM strength (from 142 ± 53 to 198 ± 43 kg, p = 0.001), which was accompanied by an increase in vastus lateralis activation (p = 0.008) during the intervention. Increase was observed at all RTD time intervals at week 8 (p < 0.05). Significant improvements in all the functional capacity tests were observed at week 12 (p < 0.05). Despite the expected increase in strength, RTD, muscle activity, and functional capacity, there was no significant relationship between the changes in neuromuscular performance and functional capacity. While resistance training elicits various positive improvements in healthy older individuals, actual strength gain did not influence the gain in functional capacity. The present study highlights the exact cause that improved the functional capabilities during resistance training are currently unknown.

  3. Attitude Strength.

    PubMed

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  4. Low-lying electric-dipole strengths of Ca, Ni, and Sn isotopes imprinted on total reaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, W.; Hatakeyama, S.; Ebata, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Low-lying electric-dipole (E 1 ) strength of a neutron-rich nucleus contains information on neutron-skin thickness, deformation, and shell evolution. We discuss the possibility of making use of total reaction cross sections on 40Ca, 120Sn, and 208Pb targets to probe the E 1 strength of neutron-rich Ca, Ni, and Sn isotopes. They exhibit large enhancement of the E 1 strength at neutron number N >28 , 50, and 82, respectively, due to a change of the single-particle orbits near the Fermi surface participating in the transitions. The density distributions and the electric-multipole strength functions of those isotopes are calculated by the Hartree-Fock+BCS and the canonical-basis-time-dependent-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov methods, respectively, using three kinds of Skyrme-type effective interaction. The nuclear and Coulomb breakup processes are respectively described with the Glauber model and the equivalent photon method in which the effect of finite-charge distribution is taken into account. The three Skyrme interactions give different results for the total reaction cross sections because of different Coulomb breakup contributions. The contribution of the low-lying E 1 strength is amplified when the low-incident energy is chosen. With an appropriate choice of the incident energy and target nucleus, the total reaction cross section can be complementary to the Coulomb excitation for analyzing the low-lying E 1 strength of unstable nuclei.

  5. The effects of water-based exercise in combination with blood flow restriction on strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Joamira P; Neto, Gabriel R; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Bemben, Michael G; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Batista, Gilmário; Silva, Júlio C G; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Sousa, Maria S C

    2015-12-01

    Water-based exercise and low-intensity exercise in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) are two methods that have independently been shown to improve muscle strength in those of advancing age. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of water-based exercise in combination with BFR on maximum dynamic strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Twenty-eight women underwent an 8-week water-based exercise program. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: (a) water exercise only, (b) water exercise + BFR, or (c) a non-exercise control group. Functional capacity (chair stand test, timed up and go test, gait speed, and dynamic balance) and strength testing were tested before and after the 8-week aquatic exercise program. The main findings were as follows: (1) water-based exercise in combination with BFR significantly increased the lower limb maximum strength which was not observed with water-based exercise alone and (2) water-based exercise, regardless of the application of BFR, increased functional performance measured by the timed up and go test over a control group. Although we used a healthy population in the current study, these findings may have important implications for those who may be contraindicated to using traditional resistance exercise. Future research should explore this promising modality in these clinical populations.

  6. Effects of free leucine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and functional status in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Trabal, Joan; Forga, Maria; Leyes, Pere; Torres, Ferran; Rubio, Jordi; Prieto, Esther; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of free leucine supplementation combined with resistance training versus resistance training only on muscle strength and functional status in older adults. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study with two intervention groups. Thirty older adults were randomly assigned to receive either 10 g leucine/day (leucine group [LG], n=15) or a placebo (control group [CG], n=15), plus resistance training over a 12-week period. Maximal overcoming isometric leg strength, functional status, nutritional status, body composition, health-related quality of life, depression, and dietary intake were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks. Missing data at 12 weeks were handled using mixed models for repeated measurements for data imputation. Results Twenty-four subjects completed the 4-week assessment and eleven completed the 12-week intervention. Clinically significant gains were found in isometric leg strength at both assessment time points. Analysis of the effect size also showed how participants in LG outperformed those in CG for chair stands and the timed up and go test. No significant changes were observed for the rest of the outcomes. Conclusion Our combined analysis showed moderate changes in isometric leg muscle strength and certain components of functional status. The magnitude of changes found on these outcomes should be qualified as a positive effect of the concomitant intervention. PMID:25926725

  7. Effects of Endurance and Endurance-strength Exercise on Renal Function in Abdominally Obese Women with Renal Hyperfiltration: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Szulińska, Monika; Skrypnik, Damian; Ratajczak, Marzena; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Madry, Edyta; Musialik, Katarzyna; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Bogdański, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is associated with kidney defects. Physical activity is a key element in the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of endurance and endurance-strength training on kidney function in abdominally obese women. Forty-four abdominally obese women were randomized to endurance training or endurance-strength training, three times a week for 3 months. Before and after the intervention, kidney function was assessed by measuring blood creatinine, urine creatinine, and urine albumin levels, and the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were calculated. Renal hyperperfusion was present in both groups before the study. Following both types of physical activity, similar modifications of the investigated parameters were observed, but with no significant between-group differences. Both courses of training led to a significant increase in blood creatinine and a subsequent decrease in the GFR. A significant increase in urine creatinine and album levels, though not exceeding the range for microalbuminuria, was not accompanied by any difference in the albumin-to-creatinine ratio after endurance-strength training alone. Three months of either endurance or endurance-strength training has a favorable and comparable effect on renal function in abdominally obese women with renal hyperfiltration. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of free leucine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and functional status in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Trabal, Joan; Forga, Maria; Leyes, Pere; Torres, Ferran; Rubio, Jordi; Prieto, Esther; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effect of free leucine supplementation combined with resistance training versus resistance training only on muscle strength and functional status in older adults. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study with two intervention groups. Thirty older adults were randomly assigned to receive either 10 g leucine/day (leucine group [LG], n=15) or a placebo (control group [CG], n=15), plus resistance training over a 12-week period. Maximal overcoming isometric leg strength, functional status, nutritional status, body composition, health-related quality of life, depression, and dietary intake were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks. Missing data at 12 weeks were handled using mixed models for repeated measurements for data imputation. Twenty-four subjects completed the 4-week assessment and eleven completed the 12-week intervention. Clinically significant gains were found in isometric leg strength at both assessment time points. Analysis of the effect size also showed how participants in LG outperformed those in CG for chair stands and the timed up and go test. No significant changes were observed for the rest of the outcomes. Our combined analysis showed moderate changes in isometric leg muscle strength and certain components of functional status. The magnitude of changes found on these outcomes should be qualified as a positive effect of the concomitant intervention.

  9. The Effects of 6 Months of Progressive High Effort Resistance Training Methods upon Strength, Body Composition, Function, and Wellbeing of Elderly Adults.

    PubMed

    Steele, James; Raubold, Kristin; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Fisher, James; Gentil, Paulo; Giessing, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the progressive implementation of a high effort resistance training (RT) approach in older adults over 6 months and through a 6-month follow-up on strength, body composition, function, and wellbeing of older adults. Twenty-three older adults (aged 61 to 80 years) completed a 6-month supervised RT intervention applying progressive introduction of higher effort set end points. After completion of the intervention participants could choose to continue performing RT unsupervised until 6-month follow-up. Strength, body composition, function, and wellbeing all significantly improved over the intervention. Over the follow-up, body composition changes reverted to baseline values, strength was reduced though it remained significantly higher than baseline, and wellbeing outcomes were mostly maintained. Comparisons over the follow-up between those who did and those who did not continue with RT revealed no significant differences for changes in any outcome measure. Supervised RT employing progressive application of high effort set end points is well tolerated and effective in improving strength, body composition, function, and wellbeing in older adults. However, whether participants continued, or did not, with RT unsupervised at follow-up had no effect on outcomes perhaps due to reduced effort employed during unsupervised RT.

  10. Effects of strength training on body composition, physical functioning, and quality of life in prostate cancer patients during androgen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Tormod S; Raastad, Truls; Skovlund, Eva; Courneya, Kerry S; Langberg, Carl W; Lilleby, Wolfgang; Fosså, Sophie D; Thorsen, Lene

    2015-11-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) increases survival rates in prostate cancer (PCa) patients with locally advanced disease, but is associated with side effects that may impair daily function. Strength training may counteract several side effects of ADT, such as changes in body composition and physical functioning, which in turn may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, additional randomised controlled trials are needed to expand this knowledge. Fifty-eight PCa patients on ADT were randomised to either 16 weeks of high-load strength training (n = 28) or usual care (n = 30). The primary outcome was change in total lean body mass (LBM) assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Secondary outcomes were changes in regional LBM, fat mass, and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measured by DXA; physical functioning assessed by 1-repetition maximum (1RM) tests, sit-to-stand test, stair climbing test and Shuttle walk test; and HRQOL as measured by the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30. No statistically significant effect of high-load strength training was demonstrated on total LBM (p = 0.16), but significant effects were found on LBM in the lower and upper extremities (0.49 kg, p < 0.01 and 0.15 kg, p < 0.05, respectively). Compared to usual care, high-load strength training showed no effect on fat mass, aBMD or HRQOL, but beneficial effects were observed in all 1RM tests, sit-to-stand test and stair climbing tests. Adherence to the training program was 88% for lower body exercises and 84% for upper body exercises. In summary, high-load strength training improved LBM in extremities and physical functioning, but had no effect on fat mass, aBMD, or HRQOL in PCa patients on ADT.

  11. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Results Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone. PMID:24910543

  12. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Jonathan; Rynders, Corey A; Sutherlin, Mark; Patrie, James; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone.

  13. Electric and Magnetic Dipole Strength at Low Energy.

    PubMed

    Sieja, K

    2017-08-04

    A low-energy enhancement of radiative strength functions was deduced from recent experiments in several mass regions of nuclei, which is believed to impact considerably the calculated neutron capture rates. In this Letter we investigate the behavior of the low-energy γ-ray strength of the ^{44}Sc isotope, for the first time taking into account both electric and magnetic dipole contributions obtained coherently in the same theoretical approach. The calculations are performed using the large-scale shell-model framework in a full 1ℏω  sd-pf-gds model space. Our results corroborate previous theoretical findings for the low-energy enhancement of the M1 strength but show quite different behavior for the E1 strength.

  14. Electric and Magnetic Dipole Strength at Low Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieja, K.

    2017-08-01

    A low-energy enhancement of radiative strength functions was deduced from recent experiments in several mass regions of nuclei, which is believed to impact considerably the calculated neutron capture rates. In this Letter we investigate the behavior of the low-energy γ -ray strength of the Sc 44 isotope, for the first time taking into account both electric and magnetic dipole contributions obtained coherently in the same theoretical approach. The calculations are performed using the large-scale shell-model framework in a full 1 ℏω s d -p f -g d s model space. Our results corroborate previous theoretical findings for the low-energy enhancement of the M 1 strength but show quite different behavior for the E 1 strength.

  15. A randomised trial into the effect of an isolated hip abductor strengthening programme and a functional motor control programme on knee kinematics and hip muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Kathryn; Hebron, Clair; Williams, Jonathan M

    2015-05-03

    Dynamic knee valgus and internal femoral rotation are proposed to be contributory risk factors for patellofemoral pain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Multimodal interventions including hip abductor strengthening or functional motor control programmes have a positive impact of pain, however their effect on knee kinematics and muscle strength is less clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of isolated hip abductor strengthening and a functional motor control exercise on knee kinematics and hip abductor strength. This prospective, randomised, repeated measures design included 29 asymptomatic volunteers presenting with increase knee valgus and femoral internal rotation. Participants completed either isolated hip abductor strengthening or a functional motor control exercise for 5 weeks. Knee kinematics were measured using inertial sensors during 2 functional activities and hip abductor strength measured using a load cell during isometric hip abduction. There were no significant differences in dynamic knee valgus and internal rotation following the isolated hip abductor or functional motor control intervention, and no significant differences between the groups for knee angles. Despite this, the actual magnitude of reduction in valgus was 10° and 5° for the functional motor control group and strengthening group respectively. The actual magnitude of reduction in internal rotation was 9° and 18° for the functional motor control group and strengthening group respectively. Therefore there was a tendency towards clinically significant improvements in knee kinematics in both exercise groups. A statistically significant improvement in hip abductor strength was evident for the functional motor control group (27% increase; p = 0.008) and strengthening group (35% increase; p = 0.009) with no significant difference between the groups being identified (p = 0.475). Isolated hip strengthening and functional motor control exercises resulted in

  16. Is handgrip strength normalized to body weight a useful tool to identify dynapenia and functional incapacity in post-menopausal women?

    PubMed Central

    Dulac, Maude; Boutros, Guy El Hajj; Pion, Charlotte; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Gouspillou, Gilles; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate whether handgrip strength normalized to body weight could be a useful clinical tool to identify dynapenia and assess functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Method A total of 136 postmenopausal women were recruited. Body composition (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DEXA], Bio-electrical Impedence Analysis [BIA]), grip strength (dynamometer) and functional capacity (senior fitness tests) were evaluated. Dynapenia was established according to a handgrip strength index (handgrip strength divided by body weight (BW) in Kg/KgBW) obtained from a reference population of young women: Type I dynapenic (<0.44 kg/KgBW) and type II dynapenic (<0.35 kg/KgBW). Results The results show a positive correlation between handgrip strength index (in kg/KgBW) and alternate-step test (r=0.30, p<0.001), chair-stand test (r=0.25, p<0.005) and one-leg stance test (r=0.335, p<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference in non-dynapenic compared to type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic for the chair-stand test (Non-dynapenic: 12.0±3.0; Type I: 11.7±2.5; Type II: 10.3±3.0) (p=0.037 and p=0.005, respectively) and the one-leg stance test (Non-dynapenic: 54.2±14.2; Type I: 43.8±21.4; Type II: 35.0±21.8) (p=0.030 and p=0.004, respectively). Finally, a significant difference was observed between type II dynapenic and non-dynapenic for the chair-stand test (p=0.032), but not with type I dynapenic. Conclusion The results showed that handgrip strength was positively correlated with functional capacity. In addition, non-dynapenic women displayed a better functional status when compared to type I and type II dynapenic women. Thus, the determination of the handgrip strength thresholds could be an accessible and affordable clinical tool to identify people at risk of autonomy loss. PMID:27683834

  17. Is handgrip strength normalized to body weight a useful tool to identify dynapenia and functional incapacity in post-menopausal women?

    PubMed

    Dulac, Maude; Boutros, Guy El Hajj; Pion, Charlotte; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Gouspillou, Gilles; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether handgrip strength normalized to body weight could be a useful clinical tool to identify dynapenia and assess functional capacity in post-menopausal women. A total of 136 postmenopausal women were recruited. Body composition (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DEXA], Bio-electrical Impedence Analysis [BIA]), grip strength (dynamometer) and functional capacity (senior fitness tests) were evaluated. Dynapenia was established according to a handgrip strength index (handgrip strength divided by body weight (BW) in Kg/KgBW) obtained from a reference population of young women: Type I dynapenic (<0.44 kg/KgBW) and type II dynapenic (<0.35 kg/KgBW). The results show a positive correlation between handgrip strength index (in kg/KgBW) and alternate-step test (r=0.30, p<0.001), chair-stand test (r=0.25, p<0.005) and one-leg stance test (r=0.335, p<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference in non-dynapenic compared to type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic for the chair-stand test (Non-dynapenic: 12.0±3.0; Type I: 11.7±2.5; Type II: 10.3±3.0) (p=0.037 and p=0.005, respectively) and the one-leg stance test (Non-dynapenic: 54.2±14.2; Type I: 43.8±21.4; Type II: 35.0±21.8) (p=0.030 and p=0.004, respectively). Finally, a significant difference was observed between type II dynapenic and non-dynapenic for the chair-stand test (p=0.032), but not with type I dynapenic. The results showed that handgrip strength was positively correlated with functional capacity. In addition, non-dynapenic women displayed a better functional status when compared to type I and type II dynapenic women. Thus, the determination of the handgrip strength thresholds could be an accessible and affordable clinical tool to identify people at risk of autonomy loss.

  18. The Effects of a Motorized Aquatic Treadmill Exercise Program on Muscle Strength, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and clinical function in Subacute Stroke Patients -- a Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Young; Han, Eun Young; Kim, Bo Ryun; Im, Sang Hee

    2018-03-12

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a motorized aquatic treadmill exercise program improve the isometric strength of the knee muscles, cardiorespiratory fitness, arterial stiffness, motor function, balance, functional outcomes and quality of life in subacute stroke patients. Thirty-two patients were randomly assigned to 4-week training sessions of either aquatic therapy(n=19) or land-based aerobic exercise(n=18). Isometric strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Cardiopulmonary fitness was evaluated using a symptom-limited exercise tolerance test and by measuring brachial ankle pulse wave velocity. Moreover, motor function(Fugl-Meyer Assessment[FMA] and FMA-lower limb[FMA-LL]), balance(Berg Balance Scale[BBS]), Activities of daily living(Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index [K-MBI]), and Quality of life(EQ-5D index) were examined. There were no inter-group differences between demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline(p>0.05). The results shows significant improvements in peak oxygen consumption (p=0.02), maximal isometric strength of the bilateral knee extensors (p<0.01) and paretic knee flexors (p=0.01), FMA (p=0.03), FMA-LL (p=0.01), BBS (p=0.01), K-MBI (p<0.01), and EQ-5D index (p=0.04) after treatment in the aquatic therapy group. However, only significant improvements in maximal isometric strength in the knee extensors (p=0.03) and flexors (p=0.04) were found within the aquatic therapy group and control group. Water-based aerobic exercise performed on a motorized aquatic treadmill had beneficial effect on isometric muscle strength in the lower limb.

  19. Randomized control trial to evaluate the effects of acute testosterone administration in men on muscle mass, strength, and physical function following ACL reconstructive surgery: rationale, design, methods.

    PubMed

    Wu, Brian W; Berger, Max; Sum, Jonathan C; Hatch, George F; Schroeder, E Todd

    2014-12-06

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of four major ligaments in the knee that provide stability during physical activity. A tear in the ACL is characterized by joint instability that leads to decreased activity, knee dysfunction, reduced quality of life and a loss of muscle mass and strength. While rehabilitation is the standard-of-care for return to daily function, additional surgical reconstruction can provide individuals with an opportunity to return to sports and strenuous physical activity. Over 200,000 ACL reconstructions are performed in the United States each year, and rehabilitation following surgery is slow and expensive. One possible method to improve the recovery process is the use of intramuscular testosterone, which has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength independent of exercise. With short-term use of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone, we hope to reduce loss of muscle mass and strength and minimize loss of physical function following ACL reconstruction compared to standard-of-care alone. This study is a double-blinded randomized control trial. Men 18-50 years of age, scheduled for ACL reconstruction are randomized into two groups. Participants randomized to the testosterone group receive intramuscular testosterone administration once per week for 8 weeks starting 2 weeks prior to surgery. Participants randomized to the control group receive a saline placebo intramuscularly instead of testosterone. Lean mass, muscle strength and physical function are measured at 5 time points: 2 weeks pre-surgery, 1 day pre-surgery, and 6, 12, 24 weeks post-surgery. Both groups follow standard-of-care rehabilitation protocol. We believe that testosterone therapy will help reduce the loss of muscle mass and strength experienced after ACL injury and reconstruction. Hopefully this will provide a way to shorten the rehabilitation necessary following ACL reconstruction. If successful, testosterone therapy may also be used for other injuries

  20. Effect of whole body vibration training on quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Shamy, S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the effects of whole body vibration training on quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia. Methods: Thirty children with hemophilia with age ranging from 9 to 13 years were selected and randomly assigned to either the study group that received whole body vibration training (30-40 Hz, 2-4 mm of peak-to-peak vertical plate displacement for 15 minutes/day, 3 days/week/ 12 weeks) plus the conventional physical therapy program or the control group that performed a conventional physical therapy program only. Outcomes included quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and the functional capacity. Results: Children in the study group showed a significant improvement in all outcomes compared with the control group. The quadriceps peak torque after treatment was 70.26 and 56.46 Nm for the study and control group, respectively (p<0.001). The lumbar spine bone mineral density after treatment was 0.85 and 0.72 g/cm2 for the study and control group, respectively (p<0.001). The functional capacity after treatment was 325 and 290 m for the study and control group, respectively (p=0.006). Conclusions: Whole body vibration training is an effective modality in increasing quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia. PMID:28574408

  1. Effect of whole body vibration training on quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    El-Shamy, S

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of whole body vibration training on quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia. Thirty children with hemophilia with age ranging from 9 to 13 years were selected and randomly assigned to either the study group that received whole body vibration training (30-40 Hz, 2-4 mm of peak-to-peak vertical plate displacement for 15 minutes/day, 3 days/week/ 12 weeks) plus the conventional physical therapy program or the control group that performed a conventional physical therapy program only. Outcomes included quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and the functional capacity. Children in the study group showed a significant improvement in all outcomes compared with the control group. The quadriceps peak torque after treatment was 70.26 and 56.46 Nm for the study and control group, respectively (p⟨0.001). The lumbar spine bone mineral density after treatment was 0.85 and 0.72 g/cm 2 for the study and control group, respectively (p⟨0.001). The functional capacity after treatment was 325 and 290 m for the study and control group, respectively (p=0.006). Whole body vibration training is an effective modality in increasing quadriceps strength, bone mineral density, and functional capacity in children with hemophilia.

