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Sample records for e1-like superfamily implication

  1. Implications of Mycobacterium Major Facilitator Superfamily for Novel Measures against Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Zhen; Xie, Longxiang; Xie, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is an important secondary membrane transport protein superfamily conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The MFS proteins are widespread among bacteria and are responsible for the transfer of substrates. Pathogenic Mycobacterium MFS transporters, their distribution, function, phylogeny, and predicted crystal structures were studied to better understand the function of MFS and to discover specific inhibitors of MFS for better tuberculosis control.

  2. The First Mitochondrial Genome for the Superfamily Hagloidea and Implications for Its Systematic Status in Ensifera

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhijun; Shi, Fuming; Zhao, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Hagloidea Handlirsch, 1906 was an ancient group of Ensifera, that was much more diverse in the past extending at least into the Triassic, apparently diminishing in diversity through the Cretaceous, and now only represented by a few extant species. In this paper, we report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Tarragoilus diuturnus Gorochov, 2001, representing the first mitogenome of the superfamily Hagloidea. The size of the entire mitogenome of T. diuturnus is 16144 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The order and orientation of the gene arrangement pattern is identical to that of D. yakuba and most ensiferans species. A phylogenomic analysis was carried out based on the concatenated dataset of 13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes from mitogenome sequences of 15 ensiferan species, comprising four superfamilies Grylloidea, Tettigonioidae, Rhaphidophoroidea and Hagloidea. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses strongly support Hagloidea T. diuturnus and Rhaphidophoroidea Troglophilus neglectus as forming a monophyletic group, sister to the Tettigonioidea. The relationships among four superfamilies of Ensifera were (Grylloidea, (Tettigonioidea, (Hagloidea, Rhaphidophoroidea))). PMID:24465850

  3. Modulation of ColE1-like Plasmid Replication for Recombinant Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Manel

    2010-01-01

    ColE1-like plasmids constitute the most popular vectors for recombinant protein expression. ColE1 plasmid replication is tightly controlled by an antisense RNA mechanism that is highly dynamic, tuning plasmid metabolic burden to the physiological state of the host. Plasmid homeostasis is upset upon induction of recombinant protein expression because of non-physiological levels of expression and because of the frequently biased amino acid composition of recombinant proteins. Disregulation of plasmid replication is the main cause of collapse of plasmid-based expression systems because of a simultaneous increase in the metabolic burden (due to increased average copy number) and in the probability of generation of plasmid-free cells (due to increased copy number variation). Interference between regulatory elements of co-resident plasmids causes comparable effects on plasmid stability (plasmid incompatibility). Modulating plasmid copy number for recombinant gene expression aims at achieving a high gene dosage while preserving the stability of the expression system. Here I present strategies targeting plasmid replication for optimizing recombinant gene expression. Specifically, I review approaches aimed at modulating the antisense regulatory system (as well as their implications for plasmid incompatibility) and innovative strategies involving modulation of host factors, of R-loop formation, and of the timing of recombinant gene expression. PMID:20218961

  4. Computational Identification of the Paralogs and Orthologs of Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily and the Implication in Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Xue, Danfeng; Li, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Yang, Yinxue; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily consisting of 57 functional genes is the most important group of Phase I drug metabolizing enzymes that oxidize a large number of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants. The CYP superfamily has been shown to expand itself through gene duplication, and some of them become pseudogenes due to gene mutations. Orthologs and paralogs are homologous genes resulting from speciation or duplication, respectively. To explore the evolutionary and functional relationships of human CYPs, we conducted this bioinformatic study to identify their corresponding paralogs, homologs, and orthologs. The functional implications and implications in drug discovery and evolutionary biology were then discussed. GeneCards and Ensembl were used to identify the paralogs of human CYPs. We have used a panel of online databases to identify the orthologs of human CYP genes: NCBI, Ensembl Compara, GeneCards, OMA (“Orthologous MAtrix”) Browser, PATHER, TreeFam, EggNOG, and Roundup. The results show that each human CYP has various numbers of paralogs and orthologs using GeneCards and Ensembl. For example, the paralogs of CYP2A6 include CYP2A7, 2A13, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2F1, 2J2, 2R1, 2S1, 2U1, and 2W1; CYP11A1 has 6 paralogs including CYP11B1, 11B2, 24A1, 27A1, 27B1, and 27C1; CYP51A1 has only three paralogs: CYP26A1, 26B1, and 26C1; while CYP20A1 has no paralog. The majority of human CYPs are well conserved from plants, amphibians, fishes, or mammals to humans due to their important functions in physiology and xenobiotic disposition. The data from different approaches are also cross-validated and validated when experimental data are available. These findings facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary relationships and functional implications of the human CYP superfamily in drug discovery. PMID:27367670

  5. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Marshallagia marshalli and phylogenetic implications for the superfamily Trichostrongyloidea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao-Miao; Han, Liang; Zhang, Fu-Kai; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Wang, Shu-Qing; Ma, Jun; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Marshallagia marshalli (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) infection can lead to serious parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep, goat, and wild ruminant, causing significant socioeconomic losses worldwide. Up to now, the study concerning the molecular biology of M. marshalli is limited. Herein, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of M. marshalli and examined its phylogenetic relationship with selected members of the superfamily Trichostrongyloidea using Bayesian inference (BI) based on concatenated mt amino acid sequence datasets. The complete mt genome sequence of M. marshalli is 13,891 bp, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. All protein-coding genes are transcribed in the same direction. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes supported the monophylies of the families Haemonchidae, Molineidae, and Dictyocaulidae with strong statistical support, but rejected the monophyly of the family Trichostrongylidae. The determination of the complete mt genome sequence of M. marshalli provides novel genetic markers for studying the systematics, population genetics, and molecular epidemiology of M. marshalli and its congeners.

  6. Prevalence of ColE1-like plasmids and kanamycin resistance genes in Salmonella enterica serovars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Lindsey, Rebecca L; Strobaugh, Terence P; Frye, Jonathan G; Meinersmann, Richard J

    2010-10-01

    Multi-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica strains frequently carry resistance genes on plasmids. Recent studies focus heavily on large conjugative plasmids, and the role that small plasmids play in resistance gene transfer is largely unknown. To expand our previous studies in assessing the prevalence of the isolates harboring ColE1-like plasmids carrying the aph gene responsible for kanamycin resistance (Kan(r)) phenotypes, 102 Kan(r) Salmonella isolates collected through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) in 2005 were screened by PCR using ColE1 primer sets. Thirty isolates were found to be positive for ColE1-like replicon. Plasmids from 23 isolates were able to propagate in Escherichia coli and were subjected to further characterization. Restriction mapping revealed three major plasmid groups found in three or more isolates, with each group consisting of two to three subtypes. The aph genes from the Kan(r) Salmonella isolates were amplified by PCR, sequenced, and showed four different aph(3')-I genes. The distribution of the ColE1 plasmid groups in association with the aph gene, Salmonella serovar, and isolate source demonstrated a strong linkage of the plasmid with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104. Due to their high copy number and mobility, the ColE1-like plasmids may play a critical role in transmission of antibiotic resistance genes among enteric pathogens, and these findings warrant a close monitoring of this plasmid incompatibility group.

  7. Hind limb scaling of kangaroos and wallabies (superfamily Macropodoidea): implications for hopping performance, safety factor and elastic savings

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, C P; Skinner, J; Biewener, A A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine hind limb scaling of the musculoskeletal system in the Macropodoidea, the superfamily containing wallabies and kangaroos, to re-examine the effect of size on the locomotor mechanics and physiology of marsupial hopping. Morphometric musculoskeletal analyses were conducted of 15 species and skeletal specimens of 21 species spanning a size range from 0.8 to 80 kg that included representatives of 12 of the 16 extant genera of macropodoids. We found that unlike other groups, macropodoids are able to match force demands associated with increasing body size primarily through a combination of positive allometry in muscle area and muscle moment arms. Isometric scaling of primary hind limb bones suggests, however, that larger species experience relatively greater bone stresses. Muscle to tendon area ratios of the ankle extensors scale with strong positive allometry, indicating that peak tendon stresses also increase with increasing body size but to a lesser degree than previously reported. Consistent with previous morphological and experimental studies, large macropodoids are therefore better suited for elastic strain energy recovery but operate at lower safety factors, which likely poses an upper limit to body size. Scaling patterns for extant macropodoids suggest that extinct giant kangaroos (∼250 kg) were likely limited in locomotor capacity. PMID:18086129

  8. Kinetic and Structural Characterization of a Heterohexamer 4-Oxalocrotonate Tautomerase from Chloroflexus aurantiacus J-10-fl: Implications for Functional and Structural Diversity in the Tautomerase Superfamily

    SciT

    Burks, Elizabeth A.; Fleming, Christopher D.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2010-09-30

    4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) isozymes play prominent roles in the bacterial utilization of aromatic hydrocarbons as sole carbon sources. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of 2-hydroxy-2,4-hexadienedioate (or 2-hydroxymuconate) to 2-oxo-3-hexenedioate, where Pro-1 functions as a general base and shuttles a proton from the 2-hydroxyl group of the substrate to the C-5 position of the product. 4-OT, a homohexamer from Pseudomonas putida mt-2, is the most extensively studied 4-OT isozyme and the founding member of the tautomerase superfamily. A search of five thermophilic bacterial genomes identified a coded amino acid sequence in each that had been annotated as a tautomerase-like protein butmore » lacked Pro-1. However, a nearby sequence has Pro-1, but the sequence is not annotated as a tautomerase-like protein. To characterize this group of proteins, two genes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus J-10-fl were cloned, and the corresponding proteins were expressed. Kinetic, biochemical, and X-ray structural analyses show that the two expressed proteins form a functional heterohexamer 4-OT (hh4-OT), composed of three {alpha}{beta} dimers. Like the P. putida enzyme, hh4-OT requires the amino-terminal proline and two arginines for the conversion of 2-hydroxymuconate to the product, implicating an analogous mechanism. In contrast to 4-OT, hh4-OT does not exhibit the low-level activity of another tautomerase superfamily member, the heterohexamer trans-3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase (CaaD). Characterization of hh4-OT enables functional assignment of the related enzymes, highlights the diverse ways the {beta}-{alpha}-{beta} building block can be assembled into an active enzyme, and provides further insight into the molecular basis of the low-level CaaD activity in 4-OT.« less

  9. Prevalence of ColE1-Like Plasmids and Kanamycin Resistance Genes in Salmonella enterica Serovars ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Lindsey, Rebecca L.; Strobaugh, Terence P.; Frye, Jonathan G.; Meinersmann, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Multi-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica strains frequently carry resistance genes on plasmids. Recent studies focus heavily on large conjugative plasmids, and the role that small plasmids play in resistance gene transfer is largely unknown. To expand our previous studies in assessing the prevalence of the isolates harboring ColE1-like plasmids carrying the aph gene responsible for kanamycin resistance (Kanr) phenotypes, 102 Kanr Salmonella isolates collected through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) in 2005 were screened by PCR using ColE1 primer sets. Thirty isolates were found to be positive for ColE1-like replicon. Plasmids from 23 isolates were able to propagate in Escherichia coli and were subjected to further characterization. Restriction mapping revealed three major plasmid groups found in three or more isolates, with each group consisting of two to three subtypes. The aph genes from the Kanr Salmonella isolates were amplified by PCR, sequenced, and showed four different aph(3′)-I genes. The distribution of the ColE1 plasmid groups in association with the aph gene, Salmonella serovar, and isolate source demonstrated a strong linkage of the plasmid with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104. Due to their high copy number and mobility, the ColE1-like plasmids may play a critical role in transmission of antibiotic resistance genes among enteric pathogens, and these findings warrant a close monitoring of this plasmid incompatibility group. PMID:20693446

  10. Missense-depleted regions in population exomes implicate ras superfamily nucleotide-binding protein alteration in patients with brain malformation

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiaoyan; Gong, Henry; Dumas, Kevin; Litwin, Jessica; Phillips, Joanna J; Waisfisz, Quinten; Weiss, Marjan M; Hendriks, Yvonne; Stuurman, Kyra E; Nelson, Stanley F; Grody, Wayne W; Lee, Hane; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Shieh, Joseph T C

    2016-01-01

    Genomic sequence interpretation can miss clinically relevant missense variants for several reasons. Rare missense variants are numerous in the exome and difficult to prioritise. Affected genes may also not have existing disease association. To improve variant prioritisation, we leverage population exome data to identify intragenic missense-depleted regions (MDRs) genome-wide that may be important in disease. We then use missense depletion analyses to help prioritise undiagnosed disease exome variants. We demonstrate application of this strategy to identify a novel gene association for human brain malformation. We identified de novo missense variants that affect the GDP/GTP-binding site of ARF1 in three unrelated patients. Corresponding functional analysis suggests ARF1 GDP/GTP-activation is affected by the specific missense mutations associated with heterotopia. These findings expand the genetic pathway underpinning neurologic disease that classically includes FLNA. ARF1 along with ARFGEF2 add further evidence implicating ARF/GEFs in the brain. Using functional ontology, top MDR-containing genes were highly enriched for nucleotide-binding function, suggesting these may be candidates for human disease. Routine consideration of MDR in the interpretation of exome data for rare diseases may help identify strong genetic factors for many severe conditions, infertility/reduction in reproductive capability, and embryonic conditions contributing to preterm loss. PMID:28868155

  11. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Member of the Radical AdoMet Enzyme Superfamily and Implications for the Biosynthesis of the Hmd Hydrogenase Active Site Cofactor▿ †

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Shawn E.; Boyd, Eric S.; Shepard, Eric M.; Lange, Rachel K.; Gerlach, Robin; Broderick, Joan B.; Peters, John W.

    2010-01-01

    The genetic context, phylogeny, and biochemistry of a gene flanking the H2-forming methylene-H4-methanopterin dehydrogenase gene (hmdA), here designated hmdB, indicate that it is a new member of the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzyme superfamily. In contrast to the characteristic CX3CX2C or CX2CX4C motif defining this family, HmdB contains a unique CX5CX2C motif. PMID:19897660

  12. Influence of tra genes of IncP and F plasmids on the mobilization of small Kanamycin resistance ColE1-Like plasmids in bacterial biofilms

    Background: Horizontal gene transfer is a mechanism for movement of antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria. Some small kanamycin resistance (KanR) ColE1-like plasmids isolated from different serotypes of Salmonella enterica were shown to carry mobilization genes; although not self-transmissibl...

  13. Isolation and characterization of two novel groups of Kanamycin-resistance ColE1-like plasmids in Salmonella enterica serotypes from food animals

    While antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica is largely attributed to large plasmids, small plasmids may also harbor antimicrobial resistance genes. Previously, three major groups of ColE1-like plasmids conferring kanamycin-resistance (KanR) in various S. enterica serotypes from diagnostic...

  14. Isolation and characterization of two novel groups of kanamycin-resistance ColE1-like plasmids in Salmonella enterica serotypes from food animals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Strobaugh, Terence P; Nguyen, Ly-Huong T; Abley, Melanie; Lindsey, Rebecca L; Jackson, Charlene R

    2018-01-01

    While antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica is mainly attributed to large plasmids, small plasmids may also harbor antimicrobial resistance genes. Previously, three major groups of ColE1-like plasmids conferring kanamycin-resistance (KanR) in various S. enterica serotypes from diagnostic samples of human or animals were reported. In this study, over 200 KanR S. enterica isolates from slaughter samples, collected in 2010 and 2011 as a part of the animal arm of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, were screened for the presence of ColE1-like plasmids. Twenty-three KanR ColE1-like plasmids were successfully isolated. Restriction fragment mapping revealed five major plasmid groups with subgroups, including two new groups, X (n = 3) and Y/Y2/Y3 (n = 4), in addition to the previously identified groups A (n = 7), B (n = 6), and C/C3 (n = 3). Nearly 75% of the plasmid-carrying isolates were from turkey and included all the isolates carrying X and Y plasmids. All group X plasmids were from serotype Hadar. Serotype Senftenberg carried all the group Y plasmids and one group B plasmid. All Typhimurium isolates (n = 4) carried group A plasmids, while Newport isolates (n = 3) each carried a different plasmid group (A, B, or C). The presence of the selection bias in the NARMS strain collection prevents interpretation of findings at the population level. However, this study demonstrated that KanR ColE1-like plasmids are widely distributed among different S. enterica serotypes in the NARMS isolates and may play a role in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes.

  15. Isolation and characterization of two novel groups of kanamycin-resistance ColE1-like plasmids in Salmonella enterica serotypes from food animals

    PubMed Central

    Strobaugh, Terence P.; Nguyen, Ly-Huong T.; Abley, Melanie; Lindsey, Rebecca L.; Jackson, Charlene R.

    2018-01-01

    While antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica is mainly attributed to large plasmids, small plasmids may also harbor antimicrobial resistance genes. Previously, three major groups of ColE1-like plasmids conferring kanamycin-resistance (KanR) in various S. enterica serotypes from diagnostic samples of human or animals were reported. In this study, over 200 KanR S. enterica isolates from slaughter samples, collected in 2010 and 2011 as a part of the animal arm of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, were screened for the presence of ColE1-like plasmids. Twenty-three KanR ColE1-like plasmids were successfully isolated. Restriction fragment mapping revealed five major plasmid groups with subgroups, including two new groups, X (n = 3) and Y/Y2/Y3 (n = 4), in addition to the previously identified groups A (n = 7), B (n = 6), and C/C3 (n = 3). Nearly 75% of the plasmid-carrying isolates were from turkey and included all the isolates carrying X and Y plasmids. All group X plasmids were from serotype Hadar. Serotype Senftenberg carried all the group Y plasmids and one group B plasmid. All Typhimurium isolates (n = 4) carried group A plasmids, while Newport isolates (n = 3) each carried a different plasmid group (A, B, or C). The presence of the selection bias in the NARMS strain collection prevents interpretation of findings at the population level. However, this study demonstrated that KanR ColE1-like plasmids are widely distributed among different S. enterica serotypes in the NARMS isolates and may play a role in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:29513730

  16. TNF superfamily: costimulation and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, Dass S; Kwon, Byoung S

    2009-01-01

    The molecules concerned with costimulation belong either to the immunoglobulin (Ig) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamilies. The tumor necrosis superfamily comprises molecules capable of providing both costimulation and cell death. In this review we briefly summarize certain TNF superfamily receptor-ligand pairs that are endowed with costimulatory properties and their importance in health and disease. PMID:19230849

  17. The aldo-keto reductase superfamily homepage.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, David; Bauman, David R; Heredia, Vladi V; Penning, Trevor M

    2003-02-01

    The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are one of the three enzyme superfamilies that perform oxidoreduction on a wide variety of natural and foreign substrates. A systematic nomenclature for the AKR superfamily was adopted in 1996 and was updated in September 2000 (visit www.med.upenn.edu/akr). Investigators have been diligent in submitting sequences of functional proteins to the Web site. With the new additions, the superfamily contains 114 proteins expressed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that are distributed over 14 families (AKR1-AKR14). The AKR1 family contains the aldose reductases, the aldehyde reductases, the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and steroid 5beta-reductases, and is the largest. Other families of interest include AKR6, which includes potassium channel beta-subunits, and AKR7 the aflatoxin aldehyde reductases. Two new families include AKR13 (yeast aldose reductase) and AKR14 (Escherichia coli aldehyde reductase). Crystal structures of many AKRs and their complexes with ligands are available in the PDB and accessible through the Web site. Each structure has the characteristic (alpha/beta)(8)-barrel motif of the superfamily, a conserved cofactor binding site and a catalytic tetrad, and variable loop structures that define substrate specificity. Although the majority of AKRs are monomeric proteins of about 320 amino acids in length, the AKR2, AKR6 and AKR7 family may form multimers. To expand the nomenclature to accommodate multimers, we recommend that the composition and stoichiometry be listed. For example, AKR7A1:AKR7A4 (1:3) would designate a tetramer of the composition indicated. The current nomenclature is recognized by the Human Genome Project (HUGO) and the Web site provides a link to genomic information including chromosomal localization, gene boundaries, human ESTs and SNPs and much more.

  18. Functional Diversity of Haloacid Dehalogenase Superfamily Phosphatases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: BIOCHEMICAL, STRUCTURAL, AND EVOLUTIONARY INSIGHTS.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Makarova, Kira S; Flick, Robert; Wolf, Yuri I; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Evdokimova, Elena; Jin, Ke; Tan, Kemin; Hanson, Andrew D; Hasnain, Ghulam; Zallot, Rémi; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Babu, Mohan; Savchenko, Alexei; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Edwards, Aled M; Koonin, Eugene V; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2015-07-24

    The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes comprise a large superfamily of phosphohydrolases present in all organisms. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes at least 19 soluble HADs, including 10 uncharacterized proteins. Here, we biochemically characterized 13 yeast phosphatases from the HAD superfamily, which includes both specific and promiscuous enzymes active against various phosphorylated metabolites and peptides with several HADs implicated in detoxification of phosphorylated compounds and pseudouridine. The crystal structures of four yeast HADs provided insight into their active sites, whereas the structure of the YKR070W dimer in complex with substrate revealed a composite substrate-binding site. Although the S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli HADs share low sequence similarities, the comparison of their substrate profiles revealed seven phosphatases with common preferred substrates. The cluster of secondary substrates supporting significant activity of both S. cerevisiae and E. coli HADs includes 28 common metabolites that appear to represent the pool of potential activities for the evolution of novel HAD phosphatases. Evolution of novel substrate specificities of HAD phosphatases shows no strict correlation with sequence divergence. Thus, evolution of the HAD superfamily combines the conservation of the overall substrate pool and the substrate profiles of some enzymes with remarkable biochemical and structural flexibility of other superfamily members. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Immunoglobulin superfamily proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, S A; Chothia, C

    2000-03-10

    The predicted proteins of the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans were analysed by various sequence comparison methods to identify the repertoire of proteins that are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). The IgSF is one of the largest families of protein domain in this genome and likely to be one of the major families in other multicellular eukaryotes too. This is because members of the superfamily are involved in a variety of functions including cell-cell recognition, cell-surface receptors, muscle structure and, in higher organisms, the immune system. Sixty-four proteins with 488 I set IgSF domains were identified largely by using Hidden Markov models. The domain architectures of the protein products of these 64 genes are described. Twenty-one of these had been characterised previously. We show that another 25 are related to proteins of known function. The C. elegans IgSF proteins can be classified into five broad categories: muscle proteins, protein kinases and phosphatases, three categories of proteins involved in the development of the nervous system, leucine-rich repeat containing proteins and proteins without homologues of known function, of which there are 18. The 19 proteins involved in nervous system development that are not kinases or phosphatases are homologues of neuroglian, axonin, NCAM, wrapper, klingon, ICCR and nephrin or belong to the recently identified zig gene family. Out of the set of 64 genes, 22 are on the X chromosome. This study should be seen as an initial description of the IgSF repertoire in C. elegans, because the current gene definitions may contain a number of errors, especially in the case of long sequences, and there may be IgSF genes that have not yet been detected. However, the proteins described here do provide an overview of the bulk of the repertoire of immunoglobulin superfamily members in C. elegans, a framework for refinement and extension of the repertoire as gene and protein definitions improve, and the basis

  20. Origin and evolution of TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies

    The tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) and the TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) have an ancient evolutionary origin that can be traced back to single copy genes within Arthropods. In humans, 18 TNFSF and 29 TNFRSF genes have been identified. Evolutionary models account for the increase in g...

  1. The SUPERFAMILY database in 2004: additions and improvements.

    PubMed

    Madera, Martin; Vogel, Christine; Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Chothia, Cyrus; Gough, Julian

    2004-01-01

    The SUPERFAMILY database provides structural assignments to protein sequences and a framework for analysis of the results. At the core of the database is a library of profile Hidden Markov Models that represent all proteins of known structure. The library is based on the SCOP classification of proteins: each model corresponds to a SCOP domain and aims to represent an entire superfamily. We have applied the library to predicted proteins from all completely sequenced genomes (currently 154), the Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL databases and other sequence collections. Close to 60% of all proteins have at least one match, and one half of all residues are covered by assignments. All models and full results are available for download and online browsing at http://supfam.org. Users can study the distribution of their superfamily of interest across all completely sequenced genomes, investigate with which other superfamilies it combines and retrieve proteins in which it occurs. Alternatively, concentrating on a particular genome as a whole, it is possible first, to find out its superfamily composition, and secondly, to compare it with that of other genomes to detect superfamilies that are over- or under-represented. In addition, the webserver provides the following standard services: sequence search; keyword search for genomes, superfamilies and sequence identifiers; and multiple alignment of genomic, PDB and custom sequences.

  2. Phospholipid Regulation of the Nuclear Receptor Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Mark K.; Seacrist, Corey D.; Blind, Raymond D.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors whose diverse biological functions are classically regulated by cholesterol-based small molecules. Over the past few decades, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated that phospholipids and other similar amphipathic molecules can also specifically bind and functionally regulate the activity of certain nuclear receptors, suggesting a critical role for these non-cholesterol-based molecules in transcriptional regulation. Phosphatidylcholines, phosphoinositides and sphingolipids are a few of the many phospholipid like molecules shown to quite specifically regulate nuclear receptors in mouse models, cell lines and in vitro. More recent evidence has also shown that certain nuclear receptors can “present” a bound phospholipid headgroup to key lipid signaling enzymes, which can then modify the phospholipid headgroup with very unique kinetic properties. Here, we review the broad array of phospholipid / nuclear receptor interactions, from the perspective of the chemical nature of the phospholipid, and the cellular abundance of the phospholipid. We also view the data in the light of well established paradigms for phospholipid mediated transcriptional regulation, as well as newer models of how phospholipids might effect transcription in the acute regulation of complex nuclear signaling pathways. Thus, this review provides novel insight into the new, non-membrane associated roles nuclear phospholipids play in regulating complex nuclear events, centered on the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. PMID:27838257

  3. Phylogenetic Characterization of Transport Protein Superfamilies: Superiority of SuperfamilyTree Programs over Those Based on Multiple Alignments

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jonathan S.; Reddy, Vamsee; Chen, Joshua H.; Shlykov, Maksim A.; Zheng, Wei Hao; Cho, Jaehoon; Yen, Ming Ren; Saier, Milton H.

    2012-01-01

    Transport proteins function in the translocation of ions, solutes and macromolecules across cellular and organellar membranes. These integral membrane proteins fall into >600 families as tabulated in the Transporter Classification Database (www.tcdb.org). Recent studies, some of which are reported here, define distant phylogenetic relationships between families with the creation of superfamilies. Several of these are analyzed using a novel set of programs designed to allow reliable prediction of phylogenetic trees when sequence divergence is too great to allow the use of multiple alignments. These new programs, called SuperfamilyTree1 and 2 (SFT1 and 2), allow display of protein and family relationships, respectively, based on thousands of comparative BLAST scores rather than multiple alignments. Superfamilies analyzed include: (1) Aerolysins, (2) RTX Toxins, (3) Defensins, (4) Ion Transporters, (5) Bile/Arsenite/Riboflavin Transporters, (6) Cation: Proton Antiporters, and (7) the Glucose/Fructose/Lactose superfamily within the prokaryotic phosphoenol pyruvate-dependent Phosphotransferase System. In addition to defining the phylogenetic relationships of the proteins and families within these seven superfamilies, evidence is provided showing that the SFT programs outperform programs that are based on multiple alignments whenever sequence divergence of superfamily members is extensive. The SFT programs should be applicable to virtually any superfamily of proteins or nucleic acids. PMID:22286036

  4. Structural diversity of domain superfamilies in the CATH database.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gabrielle A; Dallman, Timothy J; Redfern, Oliver C; Akpor, Adrian; Orengo, Christine A

    2006-07-14

    The CATH database of domain structures has been used to explore the structural variation of homologous domains in 294 well populated domain structure superfamilies, each containing at least three sequence diverse relatives. Our analyses confirm some previously detected trends relating sequence divergence to structural variation but for a much larger dataset and in some superfamilies the new data reveal exceptional structural variation. Use of a new algorithm (2DSEC) to analyse variability in secondary structure compositions across a superfamily sheds new light on how structures evolve. 2DSEC detects inserted secondary structures that embellish the core of conserved secondary structures found throughout the superfamily. Analysis showed that for 56% of highly populated superfamilies (>9 sequence diverse relatives), there are twofold or more increases in the numbers of secondary structures in some relatives. In some families fivefold increases occur, sometimes modifying the fold of the domain. Manual inspection of secondary structure insertions or embellishments in 48 particularly variable superfamilies revealed that although these insertions were usually discontiguous in the sequence they were often co-located in 3D resulting in a larger structural motif that often modified the geometry of the active site or the surface conformation promoting diverse domain partnerships and protein interactions. These observations, supported by automatic analysis of all well populated CATH families, suggest that accretion of small secondary structure insertions may provide a simple mechanism for evolving new functions in diverse relatives. Some layered domain architectures (e.g. mainly-beta and alpha-beta sandwiches) that recur highly in the genomes more frequently exploit these types of embellishments to modify function. In these architectures, aggregation occurs most often at the edges, top or bottom of the beta-sheets. Information on structural variability across domain

  5. '2TM proteins': an antigenically diverse superfamily with variable functions and export pathways.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasweer; Hora, Rachna

    2018-01-01

    Malaria is a disease that affects millions of people annually. An intracellular habitat and lack of protein synthesizing machinery in erythrocytes pose numerous difficulties for survival of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum . The parasite refurbishes the infected red blood cell (iRBC) by synthesis and export of several proteins in an attempt to suffice its metabolic needs and evade the host immune response. Immune evasion is largely mediated by surface display of highly polymorphic protein families known as variable surface antigens. These include the two trans-membrane (2TM) superfamily constituted by multicopy repetitive interspersed family (RIFINs), subtelomeric variable open reading frame (STEVORs) and Plasmodium falciparum Maurer's cleft two trans-membrane proteins present only in P. falciparum and some simian infecting Plasmodium species. Their hypervariable region flanked by 2TM domains exposed on the iRBC surface is believed to generate antigenic diversity. Though historically named "2TM superfamily," several A-type RIFINs and some STEVORs assume one trans-membrane topology. RIFINs and STEVORs share varied functions in different parasite life cycle stages like rosetting, alteration of iRBC rigidity and immune evasion. Additionally, a member of the STEVOR family has been implicated in merozoite invasion. Differential expression of these families in laboratory strains and clinical isolates propose them to be important for host cell survival and defense. The role of RIFINs in modulation of host immune response and presence of protective antibodies against these surface exposed molecules in patient sera highlights them as attractive targets of antimalarial therapies and vaccines. 2TM proteins are Plasmodium export elements positive, and several of these are exported to the infected erythrocyte surface after exiting through the classical secretory pathway within parasites. Cleaved and modified proteins are trafficked after packaging in vesicles to reach

  6. Phylogenomic evolutionary surveys of subtilase superfamily genes in fungi.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Gu, Fei; Wu, Runian; Yang, JinKui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2017-03-30

    Subtilases belong to a superfamily of serine proteases which are ubiquitous in fungi and are suspected to have developed distinct functional properties to help fungi adapt to different ecological niches. In this study, we conducted a large-scale phylogenomic survey of subtilase protease genes in 83 whole genome sequenced fungal species in order to identify the evolutionary patterns and subsequent functional divergences of different subtilase families among the main lineages of the fungal kingdom. Our comparative genomic analyses of the subtilase superfamily indicated that extensive gene duplications, losses and functional diversifications have occurred in fungi, and that the four families of subtilase enzymes in fungi, including proteinase K-like, Pyrolisin, kexin and S53, have distinct evolutionary histories which may have facilitated the adaptation of fungi to a broad array of life strategies. Our study provides new insights into the evolution of the subtilase superfamily in fungi and expands our understanding of the evolution of fungi with different lifestyles.

  7. Lectins of beneficial microbes: system organisation, functioning and functional superfamily.

    PubMed

    Lakhtin, M; Lakhtin, V; Alyoshkin, V; Afanasyev, S

    2011-06-01

    In this review our last results and proposals with respect to general aspects of lectin studies are summarised and compared. System presence, organisation and functioning of lectins are proposed, and accents on beneficial symbiotic microbial lectins studies are presented. The proposed general principles of lectin functioning allows for a comparison of lectins with other carbohydrate-recognition systems. A new structure-functional superfamily of symbiotic microbial lectins is proposed and its main properties are described. The proposed superfamily allows for extended searches of the biological activities of any microbial member. Prospects of lectins of beneficial symbiotic microorganisms are discussed.

  8. External pH modulates EAG superfamily K+ channels through EAG-specific acidic residues in the voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Marcin; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Bihan; Mulkey, Daniel K.; Shi, Yingtang; Wagner, Paul G.; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Sassic, Jessica K.; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The Ether-a-go-go (EAG) superfamily of voltage-gated K+ channels consists of three functionally distinct gene families (Eag, Elk, and Erg) encoding a diverse set of low-threshold K+ currents that regulate excitability in neurons and muscle. Previous studies indicate that external acidification inhibits activation of three EAG superfamily K+ channels, Kv10.1 (Eag1), Kv11.1 (Erg1), and Kv12.1 (Elk1). We show here that Kv10.2, Kv12.2, and Kv12.3 are similarly inhibited by external protons, suggesting that high sensitivity to physiological pH changes is a general property of EAG superfamily channels. External acidification depolarizes the conductance–voltage (GV) curves of these channels, reducing low threshold activation. We explored the mechanism of this high pH sensitivity in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. We first examined the role of acidic voltage sensor residues that mediate divalent cation block of voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels because protons reduce the sensitivity of Kv12.1 to Zn2+. Low pH similarly reduces Mg2+ sensitivity of Kv10.1, and we found that the pH sensitivity of Kv11.1 was greatly attenuated at 1 mM Ca2+. Individual neutralizations of a pair of EAG-specific acidic residues that have previously been implicated in divalent block of diverse EAG superfamily channels greatly reduced the pH response in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. Our results therefore suggest a common mechanism for pH-sensitive voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels. The EAG-specific acidic residues may form the proton-binding site or alternatively are required to hold the voltage sensor in a pH-sensitive conformation. The high pH sensitivity of EAG superfamily channels suggests that they could contribute to pH-sensitive K+ currents observed in vivo. PMID:23712551

  9. External pH modulates EAG superfamily K+ channels through EAG-specific acidic residues in the voltage sensor.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, Marcin; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Bihan; Mulkey, Daniel K; Shi, Yingtang; Wagner, Paul G; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Sassic, Jessica K; Bayliss, Douglas A; Jegla, Timothy

    2013-06-01

    The Ether-a-go-go (EAG) superfamily of voltage-gated K(+) channels consists of three functionally distinct gene families (Eag, Elk, and Erg) encoding a diverse set of low-threshold K(+) currents that regulate excitability in neurons and muscle. Previous studies indicate that external acidification inhibits activation of three EAG superfamily K(+) channels, Kv10.1 (Eag1), Kv11.1 (Erg1), and Kv12.1 (Elk1). We show here that Kv10.2, Kv12.2, and Kv12.3 are similarly inhibited by external protons, suggesting that high sensitivity to physiological pH changes is a general property of EAG superfamily channels. External acidification depolarizes the conductance-voltage (GV) curves of these channels, reducing low threshold activation. We explored the mechanism of this high pH sensitivity in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. We first examined the role of acidic voltage sensor residues that mediate divalent cation block of voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels because protons reduce the sensitivity of Kv12.1 to Zn(2+). Low pH similarly reduces Mg(2+) sensitivity of Kv10.1, and we found that the pH sensitivity of Kv11.1 was greatly attenuated at 1 mM Ca(2+). Individual neutralizations of a pair of EAG-specific acidic residues that have previously been implicated in divalent block of diverse EAG superfamily channels greatly reduced the pH response in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. Our results therefore suggest a common mechanism for pH-sensitive voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels. The EAG-specific acidic residues may form the proton-binding site or alternatively are required to hold the voltage sensor in a pH-sensitive conformation. The high pH sensitivity of EAG superfamily channels suggests that they could contribute to pH-sensitive K(+) currents observed in vivo.

  10. Homologues of insulinase, a new superfamily of metalloendopeptidases.

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, N D; Barrett, A J

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of a statistical analysis of an alignment of the amino acid sequences, a new superfamily of metalloendopeptidases is proposed, consisting of human insulinase, Escherichia coli protease III and mitochondrial processing endopeptidases from Saccharomyces and Neurospora. These enzymes do not contain the 'HEXXH' consensus sequence found in all previously recognized zinc metalloendopeptidases. PMID:2025223

  11. Evolution of the nuclear receptor gene superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, V; Hänni, C; Coll, J; Catzeflis, F; Stéhelin, D

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear receptor genes represent a large family of genes encoding receptors for various hydrophobic ligands such as steroids, vitamin D, retinoic acid and thyroid hormones. This family also contains genes encoding putative receptors for unknown ligands. Nuclear receptor gene products are composed of several domains important for transcriptional activation, DNA binding (C domain), hormone binding and dimerization (E domain). It is not known whether these genes have evolved through gene duplication from a common ancestor or if their different domains came from different independent sources. To test these possibilities we have constructed and compared the phylogenetic trees derived from two different domains of 30 nuclear receptor genes. The tree built from the DNA binding C domain clearly shows a common progeny of all nuclear receptors, which can be grouped into three subfamilies: (i) thyroid hormone and retinoic acid receptors, (ii) orphan receptors and (iii) steroid hormone receptors. The tree constructed from the central part of the E domain which is implicated in transcriptional regulation and dimerization shows the same distribution in three subfamilies but two groups of receptors are in a different position from that in the C domain tree: (i) the Drosophila knirps family genes have acquired very different E domains during evolution, and (ii) the vitamin D and ecdysone receptors, as well as the FTZ-F1 and the NGF1B genes, seem to have DNA binding and hormone binding domains belonging to different classes. These data suggest a complex evolutionary history for nuclear receptor genes in which gene duplication events and swapping between domains of different origins took place. PMID:1312460

  12. Evolution of genes and repeats in the Nimrod superfamily.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Kálmán; Sipos, Botond; Pénzes, Zsolt; Kurucz, Eva; Zsámboki, János; Hultmark, Dan; Andó, István

    2008-11-01

    The recently identified Nimrod superfamily is characterized by the presence of a special type of EGF repeat, the NIM repeat, located right after a typical CCXGY/W amino acid motif. On the basis of structural features, nimrod genes can be divided into three types. The proteins encoded by Draper-type genes have an EMI domain at the N-terminal part and only one copy of the NIM motif, followed by a variable number of EGF-like repeats. The products of Nimrod B-type and Nimrod C-type genes (including the eater gene) have different kinds of N-terminal domains, and lack EGF-like repeats but contain a variable number of NIM repeats. Draper and Nimrod C-type (but not Nimrod B-type) proteins carry a transmembrane domain. Several members of the superfamily were claimed to function as receptors in phagocytosis and/or binding of bacteria, which indicates an important role in the cellular immunity and the elimination of apoptotic cells. In this paper, the evolution of the Nimrod superfamily is studied with various methods on the level of genes and repeats. A hypothesis is presented in which the NIM repeat, along with the EMI domain, emerged by structural reorganizations at the end of an EGF-like repeat chain, suggesting a mechanism for the formation of novel types of repeats. The analyses revealed diverse evolutionary patterns in the sequences containing multiple NIM repeats. Although in the Nimrod B and Nimrod C proteins show characteristics of independent evolution, many internal NIM repeats in Eater sequences seem to have undergone concerted evolution. An analysis of the nimrod genes has been performed using phylogenetic and other methods and an evolutionary scenario of the origin and diversification of the Nimrod superfamily is proposed. Our study presents an intriguing example how the evolution of multigene families may contribute to the complexity of the innate immune response.

  13. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: L-Rhamnonate Dehydratase

    SciT

    Rakus,J.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.

    2008-01-01

    The l-rhamnonate dehydratase (RhamD) function was assigned to a previously uncharacterized family in the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily that is encoded by the genome of Escherichia coli K-12. We screened a library of acid sugars to discover that the enzyme displays a promiscuous substrate specificity: l-rhamnonate (6-deoxy-l-mannonate) has the 'best' kinetic constants, with l-mannonate, l-lyxonate, and d-gulonate dehydrated less efficiently. Crystal structures of the RhamDs from both E. coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium LT2 (95% sequence identity) were obtained in the presence of Mg2+; the structure of the RhamD from S. typhimurium was also obtained in the presence of 3-deoxy-l-rhamnonatemore » (obtained by reduction of the product with NaBH4). Like other members of the enolase superfamily, RhamD contains an N-terminal a + {beta} capping domain and a C-terminal ({beta}/a)7{beta}-barrel (modified TIM-barrel) catalytic domain with the active site located at the interface between the two domains. In contrast to other members, the specificity-determining '20s loop' in the capping domain is extended in length and the '50s loop' is truncated. The ligands for the Mg2+ are Asp 226, Glu 252 and Glu 280 located at the ends of the third, fourth and fifth {beta}-strands, respectively. The active site of RhamD contains a His 329-Asp 302 dyad at the ends of the seventh and sixth {beta}-strands, respectively, with His 329 positioned to function as the general base responsible for abstraction of the C2 proton of l-rhamnonate to form a Mg2+-stabilized enediolate intermediate. However, the active site does not contain other acid/base catalysts that have been implicated in the reactions catalyzed by other members of the MR subgroup of the enolase superfamily. Based on the structure of the liganded complex, His 329 also is expected to function as the general acid that both facilitates departure of the 3-OH group in a syn-dehydration reaction and delivers a proton to

  14. Structure-Based Phylogenetic Analysis of the Lipocalin Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Balasubramanian; Mishra, Madhulika; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2015-01-01

    Lipocalins constitute a superfamily of extracellular proteins that are found in all three kingdoms of life. Although very divergent in their sequences and functions, they show remarkable similarity in 3-D structures. Lipocalins bind and transport small hydrophobic molecules. Earlier sequence-based phylogenetic studies of lipocalins highlighted that they have a long evolutionary history. However the molecular and structural basis of their functional diversity is not completely understood. The main objective of the present study is to understand functional diversity of the lipocalins using a structure-based phylogenetic approach. The present study with 39 protein domains from the lipocalin superfamily suggests that the clusters of lipocalins obtained by structure-based phylogeny correspond well with the functional diversity. The detailed analysis on each of the clusters and sub-clusters reveals that the 39 lipocalin domains cluster based on their mode of ligand binding though the clustering was performed on the basis of gross domain structure. The outliers in the phylogenetic tree are often from single member families. Also structure-based phylogenetic approach has provided pointers to assign putative function for the domains of unknown function in lipocalin family. The approach employed in the present study can be used in the future for the functional identification of new lipocalin proteins and may be extended to other protein families where members show poor sequence similarity but high structural similarity.