  2. Polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly as a function of pH and ionic strength using the polysaccharides chitosan and heparin.

    PubMed

    Boddohi, Soheil; Killingsworth, Christopher E; Kipper, Matt J

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this work is to explore the effects of solution ionic strength and pH on polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) assembly, using biologically derived polysaccharides as the polyelectrolytes. We used the layer-by-layer (LBL) technique to assemble PEM of the polysaccharides heparin (a strong polyanion) and chitosan (a weak polycation) and characterized the sensitivity of the PEM composition and layer thickness to changes in processing parameters. Fourier-transform surface plasmon resonance (FT-SPR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry provided in situ and ex situ measurements of the PEM thickness, respectively. Vibrational spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provided details of the chemistry (i.e., composition, electrostatic interactions) of the PEM. We found that when PEM were assembled from 0.2 M buffer, the PEM thickness could be increased from less than 2 nm per bilayer to greater than 4 nm per bilayer by changing the solution pH; higher and lower ionic strength buffer solutions resulted in narrower ranges of accessible thickness. Molar composition of the PEM was not very sensitive to solution pH or ionic strength, but pH did affect the interactions between the sulfonates in heparin and amines in chitosan when PEM were assembled from 0.2 M buffer. Changes in the PEM thickness with pH and ionic strength can be interpreted through descriptions of the charge density and conformation of the polyelectrolyte chains in solution.

  3. Handgrip strength is an independent predictor of functional outcome in hip-fracture women: a prospective study with 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Di Monaco, Marco; Castiglioni, Carlotta; De Toma, Elena; Gardin, Luisa; Giordano, Silvia; Tappero, Rosa

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of handgrip strength in predicting the functional outcome after hip fracture in women.We prospectively investigated white women (N = 193 of 207) who were consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation hospital after a hip fracture. We measured handgrip strength with a Jamar dynamometer (Lafayette Instrument Co, Lafayette, IN), on admission to rehabilitation. Ability to function in activities of daily living was assessed by the Barthel index both on discharge from rehabilitation and at a 6-month follow-up.We found significant correlations between handgrip strength measured before rehabilitation and Barthel index scores assessed both on discharge from rehabilitation (ρ = 0.52, P < 0.001) and after 6 months (ρ = 0.49, P < 0.001). Significant associations between handgrip strength and Barthel index scores persisted after adjustment for age, comorbidities, pressure ulcers, medications in use, concomitant infections, body mass index, hip-fracture type, and Barthel index scores assessed both preinjury and on admission to rehabilitation (P = 0.001). Further adjustments for both Barthel index scores and Timed Up-and-Go test assessed at rehabilitation ending did not erase the significant association between handgrip strength and the Barthel index scores at the 6-month evaluation (P = 0.007). To define successful rehabilitation, we categorized the Barthel index scores as either high (85 or higher) or low (<85). The adjusted odds ratio for 1 SD increase in grip strength was 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.84, P = 0.032) for having a high Barthel index score at the end of inpatient rehabilitation and 2.24 (95% CI 1.06-5.18) for having a high Barthel index score at the 6-month follow-up.Handgrip strength assessed before rehabilitation independently predicted the functional outcome both after inpatient rehabilitation and at a 6-month follow-up in hip-fracture women.

  4. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allocation rules. 1.514(e)-1 Section 1.514(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1...

  5. 26 CFR 49.4264(e)-1 - Round trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Round trips. 49.4264(e)-1 Section 49.4264(e)-1... TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4264(e)-1 Round trips. (a) In general. For purposes of the regulations in this subpart, a round trip shall be considered to consist of...

  6. 26 CFR 49.4264(e)-1 - Round trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Round trips. 49.4264(e)-1 Section 49.4264(e)-1... TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4264(e)-1 Round trips. (a) In general. For purposes of the regulations in this subpart, a round trip shall be considered to consist of...

  7. 26 CFR 49.4264(e)-1 - Round trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Round trips. 49.4264(e)-1 Section 49.4264(e)-1... TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4264(e)-1 Round trips. (a) In general. For purposes of the regulations in this subpart, a round trip shall be considered to consist of...

  8. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Allocation rules. 1.514(e)-1 Section 1.514(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(e)-1...

  9. The effects of Tai-Chi in conjunction with thera-band resistance exercise on functional fitness and muscle strength among community-based older people.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Li, Tzai-Li; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Lan, Hsiao-Chin; Perng, Shoa-Jen; Smith, Graeme D

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Tai-Chi in conjunction with thera-band resistance exercise on functional fitness and muscle strength in community-based older people. Tai-Chi is known to improve functional fitness in older people. Tai-Chi is usually performed with free hands without resistance training and usually focuses on training lower limbs. To date, no study has examined the use of Tai-Chi in conjunction with thera-band resistance exercise in this population. Cluster randomised trial design. Older people at six senior day care centres in Taiwan were assigned to thera-band resistance exercise or control group using a cluster randomisation. The thera-band resistance exercise group (n = 48) received sixty minute thera-band resistance exercise twice weekly for a period of 16 weeks. The control group (n = 47) underwent routine activities in the day care centre, receiving no Tai-Chi or resistance exercise. After receiving the thera-band resistance exercise, intervention participants displayed a significant increase in muscle strength of upper and lower extremities. Significant improvements were recorded on most measures of the Senior Fitness Test, with the exception of the chair-stand and back-scratch test. Thera-band resistance exercise has the potential to improve functional fitness and muscle strength in community-based older people. Thera-band resistance exercise potentially offers a safe and appropriate form of physical activity that nursing staff can easily incorporate into the daily routine of older people in day care centres, potentially improving functional performance and muscle strength. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Does hydrotherapy improve strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis--a randomised controlled trial comparing a gym based and a hydrotherapy based strengthening programme.

    PubMed

    Foley, A; Halbert, J; Hewitt, T; Crotty, M

    2003-12-01

    To compare the effects of a hydrotherapy resistance exercise programme with a gym based resistance exercise programme on strength and function in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Single blind, three arm, randomised controlled trial. 105 community living participants aged 50 years and over with clinical OA of the hip or knee. Participants were randomised into one of three groups: hydrotherapy (n = 35), gym (n = 35), or control (n = 35). The two exercising groups had three exercise sessions a week for six weeks. At six weeks an independent physiotherapist unaware of the treatment allocation performed all outcome assessments (muscle strength dynamometry, six minute walk test, WOMAC OA Index, total drugs, SF-12 quality of life, Adelaide Activities Profile, and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale). In the gym group both left and right quadriceps significantly increased in strength compared with the control group, and right quadriceps strength was also significantly better than in the hydrotherapy group. The hydrotherapy group increased left quadriceps strength only at follow up, and this was significantly different from the control group. The hydrotherapy group was significantly different from the control group for distance walked and the physical component of the SF-12. The gym group was significantly different from the control group for walk speed and self efficacy satisfaction. Compliance rates were similar for both exercise groups, with 84% of hydrotherapy and 75% of gym sessions attended. There were no differences in drug use between groups over the study period. Functional gains were achieved with both exercise programmes compared with the control group.

  11. Does hydrotherapy improve strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis—a randomised controlled trial comparing a gym based and a hydrotherapy based strengthening programme

    PubMed Central

    Foley, A; Halbert, J; Hewitt, T; Crotty, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of a hydrotherapy resistance exercise programme with a gym based resistance exercise programme on strength and function in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Design: Single blind, three arm, randomised controlled trial. Subjects: 105 community living participants aged 50 years and over with clinical OA of the hip or knee. Methods: Participants were randomised into one of three groups: hydrotherapy (n = 35), gym (n = 35), or control (n = 35). The two exercising groups had three exercise sessions a week for six weeks. At six weeks an independent physiotherapist unaware of the treatment allocation performed all outcome assessments (muscle strength dynamometry, six minute walk test, WOMAC OA Index, total drugs, SF-12 quality of life, Adelaide Activities Profile, and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale). Results: In the gym group both left and right quadriceps significantly increased in strength compared with the control group, and right quadriceps strength was also significantly better than in the hydrotherapy group. The hydrotherapy group increased left quadriceps strength only at follow up, and this was significantly different from the control group. The hydrotherapy group was significantly different from the control group for distance walked and the physical component of the SF-12. The gym group was significantly different from the control group for walk speed and self efficacy satisfaction. Compliance rates were similar for both exercise groups, with 84% of hydrotherapy and 75% of gym sessions attended. There were no differences in drug use between groups over the study period. Conclusion: Functional gains were achieved with both exercise programmes compared with the control group. PMID:14644853

  12. Silicone Foul Release Coatings: Effect of the Interaction of Oil and Coating Functionalities on the Magnitude of Macrofouling Attachment Strengths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Hawaii) is described. The response of tubeworms (Hydroides elegans, Hydroides dianthus ), oysters (Ostrea sp., Crassostrea sp.) and barnacles (Balanus...8 and Hydroides dianthus ) and oysters (Ostrea sp. and Crassostrea sp.) to the silicone coatings were measured using ASTM D 5618-94 (1994), in which...Oyster (Crassostrea sp.) and tubeworm (H. dianthus ) attachment strengths at the Indian River Lagoon site Linear regression analyses of the adhesion

  13. The effects of isolated ankle strengthening and functional balance training on strength, running mechanics, postural control and injury prevention in novice runners: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baltich, Jennifer; Emery, Carolyn A; Stefanyshyn, Darren; Nigg, Benno M

    2014-12-04

    Risk factors have been proposed for running injuries including (a) reduced muscular strength, (b) excessive joint movements and (c) excessive joint moments in the frontal and transverse planes. To date, many running injury prevention programs have focused on a "top down" approach to strengthen the hip musculature in the attempt to reduce movements and moments at the hip, knee, and/or ankle joints. However, running mechanics did not change when hip muscle strength increased. It could be speculated that emphasis should be placed on increasing the strength of the ankle joint for a "ground up" approach. Strengthening of the large and small muscles crossing the ankle joint is assumed to change the force distribution for these muscles and to increase the use of smaller muscles. This would be associated with a reduction of joint and insertion forces, which could have a beneficial effect on injury prevention. However, training of the ankle joint as an injury prevention strategy has not been studied. Ankle strengthening techniques include isolated strengthening or movement-related strengthening such as functional balance training. There is little knowledge about the efficacy of such training programs on strength alteration, gait or injury reduction. Novice runners will be randomly assigned to one of three groups: an isolated ankle strengthening group (strength, n = 40), a functional balance training group (balance, n = 40) or an activity-matched control group (control, n = 40). Isokinetic strength will be measured using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer. Running kinematics and kinetics will be assessed using 3D motion analysis and a force platform. Postural control will be assessed by quantifying the magnitude and temporal structure of the center of pressure trace during single leg stance on a force platform. The change pre- and post-training in isokinetic strength, running mechanics, and postural control variables will be compared following the interventions

  14. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on strength, physical function, and health perception in older, community-dwelling men.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Anne M; Biskup, Bradley; Robbins, Bertha; Marcella, Glenn; Burleson, Joseph A

    2003-12-01

    To study the effects of vitamin D supplementation in healthier populations of men. : Randomized, controlled trial. General clinical research center. Sixty-five healthy, community-dwelling men (mean age+/-standard deviation=76+/-4, range 65-87). Cholecalciferol (1,000 IU/d) or placebo supplementation for 6 months; all received 500 mg supplemental calcium. Upper and lower extremity muscle strength and power, physical performance and activity, health perception, calcium and vitamin D intake, and biochemical assessment, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and ionized calcium levels. The levels of 25OHD increased and PTH decreased in the cholecalciferol group, whereas there were no significant changes in the control group (P<.001). Baseline 25OHD levels correlated with baseline single-leg stance time and physical activity score. Baseline PTH levels correlated with baseline 8-foot walk time and physical activity score. No significant difference in strength, power, physical performance, or health perception was found between groups. The 25OHD or PTH levels correlated with physical activity and physical performance in older, community-dwelling men with normal 25OHD status. Vitamin D supplementation increased 25OHD levels and decreased PTH levels but did not increase muscle strength or improve physical performance or health perception in this group of healthy, older men. Further investigations of the effects of vitamin D supplementation should focus on individuals with low levels of vitamin D.

  15. Functional gradients in the pericarp of the green coconut inspire asymmetric fibre-composites with improved impact strength, and preserved flexural and tensile properties.

    PubMed

    Graupner, Nina; Labonte, David; Humburg, Heide; Buzkan, Tayfun; Dörgens, Anna; Kelterer, Wiebke; Müssig, Jörg

    2017-02-28

    Here we investigate the mechanical properties and structural design of the pericarp of the green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). The pericarp showed excellent impact characteristics, and mechanical tests of its individual components revealed gradients in stiffness, strength and elongation at break from the outer to the inner layer of the pericarp. In order to understand more about the potential effect of such gradients on 'bulk' material properties, we designed simple, graded, cellulose fibre-reinforced polylactide (PLA) composites by stacking layers reinforced with fibres of different mechanical properties. Tensile properties of the graded composites were largely determined by the 'weakest' fibre, irrespective of the fibre distribution. However, a graded design led to pronounced asymmetric bending and impact properties. Bio-inspired, asymmetrically graded composites showed a flexural strength and modulus comparable to that of the strongest reference samples, but the elongation at maximum load was dependent on the specimen orientation. The impact strength of the graded composites showed a similar orientation-dependence, and peak values exceeded the impact strength of a non-graded reference composite containing identical fibre fractions by up to a factor of three. In combination, our results show that an asymmetric, systematic variation of fibre properties can successfully combine desirable properties of different fibre types, suggesting new routes for the development of high-performance composites, and improving our understanding of the structure-function relationship of the coconut pericarp.

  16. Can the calf-raise senior test predict functional fitness in elderly people? A validation study using electromyography, kinematics and strength tests.

    PubMed

    André, Helô-Isa; Carnide, Filomena; Moço, Andreia; Valamatos, Maria-João; Ramalho, Fátima; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Veloso, António

    2018-06-05

    The assessment of the plantar-flexors muscle strength in older adults (OA) is of the utmost importance since they are strongly associated with the performance of fundamental tasks of daily life. The objective was to strengthen the validity of the Calf-Raise-Senior (CRS) test by assessing the biomechanical movement pattern of calf muscles in OA with different levels of functional fitness (FF) and physical activity (PA). Twenty-six OA were assessed with CRS, a FF battery, accelerometry, strength tests, kinematics and electromyography (EMG). OA with the best and worst CRS scores were compared. The association between the scores and EMG pattern of ankle muscles was determined. OA with the best CRS scores presented higher levels of FF, PA, strength, power, speed and range of movement, and a more efficient movement pattern during the test. Subjects who scored more at the CRS test demonstrated the possibility to use a stretch-shortening cycle type of action in the PF muscles to increase power during the movements. OA with different levels of FF can be stratified by the muscular activation pattern of the calf muscles and the scores in CRS test. This study reinforced the validity of CRS for evaluating ankle strength and power in OA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparisons in fluctuation of muscle strength and function in patients with immune-mediated neuropathy treated with intravenous versus subcutaneous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Ingelise; Markvardsen, Lars H; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2018-04-01

    Variations in muscle strength and function have not been studied in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy whose treatment regimen has been changed from intravenous to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (IVIg to SCIg). In a prospective, open-label study, patients were changed from monthly IVIg to weekly SCIg. The primary endpoint was variation in isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS). Secondary endpoints were variations in Medical Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength (GS), 9-hole-peg test (9-HPT), and 40-meter-walk test (40-MWT). The coefficient of variance of cIKS during the IVIg and SCIg treatment periods was unchanged (mean ± SD: 6.97 ± 4.83% vs. 5.50 ± 3.13%, P = 0.21). The variations in the 9-HPT and 40-MWT were significantly lower in the SCIg group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.005, respectively). When therapy was changed from IVIg to SCIg, fluctuation of muscle strength was unchanged, but performance fluctuations were diminished. Muscle Nerve 57: 610-614, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Utilization of the Boltzmann tail of TED for the calculation of the ``absolute'' work function and local field strength in FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocki, J. K.

    1984-02-01

    The idea of Young and Clark of independent evaluation of the work function φ and electric field strength F in FEM [R.D. Young and H.E. Clark, Phys. Rev. Letters 17 (1966) 351] has been extended to the energy region above the Fermi level. The estimation of slowly varying elliptic functions, necessary to compute φ and F, using only experimental data is presented. Calculations for the W(111) plane using the field electron energy distribution and the integral field-emission current dependence on retarding voltage have been performed.

  19. Feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program and its effects on cognitive and physical function in institutionalized dementia patients. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bossers, Willem J R; Scherder, Erik J A; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobágyi, Tibor; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

    2014-01-01

    We examined the feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized dementia patients and studied the effects on cognitive and physical function. Thirty-three patients with dementia, recruited from one nursing home, participated in this non-randomized pilot study (25 women; age = 85.2±4.9 years; Mini Mental State Examination = 16.8±4.0). In phase 1 of the study, seventeen patients in the Exercise group (EG) received a combined aerobic and strength training program for six weeks, five times per week, 30 minutes per session, in an individually supervised format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. In phase 2 of the study, sixteen patients in the Social group (SG) received social visits at the same frequency, duration, and format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. Indices of feasibility showed that the recruitment and adherence rate, respectively were 46.2% and 86.3%. All EG patients completed the exercise program according to protocol without adverse events. After the six-week program, no significant differences on cognitive function tests were found between the EG and SG. There was a moderate effect size in favor for the EG for the Visual Memory Span Forward; a visual attention test. There were significant differences between groups in favor for the EG with moderate to large effects for the physical tests Walking Speed (p = .003), Six-Minute Walk Test (p = .031), and isometric quadriceps strength (p = .012). The present pilot study showed that it is feasible to conduct a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized patients with dementia. The selective cognitive visual attention improvements and more robust changes in motor function in favor of EG vs. SG could serve as a basis for large randomized clinical trials. trialregister.nl 1230.

  20. Comparisons of low-intensity versus moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance training on body composition, muscle strength, and functional performance in older women.

    PubMed

    Shiotsu, Yoko; Yanagita, Masahiko

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training into the same session on body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength in healthy older women. Furthermore, this study compared the effects of different (low- vs moderate-) intensity combined training. A total of 60 healthy older women (age 61-81 y) were randomly assigned to five groups that performed aerobic exercise before low-intensity resistance training (AR-L, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-L, n = 12), performed aerobic exercise before moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-M, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-M, n = 12), or nonintervention control conditions (CON, n = 12). Body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength were evaluated before and after the 10-week training. No effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-L vs RA-L, AR-M vs RA-M) were observed in body composition, functional performance, or muscle strength, whereas the effects of training intensity of combined training (AR-L vs AR-M, RA-L vs RA-M) were observed on functional performance. All combined trainings significantly increased muscle strength and gait ability (P < 0.01, respectively). Functional reach test significantly increased in the AR-M and RA-M groups (P < 0.01, respectively), and there were significant group differences between AR-L and AR-M (P = 0.002), RA-L and RA-M (P = 0.014). Preliminary findings suggest that combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training increases muscle strength and improves gait ability, regardless of the exercise order. Also, greater improvement in dynamic balance capacity, a risk factor associated with falling, is observed in moderate-intensity combined training.

  1. POSTOPERATIVE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL THERAPY RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Josélia Jucirema Jarschel de; Freitas, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de; Almeida, Andréa Adriana de

    Respiratory physiotherapy plays an important role preventing complications in bariatric surgery. To assess the effects of out-patient physiotherapy during post-operative period through respiratory pressures and functional capacity in individuals submitted to bariatric surgery. A prospective longitudinal and controlled study was done in adults with body mass index (BMI) equal or greater than 40 kg/m², who have been submitted to bariatric surgery. They were divided into two groups: intervention-group, who performed out-patient physiotherapy twice a week, from thirty to sixty days after surgery; and the control-group, who only followed home instructions. Both groups were evaluated before surgery and sixty days after surgery through manovacuometry, six-minute walk test and the Borg Scale of perceived exertion. Twenty participants were included the intervention-group and twenty-three in the control-group. Both groups had significant and similar weight loss after surgery. The manovacuometry presented no differences comparing pre- and post-surgery and in the comparison between the groups. The result of the six-minute walk test for the intervention-group increased by 10.1% in the post-operative period in relation to pre-. The Borg scale of perceived exertion in the intervention-group in pre-surgery decreased by 13.5% in the post-surgery compared to pre-surgery. In the control-group there was no difference comparing pre- and post-operative values, as in the comparison with the intervention-group. The low-intensity exercise program, carried out between the 30th and the 60th day after bariatric surgery provided better functional capacity; did not change respiratory muscle strength; and improved the perceived exertion rate. A fisioterapia respiratória tem papel importante na prevenção das complicações da cirurgia bariátrica. Avaliar os efeitos da fisioterapia ambulatorial no pós-operatório através das pressões respiratórias e da capacidade funcional dos indiv

  2. Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Increase Muscle Strength and Function in Frail Elderly Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Abe, Sakiko; Ezaki, Osamu; Suzuki, Motohisa

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, is common in elderly individuals but difficult to treat. A combination of nutrients was investigated to treat sarcopenia in very frail elderly adults. We enrolled 38 elderly nursing home residents (11 men and 27 women with a mean ± SD age of 86.6 ± 4.8 y) in a 3-mo randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group trial. The participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups. The first group received a daily l-leucine (1.2 g) and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g medium-chain triglycerides (TGs) (MCTs) (LD + MCT); the second group received the same leucine and cholecalciferol-enriched supplement with 6 g long-chain TGs (LD + LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control). The supplement and oils were taken at dinner, and changes in muscle mass, strength, and function were monitored. The increase in body weight in the LD + MCT (1.1 ± 1.0 kg) and LD + LCT (0.8 ± 1.1 kg) groups was greater than that in the control group (-0.5 ± 0.9 kg) (P < 0.05). After 3 mo, participants in the LD + MCT group had a 13.1% increase in right-hand grip strength (1.2 ± 1.0 kg, P < 0.01), a 12.5% increase in walking speed (0.078 ± 0.080 m/s, P < 0.05), a 68.2% increase in a 10-s leg open-and-close test performance (2.31 ± 1.68 n/10 s, P < 0.001), and a 28.2% increase in peak expiratory flow (53 ± 59 L/min, P < 0.01). No significant improvements in muscle mass, strength, or function were observed in the LD + LCT or control groups. The combined supplementation of MCTs (6 g), leucine-rich amino acids, and cholecalciferol at dinner may improve muscle strength and function in frail elderly individuals. This trial was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000017567. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. The effects of resistance training on muscle strength, joint pain, and hand function in individuals with hand osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Magni, Nicoló Edoardo; McNair, Peter John; Rice, David Andrew

    2017-06-13

    Hand osteoarthritis is a common condition characterised by joint pain and muscle weakness. These factors are thought to contribute to ongoing disability. Some evidence exists that resistance training decreases pain, improves muscle strength, and enhances function in people with knee and hip osteoarthritis. However, there is currently a lack of consensus regarding its effectiveness in people with hand osteoarthritis. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish whether resistance training in people with hand osteoarthritis increases grip strength, decreases joint pain, and improves hand function. Seven databases were searched from 1975 until July 1, 2016. Randomised controlled trials were included. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess studies' methodological quality. The Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system was adopted to rate overall quality of evidence. Suitable studies were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Five studies were included with a total of 350 participants. The majority of the training programs did not meet recommended intensity, frequency, or progression criteria for muscle strengthening. There was moderate-quality evidence that resistance training does not improve grip strength (mean difference = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.84, 3.54; I 2  = 50%; p = 0.23 ). Low-quality evidence showed significant improvements in joint pain (standardised mean difference (SMD) = -0.23; 95% CI = -0.42, -0.04; I 2  = 0%; p = 0.02) which were not clinically relevant. Low-quality evidence demonstrated no improvements in hand function following resistance training (SMD = -0.1; 95% CI = -0.33, 0.13; I 2  = 28%; p = 0.39). There is no evidence that resistance training has a significant effect on grip strength or hand function in people with hand osteoarthritis. Low-quality evidence suggests it has a small, clinically

  4. Strength Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.

    1981-01-01

    Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

  5. Priming for Improved Hand Strength in Persons with Chronic Tetraplegia: A Comparison of Priming-Augmented Functional Task Practice, Priming Alone, and Conventional Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Osman, Joyce; Tibbett, Jacqueline A.; Poe, Brandon P.; Field-Fote, Edelle C.

    2017-01-01

    Many everyday tasks cannot be accomplished without adequate grip strength, and corticomotor drive to the spinal motoneurons is a key determinant of grip strength. In persons with tetraplegia, damage to spinal pathways limits transmission of signals from motor cortex to spinal motoneurons. Corticomotor priming, which increases descending drive, should increase corticospinal transmission through the remaining spinal pathways resulting in increased grip strength. Since the motor and somatosensory cortices share reciprocal connections, corticomotor priming may also have potential to influence somatosensory function. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in grip (precision, power) force and tactile sensation associated with two different corticomotor priming approaches and a conventional training approach and to determine whether baseline values can predict responsiveness to training. Participants with chronic (≥1 year) tetraplegia (n = 49) were randomized to one of two corticomotor priming approaches: functional task practice plus peripheral nerve somatosensory stimulation (FTP + PNSS) or PNSS alone, or to conventional exercise training (CET). To assess whether baseline corticospinal excitability (CSE) is predictive of responsiveness to training, in a subset of participants, we assessed pre-intervention CSE of the thenar muscles. Participants were trained 2 h daily, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Thirty-seven participants completed the study. Following intervention, significant improvements in precision grip force were observed in both the stronger and weaker hand in the FTP + PNSS group (effect size: 0.51, p = 0.04 and 0.54, p = 0.03, respectively), and significant improvements in weak hand precision grip force were associated with both PNSS and CET (effect size: 0.54, p = 0.03 and 0.75, p = 0.02, respectively). No significant changes were observed in power grip force or somatosensory scores in any group. Across all groups

  6. Inpatient rehabilitation improves functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    José, Anderson; Dal Corso, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Among people who are hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia, does an inpatient exercise-based rehabilitation program improve functional outcomes, symptoms, quality of life and length of hospital stay more than a respiratory physiotherapy regimen? Randomised trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinding of some outcomes. Forty-nine adults hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia. The experimental group (n=32) underwent a physical training program that included warm-up, stretching, peripheral muscle strength training and walking at a controlled speed for 15 minutes. The control group (n=17) underwent a respiratory physiotherapy regimen that included percussion, vibrocompression, respiratory exercises and free walking. The intervention regimens lasted 8 days. The primary outcome was the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test, which assesses the time taken to complete a series of functional tasks (eg, rising from a chair, walking, stairs, lifting and bending). Secondary outcomes were distance walked in the incremental shuttle walk test, peripheral muscle strength, quality of life, dyspnoea, lung function, C-reactive protein and length of hospital stay. Measures were taken 1 day before and 1 day after the intervention period. There was greater improvement in the experimental group than in the control group on the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test (mean between-group difference 39 seconds, 95% CI 20 to 59) and the incremental shuttle walk test (mean between-group difference 130 m, 95% CI 77 to 182). There were also significantly greater improvements in quality of life, dyspnoea and peripheral muscle strength in the experimental group than in the control group. There were no between-group differences in lung function, C-reactive protein or length of hospital stay. The improvement in functional outcomes after an inpatient rehabilitation program was greater than the improvement after standard respiratory physiotherapy. The

  7. Effectiveness of resistance training on muscle strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chloe Lau Ha; Thilarajah, Shamala; Tan, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the evidence investigating the effectiveness of resistance training on strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease. Seven electronic databases (COCHRANE, CINAHL, Medline ISI, Psycinfo, Scopus, Web of Science ISI and Embase) were systematically searched for full-text articles published in English between 1946 and November 2014 using relevant search terms. Only randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of resistance training on muscle strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease were considered. The PEDro scale was used to assess study quality. Studies with similar outcomes were pooled by calculating standardized mean differences (SMD) using fixed or random effects model, depending on study heterogeneity. Seven studies, comprising of 401 participants with early to advanced disease (Hoehn & Yahr stage 1 to 4), were included. The median quality score was 6/10. The meta-analyses demonstrated significant SMD in favour of resistance training compared to non-resistance training or no intervention controls for muscle strength (0.61; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.87; P <0.001), balance (0.36; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.64; P = 0.01) and parkinsonian motor symptoms (0.48; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.75; P < 0.001) but not for gait, balance confidence and quality of life. This review demonstrates that moderate intensity progressive resistance training, 2-3 times per week over 8-10 weeks can result in significant strength, balance and motor symptoms gains in people with early to moderate Parkinson's disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effects of Pilates mat exercises on muscle strength and on pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis*

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Caroline Buarque; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Morcillo, André Moreno; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Almeida, Marina Buarque; Rozov, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of Pilates mat exercises in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a clinical trial involving 19 CF patients recruited from either the CF Outpatient Clinic of the State University at Campinas Hospital de Clínicas or the Children's Institute of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. All of the patients performed Pilates mat exercises for four months (one 60-min session per week). The variables studied (before and after the intervention) were respiratory muscle strength, MIP, MEP, FVC, and FEV1. RESULTS: After the intervention, MIP was significantly higher in the male patients (p = 0.017), as were MIP and MEP in the female patients (p = 0.005 and p = 0.007, respectively). There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention values of FVC or FEV1, neither in the sample as a whole nor among the patients of either gender. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Pilates mat exercises have beneficial effects on respiratory muscle strength in CF patients. PMID:25410840

  9. Asymmetries in functional hop tests, lower extremity kinematics, and isokinetic strength persist 6 to 9 months following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Xergia, Sofia A; Pappas, Evangelos; Zampeli, Franceska; Georgiou, Spyros; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2013-03-01

    Within-subject and between-subject cross-sectional study. To investigate symmetry in hop-test performance, strength, and lower extremity kinematics 6 to 9 months following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Despite the extensive body of literature involving persons following ACLR, no study has comprehensively evaluated measures of strength, lower extremity kinematics, and functional performance of functional hop tests in this population. The subjects were 22 men (mean ± SD age, 28.8 ± 11.2 years) who had ACLR using a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft 6 to 9 (7.01 ± 0.93) months previously and 22 healthy male controls (age, 24.8 ± 9.1 years). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire and underwent isokinetic strength testing and functional and kinematic assessment of the single-, triple-, and crossover-hop tests. Two-way analyses of variance were used to test for differences between the ACLR group and the control group, and between the 2 lower extremities of the ACLR group. Compared to the control group, the ACLR group had greater isokinetic knee extension torque deficits at all speeds (P ≤.001) and greater performance asymmetry for all 3 hop tests (P<.001). Compared to the noninvolved lower extremity, the involved lower extremity of the ACLR group exhibited less ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion in the phases of propulsion (P ≤.014) and landing (P ≤.032). When compared to the control group, the involved lower extremity exhibited less ankle dorsiflexion in the propulsion phase (P<.001) but higher hip flexion in the landing phase (P = .014). Six to 9 months following ACLR, patients continue to demonstrate functional hop and isokinetic knee extension deficits, as well as kinematic differences, during the propulsion and landing phases of the hop tests.

  10. Expression of CYP2E1 in human nasopharynx and its metabolic effect in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hou, De-Fu; Wang, Shui-Liang; He, Zhi-Min; Yang, Fang; Chen, Zhu-Chu

    2007-04-01

    It was evident that nitrosamines can act directly on target tissue and result in carcinogenesis. As has been shown, the carcinogenic activity of nitrosamines relied on its bioactivation by Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). In this study, we investigated the expression of CYP2E1 in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, embryonic nasopharyngeal epithelial tissue (ENET) specimens, and NPC biopsies by RT-PCR analysis. CYP2E1 was expressed in all NPC cell lines (6/6, including 7429) and ENET (6/6), and 80% of NPC biopsie (8/10). The fact that Human nasopharynx expresses CYP2E1 suggests that CYP2E1 may play an important role in the course of NPC by indirect carcinogens nitrosamines. To further evaluate the function of CYP2E1, the CYP2E1 was stably expressed in the cell line NIH 3T3/rtTA under a tetracycline-controlled transactivator. The expression of CYP2E1 was tightly regulated in a dose-dependent manner by Doxycycline (Dox) When the catalytic activity of CYP2E1 was assayed, the result showed that the generation of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6-OH-CZ) from chlorzoxazone (CZ) was dose- and time-dependent on Dox addition to the medium. In the presence of 1 microg/ml Dox, the CZ 6-hydroxylase activity of the cell line was found to be 0.986 +/- 0.034 nmol/10(6) cells/h. The metabolic activation of Tet/3T3/2E1-6 cells was also assayed by N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine (DNP) cytotoxicity, and the viability of Tet/3T3/2E1-6 cells treated with Dox was lower than that of untreated cells with a significant difference between them in 80 and 160 microg/ml DNP (P ( 0.05, t test. This cell line will be useful not only to assess the metabolic characteristics of CYP2E1, but also will be useful to investigate the role of CYP2E1 in metabolic activation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in vitro.

  11. The nuclear receptor NR2E1/TLX controls senescence.

    PubMed

    O'Loghlen, Ana; Martin, Nadine; Krusche, Benjamin; Pemberton, Helen; Alonso, Marta M; Chandler, Hollie; Brookes, Sharon; Parrinello, Simona; Peters, Gordon; Gil, Jesús

    2015-07-30

    The nuclear receptor NR2E1 (also known as TLX or tailless) controls the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and has been implied as an oncogene which initiates brain tumors including glioblastomas. Despite NR2E1 regulating targets like p21(CIP1) or PTEN we still lack a full explanation for its role in NSC self-renewal and tumorigenesis. We know that polycomb repressive complexes also control stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis, but so far, no formal connection has been established between NR2E1 and PRCs. In a screen for transcription factors regulating the expression of the polycomb protein CBX7, we identified NR2E1 as one of its more prominent regulators. NR2E1 binds at the CBX7 promoter, inducing its expression. Notably CBX7 represses NR2E1 as part of a regulatory loop. Ectopic NR2E1 expression inhibits cellular senescence, extending cellular lifespan in fibroblasts via CBX7-mediated regulation of p16(INK4a) and direct repression of p21(CIP1). In addition NR2E1 expression also counteracts oncogene-induced senescence. The importance of NR2E1 to restrain senescence is highlighted through the process of knocking down its expression, which causes premature senescence in human fibroblasts and epithelial cells. We also confirmed that NR2E1 regulates CBX7 and restrains senescence in NSCs. Finally, we observed that the expression of NR2E1 directly correlates with that of CBX7 in human glioblastoma multiforme. Overall we identified control of senescence and regulation of polycomb action as two possible mechanisms that can join those so far invoked to explain the role of NR2E1 in control of NSC self-renewal and cancer.

  12. Resistance training-induced gains in muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity are attenuated in elderly women with sarcopenic obesity

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Silva, Alessandro; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Lopes de Farias, Darlan; dos Santos, Paulo Henrique Fernandes; Vieira, Denis Cesar Leite; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Orsano, Vânia Silva Macedo; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Prestes, Jonato

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT) on body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity in elderly women with and without sarcopenic obesity (SO). Methods A total of 49 women (aged ≥60 years) were divided in two groups: without SO (non-SO, n=41) and with SO (n=8). Both groups performed a periodized RT program consisting of two weekly sessions for 16 weeks. All measures were assessed at baseline and postintervention, including anthropometry and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle strength (one repetition maximum) for chest press and 45° leg press, and functional capacity (stand up, elbow flexion, timed “up and go”). Results After the intervention, only the non-SO group presented significant reductions in percentage body fat (−2.2%; P=0.006), waist circumference (−2.7%; P=0.01), waist-to-hip ratio (−2.3; P=0.02), and neck circumference (−1.8%; P=0.03) as compared with baseline. Muscle strength in the chest press and biceps curl increased in non-SO only (12.9% and 11.3%, respectively), while 45° leg press strength increased in non-SO (50.3%) and SO (40.5%) as compared with baseline. Performance in the chair stand up and timed “up and go” improved in non-SO only (21.4% and −8.4%, respectively), whereas elbow flexion performance increased in non-SO (23.8%) and SO (21.4%). Effect sizes for motor tests were of higher magnitude in the non-SO group, and in general, considered “moderate” compared to “trivial” in the SO group. Conclusion Results suggest that adaptations induced by 16 weeks of RT are attenuated in elderly woman with SO, compromising improvements in adiposity indices and gains in muscle strength and functional capacity. PMID:29588579

  13. Safety study and characterization of E1A-liposome complex gene-delivery protocol in an ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Xing, X; Zhang, S; Chang, J Y; Tucker, S D; Chen, H; Huang, L; Hung, M C

    1998-11-01

    A phase I clinical trial of E1A-liposome complex is currently ongoing in patients with HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast or ovarian cancers. To optimize the E1A-liposome complex for a further stage of clinical trial, several aspects of the current protocol have been examined in an animal model. In the orthotopic ovarian cancer model, different doses of lipid in the the E1A-liposome complex, which is currently used in clinical trials, were tested for the in vivo gene-transfer efficacy and tumor-suppression function. A lowered lipid dose--1/13 of the previous amount--produced gene expression level and E1A tumor-suppression efficacy similar to that of the original protocol. Mini-E1A, an E1A construct without its immortalization domain and yet capable of repressing HER-2/neu, was proved to be as potent as E1A in suppressing tumor development in vivo. These changes in the E1A-liposome complex will significantly reduce any potential adverse effects caused by lipid vector and E1A DNA. To examine further whether residual E1A DNA may still exist in normal organs after the E1A-liposome treatment, PCR was used to detect E1A DNA in mice that survived for 1 1/2 years after the last treatment. E1A DNA was detected only in the lungs and kidneys, but not in livers, hearts, spleens, brains, uterus or the ovaries. Furthermore, resistance of the E1A DNA extracted from tissues to the digestion of Dpnl restriction enzyme, which can cleave the methylated E1A plasmid DNA generated by methylation-competent bacteria, suggested integration of E1A DNA into the chromosome of the lungs and kidneys. Experimental results presented here provide important information for safety concerns and for the design of future phase II and phase III trials.

  14. Effects of Plyometric and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, Explosiveness and Neuromuscular Function in Young Adolescent Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    McKinlay, Brandon John; Wallace, Phillip; Dotan, Raffy; Long, Devon; Tokuno, Craig; Gabriel, David; Falk, Bareket

    2018-01-04

    This study examined the effect of 8-weeks of free-weight-resistance (RT) and plyometric (PLYO) training on maximal strength, explosiveness and jump performance compared with no added training (CON), in young male soccer players. Forty-one 11[FIGURE DASH]13-year-old soccer players were divided into three groups (RT, PLYO, CON). All participants completed isometric and dynamic (240°/s) knee extensions pre- and post-training. Peak torque (pT), peak rate of torque development (pRTD), electromechanical-delay (EMD), rate of muscle activation (Q50), m. vastus-lateralis thickness (VLT), and jump performance were examined. pT, pRTD and jump performance significantly improved in both training groups. Training resulted in significant (p<0.05) increases in isometric pT (23.4 vs. 15.8%) and pRTD (15.0 vs. 17.6%), in RT and PLYO, respectively. During dynamic contractions, training resulted in significant increases in pT (12.4 and 10.8% in RT and PLYO, respectively), but not pRTD. Jump performance increased in both training groups (RT=10.0%, PLYO=16.2%), with only PLYO significantly different from CON. Training resulted in significant increases in VLT (RT=6.7%. PLYO=8.1%). There were no significant EMD changes. In conclusion, 8-week free-weight resistance and plyometric training resulted in significant improvements in muscle strength and jump performance. Training resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy in the two training modes, with no clear differences in muscle performance. Plyometric training was more effective in improving jump performance, while free-weight resistance training was more advantageous in improving peak torque, where the stretch reflex was not involved.

  15. Augmenting static and dynamic mechanical strength of carbon nanotube/epoxy soft nanocomposites via modulation of purification and functionalization routes.

    PubMed

    Billing, Beant Kaur; Dhar, Purbarun; Singh, Narinder; Agnihotri, Prabhat K

    2018-01-03

    A detailed experimental investigation was carried out to establish the relationship between CNT purification and functionalization routes and the average response of CNT/epoxy nanocomposites under static and dynamic loading. It was shown that the relative improvement in the mechanical properties of the epoxy matrix due to the addition of CNTs depends on the choice of purification and functionalization steps. A better dispersion of CNTs was recorded for the functionalized CNTs as compared to the oxidized and CVD grown CNTs. Moreover, tensile, 3-point bending and nanoDMA testing performed on nanocomposites processed with CVD-grown, oxidized and functionalized CNTs revealed that COOH functionalization after the oxidation of CNTs at 350 °C is the optimized processing route to harness the excellent properties of CNTs in CNT/epoxy nanocomposites.