  15. Comparative analysis of cation/proton antiporter superfamily in plants.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chu-Yu; Yang, Xiaohan; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2013-06-01

    The cation/proton antiporter superfamily is associated with the transport of monovalent cations across membranes. This superfamily was annotated in the Arabidopsis genome and some members were functionally characterized. In the present study, a systematic analysis of the cation/proton antiporter genes in diverse plant species was reported. We identified 240 cation/proton antiporters in alga, moss, and angiosperm. A phylogenetic tree was constructed showing these 240 members are separated into three families, i.e., Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, K(+) efflux antiporters, and cation/H(+) exchangers. Our analysis revealed that tandem and/or segmental duplications contribute to the expansion of cation/H(+) exchangers in the examined angiosperm species. Sliding window analysis of the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios showed some differences in the evolutionary fate of cation/proton antiporter paralogs. Furthermore, we identified over-represented motifs among these 240 proteins and found most motifs are family specific, demonstrating diverse evolution of the cation/proton antiporters among three families. In addition, we investigated the co-expressed genes of the cation/proton antiporters in Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed some biological processes are enriched in the co-expressed genes, suggesting the cation/proton antiporters may be involved in these biological processes. Taken together, this study furthers our knowledge on cation/proton antiporters in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diversity, classification and function of the plant protein kinase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Lehti-Shiu, Melissa D.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases belong to a large superfamily with hundreds to thousands of copies and are components of essentially all cellular functions. The goals of this study are to classify protein kinases from 25 plant species and to assess their evolutionary history in conjunction with consideration of their molecular functions. The protein kinase superfamily has expanded in the flowering plant lineage, in part through recent duplications. As a result, the flowering plant protein kinase repertoire, or kinome, is in general significantly larger than other eukaryotes, ranging in size from 600 to 2500 members. This large variation in kinome size is mainly due to the expansion and contraction of a few families, particularly the receptor-like kinase/Pelle family. A number of protein kinases reside in highly conserved, low copy number families and often play broadly conserved regulatory roles in metabolism and cell division, although functions of plant homologues have often diverged from their metazoan counterparts. Members of expanded plant kinase families often have roles in plant-specific processes and some may have contributed to adaptive evolution. Nonetheless, non-adaptive explanations, such as kinase duplicate subfunctionalization and insufficient time for pseudogenization, may also contribute to the large number of seemingly functional protein kinases in plants. PMID:22889912

  17. Membrane and Protein Interactions of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Marc; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben; Overduin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The human genome encodes about 285 proteins that contain at least one annotated pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. As the first phosphoinositide binding module domain to be discovered, the PH domain recruits diverse protein architectures to cellular membranes. PH domains constitute one of the largest protein superfamilies, and have diverged to regulate many different signaling proteins and modules such as Dbl homology (DH) and Tec homology (TH) domains. The ligands of approximately 70 PH domains have been validated by binding assays and complexed structures, allowing meaningful extrapolation across the entire superfamily. Here the Membrane Optimal Docking Area (MODA) program is used at a genome-wide level to identify all membrane docking PH structures and map their lipid-binding determinants. In addition to the linear sequence motifs which are employed for phosphoinositide recognition, the three dimensional structural features that allow peripheral membrane domains to approach and insert into the bilayer are pinpointed and can be predicted ab initio. The analysis shows that conserved structural surfaces distinguish which PH domains associate with membrane from those that do not. Moreover, the results indicate that lipid-binding PH domains can be classified into different functional subgroups based on the type of membrane insertion elements they project towards the bilayer. PMID:26512702

  18. Novel actin crosslinker superfamily member identified by a two step degenerate PCR procedure.

    PubMed

    Byers, T J; Beggs, A H; McNally, E M; Kunkel, L M

    1995-07-24

    Actin-crosslinking proteins link F-actin into the bundles and networks that constitute the cytoskeleton. Dystrophin, beta-spectrin, alpha-actinin, ABP-120, ABP-280, and fimbrin share homologous actin-binding domains and comprise an actin crosslinker superfamily. We have identified a novel member of this superfamily (ACF7) using a degenerate primer-mediated PCR strategy that was optimized to resolve less-abundant superfamily sequences. The ACF7 gene is on human chromosome 1 and hybridizes to high molecular weight bands on northern blots. Sequence comparisons argue that ACF7 does not fit into one of the existing families, but represents a new class within the superfamily.

  19. Intracellular Transport and Kinesin Superfamily Proteins: Structure, Function and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirokawa, N.; Takemura, R.

    Using various molecular cell biological and molecular genetic approaches, we identified kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) and characterized their significant functions in intracellular transport, which is fundamental for cellular morphogenesis, functioning, and survival. We showed that KIFs not only transport various membranous organelles, proteins complexes and mRNAs fundamental for cellular functions but also play significant roles in higher brain functions such as memory and learning, determination of important developmental processes such as left-right asymmetry formation and brain wiring. We also elucidated that KIFs recognize and bind to their specific cargoes using scaffolding or adaptor protein complexes. Concerning the mechanism of motility, we discovered the simplest unique monomeric motor KIF1A and determined by molecular biophysics, cryoelectron microscopy and X-ray crystallography that KIF1A can move on a microtubule processively as a monomer by biased Brownian motion and by hydolyzing ATP.

  20. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) of the Geomyoidea superfamily rodents.

    PubMed

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2006-05-24

    A new short interspersed element (SINE) was isolated from the genome of desert kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti) using single-primer PCR. This SINE consists of two monomers: the left monomer (IDL) resembles rodent ID element and other tRNAAla(CGC)-derived SINEs, whereas the right one (Geo) shows no similarity with known SINE sequences. PCR and hybridization analyses demonstrated that IDL-Geo SINE is restricted to the rodent superfamily Geomyoidea (families Geomyidea and Heteromyidea). Isolation and analysis of IDL-Geo from California pocket mouse (Chaetodipus californicus) and Botta's pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) revealed some species-specific features of this SINE family. The structure and evolution of known dimeric SINEs are discussed.

  1. ConoDictor: a tool for prediction of conopeptide superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Koua, Dominique; Brauer, Age; Laht, Silja; Kaplinski, Lauris; Favreau, Philippe; Remm, Maido; Lisacek, Frédérique; Stöcklin, Reto

    2012-07-01

    ConoDictor is a tool that enables fast and accurate classification of conopeptides into superfamilies based on their amino acid sequence. ConoDictor combines predictions from two complementary approaches-profile hidden Markov models and generalized profiles. Results appear in a browser as tables that can be downloaded in various formats. This application is particularly valuable in view of the exponentially increasing number of conopeptides that are being identified. ConoDictor was written in Perl using the common gateway interface module with a php submission page. Sequence matching is performed with hmmsearch from HMMER 3 and ps_scan.pl from the pftools 2.3 package. ConoDictor is freely accessible at http://conco.ebc.ee.

  2. P-type ATPase superfamily: evidence for critical roles for kingdom evolution.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hideyuki; Denawa, Masatsugu; Ohniwa, Ryosuke; Takeyasu, Kunio

    2003-04-01

    The P-type ATPase has become a protein superfamily. On the basis of sequence similarities, the phylogenetic analyses, and substrate specificities, this superfamily can be classified into 5 families and 11 subfamilies. A comparative phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the relationship between the molecular evolution of these subfamilies and the establishment of the kingdoms of living things.

  3. Two different groups of signal sequence in M-superfamily conotoxins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Jiang, Hui; Han, Yu-Hong; Yuan, Duo-Duo; Chi, Cheng-Wu

    2008-04-01

    M-superfamily conotoxins can be divided into four branches (M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4) according to the number of amino acid residues in the third Cys loop. In general, it is widely accepted that the conotoxin signal peptides of each superfamily are strictly conserved. Recently, we cloned six cDNAs of novel M-superfamily conotoxins from Conus leopardus, Conus marmoreus and Conus quercinus, belonging to either M-1 or M-3 branch. These conotoxins, judging from the putative peptide sequences deducted from cDNAs, are rich in acidic residues and share highly conserved signal and pro-peptide region. However, they are quite different from the reported conotoxins of M-2 and M-4 branches even in their signal peptides, which in general are considered highly conserved for each superfamily of conotoxins. The signal sequences of M-1 and M-3 conotoxins composed of 24 residues start with MLKMGVVL-, while those of M-2 and M-4 conotoxins composed of 25 residues start with MMSKLGVL-. It is another example that different types of signal peptides can exist within a superfamily besides the I-conotoxin superfamily. In addition to the different disulfide connectivity of M-1 conotoxins from that of M-4 or M-2 conotoxins, the sequence alignment, preferential Cys codon usage and phylogenetic tree analysis suggest that M-1 and M-3 conotoxins have much closer relationship, being different from the conotoxins of other two branches (M-4 and M-2) of M-superfamily.

  4. Ancient expansion of the ribonuclease A superfamily revealed by genomic analysis of placental and marsupial mammals.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soochin; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2006-05-24

    Members of the ribonuclease (RNase) A superfamily participate in a diverse array of biological processes, including digestion, angiogenesis, innate immunity, and possibly male reproduction. The superfamily is vertebrate-specific, with 13-20 highly divergent members in primates and rodents, but only a few members in chicken and fish. This has led to the proposal that the superfamily started off from a progenitor with structural similarities to angiogenin and that the superfamily underwent a dramatic expansion during mammalian evolution. To date this evolutionary expansion and understand the functional diversification of the superfamily, we here determine its entire repertoire in the sequenced genomes of dog, cow, and opossum. We identified 7, 20, and 21 putatively functional RNase genes from these three species, respectively. Many of the identified genes are highly divergent from all previously known RNase genes, thus representing new lineages within the superfamily. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the superfamily expansion predated the separation of placental and marsupial mammals and that differential gene loss and duplication occurred in different species, generating a great variation in gene number and content among extant mammals.

  5. Correlated Mutation in the Evolution of Catalysis in Uracil DNA Glycosylase Superfamily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Bo; Liu, Yinling; Guevara, Jose; Li, Jing; Jilich, Celeste; Yang, Ye; Wang, Liangjiang; Dominy, Brian N.; Cao, Weiguo

    2017-04-01

    Enzymes in Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily are essential for the removal of uracil. Family 4 UDGa is a robust uracil DNA glycosylase that only acts on double-stranded and single-stranded uracil-containing DNA. Based on mutational, kinetic and modeling analyses, a catalytic mechanism involving leaving group stabilization by H155 in motif 2 and water coordination by N89 in motif 3 is proposed. Mutual Information analysis identifies a complexed correlated mutation network including a strong correlation in the EG doublet in motif 1 of family 4 UDGa and in the QD doublet in motif 1 of family 1 UNG. Conversion of EG doublet in family 4 Thermus thermophilus UDGa to QD doublet increases the catalytic efficiency by over one hundred-fold and seventeen-fold over the E41Q and G42D single mutation, respectively, rectifying the strong correlation in the doublet. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the correlated mutations in the doublet in motif 1 position the catalytic H155 in motif 2 to stabilize the leaving uracilate anion. The integrated approach has important implications in studying enzyme evolution and protein structure and function.

  6. Rice Phospholipase A Superfamily: Organization, Phylogenetic and Expression Analysis during Abiotic Stresses and Development

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amarjeet; Baranwal, Vinay; Shankar, Alka; Kanwar, Poonam; Ranjan, Rajeev; Yadav, Sandeep; Pandey, Amita; Kapoor, Sanjay; Pandey, Girdhar K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Phospholipase A (PLA) is an important group of enzymes responsible for phospholipid hydrolysis in lipid signaling. PLAs have been implicated in abiotic stress signaling and developmental events in various plants species. Genome-wide analysis of PLA superfamily has been carried out in dicot plant Arabidopsis. A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of PLAs has not been presented yet in crop plant rice. Methodology/Principal Findings A comprehensive bioinformatics analysis identified a total of 31 PLA encoding genes in the rice genome, which are divided into three classes; phospholipase A1 (PLA1), patatin like phospholipases (pPLA) and low molecular weight secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) based on their sequences and phylogeny. A subset of 10 rice PLAs exhibited chromosomal duplication, emphasizing the role of duplication in the expansion of this gene family in rice. Microarray expression profiling revealed a number of PLA members expressing differentially and significantly under abiotic stresses and reproductive development. Comparative expression analysis with Arabidopsis PLAs revealed a high degree of functional conservation between the orthologs in two plant species, which also indicated the vital role of PLAs in stress signaling and plant development across different plant species. Moreover, sub-cellular localization of a few candidates suggests their differential localization and functional role in the lipid signaling. Conclusion/Significance The comprehensive analysis and expression profiling would provide a critical platform for the functional characterization of the candidate PLA genes in crop plants. PMID:22363522

  7. Evolution of the SOUL Heme-Binding Protein Superfamily Across Eukarya.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Antonio Emidio; Sordino, Paolo; Andreakis, Nikos

    2016-06-01

    SOUL homologs constitute a heme-binding protein superfamily putatively involved in heme and tetrapyrrole metabolisms associated with a number of physiological processes. Despite their omnipresence across the tree of life and the biochemical characterization of many SOUL members, their functional role and the evolutionary events leading to such remarkable protein repertoire still remain cryptic. To explore SOUL evolution, we apply a computational phylogenetic approach, including a relevant number of SOUL homologs, to identify paralog forms and reconstruct their genealogy across the tree of life and within species. In animal lineages, multiple gene duplication or loss events and paralog functional specializations underlie SOUL evolution from the dawn of ancestral echinoderm and mollusc SOUL forms. In photosynthetic organisms, SOUL evolution is linked to the endosymbiosis events leading to plastid acquisition in eukaryotes. Derivative features, such as the F2L peptide and BH3 domain, evolved in vertebrates and provided innovative functionality to support immune response and apoptosis. The evolution of elements such as the N-terminal protein domain DUF2358, the His42 residue, or the tetrapyrrole heme-binding site is modern, and their functional implications still unresolved. This study represents the first in-depth analysis of SOUL protein evolution and provides novel insights in the understanding of their obscure physiological role.

  8. A member of the polymerase beta nucleotidyltransferase superfamily is required for RNA interference in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chieh G; Simard, Martin J; Tabara, Hiroaki; Brownell, Daniel R; McCollough, Jennifer A; Mello, Craig C

    2005-02-22

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an ancient, highly conserved mechanism in which small RNA molecules (siRNAs) guide the sequence-specific silencing of gene expression . Several silencing machinery protein components have been identified, including helicases, RNase-related proteins, double- and single-stranded RNA binding proteins, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-related proteins . Work on these factors has led to the revelation that RNAi mechanisms intersect with cellular pathways required for development and fertility . Despite rapid progress in understanding key steps in the RNAi pathway, it is clear that many factors required for both RNAi and related developmental mechanisms have not yet been identified. Here, we report the characterization of the C. elegans gene rde-3. Genetic analysis of presumptive null alleles indicates that rde-3 is required for siRNA accumulation and for efficient RNAi in all tissues, and it is essential for fertility and viability at high temperatures. RDE-3 contains conserved domains found in the polymerase beta nucleotidyltransferase superfamily, which includes conventional poly(A) polymerases, 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and yeast Trf4p . These findings implicate a new enzymatic modality in RNAi and suggest possible models for the role of RDE-3 in the RNAi mechanism.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Neritimorpha (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Juan E; Colgan, Don; Castro, Lyda R; Kano, Yasunori; Zardoya, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Despite the extraordinary morphological and ecological diversity of Neritimorpha, few studies have focused on the phylogenetic relationships of this lineage of gastropods, which includes four extant superfamilies: Neritopsoidea, Hydrocenoidea, Helicinoidea, and Neritoidea. Here, the nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Georissa bangueyensis (Hydrocenoidea), Neritina usnea (Neritoidea), and Pleuropoma jana (Helicinoidea) and the nearly complete mt genomes of Titiscania sp. (Neritopsoidea) and Theodoxus fluviatilis (Neritoidea) were determined. Phylogenetic reconstructions using probabilistic methods were based on mitochondrial (13 protein coding genes and two ribosomal rRNA genes), nuclear (partial 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, actin, and histone H3 genes) and combined sequence data sets. All phylogenetic analyses except one converged on a single, highly supported tree in which Neritopsoidea was recovered as the sister group of a clade including Helicinoidea as the sister group of Hydrocenoidea and Neritoidea. This topology agrees with the fossil record and supports at least three independent invasions of land by neritimorph snails. The mitochondrial genomes of Titiscania sp., G. bangueyensis, N. usnea, and T. fluviatilis share the same gene organization previously described for Nerita mt genomes whereas that of P. jana has undergone major rearrangements. We sequenced about half of the mitochondrial genome of another species of Helicinoidea, Viana regina, and confirmed that this species shares the highly derived gene order of P. jana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of a major facilitator superfamily transporter in Shiraia bambusicola.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huaxiang; Gao, Ruijie; Liao, Xiangru; Cai, Yujie

    2017-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by photo-activated hypocrellin from Shiraia bambusicola are detrimental to cellular macromolecules. However, S. bambusicola can still maintain excellent morphology during continuous hypocrellin production, indicating an extraordinary autoresistance system that protects against the harmful ROS. In this study, a major facilitator superfamily transporter (MFS) was isolated from S. bambusicola and deleted using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat sequences (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. The ΔMFS mutant abolished hypocrellin production and was slightly sensitive to 40-μM hypocrellin, while the ΔMFS compliment strain restored hypocrellin production and resistance. Hypocrellin treatment also enhanced the relative expression of MFS in wild-type S. bambusicola. Subsequent pathogenicity assays showed that MFS deletion reduced damage to bamboo leaves. By contrast, restoration of hypocrellin production in the MFS compliment strain generated similar necrotic lesions on bamboo leaves to those observed with the wild-type strain. These results revealed that the identified MFS is involved in efflux of hypocrellin from cells, which reduces the hypocrellin toxicity. Furthermore, hypocrellin contributed to the virulence of S. bambusicola on bamboo leaves. These findings could help to reduce plant loss by disrupting hypocrellin biosynthesis in S. bambusicola, or overexpressing the associated resistance gene in transgenic plants. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Ocular abnormalities in mice lacking the immunoglobulin superfamily member Cdo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Mulieri, Philip J; Gaio, Ursula; Bae, Gyu-Un; Krauss, Robert S; Kang, Jong-Sun

    2009-10-01

    Vertebrate eye development requires a series of complex morphogenetic and inductive events to produce a lens vesicle centered within the bilayered optic cup and a posteriorly positioned optic stalk. Multiple congenital eye defects, including microphthalmia and coloboma, result from defects in early eye morphogenesis. Cdo is a multifunctional cell surface immunoglobulin superfamily member that interacts with and mediates signaling by cadherins and netrins to regulate myogenesis. In addition, Cdo plays an essential role in early forebrain development by functioning as coreceptor for sonic hedgehog. It is reported here that Cdo is expressed in a dynamic, but dorsally restricted, fashion during early eye development, and that mice lacking Cdo display multiple eye defects. Anomalies seen in Cdo(-/-) mice include coloboma (failure to close the optic fissure); failure to form a proper boundary between the retinal pigmented epithelium and optic stalk; defective lens formation, including failure to separate from the surface ectoderm; and microphthalmia. Consistent with this wide array of defects, developing eyes of Cdo(-/-) mice show altered expression of several regulators of dorsoventral eye patterning, including Pax6, Pax2, and Tbx5. Taken together, these findings show that Cdo is required for normal eye development and is required for normal expression of patterning genes in both the ventral and dorsal domains. The multiple eye development defects seen in Cdo(-/-) mice suggest that mutations in human Cdo could contribute to congenital eye anomalies, such as Jacobsen syndrome, which is frequently associated with ocular defects, including coloboma and Peters' anomaly.

  12. The SLCO (former SLC21) superfamily of transporters.

    PubMed

    Hagenbuch, Bruno; Stieger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide superfamily (OATPs) are classified within the SLCO solute carrier family. All functionally well characterized members are predicted to have 12 transmembrane domains and are sodium-independent transport systems that mediate the transport of a broad range of endo- as well as xenobiotics. Substrates are mainly amphipathic organic anions with a molecular weight of more than 300Da, but some of the known transported substrates are also neutral or even positively charged. Among the well characterized substrates are numerous drugs including statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, antibiotics, antihistaminics, antihypertensives and anticancer drugs. Based on their amino acid sequence identities, the different OATPs cluster into families (in general with more than 40% amino acid sequence identity) and subfamilies (more than 60% amino acid identity). With the sequencing of genomes from different species and the computerized prediction of encoded proteins more than 300 OATPs can be found in the databases, however only a fraction of them have been identified in humans, rodents, and some additional species important for pharmaceutical research like the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) and the pig (Sus scrofa). These OATPs form 6 families (OATP1-OATP6) and 13 subfamilies. In this review we try to summarize what is currently known about OATPs with respect to endogenous substrates, tissue distribution, transport mechanisms, regulation of expression, structure-function relationship and mutations and polymorphisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Checklist of the Diptera superfamilies Tephritoidea and Sciomyzoidea of Finland (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A revised checklist of the flies of superfamilies Tephritoidea and Sciomyzoidea of Finland is provided. The following families are covered: Eurygnathomyiidae, Lonchaeidae, Neottiophilidae, Pallopteridae, Piophilidae, Platystomatidae, Tephritidae, Ulidiidae (Tephritoidea); Coelopidae, Dryomyzidae, Heterocheilidae, Phaeomyiidae, Sciomyzidae, Sepsidae (Sciomyzoidea). PMID:25337022

  14. Defining and predicting structurally conserved regions in protein superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ivan K.; Grishin, Nick V.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: The structures of homologous proteins are generally better conserved than their sequences. This phenomenon is demonstrated by the prevalence of structurally conserved regions (SCRs) even in highly divergent protein families. Defining SCRs requires the comparison of two or more homologous structures and is affected by their availability and divergence, and our ability to deduce structurally equivalent positions among them. In the absence of multiple homologous structures, it is necessary to predict SCRs of a protein using information from only a set of homologous sequences and (if available) a single structure. Accurate SCR predictions can benefit homology modelling and sequence alignment. Results: Using pairwise DaliLite alignments among a set of homologous structures, we devised a simple measure of structural conservation, termed structural conservation index (SCI). SCI was used to distinguish SCRs from non-SCRs. A database of SCRs was compiled from 386 SCOP superfamilies containing 6489 protein domains. Artificial neural networks were then trained to predict SCRs with various features deduced from a single structure and homologous sequences. Assessment of the predictions via a 5-fold cross-validation method revealed that predictions based on features derived from a single structure perform similarly to ones based on homologous sequences, while combining sequence and structural features was optimal in terms of accuracy (0.755) and Matthews correlation coefficient (0.476). These results suggest that even without information from multiple structures, it is still possible to effectively predict SCRs for a protein. Finally, inspection of the structures with the worst predictions pinpoints difficulties in SCR definitions. Availability: The SCR database and the prediction server can be found at http://prodata.swmed.edu/SCR. Contact: 91huangi@gmail.com or grishin@chop.swmed.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics

  15. Defining the Phosphodiesterase Superfamily Members in Rat Brain Microvessels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Eleven phosphodiesterase (PDE) families are known, each having several different isoforms and splice variants. Recent evidence indicates that expression of individual PDE family members is tissue-specific. Little is known concerning detailed PDE component expression in brain microvessels where the blood-brain-barrier and the local cerebral blood flow are thought to be regulated by PDEs. The present study attempted to identify PDE family members that are expressed in brain microvessels. Adult male F344 rats were sacrificed and blocks of the cerebral cortex and infratentorial areas were dissected. Microvessels were isolated using a filtration method, and total RNA was extracted. RNA quality and quantity were determined using an Agilent bioanalyzer. The isolated cortical and infratentorial microvessel total RNA amounts were 2720 ± 750 ng (n = 2) and 250 ± 40 ng (n = 2), respectively. Microarrays with 22 000 transcripts demonstrated that there were 16 PDE transcripts in the PDE superfamily, exhibiting quantifiable density in the microvessels. An additional immunofluorescent study verified that PDE4D (cAMP-specific) and PDE5A (cGMP-specific) were colocalized with RECA-1 (an endothelial marker) in the cerebral cortex using both F344 rats and Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 3–6/strain). In addition, PDE4D and PDE5A were found to be colocalized with alpha-smooth muscle actin which delineates cerebral arteries and arterioles as well as pericytes. In conclusion, a filtration method followed by microarray analyses allows PDE components to be identified in brain microvessels, and confirmed that PDE4D and PDE5A are the primary forms expressed in rat brain microvessels. PMID:22860158

  16. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-02-12

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we describe 15 SINEs, among which 13 are novel, that have a similar 66-bp central region and therefore constitute a new SINE superfamily, MetaSINEs. MetaSINEs are distributed from fish to cnidarians, suggesting their common evolutionary origin at least 640 Ma. Because the 3' tails of MetaSINEs are variable, these SINEs most likely survived by changing their partner long interspersed elements for retrotransposition during evolution. Furthermore, we examined the presence of members of other SINE superfamilies in bivalve genomes and characterized eight new SINEs belonging to the CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, and DeuSINEs, in addition to the MetaSINEs. The broad distribution of bivalve SINEs suggests that at least three SINEs originated in the common ancestor of Bivalvia. Our comparative analysis of the central domains of the SINEs revealed that, in each superfamily, only a restricted region is shared among all of its members. Because the functions of the central domains of the SINE superfamilies remain unknown, such structural information of SINE superfamilies will be useful for future experimental and comparative analyses to reveal why they have been retained in metazoan genomes during evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we describe 15 SINEs, among which 13 are novel, that have a similar 66-bp central region and therefore constitute a new SINE superfamily, MetaSINEs. MetaSINEs are distributed from fish to cnidarians, suggesting their common evolutionary origin at least 640 Ma. Because the 3′ tails of MetaSINEs are variable, these SINEs most likely survived by changing their partner long interspersed elements for retrotransposition during evolution. Furthermore, we examined the presence of members of other SINE superfamilies in bivalve genomes and characterized eight new SINEs belonging to the CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, and DeuSINEs, in addition to the MetaSINEs. The broad distribution of bivalve SINEs suggests that at least three SINEs originated in the common ancestor of Bivalvia. Our comparative analysis of the central domains of the SINEs revealed that, in each superfamily, only a restricted region is shared among all of its members. Because the functions of the central domains of the SINE superfamilies remain unknown, such structural information of SINE superfamilies will be useful for future experimental and comparative analyses to reveal why they have been retained in metazoan genomes during evolution. PMID:26872770

  18. Role of Conserved Glycine in Zinc-dependent Medium Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Superfamily*

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Singh, Raushan Kumar; Singh, Ranjitha; Jeya, Marimuthu; Zhao, Huimin; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2012-01-01

    The medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) superfamily consists of a large group of enzymes with a broad range of activities. Members of this superfamily are currently the subject of intensive investigation, but many aspects, including the zinc dependence of MDR superfamily proteins, have not yet have been adequately investigated. Using a density functional theory-based screening strategy, we have identified a strictly conserved glycine residue (Gly) in the zinc-dependent MDR superfamily. To elucidate the role of this conserved Gly in MDR, we carried out a comprehensive structural, functional, and computational analysis of four MDR enzymes through a series of studies including site-directed mutagenesis, isothermal titration calorimetry, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), quantum mechanics, and molecular mechanics analysis. Gly substitution by other amino acids posed a significant threat to the metal binding affinity and activity of MDR superfamily enzymes. Mutagenesis at the conserved Gly resulted in alterations in the coordination of the catalytic zinc ion, with concomitant changes in metal-ligand bond length, bond angle, and the affinity (Kd) toward the zinc ion. The Gly mutants also showed different spectroscopic properties in EPR compared with those of the wild type, indicating that the binding geometries of the zinc to the zinc binding ligands were changed by the mutation. The present results demonstrate that the conserved Gly in the GHE motif plays a role in maintaining the metal binding affinity and the electronic state of the catalytic zinc ion during catalysis of the MDR superfamily enzymes. PMID:22500022

  19. Evolution of Enzyme Superfamilies: Comprehensive Exploration of Sequence-Function Relationships.

    PubMed

    Baier, F; Copp, J N; Tokuriki, N

    2016-11-22

    The sequence and functional diversity of enzyme superfamilies have expanded through billions of years of evolution from a common ancestor. Understanding how protein sequence and functional "space" have expanded, at both the evolutionary and molecular level, is central to biochemistry, molecular biology, and evolutionary biology. Integrative approaches that examine protein sequence, structure, and function have begun to provide comprehensive views of the functional diversity and evolutionary relationships within enzyme superfamilies. In this review, we outline the recent advances in our understanding of enzyme evolution and superfamily functional diversity. We describe the tools that have been used to comprehensively analyze sequence relationships and to characterize sequence and function relationships. We also highlight recent large-scale experimental approaches that systematically determine the activity profiles across enzyme superfamilies. We identify several intriguing insights from this recent body of work. First, promiscuous activities are prevalent among extant enzymes. Second, many divergent proteins retain "function connectivity" via enzyme promiscuity, which can be used to probe the evolutionary potential and history of enzyme superfamilies. Finally, we discuss open questions regarding the intricacies of enzyme divergence, as well as potential research directions that will deepen our understanding of enzyme superfamily evolution.

  20. Characterization of the intronic portion of cadherin superfamily members, common cancer orchestrators

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Patrícia; Sanges, Remo; Huntsman, David; Stupka, Elia; Oliveira, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Cadherins are cell–cell adhesion proteins essential for the maintenance of tissue architecture and integrity, and their impairment is often associated with human cancer. Knowledge regarding regulatory mechanisms associated with cadherin misexpression in cancer is scarce. Specific features of the intronic-structure and intronic-based regulatory mechanisms in the cadherin superfamily are unidentified. This study aims at systematically characterizing the intronic portion of cadherin superfamily members and the identification of intronic regions constituting putative targets/triggers of regulation, using a bioinformatic approach and biological data mining. Our study demonstrates that the cadherin superfamily genes harbour specific characteristics in comparison to all non-cadherin genes, both from the genomic and transcriptional standpoints. Cadherin superfamily genes display higher average total intron number and significantly longer introns than other genes and across the entire vertebrate lineage. Moreover, in the human genome, we observed an uncommon high frequency of MIR (mammalian-wide interspersed repeats) and MaLR (mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, a subtype of LTR) regulatory-associated repetitive elements at 5′-located introns, concomitantly with increased de novo intronic transcription. Using this approach, we identified cadherin intronic-specific sites that may constitute novel targets/triggers of cadherin superfamily expression regulation. These findings pinpoint the need to identify mechanisms affecting particularly MIR and MaLR elements located in introns 2 and 3 of human cadherin genes, possibly important in the expression modulation of this superfamily in homeostasis and cancer. PMID:22317972

  1. SUPERFAMILY 1.75 including a domain-centric gene ontology method.

    PubMed

    de Lima Morais, David A; Fang, Hai; Rackham, Owen J L; Wilson, Derek; Pethica, Ralph; Chothia, Cyrus; Gough, Julian

    2011-01-01

    The SUPERFAMILY resource provides protein domain assignments at the structural classification of protein (SCOP) superfamily level for over 1400 completely sequenced genomes, over 120 metagenomes and other gene collections such as UniProt. All models and assignments are available to browse and download at http://supfam.org. A new hidden Markov model library based on SCOP 1.75 has been created and a previously ignored class of SCOP, coiled coils, is now included. Our scoring component now uses HMMER3, which is in orders of magnitude faster and produces superior results. A cloud-based pipeline was implemented and is publicly available at Amazon web services elastic computer cloud. The SUPERFAMILY reference tree of life has been improved allowing the user to highlight a chosen superfamily, family or domain architecture on the tree of life. The most significant advance in SUPERFAMILY is that now it contains a domain-based gene ontology (GO) at the superfamily and family levels. A new methodology was developed to ensure a high quality GO annotation. The new methodology is general purpose and has been used to produce domain-based phenotypic ontologies in addition to GO.

  2. The pathogen-related yeast protein Pry1, a member of the CAP protein superfamily, is a fatty acid-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Darwiche, Rabih; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Gfeller, David; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Schneiter, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Members of the CAP superfamily (cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins), also known as SCP superfamily (sperm-coating proteins), have been implicated in many physiological processes, including immune defenses, venom toxicity, and sperm maturation. Their mode of action, however, remains poorly understood. Three proteins of the CAP superfamily, Pry1, -2, and -3 (pathogen related in yeast), are encoded in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We have shown previously that Pry1 binds cholesterol in vitro and that Pry function is required for sterol secretion in yeast cells, indicating that members of this superfamily may generally bind sterols or related small hydrophobic compounds. On the other hand, tablysin-15, a CAP protein from the horsefly Tabanus yao, has been shown to bind leukotrienes and free fatty acids in vitro. Therefore, here we assessed whether the yeast Pry1 protein binds fatty acids. Computational modeling and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the mode of fatty acid binding is conserved between tablysin-15 and Pry1. Pry1 bound fatty acids with micromolar affinity in vitro, and its function was essential for fatty acid export in cells lacking the acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1 and Faa4. Fatty acid binding of Pry1 is independent of its capacity to bind sterols, and the two sterol- and fatty acid-binding sites are nonoverlapping. These results indicate that some CAP family members, such as Pry1, can bind different lipids, particularly sterols and fatty acids, at distinct binding sites, suggesting that the CAP domain may serve as a stable, secreted protein domain that can accommodate multiple ligand-binding sites. PMID:28365570

  3. Large-Scale Analysis Exploring Evolution of Catalytic Machineries and Mechanisms in Enzyme Superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Nicholas; Dawson, Natalie L; Rahman, Syed A; Thornton, Janet M; Orengo, Christine A

    2016-01-29

    Enzymes, as biological catalysts, form the basis of all forms of life. How these proteins have evolved their functions remains a fundamental question in biology. Over 100 years of detailed biochemistry studies, combined with the large volumes of sequence and protein structural data now available, means that we are able to perform large-scale analyses to address this question. Using a range of computational tools and resources, we have compiled information on all experimentally annotated changes in enzyme function within 379 structurally defined protein domain superfamilies, linking the changes observed in functions during evolution to changes in reaction chemistry. Many superfamilies show changes in function at some level, although one function often dominates one superfamily. We use quantitative measures of changes in reaction chemistry to reveal the various types of chemical changes occurring during evolution and to exemplify these by detailed examples. Additionally, we use structural information of the enzymes active site to examine how different superfamilies have changed their catalytic machinery during evolution. Some superfamilies have changed the reactions they perform without changing catalytic machinery. In others, large changes of enzyme function, in terms of both overall chemistry and substrate specificity, have been brought about by significant changes in catalytic machinery. Interestingly, in some superfamilies, relatives perform similar functions but with different catalytic machineries. This analysis highlights characteristics of functional evolution across a wide range of superfamilies, providing insights that will be useful in predicting the function of uncharacterised sequences and the design of new synthetic enzymes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the B3 superfamily of transcription factors in Brassicaceae and major crop plants.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fred Y; Weselake, Randall J

    2013-05-01

    The plant-specific B3 superfamily of transcription factors has diverse functions in plant growth and development. Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 92, 187, 58, 90, 81, 55, and 77 B3 transcription factor genes in the sequenced genome of Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa, castor bean (Ricinus communis), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa), respectively. The B3 superfamily has substantially expanded during the evolution in eudicots particularly in Brassicaceae, as compared to monocots in the analysis. We observed domain duplication in some of these B3 proteins, forming more complex domain architectures than currently understood. We found that the length of B3 domains exhibits a large variation, which may affect their exact number of α-helices and β-sheets in the core structure of B3 domains, and possibly have functional implications. Analysis of the public microarray data indicated that most of the B3 gene pairs encoding Arabidopsis-rice orthologs are preferentially expressed in different tissues, suggesting their different roles in these two species. Using ESTs in crops, we identified many B3 genes preferentially expressed in reproductive tissues. In a sequence-based quantitative trait loci analysis in rice and maize, we have found many B3 genes associated with traits such as grain yield, seed weight and number, and protein content. Our results provide a framework for future studies into the function of B3 genes in different phases of plant development, especially the ones related to traits in major crops.

  5. Inhibition profiles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors against PI3K superfamily and human cancer cell line panel JFCR39.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dexin; Dan, Shingo; Yamazaki, Kanami; Yamori, Takao

    2010-04-01

    As accumulating evidences suggest close involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in various diseases particularly cancer, considerable competition occurs in development of PI3K inhibitors. Consequently, novel PI3K inhibitors such as ZSTK474, GDC-0941 and NVP-BEZ235 have been developed. Even though all these inhibitors were reported to inhibit class I PI3K but not dozens of protein kinases, whether they have different molecular targets remained unknown. To investigate such molecular target specificity, we have determined the inhibitory effects of these novel inhibitors together with classical PI3K inhibitor LY294002 on PI3K superfamily (including classes I, II, and III PI3Ks, PI4K and PI3K-related kinases) by using several novel non-radioactive biochemical assays. As a result, ZSTK474 and GDC-0941 indicated highly similar inhibition profiles for PI3K superfamily, with class I PI3K specificity much higher than NVP-BEZ235 and LY294002. We further investigated their growth inhibition effects on JFCR39, a human cancer cell line panel which we established for molecular target identification, and analysed their cell growth inhibition profiles (fingerprints) by using COMPARE analysis programme. Interestingly, we found ZSTK474 exhibited a highly similar fingerprint with GDC-0941 (r=0.863), more similar than with that of either NVP-BEZ235 or LY294002, suggesting that ZSTK474 shares more in molecular targets with GDC-0941 than with either of the other two PI3K inhibitors, consistent with the biochemical assay result. The biological implication of the difference in molecular target specificity of these PI3K inhibitors is under investigation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transient receptor potential channel superfamily: Role in lower urinary tract function.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Teruyuki; Imamura, Tetsuya; Nakazawa, Masaki; Hiragata, Shiro; Nagai, Takashi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Masakuni; Domen, Takahisa; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2015-11-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with neurogenic bladder and overactive bladder syndrome are mediated in part by members of the transient receptor potential channel superfamily. The best studied member of this superfamily is the vanilloid receptor. Other transient receptor potential channels, such as the melastatin receptor and the ankyrin receptor, are also active in the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. However, the detailed mechanisms by which the transient receptor potential channels contribute to lower urinary tract symptoms are still not clear, and the therapeutic benefits of modulating transient receptor potential channel activity have not been proved in the clinical setting. In the present review, to better understand the pathophysiology and therapeutic potential for lower urinary tract symptoms, we summarize the presence and role of different members of the transient receptor potential channel superfamily in the lower urinary tract. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  7. Functional diversity of the superfamily of K⁺ transporters to meet various requirements.

    PubMed

    Diskowski, Marina; Mikusevic, Vedrana; Stock, Charlott; Hänelt, Inga

    2015-09-01

    The superfamily of K+ transporters unites proteins from plants, fungi, bacteria, and archaea that translocate K+ and/or Na+ across membranes. These proteins are key components in osmotic regulation, pH homeostasis, and resistance to high salinity and dryness. The members of the superfamily are closely related to K+ channels such as KcsA but also show several striking differences that are attributed to their altered functions. This review highlights these functional differences, focusing on the bacterial superfamily members KtrB, TrkH, and KdpA. The functional variations within the family and comparison to MPM-type K+ channels are discussed in light of the recently solved structures of the Ktr and Trk systems.

  8. Conservation of Dynamics Associated with Biological Function in an Enzyme Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Chitra; Bernard, David N; Bafna, Khushboo; Gagné, Donald; Chennubhotla, Chakra S; Doucet, Nicolas; Agarwal, Pratul K

    2018-03-06

    Enzyme superfamily members that share common chemical and/or biological functions also share common features. While the role of structure is well characterized, the link between enzyme function and dynamics is not well understood. We present a systematic characterization of intrinsic dynamics of over 20 members of the pancreatic-type RNase superfamily, which share a common structural fold. This study is motivated by the fact that the range of chemical activity as well as molecular motions of RNase homologs spans over 10 5 folds. Dynamics was characterized using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and computer simulations. Phylogenetic clustering led to the grouping of sequences into functionally distinct subfamilies. Detailed characterization of the diverse RNases showed conserved dynamical traits for enzymes within subfamilies. These results suggest that selective pressure for the conservation of dynamical behavior, among other factors, may be linked to the distinct chemical and biological functions in an enzyme superfamily. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential catalytic promiscuity of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily bimetallo core reveals mechanistic features underlying enzyme evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Sunden, Fanny; AlSadhan, Ishraq; Lyubimov, Artem; ...

    2017-10-25

    Members of enzyme superfamilies specialize in different reactions but often exhibit catalytic promiscuity for one another's reactions, consistent with catalytic promiscuity as an important driver in the evolution of new enzymes. Wanting to understand how catalytic promiscuity and other factors may influence evolution across a superfamily, we turned to the well-studied alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily, comparing three of its members, two evolutionarily distinct phosphatases and a phosphodiesterase. Here, we mutated distinguishing active-site residues to generate enzymes that had a common Zn 2+ bimetallo core but little sequence similarity and different auxiliary domains. We then tested the catalytic capabilities of thesemore » pruned enzymes with a series of substrates. A substantial rate enhancement of ~1011-fold for both phosphate mono- and diester hydrolysis by each enzyme indicated that the Zn 2+ bimetallo core is an effective mono/di-esterase generalist and that the bimetallo cores were not evolutionarily tuned to prefer their cognate reactions. In contrast, our pruned enzymes were ineffective sulfatases, and this limited promiscuity may have provided a driving force for founding the distinct one-metal-ion branch that contains all known AP superfamily sulfatases. Finally, our pruned enzymes exhibited 10 7–10 8-fold phosphotriesterase rate enhancements, despite absence of such enzymes within the AP superfamily. We speculate that the superfamily active-site architecture involved in nucleophile positioning prevents accommodation of the additional triester substituent. Overall, we suggest that catalytic promiscuity, and the ease or difficulty of remodeling and building onto existing protein scaffolds, have greatly influenced the course of enzyme evolution. Uncovering principles and properties of enzyme function, promiscuity, and repurposing provides lessons for engineering new enzymes.« less

  10. Differential catalytic promiscuity of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily bimetallo core reveals mechanistic features underlying enzyme evolution

    SciT

    Sunden, Fanny; AlSadhan, Ishraq; Lyubimov, Artem

    Members of enzyme superfamilies specialize in different reactions but often exhibit catalytic promiscuity for one another's reactions, consistent with catalytic promiscuity as an important driver in the evolution of new enzymes. Wanting to understand how catalytic promiscuity and other factors may influence evolution across a superfamily, we turned to the well-studied alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily, comparing three of its members, two evolutionarily distinct phosphatases and a phosphodiesterase. Here, we mutated distinguishing active-site residues to generate enzymes that had a common Zn 2+ bimetallo core but little sequence similarity and different auxiliary domains. We then tested the catalytic capabilities of thesemore » pruned enzymes with a series of substrates. A substantial rate enhancement of ~1011-fold for both phosphate mono- and diester hydrolysis by each enzyme indicated that the Zn 2+ bimetallo core is an effective mono/di-esterase generalist and that the bimetallo cores were not evolutionarily tuned to prefer their cognate reactions. In contrast, our pruned enzymes were ineffective sulfatases, and this limited promiscuity may have provided a driving force for founding the distinct one-metal-ion branch that contains all known AP superfamily sulfatases. Finally, our pruned enzymes exhibited 10 7–10 8-fold phosphotriesterase rate enhancements, despite absence of such enzymes within the AP superfamily. We speculate that the superfamily active-site architecture involved in nucleophile positioning prevents accommodation of the additional triester substituent. Overall, we suggest that catalytic promiscuity, and the ease or difficulty of remodeling and building onto existing protein scaffolds, have greatly influenced the course of enzyme evolution. Uncovering principles and properties of enzyme function, promiscuity, and repurposing provides lessons for engineering new enzymes.« less

  11. A strategy for detecting the conservation of folding-nucleus residues in protein superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Michnick, S W; Shakhnovich, E

    1998-01-01

    Nucleation-growth theory predicts that fast-folding peptide sequences fold to their native structure via structures in a transition-state ensemble that share a small number of native contacts (the folding nucleus). Experimental and theoretical studies of proteins suggest that residues participating in folding nuclei are conserved among homologs. We attempted to determine if this is true in proteins with highly diverged sequences but identical folds (superfamilies). We describe a strategy based on comparisons of residue conservation in natural superfamily sequences with simulated sequences (generated with a Monte-Carlo sequence design strategy) for the same proteins. The basic assumptions of the strategy were that natural sequences will conserve residues needed for folding and stability plus function, the simulated sequences contain no functional conservation, and nucleus residues make native contacts with each other. Based on these assumptions, we identified seven potential nucleus residues in ubiquitin superfamily members. Non-nucleus conserved residues were also identified; these are proposed to be involved in stabilizing native interactions. We found that all superfamily members conserved the same potential nucleus residue positions, except those for which the structural topology is significantly different. Our results suggest that the conservation of the nucleus of a specific fold can be predicted by comparing designed simulated sequences with natural highly diverged sequences that fold to the same structure. We suggest that such a strategy could be used to help plan protein folding and design experiments, to identify new superfamily members, and to subdivide superfamilies further into classes having a similar folding mechanism.