  16. Hindlimb Skeletal Muscle Function and Skeletal Quality and Strength in +/G610C Mice With and Without Weight-Bearing Exercise.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Youngjae; Carleton, Stephanie M; Gentry, Bettina A; Yao, Xiaomei; Ferreira, J Andries; Salamango, Daniel J; Weis, MaryAnn; Oestreich, Arin K; Williams, Ashlee M; McCray, Marcus G; Eyre, David R; Brown, Marybeth; Wang, Yong; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2015-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous heritable connective tissue disorder associated with reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fragility. Bone is inherently mechanosensitive, with bone strength being proportional to muscle mass and strength. Physically active healthy children accrue more bone than inactive children. Children with type I OI exhibit decreased exercise capacity and muscle strength compared with healthy peers. It is unknown whether this muscle weakness reflects decreased physical activity or a muscle pathology. In this study, we used heterozygous G610C OI model mice (+/G610C), which model both the genotype and phenotype of a large Amish OI kindred, to evaluate hindlimb muscle function and physical activity levels before evaluating the ability of +/G610C mice to undergo a treadmill exercise regimen. We found +/G610C mice hindlimb muscles do not exhibit compromised muscle function, and their activity levels were not reduced relative to wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice were also able to complete an 8-week treadmill regimen. Biomechanical integrity of control and exercised wild-type and +/G610C femora were analyzed by torsional loading to failure. The greatest skeletal gains in response to exercise were observed in stiffness and the shear modulus of elasticity with alterations in collagen content. Analysis of tibial cortical bone by Raman spectroscopy demonstrated similar crystallinity and mineral/matrix ratios regardless of sex, exercise, and genotype. Together, these findings demonstrate +/G610C OI mice have equivalent muscle function, activity levels, and ability to complete a weight-bearing exercise regimen as wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice exhibited increased femoral stiffness and decreased hydroxyproline with exercise, whereas other biomechanical parameters remain unaffected, suggesting a more rigorous exercise regimen or another exercise modality may be required to improve bone quality of OI mice. © 2015 American Society for Bone

  17. Grip strength, postural control, and functional leg power in a representative cohort of British men and women: associations with physical activity, health status, and socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuh, Diana; Bassey, E Joan; Butterworth, Suzanne; Hardy, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Michael E J

    2005-02-01

    Understanding the health, behavioral, and social factors that influence physical performance in midlife may provide clues to the origins of frailty in old age and the future health of elderly populations. The authors evaluated muscle strength, postural control, and chair rise performance in a large representative prospective cohort of 53-year-old British men and women in relation to functional limitations, body size, health and activity, and socioeconomic conditions. Nurses interviewed 2984 men and women in their own homes in England, Scotland, and Wales and conducted physical examinations in 2956 of them. Objective measures were height, weight, and three physical performance tests: handgrip strength, one-legged standing balance time, and time to complete 10 chair rises. Functional limitations (difficulties walking, stair climbing, gripping, and falls), health status, physical activity, and social class were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Those with the worst scores on the physical performance tests had higher rates of functional limitations for both upper and lower limbs. Women had much weaker handgrip strength, somewhat poorer balance time, and only slightly poorer chair rise time compared with men. In women, health problems and low levels of physical activity contributed to poor physical performance on all three measures. In men, physical activity was the predominant influence. Heavier weight and poorer socioeconomic conditions contributed to poorer balance and chair rise times. In this representative middle-aged group, physical performance levels varied widely, and women were seriously disadvantaged compared with men. In general, physical performance was worse for men and women living in poorer socioeconomic conditions with greater body weight, poorer health status, and inactive lifestyles. These findings support recommendations for controlling excess body weight, effective health interventions, and the maintenance of active lifestyles during aging.

  18. Executive functioning, concern about falling and quadriceps strength mediate the relationship between impaired gait adaptability and fall risk in older people.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Brodie, Matthew A; Schoene, Daniel; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Sturnieks, Daina L; Menant, Jasmine C

    2018-01-01

    Reduced ability to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be an important reason why older adults have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to identify cognitive, psychological and physical mediators of the relationship between impaired gait adaptability and fall risk in older adults. Fifty healthy older adults (mean±SD: 74±7years) were categorised as high or low fall risk, based on past falls and their performance in the Physiological Profile Assessment. High and low-risk groups were then compared in the gait adaptability test, i.e. an assessment of the ability to adapt gait in response to obstacles and stepping targets under single and dual task conditions. Quadriceps strength, concern about falling and executive function were also measured. The older adults who made errors on the gait adaptability test were 4.76 (95%CI=1.08-20.91) times more likely to be at high risk of falling. Furthermore, each standard deviation reduction in gait speed while approaching the targets/obstacle increased the odds of being at high risk of falling approximately three fold: single task - OR=3.10,95%CI=1.43-6.73; dual task - 3.42,95%CI=1.56-7.52. Executive functioning, concern about falling and quadriceps strength substantially mediated the relationship between the gait adaptability measures and fall risk status. Impaired gait adaptability is associated with high risk of falls in older adults. Reduced executive function, increased concern about falling and weaker quadriceps strength contribute significantly to this relationship. Training gait adaptability directly, as well as addressing the above mediators through cognitive, behavioural and physical training may maximise fall prevention efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A proton pump ATPase with testis-specific E1-subunit isoform required for acrosome acidification.

    PubMed

    Sun-Wada, Ge-Hong; Imai-Senga, Yoko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Murata, Yoshiko; Hirata, Tomoyuki; Wada, Yoh; Futai, Masamitsu

    2002-05-17

    The vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are a family of multimeric proton pumps involved in a wide variety of physiological processes. We have identified two novel mouse genes, Atp6e1 and Atp6e2, encoding testis-specific (E1) and ubiquitous (E2) V-ATPase subunit E isoforms, respectively. The E1 transcript appears about 3 weeks after birth, corresponding to the start of meiosis, and is expressed specifically in round spermatids in seminiferous tubules. Immunohistochemistry with isoform-specific antibodies revealed that the V-ATPase with E1 and a2 isoforms is located specifically in developing acrosomes of spermatids and acrosomes in mature sperm. In contrast, the E2 isoform was expressed in all tissues examined and present in the perinuclear compartments of spermatocytes. The E1 isoform exhibits 70% identity with the E2, and both isoforms functionally complemented a null mutation of the yeast counterpart VMA4, indicating that they are bona fide V-ATPase subunits. The chimeric enzymes showed slightly lower K(m)(ATP) than yeast V-ATPase. Consistent with the temperature-sensitive growth of Deltavma4-expressing E1 isoform, vacuolar membrane vesicles exhibited temperature-sensitive coupling between ATP hydrolysis and proton transport. These results suggest that E1 isoform is essential for energy coupling involved in acidification of acrosome.

  20. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain, walking function, respiratory muscle strength and vital capacity in kidney donors: a protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pain is a negative factor in the recovery process of postoperative patients, causing pulmonary alterations and complications and affecting functional capacity. Thus, it is plausible to introduce transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain relief to subsequently reduce complications caused by this pain in the postoperative period. The objective of this paper is to assess the effects of TENS on pain, walking function, respiratory muscle strength and vital capacity in kidney donors. Methods/design Seventy-four patients will be randomly allocated into 2 groups: active TENS or placebo TENS. All patients will be assessed for pain intensity, walk function (Iowa Gait Test), respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure) and vital capacity before and after the TENS application. The data will be collected by an assessor who is blinded to the group allocation. Discussion This study is the first to examine the effects of TENS in this population. TENS during the postoperative period may result in pain relief and improvements in pulmonary tests and mobility, thus leading to an improved quality of life and further promoting organ donation. Trial registration Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clinicos (ReBEC), number RBR-8xtkjp. PMID:23311705

  1. Effect of low appendicular lean mass, grip strength, and gait speed on the functional outcome after surgery for distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Hak; Noh, Jung Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Patients with low appendicular lean mass plus slow gait speed or weak grip strength are at risk for poor functional recovery after surgery for distal radius fracture, even when they have similar radiologic outcomes. Loss of skeletal muscle mass and consequent loss in muscle function associate with aging, and this condition negatively impacts the activities of daily living and increases elderly individuals' frailty to falls. Thus, patients with low appendicular lean mass would show different functional recovery compared to those without this condition after surgery for distal radius fracture (DRF). This study compares the functional outcomes after surgery for DRF in patients with or without low appendicular lean mass plus slowness or weakness. A total of 157 patients older than 50 years of age with a DRF treated via volar plate fixation were enrolled in this prospective study. A definition of low appendicular lean mass with slowness or weakness was based on the consensus of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. The researchers compared functional assessments (wrist range of motion and Michigan Hand Questionnaire [MHQ]) and radiographic assessments (radial inclination, volar tilt, ulnar variance, and articular congruity) 12 months after surgery between patients with and without low appendicular lean mass plus slowness or weakness. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine whether appendicular lean mass, grip strength, gait speed, patient demographic, or injury characteristics accounted for the functional outcomes. Patients with low appendicular lean mass plus slowness or weakness showed a significantly lower recovery of MHQ score than those in the control group throughout 12 months. There was no significant difference in the range of motion between the groups. The radiologic outcomes showed no significant difference between groups in terms of volar tilt, radial inclination, or ulnar variance. According to multivariable regression analysis

  2. Effectiveness of home exercise on pain, function, and strength of manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury: a high-dose shoulder program with telerehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Van Straaten, Meegan G; Cloud, Beth A; Morrow, Melissa M; Ludewig, Paula M; Zhao, Kristin D

    2014-10-01

    To test the effectiveness of a high-dose home exercise/telerehabilitation program for manual wheelchair users who have a spinal cord injury (SCI) by determining whether the intervention would reduce pain and increase function, as we hypothesized. A pre-post trial with outcomes measured at 3 time points: baseline, postintervention (12wk), and follow-up (>24 wk). Subjects performed an exercise program at their homes using telerehabilitation for therapist monitoring of technique and exercise advancement. Baseline and postintervention data were collected at a motion analysis laboratory in a tertiary medical center. A convenience sample of manual wheelchair users (N=16, 3 women; average age, 41y; average time in a wheelchair, 16y) with shoulder pain (average pain duration, 9y) and mechanical impingement signs on physical examination. A 12-week home exercise program of rotator cuff and scapular stabilization exercises was given to each participant. The program included a high dose of 3 sets of 30 repetitions, 3 times weekly, and regular physical therapist supervision via videoconferencing. Primary outcomes of pain and function were measured with the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI), Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Index, and Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ). Secondary outcomes of strength were measured with isometric strength tests of scapulothoracic and glenohumeral muscles, and a static fatigue test of the lower trapezius. Pain was reduced and function improved after the intervention. There was a significant main effect for pain and function between the 3 time points based on the Friedman signed-ranked test, WUSPI (χ(2)2=5.10, P=.014), DASH Index (χ(2)2=5.41, P=.012), and SRQ (χ(2)2=23.71, P≤.001). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests demonstrated that isometric strength measurements of the serratus anterior and scapular retractors increased after the exercise intervention ([t=2.42, P=.04] and [t=4.67, P=.003], respectively). Muscle impulse

  3. 26 CFR 1.927(e)-1 - Special sourcing rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special sourcing rule. 1.927(e)-1 Section 1.927(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... sale of export property giving rise to foreign trading gross receipts of a FSC that is treated as from...

  4. 26 CFR 1.167(e)-1 - Change in method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in method. 1.167(e)-1 Section 1.167(e)-1... method. (a) In general. (1) Any change in the method of computing the depreciation allowances with respect to a particular account (other than a change in method permitted or required by reason of the...

  5. 26 CFR 1.642(e)-1 - Depreciation and depletion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation and depletion. 1.642(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(e)-1 Depreciation and depletion. An estate or trust is allowed the deductions for depreciation and depletion, but only to the extent the...

  6. Shear bond strength comparison between conventional porcelain fused to metal and new functionally graded dental restorations after thermal-mechanical cycling.

    PubMed

    Henriques, B; Gonçalves, S; Soares, D; Silva, F S

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermo-mechanical cycling on the metal-ceramic bond strength of conventional porcelain fused to metal restorations (PFM) and new functionally graded metal-ceramic dental restorations (FGMR). Two types of specimens were produced: PFM and FGMR specimens. PFM specimens were produced by conventional PFM technique. FGMR specimens were hot pressed and prepared with a metal/ceramic composite interlayer (50 M, vol%) at the metal-ceramic interface. They were manufactured and standardized in cylindrical format and then submitted to thermal (3000, 6000 and 12,000 cycles; between 5 °C and 60 °C; dwell time: 30s) and mechanical (25,000, 50,000 and 100,000 cycles under a load of 50 N; 1.6 Hz) cycling. The shear bond strength tests were performed in a universal testing machine (crosshead speed: 0.5mm/min), using a special device to concentrate the tension at the metal-ceramic interface and the load was applied until fracture. The metal-ceramic interfaces were examined with SEM/EDS prior to and after shear tests. The Young's modulus and hardness were measured across the interfaces of both types of specimens using nanoindentation tests. Data was analyzed with Shapiro-Wilk test to test the assumption of normality. The 2-way ANOVA was used to compare shear bond strength results (p<0.05). FGMR specimens showed significantly (p<0.001) higher shear bond strength results than PFM specimens, irrespective of fatigue conditions. Fatigue conditions significantly (p<0.05) affected the shear bond strength results. The analysis of surface fracture revealed adhesive fracture type for PFM specimens and mixed fracture type for FGMR specimens. Nanoindentation tests showed differences in mechanical properties measured across the metal-ceramic interface for the two types of specimens, namely Young's Modulus and hardness. This study showed significantly better performance of the new functionally graded restorations relative to conventional PFM

  7. Hip abduction-adduction strength and one-leg hop tests: test-retest reliability and relationship to function in elite ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Kea, J; Kramer, J; Forwell, L; Birmingham, T

    2001-08-01

    Single group, test-retest. To determine: (1) hip abduction and adduction torques during concentric and eccentric muscle actions, (2) medial and lateral one-leg hop distances, (3) the test-retest reliability of these measurements, and (4) the relationship between isokinetic measures of hip muscle strength and hop distances in elite ice hockey players. The skating motion used in ice hockey requires strong contractions of the hip and knee musculature. However, baseline scores for hip strength and hop distances, their test-retest reliability, and measures of the extent to which these tests are related for this population are not available. The dominant leg of 27 men (mean age 20 +/- 3 yrs) was tested on 2 occasions. Hip abduction and adduction movements were completed at 60 degrees.s(-1) angular velocity, with the subject lying on the non-test side and the test leg moving vertically in the subject's coronal plane. One-leg hops requiring jumping from and landing on the same leg without losing balance were completed in the medial and lateral directions. Hip adduction torques were significantly greater than abduction torques during both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, while no significant difference was observed between medial and lateral hop distances. Although hop test scores produced excellent ICCs (> 0.75) when determined using scores on 1 occasion, torques needed to be averaged over 2 test occasions to reach this level. Correlations between the strength and hop tests ranged from slight to low (r = -0.26 to 0.27) and were characterized by wide 95% confidence intervals (-0.54 to 0.61). Isokinetic tests of hip abduction and adduction did not provide a strong indication of performance during sideways hop tests. Although isokinetic tests can provide a measure of muscular strength under specific test conditions, they should not be relied upon as a primary indicator of functional abilities or readiness to return to activity.

  8. CYP2E1 Metabolism of Styrene Involves Allostery

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Jessica H.; Boysen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    We are the first to report allosterism during styrene oxidation by recombinant CYP2E1 and human liver microsomes. At low styrene concentrations, oxidation is inefficient because of weak binding to CYP2E1 (Ks = 830 μM). A second styrene molecule then binds CYP2E1 with higher affinity (Kss = 110 μM) and significantly improves oxidation to achieve a kcat of 6.3 nmol · min−1 · nmol CYP2E1−1. The transition between these metabolic cycles coincides with reported styrene concentrations in blood from exposed workers; thus, this CYP2E1 mechanism may be relevant in vivo. Scaled modeling of the in vitro-positive allosteric mechanism for styrene metabolism to its in vivo clearance led to significant deviations from the traditional model based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Low styrene levels were notably much less toxic than generally assumed. We interrogated the allosteric mechanism using the CYP2E1-specific inhibitor and drug 4-methylpyrazole, which we have shown binds two CYP2E1 sites. From the current studies, styrene was a positive allosteric effector on 4-methylpyrazole binding, based on a 10-fold increase in 4-methylpyrazole binding affinity from Ki 0.51 to Ksi 0.043 μM. The inhibitor was a negative allosteric effector on styrene oxidation, because kcat decreased 6-fold to 0.98 nmol · min−1 · nmol CYP2E1−1. Consequently, mixtures of styrene and other molecules can induce allosteric effects on binding and metabolism by CYP2E1 and thus mitigate the efficiency of their metabolism and corresponding effects on human health. Taken together, our elucidation of mechanisms for these allosteric reactions provides a powerful tool for further investigating the complexities of CYP2E1 metabolism of drugs and pollutants. PMID:22807108

  9. Inspiratory muscle training improves respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Ana Irene Carlos; Fuzari, Helen Kerlen Bastos; Rattesa, Catarina; Brandão, Daniella Cunha; de Melo Marinho, Patrícia Érika

    2017-04-01

    Does inspiratory muscle training improve respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity, lung function and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease? Does inspiratory muscle training improve these outcomes more than breathing exercises? Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. People with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis treatment. The primary outcomes were: maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure, and distance covered on the 6-minute walk test. The secondary outcomes were: forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1 ), and quality of life. The search identified four eligible studies. The sample consisted of 110 participants. The inspiratory muscle training used a Threshold ® or PowerBreathe ® device, with a load ranging from 30 to 60% of the maximal inspiratory pressure and lasting from 6 weeks to 6 months. The studies showed moderate to high risk of bias, and the quality of the evidence was rated low or very low, due to the studies' methodological limitations. The meta-analysis showed that inspiratory muscle training significantly improved maximal inspiratory pressure (MD 23 cmH 2 O, 95% CI 16 to 29) and the 6-minute walk test distance (MD 80m, 95% CI 41 to 119) when compared with controls. Significant benefits in lung function and quality of life were also identified. When compared to breathing exercises, significant benefits were identified in maximal expiratory pressure (MD 6 cmH 2 O, 95% CI 2 to 10) and FEV 1 (MD 0.24litres 95% CI 0.14 to 0.34), but not maximal inspiratory pressure or forced vital capacity. In patients with chronic renal failure on dialysis, inspiratory muscle training with a fixed load significantly improves respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity, lung function and quality of life. The evidence for these benefits may be influenced by some sources of bias. PROSPERO (CRD 42015029986). [de Medeiros AIC, Fuzari HKB, Rattesa C, Brandão DC, de

  10. Protein intake distribution pattern does not affect anabolic response, lean body mass, muscle strength or function over 8 weeks in older adults: A randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Young; Schutzler, Scott; Schrader, Amy M; Spencer, Horace J; Azhar, Gohar; Wolfe, Robert R; Ferrando, Arny A

    2018-04-01

    In our recent acute metabolic study, we found no differences in the anabolic response to differing patterns of dietary protein intake. To confirm this in a chronic study, we investigated the effects of protein distribution pattern on functional outcomes and protein kinetics in older adults over 8 weeks. To determine chronic effects of protein intake pattern at 1.1 g protein/kg/day in mixed meals on lean body mass (LBM), functional outcomes, whole body protein kinetics and muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (MPS) over 8-week respective dietary intervention, fourteen older subjects were randomly divided into either EVEN or UNVEN group. The UNEVEN group (n = 7) consumed the majority of dietary protein with dinner (UNEVEN, 15/20/65%; breakfast, lunch, dinner), while the EVEN group (n = 7) consumed dietary protein evenly throughout the day (EVEN: 33/33/33%). We found no significant differences in LBM, muscle strength, and other functional outcomes between EVEN and UNEVEN before and after 8-week intervention. Consistent with these functional outcomes, we did not find significant differences in the 20-h integrated whole body protein kinetics [net protein balance (NB), protein synthesis (PS), and breakdown (PB)] above basal states and MPS between EVEN and UNEVEN intake patterns. We conclude that over an 8-week intervention period, the protein intake distribution pattern in mixed meals does not play an important role in determining anabolic response, muscle strength, or functional outcomes. This trial is registered at https://ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02787889. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Skeletal robustness and bone strength as measured by anthropometry and ultrasonography as a function of physical activity in young adults.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Christiane; Gniosdorz, Birgit; Staub, Kaspar; Rühli, Frank

    2014-01-01

    During the last 10 years, skeletal robustness in children has generally decreased. The reasons for this phenomenon, as well as its outcomes, are undetermined so far. The present study explores the association between anthropometric skeletal measurements, bone quality measurements, and physical activity in young adults. 118 German young men (N = 68; 19-25 years old) and women (N = 50; 19-24 years old) were investigated by anthropometric methods (i.e., height, weight, shoulder, elbow breadth, and pelvic breadth) and quantitative ultrasound measurement (QUS). Strength and stability of Os calcis have been determined by speed of sound (in m/s) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (in dB/Mhz); individual physical activity was analyzed by a pedometer and by questionnaire. The results show a correlation between sports hours per week and bone quality index in males. But no correlation exists between anthropometric data and QUSs for either sexes, as well as no correlation between total steps per day and internal bone quality or external bone dimensions. These results are discussed in the context of generally decreasing physical activity, the outcomes of prevention programs as well as evolutionary adaptation of human phenotypic plasticity in a changing environment. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Functional strength training and movement performance therapy produce analogous improvement in sit-to-stand early after stroke: early-phase randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kerr, A; Clark, A; Cooke, E V; Rowe, P; Pomeroy, V M

    2017-09-01

    Restoring independence in the sit-to-stand (STS) task is an important objective for stroke rehabilitation. It is not known if a particular intervention, strength training or therapy focused on movement performance is more likely to improve STS recovery. This study aimed to compare STS outcomes from functional strength training, movement performance therapy and conventional therapy. Randomised controlled trial. Acute stroke units. Medically well patients (n=93) with recent (<42 days) stroke. The mean age of patients was 68.8 years, mean time post ictus was 33.5 days, 54 (58%) were male, 20 showed neglect (22%) and 37 (40%) had a left-sided brain lesion. Six weeks of either conventional therapy, functional strength training or movement performance therapy. Subjects were allocated to groups on a random basis. STS ability, timing, symmetry, co-ordination, smoothness and knee velocity were measured at baseline, outcome (after 6 weeks of intervention) and follow-up (3 months after outcome). No significant differences were found between the groups. All three groups improved their STS ability, with 88% able to STS at follow-up compared with 56% at baseline. Few differences were noted in quality of movement, with only symmetry when rising showing significantly greater improvement in the movement performance therapy group; this benefit was not evident at follow-up. Recovery of the STS movement is consistently good during stroke rehabilitation, irrespective of the type of therapy experienced. Changes in quality of movement did not differ according to group allocation, indicating that the type of therapy is less important. Clinical trial registration number NCT00322192. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of the nuclear level densities and radiative strength function for 43 nuclei in the mass interval 28≤A≤200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic, David; Jovancevic, Nikola; Sukhovoj, Anatoly M.; Mitsyna, Ludmila V.; Krmar, Miodrag; Cong, Vu D.; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan; Revay, Zsolt; Stieghorst, Christian; Dragic, Aleksandar

    2018-03-01

    The determination of nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions is one of the most important tasks in low-energy nuclear physics. Accurate experimental values of these parameters are critical for the study of the fundamental properties of nuclear structure. The step-like structure in the dependence of the level densities p on the excitation energy of nuclei Eex is observed in the two-step gamma cascade measurements for nuclei in the 28 ≤ A ≤ 200 mass region. This characteristic structure can be explained only if a co-existence of quasi-particles and phonons, as well as their interaction in a nucleus, are taken into account in the process of gamma-decay. Here we present a new improvement to the Dubna practical model for the determination of nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions. The new practical model guarantees a good description of the available intensities of the two step gamma cascades, comparable to the experimental data accuracy.

  14. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.

    PubMed

    Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Elsner, Bernhard

    2015-11-07

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and may help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in people after stroke. We also assessed the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), SPORTDiscus (1949 to March 2015), PEDro (searched April 2015), Compendex (1972 to March 2015), and Inspec (1969 to March 2015). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts, and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for people after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 34 trials (involving 1160 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training improved activities of daily living scores (SMD 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.64, P = 0.005, I² = 62%), arm function (SMD 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.51, P < 0.0001, I² = 36%), and arm muscle strength (SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.70, P = 0.04, I² = 72%), but the quality of the

  15. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving generic activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.

    PubMed

    Mehrholz, Jan; Hädrich, Anja; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Pohl, Marcus

    2012-06-13

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and might help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving generic activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in patients after stroke. We will also assess the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched July 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1950 to July 2011), EMBASE (1980 to July 2011), CINAHL (1982 to July 2011), AMED (1985 to July 2011), SPORTDiscus (1949 to July 2011), PEDro (searched August 2011), COMPENDEX (1972 to July 2011), and INSPEC (1969 to July 2011). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for patients after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 19 trials (involving 666 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training did improve activities of daily living (SMD 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.75, P = 0.009, I(2) = 67%) as well as arm function (SMD 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.69, P = 0.0004, I(2) = 45%), but arm muscle strength did not improve (SMD 0.48, 95% CI -0.06 to 1.03, P = 0.08, I(2) = 79

  16. E1A promoter of bovine adenovirus type 3.

    PubMed

    Xing, Li; Tikoo, Suresh Kumar

    2006-12-01

    Conserved motifs of eukaryotic gene promoters, such as TATA box and CAAT box sequences, of E1A of human adenoviruses (e.g human adenovirus 5) lie between the left inverted terminal repeat (ITR) and the ATG of E1A. However, analysis of the left end of the bovine adenovirus 3 (BAdV-3) genome revealed that the conserved sequences of the E1A promoter are present only in the ITR. As such, the promoter activity of ITR was tested in the context of a BAdV-3 vector or a plasmid-based system. Different regions of the left end of the BAdV-3 genome initiated transcription of the red fluorescent protein gene in a plasmid-based system. Moreover, BAdV-3 mutants in which the open reading frame of E1A was placed immediately downstream of the ITR produced E1A transcript and could be propagated in non-E1A-complementing Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. These results suggest that the left ITR contains the sole BAdV-3 E1A promoter.

  17. Requirement for the E1 Helicase C-Terminal Domain in Papillomavirus DNA Replication In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bergvall, Monika; Gagnon, David; Titolo, Steve; Lehoux, Michaël; D'Abramo, Claudia M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The papillomavirus (PV) E1 helicase contains a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), located next to its ATP-binding site, whose function in vivo is still poorly understood. The CTD is comprised of an alpha helix followed by an acidic region (AR) and a C-terminal extension termed the C-tail. Recent biochemical studies on bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1) E1 showed that the AR and C-tail regulate the oligomerization of the protein into a double hexamer at the origin. In this study, we assessed the importance of the CTD of human papillomavirus 11 (HPV11) E1 in vivo, using a cell-based DNA replication assay. Our results indicate that combined deletion of the AR and C-tail drastically reduces DNA replication, by 85%, and that further truncation into the alpha-helical region compromises the structural integrity of the E1 helicase domain and its interaction with E2. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail alone or mutation of highly conserved residues within the domain still allows significant levels of DNA replication (55%). This is in contrast to the absolute requirement for the C-tail reported for BPV1 E1 in vitro and confirmed here in vivo. Characterization of chimeric proteins in which the AR and C-tail from HPV11 E1 were replaced by those of BPV1 indicated that while the function of the AR is transferable, that of the C-tail is not. Collectively, these findings define the contribution of the three CTD subdomains to the DNA replication activity of E1 in vivo and suggest that the function of the C-tail has evolved in a PV type-specific manner. IMPORTANCE While much is known about hexameric DNA helicases from superfamily 3, the papillomavirus E1 helicase contains a unique C-terminal domain (CTD) adjacent to its ATP-binding site. We show here that this CTD is important for the DNA replication activity of HPV11 E1 in vivo and that it can be divided into three functional subdomains that roughly correspond to the three conserved regions of the CTD: an alpha helix, needed

  18. Requirement for the E1 Helicase C-Terminal Domain in Papillomavirus DNA Replication In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Bergvall, Monika; Gagnon, David; Titolo, Steve; Lehoux, Michaël; D'Abramo, Claudia M; Melendy, Thomas; Archambault, Jacques

    2016-01-06

    The papillomavirus (PV) E1 helicase contains a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), located next to its ATP-binding site, whose function in vivo is still poorly understood. The CTD is comprised of an alpha helix followed by an acidic region (AR) and a C-terminal extension termed the C-tail. Recent biochemical studies on bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1) E1 showed that the AR and C-tail regulate the oligomerization of the protein into a double hexamer at the origin. In this study, we assessed the importance of the CTD of human papillomavirus 11 (HPV11) E1 in vivo, using a cell-based DNA replication assay. Our results indicate that combined deletion of the AR and C-tail drastically reduces DNA replication, by 85%, and that further truncation into the alpha-helical region compromises the structural integrity of the E1 helicase domain and its interaction with E2. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail alone or mutation of highly conserved residues within the domain still allows significant levels of DNA replication (55%). This is in contrast to the absolute requirement for the C-tail reported for BPV1 E1 in vitro and confirmed here in vivo. Characterization of chimeric proteins in which the AR and C-tail from HPV11 E1 were replaced by those of BPV1 indicated that while the function of the AR is transferable, that of the C-tail is not. Collectively, these findings define the contribution of the three CTD subdomains to the DNA replication activity of E1 in vivo and suggest that the function of the C-tail has evolved in a PV type-specific manner. While much is known about hexameric DNA helicases from superfamily 3, the papillomavirus E1 helicase contains a unique C-terminal domain (CTD) adjacent to its ATP-binding site. We show here that this CTD is important for the DNA replication activity of HPV11 E1 in vivo and that it can be divided into three functional subdomains that roughly correspond to the three conserved regions of the CTD: an alpha helix, needed for the structural

  19. Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Body Composition, Peak Oxygen Uptake, Strength, and Alters Certain Dimensions of Quality of Life in Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Billy; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Zinner, Christoph; Von Stauffenberg, Valerie; Losert, Helena; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    The effects of circuit-like functional high-intensity training (Circuit HIIT ) alone or in combination with high-volume low-intensity exercise (Circuit combined ) on selected cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, body composition, functional strength and the quality of life of overweight women were compared. In this single-center, two-armed randomized, controlled study, overweight women performed 9-weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either Circuit HIIT ( n = 11), or Circuit combined ( n = 8). Peak oxygen uptake and perception of physical pain were increased to a greater extent ( p < 0.05) by Circuit HIIT , whereas Circuit combined improved perception of general health more ( p < 0.05). Both interventions lowered body mass, body-mass-index, waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass, and enhanced fat-free mass; decreased ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal treadmill running; improved the numbers of push-ups, burpees, one-legged squats, and 30-s skipping performed, as well as the height of counter-movement jumps; and improved physical and social functioning, role of physical limitations, vitality, role of emotional limitations, and mental health to a similar extent (all p < 0.05). Either forms of these multi-stimulating, circuit-like, multiple-joint training can be employed to improve body composition, selected variables of functional strength, and certain dimensions of quality of life in overweight women. However, Circuit HIIT improves peak oxygen uptake to a greater extent, but with more perception of pain, whereas Circuit combined results in better perception of general health.

  20. Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Body Composition, Peak Oxygen Uptake, Strength, and Alters Certain Dimensions of Quality of Life in Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Sperlich, Billy; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Zinner, Christoph; Von Stauffenberg, Valerie; Losert, Helena; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    The effects of circuit-like functional high-intensity training (CircuitHIIT) alone or in combination with high-volume low-intensity exercise (Circuitcombined) on selected cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, body composition, functional strength and the quality of life of overweight women were compared. In this single-center, two-armed randomized, controlled study, overweight women performed 9-weeks (3 sessions·wk−1) of either CircuitHIIT (n = 11), or Circuitcombined (n = 8). Peak oxygen uptake and perception of physical pain were increased to a greater extent (p < 0.05) by CircuitHIIT, whereas Circuitcombined improved perception of general health more (p < 0.05). Both interventions lowered body mass, body-mass-index, waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass, and enhanced fat-free mass; decreased ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal treadmill running; improved the numbers of push-ups, burpees, one-legged squats, and 30-s skipping performed, as well as the height of counter-movement jumps; and improved physical and social functioning, role of physical limitations, vitality, role of emotional limitations, and mental health to a similar extent (all p < 0.05). Either forms of these multi-stimulating, circuit-like, multiple-joint training can be employed to improve body composition, selected variables of functional strength, and certain dimensions of quality of life in overweight women. However, CircuitHIIT improves peak oxygen uptake to a greater extent, but with more perception of pain, whereas Circuitcombined results in better perception of general health. PMID:28420999

  1. Can Quantitative Muscle Strength and Functional Motor Ability Differentiate the Influence of Age and Corticosteroids in Ambulatory Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    PubMed

    Buckon, Cathleen; Sienko, Susan; Bagley, Anita; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Fowler, Eileen; Staudt, Loretta; Heberer, Kent; McDonald, Craig M; Sussman, Michael

    2016-07-08

    In the absence of a curative treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), corticosteroid therapy (prednisone, deflazacort) has been adopted as the standard of care, as it slows the progression of muscle weakness and enables longer retention of functional mobility. The ongoing development of novel pharmacological agents that target the genetic defect underlying DMD offer hope for a significant alteration in disease progression; however, substantiation of therapeutic efficacy has proved challenging. Identifying functional outcomes sensitive to the early, subtle changes in muscle function has confounded clinical trials. Additionally, the alterations in disease progression secondary to corticosteroid therapy are not well described making it difficult to ascertain the benefits of novel agents, often taken concurrently with corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to examine outcome responsiveness to corticosteroid therapy and age at the onset of a natural history study of ambulatory boys with DMD. Eighty-five ambulatory boys with DMD (mean age 93 mo, range 49 to 180 mo) were recruited into this study. Fifty participants were on corticosteroid therapy, while 33 were corticosteroid naïve at the baseline assessment. Within each treatment group boys were divided in two age groups, 4 to 7 years and 8 and greater years of age. The Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess muscle strength. Motor skills were assessed using the upper two dimensions (standing/walking, running & jumping) of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM 88) and Timed Motor Tests (TMTs) (10-meter run, sit to stand, supine to stand, climb 4-stairs). Two way analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were used for analysis. A main effect for age was seen in select lower extremity muscle groups (hip flexors, knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors), standing dimension skills, and all TMTs with significantly greater weakness and loss of motor skill ability seen in the older age

  2. Establishment of Class e1 Mass Standard of 50 kg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hong; Wang, Jian; Ding, Jingan; Zhong, Ruilin; Ren, Xiaoping

    Because of the equipment limit, the dissemination of large mass has been realized by a large amount of higher class of 20 kg weights since 1950s in China. But with improvement of the technique and customer's requirements, it is necessary to establish the mass standard of 50 kg weight. In 1990s, mass standard laboratory has set up Class E1 weight sets from 20 kg to 1 mg. To extend the mass capacity up to 50 kg of Class E1, it is not only to produce Class E1 50 kg weight and import a mass comparator, but also need to lift the heavy weight from weight box to balance receptor safely. Up to now, the mass comparator has been installed in Hepingli campus of NIM. Two pieces of Class E1 50 kg weights are determined by combination weighing method. A lifting device has been mounted close to the mass comparator in order to move the 50 kg easily.

  3. A New Measurement of the E1 Component of the ^12C(,)^16O Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X. D.; Notani, M.; Rehm, K. E.; Ahmad, I.; Greene, J.; Hecht, A. A.; Henderson, D.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Jiang, C. L.; Moore, E. F.; Patel, N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Schiffer, J. P.; Sinha, S.; Paul, M.; Jisonna, L.; Segel, R. E.; Brune, C.; Champagne, A.; Wuosmaa, A.

    2006-10-01

    Durin the past few years we have been involved in a measurement of the E1 component of the ^12C(,)^16O reaction. Using a new approach with a set of high acceptance ionization chambers, we have measured the beta-delayed alpha decay in ^16N. The subthreshold 1^- state, which dominates the S-factor S(E1) at astrophysical energies, produces a small interference peak in the alpha spectrum, whose strength is sensitive to S(E1). The data have been analyzed using extrapolations obtained from R-matrix theory. The results from two independent runs will be presented and compared to previous experiments. The contributions from systematic uncertainties as well as the sensitivity of S(E1) to various R-matrix parameters will be discussed. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics Division, under contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38 and by the NSF Grant No. PHY-02-16783 (Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics).

  4. CYP2E1 hydroxylation of aniline involves negative cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Jessica H; Knott, Katie; Miller, Grover P

    2014-02-01

    CYP2E1 plays a role in the metabolic activation and elimination of aniline, yet there are conflicting reports on its mechanism of action, and hence relevance, in aniline metabolism. Based on our work with similar compounds, we hypothesized that aniline binds two CYP2E1 sites during metabolism resulting in cooperative reaction kinetics and tested this hypothesis through rigorous in vitro studies. The kinetic profile for recombinant CYP2E1 demonstrated significant negative cooperativity based on a fit of data to the Hill equation (n=0.56). Mechanistically, the data were best explained through a two-binding site cooperative model in which aniline binds with high affinity (K(s)=30 μM) followed by a second weaker binding event (K(ss)=1100 uM) resulting in a threefold increase in the oxidation rate. Binding sites for aniline were confirmed by inhibition studies with 4-methylpyrazole. Inhibitor phenotyping experiments with human liver microsomes validated the central role for CYP2E1 in aniline hydroxylation and indicated minor roles for CYP2A6 and CYP2C9. Importantly, inhibition of minor metabolic pathways resulted in a kinetic profile for microsomal CYP2E1 that replicated the preferred mechanism and parameters observed with the recombinant enzyme. Scaled modeling of in vitro CYP2E1 metabolism of aniline to in vivo clearance, especially at low aniline levels, led to significant deviations from the traditional model based on non-cooperative, Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These findings provide a critical mechanistic perspective on the potential importance of CYP2E1 in the metabolic activation and elimination of aniline as well as the first experimental evidence of a negatively cooperative metabolic reaction catalyzed by CYP2E1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0564 TITLE : Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Panagiotis A...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0564 5c... box protein M1, Retinoblastoma 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON

  6. Adenovirus E1B 19-Kilodalton Protein Modulates Innate Immunity through Apoptotic Mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Grigera, Fernando; Ucker, David S.; Cook, James L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cells that undergo apoptosis in response to chemical or physical stimuli repress inflammatory reactions, but cells that undergo nonapoptotic death in response to such stimuli lack this activity. Whether cells dying from viral infection exhibit a cell death-type modulatory effect on inflammatory reactions is unknown. We compared the effects on macrophage inflammatory responses of cells dying an apoptotic or a nonapoptotic death as a result of adenoviral infection. The results were exactly opposite to the predictions from the conventional paradigm. Cells dying by apoptosis induced by infection with an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B 19-kilodalton (E1B 19K) gene deletion mutant did not repress macrophage NF-κB activation or cytokine responses to proinflammatory stimuli, whereas cells dying a nonapoptotic death from infection with E1B 19K-competent, wild-type Ad5 repressed these macrophage inflammatory responses as well as cells undergoing classical apoptosis in response to chemical injury. The immunorepressive, E1B 19K-related cell death activity depended upon direct contact of the virally infected corpses with responder macrophages. Replacement of the viral E1B 19K gene with the mammalian Bcl-2 gene in cis restored the nonapoptotic, immunorepressive cell death activity of virally infected cells. These results define a novel function of the antiapoptotic, adenoviral E1B 19K protein that may limit local host innate immune inflammation during accumulation of virally infected cells at sites of infection and suggest that E1B 19K-deleted, replicating adenoviral vectors might induce greater inflammatory responses to virally infected cells than E1B 19K-positive vectors, because of the net effect of their loss-of-function mutation. IMPORTANCE We observed that cells dying a nonapoptotic cell death induced by adenovirus infection repressed macrophage proinflammatory responses while cells dying by apoptosis induced by infection with an E1B 19K deletion mutant virus did not

  7. Evaluation of spiral acquisition variants for functional imaging of human superior colliculus at 3T field strength.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vimal; Pfeuffer, Josef; Zhao, Tiejun; Ress, David

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging of human subcortical brain structures is challenging because of their deep location in the cranium, and their comparatively weak blood oxygen level dependent responses to strong stimuli. Magnetic resonance imaging data for subcortical brain regions exhibit both low signal-to-noise ratio and low functional contrast-to-noise ratio. To overcome these challenges, this work evaluates the use of dual-echo spiral variants that combine outward and inward trajectories. Specifically, in-in, in-out, and out-out combinations are evaluated. For completeness, single-echo spiral-in and parallel-receive-accelerated echo-planar-imaging sequences are also evaluated. Sequence evaluation was based on comparison of functional contrast-to-noise ratio within retinotopically predefined regions of interest. Superior colliculus was chosen as sample subcortical brain region because it exhibits a strong visual response. All sequences were compared relative to a single-echo spiral-out trajectory to establish a within-session reference. In superior colliculus, the dual-echo out-out outperformed the reference trajectory by 55% in contrast-to-noise ratio, while all other trajectories had performance similar to the reference. The sequences were also compared in early visual cortex. Here, both dual-echo spiral out-out and in-out outperformed the reference by ∼25%. Dual-echo spiral variants offer improved contrast-to-noise ratio performance for high-resolution imaging for both superior colliculus and cortex. Magn Reson Med 79:1931-1940, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Health condition and physical function as predictors of adherence in long-term strength and balance training among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Lönnroos, Eija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Häkkinen, Arja

    2015-01-01

    Strength and balance training (SBT) has remarkable health benefits, but little is known regarding exercise adherence in older adults. We examined the adherence to strength and balance training and determinants of adherence among ≥75 year old adults. 182 community-dwelling individuals (aged 75-98 years, 71% female) began group-based SBT as part of a population-based Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for the Good Care of the Elderly study. Training was offered once a week for 2.3 years. Adherence was defined as the proportion of attended sessions relative to offered sessions. Participants were classified based on their adherence level into low (≤33.3%), moderate (33.4-66.5%) and high (≥66.6%) adherers. The mean length of training was 19 ± 9 months, and 68% continued participation for at least two years. The mean training adherence was 55 ± 29% for all participants and 18%, 53% and 82% for low, moderate and high adherers, respectively. High adherence was predicted by female sex; younger age; better cognition; independence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; higher knee extension strength; faster walking speed; and better performance on the Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go tests. Poorer self-perceived health and the use of a walking aid were related to low adherence. Long-term continuation of training is possible for older community-dwelling adults, although poorer health and functional limitations affect training adherence. Our findings have implications for tailoring interventions and support for older adults to optimize their exercise adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of conventional physical therapy and Pilates in functionality, respiratory muscle strength and ability to exercise in hospitalized chronic renal patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Lais A; Pinto, Juliana Sst; da Silva, Ana Pp; Cabral, Cristina Mn; Chiavegato, Luciana D

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effect of conventional physical therapy and Pilates on function, restoration, and exercise ability in hospitalized chronic renal patients. A total of 56 inpatients were randomized into two groups: Conventional physical therapy and Pilates. The primary outcomes were functionality (Barthel Index), respiratory muscle strength (manovacuometry), and ability to exercise (step test) evaluated in the following periods: preintervention, after the 5th session, and after the 10th session or at discharge. Three months after randomization, the Barthel Index was applied over the phone. At the end of the 10 sessions or at discharge, the length of hospital stay was calculated and the level of satisfaction with physical therapy care was assessed (MedRisk). Linear mixed models were used for the primary outcomes and the Student's t-test was used for length of stay and satisfaction. There was no significant between-group difference in functionality (MD -1.3; 95% CI -2.8 to 5.4), inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength (MD -1.3; 95% CI -7.3 to 4.5/MD -4.5; 95% CI -0.7 to 9.7, respectively), performance in the step test (MD -3.3; 95% CI -6.2 to 12.8), patient satisfaction with physical therapy care (MD -2.0; 95% CI -5.1 to 9.1), and length of stay (MD 4.5; 95% CI -15.9 to 6.8). Both interventions, conventional physical therapy and Pilates, showed improvements and there is no difference between them. Therefore both can be used in chronic renal patients.