  12. PASS2: an automated database of protein alignments organised as structural superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Bhaduri, Anirban; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2004-04-02

    The functional selection and three-dimensional structural constraints of proteins in nature often relates to the retention of significant sequence similarity between proteins of similar fold and function despite poor sequence identity. Organization of structure-based sequence alignments for distantly related proteins, provides a map of the conserved and critical regions of the protein universe that is useful for the analysis of folding principles, for the evolutionary unification of protein families and for maximizing the information return from experimental structure determination. The Protein Alignment organised as Structural Superfamily (PASS2) database represents continuously updated, structural alignments for evolutionary related, sequentially distant proteins. An automated and updated version of PASS2 is, in direct correspondence with SCOP 1.63, consisting of sequences having identity below 40% among themselves. Protein domains have been grouped into 628 multi-member superfamilies and 566 single member superfamilies. Structure-based sequence alignments for the superfamilies have been obtained using COMPARER, while initial equivalencies have been derived from a preliminary superposition using LSQMAN or STAMP 4.0. The final sequence alignments have been annotated for structural features using JOY4.0. The database is supplemented with sequence relatives belonging to different genomes, conserved spatially interacting and structural motifs, probabilistic hidden markov models of superfamilies based on the alignments and useful links to other databases. Probabilistic models and sensitive position specific profiles obtained from reliable superfamily alignments aid annotation of remote homologues and are useful tools in structural and functional genomics. PASS2 presents the phylogeny of its members both based on sequence and structural dissimilarities. Clustering of members allows us to understand diversification of the family members. The search engine has been

  13. Comparative analyses of quaternary arrangements in homo-oligomeric proteins in superfamilies: Functional implications.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Govindarajan; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the quaternary features of distantly related homo-oligomeric proteins is the focus of the current study. This study has been performed at the levels of quaternary state, symmetry, and quaternary structure. Quaternary state and quaternary structure refers to the number of subunits and spatial arrangements of subunits, respectively. Using a large dataset of available 3D structures of biologically relevant assemblies, we show that only 53% of the distantly related homo-oligomeric proteins have the same quaternary state. Considering these homologous homo-oligomers with the same quaternary state, conservation of quaternary structures is observed only in 38% of the pairs. In 36% of the pairs of distantly related homo-oligomers with different quaternary states the larger assembly in a pair shows high structural similarity with the entire quaternary structure of the related protein with lower quaternary state and it is referred as "Russian doll effect." The differences in quaternary state and structure have been suggested to contribute to the functional diversity. Detailed investigations show that even though the gross functions of many distantly related homo-oligomers are the same, finer level differences in molecular functions are manifested by differences in quaternary states and structures. Comparison of structures of biological assemblies in distantly and closely related homo-oligomeric proteins throughout the study differentiates the effects of sequence divergence on the quaternary structures and function. Knowledge inferred from this study can provide insights for improved protein structure classification and function prediction of homo-oligomers. Proteins 2016; 84:1190-1202. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Expression of 6-Cys gene superfamily defines babesia bovis sexual stage development within rhipicephalus microplus

    Babesia bovis, an intra-erythrocytic tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan, is one of the agents of bovine babesiosis. Its life cycle includes sexual reproduction within cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp. Six B. bovis 6-Cys gene superfamily members were previously identified (A, B, C, D, E, F) and t...

  15. Building a Phylogenetic Tree of the Human and Ape Superfamily Using DNA-DNA Hybridization Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Caroline Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The study describes the process of DNA-DNA hybridization and the history of its use by Sibley and Alquist in simple, straightforward, and interesting language that students easily understand to create their own phylogenetic tree of the hominoid superfamily. They calibrate the DNA clock and use it to estimate the divergence dates of the various…

  16. Molecular evolution of miraculin-like proteins in soybean Kunitz super-family.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Purushotham; Gahloth, Deepankar; Tomar, Prabhat Pratap Singh; Sharma, Nidhi; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Miraculin-like proteins (MLPs) belong to soybean Kunitz super-family and have been characterized from many plant families like Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, etc. Many of them possess trypsin inhibitory activity and are involved in plant defense. MLPs exhibit significant sequence identity (~30-95%) to native miraculin protein, also belonging to Kunitz super-family compared with a typical Kunitz family member (~30%). The sequence and structure-function comparison of MLPs with that of a classical Kunitz inhibitor have demonstrated that MLPs have evolved to form a distinct group within Kunitz super-family. Sequence analysis of new genes along with available MLP sequences in the literature revealed three major groups for these proteins. A significant feature of Rutaceae MLP type 2 sequences is the presence of phosphorylation motif. Subtle changes are seen in putative reactive loop residues among different MLPs suggesting altered specificities to specific proteases. In phylogenetic analysis, Rutaceae MLP type 1 and type 2 proteins clustered together on separate branches, whereas native miraculin along with other MLPs formed distinct clusters. Site-specific positive Darwinian selection was observed at many sites in both the groups of Rutaceae MLP sequences with most of the residues undergoing positive selection located in loop regions. The results demonstrate the sequence and thereby the structure-function divergence of MLPs as a distinct group within soybean Kunitz super-family due to biotic and abiotic stresses of local environment.

  17. Functions of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase superfamily in plants.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Rebecca S; Citarelli, Matteo; Teotia, Sachin

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is the covalent attachment of ADP-ribose subunits from NAD(+) to target proteins and was first described in plants in the 1970s. This post-translational modification is mediated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and removed by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolases (PARGs). PARPs have important functions in many biological processes including DNA repair, epigenetic regulation and transcription. However, these roles are not always associated with enzymatic activity. The PARP superfamily has been well studied in animals, but remains under-investigated in plants. Although plants lack the variety of PARP superfamily members found in mammals, they do encode three different types of PARP superfamily proteins, including a group of PARP-like proteins, the SRO family, that are plant specific. In plants, members of the PARP family and/or poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation have been linked to DNA repair, mitosis, innate immunity and stress responses. In addition, members of the SRO family have been shown to be necessary for normal sporophytic development. In this review, we summarize the current state of plant research into poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and the PARP superfamily in plants.

  18. Evolutionary and molecular foundations of multiple contemporary functions of the nitroreductase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Akiva, Eyal; Copp, Janine N.; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko; Babbitt, Patricia C.

    2017-01-01

    Insight regarding how diverse enzymatic functions and reactions have evolved from ancestral scaffolds is fundamental to understanding chemical and evolutionary biology, and for the exploitation of enzymes for biotechnology. We undertook an extensive computational analysis using a unique and comprehensive combination of tools that include large-scale phylogenetic reconstruction to determine the sequence, structural, and functional relationships of the functionally diverse flavin mononucleotide-dependent nitroreductase (NTR) superfamily (>24,000 sequences from all domains of life, 54 structures, and >10 enzymatic functions). Our results suggest an evolutionary model in which contemporary subgroups of the superfamily have diverged in a radial manner from a minimal flavin-binding scaffold. We identified the structural design principle for this divergence: Insertions at key positions in the minimal scaffold that, combined with the fixation of key residues, have led to functional specialization. These results will aid future efforts to delineate the emergence of functional diversity in enzyme superfamilies, provide clues for functional inference for superfamily members of unknown function, and facilitate rational redesign of the NTR scaffold. PMID:29078300

  19. Comparison of molecular dynamics and superfamily spaces of protein domain deformation.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Muriel, Javier A; Rueda, Manuel; Cuesta, Isabel; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Orozco, Modesto; Carazo, José-María

    2009-02-17

    It is well known the strong relationship between protein structure and flexibility, on one hand, and biological protein function, on the other hand. Technically, protein flexibility exploration is an essential task in many applications, such as protein structure prediction and modeling. In this contribution we have compared two different approaches to explore the flexibility space of protein domains: i) molecular dynamics (MD-space), and ii) the study of the structural changes within superfamily (SF-space). Our analysis indicates that the MD-space and the SF-space display a significant overlap, but are still different enough to be considered as complementary. The SF-space space is wider but less complex than the MD-space, irrespective of the number of members in the superfamily. Also, the SF-space does not sample all possibilities offered by the MD-space, but often introduces very large changes along just a few deformation modes, whose number tend to a plateau as the number of related folds in the superfamily increases. Theoretically, we obtained two conclusions. First, that function restricts the access to some flexibility patterns to evolution, as we observe that when a superfamily member changes to become another, the path does not completely overlap with the physical deformability. Second, that conformational changes from variation in a superfamily are larger and much simpler than those allowed by physical deformability. Methodologically, the conclusion is that both spaces studied are complementary, and have different size and complexity. We expect this fact to have application in fields as 3D-EM/X-ray hybrid models or ab initio protein folding.

  20. Comparison of molecular dynamics and superfamily spaces of protein domain deformation

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Muriel, Javier A; Rueda, Manuel; Cuesta, Isabel; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Orozco, Modesto; Carazo, José-María

    2009-01-01

    Background It is well known the strong relationship between protein structure and flexibility, on one hand, and biological protein function, on the other hand. Technically, protein flexibility exploration is an essential task in many applications, such as protein structure prediction and modeling. In this contribution we have compared two different approaches to explore the flexibility space of protein domains: i) molecular dynamics (MD-space), and ii) the study of the structural changes within superfamily (SF-space). Results Our analysis indicates that the MD-space and the SF-space display a significant overlap, but are still different enough to be considered as complementary. The SF-space space is wider but less complex than the MD-space, irrespective of the number of members in the superfamily. Also, the SF-space does not sample all possibilities offered by the MD-space, but often introduces very large changes along just a few deformation modes, whose number tend to a plateau as the number of related folds in the superfamily increases. Conclusion Theoretically, we obtained two conclusions. First, that function restricts the access to some flexibility patterns to evolution, as we observe that when a superfamily member changes to become another, the path does not completely overlap with the physical deformability. Second, that conformational changes from variation in a superfamily are larger and much simpler than those allowed by physical deformability. Methodologically, the conclusion is that both spaces studied are complementary, and have different size and complexity. We expect this fact to have application in fields as 3D-EM/X-ray hybrid models or ab initio protein folding. PMID:19220918

  1. Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein is a member of a subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily encoded within the major histocompatibility complex

    SciT

    Pham-Dinh, D.; Dautigny, A.; Mattei, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is found on the surface of myelinating oligodendrocytes and external lamellae of myelin sheaths in the central nervous system, and it is target antigen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. The authors have isolated bovine, mouse, and rat MOG cDNA clones and shown that the developmental pattern of MOG expression in the rat central nervous system coincides with the late stages of myelination. The amino-terminal, extracellular domain of MOG has characteristics of an immunoglobulin variable domain and is 46% and 41% identical with the amino terminus of bovine butyrophilin (expressed in the lactating mammary gland) andmore » B-G antigens of the chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC), respectively; these proteins thus form a subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The homology between MOG and B-G extends beyond their structure and genetic mapping to their ability to induce strong antibody responses and has implications for the role of MOG in pathological, autoimmune conditions. The authors colocalized the MOG and BT genes to the human MHC on chromosome 6p21.3-p22. The mouse MOG gene was mapped to the homologous band C of chromosome 17, within the M region of the mouse MHC. 38 refs., 6 figs.« less

  2. A structural determinant in the uracil DNA glycosylase superfamily for the removal of uracil from adenine/uracil base pairs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Liu, Yinling; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Xia, Bo; Brice, Allyn R.; Park, Sung-Hyun; Balduf, Hunter; Dominy, Brian N.; Cao, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    The uracil DNA glycosylase superfamily consists of several distinct families. Family 2 mismatch-specific uracil DNA glycosylase (MUG) from Escherichia coli is known to exhibit glycosylase activity on three mismatched base pairs, T/U, G/U and C/U. Family 1 uracil N-glycosylase (UNG) from E. coli is an extremely efficient enzyme that can remove uracil from any uracil-containing base pairs including the A/U base pair. Here, we report the identification of an important structural determinant that underlies the functional difference between MUG and UNG. Substitution of a Lys residue at position 68 with Asn in MUG not only accelerates the removal of uracil from mismatched base pairs but also enables the enzyme to gain catalytic activity on A/U base pairs. Binding and kinetic analysis demonstrate that the MUG-K68N substitution results in enhanced ground state binding and transition state interactions. Molecular modeling reveals that MUG-K68N, UNG-N123 and family 5 Thermus thermophiles UDGb-A111N can form bidentate hydrogen bonds with the N3 and O4 moieties of the uracil base. Genetic analysis indicates the gain of function for A/U base pairs allows the MUG-K68N mutant to remove uracil incorporated into the genome during DNA replication. The implications of this study in the origin of life are discussed. PMID:25550433

  3. A Streptomyces-specific member of the metallophosphatase superfamily contributes to spore dormancy and interaction with Aspergillus proliferans.

    PubMed

    Lamp, Jessica; Weber, Maren; Cingöz, Gökhan; Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío; Schrempf, Hildgund

    2013-05-01

    We have identified, cloned and characterized a formerly unknown protein from Streptomyces lividans spores. The deduced protein belongs to a novel member of the metallophosphatase superfamily and contains a phosphatase domain and predicted binding sites for divalent ions. Very close relatives are encoded in the genomic DNA of many different Streptomyces species. As the deduced related homologues diverge from other known phosphatase types, we named the protein MptS (metallophosphatase type from Streptomyces). Comparative physiological and biochemical investigations and analyses by fluorescence microscopy of the progenitor strain, designed mutants carrying either a disruption of the mptS gene or the reintroduced gene as fusion with histidine codons or the egfp gene led to the following results: (i) the mptS gene is transcribed in the course of aerial mycelia formation. (ii) The MptS protein is produced during the late stages of growth, (iii) accumulates within spores, (iv) functions as an active enzyme that releases inorganic phosphate from an artificial model substrate, (v) is required for spore dormancy and (vi) MptS supports the interaction amongst Streptomyces lividans spores with conidia of the fungus Aspergillus proliferans. We discuss the possible role(s) of MptS-dependent enzymatic activity and the implications for spore biology. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The TNF receptor and Ig superfamily members form an integrated signaling circuit controlling dendritic cell homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    De Trez, Carl; Ware, Carl F.

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) constitute the most potent antigen presenting cells of the immune system, playing a key role bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Specialized DC subsets differ depending on their origin, tissue location and the influence of trophic factors, the latter remain to be fully understood. Stromal cell and myeloid-associated Lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) signaling is required for the local proliferation of lymphoid tissue DC. This review focuses the LTβR signaling cascade as a crucial positive trophic signal in the homeostasis of DC subsets. The noncanonical coreceptor pathway comprised of the Immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily member, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and TNFR superfamily member, Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) counter regulates the trophic signaling by LTβR. Together both pathways form an integrated signaling circuit achieving homeostasis of DC subsets. PMID:18511331

  5. Unveiling the functional diversity of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily in the plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Mindrebo, Jeffrey T; Nartey, Charisse M; Seto, Yoshiya; Burkart, Michael D; Noel, Joseph P

    2016-12-01

    The alpha/beta hydrolase (ABH) superfamily is a widespread and functionally malleable protein fold recognized for its diverse biochemical activities across all three domains of life. ABH enzymes possess unexpected catalytic activity in the green plant lineage through selective alterations in active site architecture and chemistry. Furthermore, the ABH fold serves as the core structure for phytohormone and ligand receptors in the gibberellin, strigolactone, and karrikin signaling pathways in plants. Despite recent discoveries, the ABH family is sparsely characterized in plants, a sessile kingdom known to evolve complex and specialized chemical adaptations as survival responses to widely varying biotic and abiotic ecologies. This review calls attention to the ABH superfamily in the plant kingdom to highlight the functional adaptability of the ABH fold. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Comprehensive analysis of the HEPN superfamily: identification of novel roles in intra-genomic conflicts, defense, pathogenesis and RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Anantharaman, Vivek; Makarova, Kira S; Burroughs, A Maxwell; Koonin, Eugene V; Aravind, L

    2013-06-15

    The major role of enzymatic toxins that target nucleic acids in biological conflicts at all levels has become increasingly apparent thanks in large part to the advances of comparative genomics. Typically, toxins evolve rapidly hampering the identification of these proteins by sequence analysis. Here we analyze an unexpectedly widespread superfamily of toxin domains most of which possess RNase activity. The HEPN superfamily is comprised of all α-helical domains that were first identified as being associated with DNA polymerase β-type nucleotidyltransferases in prokaryotes and animal Sacsin proteins. Using sensitive sequence and structure comparison methods, we vastly extend the HEPN superfamily by identifying numerous novel families and by detecting diverged HEPN domains in several known protein families. The new HEPN families include the RNase LS and LsoA catalytic domains, KEN domains (e.g. RNaseL and Ire1) and the RNase domains of RloC and PrrC. The majority of HEPN domains contain conserved motifs that constitute a metal-independent endoRNase active site. Some HEPN domains lacking this motif probably function as non-catalytic RNA-binding domains, such as in the case of the mannitol repressor MtlR. Our analysis shows that HEPN domains function as toxins that are shared by numerous systems implicated in intra-genomic, inter-genomic and intra-organismal conflicts across the three domains of cellular life. In prokaryotes HEPN domains are essential components of numerous toxin-antitoxin (TA) and abortive infection (Abi) systems and in addition are tightly associated with many restriction-modification (R-M) and CRISPR-Cas systems, and occasionally with other defense systems such as Pgl and Ter. We present evidence of multiple modes of action of HEPN domains in these systems, which include direct attack on viral RNAs (e.g. LsoA and RNase LS) in conjunction with other RNase domains (e.g. a novel RNase H fold domain, NamA), suicidal or dormancy-inducing attack on self

  7. Comprehensive analysis of the HEPN superfamily: identification of novel roles in intra-genomic conflicts, defense, pathogenesis and RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The major role of enzymatic toxins that target nucleic acids in biological conflicts at all levels has become increasingly apparent thanks in large part to the advances of comparative genomics. Typically, toxins evolve rapidly hampering the identification of these proteins by sequence analysis. Here we analyze an unexpectedly widespread superfamily of toxin domains most of which possess RNase activity. Results The HEPN superfamily is comprised of all α-helical domains that were first identified as being associated with DNA polymerase β-type nucleotidyltransferases in prokaryotes and animal Sacsin proteins. Using sensitive sequence and structure comparison methods, we vastly extend the HEPN superfamily by identifying numerous novel families and by detecting diverged HEPN domains in several known protein families. The new HEPN families include the RNase LS and LsoA catalytic domains, KEN domains (e.g. RNaseL and Ire1) and the RNase domains of RloC and PrrC. The majority of HEPN domains contain conserved motifs that constitute a metal-independent endoRNase active site. Some HEPN domains lacking this motif probably function as non-catalytic RNA-binding domains, such as in the case of the mannitol repressor MtlR. Our analysis shows that HEPN domains function as toxins that are shared by numerous systems implicated in intra-genomic, inter-genomic and intra-organismal conflicts across the three domains of cellular life. In prokaryotes HEPN domains are essential components of numerous toxin-antitoxin (TA) and abortive infection (Abi) systems and in addition are tightly associated with many restriction-modification (R-M) and CRISPR-Cas systems, and occasionally with other defense systems such as Pgl and Ter. We present evidence of multiple modes of action of HEPN domains in these systems, which include direct attack on viral RNAs (e.g. LsoA and RNase LS) in conjunction with other RNase domains (e.g. a novel RNase H fold domain, NamA), suicidal or dormancy

  8. Identification of an essential active-site residue in the α-D-phosphohexomutase enzyme superfamily.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yingying; Mehra-Chaudhary, Ritcha; Furdui, Cristina; Beamer, Lesa J

    2013-06-01

    Enzymes in the α-d-phosphohexomutase superfamily catalyze the conversion of 1-phosphosugars to their 6-phospho counterparts. Their phosphoryl transfer reaction has long been proposed to require general acid-base catalysts, but candidate residues for these key roles have not been identified. In this study, we show through mutagenesis and kinetic studies that a histidine (His329) in the active site is critical for enzyme activity in a well-studied member of the superfamily, phosphomannomutase/phosphoglucomutase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Crystallographic characterization of an H329A mutant protein showed no significant changes from the wild-type enzyme, excluding structural disruption as the source of its compromised activity. Mutation of the structurally analogous lysine residue in a related protein, phosphoglucomutase from Salmonella typhimurium, also results in significant catalytic impairment. Analyses of protein-ligand complexes of the P. aeruginosa enzyme show that His329 is appropriately positioned to abstract a proton from the O1/O6 hydroxyl of the phosphosugar substrates, and thus may serve as the general base in the reaction. Histidine is strongly conserved at this position in many proteins in the superfamily, and lysine is also often conserved at a structurally corresponding position, particularly in the phosphoglucomutase enzyme sub-group. These studies shed light on the mechanism of this important enzyme superfamily, and may facilitate the design of mechanism-based inhibitors. Structural data have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank with accession number 4IL8. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  9. Molecular evolution of the insect chemoreceptor gene superfamily in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Hugh M; Warr, Coral G; Carlson, John R

    2003-11-25

    The insect chemoreceptor superfamily in Drosophila melanogaster is predicted to consist of 62 odorant receptor (Or) and 68 gustatory receptor (Gr) proteins, encoded by families of 60 Or and 60 Gr genes through alternative splicing. We include two previously undescribed Or genes and two previously undescribed Gr genes; two previously predicted Or genes are shown to be alternative splice forms. Three polymorphic pseudogenes and one highly defective pseudogene are recognized. Phylogenetic analysis reveals deep branches connecting multiple highly divergent clades within the Gr family, and the Or family appears to be a single highly expanded lineage within the superfamily. The genes are spread throughout the Drosophila genome, with some relatively recently diverged genes still clustered in the genome. The Gr5a gene on the X chromosome, which encodes a receptor for the sugar trehalose, has transposed from one such tandem cluster of six genes at cytological location 64, as has Gr61a, and all eight of these receptors might bind sugars. Analysis of intron evolution suggests that the common ancestor consisted of a long N-terminal exon encoding transmembrane domains 1-5 followed by three exons encoding transmembrane domains 6-7. As many as 57 additional introns have been acquired idiosyncratically during the evolution of the superfamily, whereas the ancestral introns and some of the older idiosyncratic introns have been lost at least 48 times independently. Altogether, these patterns of molecular evolution suggest that this is an ancient superfamily of chemoreceptors, probably dating back at least to the origin of the arthropods.

  10. Molecular evolution of the insect chemoreceptor gene superfamily in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Hugh M.; Warr, Coral G.; Carlson, John R.

    2003-01-01

    The insect chemoreceptor superfamily in Drosophila melanogaster is predicted to consist of 62 odorant receptor (Or) and 68 gustatory receptor (Gr) proteins, encoded by families of 60 Or and 60 Gr genes through alternative splicing. We include two previously undescribed Or genes and two previously undescribed Gr genes; two previously predicted Or genes are shown to be alternative splice forms. Three polymorphic pseudogenes and one highly defective pseudogene are recognized. Phylogenetic analysis reveals deep branches connecting multiple highly divergent clades within the Gr family, and the Or family appears to be a single highly expanded lineage within the superfamily. The genes are spread throughout the Drosophila genome, with some relatively recently diverged genes still clustered in the genome. The Gr5a gene on the X chromosome, which encodes a receptor for the sugar trehalose, has transposed from one such tandem cluster of six genes at cytological location 64, as has Gr61a, and all eight of these receptors might bind sugars. Analysis of intron evolution suggests that the common ancestor consisted of a long N-terminal exon encoding transmembrane domains 1-5 followed by three exons encoding transmembrane domains 6-7. As many as 57 additional introns have been acquired idiosyncratically during the evolution of the superfamily, whereas the ancestral introns and some of the older idiosyncratic introns have been lost at least 48 times independently. Altogether, these patterns of molecular evolution suggest that this is an ancient superfamily of chemoreceptors, probably dating back at least to the origin of the arthropods. PMID:14608037

  11. Taxonomic distribution and origins of the extended LHC (light-harvesting complex) antenna protein superfamily

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The extended light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein superfamily is a centerpiece of eukaryotic photosynthesis, comprising the LHC family and several families involved in photoprotection, like the LHC-like and the photosystem II subunit S (PSBS). The evolution of this complex superfamily has long remained elusive, partially due to previously missing families. Results In this study we present a meticulous search for LHC-like sequences in public genome and expressed sequence tag databases covering twelve representative photosynthetic eukaryotes from the three primary lineages of plants (Plantae): glaucophytes, red algae and green plants (Viridiplantae). By introducing a coherent classification of the different protein families based on both, hidden Markov model analyses and structural predictions, numerous new LHC-like sequences were identified and several new families were described, including the red lineage chlorophyll a/b-binding-like protein (RedCAP) family from red algae and diatoms. The test of alternative topologies of sequences of the highly conserved chlorophyll-binding core structure of LHC and PSBS proteins significantly supports the independent origins of LHC and PSBS families via two unrelated internal gene duplication events. This result was confirmed by the application of cluster likelihood mapping. Conclusions The independent evolution of LHC and PSBS families is supported by strong phylogenetic evidence. In addition, a possible origin of LHC and PSBS families from different homologous members of the stress-enhanced protein subfamily, a diverse and anciently paralogous group of two-helix proteins, seems likely. The new hypothesis for the evolution of the extended LHC protein superfamily proposed here is in agreement with the character evolution analysis that incorporates the distribution of families and subfamilies across taxonomic lineages. Intriguingly, stress-enhanced proteins, which are universally found in the genomes of green plants

  12. Mechanistic and Evolutionary Insights from Comparative Enzymology of Phosphomonoesterases and Phosphodiesterases across the Alkaline Phosphatase Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Naively one might have expected an early division between phosphate monoesterases and diesterases of the alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily. On the contrary, prior results and our structural and biochemical analyses of phosphate monoesterase PafA, from Chryseobacterium meningosepticum, indicate similarities to a superfamily phosphate diesterase [Xanthomonas citri nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP)] and distinct differences from the three metal ion AP superfamily monoesterase, from Escherichia coli AP (EcAP). We carried out a series of experiments to map out and learn from the differences and similarities between these enzymes. First, we asked why there would be independent instances of monoesterases in the AP superfamily? PafA has a much weaker product inhibition and slightly higher activity relative to EcAP, suggesting that different metabolic evolutionary pressures favored distinct active-site architectures. Next, we addressed the preferential phosphate monoester and diester catalysis of PafA and NPP, respectively. We asked whether the >80% sequence differences throughout these scaffolds provide functional specialization for each enzyme’s cognate reaction. In contrast to expectations from this model, PafA and NPP mutants with the common subset of active-site groups embedded in each native scaffold had the same monoesterase:diesterase specificities; thus, the >107-fold difference in native specificities appears to arise from distinct interactions at a single phosphoryl substituent. We also uncovered striking mechanistic similarities between the PafA and EcAP monoesterases, including evidence for ground-state destabilization and functional active-site networks that involve different active-site groups but may play analogous catalytic roles. Discovering common network functions may reveal active-site architectural connections that are critical for function, and identifying regions of functional modularity may facilitate the design of new enzymes

  13. Exploring Fold Space Preferences of New-born and Ancient Protein Superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Hannah; Abeln, Sanne; Deane, Charlotte M.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of proteins is one of the fundamental processes that has delivered the diversity and complexity of life we see around ourselves today. While we tend to define protein evolution in terms of sequence level mutations, insertions and deletions, it is hard to translate these processes to a more complete picture incorporating a polypeptide's structure and function. By considering how protein structures change over time we can gain an entirely new appreciation of their long-term evolutionary dynamics. In this work we seek to identify how populations of proteins at different stages of evolution explore their possible structure space. We use an annotation of superfamily age to this space and explore the relationship between these ages and a diverse set of properties pertaining to a superfamily's sequence, structure and function. We note several marked differences between the populations of newly evolved and ancient structures, such as in their length distributions, secondary structure content and tertiary packing arrangements. In particular, many of these differences suggest a less elaborate structure for newly evolved superfamilies when compared with their ancient counterparts. We show that the structural preferences we report are not a residual effect of a more fundamental relationship with function. Furthermore, we demonstrate the robustness of our results, using significant variation in the algorithm used to estimate the ages. We present these age estimates as a useful tool to analyse protein populations. In particularly, we apply this in a comparison of domains containing greek key or jelly roll motifs. PMID:24244135

  14. Exploring and Expanding the Fatty-Acid-Binding Protein Superfamily in Fasciola Species.

    PubMed

    Morphew, Russell M; Wilkinson, Toby J; Mackintosh, Neil; Jahndel, Veronika; Paterson, Steve; McVeigh, Paul; Abbas Abidi, Syed M; Saifullah, Khalid; Raman, Muthusamy; Ravikumar, Gopalakrishnan; LaCourse, James; Maule, Aaron; Brophy, Peter M

    2016-09-02

    The liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica infect livestock worldwide and threaten food security with climate change and problematic control measures spreading disease. Fascioliasis is also a foodborne disease with up to 17 million humans infected. In the absence of vaccines, treatment depends on triclabendazole (TCBZ), and overuse has led to widespread resistance, compromising future TCBZ control. Reductionist biology from many laboratories has predicted new therapeutic targets. To this end, the fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) superfamily has proposed multifunctional roles, including functions intersecting vaccine and drug therapy, such as immune modulation and anthelmintic sequestration. Research is hindered by a lack of understanding of the full FABP superfamily complement. Although discovery studies predicted FABPs as promising vaccine candidates, it is unclear if uncharacterized FABPs are more relevant for vaccine formulations. We have coupled genome, transcriptome, and EST data mining with proteomics and phylogenetics to reveal a liver fluke FABP superfamily of seven clades: previously identified clades I-III and newly identified clades IV-VII. All new clade FABPs were analyzed using bioinformatics and cloned from both liver flukes. The extended FABP data set will provide new study tools to research the role of FABPs in parasite biology and as therapy targets.

  15. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: D-Mannonate Dhydratase from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans

    SciT

    Rakus,J.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.

    2007-01-01

    The d-mannonate dehydratase (ManD) function was assigned to a group of orthologous proteins in the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily by screening a library of acid sugars. Structures of the wild type ManD from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans were determined at pH 7.5 in the presence of Mg2+ and also in the presence of Mg2+ and the 2-keto-3-keto-d-gluconate dehydration product; the structure of the catalytically active K271E mutant was determined at pH 5.5 in the presence of the d-mannonate substrate. As previously observed in the structures of other members of the enolase superfamily, ManD contains two domains, an N-terminal a+{beta} capping domain andmore » a ({beta}/a)7{beta}-barrel domain. The barrel domain contains the ligands for the essential Mg2+, Asp 210, Glu 236, and Glu 262, at the ends of the third, fourth, and fifth {beta}-strands of the barrel domain, respectively. However, the barrel domain lacks both the Lys acid/base catalyst at the end of the second {beta}-strand and the His-Asp dyad acid/base catalyst at the ends of the seventh and sixth {beta}-strands, respectively, that are found in many members of the superfamily. Instead, a hydrogen-bonded dyad of Tyr 159 in a loop following the second {beta}-strand and Arg 147 at the end of the second {beta}-strand are positioned to initiate the reaction by abstraction of the 2-proton. Both Tyr 159 and His 212, at the end of the third {beta}-strand, are positioned to facilitate both syn-dehydration and ketonization of the resulting enol intermediate to yield the 2-keto-3-keto-d-gluconate product with the observed retention of configuration. The identities and locations of these acid/base catalysts as well as of cationic amino acid residues that stabilize the enolate anion intermediate define a new structural strategy for catalysis (subgroup) in the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily. With these differences, we provide additional evidence that the ligands for the essential Mg2+ are the

  16. Evolution and Diversity of the Ras Superfamily of Small GTPases in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Wuichet, Kristin; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The Ras superfamily of small GTPases are single domain nucleotide-dependent molecular switches that act as highly tuned regulators of complex signal transduction pathways. Originally identified in eukaryotes for their roles in fundamental cellular processes including proliferation, motility, polarity, nuclear transport, and vesicle transport, recent studies have revealed that single domain GTPases also control complex functions such as cell polarity, motility, predation, development and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Here, we used a computational genomics approach to understand the abundance, diversity, and evolution of small GTPases in prokaryotes. We collected 520 small GTPase sequences present in 17% of 1,611 prokaryotic genomes analyzed that cover diverse lineages. We identified two discrete families of small GTPases in prokaryotes that show evidence of three distinct catalytic mechanisms. The MglA family includes MglA homologs, which are typically associated with the MglB GTPase activating protein, whereas members of the Rup (Ras superfamily GTPase of unknown function in prokaryotes) family are not predicted to interact with MglB homologs. System classification and genome context analyses support the involvement of small GTPases in diverse prokaryotic signal transduction pathways including two component systems, laying the foundation for future experimental characterization of these proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic GTPases supports that the last universal common ancestor contained ancestral MglA and Rup family members. We propose that the MglA family was lost from the ancestral eukaryote and that the Ras superfamily members in extant eukaryotes are the result of vertical and horizontal gene transfer events of ancestral Rup GTPases. PMID:25480683

  17. Historical perspectives on tumor necrosis factor and its superfamily: 25 years later, a golden journey

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Subash C.; Kim, Ji Hye

    2012-01-01

    Although activity that induced tumor regression was observed and termed tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as early as the 1960s, the true identity of TNF was not clear until 1984, when Aggarwal and coworkers reported, for the first time, the isolation of 2 cytotoxic factors: one, derived from macrophages (molecular mass 17 kDa), was named TNF, and the second, derived from lymphocytes (20 kDa), was named lymphotoxin. Because the 2 cytotoxic factors exhibited 50% amino acid sequence homology and bound to the same receptor, they came to be called TNF-α and TNF-β. Identification of the protein sequences led to cloning of their cDNA. Based on sequence homology to TNF-α, now a total of 19 members of the TNF superfamily have been identified, along with 29 interacting receptors, and several molecules that interact with the cytoplasmic domain of these receptors. The roles of the TNF superfamily in inflammation, apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and morphogenesis have been documented. Their roles in immunologic, cardiovascular, neurologic, pulmonary, and metabolic diseases are becoming apparent. TNF superfamily members are active targets for drug development, as indicated by the recent approval and expanding market of TNF blockers used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohns disease, and osteoporosis, with a total market of more than US $20 billion. As we learn more about this family, more therapeutics will probably emerge. In this review, we summarize the initial discovery of TNF-α, and the insights gained regarding the roles of this molecule and its related family members in normal physiology and disease. PMID:22053109

  18. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  19. A global view of structure–function relationships in the tautomerase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Rebecca; Baas, Bert-Jan; Akiva, Eyal; Holliday, Gemma L.; Polacco, Benjamin J.; LeVieux, Jake A.; Pullara, Collin R.; Zhang, Yan Jessie; Whitman, Christian P.

    2018-01-01

    The tautomerase superfamily (TSF) consists of more than 11,000 nonredundant sequences present throughout the biosphere. Characterized members have attracted much attention because of the unusual and key catalytic role of an N-terminal proline. These few characterized members catalyze a diverse range of chemical reactions, but the full scale of their chemical capabilities and biological functions remains unknown. To gain new insight into TSF structure–function relationships, we performed a global analysis of similarities across the entire superfamily and computed a sequence similarity network to guide classification into distinct subgroups. Our results indicate that TSF members are found in all domains of life, with most being present in bacteria. The eukaryotic members of the cis-3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase subgroup are limited to fungal species, whereas the macrophage migration inhibitory factor subgroup has wide eukaryotic representation (including mammals). Unexpectedly, we found that 346 TSF sequences lack Pro-1, of which 85% are present in the malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase subgroup. The computed network also enabled the identification of similarity paths, namely sequences that link functionally diverse subgroups and exhibit transitional structural features that may help explain reaction divergence. A structure-guided comparison of these linker proteins identified conserved transitions between them, and kinetic analysis paralleled these observations. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the linker set was consistent with these findings. Our results also suggest that contemporary TSF members may have evolved from a short 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase–like ancestor followed by gene duplication and fusion. Our new linker-guided strategy can be used to enrich the discovery of sequence/structure/function transitions in other enzyme superfamilies. PMID:29184004

  20. Soybean (Glycine max) expansin gene superfamily origins: segmental and tandem duplication events followed by divergent selection among subfamilies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Expansins are plant cell wall loosening proteins that are involved in cell enlargement and a variety of other developmental processes. The expansin superfamily contains four subfamilies; namely, α-expansin (EXPA), β-expansin (EXPB), expansin-like A (EXLA), and expansin-like B (EXLB). Although the genome sequencing of soybeans is complete, our knowledge about the pattern of expansion and evolutionary history of soybean expansin genes remains limited. Results A total of 75 expansin genes were identified in the soybean genome, and grouped into four subfamilies based on their phylogenetic relationships. Structural analysis revealed that the expansin genes are conserved in each subfamily, but are divergent among subfamilies. Furthermore, in soybean and Arabidopsis, the expansin gene family has been mainly expanded through tandem and segmental duplications; however, in rice, segmental duplication appears to be the dominant process that generates this superfamily. The transcriptome atlas revealed notable differential expression in either transcript abundance or expression patterns under normal growth conditions. This finding was consistent with the differential distribution of the cis-elements in the promoter region, and indicated wide functional divergence in this superfamily. Moreover, some critical amino acids that contribute to functional divergence and positive selection were detected. Finally, site model and branch-site model analysis of positive selection indicated that the soybean expansin gene superfamily is under strong positive selection, and that divergent selection constraints might have influenced the evolution of the four subfamilies. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the soybean expansin gene superfamily has expanded through tandem and segmental duplication. Differential expression indicated wide functional divergence in this superfamily. Furthermore, positive selection analysis revealed that divergent selection constraints might have

  1. NCX-DB: a unified resource for integrative analysis of the sodium calcium exchanger super-family.

    PubMed

    Bode, Katrin; O'Halloran, Damien M

    2018-04-13

    Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers are low-affinity high-capacity transporters that mediate Ca 2+ extrusion by coupling Ca 2+ efflux to the influx of Na + ions. The Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers form a super-family comprised of three branches each differing in ion-substrate selectivity: Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers (NCX), Na + /Ca 2+ /K + exchangers, and Ca 2+ /cation exchangers. Their primary function is to maintain Ca 2+ homeostasis and play a particularly important role in excitable cells that experience transient Ca 2+ fluxes. Research into the role and activity of Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers has focused extensively on the cardio-vascular system, however, growing evidence suggests that Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers play a key role in neuronal processes such as memory formation, learning, oligodendrocyte differentiation, neuroprotection during brain ischemia and axon guidance. They have also been implicated in pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Epilepsy, however, a clear understanding of their mechanism during disease is lacking. To date, there has never been a central resource or database for Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers. With clear disease relevance and ever-increasing research on Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers from both model and non-model species, a database that unifies the data on Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers is needed for future research. NCX-DB is a publicly available database with a web interface that enables users to explore various Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers, perform cross-species sequence comparison, identify new exchangers, and stay-up to date with recent literature. NCX-DB is available on the web via an interactive user interface with an intuitive design, which is applicable for the identification and comparison of Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger proteins across diverse species.

  2. Metabolism of the Synthetic Progestogen Norethynodrel by Human Ketosteroid Reductases of the Aldo-Keto Reductase Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yi; Duan, Ling; Chen, Mo; Penning, Trevor M; Kloosterboer, Helenius J.

    2012-01-01

    Human ketosteroid reductases of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily, i.e. AKR1C1-4, are implicated in the biotransformation of synthetic steroid hormones. Norethynodrel (NOR, 17α-ethynyl-17β-hydroxy-estra-5(10)-en-3-one), the progestin component of the first marketed oral contraceptive, is known to undergo rapid and extensive metabolism to 3α- and 3β-hydroxy metabolites. The ability of the four human AKR1C enzymes to catalyze the metabolism of NOR has now been characterized. AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 almost exclusively converted NOR to 3β-hydroxy NOR, while AKR1C3 gave 3β-hydroxy NOR as the main product and AKR1C4 predominantly formed 3α-hydroxy NOR. Individual AKR1C enzymes also displayed distinct kinetic properties in the reaction of NOR. In contrast, norethindrone (NET), the Δ4-isomer of NOR and the most commonly used synthetic progestin, was not a substrate for the AKR1C enzymes. NOR is also structurally identical to the hormone replacement therapeutic tibolone (TIB), except TIB has a methyl group at the 7α-position. Product profiles and kinetic parameters for the reduction of NOR catalyzed by each individual AKR1C isoform were identical to those for the reduction of TIB catalyzed by the respective isoform. These data suggest that the presence of the 7α-methyl group has a minimal effect on the stereochemical outcome of the reaction and kinetic behavior of each enzyme. Results indicate a role of AKR1C in the hepatic and peripheral metabolism of NOR to 3α- and 3β-hydroxy NOR and provide insights into the differential pharmacological properties of NOR, NET and TIB. PMID:22210085

  3. Activity-based proteomics of enzyme superfamilies: serine hydrolases as a case study.

    PubMed

    Simon, Gabriel M; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2010-04-09

    Genome sequencing projects have uncovered thousands of uncharacterized enzymes in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Deciphering the physiological functions of enzymes requires tools to profile and perturb their activities in native biological systems. Activity-based protein profiling has emerged as a powerful chemoproteomic strategy to achieve these objectives through the use of chemical probes that target large swaths of enzymes that share active-site features. Here, we review activity-based protein profiling and its implementation to annotate the enzymatic proteome, with particular attention given to probes that target serine hydrolases, a diverse superfamily of enzymes replete with many uncharacterized members.

  4. Giant mini-clusters as possible origin of halo phenomena observed in super-families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Among 91 mini-clusters from 30 high energy Chiron-type families in Chacaltaya emulsion chambers, there were observed several extremely large multiplicity clusters in the highest energy range, far beyond the average of ordinary type clusters. Some details of microscopic observation of those giant mini-clusters in nuclear emulsion plates and some phenomenological regularity found in common among them are described. Such giant mini-clusters are possible candidates for the origin of narrow symmetric single halo phenomena in X-ray films which are frequently observed in super-families of visible energy greater than 1,000 TeV.

  5. SVM-Fold: a tool for discriminative multi-class protein fold and superfamily recognition

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Iain; Ie, Eugene; Kuang, Rui; Weston, Jason; Stafford, William Noble; Leslie, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Background Predicting a protein's structural class from its amino acid sequence is a fundamental problem in computational biology. Much recent work has focused on developing new representations for protein sequences, called string kernels, for use with support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. However, while some of these approaches exhibit state-of-the-art performance at the binary protein classification problem, i.e. discriminating between a particular protein class and all other classes, few of these studies have addressed the real problem of multi-class superfamily or fold recognition. Moreover, there are only limited software tools and systems for SVM-based protein classification available to the bioinformatics community. Results We present a new multi-class SVM-based protein fold and superfamily recognition system and web server called SVM-Fold, which can be found at . Our system uses an efficient implementation of a state-of-the-art string kernel for sequence profiles, called the profile kernel, where the underlying feature representation is a histogram of inexact matching k-mer frequencies. We also employ a novel machine learning approach to solve the difficult multi-class problem of classifying a sequence of amino acids into one of many known protein structural classes. Binary one-vs-the-rest SVM classifiers that are trained to recognize individual structural classes yield prediction scores that are not comparable, so that standard "one-vs-all" classification fails to perform well. Moreover, SVMs for classes at different levels of the protein structural hierarchy may make useful predictions, but one-vs-all does not try to combine these multiple predictions. To deal with these problems, our method learns relative weights between one-vs-the-rest classifiers and encodes information about the protein structural hierarchy for multi-class prediction. In large-scale benchmark results based on the SCOP database, our code weighting approach significantly improves

  6. The Aldo-Keto Reductase Superfamily and its Role in Drug Metabolism and Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Barski, Oleg A.; Tipparaju, Srinivas M.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-01-01

    The Aldo-Keto Reductase (AKR) superfamily comprises of several enzymes that catalyze redox transformations involved in biosynthesis, intermediary metabolism and detoxification. Substrates of the family include glucose, steroids, glycosylation end products, lipid peroxidation products, and environmental pollutants. These proteins adopt a (β/α)8 barrel structural motif interrupted by a number of extraneous loops and helixes that vary between proteins and bring structural identity to individual families. The human AKR family differs from the rodent families. Due to their broad substrate specificity, AKRs play an important role in the Phase II detoxification of a large number of pharmaceuticals, drugs, and xenobiotics. PMID:18949601

  7. General survey of hAT transposon superfamily with highlight on hobo element in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ladevèze, Véronique; Chaminade, Nicole; Lemeunier, Françoise; Periquet, Georges; Aulard, Sylvie

    2012-09-01

    The hAT transposons, very abundant in all kingdoms, have a common evolutionary origin probably predating the plant-fungi-animal divergence. In this paper we present their general characteristics. Members of this superfamily belong to Class II transposable elements. hAT elements share transposase, short terminal inverted repeats and eight base-pairs duplication of genomic target. We focus on hAT elements in Drosophila, especially hobo. Its distribution, dynamics and impact on genome restructuring in laboratory strains as well as in natural populations are reported. Finally, the evolutionary history of hAT elements, their domestication and use as transgenic tools are discussed.

  8. Structure and function of POTRA domains of Omp85/TPS superfamily.

    PubMed

    Simmerman, Richard F; Dave, Ashita M; Bruce, Barry D

    2014-01-01

    The Omp85/TPS (outer-membrane protein of 85 kDa/two-partner secretion) superfamily is a ubiquitous and major class of β-barrel proteins. This superfamily is restricted to the outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. The common architecture, with an N-terminus consisting of repeats of soluble polypeptide-transport-associated (POTRA) domains and a C-terminal β-barrel pore is highly conserved. The structures of multiple POTRA domains and one full-length TPS protein have been solved, yet discovering roles of individual POTRA domains has been difficult. This review focuses on similarities and differences between POTRA structures, emphasizing POTRA domains in autotrophic organisms including plants and cyanobacteria. Unique roles, specific for certain POTRA domains, are examined in the context of POTRA location with respect to their attachment to the β-barrel pore, and their degree of biological dispensability. Finally, because many POTRA domains may have the ability to interact with thousands of partner proteins, possible modes of these interactions are also explored. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Revised phylogeny of the Cellulose Synthase gene superfamily: insights into cell wall evolution.

    PubMed

    Little, Alan; Schwerdt, Julian G; Shirley, Neil J; Khor, Shi F; Neumann, Kylie; O'Donovan, Lisa A; Lahnstein, Jelle; Collins, Helen M; Henderson, Marilyn; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A

    2018-05-20

    Cell walls are crucial for the integrity and function of all land plants, and are of central importance in human health, livestock production, and as a source of renewable bioenergy. Many enzymes that mediate the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides are encoded by members of the large cellulose synthase (CesA) gene superfamily. Here, we analyzed 29 sequenced genomes and 17 transcriptomes to revise the phylogeny of the CesA gene superfamily in angiosperms. Our results identify ancestral gene clusters that predate the monocot-eudicot divergence and reveal several novel evolutionary observations, including the expansion of the Poaceae-specific cellulose synthase-like CslF family to the graminids and restiids and the characterisation of a previously unreported eudicot lineage, CslM, that forms a reciprocally monophyletic eudicot-monocot grouping with the CslJ clade. The CslM lineage is widely distributed in eudicots, and the CslJ clade, which was previously thought to be restricted to the Poales, is widely distributed in monocots. Our analyses show that some members of the CslJ lineage, but not the newly identified CslM genes, are capable of directing (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan biosynthesis, which, contrary to current dogma, is not restricted to Poaceae. {copyright, serif} 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-assembly in the ferritin nano-cage protein superfamily.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Orner, Brendan P

    2011-01-01

    Protein self-assembly, through specific, high affinity, and geometrically constraining protein-protein interactions, can control and lead to complex cellular nano-structures. Establishing an understanding of the underlying principles that govern protein self-assembly is not only essential to appreciate the fundamental biological functions of these structures, but could also provide a basis for their enhancement for nano-material applications. The ferritins are a superfamily of well studied proteins that self-assemble into hollow cage-like structures which are ubiquitously found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Structural studies have revealed that many members of the ferritin family can self-assemble into nano-cages of two types. Maxi-ferritins form hollow spheres with octahedral symmetry composed of twenty-four monomers. Mini-ferritins, on the other hand, are tetrahedrally symmetric, hollow assemblies composed of twelve monomers. This review will focus on the structure of members of the ferritin superfamily, the mechanism of ferritin self-assembly and the structure-function relations of these proteins.

  11. Evolution of the Ferric Reductase Domain (FRD) Superfamily: Modularity, Functional Diversification, and Signature Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Xenarios, Ioannis; Soldati, Thierry; Boeckmann, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    A heme-containing transmembrane ferric reductase domain (FRD) is found in bacterial and eukaryotic protein families, including ferric reductases (FRE), and NADPH oxidases (NOX). The aim of this study was to understand the phylogeny of the FRD superfamily. Bacteria contain FRD proteins consisting only of the ferric reductase domain, such as YedZ and short bFRE proteins. Full length FRE and NOX enzymes are mostly found in eukaryotic cells and all possess a dehydrogenase domain, allowing them to catalyze electron transfer from cytosolic NADPH to extracellular metal ions (FRE) or oxygen (NOX). Metazoa possess YedZ-related STEAP proteins, possibly derived from bacteria through horizontal gene transfer. Phylogenetic analyses suggests that FRE enzymes appeared early in evolution, followed by a transition towards EF-hand containing NOX enzymes (NOX5- and DUOX-like). An ancestral gene of the NOX(1-4) family probably lost the EF-hands and new regulatory mechanisms of increasing complexity evolved in this clade. Two signature motifs were identified: NOX enzymes are distinguished from FRE enzymes through a four amino acid motif spanning from transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) to TM4, and YedZ/STEAP proteins are identified by the replacement of the first canonical heme-spanning histidine by a highly conserved arginine. The FRD superfamily most likely originated in bacteria. PMID:23505460

  12. Evolution of the ferric reductase domain (FRD) superfamily: modularity, functional diversification, and signature motifs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Xenarios, Ioannis; Soldati, Thierry; Boeckmann, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    A heme-containing transmembrane ferric reductase domain (FRD) is found in bacterial and eukaryotic protein families, including ferric reductases (FRE), and NADPH oxidases (NOX). The aim of this study was to understand the phylogeny of the FRD superfamily. Bacteria contain FRD proteins consisting only of the ferric reductase domain, such as YedZ and short bFRE proteins. Full length FRE and NOX enzymes are mostly found in eukaryotic cells and all possess a dehydrogenase domain, allowing them to catalyze electron transfer from cytosolic NADPH to extracellular metal ions (FRE) or oxygen (NOX). Metazoa possess YedZ-related STEAP proteins, possibly derived from bacteria through horizontal gene transfer. Phylogenetic analyses suggests that FRE enzymes appeared early in evolution, followed by a transition towards EF-hand containing NOX enzymes (NOX5- and DUOX-like). An ancestral gene of the NOX(1-4) family probably lost the EF-hands and new regulatory mechanisms of increasing complexity evolved in this clade. Two signature motifs were identified: NOX enzymes are distinguished from FRE enzymes through a four amino acid motif spanning from transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) to TM4, and YedZ/STEAP proteins are identified by the replacement of the first canonical heme-spanning histidine by a highly conserved arginine. The FRD superfamily most likely originated in bacteria.

  13. GFP-like proteins as ubiquitous metazoan superfamily: evolution of functional features and structural complexity.

    PubMed

    Shagin, Dmitry A; Barsova, Ekaterina V; Yanushevich, Yurii G; Fradkov, Arkady F; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Labas, Yulii A; Semenova, Tatiana N; Ugalde, Juan A; Meyers, Ann; Nunez, Jose M; Widder, Edith A; Lukyanov, Sergey A; Matz, Mikhail V

    2004-05-01

    Homologs of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), including the recently described GFP-like domains of certain extracellular matrix proteins in Bilaterian organisms, are remarkably similar at the protein structure level, yet they often perform totally unrelated functions, thereby warranting recognition as a superfamily. Here we describe diverse GFP-like proteins from previously undersampled and completely new sources, including hydromedusae and planktonic Copepoda. In hydromedusae, yellow and nonfluorescent purple proteins were found in addition to greens. Notably, the new yellow protein seems to follow exactly the same structural solution to achieving the yellow color of fluorescence as YFP, an engineered yellow-emitting mutant variant of GFP. The addition of these new sequences made it possible to resolve deep-level phylogenetic relationships within the superfamily. Fluorescence (most likely green) must have already existed in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and therefore GFP-like proteins may be responsible for fluorescence and/or coloration in virtually any animal. At least 15 color diversification events can be inferred following the maximum parsimony principle in Cnidaria. Origination of red fluorescence and nonfluorescent purple-blue colors on several independent occasions provides a remarkable example of convergent evolution of complex features at the molecular level.

  14. Beyond TNF: TNF superfamily cytokines as targets for the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Croft, Michael; Siegel, Richard M

    2017-04-01

    TNF blockers are highly efficacious at dampening inflammation and reducing symptoms in rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, and also in nonrheumatic syndromes such as inflammatory bowel disease. As TNF belongs to a superfamily of 19 structurally related proteins that have both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activity, reagents that disrupt the interaction between proinflammatory TNF family cytokines and their receptors, or agonize the anti-inflammatory receptors, are being considered for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Biologic agents that block B cell activating factor (BAFF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) have been approved for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus and osteoporosis, respectively. In this Review, we focus on additional members of the TNF superfamily that could be relevant for the pathogenesis of rheumatic disease, including those that can strongly promote activity of immune cells or increase activity of tissue cells, as well as those that promote death pathways and might limit inflammation. We examine preclinical mouse and human data linking these molecules to the control of damage in the joints, muscle, bone or other tissues, and discuss their potential as targets for future therapy of rheumatic diseases.

  15. Cloning of a new member of the insulin gene superfamily (INSL4) expressed in human placenta

    SciT

    Chassin, D.; Laurent, A.; Janneau, J.L.

    1995-09-20

    A new member of the insulin gene superfamily was identified by screening a subtracted cDNA library of first-trimester human placenta and, hence, was tentatively named early placenta insulin-like peptide (EPIL). In this paper, we report the cloning and sequencing of the EPIL cDNA and the EPIL gene (INSL4). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the early placenta insulin-like peptide revealed significant overall and structural homologies with members of the insulin-like hormone superfamily. Moreover, the organization of the early placenta insulin-like gene, which is composed of two exons and one intron, is similiar to that of insulin and relaxin.more » By in situ hybridization, the INSL4 gene was assigned to band p24 of the short arm of chromosome 9. RT-PCR analysis of EPIL tissue distribution revealed that its transcripts are expressed in the placenta and uterus. 22 refs., 3 figs.« less

  16. Identification, immunolocalization, and characterization analyses of an exopeptidase of papain superfamily, (cathepsin C) from Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pei; He, Lei; Xu, Yanquan; Chen, Xueqing; Huang, Yan; Ren, Mengyu; Liang, Chi; Li, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Lu, Gang; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-10-01

    Cathepsin C is an important exopeptidase of papain superfamily and plays a number of great important roles during the parasitic life cycle. The amino acid sequence of cathepsin C from Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) showed 54, 53, and 49% identities to that of Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Homo sapiens, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing the sequences of papain superfamily of C. sinensis demonstrated that cathepsin C and cathepsin Bs came from a common ancestry. Cathepsin C of C. sinensis (Cscathepsin C) was identified as an excretory/secretory product by Western blot analysis. The results of transcriptional level and translational level of Cscathepsin C at metacercaria stage were higher than that at adult worms. Immunolocalization analysis indicated that Cscathepsin C was specifically distributed in the suckers (oral sucker and ventral sucker), eggs, vitellarium, intestines, and testis of adult worms. In the metacercaria, it was mainly detected on the cyst wall and excretory bladder. Combining with the results mentioned above, it implies that Cscathepsin C may be an essential proteolytic enzyme for proteins digestion of hosts, nutrition assimilation, and immune invasion of C. sinensis. Furthermore, it may be a potential diagnostic antigen and drug target against C. sinensis infection.

  17. The PYRIN domain: A member of the death domain-fold superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Fairbrother, Wayne J.; Gordon, Nathaniel C.; Humke, Eric W.; O'Rourke, Karen M.; Starovasnik, Melissa A.; Yin, Jian-Ping; Dixit, Vishva M.

    2001-01-01

    PYRIN domains were identified recently as putative protein–protein interaction domains at the N-termini of several proteins thought to function in apoptotic and inflammatory signaling pathways. The ∼95 residue PYRIN domains have no statistically significant sequence homology to proteins with known three-dimensional structure. Using secondary structure prediction and potential-based fold recognition methods, however, the PYRIN domain is predicted to be a member of the six-helix bundle death domain-fold superfamily that includes death domains (DDs), death effector domains (DEDs), and caspase recruitment domains (CARDs). Members of the death domain-fold superfamily are well established mediators of protein–protein interactions found in many proteins involved in apoptosis and inflammation, indicating further that the PYRIN domains serve a similar function. An homology model of the PYRIN domain of CARD7/DEFCAP/NAC/NALP1, a member of the Apaf-1/Ced-4 family of proteins, was constructed using the three-dimensional structures of the FADD and p75 neurotrophin receptor DDs, and of the Apaf-1 and caspase-9 CARDs, as templates. Validation of the model using a variety of computational techniques indicates that the fold prediction is consistent with the sequence. Comparison of a circular dichroism spectrum of the PYRIN domain of CARD7/DEFCAP/NAC/NALP1 with spectra of several proteins known to adopt the death domain-fold provides experimental support for the structure prediction. PMID:11514682

  18. Structural basis for amino acid export by DMT superfamily transporter YddG.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Hirotoshi; Doki, Shintaro; Takemoto, Mizuki; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Higuchi, Takashi; Fukui, Keita; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Tabuchi, Eri; Nagatoishi, Satoru; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Nishizawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Koichi; Dohmae, Naoshi; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-06-16

    The drug/metabolite transporter (DMT) superfamily is a large group of membrane transporters ubiquitously found in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and includes exporters for a remarkably wide range of substrates, such as toxic compounds and metabolites. YddG is a bacterial DMT protein that expels aromatic amino acids and exogenous toxic compounds, thereby contributing to cellular homeostasis. Here we present structural and functional analyses of YddG. Using liposome-based analyses, we show that Escherichia coli and Starkeya novella YddG export various amino acids. The crystal structure of S. novella YddG at 2.4 Å resolution reveals a new membrane transporter topology, with ten transmembrane segments in an outward-facing state. The overall structure is basket-shaped, with a large substrate-binding cavity at the centre of the molecule, and is composed of inverted structural repeats related by two-fold pseudo-symmetry. On the basis of this intramolecular symmetry, we propose a structural model for the inward-facing state and a mechanism of the conformational change for substrate transport, which we confirmed by biochemical analyses. These findings provide a structural basis for the mechanism of transport of DMT superfamily proteins.

  19. Discovery and characterization of two Nimrod superfamily members in Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Midega, Janet; Blight, Joshua; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Povelones, Michael; Kafatos, Fotis; Christophides, George K

    2013-12-01

    Anti-bacterial proteins in mosquitoes are known to play an important modulatory role on immune responses to infections with human pathogens including malaria parasites. In this study we characterized two members of the Anopheles gambiae Nimrod superfamily, namely AgNimB2 and AgEater. We confirm that current annotation of the An. gambiae genome incorrectly identifies AgNimB2 and AgEater as a single gene, AGAP009762. Through in silico and experimental approaches, it has been shown that AgNimB2 is a secreted protein that mediates phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus but not of Escherichia coli bacteria. We also reveal that this function does not involve a direct interaction of AgNimB2 with S. aureus. Therefore, AgNimB2 may act downstream of complement-like pathway activation, first requiring bacterial opsonization. In addition, it has been shown that AgNimB2 has an anti-Plasmodium effect. Conversely, AgEater is a membrane-bound protein that either functions redundantly or is dispensable for phagocytosis of E. coli or S. aureus. Our study provides insights into the role of members of the complex Nimrod superfamily in An. gambiae, the most important African vector of human malaria.

  20. Discovery and characterization of two Nimrod superfamily members in Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Midega, Janet; Blight, Joshua; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Povelones, Michael; Kafatos, Fotis; Christophides, George K

    2013-01-01

    Anti-bacterial proteins in mosquitoes are known to play an important modulatory role on immune responses to infections with human pathogens including malaria parasites. In this study we characterized two members of the Anopheles gambiae Nimrod superfamily, namely AgNimB2 and AgEater. We confirm that current annotation of the An. gambiae genome incorrectly identifies AgNimB2 and AgEater as a single gene, AGAP009762. Through in silico and experimental approaches, it has been shown that AgNimB2 is a secreted protein that mediates phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus but not of Escherichia coli bacteria. We also reveal that this function does not involve a direct interaction of AgNimB2 with S. aureus. Therefore, AgNimB2 may act downstream of complement-like pathway activation, first requiring bacterial opsonization. In addition, it has been shown that AgNimB2 has an anti-Plasmodium effect. Conversely, AgEater is a membrane-bound protein that either functions redundantly or is dispensable for phagocytosis of E. coli or S. aureus. Our study provides insights into the role of members of the complex Nimrod superfamily in An. gambiae, the most important African vector of human malaria. PMID:24428830

  1. Immunoglobulin superfamily members encoded by viruses and their multiple roles in immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Farré, Domènec; Martínez-Vicente, Pablo; Engel, Pablo; Angulo, Ana

    2017-05-01

    Pathogens have developed a plethora of strategies to undermine host immune defenses in order to guarantee their survival. For large DNA viruses, these immune evasion mechanisms frequently rely on the expression of genes acquired from host genomes. Horizontally transferred genes include members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, whose products constitute the most diverse group of proteins of vertebrate genomes. Their promiscuous immunoglobulin domains, which comprise the building blocks of these molecules, are involved in a large variety of functions mediated by ligand-binding interactions. The flexible structural nature of the immunoglobulin domains makes them appealing targets for viral capture due to their capacity to generate high functional diversity. Here, we present an up-to-date review of immunoglobulin superfamily gene homologs encoded by herpesviruses, poxviruses, and adenoviruses, that include CD200, CD47, Fc receptors, interleukin-1 receptor 2, interleukin-18 binding protein, CD80, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules, and signaling lymphocyte activation molecules. We discuss their distinct structural attributes, binding properties, and functions, shaped by evolutionary pressures to disarm specific immune pathways. We include several novel genes identified from extensive genome database surveys. An understanding of the properties and modes of action of these viral proteins may guide the development of novel immune-modulatory therapeutic tools. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The intriguing biology of the tumour necrosis factor/tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily: players, rules and the games.

    PubMed

    Hehlgans, Thomas; Pfeffer, Klaus

    2005-05-01

    The members of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)/tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily are critically involved in the maintenance of homeostasis of the immune system. The biological functions of this system encompass beneficial and protective effects in inflammation and host defence as well as a crucial role in organogenesis. At the same time, members of this superfamily are responsible for host damaging effects in sepsis, cachexia, and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes recent progress in the immunobiology of the TNF/TNFR superfamily focusing on results obtained from animal studies using gene targeted mice. The different modes of signalling pathways affecting cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune organ development as well as host defence are reviewed. Molecular and cellular mechanisms that demonstrate a therapeutic potential by targeting individual receptors or ligands for the treatment of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases are discussed.

  3. Evolutionary history, structural features and biochemical diversity of the NlpC/P60 superfamily of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Anantharaman, Vivek; Aravind, L

    2003-01-01

    Peptidoglycan is hydrolyzed by a diverse set of enzymes during bacterial growth, development and cell division. The N1pC/P60 proteins define a family of cell-wall peptidases that are widely represented in various bacterial lineages. Currently characterized members are known to hydrolyze D-gamma-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate or N-acetylmuramate-L-alanine linkages. Detailed analysis of the N1pC/P60 peptidases showed that these proteins define a large superfamily encompassing several diverse groups of proteins. In addition to the well characterized P60-like proteins, this superfamily includes the AcmB/LytN and YaeF/YiiX families of bacterial proteins, the amidase domain of bacterial and kinetoplastid glutathionylspermidine synthases (GSPSs), and several proteins from eukaryotes, phages, poxviruses, positive-strand RNA viruses, and certain archaea. The eukaryotic members include lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), nematode developmental regulator Egl-26, and candidate tumor suppressor H-rev107. These eukaryotic proteins, along with the bacterial YaeF/poxviral G6R family, show a circular permutation of the catalytic domain. We identified three conserved residues, namely a cysteine, a histidine and a polar residue, that are involved in the catalytic activities of this superfamily. Evolutionary analysis of this superfamily shows that it comprises four major families, with diverse domain architectures in each of them. Several related, but distinct, catalytic activities, such as murein degradation, acyl transfer and amide hydrolysis, have emerged in the N1pC/P60 superfamily. The three conserved catalytic residues of this superfamily are shown to be equivalent to the catalytic triad of the papain-like thiol peptidases. The predicted structural features indicate that the N1pC/P60 enzymes contain a fold similar to the papain-like peptidases, transglutaminases and arylamine acetyltransferases.

  4. Ensembler: Enabling High-Throughput Molecular Simulations at the Superfamily Scale.

    PubMed

    Parton, Daniel L; Grinaway, Patrick B; Hanson, Sonya M; Beauchamp, Kyle A; Chodera, John D

    2016-06-01

    The rapidly expanding body of available genomic and protein structural data provides a rich resource for understanding protein dynamics with biomolecular simulation. While computational infrastructure has grown rapidly, simulations on an omics scale are not yet widespread, primarily because software infrastructure to enable simulations at this scale has not kept pace. It should now be possible to study protein dynamics across entire (super)families, exploiting both available structural biology data and conformational similarities across homologous proteins. Here, we present a new tool for enabling high-throughput simulation in the genomics era. Ensembler takes any set of sequences-from a single sequence to an entire superfamily-and shepherds them through various stages of modeling and refinement to produce simulation-ready structures. This includes comparative modeling to all relevant PDB structures (which may span multiple conformational states of interest), reconstruction of missing loops, addition of missing atoms, culling of nearly identical structures, assignment of appropriate protonation states, solvation in explicit solvent, and refinement and filtering with molecular simulation to ensure stable simulation. The output of this pipeline is an ensemble of structures ready for subsequent molecular simulations using computer clusters, supercomputers, or distributed computing projects like Folding@home. Ensembler thus automates much of the time-consuming process of preparing protein models suitable for simulation, while allowing scalability up to entire superfamilies. A particular advantage of this approach can be found in the construction of kinetic models of conformational dynamics-such as Markov state models (MSMs)-which benefit from a diverse array of initial configurations that span the accessible conformational states to aid sampling. We demonstrate the power of this approach by constructing models for all catalytic domains in the human tyrosine kinase

  5. Sequence-based protein superfamily classification using computational intelligence techniques: a review.

    PubMed

    Vipsita, Swati; Rath, Santanu Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Protein superfamily classification deals with the problem of predicting the family membership of newly discovered amino acid sequence. Although many trivial alignment methods are already developed by previous researchers, but the present trend demands the application of computational intelligent techniques. As there is an exponential growth in size of biological database, retrieval and inference of essential knowledge in the biological domain become a very cumbersome task. This problem can be easily handled using intelligent techniques due to their ability of tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty, approximate reasoning, and partial truth. This paper discusses the various global and local features extracted from full length protein sequence which are used for the approximation and generalisation of the classifier. The various parameters used for evaluating the performance of the classifiers are also discussed. Therefore, this review article can show right directions to the present researchers to make an improvement over the existing methods.

  6. Biocuration in the structure-function linkage database: the anatomy of a superfamily.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Gemma L; Brown, Shoshana D; Akiva, Eyal; Mischel, David; Hicks, Michael A; Morris, John H; Huang, Conrad C; Meng, Elaine C; Pegg, Scott C-H; Ferrin, Thomas E; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2017-01-01

    With ever-increasing amounts of sequence data available in both the primary literature and sequence repositories, there is a bottleneck in annotating molecular function to a sequence. This article describes the biocuration process and methods used in the structure-function linkage database (SFLD) to help address some of the challenges. We discuss how the hierarchy within the SFLD allows us to infer detailed functional properties for functionally diverse enzyme superfamilies in which all members are homologous, conserve an aspect of their chemical function and have associated conserved structural features that enable the chemistry. Also presented is the Enzyme Structure-Function Ontology (ESFO), which has been designed to capture the relationships between enzyme sequence, structure and function that underlie the SFLD and is used to guide the biocuration processes within the SFLD. http://sfld.rbvi.ucsf.edu/. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Phi Class of Glutathione S-transferase Gene Superfamily Widely Exists in Nonplant Taxonomic Groups.

    PubMed

    Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes involved in detoxification of noxious compounds and protection against oxidative damage. GST class Phi (GSTF), one of the important classes of plant GSTs, has long been considered as plant specific but was recently found in basidiomycete fungi. However, the range of nonplant taxonomic groups containing GSTFs remains unknown. In this study, the distribution and phylogenetic relationships of nonplant GSTFs were investigated. We identified GSTFs in ascomycete fungi, myxobacteria, and protists Naegleria gruberi and Aureococcus anophagefferens. GSTF occurrence in these bacteria and protists correlated with their genome sizes and habitats. While this link was missing across ascomycetes, the distribution and abundance of GSTFs among ascomycete genomes could be associated with their lifestyles to some extent. Sequence comparison, gene structure, and phylogenetic analyses indicated divergence among nonplant GSTFs, suggesting polyphyletic origins during evolution. Furthermore, in silico prediction of functional partners suggested functional diversification among nonplant GSTFs.

  8. Phi Class of Glutathione S-transferase Gene Superfamily Widely Exists in Nonplant Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes involved in detoxification of noxious compounds and protection against oxidative damage. GST class Phi (GSTF), one of the important classes of plant GSTs, has long been considered as plant specific but was recently found in basidiomycete fungi. However, the range of nonplant taxonomic groups containing GSTFs remains unknown. In this study, the distribution and phylogenetic relationships of nonplant GSTFs were investigated. We identified GSTFs in ascomycete fungi, myxobacteria, and protists Naegleria gruberi and Aureococcus anophagefferens. GSTF occurrence in these bacteria and protists correlated with their genome sizes and habitats. While this link was missing across ascomycetes, the distribution and abundance of GSTFs among ascomycete genomes could be associated with their lifestyles to some extent. Sequence comparison, gene structure, and phylogenetic analyses indicated divergence among nonplant GSTFs, suggesting polyphyletic origins during evolution. Furthermore, in silico prediction of functional partners suggested functional diversification among nonplant GSTFs. PMID:26884677

  9. Structure of the periplasmic adaptor protein from a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) multidrug efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Hinchliffe, Philip; Greene, Nicholas P; Paterson, Neil G; Crow, Allister; Hughes, Colin; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2014-08-25

    Periplasmic adaptor proteins are key components of bacterial tripartite efflux pumps. The 2.85 Å resolution structure of an MFS (major facilitator superfamily) pump adaptor, Aquifex aeolicus EmrA, shows linearly arranged α-helical coiled-coil, lipoyl, and β-barrel domains, but lacks the fourth membrane-proximal domain shown in other pumps to interact with the inner membrane transporter. The adaptor α-hairpin, which binds outer membrane TolC, is exceptionally long at 127 Å, and the β-barrel contains a conserved disordered loop. The structure extends the view of adaptors as flexible, modular components that mediate diverse pump assembly, and suggests that in MFS tripartite pumps a hexamer of adaptors could provide a periplasmic seal. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Proton-coupled sugar transport in the prototypical major facilitator superfamily protein XylE

    PubMed Central

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Park, Min-Sun; Iadanza, Matthew G.; Zheng, Hongjin; Gonen, Tamir

    2014-01-01

    The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is the largest collection of structurally related membrane proteins that transport a wide array of substrates. The proton-coupled sugar transporter XylE is the first member of the MFS that has been structurally characterized in multiple transporting conformations, including both the outward and inward-facing states. Here we report the crystal structure of XylE in a new inward-facing open conformation, allowing us to visualize the rocker-switch movement of the N-domain against the C-domain during the transport cycle. Using molecular dynamics simulation, and functional transport assays, we describe the movement of XylE that facilitates sugar translocation across a lipid membrane and identify the likely candidate proton-coupling residues as the conserved Asp27 and Arg133. This study addresses the structural basis for proton-coupled substrate transport and release mechanism for the sugar porter family of proteins. PMID:25088546

  11. Presence of Foraminifera of Superfamily Komokioidea (Order Astrorhizida) in Colombian deep Caribbean waters.

    PubMed

    Tavera-Martínez, Laura; Marchant, Margarita

    2017-10-20

    Research regarding deep-sea benthic foraminifera in the Colombian Caribbean requires further development given the complete lack of information related to the different groups that constitute associations and the ecological functions they fulfill. For this purpose, a taxonomic description of Superfamily Komokioidea was composed from macrofauna samples from between 1,215 m and 3,179 m depth, obtained during the research cruise ANH-COL 4 and COL 5 carried out in 2014. Results showed foraminifera belonging to the three families: Komokiidae, Baculellidae, and Normaninidae, inclu-ding five genera (Lana, Komokia, Ipoa, Normaninam, and Catena) and five species (Lana neglecta, Komokia multiramosa, Normanina conferta, Ipoa fragila, and Catena piriformis). This study presents knowledge regarding deep-sea Colombian Caribbean benthic foraminifera, which to date have not been recorded from this region. Their depth distribution when compared with other studies from the Atlantic and Pacific, allows the expansion of taxonomic inventories and the characterization of biodiversity within poorly explored regions.

  12. Identification of the S-transferase like superfamily bacillithiol transferases encoded by Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Varahenage R.; Lapek, John D.; Newton, Gerald L.; Gonzalez, David J.; Pogliano, Kit

    2018-01-01

    Bacillithiol is a low molecular weight thiol found in Firmicutes that is analogous to glutathione, which is absent in these bacteria. Bacillithiol transferases catalyze the transfer of bacillithiol to various substrates. The S-transferase-like (STL) superfamily contains over 30,000 putative members, including bacillithiol transferases. Proteins in this family are extremely divergent and are related by structural rather than sequence similarity, leaving it unclear if all share the same biochemical activity. Bacillus subtilis encodes eight predicted STL superfamily members, only one of which has been shown to be a bacillithiol transferase. Here we find that the seven remaining proteins show varying levels of metal dependent bacillithiol transferase activity. We have renamed the eight enzymes BstA-H. Mass spectrometry and gene expression studies revealed that all of the enzymes are produced to varying levels during growth and sporulation, with BstB and BstE being the most abundant and BstF and BstH being the least abundant. Interestingly, several bacillithiol transferases are induced in the mother cell during sporulation. A strain lacking all eight bacillithiol transferases showed normal growth in the presence of stressors that adversely affect growth of bacillithiol-deficient strains, such as paraquat and CdCl2. Thus, the STL bacillithiol transferases represent a new group of proteins that play currently unknown, but potentially significant roles in bacillithiol-dependent reactions. We conclude that these enzymes are highly divergent, perhaps to cope with an equally diverse array of endogenous or exogenous toxic metabolites and oxidants. PMID:29451913

  13. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Brocker, Chad; Vasiliou, Melpomene; Carpenter, Sarah; Carpenter, Christopher; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Wood, Andrew J.; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Kopečný, David; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of completely sequenced plant genomes. The comparison of fully sequenced genomes allows for identification of new gene family members, as well as comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily comprises a group of enzymes involved in the NAD+- or NADP+-dependent conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. ALDH enzymes are involved in processing many aldehydes that serve as biogenic intermediates in a wide range of metabolic pathways. In addition, many of these enzymes function as ‘aldehyde scavengers’ by removing reactive aldehydes generated during the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. Plants and animals share many ALDH families, and many genes are highly conserved between these two evolutionarily distinct groups. Conversely, both plants and animals also contain unique ALDH genes and families. Herein we carried outgenome-wide identification of ALDH genes in a number of plant species—including Arabidopsis thaliana (thale crest), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular algae), Oryza sativa (rice), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and Zea mays (maize). These data were then combined with previous analysis of Populus trichocarpa (poplar tree), Selaginella moellindorffii (gemmiferous spikemoss), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Volvox carteri (colonial algae) for a comprehensive evolutionary comparison of the plant ALDH superfamily. As a result, newly identified genes can be more easily analyzed and gene names can be assigned according to current nomenclature guidelines; our goal is to clarify previously confusing and conflicting names and classifications that might confound results and prevent accurate comparisons between studies. PMID:23007552

  14. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Brocker, Chad; Vasiliou, Melpomene; Carpenter, Sarah; Carpenter, Christopher; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Wood, Andrew J; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Kopečný, David; Nebert, Daniel W; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of completely sequenced plant genomes. The comparison of fully sequenced genomes allows for identification of new gene family members, as well as comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily comprises a group of enzymes involved in the NAD(+)- or NADP(+)-dependent conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. ALDH enzymes are involved in processing many aldehydes that serve as biogenic intermediates in a wide range of metabolic pathways. In addition, many of these enzymes function as 'aldehyde scavengers' by removing reactive aldehydes generated during the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. Plants and animals share many ALDH families, and many genes are highly conserved between these two evolutionarily distinct groups. Conversely, both plants and animals also contain unique ALDH genes and families. Herein we carried out genome-wide identification of ALDH genes in a number of plant species-including Arabidopsis thaliana (thale crest), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular algae), Oryza sativa (rice), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and Zea mays (maize). These data were then combined with previous analysis of Populus trichocarpa (poplar tree), Selaginella moellindorffii (gemmiferous spikemoss), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Volvox carteri (colonial algae) for a comprehensive evolutionary comparison of the plant ALDH superfamily. As a result, newly identified genes can be more easily analyzed and gene names can be assigned according to current nomenclature guidelines; our goal is to clarify previously confusing and conflicting names and classifications that might confound results and prevent accurate comparisons between studies.

  15. Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Bo-Young; Kim, Hui-Su; Lee, Min Chul; Kyung, Do-Hyun; Om, Ae-Son; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-11-18

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large superfamily of proteins defined by a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). They function as transcriptional regulators to control expression of genes involved in development, homeostasis, and metabolism. The number of NRs differs from species to species, because of gene duplications and/or lineage-specific gene losses during metazoan evolution. Many NRs in arthropods interact with the ecdysteroid hormone and are involved in ecdysone-mediated signaling in arthropods. The nuclear receptor superfamily complement has been reported in several arthropods, including crustaceans, but not in copepods. We identified the entire NR repertoire of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, which is an important marine model species for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics. Using whole genome and transcriptome sequences, we identified a total of 31 nuclear receptors in the genome of T. japonicus. Nomenclature of the nuclear receptors was determined based on the sequence similarities of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD). The 7 subfamilies of NRs separate into five major clades (subfamilies NR1, NR2, NR3, NR4, and NR5/6). Although the repertoire of NR members in, T. japonicus was similar to that reported for other arthropods, there was an expansion of the NR1 subfamily in Tigriopus japonicus. The twelve unique nuclear receptors identified in T. japonicus are members of NR1L. This expansion may be a unique lineage-specific feature of crustaceans. Interestingly, E78 and HR83, which are present in other arthropods, were absent from the genomes of T. japonicus and two congeneric copepod species (T. japonicus and Tigriopus californicus), suggesting copepod lineage-specific gene loss. We identified all NR receptors present in the copepod, T. japonicus. Knowledge of the copepod nuclear receptor repertoire will contribute to a better understanding of copepod- and crustacean-specific NR evolution.

  16. Structural and functional aspects of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase condensation domain superfamily: discovery, dissection and diversity.

    PubMed

    Bloudoff, Kristjan; Schmeing, T Martin

    2017-11-01

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are incredible macromolecular machines that produce a wide range of biologically- and therapeutically-relevant molecules. During synthesis, peptide elongation is performed by the condensation (C) domain, as it catalyzes amide bond formation between the nascent peptide and the amino acid it adds to the chain. Since their discovery more than two decades ago, C domains have been subject to extensive biochemical, bioinformatic, mutagenic, and structural analyses. They are composed of two lobes, each with homology to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, have two binding sites for their two peptidyl carrier protein-bound ligands, and have an active site with conserved motif HHxxxDG located between the two lobes. This review discusses some of the important insights into the structure, catalytic mechanism, specificity, and gatekeeping functions of C domains revealed since their discovery. In addition, C domains are the archetypal members of the C domain superfamily, which includes several other members that also function as NRPS domains. The other family members can replace the C domain in NRP synthesis, can work in concert with a C domain, or can fulfill diverse and novel functions. These domains include the epimerization (E) domain, the heterocyclization (Cy) domain, the ester-bond forming C domain, the fungal NRPS terminal C domain (C T ), the β-lactam ring forming C domain, and the X domain. We also discuss structural and function insight into C, E, Cy, C T and X domains, to present a holistic overview of historical and current knowledge of the C domain superfamily. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biophysics in Canada, edited by Lewis Kay, John Baenziger, Albert Berghuis and Peter Tieleman. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Extending the family table: insights into the FGF superfamily from beyond vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Fibroblast Growth Factors much focus has been placed on elucidating the roles for each vertebrate FGF ligand, receptor, and regulating molecules in the context of vertebrate development, human disorders and cancer. Studies in human, mouse, Xenopus, chick, and zebrafish have gone a long way to help us understand [AS1]which FGFs are involved in which processes. However, in recent years, as more genomes are sequenced, more information is becoming available from many non-vertebrate models and a more complete picture of the FGF superfamily as a whole is emerging. In some cases less redundancy in the FGF signaling system in invertebrate models may allow for more mechanistic insights. Studies in cnidaria have highlighted how ancient FGF signaling is, and helped provide insight into the evolution of the FGF gene family. Work in C. elegans has shown that different splice forms can be used for functional specificity in invertebrate FGF signaling. Comparing FGFs from Ciona to those in vertebrates and FGFs from Tribolium to Drosophila reveals some important clues as to the process of gene loss, duplication and subfunctionalization of FGFs throughout evolution. Finally, comparing all members of the FGF ligand superfamily reveals variability in many properties, which may point to a feature of FGFs as being highly adaptable with regards to protein structure and mechanism. Further studies on FGF signaling outside of vertebrates is likely to complement work in vertebrates by contributing many insights to the FGF field as a whole and providing unexpected information that could be used for medical applications. PMID:20860061

  18. The CDI toxin of Yersinia kristensenii is a novel bacterial member of the RNase A superfamily

    SciT

    Batot, Gaëlle; Michalska, Karolina; Ekberg, Greg

    Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is an important mechanism of inter-bacterial competition found in many Gram-negative pathogens. CDI+ cells express cell-surface CdiA proteins that bind neighboring bacteria and deliver C-terminal toxin domains (CdiA-CT) to inhibit target-cell growth. CDI+ bacteria also produce CdiI immunity proteins, which specifically neutralize cognate CdiA-CT toxins to prevent self-inhibition. Here, we present the crystal structure of the CdiA-CT/CdiI(Ykris) complex from Yersinia kris-tensenii ATCC 33638. CdiA-CTYkris adopts the same fold as angiogenin and other RNase A paralogs, but the toxin does not share sequence similarity with these nucleases and lacks the characteristic disulfide bonds of the superfamily. Consistentmore » with the structural homology, CdiA-CTYkris has potent RNase activity in vitro and in vivo. Structure-guided mutagenesis reveals that His175, Arg186, Thr276 and Tyr278 contribute to CdiA-CTYkris activity, suggesting that these residues participate in substrate binding and/or catalysis. CdiI(Ykris) binds directly over the putative active site and likely neutralizes toxicity by blocking access to RNA substrates. Significantly, CdiA-CTYkris is the first non-vertebrate protein found to possess the RNase A superfamily fold, and homologs of this toxin are associated with secretion systems in many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. These observations suggest that RNase Alike toxins are commonly deployed in inter-bacterial competition.« less

  19. Evolutionary insight into the ionotropic glutamate receptor superfamily of photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    De Bortoli, Sara; Teardo, Enrico; Szabò, Ildikò; Morosinotto, Tomas; Alboresi, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    Photosynthetic eukaryotes have a complex evolutionary history shaped by multiple endosymbiosis events that required a tight coordination between the organelles and the rest of the cell. Plant ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGLRs) form a large superfamily of proteins with a predicted or proven non-selective cation channel activity regulated by a broad range of amino acids. They are involved in different physiological processes such as C/N sensing, resistance against fungal infection, root and pollen tube growth and response to wounding and pathogens. Most of the present knowledge is limited to iGLRs located in plasma membranes. However, recent studies localized different iGLR isoforms to mitochondria and/or chloroplasts, suggesting the possibility that they play a specific role in bioenergetic processes. In this work, we performed a comparative analysis of GLR sequences from bacteria and various photosynthetic eukaryotes. In particular, novel types of selectivity filters of bacteria are reported adding new examples of the great diversity of the GLR superfamily. The highest variability in GLR sequences was found among the algal sequences (cryptophytes, diatoms, brown and green algae). GLRs of land plants are not closely related to the GLRs of green algae analyzed in this work. The GLR family underwent a great expansion in vascular plants. Among plant GLRs, Clade III includes sequences from Physcomitrella patens, Marchantia polymorpha and gymnosperms and can be considered the most ancient, while other clades likely emerged later. In silico analysis allowed the identification of sequences with a putative target to organelles. Sequences with a predicted localization to mitochondria and chloroplasts are randomly distributed among different type of GLRs, suggesting that no compartment-related specific function has been maintained across the species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phospholipase A2 superfamily members play divergent roles after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    López-Vales, Rubèn; Ghasemlou, Nader; Redensek, Adriana; Kerr, Bradley J.; Barbayianni, Efrosini; Antonopoulou, Georgia; Baskakis, Constantinos; Rathore, Khizr I.; Constantinou-Kokotou, Violetta; Stephens, Daren; Shimizu, Takao; Dennis, Edward A.; Kokotos, George; David, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor functions. A significant aspect of the tissue damage and functional loss may be preventable as it occurs, secondary to the trauma. We show that the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily plays important roles in SCI. PLA2 enzymes hydrolyze membrane glycerophospholipids to yield a free fatty acid and lysophospholipid. Some free fatty acids (arachidonic acid) give rise to eicosanoids that promote inflammation, while some lysophospholipids (lysophosphatidylcholine) cause demyelination. We show in a mouse model of SCI that two cytosolic forms [calcium-dependent PLA2 group IVA (cPLA2 GIVA) and calcium-independent PLA2 group VIA (iPLA2 GVIA)], and a secreted form [secreted PLA2 group IIA (sPLA2 GIIA)] are up-regulated. Using selective inhibitors and null mice, we show that these PLA2s play differing roles. cPLA2 GIVA mediates protection, whereas sPLA2 GIIA and, to a lesser extent, iPLA2 GVIA are detrimental. Furthermore, completely blocking all three PLA2s worsens outcome, while the most beneficial effects are seen by partial inhibition of all three. The partial inhibitor enhances expression of cPLA2 and mediates its beneficial effects via the prostaglandin EP1 receptor. These findings indicate that drugs that inhibit detrimental forms of PLA2 (sPLA2 and iPLA2) and up-regulate the protective form (cPLA2) may be useful for the treatment of SCI.—López-Vales, R., Ghasemlou, N., Redensek, A., Kerr, B. J., Barbayianni, E., Antonopoulou, G., Baskakis, C., Rathore, K. I., Constantinou-Kokotou, V., Stephens, D., Shimizu, T., Dennis, E. A., Kokotos, G., David, S. Phospholipase A2 superfamily members play divergent roles after spinal cord injury. PMID:21868473

  1. An orphan viral TNF receptor superfamily member identified in lymphocystis disease virus.

    PubMed

    Pontejo, Sergio M; Sánchez, Carolina; Martín, Rocío; Mulero, Victoriano; Alcami, Antonio; Alejo, Alí

    2013-06-07

    Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) is a large icosahedral dsDNA-containing virus of the Lymphocystivirus genus within the Iridoviridae family that can cause disease in more than 140 marine and freshwater fish species. While several isolates have been charcaterized and classified into distinct genotypes the complete genomic sequence is currently only available from two species, the LCDV-1, isolated from flounder (Platichtys flesus) in Europe and the LCDV-C, isolated from Japanese cultured flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in China. Analysis of the genome of LCDV-C showed it to encode a protein named LDVICp016 with similarities to the Tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily with immunomodulatory potential. We have expressed and purified the recombinant protein LDVICp016 and screened for potential interaction partners using surface plasmon resonance. Commercially available human and mouse members of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF), along with a representative set of fish-derived TNFSF were tested.We have found the LDVICp016 protein to be secreted and we have identified a second viral TNFR encoded by ORF 095 of the same virus. None of the 42 tested proteins were found to interact with LDVICp016. We show that LDVICp016 is a secreted protein belonging to the TNF receptor family that may be part of a larger gene family in Lymphocystiviruses. While the ligand of this protein remains unknown, possibly due to the species specific nature of this interaction, further investigations into the potential role of this protein in the blockade of immune responses in its fish host are required.