  10. Robotics and gaming to improve ankle strength, motor control, and function in children with cerebral palsy--a case study series.

    PubMed

    Burdea, Grigore C; Cioi, Daniel; Kale, Angad; Janes, William E; Ross, Sandy A; Engsberg, Jack R

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of game-based robotic training of the ankle in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The design was a case study, 12 weeks intervention, with no follow-up. The setting was a university research laboratory. The participants were a referred sample of three children with cerebral palsy, age 7-12, all male. All completed the intervention. Participants trained on the Rutgers Ankle CP system for 36 rehabilitation sessions (12 weeks, three times/week), playing two custom virtual reality games. The games were played while participants were seated, and trained one ankle at-a-time for strength, motor control, and coordination. The primary study outcome measures were for impairment (DF/PF torques, DF initial contact angle and gait speed), function (GMFM), and quality of life (Peds QL). Secondary outcome measures relate to game performance (game scores as reflective of ankle motor control and endurance). Gait function improved substantially in ankle kinematics, speed and endurance. Overall function (GMFM) indicated improvements that were typical of other ankle strength training programs. Quality of life increased beyond what would be considered a minimal clinical important difference. Game performance improved in both games during the intervention. This feasibility study supports the assumption that game-based robotic training of the ankle benefits gait in children with CP. Game technology is appropriate for the age group and was well accepted by the participants. Additional studies are needed however, to quantify the level of benefit and compare the approach presented here to traditional methods of therapy.

  11. Home-Based Virtual Reality-Augmented Training Improves Lower Limb Muscle Strength, Balance, and Functional Mobility following Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Michael; Liviero, Jasmin; Awai, Lea; Stoop, Rahel; Pyk, Pawel; Clijsen, Ron; Curt, Armin; Eng, Kynan; Bolliger, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Key factors positively influencing rehabilitation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) include training variety, intensive movement repetition, and motivating training tasks. Systems supporting these aspects may provide profound gains in rehabilitation, independent of the subject's treatment location. In the present study, we test the hypotheses that virtual reality (VR)-augmented training at home (i.e., unsupervised) is feasible with subjects with an incomplete SCI (iSCI) and that it improves motor functions such as lower limb muscle strength, balance, and functional mobility. In the study, 12 chronic iSCI subjects used a home-based, mobile version of a lower limb VR training system. The system included motivating training scenarios and combined action observation and execution. Virtual representations of the legs and feet were controlled via movement sensors. The subjects performed home-based training over 4 weeks, with 16-20 sessions of 30-45 min each. The outcome measures assessed were the Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Spinal Cord Independence Measure mobility, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II, and 10 m and 6 min walking tests. Two pre-treatment assessment time points were chosen for outcome stability: 4 weeks before treatment and immediately before treatment. At post-assessment (i.e., immediately after treatment), high motivation and positive changes were reported by the subjects (adapted Patients' Global Impression of Change). Significant improvements were shown in lower limb muscle strength (LEMS, P  = 0.008), balance (BBS, P  = 0.008), and functional mobility (TUG, P  = 0.007). At follow-up assessment (i.e., 2-3 months after treatment), functional mobility (TUG) remained significantly improved ( P  = 0.005) in contrast to the other outcome measures. In summary, unsupervised exercises at home with the VR training system led to beneficial functional

  12. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) regulates the response to oxidative stress and migration of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are a class of heme-containing enzymes involved in phase I metabolism of a large number of xenobiotics. The CYP family member CYP2E1 metabolises many xenobiotics and pro-carcinogens, it is not just expressed in the liver but also in many other tissues such as the kidney, the lung, the brain, the gastrointestinal tract and the breast tissue. It is induced in several pathological conditions including cancer, obesity, and type II diabetes implying that this enzyme is implicated in other biological processes beyond its role in phase I metabolism. Despite the detailed description of the role of CYP2E1 in the liver, its functions in other tissues have not been extensively studied. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of CYP2E1 in breast carcinogenesis. Methods Cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by H2DCFDA (2 2.9.2 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) staining and autophagy was assessed by tracing the cellular levels of autophagy markers using western blot assays. The endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) were detected by luciferase assays reflecting the splicing of mRNA encoding the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) transcription factor and cell migration was evaluated using the scratch wound assay. Gene expression was recorded with standard transcription assays including luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results Ectopic expression of CYP2E1 induced ROS generation, affected autophagy, stimulated endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibited migration in breast cancer cells with different metastatic potential and p53 status. Furthermore, evidence is presented indicating that CYP2E1 gene expression is under the transcriptional control of the p53 tumor suppressor. Conclusions These results support the notion that CYP2E1 exerts an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, provide a potential link between ethanol metabolism

  13. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) regulates the response to oxidative stress and migration of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, Travis; Rajendran, Ramkumar; Singh, Subir; Garva, Richa; Krstic-Demonacos, Marija; Demonacos, Constantinos

    2013-11-08

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are a class of heme-containing enzymes involved in phase I metabolism of a large number of xenobiotics. The CYP family member CYP2E1 metabolises many xenobiotics and pro-carcinogens, it is not just expressed in the liver but also in many other tissues such as the kidney, the lung, the brain, the gastrointestinal tract and the breast tissue. It is induced in several pathological conditions including cancer, obesity, and type II diabetes implying that this enzyme is implicated in other biological processes beyond its role in phase I metabolism. Despite the detailed description of the role of CYP2E1 in the liver, its functions in other tissues have not been extensively studied. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of CYP2E1 in breast carcinogenesis. Cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by H2DCFDA (2 2.9.2 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) staining and autophagy was assessed by tracing the cellular levels of autophagy markers using western blot assays. The endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) were detected by luciferase assays reflecting the splicing of mRNA encoding the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) transcription factor and cell migration was evaluated using the scratch wound assay. Gene expression was recorded with standard transcription assays including luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Ectopic expression of CYP2E1 induced ROS generation, affected autophagy, stimulated endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibited migration in breast cancer cells with different metastatic potential and p53 status. Furthermore, evidence is presented indicating that CYP2E1 gene expression is under the transcriptional control of the p53 tumor suppressor. These results support the notion that CYP2E1 exerts an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, provide a potential link between ethanol metabolism and breast cancer and suggest that

  14. Acupuncture for Functional Dyspepsia: What Strength Does It Have? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Li, Bo; Hu, Ya-Cai; Cai, Qiu-Han

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy on functional dyspepsia (FD) has been systematically reviewed, the available reports are still contradictive and no robust evidence has been provided to date. Objective. To assess the current evidence of high quality on the effects of acupuncture for patients with FD. Methods. A comprehensive literature database search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing acupuncture therapies (including manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture) to sham acupuncture and medication use. A meta-analysis was performed following a strict methodology. Results. 16 RCTs involving 1436 participants were included. The majority of the trials were determined to be of low quality. Positive results were found for acupuncture in improving the Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI) and scores of the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), as well as in alleviating relevant symptoms (especially postprandial fullness and early satiation) of FD patients. Conclusion. Based on current available evidence, acupuncture therapy achieves statistically significant effect for FD in comparison with sham acupuncture and is superior to medication (prokinetic agents) in improving the symptoms and quality of life of FD patients. Nonetheless, despite stringent methodological analyses, the conclusion of our review still needs to be strengthened by additional RCTs of higher quality. PMID:28119758

  15. Is Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Community Sample the Optimal Way to Assess Mental Health Functioning?

    PubMed

    Vaz, Sharmila; Cordier, Reinie; Boyes, Mark; Parsons, Richard; Joosten, Annette; Ciccarelli, Marina; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    An important characteristic of a screening tool is its discriminant ability or the measure's accuracy to distinguish between those with and without mental health problems. The current study examined the inter-rater agreement and screening concordance of the parent and teacher versions of SDQ at scale, subscale and item-levels, with the view of identifying the items that have the most informant discrepancies; and determining whether the concordance between parent and teacher reports on some items has the potential to influence decision making. Cross-sectional data from parent and teacher reports of the mental health functioning of a community sample of 299 students with and without disabilities from 75 different primary schools in Perth, Western Australia were analysed. The study found that: a) Intraclass correlations between parent and teacher ratings of children's mental health using the SDQ at person level was fair on individual child level; b) The SDQ only demonstrated clinical utility when there was agreement between teacher and parent reports using the possible or 90% dichotomisation system; and c) Three individual items had positive likelihood ratio scores indicating clinical utility. Of note was the finding that the negative likelihood ratio or likelihood of disregarding the absence of a condition when both parents and teachers rate the item as absent was not significant. Taken together, these findings suggest that the SDQ is not optimised for use in community samples and that further psychometric evaluation of the SDQ in this context is clearly warranted.

  16. The Effect of Aerobic or Aerobic-Strength Exercise on Body Composition and Functional Capacity in Patients with BMI ≥35 after Bariatric Surgery: a Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Hassannejad, Alireza; Khalaj, Alireza; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Rajabian Tabesh, Mastaneh; Alizadeh, Zahra

    2017-11-01

    Although previous studies suggested that bariatric surgery is the most effective and sustainable treatment method for morbid obesity in long term, but without changing in lifestyle, maintaining optimal weight loss is almost impossible. Sixty morbid obese patients (BMI ≥ 35) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of bariatric surgery in order to compare the impact of two different exercise programs on body composition and functional capacity outcomes. Participants were divided into three groups: aerobic (A), aerobic-strength (AS), and control (C) group. Aerobic capacity was assessed with 12-min walk-run test (12MWRT). One-repetition maximum (1RM) test was performed to evaluation upper limb muscle strength. Lower extremity functional capacity was assessed by sit-to-stand test. Weight, percent body fat (PBF), and fat mass (FM) reduced greater in the trial groups in comparison to the C group (P < 0.05). In the AS group, the reduction of fat-free mass (FFM) was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Mean changes in 12MWRT increased significantly in the intervention groups. The mean change in the sit-to-stand scores was not statistically significant between the three groups. Comparing the intervention groups showed that mean changes in 1RM variables increased in AS group (P = 0.03). The data suggests a positive effect of exercise on weight and PBF decrease after surgery, and it leads to significant improvement on aerobic capacity. Moreover, doing resisted exercise caused greater preserving of lean mass.

  17. Hand grips strength effect on motor function in human brain using fMRI: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, S. S.; Mohamad, M.; Syazarina, S. O.; Nafisah, W. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Several methods of motor tasks for fMRI scanning have been evolving from simple to more complex tasks. Motor tasks on upper extremity were applied in order to excite the increscent of motor activation on contralesional and ipsilateral hemispheres in brain. The main objective of this study is to study the different conditions for motor tasks on upper extremity that affected the brain activation. Ten healthy right handed with normal vision (3 male and 7 female, age range=20-30 years, mean=24.6 years, SD=2.21) participated in this study. Prior to the scanning, participants were trained on hand grip tasks using rubber ball and pressure gauge tool outside the scanner. During fMRI session, a block design with 30-s task blocks and alternating 30-s rest periods was employed while participants viewed a computer screen via a back projection-mirror system and instructed to follow the instruction by gripping their hand with normal and strong grips using a rubber ball. Statistical Parametric mapping (SPM8) software was used to determine the brain activation. Both tasks activated the primary motor (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal and ventral of premotor cortex area (PMA) in left hemisphere while in right hemisphere the area of primary motor (M1) somatosensory was activated. However, the comparison between both tasks revealed that the strong hand grip showed the higher activation at M1, PMA and SMA on left hemisphere and also the area of SMA on right hemisphere. Both conditions of motor tasks could provide insights the functional organization on human brain.

  18. Impotence evaluated by the use of prostaglandin E1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, T.I.; Yang, C.R.; Wang, S.J.

    1989-06-01

    We screened 80 patients at our hospital for the differential diagnosis of impotence using intracavernous injection of prostaglandin E1 (20 micrograms). The rate of positive response was 78.8 per cent (63 patients). Neither systemic reactions nor priapism occurred. However, a considerable incidence (23.8 per cent, 19 of 80 patients) of tolerable injection pain was encountered. The 133-xenon penile washout study was conducted routinely in impotent men for hemodynamic evaluation of penile vascularity. In 80 patients a positive correlation between the response of intracavernous prostaglandin E1 injection and the result of the washout study was found (r equals 0.381, p lessmore » than 0.0002). We selected 14 subjects randomly to receive additional intravenous infusions of prostaglandin E1 (6 ampules, 120 micrograms total) for 3 days, after which another 133-xenon washout study was done. The washout studies before and after intravenous prostaglandin E1 infusion were compared, and 10 patients (71.4 per cent) appeared to obtain improvement in half-time clearance and penile blood flow. However, only 3 patients noticed improvement subjectively. We suggest that prostaglandin E1 could be a desirable alternative for the diagnosis and treatment of impotence.« less

  19. The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The fracture strength and frictional strength of Weber Sandstone have been measured as a function of confining pressure and pore pressure. Both the fracture strength and the frictional strength obey the law of effective stress, that is, the strength is determined not by the confining pressure alone but by the difference between the confining pressure and the pore pressure. The fracture strength of the rock varies by as much as 20 per cent depending on the cement between the grains, but the frictional strength is independent of lithology. Over the range 0 2 kb, ??=0??5 + 0??6??n. This relationship also holds for other rocks such as gabbro, dunite, serpentinite, granite and limestone. ?? 1975.

  20. Impact of resistance exercise program on functional capacity and muscular strength of knee extensor in pre-frail community-dwelling older women: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Lustosa, Lygia P; Silva, Juscélio P; Coelho, Fernanda M; Pereira, Daniele S; Parentoni, Adriana N; Pereira, Leani S M

    2011-01-01

    Frailty syndrome in elderly people is characterized by a reduction of energy reserves and also by a decreased of resistance to stressors, resulting in an increase of vulnerability. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load in pre-frail elder women with regards to the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and their correlation. Thrity-two pre-frail community-dwelling women participated in this study. Potential participants with cognitive impairment (MEEM), lower extremities orthopedic surgery, fractures, inability to walk unaided, neurological diseases, acute inflammatory disease, tumor growth, regular physical activity and current use of immunomodulators were excluded. All partcipants were evaluated by a blinded assessor using: Timed up and go (TUG), 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) and knee extensor muscle strength (Byodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180(0)/s). The intervention consisted of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 70% of 1RM, three times/ week for ten weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA and Spearman tests After the intervention, it was observed statistical significance on the work at 180(0)/s (F=12.71, p=0.02), on the power at 180(0)/s (F=15.40, p=0.02) and on the functional capacity (TUG, F=9.54, p=0.01; TC10, F=3.80, p=0.01). There was a good negative and statistically significant correlation between the TUG and work at 60(0)/s, such as the TUG and work at 180(0)/s (r=-0.65, p=0.01; r=-0.72, p=0.01). The intervention improved the muscular power and the functional capacity. The increase of the power correlated with function, which is an important variable of the quality of life in the pre-frail elders. Article registered in the ISRCT register under number ISRCTN62824599.

  1. Low dynamic muscle strength and its associations with fatigue, functional performance, and quality of life in premenopausal patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and low disease activity: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to compare dynamic muscle strength, functional performance, fatigue, and quality of life in premenopausal systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with low disease activity versus matched-healthy controls and to determine the association of dynamic muscle strength with fatigue, functional performance, and quality of life in SLE patients. Methods We evaluated premenopausal (18–45 years) SLE patients with low disease activity (Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index [SLEDAI]: mean 1.5 ± 1.2). The control (n = 25) and patient (n = 25) groups were matched by age, physical characteristics, and the level of physical activities in daily life (International Physical Activity Questionnaire IPAQ). Both groups had not participated in regular exercise programs for at least six months prior to the study. Dynamic muscle strength was assessed by one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests. Functional performance was assessed by the Timed Up and Go (TUG), in 30-s test a chair stand and arm curl using a 2-kg dumbbell and balance test, handgrip strength and a sit-and-reach flexibility test. Quality of life (SF-36) and fatigue were also measured. Results The SLE patients showed significantly lower dynamic muscle strength in all exercises (leg press 25.63%, leg extension 11.19%, leg curl 15.71%, chest press 18.33%, lat pulldown 13.56%, 1-RM total load 18.12%, P < 0.001-0.02) compared to the controls. The SLE patients also had lower functional performance, greater fatigue and poorer quality of life. In addition, fatigue, SF-36 and functional performance accounted for 52% of the variance in dynamic muscle strength in the SLE patients. Conclusions Premenopausal SLE patients with low disease activity showed lower dynamic muscle strength, along with increased fatigue, reduced functional performance, and poorer quality of life when compared to matched controls. PMID:24011222

  2. Multi-Laboratory Validation of Estrone (E1) ELISA Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is a round-robin evaluation of commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technology to quantitatively or qualitatively measure the hormone estrone (E1) in combined animal feeding operation (CAFO) receiving streams. ELISA is meant to be a simpl...

  3. 24. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS REINFORCEMENT DETAILS; MONOLITHS E1 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS - REINFORCEMENT DETAILS; MONOLITHS E-1 TO F-4 INCL. & NO. 34. Sheet S-11, June, 1939. File no. SA 342/24(?). - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  4. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-1 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3231(e)-1 Compensation...

  5. Distribution function of random strains in an elastically anisotropic continuum and defect strengths of T m3 + impurity ions in crystals with zircon structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, B. Z.; Abishev, N. M.; Baibekov, E. I.; Pytalev, D. S.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Popova, M. N.; Bettinelli, M.

    2017-07-01

    We construct a distribution function of the strain-tensor components induced by point defects in an elastically anisotropic continuum, which can be used to account quantitatively for many effects observed in different branches of condensed matter physics. Parameters of the derived six-dimensional generalized Lorentz distribution are expressed through the integrals computed over the array of strains. The distribution functions for the cubic diamond and elpasolite crystals and tetragonal crystals with the zircon and scheelite structures are presented. Our theoretical approach is supported by a successful modeling of specific line shapes of singlet-doublet transitions of the T m3 + ions doped into AB O4 (A =Y , Lu; B =P , V) crystals with zircon structure, observed in high-resolution optical spectra. The values of the defect strengths of impurity T m3 + ions in the oxygen surroundings, obtained as a result of this modeling, can be used in future studies of random strains in different rare-earth oxides.