  2. An orphan viral TNF receptor superfamily member identified in lymphocystis disease virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) is a large icosahedral dsDNA-containing virus of the Lymphocystivirus genus within the Iridoviridae family that can cause disease in more than 140 marine and freshwater fish species. While several isolates have been charcaterized and classified into distinct genotypes the complete genomic sequence is currently only available from two species, the LCDV-1, isolated from flounder (Platichtys flesus) in Europe and the LCDV-C, isolated from Japanese cultured flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in China. Analysis of the genome of LCDV-C showed it to encode a protein named LDVICp016 with similarities to the Tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily with immunomodulatory potential. Findings We have expressed and purified the recombinant protein LDVICp016 and screened for potential interaction partners using surface plasmon resonance. Commercially available human and mouse members of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF), along with a representative set of fish-derived TNFSF were tested. We have found the LDVICp016 protein to be secreted and we have identified a second viral TNFR encoded by ORF 095 of the same virus. None of the 42 tested proteins were found to interact with LDVICp016. Conclusions We show that LDVICp016 is a secreted protein belonging to the TNF receptor family that may be part of a larger gene family in Lymphocystiviruses. While the ligand of this protein remains unknown, possibly due to the species specific nature of this interaction, further investigations into the potential role of this protein in the blockade of immune responses in its fish host are required. PMID:23758704

  3. NOVEL ASSAY TO ASSESS CYP-2E1-LIKE ACTIVITY IN THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liver microsomes and S-9 fraction of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) metabolized the CYP2E1 specific substrate, p-nitrophenol (PNP), to a single hydroxylated product, 4-nitrocatechol. The use of liver S-9 fraction proved to be a viable alternative to liver microsomes and allowe...

  4. Experiment Pamir-2. Fianit: A giant super-family with halo (Epsilon sub 0 at approximately 10(17) eV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zatsepin, G. T.

    1985-01-01

    A superfamily with halo of extremely high energy named Fianit was recorded in X-ray emulsion chamber (XEC) at the Pamirs (atmospheric depth 600 g/sq.cm.). Detailed description of the superfamily and results of its analysis are presented.

  5. The Glutathione-S-Transferase, Cytochrome P450 and Carboxyl/Cholinesterase Gene Superfamilies in Predatory Mite Metaseiulus occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Marjorie A.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide-resistant populations of the predatory mite Metaseiulus (= Typhlodromus or Galendromus) occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae) have been used in the biological control of pest mites such as phytophagous Tetranychus urticae. However, the pesticide resistance mechanisms in M. occidentalis remain largely unknown. In other arthropods, members of the glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 (CYP) and carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE) gene superfamilies are involved in the diverse biological pathways such as the metabolism of xenobiotics (e.g. pesticides) in addition to hormonal and chemosensory processes. In the current study, we report the identification and initial characterization of 123 genes in the GST, CYP and CCE superfamilies in the recently sequenced M. occidentalis genome. The gene count represents a reduction of 35% compared to T. urticae. The distribution of genes in the GST and CCE superfamilies in M. occidentalis differs significantly from those of insects and resembles that of T. urticae. Specifically, we report the presence of the Mu class GSTs, and the J’ and J” clade CCEs that, within the Arthropoda, appear unique to Acari. Interestingly, the majority of CCEs in the J’ and J” clades contain a catalytic triad, suggesting that they are catalytically active. They likely represent two Acari-specific CCE clades that may participate in detoxification of xenobiotics. The current study of genes in these superfamilies provides preliminary insights into the potential molecular components that may be involved in pesticide metabolism as well as hormonal/chemosensory processes in the agriculturally important M. occidentalis. PMID:27467523

  6. The major facilitator superfamily transporter Knq1p modulates boron homeostasis in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Svrbicka, Alexandra; Toth Hervay, Nora; Gbelska, Yvetta

    2016-03-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for living cells, yet its excess causes toxicity. To date, the mechanisms of boron toxicity are poorly understood. Recently, the ScATR1 gene has been identified encoding the main boron efflux pump in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we analyzed the ScATR1 ortholog in Kluyveromyces lactis--the KNQ1 gene, to understand whether it participates in boron stress tolerance. We found that the KNQ1 gene, encoding a permease belonging to the major facilitator superfamily, is required for K. lactis boron tolerance. Deletion of the KNQ1 gene led to boron sensitivity and its overexpression increased K. lactis boron tolerance. The KNQ1 expression was induced by boron and the intracellular boron concentration was controlled by Knq1p. The KNQ1 promoter contains two putative binding motifs for the AP-1-like transcription factor KlYap1p playing a central role in oxidative stress defense. Our results indicate that the induction of the KNQ1 expression requires the presence of KlYap1p and that Knq1p like its ortholog ScAtr1p in S. cerevisiae functions as a boron efflux pump providing boron resistance in K. lactis.

  7. Characterization of a Novel Conus bandanus Conopeptide Belonging to the M-Superfamily Containing Bromotryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Bao; Le Caer, Jean-Pierre; Mourier, Gilles; Thai, Robert; Lamthanh, Hung; Servent, Denis; Benoit, Evelyne; Molgó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    A novel conotoxin (conopeptide) was biochemically characterized from the crude venom of the molluscivorous marine snail, Conus bandanus (Hwass in Bruguière, 1792), collected in the south-central coast of Vietnam. The peptide was identified by screening bromotryptophan from chromatographic fractions of the crude venom. Tandem mass spectrometry techniques were used to detect and localize different post-translational modifications (PTMs) present in the BnIIID conopeptide. The sequence was confirmed by Edman’s degradation and mass spectrometry revealing that the purified BnIIID conopeptide had 15 amino acid residues, with six cysteines at positions 1, 2, 7, 11, 13, and 14, and three PTMs: bromotryptophan, γ-carboxy glutamate, and amidated aspartic acid, at positions “4”, “5”, and “15”, respectively. The BnIIID peptide was synthesized for comparison with the native peptide. Homology comparison with conopeptides having the III-cysteine framework (–CCx1x2x3x4Cx1x2x3Cx1CC–) revealed that BnIIID belongs to the M-1 family of conotoxins. This is the first report of a member of the M-superfamily containing bromotryptophan as PTM. PMID:24905483

  8. Eukaryotic major facilitator superfamily transporter modeling based on the prokaryotic GlpT crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, M Joanne

    2007-01-01

    The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of transporters represents the largest family of secondary active transporters and has a diverse range of substrates. With structural information for four MFS transporters, we can see a strong structural commonality suggesting, as predicted, a common architecture for MFS transporters. The rate for crystal structure determination of MFS transporters is slow, making modeling of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic transporters more enticing. In this review, models of eukaryotic transporters Glut1, G6PT, OCT1, OCT2 and Pho84, based on the crystal structures of the prokaryotic GlpT, based on the crystal structure of LacY are discussed. The techniques used to generate the different models are compared. In addition, the validity of these models and the strategy of using prokaryotic crystal structures to model eukaryotic proteins are discussed. For comparison, E. coli GlpT was modeled based on the E. coli LacY structure and compared to the crystal structure of GlpT demonstrating that experimental evidence is essential for accurate modeling of membrane proteins.

  9. Vitamin D Inhibits COX-2 Expression and Inflammatory Response by Targeting Thioesterase Superfamily Member 4*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingsong; He, Yuhu; Shen, Yujun; Zhang, Qianqian; Chen, Di; Zuo, Caojian; Qin, Jing; Wang, Hui; Wang, Junwen; Yu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX) isoform COX-2 has been involved in the pathogenesis of such chronic inflammatory diseases. We found that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D produces dose-dependent inhibition of COX-2 expression in murine macrophages under both basal and LPS-stimulated conditions and suppresses proinflammatory mediators induced by LPS. Administration of 1,25(OH)2D significantly alleviated local inflammation in a carrageenan-induced paw edema mouse model. Strikingly, the phosphorylation of both Akt and its downstream target IκBα in macrophages were markedly suppressed by 1,25(OH)2D in the presence and absence of LPS stimulation through up-regulation of THEM4 (thioesterase superfamily member 4), an Akt modulator protein. Knockdown of both vitamin D receptor and THEM4 attenuated the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D on COX-2 expression in macrophages. A functional vitamin D-responsive element in the THEM4 promoter was identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assay. Our results indicate that vitamin D restrains macrophage-mediated inflammatory processes by suppressing the Akt/NF-κB/COX-2 pathway, suggesting that vitamin D supplementation might be utilized for adjunctive therapy for inflammatory disease. PMID:24619416

  10. Stonefish toxin defines an ancient branch of the perforin-like superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Reboul, Cyril F.; Huynh, Kitmun; Oellig, Christine A.; Winter, Kelly L.; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Seymour, Jamie; Dearden, Peter K.; Tweten, Rodney K.; Whisstock, James C.; McGowan, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    The lethal factor in stonefish venom is stonustoxin (SNTX), a heterodimeric cytolytic protein that induces cardiovascular collapse in humans and native predators. Here, using X-ray crystallography, we make the unexpected finding that SNTX is a pore-forming member of an ancient branch of the Membrane Attack Complex-Perforin/Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) superfamily. SNTX comprises two homologous subunits (α and β), each of which comprises an N-terminal pore-forming MACPF/CDC domain, a central focal adhesion-targeting domain, a thioredoxin domain, and a C-terminal tripartite motif family-like PRY SPla and the RYanodine Receptor immune recognition domain. Crucially, the structure reveals that the two MACPF domains are in complex with one another and arranged into a stable early prepore-like assembly. These data provide long sought after near-atomic resolution insights into how MACPF/CDC proteins assemble into prepores on the surface of membranes. Furthermore, our analyses reveal that SNTX-like MACPF/CDCs are distributed throughout eukaryotic life and play a broader, possibly immune-related function outside venom. PMID:26627714

  11. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil.

  12. Cache domains that are homologous to, but different from PAS domains comprise the largest superfamily of extracellular sensors in prokaryotes

    DOE PAGES

    Upadhyay, Amit A.; Fleetwood, Aaron D.; Adebali, Ogun; ...

    2016-04-06

    Cellular receptors usually contain a designated sensory domain that recognizes the signal. Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) domains are ubiquitous sensors in thousands of species ranging from bacteria to humans. Although PAS domains were described as intracellular sensors, recent structural studies revealed PAS-like domains in extracytoplasmic regions in several transmembrane receptors. However, these structurally defined extracellular PAS-like domains do not match sequence-derived PAS domain models, and thus their distribution across the genomic landscape remains largely unknown. Here we show that structurally defined extracellular PAS-like domains belong to the Cache superfamily, which is homologous to, but distinct from the PAS superfamily. Our newly builtmore » computational models enabled identification of Cache domains in tens of thousands of signal transduction proteins including those from important pathogens and model organisms.Moreover, we show that Cache domains comprise the dominant mode of extracellular sensing in prokaryotes.« less

  13. Cache domains that are homologous to, but different from PAS domains comprise the largest superfamily of extracellular sensors in prokaryotes

    SciT

    Upadhyay, Amit A.; Fleetwood, Aaron D.; Adebali, Ogun

    Cellular receptors usually contain a designated sensory domain that recognizes the signal. Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) domains are ubiquitous sensors in thousands of species ranging from bacteria to humans. Although PAS domains were described as intracellular sensors, recent structural studies revealed PAS-like domains in extracytoplasmic regions in several transmembrane receptors. However, these structurally defined extracellular PAS-like domains do not match sequence-derived PAS domain models, and thus their distribution across the genomic landscape remains largely unknown. Here we show that structurally defined extracellular PAS-like domains belong to the Cache superfamily, which is homologous to, but distinct from the PAS superfamily. Our newly builtmore » computational models enabled identification of Cache domains in tens of thousands of signal transduction proteins including those from important pathogens and model organisms.Moreover, we show that Cache domains comprise the dominant mode of extracellular sensing in prokaryotes.« less

  14. Diversification of a single ancestral gene into a successful toxin superfamily in highly venomous Australian funnel-web spiders.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Sandy S; Sollod, Brianna L; Wilson, David; Darling, Aaron; Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A B; Kely, Laurence; Antunes, Agostinho; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2014-03-05

    Spiders have evolved pharmacologically complex venoms that serve to rapidly subdue prey and deter predators. The major toxic factors in most spider venoms are small, disulfide-rich peptides. While there is abundant evidence that snake venoms evolved by recruitment of genes encoding normal body proteins followed by extensive gene duplication accompanied by explosive structural and functional diversification, the evolutionary trajectory of spider-venom peptides is less clear. Here we present evidence of a spider-toxin superfamily encoding a high degree of sequence and functional diversity that has evolved via accelerated duplication and diversification of a single ancestral gene. The peptides within this toxin superfamily are translated as prepropeptides that are posttranslationally processed to yield the mature toxin. The N-terminal signal sequence, as well as the protease recognition site at the junction of the propeptide and mature toxin are conserved, whereas the remainder of the propeptide and mature toxin sequences are variable. All toxin transcripts within this superfamily exhibit a striking cysteine codon bias. We show that different pharmacological classes of toxins within this peptide superfamily evolved under different evolutionary selection pressures. Overall, this study reinforces the hypothesis that spiders use a combinatorial peptide library strategy to evolve a complex cocktail of peptide toxins that target neuronal receptors and ion channels in prey and predators. We show that the ω-hexatoxins that target insect voltage-gated calcium channels evolved under the influence of positive Darwinian selection in an episodic fashion, whereas the κ-hexatoxins that target insect calcium-activated potassium channels appear to be under negative selection. A majority of the diversifying sites in the ω-hexatoxins are concentrated on the molecular surface of the toxins, thereby facilitating neofunctionalisation leading to new toxin pharmacology.

  15. HMMER Cut-off Threshold Tool (HMMERCTTER): Supervised classification of superfamily protein sequences with a reliable cut-off threshold.

    PubMed

    Pagnuco, Inti Anabela; Revuelta, María Victoria; Bondino, Hernán Gabriel; Brun, Marcel; Ten Have, Arjen

    2018-01-01

    Protein superfamilies can be divided into subfamilies of proteins with different functional characteristics. Their sequences can be classified hierarchically, which is part of sequence function assignation. Typically, there are no clear subfamily hallmarks that would allow pattern-based function assignation by which this task is mostly achieved based on the similarity principle. This is hampered by the lack of a score cut-off that is both sensitive and specific. HMMER Cut-off Threshold Tool (HMMERCTTER) adds a reliable cut-off threshold to the popular HMMER. Using a high quality superfamily phylogeny, it clusters a set of training sequences such that the cluster-specific HMMER profiles show cluster or subfamily member detection with 100% precision and recall (P&R), thereby generating a specific threshold as inclusion cut-off. Profiles and thresholds are then used as classifiers to screen a target dataset. Iterative inclusion of novel sequences to groups and the corresponding HMMER profiles results in high sensitivity while specificity is maintained by imposing 100% P&R self detection. In three presented case studies of protein superfamilies, classification of large datasets with 100% precision was achieved with over 95% recall. Limits and caveats are presented and explained. HMMERCTTER is a promising protein superfamily sequence classifier provided high quality training datasets are used. It provides a decision support system that aids in the difficult task of sequence function assignation in the twilight zone of sequence similarity. All relevant data and source codes are available from the Github repository at the following URL: https://github.com/BBCMdP/HMMERCTTER.

  16. HMMER Cut-off Threshold Tool (HMMERCTTER): Supervised classification of superfamily protein sequences with a reliable cut-off threshold

    PubMed Central

    Pagnuco, Inti Anabela; Revuelta, María Victoria; Bondino, Hernán Gabriel; Brun, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    Background Protein superfamilies can be divided into subfamilies of proteins with different functional characteristics. Their sequences can be classified hierarchically, which is part of sequence function assignation. Typically, there are no clear subfamily hallmarks that would allow pattern-based function assignation by which this task is mostly achieved based on the similarity principle. This is hampered by the lack of a score cut-off that is both sensitive and specific. Results HMMER Cut-off Threshold Tool (HMMERCTTER) adds a reliable cut-off threshold to the popular HMMER. Using a high quality superfamily phylogeny, it clusters a set of training sequences such that the cluster-specific HMMER profiles show cluster or subfamily member detection with 100% precision and recall (P&R), thereby generating a specific threshold as inclusion cut-off. Profiles and thresholds are then used as classifiers to screen a target dataset. Iterative inclusion of novel sequences to groups and the corresponding HMMER profiles results in high sensitivity while specificity is maintained by imposing 100% P&R self detection. In three presented case studies of protein superfamilies, classification of large datasets with 100% precision was achieved with over 95% recall. Limits and caveats are presented and explained. Conclusions HMMERCTTER is a promising protein superfamily sequence classifier provided high quality training datasets are used. It provides a decision support system that aids in the difficult task of sequence function assignation in the twilight zone of sequence similarity. All relevant data and source codes are available from the Github repository at the following URL: https://github.com/BBCMdP/HMMERCTTER. PMID:29579071

  17. Galatheoidea are not monophyletic - molecular and morphological phylogeny of the squat lobsters (Decapoda: Anomura) with recognition of a new superfamily.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, K E; Ahyong, S T; Maas, E W

    2011-02-01

    The monophyletic status of the squat lobster superfamily Galatheoidea has come under increasing doubt by studies using evidence as diverse as larval and adult somatic morphology, sperm ultrastructure, and molecular data. Here we synthesize phylogenetic data from these diverse strands, with the addition of new molecular and morphological data to examine the phylogeny of the squat lobsters and assess the status of the Galatheoidea. A total of 64 species from 16 of the 17 currently recognised anomuran families are included. Results support previous work pointing towards polyphyly in the superfamily Galatheoidea and Paguroidea, specifically, suggesting independent origins of the Galatheidae+Porcellanidae and the Chirostylidae+Kiwaidae. Morphological characters are selected that support clades resolved in the combined analysis and the taxonomic status of Galatheoidea sensu lato is revised. Results indicate that Chirostylidae are more closely related to an assemblage including Aegloidea, Lomisoidea and Paguroidea than to the remaining Galatheoidea and are referred to the superfamily Chirostyloidea to include the Chirostylidae and Kiwaidae. A considerable amount of research highlighting morphological differences supporting this split is discussed. The Galatheoidea sensu stricto is restricted to the families Galatheidae and Porcellanidae, and diagnoses for both Chirostyloidea and Galatheoidea are provided. Present results highlight the need for a detailed revision of a number of taxa, challenge some currently used morphological synapomorphies, and emphasise the need for integrated studies with wide taxon sampling and multiple data sources to resolve complex phylogenetic questions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A comprehensive analysis of the Omp85/TpsB protein superfamily structural diversity, taxonomic occurrence, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Eva; Lithgow, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Omp85/TpsB protein superfamily are ubiquitously distributed in Gram-negative bacteria, and function in protein translocation (e.g., FhaC) or the assembly of outer membrane proteins (e.g., BamA). Several recent findings are suggestive of a further level of variation in the superfamily, including the identification of the novel membrane protein assembly factor TamA and protein translocase PlpD. To investigate the diversity and the causal evolutionary events, we undertook a comprehensive comparative sequence analysis of the Omp85/TpsB proteins. A total of 10 protein subfamilies were apparent, distinguished in their domain structure and sequence signatures. In addition to the proteins FhaC, BamA, and TamA, for which structural and functional information is available, are families of proteins with so far undescribed domain architectures linked to the Omp85 β-barrel domain. This study brings a classification structure to a dynamic protein superfamily of high interest given its essential function for Gram-negative bacteria as well as its diverse domain architecture, and we discuss several scenarios of putative functions of these so far undescribed proteins. PMID:25101071

  19. Directed Evolution of a Thermostable Quorum-quenching Lactonase from the Amidohydrolase Superfamily*

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Jeng Yeong; Xue, Bo; Lee, Kang Hao; Tung, Alvin; Wu, Long; Robinson, Robert C.; Yew, Wen Shan

    2010-01-01

    A thermostable quorum-quenching lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GI: 56420041) was used as an initial template for in vitro directed evolution experiments. This enzyme belongs to the phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) group of enzymes within the amidohydrolase superfamily that hydrolyze N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) that are involved in virulence pathways of quorum-sensing pathogenic bacteria. Here we have determined the N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone-liganded structure of the catalytically inactive D266N mutant of this enzyme to a resolution of 1.6 Å. Using a tunable, bioluminescence-based quorum-quenching molecular circuit, the catalytic efficiency was enhanced, and the AHL substrate range increased through two point mutations on the loops at the C-terminal ends of the third and seventh β-strands. This E101N/R230I mutant had an increased value of kcat/Km of 72-fold toward 3-oxo-N-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. The evolved mutant also exhibited lactonase activity toward N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone, an AHL that was previously not hydrolyzed by the wild-type enzyme. Both the purified wild-type and mutant enzymes contain a mixture of zinc and iron and are colored purple and brown, respectively, at high concentrations. The origin of this coloration is suggested to be because of a charge transfer complex involving the β-cation and Tyr-99 within the enzyme active site. Modulation of the charge transfer complex alters the lactonase activity of the mutant enzymes and is reflected in enzyme coloration changes. We attribute the observed enhancement in catalytic reactivity of the evolved enzyme to favorable modulations of the active site architecture toward productive geometries required for chemical catalysis. PMID:20980257

  20. The interdigitating loop of the enolase superfamily as a specificity binding determinant or 'flying buttress'.

    PubMed

    Bearne, Stephen L

    2017-05-01

    Enzymes of the enolase superfamily (ENS) are mechanistically diverse, yet share a common partial reaction (abstraction of the α-proton from a carboxylate substrate). While the catalytic machinery responsible for the deprotonation reaction has been conserved, divergent evolution has led to numerous ENS members that catalyze different overall reactions. This rich functional diversity has made the ENS an excellent model system for developing the approaches necessary to validate enzyme function. However, enzymes of the ENS also share a common bidomain structure ((β/α) 7 β-barrel domain and α+β capping domain) which makes validation of function from structural information challenging. This review presents a comparative survey of the structural data obtained over the past decade for enzymes from all seven subgroups that comprise the ENS. Of the seven ENS subgroups (enolase, mandelate racemase (MR), muconate lactonizing enzyme, β-methylaspartate ammonia lyase, d-glucarate dehydratase, d-mannonate dehydratase (ManD), and galactarate dehydratase 2), only enzymes of the MR and ManD subgroups exhibit an additional feature of structural complexity-an interdigitating loop. This loop emanates from one protomer of a homodimeric pair and penetrates into the adjacent, symmetry-related protomer to either contribute a binding determinant to the active site of the adjacent protomer, or act as a 'flying buttress' to support residues of the active site. The analysis presented in this review suggests that the interdigitating loop is the only gross structural element that permits functional distinction between ENS subgroups at the tertiary level of protein structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Concerted and nonconcerted evolution of the Hsp70 gene superfamily in two sibling species of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Nei, Masatoshi

    2004-03-01

    We have identified the Hsp70 gene superfamily of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae and investigated the evolution of these genes in comparison with Hsp70 genes from C. elegans, Drosophila, and yeast. The Hsp70 genes are classified into three monophyletic groups according to their subcellular localization, namely, cytoplasm (CYT), endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria (MT). The Hsp110 genes can be classified into the polyphyletic CYT group and the monophyletic ER group. The different Hsp70 and Hsp110 groups appeared to evolve following the model of divergent evolution. This model can also explain the evolution of the ER and MT genes. On the other hand, the CYT genes are divided into heat-inducible and constitutively expressed genes. The constitutively expressed genes have evolved more or less following the birth-and-death process, and the rates of gene birth and gene death are different between the two nematode species. By contrast, some heat-inducible genes show an intraspecies phylogenetic clustering. This suggests that they are subject to sequence homogenization resulting from gene conversion-like events. In addition, the heat-inducible genes show high levels of sequence conservation in both intra-species and inter-species comparisons, and in most cases, amino acid sequence similarity is higher than nucleotide sequence similarity. This indicates that purifying selection also plays an important role in maintaining high sequence similarity among paralogous Hsp70 genes. Therefore, we suggest that the CYT heat-inducible genes have been subjected to a combination of purifying selection, birth-and-death process, and gene conversion-like events.

  2. Pathogenic Leptospira species express surface-exposed proteins belonging to the bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, James; Barocchi, Michele A.; Croda, Julio; Young, Tracy A.; Sanchez, Yolanda; Siqueira, Isadora; Bolin, Carole A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Riley, Lee W.; Haake, David A.; Ko, Albert I.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Proteins with bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, such as the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin and Escherichia coli intimin, are surface-expressed proteins that mediate host mammalian cell invasion or attachment. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a new family of Big domain proteins, referred to as Lig (leptospiral Ig-like) proteins, in pathogenic Leptospira. Screening of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri expression libraries with sera from leptospirosis patients identified 13 lambda phage clones that encode tandem repeats of the 90 amino acid Big domain. Two lig genes, designated ligA and ligB, and one pseudo-gene, ligC, were identified. The ligA and ligB genes encode amino-terminal lipoprotein signal peptides followed by 10 or 11 Big domain repeats and, in the case of ligB, a unique carboxy-terminal non-repeat domain. The organization of ligC is similar to that of ligB but contains mutations that disrupt the reading frame. The lig sequences are present in pathogenic but not saprophytic Leptospira species. LigA and LigB are expressed by a variety of virulent leptospiral strains. Loss of Lig protein and RNA transcript expression is correlated with the observed loss of virulence during culture attenuation of pathogenic strains. High-pressure freeze substitution followed by immunocytochemical electron microscopy confirmed that the Lig proteins were localized to the bacterial surface. Immunoblot studies with patient sera found that the Lig proteins are a major antigen recognized during the acute host infection. These observations demonstrate that the Lig proteins are a newly identified surface protein of pathogenic Leptospira, which by analogy to other bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily virulence factors, may play a role in host cell attachment and invasion during leptospiral pathogenesis. PMID:12890019

  3. Pathogenic Leptospira species express surface-exposed proteins belonging to the bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, James; Barocchi, Michele A; Croda, Julio; Young, Tracy A; Sanchez, Yolanda; Siqueira, Isadora; Bolin, Carole A; Reis, Mitermayer G; Riley, Lee W; Haake, David A; Ko, Albert I

    2003-08-01

    Proteins with bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, such as the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin and Escherichia coli intimin, are surface-expressed proteins that mediate host mammalian cell invasion or attachment. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a new family of Big domain proteins, referred to as Lig (leptospiral Ig-like) proteins, in pathogenic Leptospira. Screening of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri expression libraries with sera from leptospirosis patients identified 13 lambda phage clones that encode tandem repeats of the 90 amino acid Big domain. Two lig genes, designated ligA and ligB, and one pseudogene, ligC, were identified. The ligA and ligB genes encode amino-terminal lipoprotein signal peptides followed by 10 or 11 Big domain repeats and, in the case of ligB, a unique carboxy-terminal non-repeat domain. The organization of ligC is similar to that of ligB but contains mutations that disrupt the reading frame. The lig sequences are present in pathogenic but not saprophytic Leptospira species. LigA and LigB are expressed by a variety of virulent leptospiral strains. Loss of Lig protein and RNA transcript expression is correlated with the observed loss of virulence during culture attenuation of pathogenic strains. High-pressure freeze substitution followed by immunocytochemical electron microscopy confirmed that the Lig proteins were localized to the bacterial surface. Immunoblot studies with patient sera found that the Lig proteins are a major antigen recognized during the acute host infection. These observations demonstrate that the Lig proteins are a newly identified surface protein of pathogenic Leptospira, which by analogy to other bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily virulence factors, may play a role in host cell attachment and invasion during leptospiral pathogenesis.

  4. Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B.; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H.; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde

  5. Prognostic significance of ligands belonging to tumour necrosis factor superfamily in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Bolkun, L; Lemancewicz, D; Jablonska, E; Szumowska, A; Bolkun-Skornicka, U; Moniuszko, M; Dzieciol, J; Kloczko, J

    2015-03-01

    Altered activities of ligands belonging to tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, namely B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) were demonstrated in several haematological diseases including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). BAFF, APRIL and TRAIL provide crucial survival signals to immature, naive and activated B cells. These ligands are capable of activating a broad spectrum of intracellular signalling cascades that can either induce apoptosis or protect from programmed cell death. BAFF and APRIL, which can directly activate the NF-κB pathway, have been identified as crucial survival factors for ALL cells. Here, we have analyzed serum BAFF, APRIL and TRAIL concentrations in 48 patients with newly diagnosed ALL and 44 healthy volunteers. The levels of APRIL and BAFF were significantly higher in ALL patients as compared to healthy volunteers. In contrast, concentrations of TRAIL were significantly lower in ALL patients. Moreover, following induction, the levels of APRIL, but not BAFF or TRAIL, were significantly lower in a group of patients with complete remission (CR) as compared to non-respondent (NR) ALL patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated statistically significant differences in concentrations of APRIL between CR MRD-negative and CR, MRD-positive ALL patients. Notably detection of higher concentrations of APRIL was associated with shorter leukaemia-free survival and overall survival. Altogether, our data indicate that APRIL can play an important role in the pathogenesis of ALL and the measurement of APRIL levels can improve prognostication in ALL patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Directed evolution of a thermostable quorum-quenching lactonase from the amidohydrolase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jeng Yeong; Xue, Bo; Lee, Kang Hao; Tung, Alvin; Wu, Long; Robinson, Robert C; Yew, Wen Shan

    2010-12-24

    A thermostable quorum-quenching lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GI: 56420041) was used as an initial template for in vitro directed evolution experiments. This enzyme belongs to the phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) group of enzymes within the amidohydrolase superfamily that hydrolyze N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) that are involved in virulence pathways of quorum-sensing pathogenic bacteria. Here we have determined the N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone-liganded structure of the catalytically inactive D266N mutant of this enzyme to a resolution of 1.6 Å. Using a tunable, bioluminescence-based quorum-quenching molecular circuit, the catalytic efficiency was enhanced, and the AHL substrate range increased through two point mutations on the loops at the C-terminal ends of the third and seventh β-strands. This E101N/R230I mutant had an increased value of k(cat)/K(m) of 72-fold toward 3-oxo-N-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. The evolved mutant also exhibited lactonase activity toward N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone, an AHL that was previously not hydrolyzed by the wild-type enzyme. Both the purified wild-type and mutant enzymes contain a mixture of zinc and iron and are colored purple and brown, respectively, at high concentrations. The origin of this coloration is suggested to be because of a charge transfer complex involving the β-cation and Tyr-99 within the enzyme active site. Modulation of the charge transfer complex alters the lactonase activity of the mutant enzymes and is reflected in enzyme coloration changes. We attribute the observed enhancement in catalytic reactivity of the evolved enzyme to favorable modulations of the active site architecture toward productive geometries required for chemical catalysis.

  7. TGFβ Superfamily Members Mediate Androgen Deprivation Therapy-Induced Obese Frailty in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chunliu; Singh, Shalini; Sahasrabudhe, Deepak M.; Chakkalakal, Joe V.; Krolewski, John J.

    2016-01-01

    First line treatment for recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer is androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Use of ADT has been increasing in frequency and duration, such that side effects increasingly impact patient quality of life. One of the most significant side effects of ADT is sarcopenia, which leads to a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, resulting in a clinical disability syndrome known as obese frailty. Using aged mice, we developed a mouse model of ADT-induced sarcopenia that closely resembles the phenotype seen in patients, including loss of skeletal muscle strength, reduced lean muscle mass, and increased adipose tissue. Sarcopenia onset occurred about 6 weeks after castration and was blocked by a soluble receptor (ActRIIB-Fc) that binds multiple TGFβ superfamily members, including myostatin, growth differentiation factor 11, activin A, activin B, and activin AB. Analysis of ligand expression in both gastrocnemius and triceps brachii muscles demonstrates that each of these proteins is induced in response to ADT, in 1 of 3 temporal patterns. Specifically, activin A and activin AB levels increase and decline before onset of strength loss at 6 weeks after castration, and myostatin levels increase coincident with the onset of strength loss and then decline. In contrast, activin B and growth differentiation factor 11 levels increase after the onset of strength loss, 8–10 weeks after castration. The observed patterns of ligand induction may represent differential contributions to the development and/or maintenance of sarcopenia. We hypothesize that some or all of these ligands are targets for therapy to ameliorate ADT-induced sarcopenia in prostate cancer patients. PMID:27611336

  8. Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein interacts with thioesterase superfamily member 2 to attenuate insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Baran A; Tarun, Akansha; D'Aquino, Katharine; Hancer, Nancy J; Ukomadu, Chinweike; White, Morris F; Michel, Thomas; Manning, Brendan D; Cohen, David E

    2013-07-30

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) is a phospholipid-binding protein that is enriched in liver and that interacts with thioesterase superfamily member 2 (THEM2). Mice lacking either protein exhibit improved hepatic glucose homeostasis and are resistant to diet-induced diabetes. Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) are key effectors of insulin signaling, which is attenuated in diabetes. We found that PC-TP inhibited IRS2, as evidenced by insulin-independent IRS2 activation after knockdown, genetic ablation, or chemical inhibition of PC-TP. In addition, IRS2 was activated after knockdown of THEM2, providing support for a role for the interaction of PC-TP with THEM2 in suppressing insulin signaling. Additionally, we showed that PC-TP bound to tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and stabilized the components of the TSC1-TSC2 complex, which functions to inhibit mTORC1. Preventing phosphatidylcholine from binding to PC-TP disrupted interactions of PC-TP with THEM2 and TSC2, and disruption of the PC-TP-THEM2 complex was associated with increased activation of both IRS2 and mTORC1. In livers of mice with genetic ablation of PC-TP or that had been treated with a PC-TP inhibitor, steady-state amounts of IRS2 were increased, whereas those of TSC2 were decreased. These findings reveal a phospholipid-dependent mechanism that suppresses insulin signaling downstream of its receptor.

  9. Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein Interacts with Thioesterase Superfamily Member 2 to Attenuate Insulin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Baran A.; Tarun, Akansha; D’Aquino, Katharine; Hancer, Nancy J.; Ukomadu, Chinweike; White, Morris F.; Michel, Thomas; Manning, Brendan D.; Cohen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) is a phospholipid-binding protein that is enriched in liver and that interacts with thioesterase superfamily member 2 (THEM2). Mice lacking either protein exhibit improved hepatic glucose homeostasis and are resistant to diet-induced diabetes. Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) are key effectors of insulin signaling, which is attenuated in diabetes. We found that PC-TP inhibited IRS2, as evidenced by insulin-independent IRS2 activation following knockdown, genetic ablation, or chemical inhibition of PC-TP. In addition, IRS2 was activated after knockdown of THEM2, providing support for a role for the interaction of PC-TP with THEM2 in suppressing insulin signaling. Additionally, we showed that PC-TP bound to tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and stabilized the components of the TSC1-TSC2 complex, which functions to inhibit mTORC1. Preventing phosphatidylcholine from binding to PC-TP disrupted interactions of PC-TP with THEM2 and TSC2, and disruption of the PC-TP–THEM2 complex was associated with increased activation of both IRS2 and mTORC1. In livers of mice with genetic ablation of PC-TP or that had been treated with a PC-TP inhibitor, steady-state amounts of IRS2 were increased, whereas those of TSC2 were decreased. These findings reveal a phospholipid-dependent mechanism that suppresses insulin signaling downstream of its receptor. PMID:23901139

  10. New insights into family relationships within the avian superfamily Sylvioidea (Passeriformes) based on seven molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The circumscription of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea is a matter of long ongoing debate. While the overall inclusiveness has now been mostly agreed on and 20 families recognised, the phylogenetic relationships among the families are largely unknown. We here present a phylogenetic hypothesis for Sylvioidea based on one mitochondrial and six nuclear markers, in total ~6.3 kbp, for 79 ingroup species representing all currently recognised families and some species with uncertain affinities, making this the most comprehensive analysis of this taxon. Results The resolution, especially of the deeper nodes, is much improved compared to previous studies. However, many relationships among families remain uncertain and are in need of verification. Most families themselves are very well supported based on the total data set and also by indels. Our data do not support the inclusion of Hylia in Cettiidae, but do not strongly reject a close relationship with Cettiidae either. The genera Scotocerca and Erythrocercus are closely related to Cettiidae, but separated by relatively long internodes. The families Paridae, Remizidae and Stenostiridae clustered among the outgroup taxa and not within Sylvioidea. Conclusions Although the phylogenetic position of Hylia is uncertain, we tentatively support the recognition of the family Hyliidae Bannerman, 1923 for this genus and Pholidornis. We propose new family names for the genera Scotocerca and Erythrocercus, Scotocercidae and Erythrocercidae, respectively, rather than including these in Cettiidae, and we formally propose the name Macrosphenidae, which has been in informal use for some time. We recommend that Paridae, Remizidae and Stenostiridae are not included in Sylvioidea. We also briefly discuss the problems of providing a morphological diagnosis when proposing a new family-group name (or genus-group name) based on a clade. PMID:22920688

  11. Novel members of the adipokinetic hormone family in beetles of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Šimek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2016-12-01

    Eight beetle species of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea were investigated with respect to peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family in their neurohemal organs, the corpora cardiaca (CC). The following beetle families are represented: Scarabaeidae, Lucanidae, and Geotrupidae. AKH peptides were identified through a heterospecific trehalose-mobilizing bioassay and by sequence analyses, using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and analysis of the tandem MS 2 spectra obtained by collision-induced dissociation. All the beetle species have octapeptide AKHs; some have two AKHs, while others have only one. Novel AKH members were found in Euoniticellus intermedius and Circellium bacchus (family Scarabaeidae), as well as in Dorcus parallelipipedus (family Lucanidae). Two species of the family Geotrupidae and two species of the Scarabaeidae subfamily Cetoniinae contain one known AKH peptide, Melme-CC, while E. intermedius produces a novel peptide code named Euoin-AKH: pEINFTTGWamide. Two AKH peptides were each identified in CC of C. bacchus and D. parallelipipedus: the novel Cirba-AKH: pEFNFSAGWamide and the known peptide, Scade-CC-I in the former, and the novel Dorpa-AKH: pEVNYSPVW amide and the known peptide, Melme-CC in the latter. Kheper bonelli (subfamily Scarabaeinae) also has two AKHs, the known Scade-CC-I and Scade-CC-II. All the novel peptides were synthesized and the amino acid sequence assignments were unequivocally confirmed by co-elution of the synthetic peptides with their natural equivalent, and identical MS parameters of the two forms. The novel synthetic peptides are all active in inducing hypertrehalosemia in cockroaches.

  12. Expansion and stress responses of the AP2/EREBP superfamily in cotton.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2017-01-31

    The allotetraploid cotton originated from one hybridization event between an extant progenitor of Gosssypium herbaceum (A 1 ) or G. arboreum (A 2 ) and another progenitor, G. raimondii Ulbrich (D 5 ) 1-1.5 million years ago (Mya). The APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding protein (AP2/EREBP) transcription factors constitute one of the largest and most conserved gene families in plants. They are characterized by their AP2 domain, which comprises 60-70 amino acids, and are classified into four main subfamilies: the APETALA2 (AP2), Related to ABI3/VP1 (RAV), Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding protein (DREB) and Ethylene-Responsive Factor (ERF) subfamilies. The AP2/EREBP genes play crucial roles in plant growth, development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Hence, understanding the molecular characteristics of cotton stress tolerance and gene family expansion would undoubtedly facilitate cotton resistance breeding and evolution research. A total of 269 AP2/EREBP genes were identified in the G. raimondii (D5) cotton genome. The protein domain architecture and intron/exon structure are simple and relatively conserved within each subfamily. They are distributed throughout all chromosomes but are clustered on various chromosomes due to genomic tandem duplication. We identified 73 tandem duplicated genes and 221 segmental duplicated gene pairs which contributed to the expansion of AP2/EREBP superfamily. Of them, tandem duplication was the most important force of the expansion of the B3 group. Transcriptome analysis showed that 504 AP2/EREBP genes were expressed in at least one tested G. hirsutum TM-1 tissues. In G. hirsutum, 151 non-repeated genes of the DREB and ERF subfamily genes were responsive to different stresses: 132 genes were induced by cold, 63 genes by drought and 94 genes by heat. qRT-PCR confirmed that 13 GhDREB and 15 GhERF genes were induced by cold and/or drought. No transcripts detected for 53 of the 111 tandem duplicated genes in TM-1

  13. Mechanism of the Intramolecular Claisen Condensation Reaction Catalyzed by MenB, a Crotonase Superfamily Member†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huei-Jiun; Li, Xiaokai; Liu, Nina; Zhang, Huaning; Truglio, James J.; Mishra, Shambhavi; Kisker, Caroline; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel; Tonge, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    MenB, the 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA synthase from the bacterial menaquinone biosynthesis pathway, catalyzes an intramolecular Claisen condensation (Dieckmann reaction) in which the electrophile is an unactivated carboxylic acid. Mechanistic studies on this crotonase family member have been hindered by partial active site disorder in existing MenB X-ray structures. In the current work the 2.0 Å structure of O-succinylbenzoyl-aminoCoA (OSB-NCoA) bound to the MenB from Escherichia coli provides important insight into the catalytic mechanism by revealing the position of all active site residues. This has been accomplished by the use of a stable analogue of the O-succinylbenzoyl-CoA (OSB-CoA) substrate in which the CoA thiol has been replaced by an amine. The resulting OSB-NCoA is stable and the X-ray structure of this molecule bound to MenB reveals the structure of the enzyme-substrate complex poised for carbon-carbon bond formation. The structural data support a mechanism in which two conserved active site Tyr residues, Y97 and Y258, participate directly in the intramolecular transfer of the substrate α-proton to the benzylic carboxylate of the substrate, leading to protonation of the electrophile and formation of the required carbanion. Y97 and Y258 are also ideally positioned to function as the second oxyanion hole required for stabilization of the tetrahedral intermediate formed during carbon-carbon bond formation. In contrast, D163, which is structurally homologous to the acid-base catalyst E144 in crotonase, is not directly involved in carbanion formation and may instead play a structural role by stabilizing the loop that carries Y97. When similar studies were performed on the MenB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a twisted hexamer was unexpectedly observed, demonstrating the flexibility of the interfacial loops that are involved in the generation of the novel tertiary and quaternary structures found in the crotonase superfamily. This work reinforces the

  14. Mechanism of the intramolecular Claisen condensation reaction catalyzed by MenB, a crotonase superfamily member.

    PubMed

    Li, Huei-Jiun; Li, Xiaokai; Liu, Nina; Zhang, Huaning; Truglio, James J; Mishra, Shambhavi; Kisker, Caroline; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel; Tonge, Peter J

    2011-11-08

    MenB, the 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA synthase from the bacterial menaquinone biosynthesis pathway, catalyzes an intramolecular Claisen condensation (Dieckmann reaction) in which the electrophile is an unactivated carboxylic acid. Mechanistic studies on this crotonase family member have been hindered by partial active site disorder in existing MenB X-ray structures. In the current work the 2.0 Å structure of O-succinylbenzoyl-aminoCoA (OSB-NCoA) bound to the MenB from Escherichia coli provides important insight into the catalytic mechanism by revealing the position of all active site residues. This has been accomplished by the use of a stable analogue of the O-succinylbenzoyl-CoA (OSB-CoA) substrate in which the CoA thiol has been replaced by an amine. The resulting OSB-NCoA is stable, and the X-ray structure of this molecule bound to MenB reveals the structure of the enzyme-substrate complex poised for carbon-carbon bond formation. The structural data support a mechanism in which two conserved active site Tyr residues, Y97 and Y258, participate directly in the intramolecular transfer of the substrate α-proton to the benzylic carboxylate of the substrate, leading to protonation of the electrophile and formation of the required carbanion. Y97 and Y258 are also ideally positioned to function as the second oxyanion hole required for stabilization of the tetrahedral intermediate formed during carbon-carbon bond formation. In contrast, D163, which is structurally homologous to the acid-base catalyst E144 in crotonase (enoyl-CoA hydratase), is not directly involved in carbanion formation and may instead play a structural role by stabilizing the loop that carries Y97. When similar studies were performed on the MenB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a twisted hexamer was unexpectedly observed, demonstrating the flexibility of the interfacial loops that are involved in the generation of the novel tertiary and quaternary structures found in the crotonase superfamily. This

  15. Oligomerisation status and evolutionary conservation of interfaces of protein structural domain superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Sukhwal, Anshul; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2013-07-01

    and its remote homologue-interacting partner pair. We found that, in exceptional cases, homologous proteins belonging to the same superfamily, but with remote sequence similarity, can share similar interfaces.

  16. The Plant Short-Chain Dehydrogenase (SDR) superfamily: genome-wide inventory and diversification patterns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) form one of the largest and oldest NAD(P)(H) dependent oxidoreductase families. Despite a conserved ‘Rossmann-fold’ structure, members of the SDR superfamily exhibit low sequence similarities, which constituted a bottleneck in terms of identification. Recent classification methods, relying on hidden-Markov models (HMMs), improved identification and enabled the construction of a nomenclature. However, functional annotations of plant SDRs remain scarce. Results Wide-scale analyses were performed on ten plant genomes. The combination of hidden Markov model (HMM) based analyses and similarity searches led to the construction of an exhaustive inventory of plant SDR. With 68 to 315 members found in each analysed genome, the inventory confirmed the over-representation of SDRs in plants compared to animals, fungi and prokaryotes. The plant SDRs were first classified into three major types — ‘classical’, ‘extended’ and ‘divergent’ — but a minority (10% of the predicted SDRs) could not be classified into these general types (‘unknown’ or ‘atypical’ types). In a second step, we could categorize the vast majority of land plant SDRs into a set of 49 families. Out of these 49 families, 35 appeared early during evolution since they are commonly found through all the Green Lineage. Yet, some SDR families — tropinone reductase-like proteins (SDR65C), ‘ABA2-like’-NAD dehydrogenase (SDR110C), ‘salutaridine/menthone-reductase-like’ proteins (SDR114C), ‘dihydroflavonol 4-reductase’-like proteins (SDR108E) and ‘isoflavone-reductase-like’ (SDR460A) proteins — have undergone significant functional diversification within vascular plants since they diverged from Bryophytes. Interestingly, these diversified families are either involved in the secondary metabolism routes (terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolics) or participate in developmental processes (hormone biosynthesis or catabolism, flower

  17. Discovery of a Distinct Superfamily of Kunitz-Type Toxin (KTT) from Tarantulas

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Li-Ping; Tang, Xing; Liang, Song-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Kuntiz-type toxins (KTTs) have been found in the venom of animals such as snake, cone snail and sea anemone. The main ancestral function of Kunitz-type proteins was the inhibition of a diverse array of serine proteases, while toxic activities (such as ion-channel blocking) were developed under a variety of Darwinian selection pressures. How new functions were grafted onto an old protein scaffold and what effect Darwinian selection pressures had on KTT evolution remains a puzzle. Principal Findings Here we report the presence of a new superfamily of KTTs in spiders (Tarantulas: Ornithoctonus huwena and Ornithoctonus hainana), which share low sequence similarity to known KTTs and is clustered in a distinct clade in the phylogenetic tree of KTT evolution. The representative molecule of spider KTTs, HWTX-XI, purified from the venom of O. huwena, is a bi-functional protein which is a very potent trypsin inhibitor (about 30-fold more strong than BPTI) as well as a weak Kv1.1 potassium channel blocker. Structural analysis of HWTX-XI in 3-D by NMR together with comparative function analysis of 18 expressed mutants of this toxin revealed two separate sites, corresponding to these two activities, located on the two ends of the cone-shape molecule of HWTX-XI. Comparison of non-synonymous/synonymous mutation ratios (ω) for each site in spider and snake KTTs, as well as PBTI like body Kunitz proteins revealed high Darwinian selection pressure on the binding sites for Kv channels and serine proteases in snake, while only on the proteases in spider and none detected in body proteins, suggesting different rates and patterns of evolution among them. The results also revealed a series of key events in the history of spider KTT evolution, including the formation of a novel KTT family (named sub-Kuntiz-type toxins) derived from the ancestral native KTTs with the loss of the second disulfide bridge accompanied by several dramatic sequence modifications. Conclusions

  18. Functional Identification and Structure Determination of Two Novel Prolidases from cog1228 in the Amidohydrolase Superfamily

    SciT

    Xiang, Dao Feng; Patskovsky, Yury; Xu, Chengfu

    2010-12-07

    Two uncharacterized enzymes from the amidohydrolase superfamily belonging to cog1228 were cloned, expressed, and purified to homogeneity. The two proteins, Sgx9260c (gi|44242006) and Sgx9260b (gi|44479596), were derived from environmental DNA samples originating from the Sargasso Sea. The catalytic function and substrate profiles for Sgx9260c and Sgx9260b were determined using a comprehensive library of dipeptides and N-acyl derivative of L-amino acids. Sgx9260c catalyzes the hydrolysis of Gly-L-Pro, L-Ala-L-Pro, and N-acyl derivatives of L-Pro. The best substrate identified to date is N-acetyl-L-Pro with a value of k{sub cat}/K{sub m} of 3 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Sgx9260b catalyzes the hydrolysismore » of L-hydrophobic L-Pro dipeptides and N-acyl derivatives of L-Pro. The best substrate identified to date is N-propionyl-L-Pro with a value of k{sub cat}/K{sub m} of 1 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Three-dimensional structures of both proteins were determined by X-ray diffraction methods (PDB codes 3MKV and 3FEQ). These proteins fold as distorted ({beta}/{alpha})8-barrels with two divalent cations in the active site. The structure of Sgx9260c was also determined as a complex with the N-methylphosphonate derivative of L-Pro (PDB code 3N2C). In this structure the phosphonate moiety bridges the binuclear metal center, and one oxygen atom interacts with His-140. The {alpha}-carboxylate of the inhibitor interacts with Tyr-231. The proline side chain occupies a small substrate binding cavity formed by residues contributed from the loop that follows {beta}-strand 7 within the ({beta}/{alpha})8-barrel. A total of 38 other proteins from cog1228 are predicted to have the same substrate profile based on conservation of the substrate binding residues. The structure of an evolutionarily related protein, Cc2672 from Caulobacter crecentus, was determined as a complex with the N-methylphosphonate derivative of L-arginine (PDB code 3MTW).« less

  19. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: D-Tartrate Dehydratase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    SciT

    Yew,W.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.

    2006-01-01

    We focus on the assignment of function to and elucidation of structure-function relationships for a member of the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily encoded by the Bradyrhizobium japonicum genome (bll6730; GI:27381841). As suggested by sequence alignments, the active site contains the same functional groups found in the active site of mandelate racemase (MR) that catalyzes a 1,1-proton transfer reaction: two acid/base catalysts, Lys 184 at the end of the second {beta}-strand, and a His 322-Asp 292 dyad at the ends of the seventh and sixth -strands, respectively, as well as ligands for an essential Mg{sup 2+}, Asp 213, Glu 239, andmore » Glu 265 at the ends of the third, fourth, and fifth {beta}-strands, respectively. We screened a library of 46 acid sugars and discovered that only D-tartrate is dehydrated, yielding oxaloacetate as product. The kinetic constants (k{sub cat} = 7.3 s{sup -1}; k{sub cat}/K{sub M} = 8.5 x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) are consistent with assignment of the D-tartrate dehydratase (TarD) function. The kinetic phenotypes of mutants as well as the structures of liganded complexes are consistent with a mechanism in which Lys 184 initiates the reaction by abstraction of the {alpha}-proton to generate a Mg{sup 2+}-stabilized enediolate intermediate, and the vinylogous -elimination of the 3-OH group is general acid-catalyzed by the His 322, accomplishing the anti-elimination of water. The replacement of the leaving group by solvent-derived hydrogen is stereorandom, suggesting that the enol tautomer of oxaloacetate is the product; this expectation was confirmed by its observation by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. Thus, the TarD-catalyzed reaction is a 'simple' extension of the two-step reaction catalyzed by MR: base-catalyzed proton abstraction to generate a Mg{sup 2+}-stabilized enediolate intermediate followed by acid-catalyzed decomposition of that intermediate to yield the product.« less

  20. Intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor beta superfamily signaling localize to endosomes in chicken embryo and mouse lenses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Ramya; Ishii, Shunsuke; Beebe, David C

    2007-06-25

    Endocytosis is a key regulator of growth factor signaling pathways. Recent studies showed that the localization to endosomes of intracellular mediators of growth factor signaling may be required for their function. Although there is substantial evidence linking endocytosis and growth factor signaling in cultured cells, there has been little study of the endosomal localization of signaling components in intact tissues or organs. Proteins that are downstream of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily signaling pathway were found on endosomes in chicken embryo and postnatal mouse lenses, which depend on signaling by members of the TGFbeta superfamily for their normal development. Phosphorylated Smad1 (pSmad1), pSmad2, Smad4, Smad7, the transcriptional repressors c-Ski and TGIF and the adapter molecules Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) and C184M, localized to EEA-1- and Rab5-positive vesicles in chicken embryo and/or postnatal mouse lenses. pSmad1 and pSmad2 also localized to Rab7-positive late endosomes. Smad7 was found associated with endosomes, but not caveolae. Bmpr1a conditional knock-out lenses showed decreased nuclear and endosomal localization of pSmad1. Many of the effectors in this pathway were distributed differently in vivo from their reported distribution in cultured cells. Based on the findings reported here and data from other signaling systems, we suggest that the localization of activated intracellular mediators of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily to endosomes is important for the regulation of growth factor signaling.

  1. Site-directed mutagenesis maps interactions that enhance cognate and limit promiscuous catalysis by an alkaline phosphatase superfamily phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Wiersma-Koch, Helen; Sunden, Fanny; Herschlag, Daniel

    2013-12-23

    Catalytic promiscuity, an evolutionary concept, also provides a powerful tool for gaining mechanistic insights into enzymatic reactions. Members of the alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily are highly amenable to such investigation, with several members having been shown to exhibit promiscuous activity for the cognate reactions of other superfamily members. Previous work has shown that nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP) exhibits a >10⁶-fold preference for the hydrolysis of phosphate diesters over phosphate monoesters, and that the reaction specificity is reduced 10³-fold when the size of the substituent on the transferred phosphoryl group of phosphate diester substrates is reduced to a methyl group. Here we show additional specificity contributions from the binding pocket for this substituent (herein termed the R' substituent) that account for an additional ~250-fold differential specificity with the minimal methyl substituent. Removal of four hydrophobic side chains suggested on the basis of structural inspection to interact favorably with R' substituents decreases phosphate diester reactivity 10⁴-fold with an optimal diester substrate (R' = 5'-deoxythymidine) and 50-fold with a minimal diester substrate (R' = CH₃). These mutations also enhance the enzyme's promiscuous phosphate monoesterase activity by nearly an order of magnitude, an effect that is traced by mutation to the reduction of unfavorable interactions with the two residues closest to the nonbridging phosphoryl oxygen atoms. The quadruple R' pocket mutant exhibits the same activity toward phosphate diester and phosphate monoester substrates that have identical leaving groups, with substantial rate enhancements of ~10¹¹-fold. This observation suggests that the Zn²⁺ bimetallo core of AP superfamily enzymes, which is equipotent in phosphate monoester and diester catalysis, has the potential to become specialized for the hydrolysis of each class of phosphate esters via addition

  2. Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic analysis of the AP2/ERF gene superfamily in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Ito, T M; Polido, P B; Rampim, M C; Kaschuk, G; Souza, S G H

    2014-09-26

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) plays an important role in the economy of more than 140 countries, but it is grown in areas with intermittent stressful soil and climatic conditions. The stress tolerance could be addressed by manipulating the ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factors because they orchestrate plant responses to environmental stress. We performed an in silico study on the ERFs in the expressed sequence tag database of C. sinensis to identify potential genes that regulate plant responses to stress. We identified 108 putative genes encoding protein sequences of the AP2/ERF superfamily distributed within 10 groups of amino acid sequences. Ninety-one genes were assembled from the ERF family containing only one AP2/ERF domain, 13 genes were assembled from the AP2 family containing two AP2/ERF domains, and four other genes were assembled from the RAV family containing one AP2/ERF domain and a B3 domain. Some conserved domains of the ERF family genes were disrupted into a few segments by introns. This irregular distribution of genes in the AP2/ERF superfamily in different plant species could be a result of genomic losses or duplication events in a common ancestor. The in silico gene expression revealed that 67% of AP2/ERF genes are expressed in tissues with usual plant development, and 14% were expressed in stressed tissues. Because the AP2/ERF superfamily is expressed in an orchestrated way, it is possible that the manipulation of only one gene may result in changes in the whole plant function, which could result in more tolerant crops.

  3. Androgen Stimulates Growth of Mouse Preantral Follicles In Vitro: Interaction With Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and With Growth Factors of the TGFβ Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Mhairi; Thomson, Kacie; Fenwick, Mark; Mora, Jocelyn; Hardy, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the normal function of mature antral follicles but also have a role in the early stages of follicle development. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, is characterized by androgen excess and aberrant follicle development that includes accelerated early follicle growth. We have examined the effects of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on development of isolated mouse preantral follicles in culture with the specific aim of investigating interaction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the steroidogenic pathway, and growth factors of the TGFβ superfamily that are known to have a role in early follicle development. Both testosterone and DHT stimulated follicle growth and augmented FSH-induced growth and increased the incidence of antrum formation among the granulosa cell layers of these preantral follicles after 72 hours in culture. Effects of both androgens were reversed by the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. FSH receptor expression was increased in response to both testosterone and DHT, as was that of Star, whereas Cyp11a1 was down-regulated. The key androgen-induced changes in the TGFβ signaling pathway were down-regulation of Amh, Bmp15, and their receptors. Inhibition of Alk6 (Bmpr1b), a putative partner for Amhr2 and Bmpr2, by dorsomorphin resulted in augmentation of androgen-stimulated growth and modification of androgen-induced gene expression. Our findings point to varied effects of androgen on preantral follicle growth and function, including interaction with FSH-activated growth and steroidogenesis, and, importantly, implicate the intrafollicular TGFβ system as a key mediator of androgen action. These findings provide insight into abnormal early follicle development in PCOS. PMID:28324051

  4. Androgen Stimulates Growth of Mouse Preantral Follicles In Vitro: Interaction With Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and With Growth Factors of the TGFβ Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Laird, Mhairi; Thomson, Kacie; Fenwick, Mark; Mora, Jocelyn; Franks, Stephen; Hardy, Kate

    2017-04-01

    Androgens are essential for the normal function of mature antral follicles but also have a role in the early stages of follicle development. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, is characterized by androgen excess and aberrant follicle development that includes accelerated early follicle growth. We have examined the effects of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on development of isolated mouse preantral follicles in culture with the specific aim of investigating interaction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the steroidogenic pathway, and growth factors of the TGFβ superfamily that are known to have a role in early follicle development. Both testosterone and DHT stimulated follicle growth and augmented FSH-induced growth and increased the incidence of antrum formation among the granulosa cell layers of these preantral follicles after 72 hours in culture. Effects of both androgens were reversed by the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. FSH receptor expression was increased in response to both testosterone and DHT, as was that of Star, whereas Cyp11a1 was down-regulated. The key androgen-induced changes in the TGFβ signaling pathway were down-regulation of Amh, Bmp15, and their receptors. Inhibition of Alk6 (Bmpr1b), a putative partner for Amhr2 and Bmpr2, by dorsomorphin resulted in augmentation of androgen-stimulated growth and modification of androgen-induced gene expression. Our findings point to varied effects of androgen on preantral follicle growth and function, including interaction with FSH-activated growth and steroidogenesis, and, importantly, implicate the intrafollicular TGFβ system as a key mediator of androgen action. These findings provide insight into abnormal early follicle development in PCOS.

  5. Identification and molecular characterization of the switchgrass AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily, and overexpression of PvERF001 for improvement of biomass characteristics for biofuel

    DOE PAGES

    Wuddineh, Wegi A.; Mazarei, Mitra; Turner, Geoffry B.; ...

    2015-07-20

    The APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) superfamily of transcription factors (TFs) plays essential roles in the regulation of various growth and developmental programs including stress responses. Members of these TFs in other plant species have been implicated to play a role in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis. Here, we identified a total of 207 AP2/ERF TF genes in the switchgrass genome and grouped into four gene families comprised of 25 AP2-, 121 ERF-, 55 DREB (dehydration responsive element binding)-, and 5 RAV (related to API3/VP) genes, as well as a singleton gene not fitting any of the above families. Themore » ERF and DREB subfamilies comprised seven and four distinct groups, respectively. Analysis of exon/intron structures of switchgrass AP2/ERF genes showed high diversity in the distribution of introns in AP2 genes versus a single or no intron in most genes in the ERF and RAV families. The majority of the subfamilies or groups within it were characterized by the presence of one or more specific conserved protein motifs. In silico functional analysis revealed that many genes in these families might be associated with the regulation of responses to environmental stimuli via transcriptional regulation of the response genes. Moreover, these genes had diverse endogenous expression patterns in switchgrass during seed germination, vegetative growth, flower development, and seed formation. Interestingly, several members of the ERF and DREB families were found to be highly expressed in plant tissues where active lignification occurs. These results provide vital resources to select candidate genes to potentially impart tolerance to environmental stress as well as reduced recalcitrance. Furthermore, overexpression of one of the ERF genes ( PvERF001) in switchgrass was associated with increased biomass yield and sugar release efficiency in transgenic lines, exemplifying the potential of these TFs in the development of lignocellulosic feedstocks with

  6. Sequencing of T-superfamily conotoxins from Conus virgo: pyroglutamic acid identification and disulfide arrangement by MALDI mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Amit Kumar; Ramasamy, Mani Ramakrishnan Santhana; Sabareesh, Varatharajan; Openshaw, Matthew E; Krishnan, Kozhalmannom S; Balaram, Padmanabhan

    2007-08-01

    De novo mass spectrometric sequencing of two Conus peptides, Vi1359 and Vi1361, from the vermivorous cone snail Conus virgo, found off the southern Indian coast, is presented. The peptides, whose masses differ only by 2 Da, possess two disulfide bonds and an amidated C-terminus. Simple chemical modifications and enzymatic cleavage coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric analysis aided in establishing the sequences of Vi1359, ZCCITIPECCRI-NH(2), and Vi1361, ZCCPTMPECCRI-NH(2), which differ only at residues 4 and 6 (Z = pyroglutamic acid). The presence of the pyroglutamyl residue at the N-terminus was unambiguously identified by chemical hydrolysis of the cyclic amide, followed by esterification. The presence of Ile residues in both the peptides was confirmed from high-energy collision induced dissociation (CID) studies, using the observation of w(n)- and d(n)-ions as a diagnostic. Differential cysteine labeling, in conjunction with MALDI-MS/MS, permitted establishment of disulfide connectivity in both peptides as Cys2-Cys9 and Cys3-Cys10. The cysteine pattern clearly reveals that the peptides belong to the class of T-superfamily conotoxins, in particular the T-1 superfamily.

  7. Evolution of plant virus movement proteins from the 30K superfamily and of their homologs integrated in plant genomes

    SciT

    Mushegian, Arcady R., E-mail: mushegian2@gmail.com; Elena, Santiago F., E-mail: sfelena@ibmcp.upv.es; The Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM 87501

    Homologs of Tobacco mosaic virus 30K cell-to-cell movement protein are encoded by diverse plant viruses. Mechanisms of action and evolutionary origins of these proteins remain obscure. We expand the picture of conservation and evolution of the 30K proteins, producing sequence alignment of the 30K superfamily with the broadest phylogenetic coverage thus far and illuminating structural features of the core all-beta fold of these proteins. Integrated copies of pararetrovirus 30K movement genes are prevalent in euphyllophytes, with at least one copy intact in nearly every examined species, and mRNAs detected for most of them. Sequence analysis suggests repeated integrations, pseudogenizations, andmore » positive selection in those provirus genes. An unannotated 30K-superfamily gene in Arabidopsis thaliana genome is likely expressed as a fusion with the At1g37113 transcript. This molecular background of endopararetrovirus gene products in plants may change our view of virus infection and pathogenesis, and perhaps of cellular homeostasis in the hosts. - Highlights: • Sequence region shared by plant virus “30K” movement proteins has an all-beta fold. • Most euphyllophyte genomes contain integrated copies of pararetroviruses. • These integrated virus genomes often include intact movement protein genes. • Molecular evidence suggests that these “30K” genes may be selected for function.« less

  8. Combining protein sequence, structure, and dynamics: A novel approach for functional evolution analysis of PAS domain superfamily.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zheng; Zhou, Hongyu; Tao, Peng

    2018-02-01

    PAS domains are widespread in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryota, and play important roles in various functions. In this study, we aim to explore functional evolutionary relationship among proteins in the PAS domain superfamily in view of the sequence-structure-dynamics-function relationship. We collected protein sequences and crystal structure data from RCSB Protein Data Bank of the PAS domain superfamily belonging to three biological functions (nucleotide binding, photoreceptor activity, and transferase activity). Protein sequences were aligned and then used to select sequence-conserved residues and build phylogenetic tree. Three-dimensional structure alignment was also applied to obtain structure-conserved residues. The protein dynamics were analyzed using elastic network model (ENM) and validated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The result showed that the proteins with same function could be grouped by sequence similarity, and proteins in different functional groups displayed statistically significant difference in their vibrational patterns. Interestingly, in all three functional groups, conserved amino acid residues identified by sequence and structure conservation analysis generally have a lower fluctuation than other residues. In addition, the fluctuation of conserved residues in each biological function group was strongly correlated with the corresponding biological function. This research suggested a direct connection in which the protein sequences were related to various functions through structural dynamics. This is a new attempt to delineate functional evolution of proteins using the integrated information of sequence, structure, and dynamics. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  9. Crystal structure and potential physiological role of zebra fish thioesterase superfamily member 2 (fTHEM2)

    SciT

    Yu, Shanshan; Li, Han; Gao, Feng

    2015-08-07

    Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (THEM2) is an essential protein for mammalian cell proliferation. It belongs to the hotdog-fold thioesterase superfamily and catalyzes hydrolysis of thioester bonds of acyl-CoA in vitro, while its in vivo function remains unrevealed. In this study, Zebra fish was selected as a model organism to facilitate the investigations on THEM2. First, we solved the crystal structure of recombinant fTHEM2 at the resolution of 1.80 Å, which displayed a similar scaffolding as hTHEM2. Second, functional studies demonstrated that fTHEM2 is capable of hydrolyzing palmitoyl-CoA in vitro. In addition, injection of morpholino against fTHEM2 at one-cell stage resulted in distorted early embryomore » development, including delayed cell division, retarded development and increased death rate. The above findings validated our hypothesis that fTHEM2 could serve as an ideal surrogate for studying the physiological functions of THEM2. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of recombinant fTHEM2 is presented. • fTHEM2 is capable of hydrolyzing palmitoyl-CoA. • The influence of fTHEM2 on early embryo development is demonstrated.« less

  10. Murine c-mpl: a member of the hematopoietic growth factor receptor superfamily that transduces a proliferative signal.

    PubMed Central

    Skoda, R C; Seldin, D C; Chiang, M K; Peichel, C L; Vogt, T F; Leder, P

    1993-01-01

    The murine myeloproliferative leukemia virus has previously been shown to contain a fragment of the coding region of the c-mpl gene, a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily. We have isolated cDNA and genomic clones encoding murine c-mpl and localized the c-mpl gene to mouse chromosome 4. Since some members of this superfamily function by transducing a proliferative signal and since the putative ligand of mpl is unknown, we have generated a chimeric receptor to test the functional potential of mpl. The chimera consists of the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-4 receptor and the cytoplasmic domain of mpl. A mouse hematopoietic cell line transfected with this construct proliferates in response to human interleukin-4, thereby demonstrating that the cytoplasmic domain of mpl contains all elements necessary to transmit a growth stimulatory signal. In addition, we show that 25-40% of mpl mRNA found in the spleen corresponds to a novel truncated and potentially soluble isoform of mpl and that both full-length and truncated forms of mpl protein can be immunoprecipitated from lysates of transfected COS cells. Interestingly, however, although the truncated form of the receptor possesses a functional signal sequence and lacks a transmembrane domain, it is not detected in the culture media of transfected cells. Images PMID:8334987

  11. A MicroRNA Superfamily Regulates Nucleotide Binding Site–Leucine-Rich Repeats and Other mRNAs[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shivaprasad, Padubidri V.; Chen, Ho-Ming; Patel, Kanu; Bond, Donna M.; Santos, Bruno A.C.M.; Baulcombe, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) small RNA data sets revealed the presence of a regulatory cascade affecting disease resistance. The initiators of the cascade are microRNA members of an unusually diverse superfamily in which miR482 and miR2118 are prominent members. Members of this superfamily are variable in sequence and abundance in different species, but all variants target the coding sequence for the P-loop motif in the mRNA sequences for disease resistance proteins with nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifs. We confirm, using transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, that miR482 targets mRNAs for NBS-LRR disease resistance proteins with coiled-coil domains at their N terminus. The targeting causes mRNA decay and production of secondary siRNAs in a manner that depends on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6. At least one of these secondary siRNAs targets other mRNAs of a defense-related protein. The miR482-mediated silencing cascade is suppressed in plants infected with viruses or bacteria so that expression of mRNAs with miR482 or secondary siRNA target sequences is increased. We propose that this process allows pathogen-inducible expression of NBS-LRR proteins and that it contributes to a novel layer of defense against pathogen attack. PMID:22408077

  12. Melanophore migration and survival during zebrafish adult pigment stripe development require the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule Igsf11.

    PubMed

    Eom, Dae Seok; Inoue, Shinya; Patterson, Larissa B; Gordon, Tiffany N; Slingwine, Rebecca; Kondo, Shigeru; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Parichy, David M

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish adult pigment pattern has emerged as a useful model for understanding the development and evolution of adult form as well as pattern-forming mechanisms more generally. In this species, a series of horizontal melanophore stripes arises during the larval-to-adult transformation, but the genetic and cellular bases for stripe formation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the seurat mutant phenotype, consisting of an irregular spotted pattern, arises from lesions in the gene encoding Immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (Igsf11). We find that Igsf11 is expressed by melanophores and their precursors, and we demonstrate by cell transplantation and genetic rescue that igsf11 functions autonomously to this lineage in promoting adult stripe development. Further analyses of cell behaviors in vitro, in vivo, and in explant cultures ex vivo demonstrate that Igsf11 mediates adhesive interactions and that mutants for igsf11 exhibit defects in both the migration and survival of melanophores and their precursors. These findings identify the first in vivo requirements for igsf11 as well as the first instance of an immunoglobulin superfamily member functioning in pigment cell development and patterning. Our results provide new insights into adult pigment pattern morphogenesis and how cellular interactions mediate pattern formation.

  13. Melanophore Migration and Survival during Zebrafish Adult Pigment Stripe Development Require the Immunoglobulin Superfamily Adhesion Molecule Igsf11

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Larissa B.; Gordon, Tiffany N.; Slingwine, Rebecca; Kondo, Shigeru; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Parichy, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish adult pigment pattern has emerged as a useful model for understanding the development and evolution of adult form as well as pattern-forming mechanisms more generally. In this species, a series of horizontal melanophore stripes arises during the larval-to-adult transformation, but the genetic and cellular bases for stripe formation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the seurat mutant phenotype, consisting of an irregular spotted pattern, arises from lesions in the gene encoding Immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (Igsf11). We find that Igsf11 is expressed by melanophores and their precursors, and we demonstrate by cell transplantation and genetic rescue that igsf11 functions autonomously to this lineage in promoting adult stripe development. Further analyses of cell behaviors in vitro, in vivo, and in explant cultures ex vivo demonstrate that Igsf11 mediates adhesive interactions and that mutants for igsf11 exhibit defects in both the migration and survival of melanophores and their precursors. These findings identify the first in vivo requirements for igsf11 as well as the first instance of an immunoglobulin superfamily member functioning in pigment cell development and patterning. Our results provide new insights into adult pigment pattern morphogenesis and how cellular interactions mediate pattern formation. PMID:22916035

  14. Mass spectrometry analysis and transcriptome sequencing reveal glowing squid crystal proteins are in the same superfamily as firefly luciferase

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Gregory; Metcalf, Peter; Paterson, Neil G.; Sharpe, Miriam L.

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese firefly squid Hotaru-ika (Watasenia scintillans) produces intense blue light from photophores at the tips of two arms. These photophores are densely packed with protein microcrystals that catalyse the bioluminescent reaction using ATP and the substrate coelenterazine disulfate. The squid is the only organism known to produce light using protein crystals. We extracted microcrystals from arm tip photophores and identified the constituent proteins using mass spectrometry and transcriptome libraries prepared from arm tip tissue. The crystals contain three proteins, wsluc1–3, all members of the ANL superfamily of adenylating enzymes. They share 19 to 21% sequence identity with firefly luciferases, which produce light using ATP and the unrelated firefly luciferin substrate. We propose that wsluc1–3 form a complex that crystallises inside the squid photophores, and that in the crystal one or more of the proteins catalyses the production of light using coelenterazine disulfate and ATP. These results suggest that ANL superfamily enzymes have independently evolved in distant species to produce light using unrelated substrates. PMID:27279452

  15. Tracing the Evolutionary History of the CAP Superfamily of Proteins Using Amino Acid Sequence Homology and Conservation of Splice Sites.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Anup; Chandler, Douglas E

    2017-10-01

    Proteins of the CAP superfamily play numerous roles in reproduction, innate immune responses, cancer biology, and venom toxicology. Here we document the breadth of the CAP (Cysteine-RIch Secretory Protein (CRISP), Antigen 5, and Pathogenesis-Related) protein superfamily and trace the major events in its evolution using amino acid sequence homology and the positions of exon/intron borders within their genes. Seldom acknowledged in the literature, we find that many of the CAP subfamilies present in mammals, where they were originally characterized, have distinct homologues in the invertebrate phyla. Early eukaryotic CAP genes contained only one exon inherited from prokaryotic predecessors and as evolution progressed an increasing number of introns were inserted, reaching 2-5 in the invertebrate world and 5-15 in the vertebrate world. Focusing on the CRISP subfamily, we propose that these proteins evolved in three major steps: (1) origination of the CAP/PR/SCP domain in bacteria, (2) addition of a small Hinge domain to produce the two-domain SCP-like proteins found in roundworms and anthropoids, and (3) addition of an Ion Channel Regulatory domain, borrowed from invertebrate peptide toxins, to produce full length, three-domain CRISP proteins, first seen in insects and later to diversify into multiple subtypes in the vertebrate world.

  16. TED, an Autonomous and Rare Maize Transposon of the Mutator Superfamily with a High Gametophytic Excision Frequency[W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yubin; Harris, Linda; Dooner, Hugo K.

    2013-01-01

    Mutator (Mu) elements, one of the most diverse superfamilies of DNA transposons, are found in all eukaryotic kingdoms, but are particularly numerous in plants. Most of the present knowledge on the transposition behavior of this superfamily comes from studies of the maize (Zea mays) Mu elements, whose transposition is mediated by the autonomous Mutator-Don Robertson (MuDR) element. Here, we describe the maize element TED (for Transposon Ellen Dempsey), an autonomous cousin that differs significantly from MuDR. Element excision and reinsertion appear to require both proteins encoded by MuDR, but only the single protein encoded by TED. Germinal excisions, rare with MuDR, are common with TED, but arise in one of the mitotic divisions of the gametophyte, rather than at meiosis. Instead, transposition-deficient elements arise at meiosis, suggesting that the double-strand breaks produced by element excision are repaired differently in mitosis and meiosis. Unlike MuDR, TED is a very low-copy transposon whose number and activity do not undergo dramatic changes upon inbreeding or outcrossing. Like MuDR, TED transposes mostly to unlinked sites and can form circular transposition products. Sequences closer to TED than to MuDR were detected only in the grasses, suggesting a rather recent evolutionary split from a common ancestor. PMID:24038653

  17. TED, an autonomous and rare maize transposon of the mutator superfamily with a high gametophytic excision frequency.

    PubMed

    Li, Yubin; Harris, Linda; Dooner, Hugo K

    2013-09-01

    Mutator (Mu) elements, one of the most diverse superfamilies of DNA transposons, are found in all eukaryotic kingdoms, but are particularly numerous in plants. Most of the present knowledge on the transposition behavior of this superfamily comes from studies of the maize (Zea mays) Mu elements, whose transposition is mediated by the autonomous Mutator-Don Robertson (MuDR) element. Here, we describe the maize element TED (for Transposon Ellen Dempsey), an autonomous cousin that differs significantly from MuDR. Element excision and reinsertion appear to require both proteins encoded by MuDR, but only the single protein encoded by TED. Germinal excisions, rare with MuDR, are common with TED, but arise in one of the mitotic divisions of the gametophyte, rather than at meiosis. Instead, transposition-deficient elements arise at meiosis, suggesting that the double-strand breaks produced by element excision are repaired differently in mitosis and meiosis. Unlike MuDR, TED is a very low-copy transposon whose number and activity do not undergo dramatic changes upon inbreeding or outcrossing. Like MuDR, TED transposes mostly to unlinked sites and can form circular transposition products. Sequences closer to TED than to MuDR were detected only in the grasses, suggesting a rather recent evolutionary split from a common ancestor.

  18. Classification of Rhizomonas suberifaciens, an unnamed Rhizomonas species, and Sphingomonas spp. in rRNA superfamily IV.

    PubMed

    van Bruggen, A H; Jochimsen, K N; Steinberger, E M; Segers, P; Gillis, M

    1993-01-01

    Thermal melting profiles of hybrids between 3H-labeled rRNA of Rhizomonas suberifaciens, the causal agent of corky root of lettuce, and chromosomal DNAs from 27 species of gram-negative bacteria indicated that the genus Rhizomonas belongs to superfamily IV of De Ley. On the basis of the melting temperatures of DNA hybrids with rRNAs from the type strains of R. suberifaciens, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Sphingomonas capsulata, Rhizomonas strains constitute a separate branch in superfamily IV, which is closely related to but separate from branches containing Zymomonas mobilis, Sphingomonas spp., and S. capsulata. Sphingomonas yanoikuyae and Rhizomonas sp. strain WI4 are located toward the base of the Rhizomonas rRNA branch. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that S. yanoikuyae is equidistant from Rhizomonas sp. strain WI4 and S. paucimobilis. Sequences of 270 bp of 16S ribosomal DNAs from eight strains of Rhizomonas spp., eight strains of Sphingomonas spp., and Agrobacterium tumefaciens indicated that S. yanoikuyae and Rhizomonas sp. strains WI4 and CA16 are genetically more closely related to R. suberifaciens than to Sphingomonas spp. Thus, S. yanoikuyae may need to be transferred to the genus Rhizomonas on the basis of the results of further study.

  19. Computation-Facilitated Assignment of Function in the Enolase Superfamily: A Regiochemically Distinct Galactarate Dehydratase from Oceanobacillus iheyensis†

    PubMed Central

    Rakus, John F.; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Fedorov, Elena V.; Mills-Groninger, Fiona P.; Toro, Rafael; Bonanno, Jeffrey; Bain, Kevin; Sauder, J. Michael; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Gerlt, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of an uncharacterized member of the enolase superfamily from Oceanobacillus iheyensis (GI: 23100298; IMG locus tag Ob2843; PDB Code 2OQY) was determined by the New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics (NYSGXRC). The structure contained two Mg2+ ions located 10.4 Å from one another, with one located in the canonical position in the (β/α)7β-barrel domain (although the ligand at the end of the fifth β-strand is His, unprecedented in structurally characterized members of the superfamily); the second is located in a novel site within the capping domain. In silico docking of a library of mono- and diacid sugars to the active site predicted a diacid sugar as a likely substrate. Activity screening of a physical library of acid sugars identified galactarate as the substrate (kcat = 6.8 s−1, KM = 620 μM; kcat/KM = 1.1 × 104 M−1 s−1), allowing functional assignment of Ob2843 as galactarate dehydratase (GalrD-II) The structure of a complex of the catalytically impaired Y90F mutant with Mg2+ and galactarate allowed identification of a Tyr 164-Arg 162 dyad as the base that initiates the reaction by abstraction of the α-proton and Tyr 90 as the acid that facilitates departure of the β-OH leaving group. The enzyme product is 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-threo-4,5-dihydroxyadipate, the enantiomer of the product obtained in the GalrD reaction catalyzed by a previously characterized bifunctional L-talarate/galactarate dehydratase (TalrD/GalrD). On the basis of the different active site structures and different regiochemistries, we recognize that these functions represent an example of apparent, not actual, convergent evolution of function. The structure of GalrD-II and its active site architecture allow identification of the seventh functionally and structurally characterized subgroup in the enolase superfamily. This study provides an additional example that an integrated sequence/structure-based strategy employing computational approaches is a viable

  20. The TULIP superfamily of eukaryotic lipid-binding proteins as a mediator of lipid sensing and transport.

    PubMed

    Alva, Vikram; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    The tubular lipid-binding (TULIP) superfamily has emerged in recent years as a major mediator of lipid sensing and transport in eukaryotes. It currently encompasses three protein families, SMP-like, BPI-like, and Takeout-like, which share a common fold. This fold consists of a long helix wrapped in a highly curved anti-parallel β-sheet, enclosing a central, lipophilic cavity. The SMP-like proteins, which include subunits of the ERMES complex and the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), appear to be mainly located at membrane contacts sites (MCSs) between organelles, mediating inter-organelle lipid exchange. The BPI-like proteins, which include the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein (LBP), the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), are either involved in innate immunity against bacteria through their ability to sense lipopolysaccharides, as is the case for BPI and LBP, or in lipid exchange between lipoprotein particles, as is the case for CETP and PLTP. The Takeout-like proteins, which are comprised of insect juvenile hormone-binding proteins and arthropod allergens, transport, where known, lipid hormones to target tissues during insect development. In all cases, the activity of these proteins is underpinned by their ability to bind large, hydrophobic ligands in their central cavity and segregate them away from the aqueous environment. Furthermore, where they are involved in lipid exchange, recent structural studies have highlighted their ability to establish lipophilic, tubular channels, either between organelles in the case of SMP domains or between lipoprotein particles in the case of CETP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure, versatile functions, and evolution of the TULIP superfamily. We propose a deep evolutionary split in this superfamily, predating the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor, between the SMP-like proteins, which act on

  1. Chlorite dismutases, DyPs, and EfeB: 3 microbial heme enzyme families comprise the CDE structural superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Goblirsch, Brandon; Kurker, Richard C.; Streit, Bennett R.; Wilmot, Carrie M.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Heme proteins are extremely diverse, widespread, and versatile biocatalysts, sensors, and molecular transporters. The chlorite dismutase family of hemoproteins received its name due to the ability of the first-isolated members to detoxify anthropogenic ClO2−, a function believed to have evolved only in the last few decades. Family members have since been found in fifteen bacterial and archaeal genera, suggesting ancient roots. A structure- and sequence-based examination of the family is presented, in which key sequence and structural motifs are identified and possible functions for family proteins are proposed. Newly identified structural homologies moreover demonstrate clear connections to two other large, ancient, and functionally mysterious protein families. We propose calling them collectively the CDE superfamily of heme proteins. PMID:21354424

  2. A new family of polymerases related to superfamily A DNA polymerases and T7-like DNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Aravind, L

    2008-10-04

    Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. They also provide evidence that enigmatic DNA viruses, such as Sputnik, might have emerged from mobile elements coding these polymerases.