  6. FAST CP: protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a 12-week combined Functional Anaerobic and Strength Training programme on muscle properties and mechanical gait deficiencies in adolescents and young adults with spastic-type cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have muscles that are smaller, weaker and more resistant to stretch compared to typically developing people. Progressive resistance training leads to increases in muscle size and strength. In CP, the benefits of resistance training alone may not transfer to improve other activities such as walking; however, the transfer of strength improvements to improved mobility may be enhanced by performing training that involves specific functional tasks or motor skills. This study aims to determine the efficacy of combined functional anaerobic and strength training in (1) influencing muscle strength, structure and function and (2) to determine if any changes in muscle strength and structure following training impact on walking ability and gross motor functional capacity and performance in the short (following 3 months of training) and medium terms (a further 3 months post-training). Methods and analysis 40 adolescents and young adults with CP will be recruited to undertake a 12-week training programme. The training programme will consist of 3×75 min sessions per week, made up of 5 lower limb resistance exercises and 2–3 functional anaerobic exercises per session. The calf muscles will be specifically targeted, as they are the most commonly impacted muscles in CP and are a key muscle group involved in walking. If, as we believe, muscle properties change following combined strength and functional training, there may be long-term benefits of this type of training in slowing the deterioration of muscle function in people with spastic-type CP. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at The University of Queensland (2014000066) and Children's Health Queensland (HREC/15/QRCH/30). The findings will be disseminated by publications in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and local research organisations’ media. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials

  7. Association between CYP2E1 polymorphisms and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pellé, Lucia; Cipollini, Monica; Tremmel, Roman; Romei, Cristina; Figlioli, Gisella; Gemignani, Federica; Melaiu, Ombretta; De Santi, Chiara; Barone, Elisa; Elisei, Rossella; Seiser, Eric; Innocenti, Federico; Zanger, Ulrich M; Landi, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) results from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Known etiological factors include exposure to ionizing radiations, previous thyroid diseases, and hormone factors. It has been speculated that dietary acrylamide (AA) formed in diverse foods following the Maillard's reaction could be a contributing factor for DTC in humans. Upon absorption, AA is biotransformed mainly by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to glycidamide (GA). Considering that polymorphisms within CYP2E1 were found associated with endogenous levels of AA-Valine and GA-Valine hemoglobin adducts in humans, we raised the hypothesis that specific CYP2E1 genotypes could be associated with the risk of DTC. Analysis of four haplotype tagging SNPs (ht-SNPs) within the locus in a discovery case-control study (N = 350/350) indicated an association between rs2480258 and DTC risk. This ht-SNP resides within a linkage disequilibrium block spanning intron VIII and the 3'-untranslated region. Extended analysis in a large replication set (2429 controls and 767 cases) confirmed the association, with odds ratios for GA and AA genotypes of 1.24 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.48) and 1.56 (95 % CI, 1.06-2.30), respectively. Functionally, the minor allele was associated with low levels of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein expression as well as lower enzymatic activity in a series of 149 human liver samples. Our data support the hypothesis that inter-individual differences in CYP2E1 activity could modulate the risk of developing DTC suggesting that the exposure to specific xenobiotics, such as AA, could play a role in this process.

  8. The cognition-enhancing activity of E1R, a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Zvejniece, L; Vavers, E; Svalbe, B; Vilskersts, R; Domracheva, I; Vorona, M; Veinberg, G; Misane, I; Stonans, I; Kalvinsh, I; Dambrova, M

    2014-02-01

    Here, we describe the in vitro and in vivo effects of (4R,5S)-2-(5-methyl-2-oxo-4-phenyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-acetamide (E1R), a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors. E1R was tested for sigma receptor binding activity in a [³H](+)-pentazocine assay, in bradykinin (BK)-induced intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺](i)) assays and in an electrically stimulated rat vas deferens model. E1R's effects on cognitive function were tested using passive avoidance (PA) and Y-maze tests in mice. A selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist (NE-100), was used to study the involvement of the sigma-1 receptor in the effects of E1R. The open-field test was used to detect the effects of E1R on locomotion. Pretreatment with E1R enhanced the selective sigma-1 receptor agonist PRE-084's stimulating effect during a model study employing electrically stimulated rat vasa deferentia and an assay measuring the BK-induced [Ca²⁺](i) increase. Pretreatment with E1R facilitated PA retention in a dose-related manner. Furthermore, E1R alleviated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment during the PA and Y-maze tests in mice. The in vivo and in vitro effects of E1R were blocked by treatment with the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist NE-100. E1R did not affect locomotor activity. E1R is a novel 4,5-disubstituted derivative of piracetam that enhances cognition and demonstrates efficacy against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. These effects are attributed to its positive modulatory action on the sigma-1 receptor and this activity may be relevant when developing new drugs for treating cognitive symptoms related to neurodegenerative diseases. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. The cognition-enhancing activity of E1R, a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zvejniece, L; Vavers, E; Svalbe, B; Vilskersts, R; Domracheva, I; Vorona, M; Veinberg, G; Misane, I; Stonans, I; Kalvinsh, I; Dambrova, M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Here, we describe the in vitro and in vivo effects of (4R,5S)-2-(5-methyl-2-oxo-4-phenyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-acetamide (E1R), a novel positive allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors. Experimental Approach E1R was tested for sigma receptor binding activity in a [3H](+)-pentazocine assay, in bradykinin (BK)-induced intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) assays and in an electrically stimulated rat vas deferens model. E1R's effects on cognitive function were tested using passive avoidance (PA) and Y-maze tests in mice. A selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist (NE-100), was used to study the involvement of the sigma-1 receptor in the effects of E1R. The open-field test was used to detect the effects of E1R on locomotion. Key Results Pretreatment with E1R enhanced the selective sigma-1 receptor agonist PRE-084's stimulating effect during a model study employing electrically stimulated rat vasa deferentia and an assay measuring the BK-induced [Ca2+]i increase. Pretreatment with E1R facilitated PA retention in a dose-related manner. Furthermore, E1R alleviated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment during the PA and Y-maze tests in mice. The in vivo and in vitro effects of E1R were blocked by treatment with the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist NE-100. E1R did not affect locomotor activity. Conclusion and Implications E1R is a novel 4,5-disubstituted derivative of piracetam that enhances cognition and demonstrates efficacy against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. These effects are attributed to its positive modulatory action on the sigma-1 receptor and this activity may be relevant when developing new drugs for treating cognitive symptoms related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24490863

  10. Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0566 TITLE : Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dipanjan...RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND...amplification, Homologous Recombination, Platinum analogues, MicroRNAs, Heat shock protein 90 inhibitors, Forkhead box protein M1, Retinoblastoma 16

  11. RORα switches transcriptional mode of ERRγ that results in transcriptional repression of CYP2E1 under ethanol-exposure

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Don-Kyu; Na, Tae-Young; Ka, Na-Lee; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Lee, Mi-Ock

    2016-01-01

    Increased cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression is the main cause of oxidative stress, which exacerbates alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs). Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) induces CYP2E1 expression and contributes to enhancing alcohol-induced liver injury. Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) has antioxidative functions; however, potential cross-talk between ERRγ and RORα in the regulation of CYP2E1 has not been studied. We report that RORα suppressed ERRγ-mediated CYP2E1 expression. A physical interaction of RORα with ERRγ at the ERRγ−response element in the CYP2E1 promoter was critical in this suppression. At this site, coregulator recruitment of ERRγ was switched from coactivator p300 to the nuclear receptor corepressor 1 in the presence of RORα. Cross-talk between ERRγ and RORα was demonstrated in vivo, in that administration of JC1–40, a RORα activator, significantly decreased both CYP2E1 expression and the signs of liver injury in ethanol-fed mice, and this was accompanied by coregulator switching. Thus, this non-classical RORα pathway switched the transcriptional mode of ERRγ, leading to repression of alcohol-induced CYP2E1 expression, and this finding may provide a new therapeutic strategy against ALDs. PMID:26464440

  12. The efficacy of modified direct lateral versus posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength after primary total hip arthroplasty at 12months follow-up. An explorative randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosenlund, Signe; Broeng, Leif; Overgaard, Søren; Jensen, Carsten; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2016-11-01

    The lateral and the posterior approach are the most commonly used procedures for total hip arthroplasty. Due to the detachment of the hip abductors, lateral approach is claimed to cause reduced hip muscle strength and altered gait pattern. However, this has not been investigated in a randomised controlled trial. The aim was to compare the efficacy of total hip arthroplasty performed by lateral or posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength up to 12months post-operatively. We hypothesised that posterior approach would be superior to lateral approach. Forty-seven patients with primary hip osteoarthritis were randomised to total hip arthroplasty with either posterior or lateral approach and evaluated pre-operatively, 3 and 12months post-operatively using 3-dimensional gait analyses as objective measures of gait function, including Gait Deviation Index, temporo-spatial parameters and range of motion. Isometric maximal hip muscle strength in abduction, flexion and extension was also tested. Post-operatively, no between-group difference in gait function was observed. However, both hip abductor and flexor muscle strength improved more in the posterior approach group: -0.20(Nm/kg)[95%CI:-0.4 to 0.0] and -0.20(Nm/kg)[95%CI:-0.4 to 0.0], respectively. Contrary to our first hypothesis, the overall gait function in the posterior approach group did not improve more than in the lateral approach group. However, in agreement with our second hypothesis, patients in the posterior approach group improved more in hip abductor and flexor muscle strength at 12months. Further investigation of the effect of reduced maximal hip muscle strength on functional capacity is needed. ClinicalTrials.gov. No.: NCT01616667. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.

  14. Surgery-Induced Changes and Early Recovery of Hip-Muscle Strength, Leg-Press Power, and Functional Performance after Fast-Track Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Bente; Thorborg, Kristian; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits. Objective(s) Firstly, to quantify changes (compared to pre-operative values) in hip muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance in the first week after THA, and secondly, to explore relationships between the muscle strength changes, and changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, and thigh swelling. Design Prospective, cohort study. Setting Convenience sample of patients receiving a THA at Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark, between March and December 2011. Participants Thirty-five patients (65.9±7.2 years) undergoing THA. Main outcome measures Hip muscle strength, leg-press power, performance-based function, and self-reported disability were determined prior to, and 2 and 8 days after, THA (Day 2 and 8, respectively). Hip pain, thigh swelling, and C-Reactive Protein were also determined. Results Five patients were lost to follow-up. Hip muscle strength and leg press power were substantially reduced at Day 2 (range of reductions: 41–58%, P<0.001), but less pronounced at Day 8 (range of reductions: 23–31%, P<0.017). Self-reported symptoms and function (HOOS: Pain, Symptoms, and ADL) improved at Day 8 (P<0.014). Changes in hip pain, C-Reactive Protein, and thigh swelling were not related to the muscle strength and power losses. Conclusion(s) Hip muscle strength and leg-press power decreased substantially in the first week after THA – especially at Day 2 – with some recovery at Day 8. The muscle strength loss and power loss were not related to changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, or thigh swelling. In contrast, self-reported symptoms and function improved. These data on surgery-induced changes in muscle strength may help design impairment-directed, post

  15. The Adenovirus E1A C Terminus Suppresses a Delayed Antiviral Response and Modulates RAS Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zemke, Nathan R; Berk, Arnold J

    2017-12-13

    The N-terminal half of adenovirus e1a assembles multimeric complexes with host proteins that repress innate immune responses and force host cells into S-phase. In contrast, the functions of e1a's C-terminal interactions with FOXK, DCAF7, and CtBP are unknown. We found that these interactions modulate RAS signaling, and that a single e1a molecule must bind all three of these host proteins to suppress activation of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs were otherwise induced in primary respiratory epithelial cells at 12 hr p.i. This delayed activation of ISGs required IRF3 and coincided with an ∼10-fold increase in IRF3 from protein stabilization. The induced IRF3 bound to chromatin and localized to the promoters of activated ISGs. While IRF3, STAT1/2, and IRF9 all greatly increased in concentration, there were no corresponding mRNA increases, suggesting that e1a regulates the stabilities of these key activators of innate immune responses, as shown directly for IRF3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. RP-1 delivered to E-1 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-30

    NASA John C. Stennis Space Center employee Dustan Ladner (left) assists tanker driver David Velasco in transferring RP-1 fuel to a 20,000-gallon underground tank at the E-1 Test Stand during a March 30 delivery. The rocket propellant will be used for testing Aerojet AJ26 rocket engines beginning this summer. Stennis is testing the engines for Orbital Sciences Corporation, which has partnered with NASA to provide eight supply missions to the International Space Station through 2015. The partnership is part of NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services initiative to work closer with companies to provide commercial space transport once the space shuttle is retired later this year.

  17. A large scale virtual screen of DprE1.

    PubMed

    Wilsey, Claire; Gurka, Jessica; Toth, David; Franco, Jimmy

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis continues to plague the world with the World Health Organization estimating that about one third of the world's population is infected. Due to the emergence of MDR and XDR strains of TB, the need for novel therapeutics has become increasing urgent. Herein we report the results of a virtual screen of 4.1 million compounds against a promising drug target, DrpE1. The virtual compounds were obtained from the Zinc docking site and screened using the molecular docking program, AutoDock Vina. The computational hits have led to the identification of several promising lead compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated With Better Bone Microarchitecture But Lower Bone Material Strength and Poorer Physical Function in Elderly Women: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anna G; Sundh, Daniel; Johansson, Lisa; Nilsson, Martin; Mellström, Dan; Rudäng, Robert; Zoulakis, Michail; Wallander, Märit; Darelid, Anna; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2017-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of fractures according to several studies. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear, although small case-control studies indicate poor quality of the cortical bone. We have studied a population-based sample of women aged 75 to 80 years in Gothenburg, randomly invited from the population register. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Discovery A), bone microarchitecture by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT; ExtremeCT from Scanco Medical AG), and reference point indentation was performed with Osteoprobe (Active Life Scientific). Women with T2DM (n = 99) had higher aBMD compared to controls (n = 954). Ultradistal tibial and radial trabecular bone volume fraction (+11% and +15%, respectively), distal cortical volumetric BMD (+1.6% and +1.7%), cortical area (+11.5% and +9.3%), and failure load (+7.7% and +12.9%) were higher in diabetics than in controls. Cortical porosity was lower (mean ± SD: 1.5% ± 1.1% versus 2.0% ± 1.7%, p = 0.001) in T2DM in the distal radius but not in the ultradistal radius or the tibia. Adjustment for covariates (age, body mass index, glucocorticoid treatment, smoking, physical activity, calcium intake, bone-active drugs) eliminated the differences in aBMD but not in HR-pQCT bone variables. However, bone material strength index (BMSi) by reference point indentation was lower in T2DM (74.6 ± 7.6 versus 78.2 ± 7.5, p < 0.01), also after adjustment, and women with T2DM performed clearly worse in measures of physical function (one leg standing: -26%, 30-s chair-stand test: -7%, timed up and go: +12%, walking speed: +8%; p < 0.05-0.001) compared to controls. In conclusion, we observed a more favorable bone microarchitecture but no difference in adjusted aBMD in elderly women with T2DM in the population compared to nondiabetics. Reduced BMSi and

  19. Normalized knee-extension strength or leg-press power after fast-track total knee arthroplasty: which measure is most closely associated with performance-based and self-reported function?

    PubMed

    Aalund, Peter K; Larsen, Kristian; Hansen, Torben B; Bandholm, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    To investigate which of the 2 muscle-impairment measures for the operated leg, normalized knee extension strength or leg press power, was most closely associated with performance-based and self-reported measures of function shortly after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Cross-sectional, exploratory study. Laboratory at a regional hospital. Individuals (N=39) with an average age ± SD of 65.5±10.3 years, who all had unilateral TKA 28 days prior. None. The patients performed maximal isometric knee extensions and dynamic leg presses to determine their body-mass normalized knee extension strength and leg press power, respectively. The 10-meter fast speed walking- and 30-second chair stand tests were used to determine performance-based function, while the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and Oxford Knee Scores were used to determine self-reported function. Normalized leg press power was more closely associated with both performance-based (r=.82, P<.001) and self-reported (r=.48, P=.002) measures of function compared with normalized knee extension strength (r=.51, P=.001 and r=.39, P=.015, respectively). Normalized leg press power was more closely associated with both performance-based and self-reported function early after TKA than normalized knee extension strength. It may be explained by the fact that performance-based measures of function are typically closed kinetic chain tasks, such as walking or rising from a chair, and self-reported measures of function typically include questions that address perceived difficulty with performing these same tasks. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Strain rate, temperature, and humidity on strength and moduli of a graphite/epoxy composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lifshitz, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of the influence of strain rate, temperature and humidity on the mechanical behavior of a graphite/epoxy fiber composite are presented. Three principal strengths (longitudinal, transverse and shear) and four basic moduli (E1, E2, G12 and U12) of a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite were followed as a function of strain rate, temperature and humidity. Each test was performed at a constant tensile strain rate in an environmental chamber providing simultaneous temperature and humidity control. Prior to testing, specimens were given a moisture preconditioning treatment at 60 C. Values for the matrix dominated moduli and strength were significantly influenced by both environmental and rate parameters, whereas the fiber dominated moduli were not. However, the longitudinal strength was significantly influenced by temperature and moisture content. A qualitative explanation for these observations is presented.

  1. Na(+) transport, and the E(1)P-E(2)P conformational transition of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Babes, A; Fendler, K

    2000-01-01

    We have used admittance analysis together with the black lipid membrane technique to analyze electrogenic reactions within the Na(+) branch of the reaction cycle of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. ATP release by flash photolysis of caged ATP induced changes in the admittance of the compound membrane system that are associated with partial reactions of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Frequency spectra and the Na(+) dependence of the capacitive signal are consistent with an electrogenic or electroneutral E(1)P <--> E(2)P conformational transition which is rate limiting for a faster electrogenic Na(+) dissociation reaction. We determine the relaxation rate of the rate-limiting reaction and the equilibrium constants for both reactions at pH 6.2-8.5. The relaxation rate has a maximum value at pH 7.4 (approximately 320 s(-1)), which drops to acidic (approximately 190 s(-1)) and basic (approximately 110 s(-1)) pH. The E(1)P <--> E(2)P equilibrium is approximately at a midpoint position at pH 6.2 (equilibrium constant approximately 0.8) but moves more to the E(1)P side at basic pH 8.5 (equilibrium constant approximately 0.4). The Na(+) affinity at the extracellular binding site decreases from approximately 900 mM at pH 6.2 to approximately 200 mM at pH 8.5. The results suggest that during Na(+) transport the free energy supplied by the hydrolysis of ATP is mainly used for the generation of a low-affinity extracellular Na(+) discharge site. Ionic strength and lyotropic anions both decrease the relaxation rate. However, while ionic strength does not change the position of the conformational equilibrium E(1)P <--> E(2)P, lyotropic anions shift it to E(1)P. PMID:11053130

  2. Sprouty is a cytoplasmic target of adenoviral E1A oncoproteins to regulate the receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oncoproteins encoded by the early region of adenoviruses have been shown to be powerful tools to study gene regulatory mechanisms, which affect major cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and oncogenic transformation. They are possesing a key role to favor viral replication via their interaction with multiple cellular proteins. In a yeast two-hybrid screen we have identified Sprouty1 (Spry1) as a target of adenoviral E1A Oncoproteins. Spry proteins are central and complex regulators of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling pathway. The deregulation of Spry family members is often associated with alterations of the RTK signalling and its downstream effectors, leading to the ERK pathway. Results Here, we confirm our yeast two-hybrid data, showing the interaction between Spry1 and E1A in GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays. We also demonstrated the interaction of E1A with two further Spry isoforms. Using deletion mutants we identified the N-terminus and the CR conserved region (CR) 3 of E1A- and the C-terminal half of Spry1, which contains the highly conserved Spry domain, as the essential sites for direct interaction between Spry and E1A. Immunofluorescent microscopy data revealed a co-localization of E1A13S with Spry1 in the cytoplasm. SRE and TRE reporter assays demonstrated that co-expression of Spry1 with E1A13S abolishes the inhibitory function of Spry1 in RTK signalling, which is consequently accompanied with a decrease of E1A13S-induced gene expression. Conclusions These results establish Spry1 as a cytoplasmic localized cellular target for E1A oncoproteins to regulate the RTK signalling pathway, and consequently cellular events downstream of RTK that are essential for viral replication and transformation. PMID:21518456

  3. Distraction Effects of Smoking Cues in Antismoking Messages: Examining Resource Allocation to Message Processing as a Function of Smoking Cues and Argument Strength

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungkyoung; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2014-01-01

    Findings from previous studies on smoking cues and argument strength in antismoking messages have shown that the presence of smoking cues undermines the persuasiveness of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) with weak arguments. This study conceptualized smoking cues (i.e., scenes showing smoking-related objects and behaviors) as stimuli motivationally relevant to the former smoker population and examined how smoking cues influence former smokers’ processing of antismoking PSAs. Specifically, by defining smoking cues and the strength of antismoking arguments in terms of resource allocation, this study examined former smokers’ recognition accuracy, memory strength, and memory judgment of visual (i.e., scenes excluding smoking cues) and audio information from antismoking PSAs. In line with previous findings, the results of the study showed that the presence of smoking cues undermined former smokers’ encoding of antismoking arguments, which includes the visual and audio information that compose the main content of antismoking messages. PMID:25477766

  4. Application of Strength Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Dugan, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the various strength qualities (maximum strength, high- and low-load speed strength, reactive strength, rate of force development, and skill performance), noting why a training program design based on strength diagnosis can lead to greater efficacy and better performance gains for the athlete. Examples of tests used to assess strength…

  5. Effects of Hip Strengthening on Neuromuscular Control, Hip Strength, and Self-Reported Functional Deficits in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brent I; Curtis, Denice; Docherty, Carrie L