  3. A new family of polymerases related to superfamily A DNA polymerases and T7-like DNA-dependent RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Aravind, L

    2008-01-01

    Using sequence profile methods and structural comparisons we characterize a previously unknown family of nucleic acid polymerases in a group of mobile elements from genomes of diverse bacteria, an algal plastid and certain DNA viruses, including the recently reported Sputnik virus. Using contextual information from domain architectures and gene-neighborhoods we present evidence that they are likely to possess both primase and DNA polymerase activity, comparable to the previously reported prim-pol proteins. These newly identified polymerases help in defining the minimal functional core of superfamily A DNA polymerases and related RNA polymerases. Thus, they provide a framework to understand the emergence of both DNA and RNA polymerization activity in this class of enzymes. They also provide evidence that enigmatic DNA viruses, such as Sputnik, might have emerged from mobile elements coding these polymerases. This article was reviewed by Eugene Koonin and Mark Ragan. PMID:18834537

  4. Crystal structure of YHI9, the yeast member of the phenazine biosynthesis PhzF enzyme superfamily.

    PubMed

    Liger, Dominique; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Sorel, Isabelle; Bremang, Michael; Blondeau, Karine; Aboulfath, Ilham; Janin, Joël; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2005-09-01

    In the Pseudomonas bacterial genomes, the PhzF proteins are involved in the production of phenazine derivative antibiotic and antifungal compounds. The PhzF superfamily however also encompasses proteins in all genomes from bacteria to eukaryotes, for which no function has been assigned. We have determined the three dimensional crystal structure at 2.05 A resolution of YHI9, the yeast member of the PhzF family. YHI9 has a fold similar to bacterial diaminopimelate epimerase, revealing a bimodular structure with an internal symmetry. Residue conservation identifies a putative active site at the interface between the two domains. Evolution of this protein by gene duplication, gene fusion and domain swapping from an ancestral gene containing the "hot dog" fold, identifies the protein as a "kinked double hot dog" fold. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Isolation and functional analysis of Thmfs1, the first major facilitator superfamily transporter from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Wei Min

    2012-10-01

    A novel major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter gene, Thmfs1, was isolated from Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum). A Thmfs1 over-expressing mutant displayed enhanced antifungal activity and fungicide tolerance, while the Thmfs1 disruption mutant showed the opposite trend. Trichodermin production in Thmfs1 disruption group (185 mg l(-1)) was decreased by less than 17 % compared to the parental strain, suggesting that Thmfs1 is not mainly responsible for trichodermin secretion. Real-time PCR showed that Thmfs1 transcript level could be induced by a certain range of trichodermin concentrations, while expression of Tri5, encoding a trichodiene synthase, was strongly inhibited under these conditions. To our knowledge, Thmfs1 is the first MFS transporter gene identified in T. harzianum.

  6. Drosophila neuroglian: a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily with extensive homology to the vertebrate neural adhesion molecule L1.

    PubMed

    Bieber, A J; Snow, P M; Hortsch, M; Patel, N H; Jacobs, J R; Traquina, Z R; Schilling, J; Goodman, C S

    1989-11-03

    Drosophila neuroglian is an integral membrane glycoprotein that is expressed on a variety of cell types in the Drosophila embryo, including expression on a large subset of glial and neuronal cell bodies in the central and peripheral nervous systems and on the fasciculating axons that extend along them. Neuroglian cDNA clones were isolated by expression cloning. cDNA sequence analysis reveals that neuroglian is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The extracellular portion of the protein consists of six immunoglobulin C2-type domains followed by five fibronectin type III domains. Neuroglian is closely related to the immunoglobulin-like vertebrate neural adhesion molecules and, among them, shows most extensive homology to mouse L1. Its homology to L1 and its embryonic localization suggest that neuroglian may play a role in neural and glial cell adhesion in the developing Drosophila embryo. We report here on the identification of a lethal mutation in the neuroglian gene.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Iwata, Hisato; Fujihara, Junko; Kunito, Takashi; Takeshita, Haruo; Minh, Tu Binh; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-02-01

    To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic metabolism, we investigated associations of genetic polymorphisms in the members of glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily with the arsenic concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary arsenic profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Genotyping was conducted for GST omega1 (GSTO1) Ala140Asp, Glu155del, Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val, GST omega2 (GSTO2) Asn142Asp, GST pi1 (GSTP1) Ile105Val, GST mu1 (GSTM1) wild/null, and GST theta1 (GSTT1) wild/null. There were no mutation alleles for GSTO1 Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val in this population. GSTO1 Glu155del hetero type showed higher urinary concentration of As(V) than the wild homo type. Higher percentage of DMA(V) in urine of GSTM1 wild type was observed compared with that of the null type. Strong correlations between GSTP1 Ile105Val and arsenic exposure level and profile were observed in this study. Especially, heterozygote of GSTP1 Ile105Val had a higher metabolic capacity from inorganic arsenic to monomethyl arsenic, while the opposite trend was observed for ability of metabolism from As(V) to As(III). Furthermore, other factors including sex, age, body mass index, arsenic level in drinking water, and genotypes of As (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) were also significantly co-associated with arsenic level and profile in the Vietnamese. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the associations of genetic factors of GST superfamily with arsenic metabolism in a Vietnamese population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    SciT

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Center for Marine Environmental Studies; Iwata, Hisato, E-mail: iwatah@agr.ehime-u.ac.j

    To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic metabolism, we investigated associations of genetic polymorphisms in the members of glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily with the arsenic concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary arsenic profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Genotyping was conducted for GST omega1 (GSTO1) Ala140Asp, Glu155del, Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val, GST omega2 (GSTO2) Asn142Asp, GST pi1 (GSTP1) Ile105Val, GST mu1 (GSTM1) wild/null, and GST theta1 (GSTT1) wild/null. There were no mutation alleles for GSTO1 Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val in this population. GSTO1 Glu155del hetero type showed higher urinary concentration of As{sup V} thanmore » the wild homo type. Higher percentage of DMA{sup V} in urine of GSTM1 wild type was observed compared with that of the null type. Strong correlations between GSTP1 Ile105Val and arsenic exposure level and profile were observed in this study. Especially, heterozygote of GSTP1 Ile105Val had a higher metabolic capacity from inorganic arsenic to monomethyl arsenic, while the opposite trend was observed for ability of metabolism from As{sup V} to As{sup III}. Furthermore, other factors including sex, age, body mass index, arsenic level in drinking water, and genotypes of As (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) were also significantly co-associated with arsenic level and profile in the Vietnamese. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the associations of genetic factors of GST superfamily with arsenic metabolism in a Vietnamese population.« less

  9. Analysis of the Active-Site Mechanism of Tyrosyl-DNA Phosphodiesterase I: A Member of the Phospholipase D Superfamily

    SciT

    Gajewski, Stefan; Comeaux, Evan Q.; Jafari, Nauzanene

    2012-03-15

    Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I (Tdp1) is a member of the phospholipase D superfamily that hydrolyzes 3'-phospho-DNA adducts via two conserved catalytic histidines - one acting as the lead nucleophile and the second acting as a general acid/base. Substitution of the second histidine specifically to arginine contributes to the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy (SCAN1). We investigated the catalytic role of this histidine in the yeast protein (His432) using a combination of X-ray crystallography, biochemistry, yeast genetics, and theoretical chemistry. The structures of wild-type Tdp1 and His432Arg both show a phosphorylated form of the nucleophilic histidine that is not observedmore » in the structure of His432Asn. The phosphohistidine is stabilized in the His432Arg structure by the guanidinium group that also restricts the access of nucleophilic water molecule to the Tdp1-DNA intermediate. Biochemical analyses confirm that His432Arg forms an observable and unique Tdp1-DNA adduct during catalysis. Substitution of His432 by Lys does not affect catalytic activity or yeast phenotype, but substitutions with Asn, Gln, Leu, Ala, Ser, and Thr all result in severely compromised enzymes and DNA topoisomerase I-camptothecin dependent lethality. Surprisingly, His432Asn did not show a stable covalent Tdp1-DNA intermediate that suggests another catalytic defect. Theoretical calculations revealed that the defect resides in the nucleophilic histidine and that the pK{sub a} of this histidine is crucially dependent on the second histidine and on the incoming phosphate of the substrate. This represents a unique example of substrate-activated catalysis that applies to the entire phospholipase D superfamily.« less

  10. Hsp31, a member of the DJ-1 superfamily, is a multitasking stress responder with chaperone activity

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Kiran; Hazbun, Tony R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Among different types of protein aggregation, amyloids are a biochemically well characterized state of protein aggregation that are associated with a large number of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an insightful model to understand the underlying mechanism of protein aggregation. Many yeast molecular chaperones can modulate aggregation and misfolding of proteins including α-Syn and the Sup35 prion. Hsp31 is a homodimeric protein structurally similar to human DJ-1, a Parkinson's disease-linked protein, and both are members of the DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily. An emerging view is that Hsp31 and its associated superfamily members each have divergent multitasking functions that have the common theme of responding and managing various types of cellular stress. Hsp31 has several biochemical activities including chaperone and detoxifying enzyme activities that modulate at various points of a stress pathway such as toxicity associated with protein misfolding. However, we have shown the protective role of Hsp31's chaperone activity can operate independent of detoxifying enzyme activities in preventing the early stages of protein aggregate formation and associated cellular toxicities. We provide additional data that collectively supports the multiple functional roles that can be accomplished independent of each other. We present data indicating Hsp31 purified from yeast is more active compared to expression and purification from E. coli suggesting that posttranslational modifications could be important for Hsp31 to be fully active. We also compare the similarities and differences in activities among paralogs of Hsp31 supporting a model in which this protein family has overlapping but diverging roles in responding to various sources of cellular stresses. PMID:27097320

  11. The Evolutionary Ecology of Biotic Association in a Megadiverse Bivalve Superfamily: Sponsorship Required for Permanent Residency in Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingchun; Ó Foighil, Diarmaid; Middelfart, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Marine lineage diversification is shaped by the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors but our understanding of their relative roles is underdeveloped. The megadiverse bivalve superfamily Galeommatoidea represents a promising study system to address this issue. It is composed of small-bodied clams that are either free-living or have commensal associations with invertebrate hosts. To test if the evolution of this lifestyle dichotomy is correlated with specific ecologies, we have performed a statistical analysis on the lifestyle and habitat preference of 121 species based on 90 source documents. Methodology/Principal Findings Galeommatoidea has significant diversity in the two primary benthic habitats: hard- and soft-bottoms. Hard-bottom dwellers are overwhelmingly free-living, typically hidden within crevices of rocks/coral heads/encrusting epifauna. In contrast, species in soft-bottom habitats are almost exclusively infaunal commensals. These infaunal biotic associations may involve direct attachment to a host, or clustering around its tube/burrow, but all commensals locate within the oxygenated sediment envelope produced by the host’s bioturbation. Conclusions/Significance The formation of commensal associations by galeommatoidean clams is robustly correlated with an abiotic environmental setting: living in sediments (). Sediment-dwelling bivalves are exposed to intense predation pressure that drops markedly with depth of burial. Commensal galeommatoideans routinely attain depth refuges many times their body lengths, independent of siphonal investment, by virtue of their host’s burrowing and bioturbation. In effect, they use their much larger hosts as giant auto-irrigating siphon substitutes. The evolution of biotic associations with infaunal bioturbating hosts may have been a prerequisite for the diversification of Galeommatoidea in sediments and has likely been a key factor in the success of this exceptionally diverse bivalve superfamily. PMID

  12. Two Major Facilitator Superfamily Sugar Transporters from Trichoderma reesei and Their Roles in Induction of Cellulase Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weixin; Kou, Yanbo; Xu, Jintao; Cao, Yanli; Zhao, Guolei; Shao, Jing; Wang, Hai; Wang, Zhixing; Bao, Xiaoming; Chen, Guanjun; Liu, Weifeng

    2013-01-01

    Proper perception of the extracellular insoluble cellulose is key to initiating the rapid synthesis of cellulases by cellulolytic Trichoderma reesei. Uptake of soluble oligosaccharides derived from cellulose hydrolysis represents a potential point of control in the induced cascade. In this study, we identified a major facilitator superfamily sugar transporter Stp1 capable of transporting cellobiose by reconstructing a cellobiose assimilation system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The absence of Stp1 in T. reesei resulted in differential cellulolytic response to Avicel versus cellobiose. Transcriptional profiling revealed a different expression profile in the Δstp1 strain from that of wild-type strain in response to Avicel and demonstrated that Stp1 somehow repressed induction of the bulk of major cellulase and hemicellulose genes. Two other putative major facilitator superfamily sugar transporters were, however, up-regulated in the profiling. Deletion of one of them identified Crt1 that was required for growth and enzymatic activity on cellulose or lactose, but was not required for growth or hemicellulase activity on xylan. The essential role of Crt1 in cellulase induction did not seem to rely on its transporting activity because the overall uptake of cellobiose or sophorose by T. reesei was not compromised in the absence of Crt1. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that orthologs of Crt1 exist in the genomes of many filamentous ascomycete fungi capable of degrading cellulose. These data thus shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei senses and transmits the cellulose signal and offers potential strategies for strain improvement. PMID:24085297

  13. Analysis of the active site mechanism of Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I: a member of the phospholipase D superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Stefan; Comeaux, Evan Q.; Jafari, Nauzanene; Bharatham, Nagakumar; Bashford, Donald; White, Stephen W.; van Waardenburg, Robert C.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase I (Tdp1) is a member of the phospholipase D superfamily and hydrolyzes 3′phospho-DNA adducts via two conserved catalytic histidines, one acting as the lead nucleophile and the second as a general acid/base. Substitution of the second histidine specifically to arginine contributes to the neurodegenerative disease SCAN1. We investigated the catalytic role of this histidine in the yeast protein (His432) using a combination of X-ray crystallography, biochemistry, yeast genetics and theoretical chemistry. The structures of wild type Tdp1 and His432Arg both show a phosphorylated form of the nucleophilic histidine that is not observed in the structure of His432Asn. The phosphohistidine is stabilized in the His432Arg structure by the guanidinium group that also restricts access of a nucleophilic water molecule to the Tdp1-DNA intermediate. Biochemical analyses confirm that His432Arg forms an observable and unique Tdp1-DNA adduct during catalysis. Substitution of His432 by Lys does not affect catalytic activity or yeast phenotype, but substitution with Asn, Gln, Leu, Ala, Ser and Thr all result in severely compromised enzymes and Top1-camptothecin dependent lethality. Surprisingly, His432Asn did not show a stable covalent Tdp1-DNA intermediate which suggests another catalytic defect. Theoretical calculations revealed that the defect resides in the nucleophilic histidine and that the pKa of this histidine is crucially dependent upon the second histidine and the incoming phosphate of the substrate. This represents a unique example of substrate-activated catalysis that applies to the entire phospholipase D superfamily. PMID:22155078

  14. In vitro treatment with 17,20b-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one regulates mRNA levels of transforming growth factor beta superfamily members in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian tissue

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily members are important paracrine/autocrine regulators of ovarian development and steroidogenesis in mammals, but their reproductive role in fishes is not well understood. Our objectives were 3-fold: to determine if key TGFB superfamily transcripts a...

  15. Structure of the human CD97 gene: Exon shuffling has generated a new type of seven-span transmembrane molecule related to the secretin receptor superfamily

    SciT

    Hamann, J.; Van Lier, R.A.W.; Hartmann, E.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the structure and genetic mapping of the human CD97 gene, a homologue to the secretin receptor superfamily of cell surface proteins. The detailed organization of the gene, which maps to the short arm of chromosome 19, is given. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Structure and function of PA4872 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a novel class of oxaloacetate decarboxylase from the PEP mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Buvaneswari C; Niu, Weiling; Han, Ying; Zou, Jiwen; Mariano, Patrick S; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2008-01-08

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA4872 was identified by sequence analysis as a structurally and functionally novel member of the PEP mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily and therefore targeted for investigation. Substrate screens ruled out overlap with known catalytic functions of superfamily members. The crystal structure of PA4872 in complex with oxalate (a stable analogue of the shared family alpha-oxyanion carboxylate intermediate/transition state) and Mg2+ was determined at 1.9 A resolution. As with other PEP mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily members, the protein assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit adopting an alpha/beta barrel fold and two subunits swapping their barrel's C-terminal alpha-helices. Mg2+ and oxalate bind in the same manner as observed with other superfamily members. The active site gating loop, known to play a catalytic role in the PEP mutase and lyase branches of the superfamily, adopts an open conformation. The Nepsilon of His235, an invariant residue in the PA4872 sequence family, is oriented toward a C(2) oxygen of oxalate analogous to the C(3) of a pyruvyl moiety. Deuterium exchange into alpha-oxocarboxylate-containing compounds was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Having ruled out known activities, the involvement of a pyruvate enolate intermediate suggested a decarboxylase activity of an alpha-oxocarboxylate substrate. Enzymatic assays led to the discovery that PA4872 decarboxylates oxaloacetate (kcat = 7500 s(-1) and Km = 2.2 mM) and 3-methyloxaloacetate (kcat = 250 s(-1) and Km = 0.63 mM). Genome context of the fourteen sequence family members indicates that the enzyme is used by select group of Gram-negative bacteria to maintain cellular concentrations of bicarbonate and pyruvate; however the decarboxylation activity cannot be attributed to a pathway common to the various bacterial species.

  17. Modular architecture of the T4 phage superfamily: A conserved core genome and a plastic periphery

    SciT

    Comeau, Andre M.; Bertrand, Claire; Letarov, Andrei

    2007-06-05

    Among the most numerous objects in the biosphere, phages show enormous diversity in morphology and genetic content. We have sequenced 7 T4-like phages and compared their genome architecture. All seven phages share a core genome with T4 that is interrupted by several hyperplastic regions (HPRs) where most of their divergence occurs. The core primarily includes homologues of essential T4 genes, such as the virion structure and DNA replication genes. In contrast, the HPRs contain mostly novel genes of unknown function and origin. A few of the HPR genes that can be assigned putative functions, such as a series of novelmore » Internal Proteins, are implicated in phage adaptation to the host. Thus, the T4-like genome appears to be partitioned into discrete segments that fulfil different functions and behave differently in evolution. Such partitioning may be critical for these large and complex phages to maintain their flexibility, while simultaneously allowing them to conserve their highly successful virion design and mode of replication.« less

  18. Zebrafish have an ethanol-inducible hepatic 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase that is not CYP2E1-like.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Jessica H; Kozal, Jordan S; Di Giulio, Richard T; Meyer, Joel N

    2017-09-01

    Zebrafish are an attractive model organism for toxicology; however, an important consideration in translating between species is xenobiotic metabolism/bioactivation. CYP2E1 metabolizes small hydrophobic molecules, e.g. ethanol, cigarette smoke, and diesel exhaust components. CYP2E1 is thought to only be conserved in mammals, but recent reports identified homologous zebrafish cytochrome P450s. Herein, ex vivo biochemical measurements show that unlike mammals, zebrafish possess a low-affinity 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase (K m ∼0.6 mM) in hepatic microsomes and mitochondria that is inducible only 1.5- to 2-fold by ethanol and is insensitive to 4-methylpyrazole inhibition. In closing, we suggest creating improved models to study CYP2E1 in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sinorhizobium meliloti Phage ΦM9 Defines a New Group of T4 Superfamily Phages with Unusual Genomic Features but a Common T=16 Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew C.; Tatum, Kelsey B.; Lynn, Jason S.; Brewer, Tess E.; Lu, Stephen; Washburn, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the phages that infect agriculturally important nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. Here we report the genome and cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Sinorhizobium meliloti-infecting T4 superfamily phage ΦM9. This phage and its close relative Rhizobium phage vB_RleM_P10VF define a new group of T4 superfamily phages. These phages are distinctly different from the recently characterized cyanophage-like S. meliloti phages of the ΦM12 group. Structurally, ΦM9 has a T=16 capsid formed from repeating units of an extended gp23-like subunit that assemble through interactions between one subunit and the adjacent E-loop insertion domain. Though genetically very distant from the cyanophages, the ΦM9 capsid closely resembles that of the T4 superfamily cyanophage Syn9. ΦM9 also has the same T=16 capsid architecture as the very distant phage SPO1 and the herpesviruses. Despite their overall lack of similarity at the genomic and structural levels, ΦM9 and S. meliloti phage ΦM12 have a small number of open reading frames in common that appear to encode structural proteins involved in interaction with the host and which may have been acquired by horizontal transfer. These proteins are predicted to encode tail baseplate proteins, tail fibers, tail fiber assembly proteins, and glycanases that cleave host exopolysaccharide. IMPORTANCE Despite recent advances in the phylogenetic and structural characterization of bacteriophages, only a small number of phages of plant-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria have been studied at the molecular level. The effects of phage predation upon beneficial bacteria that promote plant growth remain poorly characterized. First steps in understanding these soil bacterium-phage dynamics are genetic, molecular, and structural characterizations of these groups of phages. The T4 superfamily phages are among the most complex phages; they have large genomes packaged within an icosahedral head and a long

  20. Comparative Bioinformatic Analysis of Active Site Structures in Evolutionarily Remote Homologues of α,β-Hydrolase Superfamily Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Suplatov, D A; Arzhanik, V K; Svedas, V K

    2011-01-01

    Comparative bioinformatic analysis is the cornerstone of the study of enzymes' structure-function relationship. However, numerous enzymes that derive from a common ancestor and have undergone substantial functional alterations during natural selection appear not to have a sequence similarity acceptable for a statistically reliable comparative analysis. At the same time, their active site structures, in general, can be conserved, while other parts may largely differ. Therefore, it sounds both plausible and appealing to implement a comparative analysis of the most functionally important structural elements - the active site structures; that is, the amino acid residues involved in substrate binding and the catalytic mechanism. A computer algorithm has been developed to create a library of enzyme active site structures based on the use of the PDB database, together with programs of structural analysis and identification of functionally important amino acid residues and cavities in the enzyme structure. The proposed methodology has been used to compare some α,β-hydrolase superfamily enzymes. The insight has revealed a high structural similarity of catalytic site areas, including the conservative organization of a catalytic triad and oxyanion hole residues, despite the wide functional diversity among the remote homologues compared. The methodology can be used to compare the structural organization of the catalytic and substrate binding sites of various classes of enzymes, as well as study enzymes' evolution and to create of a databank of enzyme active site structures.

  1. E2 superfamily of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes: constitutively active or activated through phosphorylation in the catalytic cleft.

    PubMed

    Valimberti, Ilaria; Tiberti, Matteo; Lambrughi, Matteo; Sarcevic, Boris; Papaleo, Elena

    2015-10-14

    Protein phosphorylation is a modification that offers a dynamic and reversible mechanism to regulate the majority of cellular processes. Numerous diseases are associated with aberrant regulation of phosphorylation-induced switches. Phosphorylation is emerging as a mechanism to modulate ubiquitination by regulating key enzymes in this pathway. The molecular mechanisms underpinning how phosphorylation regulates ubiquitinating enzymes, however, are elusive. Here, we show the high conservation of a functional site in E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. In catalytically active E2s, this site contains aspartate or a phosphorylatable serine and we refer to it as the conserved E2 serine/aspartate (CES/D) site. Molecular simulations of substrate-bound and -unbound forms of wild type, mutant and phosphorylated E2s, provide atomistic insight into the role of the CES/D residue for optimal E2 activity. Both the size and charge of the side group at the site play a central role in aligning the substrate lysine toward E2 catalytic cysteine to control ubiquitination efficiency. The CES/D site contributes to the fingerprint of the E2 superfamily. We propose that E2 enzymes can be divided into constitutively active or regulated families. E2s characterized by an aspartate at the CES/D site signify constitutively active E2s, whereas those containing a serine can be regulated by phosphorylation.

  2. Structure and function of primitive immunoglobulin superfamily neural cell adhesion molecules: a lesson from studies on planarian.

    PubMed

    Fusaoka, Eri; Inoue, Takeshi; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Agata, Kiyokazu; Takeuchi, Kosei

    2006-05-01

    Precise wiring and proper remodeling of the neural network are essential for its normal function. The freshwater planarian is an attractive animal in which to study the formation and maintenance of the neural network due to its high regenerative capability and developmental plasticity. Although a recent study revealed that homologs of netrin and its receptors are required for regeneration and maintenance of the planarian central nervous system (CNS), the roles of cell adhesion in the formation and maintenance of the planarian neural network remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found primitive immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs) in a planarian that are homologous to vertebrate neural IgCAMs. We identified planarian orthologs of NCAM, L1CAM, contactin and DSCAM, and designated them DjCAM, DjLCAM, DjCTCAM and DjDSCAM, respectively. We further confirmed that they function as cell adhesion molecules using cell aggregation assays. DjCAM and DjDSCAM were found to be differentially expressed in the CNS. Functional analyses using RNA interference revealed that DjCAM is partly involved in axon formation, and that DjDSCAM plays crucial roles in neuronal cell migration, axon outgrowth, fasciculation and projection.

  3. Regulation of WNT Signaling at the Neuromuscular Junction by the Immunoglobulin Superfamily Protein RIG-3 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pratima; Bhardwaj, Ashwani; Babu, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    Perturbations in synaptic function could affect the normal behavior of an animal, making it important to understand the regulatory mechanisms of synaptic signaling. Previous work has shown that in Caenorhabditis elegans an immunoglobulin superfamily protein, RIG-3, functions in presynaptic neurons to maintain normal acetylcholine receptor levels at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In this study, we elucidate the molecular and functional mechanism of RIG-3. We demonstrate by genetic and BiFC (Bi-molecular Fluorescence Complementation) assays that presynaptic RIG-3 functions by directly interacting with the immunoglobulin domain of the nonconventional Wnt receptor, ROR receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), CAM-1, which functions in postsynaptic body-wall muscles. This interaction in turn inhibits Wnt/LIN-44 signaling through the ROR/CAM-1 receptor, and allows for maintenance of normal acetylcholine receptor, AChR/ACR-16, levels at the neuromuscular synapse. Further, this work reveals that RIG-3 and ROR/CAM-1 function through the β-catenin/HMP-2 at the NMJ. Taken together, our results demonstrate that RIG-3 functions as an inhibitory molecule of the Wnt/LIN-44 signaling pathway through the RTK, CAM-1. PMID:28515212

  4. Superfamily of genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors in the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, S-F; Yu, H-Y; Jiang, T-T; Gao, C-F; Shen, J-L

    2015-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest and most versatile superfamily of cell membrane proteins, which mediate various physiological processes including reproduction, development and behaviour. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most notorious insect pests, preferentially feeding on cruciferous plants. P. xylostella is not only one of the world's most widespread lepidopteran insects, but has also developed resistance to nearly all classes of insecticides. Although the mechanisms of insecticide resistance have been studied extensively in many insect species, few investigations have been carried out on GPCRs in P. xylostella. In the present study, we identified 95 putative GPCRs in the P. xylostella genome. The identified GPCRs were compared with their homologues in Bombyx mori and Drosophila melanogaster. Our results suggest that GPCRs in different insect species may have evolved by a birth-and-death process. One of the differences among compared insects is the duplication of short neuropeptide F receptor and adipokinetic hormone receptors in P. xylostella and B. mori. Another divergence is the decrease in quantity and diversity of the stress-tolerance gene, Mth, in P. xylostella. The evolution by the birth-and-death process is probably involved in adaptation to the feeding behaviour, reproduction and stress responses of P. xylostella. Some of the genes identified in the present study could be potential targets for the development of novel pesticides. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Íñigo; Novick, Richard P.; Christie, Gail E.; Penadés, José R.

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  6. New insights into potential functions for the protein 4.1superfamily of proteins in kidney epithelium

    SciT

    Calinisan, Venice; Gravem, Dana; Chen, Ray Ping-Hsu

    2005-06-17

    Members of the protein 4.1 family of adapter proteins are expressed in a broad panel of tissues including various epithelia where they likely play an important role in maintenance of cell architecture and polarity and in control of cell proliferation. We have recently characterized the structure and distribution of three members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1B, 4.1R and 4.1N, in mouse kidney. We describe here binding partners for renal 4.1 proteins, identified through the screening of a rat kidney yeast two-hybrid system cDNA library. The identification of putative protein 4.1-based complexes enables us to envision potential functions for 4.1more » proteins in kidney: organization of signaling complexes, response to osmotic stress, protein trafficking, and control of cell proliferation. We discuss the relevance of these protein 4.1-based interactions in kidney physio-pathology in the context of their previously identified functions in other cells and tissues. Specifically, we will focus on renal 4.1 protein interactions with beta amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP), 14-3-3 proteins, and the cell swelling-activated chloride channel pICln. We also discuss the functional relevance of another member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, ezrin, in kidney physiopathology.« less

  7. Characterization of 2-Oxindole Forming Heme Enzyme MarE, Expanding the Functional Diversity of the Tryptophan Dioxygenase Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuyang; Zou, Yi; Brock, Nelson L; Huang, Tingting; Lan, Yingxia; Wang, Xiaozheng; Deng, Zixin; Tang, Yi; Lin, Shuangjun

    2017-08-30

    3-Substituted 2-oxindoles are important structural motifs found in many biologically active natural products and pharmaceutical lead compounds. Here, we report an enzymatic formation of the 3-substituted 2-oxindoles catalyzed by MarE in the maremycin biosynthetic pathway in Streptomyces sp. B9173. MarE is a homologue of Fe II /heme-dependent tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (TDOs). Typical TDOs usually catalyze the insertion of two oxygen atoms from O 2 into an indole ring to generate N-formylkynurenine (NFK)-like products. In contrast, MarE catalyzes the insertion of a single oxygen atom from O 2 into an indole ring, to probably generate an epoxyindole intermediate that undergoes an unprecedented 2,3-hydride migration to form 2-oxindole structure. MarE shows substrate robustness to catalyze the conversion of a series of 3-substituted indoles into their corresponding 3-substituted 2-oxindoles. Although containing most key amino acid residues conserved in well-known TDO homologues, MarE falls into a separate new subgroup in the phylogenetic tree. The characterization of MarE and its homologue enriches the functional diversities of TDO superfamily and provides a new strategy for discovering novel natural products containing 3-substituted 2-oxindole pharmacophores by genome mining.

  8. CACTA-superfamily transposable element is inserted in MYB transcription factor gene of soybean line producing variegated seeds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fan; Di, Shaokang; Takahashi, Ryoji

    2015-08-01

    The R gene of soybean, presumably encoding a MYB transcription factor, controls seed coat color. The gene consists of multiple alleles, R (black), r-m (black spots and (or) concentric streaks on brown seed), and r (brown seed). This study was conducted to determine the structure of the MYB transcription factor gene in a near-isogenic line (NIL) having r-m allele. PCR amplification of a fragment of the candidate gene Glyma.09G235100 generated a fragment of about 1 kb in the soybean cultivar Clark, whereas a fragment of about 14 kb in addition to fragments of 1 and 1.4 kb were produced in L72-2040, a Clark 63 NIL with the r-m allele. Clark 63 is a NIL of Clark with the rxp and Rps1 alleles. A DNA fragment of 13 060 bp was inserted in the intron of Glyma.09G235100 in L72-2040. The fragment had the CACTA motif at both ends, imperfect terminal inverted repeats (TIR), inverse repetition of short sequence motifs close to the 5' and 3' ends, and a duplication of three nucleotides at the site of integration, indicating that it belongs to a CACTA-superfamily transposable element. We designated the element as Tgm11. Overall nucleotide sequence, motifs of TIR, and subterminal repeats were similar to those of Tgm1 and Tgs1, suggesting that these elements comprise a family.

  9. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: Stereochemically Distinct Mechanisms in Two Families of cis,cis-Muconate Lactonizing Enzymes

    SciT

    Sakai, A.; Fedorov, A; Fedorov, E

    2009-01-01

    The mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily is a paradigm for elucidating Nature's strategies for divergent evolution of enzyme function. Each of the different reactions catalyzed by members of the superfamily is initiated by abstraction of the a-proton of a carboxylate substrate that is coordinated to an essential Mg2+. The muconate lactonizing enzyme (MLE) from Pseudomonas putida, a member of a family that catalyzes the syn-cycloisomerization of cis,cis-muconate to (4S)-muconolactone in the e-ketoadipate pathway, has provided critical insights into the structural bases for evolution of function within the superfamily. A second, divergent family of homologous MLEs that catalyzes anti-cycloisomerization has been identified.more » Structures of members of both families liganded with the common (4S)-muconolactone product (syn, Pseudomonas fluorescens, gi 70731221; anti, Mycobacterium smegmatis, gi 118470554) document that the conserved Lys at the end of the second e-strand in the (e/a)7e-barrel domain serves as the acid catalyst in both reactions. The different stereochemical courses (syn and anti) result from different structural strategies for determining substrate specificity: although the distal carboxylate group of the cis,cis-muconate substrate attacks the same face of the proximal double bond, opposite faces of the resulting enolate anion intermediate are presented to the conserved Lys acid catalyst. The discovery of two families of homologous, but stereochemically distinct, MLEs likely provides an example of 'pseudoconvergent' evolution of the same function from different homologous progenitors within the enolase superfamily, in which different spatial arrangements of active site functional groups and substrate specificity determinants support catalysis of the same reaction.« less

  10. Integrins in bone metastasis formation and potential therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Clëzardin, P

    2009-11-01

    Integrins constitute a family of cell surface receptors that are heterodimers composed of noncovalently associated alpha and beta subunits. Integrins bind to extracellular matrix proteins and immunogobulin superfamily molecules. They exert a stringent control on cell migration, survival and proliferation. However, their expression and functions are often deregulated in cancer, and many lines of evidence implicate them as key regulators during progression from primary tumor growth to metastasis. Here, we review the role of integrins in bone metastasis formation and present evidence that the use of integrin-targeted therapeutic agents may be an efficient strategy to block tumor metastasis.

  11. The substrate oxidation mechanism of pyranose 2-oxidase and other related enzymes in the glucose-methanol-choline superfamily.

    PubMed

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2013-07-01

    Enzymes in the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase superfamily catalyze the oxidation of an alcohol moiety to the corresponding aldehyde. In this review, the current understanding of the sugar oxidation mechanism in the reaction of pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) is highlighted and compared with that of other enzymes in the GMC family for which structural and mechanistic information is available, including glucose oxidase, choline oxidase, cholesterol oxidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, aryl-alcohol oxidase, and pyridoxine 4-oxidase. Other enzymes in the family that have been newly discovered or for which less information is available are also discussed. A large primary kinetic isotope effect was observed for the flavin reduction when 2-d-D-glucose was used as a substrate, but no solvent kinetic isotope effect was detected for the flavin reduction step. The reaction of P2O is consistent with a hydride transfer mechanism in which there is stepwise formation of d-glucose alkoxide prior to the hydride transfer. Site-directed mutagenesis of P2O and pH-dependence studies indicated that His548 is a catalytic base that facilitates the deprotonation of C2-OH in D-glucose. This finding agrees with the current mechanistic model for aryl-alcohol oxidase, glucose oxidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, methanol oxidase, and pyridoxine 4-oxidase, but is different from that of cholesterol oxidase and choline oxidase. Although all of the GMC enzymes share similar structural folding and use the hydride transfer mechanism for flavin reduction, they appear to have subtle differences in the fine-tuned details of how they catalyze substrate oxidation. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  12. Mouse RC/BTB2, a Member of the RCC1 Superfamily, Localizes to Spermatid Acrosomal Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xuening; Nagarkatti-Gude, David R.; Hess, Rex A.; Henderson, Scott C.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Zhang, Zhibing

    2012-01-01

    Mouse RC/BTB2 is an unstudied protein of the RCC1 (Regulator of Chromosome Condensation) superfamily. Because of the significant remodeling of chromatin that occurs during spermiogenesis, we characterized the expression and localization of mouse RC/BTB2 in the testis and male germ cells. The Rc/btb2 gene yields two major transcripts: 2.3 kb Rc/btb2-s, present in most somatic tissues examined; and 2.5 kb Rc/btb2-t, which contains a unique non-translated exon in its 5′-UTR that is only detected in the testis. During the first wave of spermatogenesis, Rc/btb2-t mRNA is expressed from day 8 after birth, reaching highest levels of expression at day 30 after birth. The full-length protein contains three RCC1 domains in the N-terminus, and a BTB domain in the C-terminus. In the testis, the protein is detectable from day 12, but is progressively up-regulated to day 30 and day 42 after birth. In spermatids, some of the protein co-localizes with acrosomal markers sp56 and peanut lectin, indicating that it is an acrosomal protein. A GFP-tagged RCC1 domain is present throughout the cytoplasm of transfected CHO cells. However, both GFP-tagged, full-length RC/BTB2 and a GFP-tagged BTB domain localize to vesicles in close proximity to the nuclear membrane, suggesting that the BTB domain might play a role in mediating full-length RC/BTB2 localization. Since RCC1 domains associate with Ran, a small GTPase that regulates molecular trafficking, it is possible that RC/BTB2 plays a role in transporting proteins during acrosome formation. PMID:22768142

  13. Novel evolutionary lineages of the invertebrate oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily peptides and their receptors in the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Satake, Honoo; Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, is the first invertebrate species that was shown to possess two oxytocin/vasopressin (OT/VP) superfamily peptides, octopressin (OP) and cephalotocin (CT). Previously, we cloned a GPCR (G-protein-coupled receptor) specific to CT [CTR1 (CT receptor 1)]. In the present study, we have identified an additional CTR, CTR2, and a novel OP receptor, OPR. Both CTR2 and OPR include domains and motifs typical of GPCRs, and the intron– exon structures are in accord with those of OT/VP receptor genes. CTR2 and OPR expressed in Xenopus oocytes induced calcium-mediated inward chloride current in a CT- and OP-specific manner respectively. Several regions and residues, which are requisite for binding of the vertebrate OT/VP receptor family with their ligands, are highly conserved in CTRs, but not in OPR. These different sequences between CTRs and OPR, as well as the amino acid residues of OP and CT at positions 2–5, were presumed to play crucial roles in the binding selectivity to their receptors, whereas the difference in the polarity of OT/VP family peptide residues at position 8 confers OT and VP with the binding specificity in vertebrates. CTR2 mRNA was present in various peripheral tissues, and OPR mRNA was detected in both the nervous system and peripheral tissues. Our findings suggest that the CT and OP genes, similar to the OT/VP family, evolved through duplication, but the ligand–receptor selectivity were established through different evolutionary lineages from those of their vertebrate counterparts. PMID:15504101

  14. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqin; Guo, Rongrong; Li, Jun; Singer, Stacy D; Zhang, Yucheng; Yin, Xiangjing; Zheng, Yi; Fan, Chonghui; Wang, Xiping

    2013-10-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent a protein superfamily encoding NAD(P)(+)-dependent enzymes that oxidize a wide range of endogenous and exogenous aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes and play a role in the response to environmental stress. In this study, a total of 39 ALDH genes from ten families were identified in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome. Synteny analysis of the apple ALDH (MdALDH) genes indicated that segmental and tandem duplications, as well as whole genome duplications, have likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of these gene families in apple. Moreover, synteny analysis between apple and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several MdALDH genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes appeared before the divergence of lineages that led to apple and Arabidopsis. In addition, phylogenetic analysis, as well as comparisons of exon-intron and protein structures, provided further insight into both their evolutionary relationships and their putative functions. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the MdALDH genes demonstrated diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns, while their expression profiles under abiotic stress and various hormone treatments indicated that many MdALDH genes were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as different plant hormones. This genome-wide identification, as well as characterization of evolutionary relationships and expression profiles, of the apple MdALDH genes will not only be useful for the further analysis of ALDH genes and their roles in stress response, but may also aid in the future improvement of apple stress tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Divergence of Structure and Function in the Haloacid Dehalogenase Enzyme Superfamily: Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BT2127 is an Inorganic Pyrophosphatase+

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hua; Yury, Patskovsky; Toro, Rafael; Farelli, Jeremiah D.; Pandya, Chetanya; Almo, Steven C.; Allen, Karen N.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The explosion of protein sequence information requires that current strategies for function assignment must evolve to complement experimental approaches with computationally-based function prediction. This necessitates the development of strategies based on the identification of sequence markers in the form of specificity determinants and a more informed definition of orthologues. Herein, we have undertaken the function assignment of the unknown Haloalkanoate Dehalogenase superfamily member BT2127 (Uniprot accession # Q8A5V9) from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron using an integrated bioinformatics/structure/mechanism approach. The substrate specificity profile and steady-state rate constants of BT2127 (with kcat/Km value for pyrophosphate of ∼1 × 105 M−1 s−1), together with the gene context, supports the assigned in vivo function as an inorganic pyrophosphatase. The X-ray structural analysis of the wild-type BT2127 and several variants generated by site-directed mutagenesis shows that substrate discrimination is based, in part, on active site space restrictions imposed by the cap domain (specifically by residues Tyr76 and Glu47). Structure guided site directed mutagenesis coupled with kinetic analysis of the mutant enzymes identified the residues required for catalysis, substrate binding, and domain-domain association. Based on this structure-function analysis, the catalytic residues Asp11, Asp13, Thr113, and Lys147 as well the metal binding residues Asp171, Asn172 and Glu47 were used as markers to confirm BT2127 orthologues identified via sequence searches. This bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that the biological range of BT2127 orthologue is restricted to the phylum Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi. The key structural determinants in the divergence of BT2127 and its closest homologue β-phosphoglucomutase control the leaving group size (phosphate vs. glucose-phosphate) and the position of the Asp acid/base in the open vs. closed conformations. HADSF pyrophosphatases

  16. Structures of yeast Apa2 reveal catalytic insights into a canonical AP₄A phosphorylase of the histidine triad superfamily.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-Tao; Li, Wen-Zhe; Chen, Yuxing; Jiang, Yong-Liang; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

    2013-08-09

    The homeostasis of intracellular diadenosine 5',5″'-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is maintained by two 60% sequence-identical paralogs of Ap4A phosphorylases (Apa1 and Apa2). Enzymatic assays show that, compared to Apa1, Apa2 has a relatively higher phosphorylase activity towards Ap3A (5',5″'-P(1),P(3)-tetraphosphate), Ap4A, and Ap5A (5',5″'-P(1),P(5)-tetraphosphate), and Ap4A is the favorable substrate for both enzymes. To decipher the catalytic insights, we determined the crystal structures of Apa2 in the apo-, AMP-, and Ap4A-complexed forms at 2.30, 2.80, and 2.70Å resolution, respectively. Apa2 is an α/β protein with a core domain of a twisted eight-stranded antiparallel β-sheet flanked by several α-helices, similar to the galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalT) members of the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily. However, a unique auxiliary domain enables an individual Apa2 monomer to possess an intact substrate-binding cleft, which is distinct from previously reported dimeric GalT proteins. This cleft is perfectly complementary to the favorable substrate Ap4A, the AMP and ATP moieties of which are perpendicular to each other, leaving the α-phosphate group exposed at the sharp turn against the catalytic residue His161. Structural comparisons combined with site-directed mutagenesis and activity assays enable us to define the key residues for catalysis. Furthermore, multiple-sequence alignment reveals that Apa2 and homologs represent canonical Ap4A phosphorylases, which could be grouped as a unique branch in the GalT family. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Uncovering the transmembrane metal binding site of the novel bacterial major facilitator superfamily-type copper importer CcoA

    SciT

    Khalfaoui-Hassani, Bahia; Verissimo, Andreia F.; Koch, Hans -Georg

    In this study, uptake and trafficking of metals and their delivery to their respective metalloproteins are important processes. Cells need precise control of each step to avoid exposure to excessive metal concentrations and their harmful consequences. Copper (Cu) is a required micronutrient used as a cofactor in proteins. However, in large amounts, it can induce oxidative damage; hence, Cu homeostasis is indispensable for cell survival. Biogenesis of respiratory heme-Cu oxygen (HCO) reductases includes insertion of Cu into their catalytic subunits to form heme-Cu binuclear centers. Previously, we had shown that CcoA is a major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-type bacterial Cu importermore » required for biogenesis of cbb 3-type cytochrome coxidase ( cbb 3-Cox). Here, using Rhodobacter capsulatus, we focused on the import and delivery of Cu to cbb 3-Cox. By comparing the CcoA amino acid sequence with its homologues from other bacterial species, we located several well-conserved Met, His, and Tyr residues that might be important for Cu transport. We determined the topology of the transmembrane helices that carry these residues to establish that they are membrane embedded, and substituted for them amino acids that do not ligand metal atoms. Characterization of these mutants for their uptake of radioactive 64Cu and cbb 3-Cox activities demonstrated that Met233 and His261 of CcoA are essential and Met237 and Met265 are important, whereas Tyr230 has no role for Cu uptake or cbb3-Cox biogenesis. These findings show for the first time that CcoA-mediated Cu import relies on conserved Met and His residues that could act as metal ligands at the membrane-embedded Cu binding domain of this transporter.« less

  18. Transposition behavior of nonautonomous a hAT superfamily transposon nDart in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Fujino, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) have a significant impact on the evolution of gene function and genome structures. An endogenous nonautonomous transposable element nDart was discovered in an albino mutant that had an insertion in the Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase gene in rice. In this study, we elucidated the transposition behavior of nDart, the frequency of nDart transposition and characterized the footprint of nDart. Novel independent nDart insertions in backcrossed progenies were detected by DNA blotting analysis. In addition, germinal excision of nDart occurred at very low frequency compared with that of somatic excision, 0-13.3%, in the nDart1-4(3-2) and nDart1-A loci by a locus-specific PCR strategy. A total of 253 clones from somatic excision at five nDart loci in 10 varieties were determined. nDart rarely caused deletions beyond target site duplication (TSD). The footprint of nDart contained few transversions of nucleotides flanking to both sides of the TSD. The predominant footprint of nDart was an 8-bp addition. Precise excision of nDart was detected at a rate of only 2.2%, which occurred at two loci among the five loci examined. Furthermore, the results in this study revealed that a highly conserved mechanism of transposition is involved between maize Ac/Ds and rice Dart/nDart, which are two-component transposon systems of the hAT superfamily transposons in plant species.