    2018-06-12

    Deficits in ankle and hip strength and lower-extremity postural control are associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Following strength training, muscle groups demonstrate increased strength. This change is partially credited to improved neuromuscular control, and many studies have investigated ankle protocols for subjects with CAI. The effects of isolating hip musculature in strength training protocols in this population are not well understood. To examine the effects of hip strengthening on clinical and self-reported outcomes in patients with CAI. Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Athletic training facility. Twenty-six participants with CAI (12 males and 14 females; age = 20.9 [1.5] y, height = 170.0 [12.7] cm, and mass = 77.5 [17.5] kg) were randomly assigned to training or control groups. Participants completed either 4 weeks of supervised hip strengthening (resistance bands 3 times a week) or no intervention. Participants were assessed on 4 clinical measures (Star Excursion Balance Test in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; Balance Error Scoring System; hip external rotation strength; and hip abduction strength) and a patient-reported measure (the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure activities of daily living and sports subscales) before and after the 4-week training period. The training group displayed significantly improved posttest measures compared with the control group for hip abduction strength (training: 446.3 [77.4] N, control: 314.7 [49.6] N, P < .01); hip external rotation strength (training: 222.1 [48.7] N, control: 169.4 [34.6] N, P < .01); Star Excursion Balance Test reach in the anterior (training: 93.1% [7.4%], control: 90.2% [7.9%], P < .01), posteromedial (training: 96.3% [8.9%], control: 88.0% [8.8%], P < .01), and posterolateral (training: 95.4% [11.1%], control: 86.6% [9.6%], P < .01) directions; Balance Error Scoring System total errors (training: 9.9 [6

  6. Artificial Recruitment of UAF1-USP Complexes by a PHLPP1-E1 Chimeric Helicase Enhances Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, David; Lehoux, Michaël

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The E1 helicase from anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) types interacts with the cellular WD repeat-containing protein UAF1 in complex with the deubiquitinating enzyme USP1, USP12, or USP46. This interaction stimulates viral DNA replication and is required for maintenance of the viral episome in keratinocytes. E1 associates with UAF1 through a short UAF1-binding site (UBS) located within the N-terminal 40 residues of the protein. Here, we investigated if the E1 UBS could be replaced by the analogous domain from an unrelated protein, the pleckstrin homology domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1). We found that PHLPP1 and E1 interact with UAF1 in a mutually exclusive manner and mapped the minimal PHLPP1 UBS (PUBS) to a 100-amino-acid region sufficient for assembly into UAF1-USP complexes. Similarly to the E1 UBS, overexpression of PUBS in trans inhibited HPV DNA replication, albeit less efficiently. Characterization of a PHLPP1-E1 chimeric helicase revealed that PUBS could partially substitute for the E1 UBS in enhancing viral DNA replication and that the stimulatory effect of PUBS likely involves recruitment of UAF1-USP complexes, as it was abolished by mutations that weaken UAF1-binding and by overexpression of catalytically inactive USPs. Although functionally similar to the E1 UBS, PUBS is larger in size and requires both the WD repeat region and C-terminal ubiquitin-like domain of UAF1 for interaction, in contrast to E1, which does not contact the latter. Overall, this comparison of two heterologous UBSs indicates that these domains function as transferable protein interaction modules and provide further evidence that the association of E1 with UAF1-containing deubiquitinating complexes stimulates HPV DNA replication. IMPORTANCE The E1 protein from anogenital HPV types interacts with the UAF1-associated deubiquitinating enzymes USP1, USP12, and USP46 to stimulate replication of the viral genome. Little is known about the

  7. Artificial Recruitment of UAF1-USP Complexes by a PHLPP1-E1 Chimeric Helicase Enhances Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, David; Lehoux, Michaël; Archambault, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    The E1 helicase from anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) types interacts with the cellular WD repeat-containing protein UAF1 in complex with the deubiquitinating enzyme USP1, USP12, or USP46. This interaction stimulates viral DNA replication and is required for maintenance of the viral episome in keratinocytes. E1 associates with UAF1 through a short UAF1-binding site (UBS) located within the N-terminal 40 residues of the protein. Here, we investigated if the E1 UBS could be replaced by the analogous domain from an unrelated protein, the pleckstrin homology domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1). We found that PHLPP1 and E1 interact with UAF1 in a mutually exclusive manner and mapped the minimal PHLPP1 UBS (PUBS) to a 100-amino-acid region sufficient for assembly into UAF1-USP complexes. Similarly to the E1 UBS, overexpression of PUBS in trans inhibited HPV DNA replication, albeit less efficiently. Characterization of a PHLPP1-E1 chimeric helicase revealed that PUBS could partially substitute for the E1 UBS in enhancing viral DNA replication and that the stimulatory effect of PUBS likely involves recruitment of UAF1-USP complexes, as it was abolished by mutations that weaken UAF1-binding and by overexpression of catalytically inactive USPs. Although functionally similar to the E1 UBS, PUBS is larger in size and requires both the WD repeat region and C-terminal ubiquitin-like domain of UAF1 for interaction, in contrast to E1, which does not contact the latter. Overall, this comparison of two heterologous UBSs indicates that these domains function as transferable protein interaction modules and provide further evidence that the association of E1 with UAF1-containing deubiquitinating complexes stimulates HPV DNA replication. The E1 protein from anogenital HPV types interacts with the UAF1-associated deubiquitinating enzymes USP1, USP12, and USP46 to stimulate replication of the viral genome. Little is known about the molecular nature of the E1

  8. CYP2E1 immunoglobulin G4 subclass antibodies after desflurane anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Michalopoulos, George; Matsota, Paraskevi; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Riga, Maria; Nakou, Maria; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate CYP2E1 IgG4 autoantibody levels and liver biochemical markers in adult patients after anesthesia with desflurane. METHODS: Forty patients who were > 18 years old and undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia with desflurane were studied. Alpha-glutathione-S-transferase (αGST) and IgG4 antibodies against CYP2E1 were measured preoperatively and 96 h postoperatively, as well as complete blood count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), international normalized ratio (INR), aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (SGPT), g-glutamyl-transpeptidase (gGT), alkaline phosphatase, total serum proteins, albumin and bilirubin. A separate group of 8 patients who received regional anesthesia was also studied for calibration of the methodology used for CYP2E1 IgG4 and αGST measurements. Student’s t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison of the continuous variables, and Fisher’s exact test was used for the categorical variables. All tests were two-tailed, with statistical significance set as P < 0.05. RESULTS: None of the patients developed postoperative liver dysfunction, and all patients were successfully discharged from the hospital. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding liver function tests (SGOT, SGPT, γGT, bilirubin, INR), αGST and CYP2E1 IgG4, before and after exposure to desflurane. After dividing patients into two subgroups based on whether or not they had received general anesthesia in the past, no significant difference in the levels of CYP2E1 IgG4 was observed at baseline or 96 h after desflurane administration (P = 0.099 and P = 0.051, respectively). Alpha-GST baseline levels and levels after the intervention also did not differ significantly between these two subgroups (P > 0.1). The mean αGST differences were statistically elevated in men by 2.15 ng/mL compared to women when adjusted for BMI, duration of anesthesia, number of times

  9. Evidence Favoring a Positive Feedback Loop for Physiologic Auto Upregulation of hnRNP-E1 during Prolonged Folate Deficiency in Human Placental Cells1234

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ying-Sheng; Khan, Rehana A; Xiao, Suhong; Hansen, Deborah K; Stabler, Sally P; Kusumanchi, Praveen; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N; Antony, Aśok C

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previously, we determined that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP-E1) functions as an intracellular physiologic sensor of folate deficiency. In this model, l-homocysteine, which accumulates intracellularly in proportion to the extent of folate deficiency, covalently binds to and thereby activates homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1 to interact with folate receptor-α mRNA; this high-affinity interaction triggers the translational upregulation of cell surface folate receptors, which enables cells to optimize folate uptake from the external milieu. However, integral to this model is the need for ongoing generation of hnRNP-E1 to replenish homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1 that is degraded. Objective: We searched for an interrelated physiologic mechanism that could also maintain the steady-state concentration of hnRNP-E1 during prolonged folate deficiency. Methods: A novel RNA-protein interaction was functionally characterized by using molecular and biochemical approaches in vitro and in vivo. Results: l-homocysteine triggered a dose-dependent high-affinity interaction between hnRNP-E1 and a 25-nucleotide cis element within the 5′-untranslated region of hnRNP-E1 mRNA; this led to a proportionate increase in these RNA-protein complexes, and translation of hnRNP-E1 both in vitro and within placental cells. Targeted perturbation of this RNA-protein interaction either by specific 25-nucleotide antisense oligonucleotides or mutation within this cis element or by small interfering RNA to hnRNP-E1 mRNA significantly reduced cellular biosynthesis of hnRNP-E1. Conversely, transfection of hnRNP-E1 mutant proteins that mimicked homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1 stimulated both cellular hnRNP-E1 and folate receptor biosynthesis. In addition, ferrous sulfate heptahydrate [iron(II)], which also binds hnRNP-E1, significantly perturbed this l-homocysteine–triggered RNA-protein interaction in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, folate deficiency induced dual upregulation of hnRNP-E

  10. Sequestration of U(VI) from Acidic, Alkaline, and High Ionic-Strength Aqueous Media by Functionalized Magnetic Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Capacity and Binding Mechanisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uranium (VI) exhibits little adsorption onto sediment minerals in acidic, alkaline or high ionic-strength aqueous media that often occur in U mining or contaminated sites, which makes U(VI) very mobile and difficult to sequester. In this work, magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparti...

  11. Synthetic prostaglandin E1 misoprostol as a treatment for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Briner, W; House, J; O'Leary, M

    1993-06-01

    A pilot study to determine if the synthetic prostaglandin E1 misoprostol is effective in treating severe tinnitus, to test the hypothesis that tinnitus production is related to prostaglandin metabolism. Blinded, placebo controlled, hemicrossover. House Ear Clinic, Los Angeles, Calif. A volunteer and convenience sample of 24 subjects complaining of severe tinnitus was recruited from mailings, telephone calls, and the clinic population. The patients were not preselected except to be in otherwise good health. Subjects were started on a regimen of placebo or 200 micrograms/d of misoprostol. The dosage was increased every 5 days by 200 micrograms until a total of 800 micrograms/d was achieved. After 1 month of drug administration, the placebo group was crossed over to the active drug phase. Outcome was measured in terms of subjective reports of tinnitus severity, sleep patterns, and ability to concentrate. Eight (33%) of the 24 patients reported improvement during the active drug phase. There were no placebo responders. Responders reported improvement in tinnitus severity, sleep, and concentration. Findings support the contention that prostaglandins may be useful in the treatment of tinnitus. Further studies with larger samples are needed before widespread use of this intervention can be recommended.

  12. Therapeutic effect of lipoprostaglandin E1 on sudden hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joong Ho; Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Hyang Cho

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a prospective, comparative clinical trial for the purpose of additional effect of lipoprostaglandin E 1 (lipo-PGE 1 ) on sudden hearing loss. With the approval of the institute ethics committee, a total of 128 consecutive patients with diagnoses of sudden hearing loss were included in the study. The patients in the lipo-PGE 1 group received continuous infusion of 10 microL lipo-PGE 1 and 48 mg methylprednisolone for 5 days, and the patient in the control group were treated with only 48 mg methylprednisolone. The total recovery rate after the treatment was 67.2%. There were 70.5% recovery rate in lipo-PGE 1 group and 60.5% recovery rate in control group. However, no significant differences were observed in the improvements of pure tone average and subjective symptoms between the lipo-PGE 1 and control groups. The results failed to prove a beneficial effect of lipo-PGE 1 in the treatment of sudden hearing loss in spite of its higher cure rate.

  13. The effects of therapeutic exercises on pain, muscle strength, functional capacity, balance and hemodynamic parameters in knee osteoarthritis patients: a randomized controlled study of supervised versus home exercises.

    PubMed

    Kuru Çolak, Tuğba; Kavlak, Bahar; Aydoğdu, Onur; Şahin, Emir; Acar, Gönül; Demirbüken, İlkşan; Sarı, Zübeyir; Çolak, İlker; Bulut, Güven; Polat, M Gülden

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of low-intensity exercise programs for lower extremities, either supervised or at home, on pain, muscle strength, balance and the hemodynamic parameters of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This randomized study included 78 patients with knee OA in 2 groups of supervised and home-based exercise program. Exercises were applied to the first group in the clinic as a group exercise program and were demonstrated to the second group to be performed at home. Before and after the 6-week exercise program, assessment was made of pain, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths, 6-min walk test (6MWT), and non-invasive hemodynamic parameters. Results of the 78 patients, 56 completed the study. Pain, muscle strength, and 6MWT scores showed significant improvements in both groups. There were also significant differences in the amount of change in pain and muscle strength (pain: p = 0.041, Rqdc: 0.009, Lqdc: 0.013, Rhms: 0.04) which indicated greater improvements in the supervised group. The balance scores of supervised group showed a significant improvement (p = 0.009). No significant change was determined in hemodynamic parameters of either group. Conclusion according to the results of this study showed that low-intensity lower extremity exercises conducted in a clinic under the supervision of a physiotherapist were more effective than home-based exercises in reducing post-activity pain levels and improving quadriceps and right hamstring muscle strength. Both the supervised and home exercise programs were seen to be effective in reducing rest pain and increasing 6 MW distance in knee osteoarthritis patients.

  14. Oscillator strengths and collision strengths for S v

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Wyngaarden, W. L.; Henry, R. J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of the optical extreme-ultraviolet spectrum of the Jupiter planetary system during the Voyager space mission revealed bright emission lines of some sulfur ions. The spectra of the torus at the orbit of Io are likely to contain S V lines. The described investigation provides oscillator strengths and collision strengths for the first four UV lines. The collision strengths from the ground state to four other excited states are also obtained. Use is made of a two-state calculation which is checked for convergence for some transitions by employing a three-state or a four-state approximation. Target wave functions for S V are calculated so that the oscillator strengths calculated in dipole length and dipole velocity approximations agree within 5%.

  15. Whey protein, amino acids, and vitamin D supplementation with physical activity increases fat-free mass and strength, functionality, and quality of life and decreases inflammation in sarcopenic elderly.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Catherine; Terracol, Gilles; Talluri, Jacopo; Maugeri, Roberto; Guido, Davide; Faliva, Milena A; Solerte, Bruno S; Fioravanti, Marisa; Lukaski, Henry; Perna, Simone

    2016-03-01

    Interventions to attenuate the adverse effects of age-related loss of skeletal muscle and function include increased physical activity and nutritional supplementation. This study tested the hypothesis that nutritional supplementation with whey protein (22 g), essential amino acids (10.9 g, including 4 g leucine), and vitamin D [2.5 μg (100 IU)] concurrent with regular, controlled physical activity would increase fat-free mass, strength, physical function, and quality of life, and reduce the risk of malnutrition in sarcopenic elderly persons. A total of 130 sarcopenic elderly people (53 men and 77 women; mean age: 80.3 y) participated in a 12-wk randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled supplementation trial. All participants concurrently took part in a controlled physical activity program. We examined body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength with a handgrip dynamometer, and blood biochemical indexes of nutritional and health status, and evaluated global nutritional status, physical function, and quality of life before and after the 12 wk of intervention. Compared with physical activity and placebo, supplementation plus physical activity increased fat-free mass (1.7-kg gain, P < 0.001), relative skeletal muscle mass (P = 0.009), android distribution of fat (P = 0.021), handgrip strength (P = 0.001), standardized summary scores for physical components (P = 0.030), activities of daily living (P = 0.001), mini nutritional assessment (P = 0.003), and insulin-like growth factor I (P = 0.002), and lowered C-reactive protein (P = 0.038). Supplementation with whey protein, essential amino acids, and vitamin D, in conjunction with age-appropriate exercise, not only boosts fat-free mass and strength but also enhances other aspects that contribute to well-being in sarcopenic elderly. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02402608. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Molecular and enzymatic characterization of alkaline lipase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens E1PA isolated from lipid-rich food waste.

    PubMed

    Saengsanga, Thanakorn; Siripornadulsil, Wilailak; Siripornadulsil, Surasak

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens E1PA is a lipase-producing strain that was originally isolated from lipid-rich food waste, and the production of its lipase was found to be induced by vegetable oils. The E1PA lipase was successfully expressed and secreted in a heterologous Escherichia coli host and was ultimately purified. The conserved pentapeptide motif Ala-His-Ser-Met-Gly was observed at positions 108-112. The purified recombinant lipase was stable over a pH range of 4.0-11.0 at 40 °C and exhibited maximal activity at pH 10. The recombinant E1PA lipase hydrolyzed a wide range of acyl esters (C4-C18). However, the highest activity (3.5 units mg(-1)) was observed when the p-nitrophenyl ester of myristate (C14) was used as a substrate. Compared to the lipases produced by Bacillus spp., the E1PA lipase displayed a structural molecular mass excluding the leader sequence (19.22 kDa) and a pI (9.82) that were similar to those reported for B. amyloliquefaciens lipases and lipase subfamily I.4 but that were quite distinct from those of lipase subfamily I.5 (approximately 43 kDa, pI 6). These results suggested that Bacillus lipases are closely related. Although the recombinant E1PA lipase digested only certain oils, the wild-type E1PA lipase degraded a variety of oils, including blended and re-used cooking oils. The recombinant and wild-type forms of the E1PA lipase were able to digest heterogeneous lipid-rich food waste at similar levels; this result suggests that this lipase can function even when it solely consists of its structural enzyme component. The enzyme exhibited lipid hydrolysis ability as either an intracellular domain of the recombinant protein or an extracellular domain secreted by the E1PA strain. However, the recombinant lipase showed higher activity than the wild-type E1PA lipase, indicating that the recombinant protein from E. coli possessed effective lipase activity. Thus, the inducible alkaline E1PA lipase exhibited the ability to act on a broad spectrum

  17. Non-shivering thermogenesis during prostaglandin E1 fever in rats: role of the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Monda, M; Amaro, S; De Luca, B

    1994-07-18

    We have tested the hypothesis that there is a role for the cerebral cortex in the control of non-shivering thermogenesis during fever induced by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). While under urethan anesthesia, the firing rate of nerves innervating interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), IBAT and colonic temperatures (TIBAT and Tc) and oxygen (O2) consumption were monitored during the fever from PGE1 injection (400 and 800 ng) in a lateral cerebral ventricle in controls and in functionally decorticated Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were functionally decorticated by applying 3.3 M KCl solution on the frontal cortex which causes cortical spreading depression (CSD). Pyrogen injections caused dose-related increases in firing rate, TIBAT, Tc and O2 consumption and CSD reduced these enhancements. Our findings indicate that the cerebral cortex could be involved in the control of non-shivering thermogenesis during PGE1-induced febrile response.

  18. Effects of an integrated health education and elastic band resistance training program on physical function and muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly women: Healthy Aging and Happy Aging II study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung-Lyul; Kim, Hee-Jae; Woo, Shinae; Cho, Be-Long; Song, Misoon; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Lim, Jae-Young; Song, Wook

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of an integrated health education and elastic band resistance training program on body composition, physical function, muscle strength and quality in community-dwelling elderly women. We recruited participants with eligibility inclusion criteria, and randomly assigned them to either the control group (n = 19) or the intervention group (n = 19). The integrated intervention program comprised of health education and individual counseling, and elastic band training for 18 weeks (8 weeks of supervised training and 10 weeks of self-directed training). We assessed body composition, muscle strength and quality, and physical function at pre-, after 8 weeks (mid-) and 18 weeks (post-training). After the intervention, there were no significant changes in skeletal muscle index, fat free mass, total lean mass and total fat mass for both the control group and intervention group. However, the interaction effect was significantly different in SPPB score (P < 0.05), isokinetic strength (60 deg/s, P < 0.001; 120 deg/s; P < 0.05) and muscle quality (P < 0.05) after 18 weeks of intervention relative to the baseline of the control and intervention groups. The supervised elastic band training of 8 weeks did not improve short physical performance battery score and isokinetic strength, whereas there was a significant increase of those outcomes (10.6% improvement, 9.8~23.5% improvement) after 10 weeks of following self-directed exercise compared with the baseline. These results show the effectiveness of following self-directed resistance training with health education after supervised training cessation in improvement of short physical performance battery and leg muscle strength. This intervention program might be an effective method to promote muscle strength and quality, and to prevent frailty in elderly women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 825-833. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Masiello, Lisa M.; Fotos, Joseph S.; Galileo, Deni S.

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis of osteoblast migration after wounds were introduced into cell monolayers indicated that LPA stimulated both migration velocity and the average migration distance per cell. LPA also elicited substantial changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal structure; lipid-treated cells contained fewermore » stress fibers and displayed long membrane processes that were enriched in F-actin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells express all four known LPA-specific G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA4) with a relative mRNA abundance of LPA1 > LPA4 > LPA2 >> LPA3. LPA-induced changes in osteoblast motility and morphology were antagonized by both pertussis toxin and Ki16425, a subtype-specific blocker of LPA1 and LPA3 receptor function. Cell migration in many cell types is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+. Ki16425 also inhibited LPA-induced Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a link between LPA-induced Ca2+ transients and osteoblast chemotaxis. Our data show that LPA stimulates MC3T3-E1 osteoblast motility via a mechanism that is linked primarily to the G protein-coupled receptor LPA1.« less

  20. Ubiquitination independent of E1 and E2 enzymes by bacterial effectors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Sheedlo, Michael J.; Yu, Kaiwen

    Signaling by ubiquitination regulates virtually every cellular process in eukaryotes. Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate is catalyzed by the E1, E2 and E3 three-enzyme cascade 1, which links the C terminus of ubiqui