  19. Cupincin: A Unique Protease Purified from Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Is a New Member of the Cupin Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Sreedhar, Roopesh; Kaul Tiku, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Cupin superfamily is one of the most diverse super families. This study reports the purification and characterization of a novel cupin domain containing protease from rice bran for the first time. Hypothetical protein OsI_13867 was identified and named as cupincin. Cupincin was purified to 4.4 folds with a recovery of 4.9%. Cupincin had an optimum pH and temperature of pH 4.0 and 60 °C respectively. Cupincin was found to be a homotrimer, consisting of three distinct subunits with apparent molecular masses of 33.45 kDa, 22.35 kDa and 16.67 kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF, whereas it eluted as a single unit with an apparent molecular mass of 135.33 ± 3.52 kDa in analytical gel filtration and migrated as a single band in native page, suggesting its homogeneity. Sequence identity of cupincin was deduced by determining the amino-terminal sequence of the polypeptide chains and by and de novo sequencing. For understanding the hydrolysing mechanism of cupincin, its three-dimensional model was developed. Structural analysis indicated that cupincin contains His313, His326 and Glu318 with zinc ion as the putative active site residues, inhibition of enzyme activity by 1,10-phenanthroline and atomic absorption spectroscopy confirmed the presence of zinc ion. The cleavage specificity of cupincin towards oxidized B-chain of insulin was highly specific; cleaving at the Leu15-Tyr16 position, the specificity was also determined using neurotensin as a substrate, where it cleaved only at the Glu1-Tyr2 position. Limited proteolysis of the protease suggests a specific function for cupincin. These results demonstrated cupincin as a completely new protease.

  20. Cupincin: A Unique Protease Purified from Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Is a New Member of the Cupin Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Sreedhar, Roopesh; Kaul Tiku, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Cupin superfamily is one of the most diverse super families. This study reports the purification and characterization of a novel cupin domain containing protease from rice bran for the first time. Hypothetical protein OsI_13867 was identified and named as cupincin. Cupincin was purified to 4.4 folds with a recovery of 4.9%. Cupincin had an optimum pH and temperature of pH 4.0 and 60°C respectively. Cupincin was found to be a homotrimer, consisting of three distinct subunits with apparent molecular masses of 33.45 kDa, 22.35 kDa and 16.67 kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF, whereas it eluted as a single unit with an apparent molecular mass of 135.33 ± 3.52 kDa in analytical gel filtration and migrated as a single band in native page, suggesting its homogeneity. Sequence identity of cupincin was deduced by determining the amino-terminal sequence of the polypeptide chains and by and de novo sequencing. For understanding the hydrolysing mechanism of cupincin, its three-dimensional model was developed. Structural analysis indicated that cupincin contains His313, His326 and Glu318 with zinc ion as the putative active site residues, inhibition of enzyme activity by 1,10-phenanthroline and atomic absorption spectroscopy confirmed the presence of zinc ion. The cleavage specificity of cupincin towards oxidized B-chain of insulin was highly specific; cleaving at the Leu15-Tyr16 position, the specificity was also determined using neurotensin as a substrate, where it cleaved only at the Glu1-Tyr2 position. Limited proteolysis of the protease suggests a specific function for cupincin. These results demonstrated cupincin as a completely new protease. PMID:27064905

  1. Molecular phylogeny of the bivalve superfamily Galeommatoidea (Heterodonta, Veneroida) reveals dynamic evolution of symbiotic lifestyle and interphylum host switching

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Galeommatoidea is a superfamily of bivalves that exhibits remarkably diverse lifestyles. Many members of this group live attached to the body surface or inside the burrows of other marine invertebrates, including crustaceans, holothurians, echinoids, cnidarians, sipunculans and echiurans. These symbiotic species exhibit high host specificity, commensal interactions with hosts, and extreme morphological and behavioral adaptations to symbiotic life. Host specialization to various animal groups has likely played an important role in the evolution and diversification of this bivalve group. However, the evolutionary pathway that led to their ecological diversity is not well understood, in part because of their reduced and/or highly modified morphologies that have confounded traditional taxonomy. This study elucidates the taxonomy of the Galeommatoidea and their evolutionary history of symbiotic lifestyle based on a molecular phylogenic analysis of 33 galeommatoidean and five putative galeommatoidean species belonging to 27 genera and three families using two nuclear ribosomal genes (18S and 28S ribosomal DNA) and a nuclear (histone H3) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) protein-coding genes. Results Molecular phylogeny recovered six well-supported major clades within Galeommatoidea. Symbiotic species were found in all major clades, whereas free-living species were grouped into two major clades. Species symbiotic with crustaceans, holothurians, sipunculans, and echiurans were each found in multiple major clades, suggesting that host specialization to these animal groups occurred repeatedly in Galeommatoidea. Conclusions Our results suggest that the evolutionary history of host association in Galeommatoidea has been remarkably dynamic, involving frequent host switches between different animal phyla. Such an unusual pattern of dynamic host switching is considered to have resulted from their commensalistic lifestyle, in which they maintain filter

  2. Uncovering the transmembrane metal binding site of the novel bacterial major facilitator superfamily-type copper importer CcoA

    DOE PAGES

    Khalfaoui-Hassani, Bahia; Verissimo, Andreia F.; Koch, Hans -Georg; ...

    2016-01-19

    In this study, uptake and trafficking of metals and their delivery to their respective metalloproteins are important processes. Cells need precise control of each step to avoid exposure to excessive metal concentrations and their harmful consequences. Copper (Cu) is a required micronutrient used as a cofactor in proteins. However, in large amounts, it can induce oxidative damage; hence, Cu homeostasis is indispensable for cell survival. Biogenesis of respiratory heme-Cu oxygen (HCO) reductases includes insertion of Cu into their catalytic subunits to form heme-Cu binuclear centers. Previously, we had shown that CcoA is a major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-type bacterial Cu importermore » required for biogenesis of cbb 3-type cytochrome coxidase ( cbb 3-Cox). Here, using Rhodobacter capsulatus, we focused on the import and delivery of Cu to cbb 3-Cox. By comparing the CcoA amino acid sequence with its homologues from other bacterial species, we located several well-conserved Met, His, and Tyr residues that might be important for Cu transport. We determined the topology of the transmembrane helices that carry these residues to establish that they are membrane embedded, and substituted for them amino acids that do not ligand metal atoms. Characterization of these mutants for their uptake of radioactive 64Cu and cbb 3-Cox activities demonstrated that Met233 and His261 of CcoA are essential and Met237 and Met265 are important, whereas Tyr230 has no role for Cu uptake or cbb3-Cox biogenesis. These findings show for the first time that CcoA-mediated Cu import relies on conserved Met and His residues that could act as metal ligands at the membrane-embedded Cu binding domain of this transporter.« less

  3. Ancient Duplications and Expression Divergence in the Globin Gene Superfamily of Vertebrates: Insights from the Elephant Shark Genome and Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Opazo, Juan C.; Toloza-Villalobos, Jessica; Burmester, Thorsten; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Storz, Jay F.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of vertebrate genomes continue to uncover a surprising diversity of genes in the globin gene superfamily, some of which have very restricted phyletic distributions despite their antiquity. Genomic analysis of the globin gene repertoire of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) should be especially informative about the duplicative origins and ancestral functions of vertebrate globins, as divergence between Chondrichthyes and bony vertebrates represents the most basal split within the jawed vertebrates. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the vertebrate globin gene family that includes the complete globin gene repertoire of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Using genomic sequence data from representatives of all major vertebrate classes, integrated analyses of conserved synteny and phylogenetic relationships revealed that the last common ancestor of vertebrates possessed a repertoire of at least seven globin genes: single copies of androglobin and neuroglobin, four paralogous copies of globin X, and the single-copy progenitor of the entire set of vertebrate-specific globins. Combined with expression data, the genomic inventory of elephant shark globins yielded four especially surprising findings: 1) there is no trace of the neuroglobin gene (a highly conserved gene that is present in all other jawed vertebrates that have been examined to date), 2) myoglobin is highly expressed in heart, but not in skeletal muscle (reflecting a possible ancestral condition in vertebrates with single-circuit circulatory systems), 3) elephant shark possesses two highly divergent globin X paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in gonads, and 4) elephant shark possesses two structurally distinct α-globin paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in the brain. Expression profiles of elephant shark globin genes reveal distinct specializations of function relative to orthologs in bony vertebrates and suggest hypotheses about

  4. Ancient Duplications and Expression Divergence in the Globin Gene Superfamily of Vertebrates: Insights from the Elephant Shark Genome and Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Opazo, Juan C; Lee, Alison P; Hoffmann, Federico G; Toloza-Villalobos, Jessica; Burmester, Thorsten; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Storz, Jay F

    2015-07-01

    Comparative analyses of vertebrate genomes continue to uncover a surprising diversity of genes in the globin gene superfamily, some of which have very restricted phyletic distributions despite their antiquity. Genomic analysis of the globin gene repertoire of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) should be especially informative about the duplicative origins and ancestral functions of vertebrate globins, as divergence between Chondrichthyes and bony vertebrates represents the most basal split within the jawed vertebrates. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the vertebrate globin gene family that includes the complete globin gene repertoire of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Using genomic sequence data from representatives of all major vertebrate classes, integrated analyses of conserved synteny and phylogenetic relationships revealed that the last common ancestor of vertebrates possessed a repertoire of at least seven globin genes: single copies of androglobin and neuroglobin, four paralogous copies of globin X, and the single-copy progenitor of the entire set of vertebrate-specific globins. Combined with expression data, the genomic inventory of elephant shark globins yielded four especially surprising findings: 1) there is no trace of the neuroglobin gene (a highly conserved gene that is present in all other jawed vertebrates that have been examined to date), 2) myoglobin is highly expressed in heart, but not in skeletal muscle (reflecting a possible ancestral condition in vertebrates with single-circuit circulatory systems), 3) elephant shark possesses two highly divergent globin X paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in gonads, and 4) elephant shark possesses two structurally distinct α-globin paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in the brain. Expression profiles of elephant shark globin genes reveal distinct specializations of function relative to orthologs in bony vertebrates and suggest hypotheses about

  5. Thioesterase Superfamily Member 2/Acyl-CoA Thioesterase 13 (Them2/Acot13) Regulates Adaptive Thermogenesis in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hye Won; Ozdemir, Cafer; Kawano, Yuki; LeClair, Katherine B.; Vernochet, Cecile; Kahn, C. Ronald; Hagen, Susan J.; Cohen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot) gene family hydrolyze fatty acyl-CoAs, but their biological functions remain incompletely understood. Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (Them2; synonym Acot13) is enriched in oxidative tissues, associated with mitochondria, and relatively specific for long chain fatty acyl-CoA substrates. Using Them2−/− mice, we have demonstrated key roles for Them2 in regulating hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. However, reduced body weights and decreased adiposity in Them2−/− mice observed despite increased food consumption were not well explained. To explore a role in thermogenesis, mice were exposed to ambient temperatures ranging from thermoneutrality (30 °C) to cold (4 °C). In response to short term (24-h) exposures to decreasing ambient temperatures, Them2−/− mice exhibited increased adaptive responses in physical activity, food consumption, and energy expenditure when compared with Them2+/+ mice. By contrast, genotype-dependent differences were not observed in mice that were equilibrated (96 h) at each ambient temperature. In brown adipose tissue, the absence of Them2 was associated with reduced lipid droplets, alterations in the ultrastructure of mitochondria, and increased expression of thermogenic genes. Indicative of a direct regulatory role for Them2 in heat production, cultured primary brown adipocytes from Them2−/− mice exhibited increased norepinephrine-mediated triglyceride hydrolysis and increased rates of O2 consumption, together with elevated expression of thermogenic genes. At least in part by regulating intracellular fatty acid channeling, Them2 functions in brown adipose tissue to suppress adaptive increases in energy expenditure. PMID:24072708

  6. Structure and Function of PA4872 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Novel Class of Oxaloacetate Decarboxylase from the PEP Mutase/Isocitrate Lyase Superfamily

    SciT

    Narayanan, Buvaneswari C.; Niu, Weiling; Han, Ying

    2008-06-30

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA4872 was identified by sequence analysis as a structurally and functionally novel member of the PEP mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily and therefore targeted for investigation. Substrate screens ruled out overlap with known catalytic functions of superfamily members. The crystal structure of PA4872 in complex with oxalate (a stable analogue of the shared family R-oxyanion carboxylate intermediate/transition state) and Mg{sup 2+} was determined at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. As with other PEP mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily members, the protein assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit adopting an {alpha}/{beta} barrel fold and two subunits swapping their barrel's C-terminal {alpha}-helices. Mg2+more » and oxalate bind in the same manner as observed with other superfamily members. The active site gating loop, known to play a catalytic role in the PEP mutase and lyase branches of the superfamily, adopts an open conformation. The N{sup {epsilon}} of His235, an invariant residue in the PA4872 sequence family, is oriented toward a C(2) oxygen of oxalate analogous to the C(3) of a pyruvyl moiety. Deuterium exchange into {alpha}-oxocarboxylate-containing compounds was confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. Having ruled out known activities, the involvement of a pyruvate enolate intermediate suggested a decarboxylase activity of an {alpha}-oxocarboxylate substrate. Enzymatic assays led to the discovery that PA4872 decarboxylates oxaloacetate (k{sub cat}) = 7500 s{sup -1} and K{sub m} = 2.2 mM) and 3-methyloxaloacetate (k{sub cat}) = 250 s{sup -1} and K{sub m} = 0.63 mM). Genome context of the fourteen sequence family members indicates that the enzyme is used by select group of Gram-negative bacteria to maintain cellular concentrations of bicarbonate and pyruvate; however the decarboxylation activity cannot be attributed to a pathway common to the various bacterial species.« less

  7. Pancreatic Ribonucleases Superfamily Dynamics

    DOE Data Explorer

    Agarwal, Pratul

    2016-01-01

    This data set consists of molecular dynamics simulations based flexibility/dynamics derived for family members of pancreatic ribonucleases. The results are based on two independent 0.5 microsecond trajectories for each of the 23 members. The flexibility is computed at aggregation of first ten quasi-harmonic modes, and indicated in the temperature factor column of PDB (protein data bank) file format.

  8. Proinflammatory response during Ebola virus infection of primate models: possible involvement of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Lisa E; Young, Howard A; Jahrling, Peter B; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2002-03-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) infections are characterized by dysregulation of normal host immune responses. Insight into the mechanism came from recent studies in nonhuman primates, which showed that EBOV infects cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), resulting in apoptosis of bystander lymphocytes. In this study, we evaluated serum levels of cytokines/chemokines in EBOV-infected nonhuman primates, as possible correlates of this bystander apoptosis. Increased levels of interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-beta, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta were observed in all EBOV-infected monkeys, indicating the occurrence of a strong proinflammatory response. To investigate the mechanism(s) involved in lymphoid apoptosis, soluble Fas (sFas) and nitrate accumulation were measured. sFas was detected in 4/9 animals, while, elevations of nitrate accumulation occurred in 3/3 animals. To further evaluate the potential role of these factors in the observed bystander apoptosis and intact animals, in vitro cultures were prepared of adherent human monocytes/macrophages (PHM), and monocytes differentiated into immature dendritic cells (DC). These cultures were infected with EBOV and analyzed for cytokine/chemokine induction and expression of apoptosis-related genes. In addition, the in vitro EBOV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) resulted in strong cytokine/chemokine induction, a marked increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and an increase in the number of apoptotic lymphocytes examined by electron microscopy. Increased levels of sFAS were detected in PHM cultures, although, <10% of the cells were positive by immunohistochemistry. In contrast, >90% of EBOV-infected PHM were positive for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) by immunohistochemistry, RNA analysis, and flow cytometry. Inactivated EBOV also effected increased TRAIL expression in PHM, suggesting that the TNF receptor superfamily may be involved in

  9. Phylogenomic and functional analyses of salmon lice aquaporins uncover the molecular diversity of the superfamily in Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Stavang, Jon Anders; Chauvigné, Francois; Kongshaug, Heidi; Cerdà, Joan; Nilsen, Frank; Finn, Roderick Nigel

    2015-08-19

    An emerging field in biomedical research is focusing on the roles of aquaporin water channels in parasites that cause debilitating or lethal diseases to their vertebrate hosts. The primary vectorial agents are hematophagous arthropods, including mosquitoes, flies, ticks and lice, however very little is known concerning the functional diversity of aquaporins in non-insect members of the Arthropoda. Here we conducted phylogenomic and functional analyses of aquaporins in the salmon louse, a marine ectoparasitic copepod that feeds on the skin and body fluids of salmonids, and used the primary structures of the isolated channels to uncover the genomic repertoires in Arthropoda. Genomic screening identified 7 aquaporin paralogs in the louse in contrast to 42 in its host the Atlantic salmon. Phylogenetic inference of the louse nucleotides and proteins in relation to orthologs identified in Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea and Hexapoda revealed that the arthropod aquaporin superfamily can be classified into three major grades (1) classical aquaporins including Big brain (Bib) and Prip-like (PripL) channels (2) aquaglyceroporins (Glp) and (3) unorthodox aquaporins (Aqp12-like). In Hexapoda, two additional subfamilies exist as Drip and a recently classified entomoglyceroporin (Eglp) group. Cloning and remapping the louse cDNAs to the genomic DNA revealed that they are encoded by 1-7 exons, with two of the Glps being expressed as N-terminal splice variants (Glp1_v1, -1_v2, -3_v1, -3_v2). Heterologous expression of the cRNAs in amphibian oocytes demonstrated that PripL transports water and urea, while Bib does not. Glp1_v1, -2, -3_v1 and -3_v2 each transport water, glycerol and urea, while Glp1_v2 and the Aqp12-like channels were retained intracellularly. Transcript abundance analyses revealed expression of each louse paralog at all developmental stages, except for glp1_v1, which is specific to preadult and adult males. Our data suggest that the aquaporin repertoires of

  10. The mouse neuronal cell surface protein F3: a phosphatidylinositol- anchored member of the immunoglobulin superfamily related to chicken contactin

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Several members of the Ig superfamily are expressed on neural cells where they participate in surface interactions between cell bodies and processes. Their Ig domains are more closely related to each other than to Ig variable and constant domains and have been grouped into the C2 set. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of another member of this group, the mouse neuronal cell surface antigen F3. The F3 cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame that could encode a 1,020-amino acid protein consisting of a signal sequence, six Ig-like domains of the C2 type, a long premembrane region containing two segments that exhibit sequence similarity to fibronectin type III repeats and a moderately hydrophobic COOH-terminal sequence. The protein does not contain a typical transmembrane segment but appears to be attached to the membrane by a phosphatidylinositol anchor. Antibodies against the F3 protein recognize a prominent 135-kD protein in mouse brain. In fetal brain cultures, they stain the neuronal cell surface and, in cultures maintained in chemically defined medium, most prominently neurites and neurite bundles. The mouse f3 gene maps to band F of chromosome 15. The gene transcripts detected in the brain by F3 cDNA probes are developmentally regulated, the highest amounts being expressed between 1 and 2 wk after birth. The F3 nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence show striking similarity to the recently published sequence of the chicken neuronal cell surface protein contactin. However, there are important differences between the two molecules. In contrast to F3, contactin has a transmembrane and a cytoplasmic domain. Whereas contactin is insoluble in nonionic detergent and is tightly associated with the cytoskeleton, about equal amounts of F3 distribute between buffer-soluble, nonionic detergent-soluble, and detergent- insoluble fractions. Among other neural cell surface proteins, F3 most resembles the neuronal cell adhesion protein L1, with 25% amino

  11. Molecular evolution of the betagamma lens crystallin superfamily: evidence for a retained ancestral function in gamma N crystallins?

    PubMed

    Weadick, Cameron J; Chang, Belinda S W

    2009-05-01

    Within the vertebrate eye, betagamma crystallins are extremely stable lens proteins that are uniquely adapted to increase refractory power while maintaining transparency. Unlike alpha crystallins, which are well-characterized, multifunctional proteins that have important functions both in and out of the lens, betagamma lens crystallins are a diverse group of proteins with no clear ancestral or contemporary nonlens role. We carried out phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses of the betagamma-crystallin superfamily in order to study the evolutionary history of the gamma N crystallins, a recently discovered, biochemically atypical family suggested to possess a divergent or ancestral function. By including nonlens, betagamma-motif-containing sequences in our analysis as outgroups, we confirmed the phylogenetic position of the gamma N family as sister to other gamma crystallins. Using maximum likelihood codon models to estimate lineage-specific nonsynonymous-to-synonymous rate ratios revealed strong positive selection in all of the early lineages within the betagamma family, with the striking exception of the lineage leading to the gamma N crystallins which was characterized by strong purifying selection. Branch-site analysis, used to identify candidate sites involved in functional divergence between gamma N crystallins and its sister clade containing all other gamma crystallins, identified several positively selected changes at sites of known functional importance in the betagamma crystallin protein structure. Further analyses of a fish-specific gamma N crystallin gene duplication revealed a more recent episode of positive selection in only one of the two descendant lineages (gamma N2). Finally, from the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, we isolated complete gamma N1 and gamma N2 coding sequence data from cDNA and partial coding sequence data from genomic DNA in order to confirm the presence of a novel gamma N2 intron, discovered through data mining of two

  12. Characteristics and expression patterns of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Chen, Ming; Xu, Zhao-shi; Li, Lian-cheng; Chen, Xue-ping; Ma, You-zhi

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic sequencing of the foxtail millet, an abiotic, stress-tolerant crop, has provided a great opportunity for novel gene discovery and functional analysis of this popularly-grown grass. However, few stress-mediated gene families have been studied. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) comprise a gene superfamily encoding NAD (P) +-dependent enzymes that play the role of "aldehyde scavengers", which indirectly detoxify cellular ROS and reduce the effect of lipid peroxidation meditated cellular toxicity under various environmental stresses. In the current paper, we identified a total of 20 ALDH genes in the foxtail millet genome using a homology search and a phylogenetic analysis and grouped them into ten distinct families based on their amino acid sequence identity. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis of foxtail millet reveals that both tandem and segmental duplication contributed significantly to the expansion of its ALDH genes. The exon-intron structures of members of the same family in foxtail millet or the orthologous genes in rice display highly diverse distributions of their exonic and intronic regions. Also, synteny analysis shows that the majority of foxtail millet and rice ALDH gene homologs exist in the syntenic blocks between the two, implying that these ALDH genes arose before the divergence of cereals. Semi-quantitative and real-time quantitative PCR data reveals that a few SiALDH genes are expressed in an organ-specific manner and that the expression of a number of foxtail millet ALDH genes, such as, SiALDH7B1, SiALDH12A1 and SiALDH18B2 are up-regulated by osmotic stress, cold, H2O2, and phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Furthermore, the transformation of SiALDH2B2, SiALDH10A2, SiALDH5F1, SiALDH22A1, and SiALDH3E2 into Escherichia coli (E.coli) was able to improve their salt tolerance. Taken together, our results show that genome-wide identification characteristics and expression analyses provide unique opportunities for assessing the functional

  13. Structural and Biochemical Investigation of PglF from Campylobacter jejuni Reveals a New Mechanism for a Member of the Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Superfamily

    SciT

    Riegert, Alexander S.; Thoden, James B.; Schoenhofen, Ian C.

    Within recent years it has become apparent that protein glycosylation is not limited to eukaryotes. Indeed, in Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative bacterium, more than 60 of its proteins are known to be glycosylated. One of the sugars found in such glycosylated proteins is 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-α-d-glucopyranose, hereafter referred to as QuiNAc4NAc. The pathway for its biosynthesis, initiating with UDP-GlcNAc, requires three enzymes referred to as PglF, PglE, and PlgD. The focus of this investigation is on PglF, an NAD+-dependent sugar 4,6-dehydratase known to belong to the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Specifically, PglF catalyzes the first step in the pathway, namely, themore » dehydration of UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-d-xylo-hexos-4-ulose. Most members of the SDR superfamily contain a characteristic signature sequence of YXXXK where the conserved tyrosine functions as a catalytic acid or a base. Strikingly, in PglF, this residue is a methionine. Here we describe a detailed structural and functional investigation of PglF from C. jejuni. For this investigation five X-ray structures were determined to resolutions of 2.0 Å or better. In addition, kinetic analyses of the wild-type and site-directed variants were performed. On the basis of the data reported herein, a new catalytic mechanism for a SDR superfamily member is proposed that does not require the typically conserved tyrosine residue.« less

  14. A Glutathione-independent Glyoxalase of the DJ-1 Superfamily Plays an Important Role in Managing Metabolically Generated Methylglyoxal in Candida albicans*

    PubMed Central

    Hasim, Sahar; Hussin, Nur Ahmad; Alomar, Fadhel; Bidasee, Keshore R.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.; Wilson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Methylglyoxal is a cytotoxic reactive carbonyl compound produced by central metabolism. Dedicated glyoxalases convert methylglyoxal to d-lactate using multiple catalytic strategies. In this study, the DJ-1 superfamily member ORF 19.251/GLX3 from Candida albicans is shown to possess glyoxalase activity, making this the first demonstrated glutathione-independent glyoxalase in fungi. The crystal structure of Glx3p indicates that the protein is a monomer containing the catalytic triad Cys136-His137-Glu168. Purified Glx3p has an in vitro methylglyoxalase activity (Km = 5.5 mm and kcat = 7.8 s−1) that is significantly greater than that of more distantly related members of the DJ-1 superfamily. A close Glx3p homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YDR533C/Hsp31) also has glyoxalase activity, suggesting that fungal members of the Hsp31 clade of the DJ-1 superfamily are all probable glutathione-independent glyoxalases. A homozygous glx3 null mutant in C. albicans strain SC5314 displays greater sensitivity to millimolar levels of exogenous methylglyoxal, elevated levels of intracellular methylglyoxal, and carbon source-dependent growth defects, especially when grown on glycerol. These phenotypic defects are complemented by restoration of the wild-type GLX3 locus. The growth defect of Glx3-deficient cells in glycerol is also partially complemented by added inorganic phosphate, which is not observed for wild-type or glucose-grown cells. Therefore, C. albicans Glx3 and its fungal homologs are physiologically relevant glutathione-independent glyoxalases that are not redundant with the previously characterized glutathione-dependent GLO1/GLO2 system. In addition to its role in detoxifying glyoxals, Glx3 and its close homologs may have other important roles in stress response. PMID:24302734

  15. The CDM Superfamily Protein MBC Directs Myoblast Fusion through a Mechanism That Requires Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Triphosphate Binding but Is Independent of Direct Interaction with DCrk▿§

    PubMed Central

    Balagopalan, Lakshmi; Chen, Mei-Hui; Geisbrecht, Erika R.; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    myoblast city (mbc), a member of the CDM superfamily, is essential in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo for fusion of myoblasts into multinucleate fibers. Using germ line clones in which both maternal and zygotic contributions were eliminated and rescue of the zygotic loss-of-function phenotype, we established that mbc is required in the fusion-competent subset of myoblasts. Along with its close orthologs Dock180 and CED-5, MBC has an SH3 domain at its N terminus, conserved internal domains termed DHR1 and DHR2 (or “Docker”), and C-terminal proline-rich domains that associate with the adapter protein DCrk. The importance of these domains has been evaluated by the ability of MBC mutations and deletions to rescue the mbc loss-of-function muscle phenotype. We demonstrate that the SH3 and Docker domains are essential. Moreover, ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutations that change amino acids within the MBC Docker domain to residues that are conserved in other CDM family members nevertheless eliminate MBC function in the embryo, which suggests that these sites may mediate interactions specific to Drosophila MBC. A functional requirement for the conserved DHR1 domain, which binds to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate, implicates phosphoinositide signaling in myoblast fusion. Finally, the proline-rich C-terminal sites mediate strong interactions with DCrk, as expected. These sites are not required for MBC to rescue the muscle loss-of-function phenotype, however, which suggests that MBC's role in myoblast fusion can be carried out independently of direct DCrk binding. PMID:17030600

  16. Annotating Enzymes of Uncertain Function: The Deacylation of d-Amino Acids by Members of the Amidohydrolase Superfamily

    SciT

    Cummings, J.; Fedorov, A; Xu, C

    The catalytic activities of three members of the amidohydrolase superfamily were discovered using amino acid substrate libraries. Bb3285 from Bordetella bronchiseptica, Gox1177 from Gluconobacter oxidans, and Sco4986 from Streptomyces coelicolor are currently annotated as d-aminoacylases or N-acetyl-d-glutamate deacetylases. These three enzymes are 22-34% identical to one another in amino acid sequence. Substrate libraries containing nearly all combinations of N-formyl-d-Xaa, N-acetyl-d-Xaa, N-succinyl-d-Xaa, and l-Xaa-d-Xaa were used to establish the substrate profiles for these enzymes. It was demonstrated that Bb3285 is restricted to the hydrolysis of N-acyl-substituted derivatives of d-glutamate. The best substrates for this enzyme are N-formyl-d-glutamate (k{sub cat}/K{sub m} =more » 5.8 x 10{sup 6} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}), N-acetyl-d-glutamate (k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 5.2 x 10{sup 6} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}), and l-methionine-d-glutamate (k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 3.4 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). Gox1177 and Sco4986 preferentially hydrolyze N-acyl-substituted derivatives of hydrophobic d-amino acids. The best substrates for Gox1177 are N-acetyl-d-leucine (k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 3.2 x 104 M{sup -1} s-1), N-acetyl-d-tryptophan (kcat/Km = 4.1 x 104 M-1 s-1), and l-tyrosine-d-leucine (kcat/Km = 1.5 x 104 M-1 s-1). A fourth protein, Bb2785 from B. bronchiseptica, did not have d-aminoacylase activity. The best substrates for Sco4986 are N-acetyl-d-phenylalanine and N-acetyl-d-tryptophan. The three-dimensional structures of Bb3285 in the presence of the product acetate or a potent mimic of the tetrahedral intermediate were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The side chain of the d-glutamate moiety of the inhibitor is ion-paired to Arg-295, while the {alpha}-carboxylate is ion-paired with Lys-250 and Arg-376. These results have revealed the chemical and structural determinants for substrate specificity in this protein. Bioinformatic analyses of an additional {approx

  17. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities int he Enolase Superfamily: L-Talarate/Galactarate Dehydratase from Salmonella typhimurium LT2

    SciT

    Yew,W.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.

    2007-01-01

    We assigned L-talarate dehydratase (TalrD) and galactarate dehydratase (GalrD) functions to a group of orthologous proteins in the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily, focusing our characterization on the protein encoded by the Salmonella typhimurium LT2 genome (GI:16766982; STM3697). Like the homologous mandelate racemase, L-fuconate dehydratase, and D-tartrate dehydratase, the active site of TalrD/GalrD contains a general acid/base Lys 197 at the end of the second {beta}-strand in the ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 7}{beta}-barrel domain, Asp 226, Glu 252, and Glu 278 as ligands for the essential Mg{sup 2+} at the ends of the third, fourth, and fifth {sup {beta}}-strands, a general acid/base His 328-Aspmore » 301 dyad at the ends of the seventh and sixth {beta}-strands, and an electrophilic Glu 348 at the end of the eighth {beta}-strand. We discovered the function of STM3697 by screening a library of acid sugars; it catalyzes the efficient dehydration of both L-talarate (k{sub cat} = 2.1 s{sup -1}, k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 9.1 x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) and galactarate (k{sub cat} = 3.5 s{sup -1}, k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 1.1 x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). Because L-talarate is a previously unknown metabolite, we demonstrated that S. typhimurium LT2 can utilize L-talarate as carbon source. Insertional disruption of the gene encoding STM3697 abolishes this phenotype; this disruption also diminishes, but does not eliminate, the ability of the organism to utilize galactarate as carbon source. The dehydration of L-talarate is accompanied by competing epimerization to galactarate; little epimerization to L-talarate is observed in the dehydration of galactarate. On the basis of (1) structures of the wild type enzyme complexed with L-lyxarohydroxamate, an analogue of the enolate intermediate, and of the K197A mutant complexed with L-glucarate, a substrate for exchange of the {alpha}-proton, and (2) incorporation of solvent deuterium into galactarate in competition

  18. Evolutionarily conserved regions and hydrophobic contacts at the superfamily level: The case of the fold-type I, pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Paiardini, Alessandro; Bossa, Francesco; Pascarella, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    The wealth of biological information provided by structural and genomic projects opens new prospects of understanding life and evolution at the molecular level. In this work, it is shown how computational approaches can be exploited to pinpoint protein structural features that remain invariant upon long evolutionary periods in the fold-type I, PLP-dependent enzymes. A nonredundant set of 23 superposed crystallographic structures belonging to this superfamily was built. Members of this family typically display high-structural conservation despite low-sequence identity. For each structure, a multiple-sequence alignment of orthologous sequences was obtained, and the 23 alignments were merged using the structural information to obtain a comprehensive multiple alignment of 921 sequences of fold-type I enzymes. The structurally conserved regions (SCRs), the evolutionarily conserved residues, and the conserved hydrophobic contacts (CHCs) were extracted from this data set, using both sequence and structural information. The results of this study identified a structural pattern of hydrophobic contacts shared by all of the superfamily members of fold-type I enzymes and involved in native interactions. This profile highlights the presence of a nucleus for this fold, in which residues participating in the most conserved native interactions exhibit preferential evolutionary conservation, that correlates significantly (r = 0.70) with the extent of mean hydrophobic contact value of their apolar fraction. PMID:15498941

  19. The AvrE superfamily: ancestral type III effectors involved in suppression of pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Degrave, Alexandre; Siamer, Sabrina; Boureau, Tristan; Barny, Marie-Anne

    2015-10-01

    The AvrE superfamily of type III effectors (T3Es) is widespread among type III-dependent phytobacteria and plays a crucial role during bacterial pathogenesis. Members of the AvrE superfamily are vertically inherited core effectors, indicating an ancestral acquisition of these effectors in bacterial plant pathogens. AvrE-T3Es contribute significantly to virulence by suppressing pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. They inhibit salicylic acid-mediated plant defences, interfere with vesicular trafficking and promote bacterial growth in planta. AvrE-T3Es elicit cell death in both host and non-host plants independent of any known plant resistance protein, suggesting an original interaction with the plant immune system. Recent studies in yeast have indicated that they activate protein phosphatase 2A and inhibit serine palmitoyl transferase, the first enzyme of the sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway. In this review, we describe the current picture that has emerged from studies of the different members of this fascinating large family. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. The structure of human DNase I bound to magnesium and phosphate ions points to a catalytic mechanism common to members of the DNase I-like superfamily.

    PubMed

    Parsiegla, Goetz; Noguere, Christophe; Santell, Lydia; Lazarus, Robert A; Bourne, Yves

    2012-12-21

    Recombinant human DNase I (Pulmozyme, dornase alfa) is used for the treatment of cystic fibrosis where it improves lung function and reduces the number of exacerbations. The physiological mechanism of action is thought to involve the reduction of the viscoelasticity of cystic fibrosis sputum by hydrolyzing high concentrations of DNA into low-molecular mass fragments. Here we describe the 1.95 Å resolution crystal structure of recombinant human DNase I (rhDNase I) in complex with magnesium and phosphate ions, both bound in the active site. Complementary mutagenesis data of rhDNase I coupled to a comprehensive structural analysis of the DNase I-like superfamily argue for the key catalytic role of Asn7, which is invariant among mammalian DNase I enzymes and members of this superfamily, through stabilization of the magnesium ion coordination sphere. Overall, our combined structural and mutagenesis data suggest the occurrence of a magnesium-assisted pentavalent phosphate transition state in human DNase I during catalysis, where Asp168 may play a key role as a general catalytic base.

  1. The UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) superfamily expressed in humans, insects and plants: Animal-plant arms-race and co-evolution.

    PubMed

    Bock, Karl Walter

    2016-01-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II enzymes of a detoxification system evolved in all kingdoms of life. Lipophilic endobiotics such as hormones and xenobiotics including phytoalexins and drugs are conjugated by vertebrates mainly with glucuronic acid, by invertebrates and plants mainly with glucose. Plant-herbivore arms-race has been the major driving force for evolution of large UGT and other enzyme superfamilies. The UGT superfamily is defined by a common protein structure and signature sequence of 44 amino acids responsible for binding the UDP moiety of the sugar donor. Plants developed toxic phytoalexins stored as glucosides. Upon herbivore attack these conjugates are converted to highly reactive compounds. In turn, animals developed large families of UGTs in their intestine and liver to detoxify these phytoalexins. Interestingly, phytoalexins, exemplified by quercetin glucuronides and glucosinolate-derived isocyanates, are known insect attractant pigments in plants, and antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive compounds of humans. It is to be anticipated that phytochemicals may provide a rich source in beneficial drugs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Structure and Activity Analyses of Escherichia coli K-12 NagD Provide Insight into the Evolution of Biochemical Function in the Haloakanoic Acid Dehlogenase Superfamily

    SciT

    Tremblay,L.; Dunaway-Mariano, D.; Allen, K.

    2006-01-01

    The HAD superfamily is a large superfamily of proteins which share a conserved core domain that provides those active site residues responsible for the chemistry common to all family members. The superfamily is further divided into the four subfamilies I, IIA, IIB, and III, based on the topology and insertion site of a cap domain that provides substrate specificity. This structural and functional division implies that members of a given HAD structural subclass may target substrates that have similar structural characteristics. To understand the structure/function relationships in all of the subfamilies, a type IIA subfamily member, NagD from Escherichia colimore » K-12, was selected (type I, IIB, and III members have been more extensively studied). The structure of the NagD protein was solved to 1.80 Angstroms with R{sub work} = 19.8% and R{sub free} = 21.8%. Substrate screening and kinetic analysis showed NagD to have high specificity for nucleotide monophosphates with kcat/Km = 3.12 x 10{sup 4} and 1.28 x 10{sup 4} {micro}M{sup -1} s{sup -1} for UMP and GMP, respectively. This specificity is consistent with the presence of analogues of NagD that exist as fusion proteins with a nucleotide pyrophosphatase from the Nudix family. Docking of the nucleoside substrate in the active site brings it in contact with conserved residues from the cap domain that can act as a substrate specificity loop (NagD residues 144-149) in the type IIA subfamily. NagD and other subfamily IIA and IIB members show the common trait that substrate specificity and catalytic efficiencies (k{sub cat}/K{sub m}) are low (1 x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) and the boundaries defining physiological substrates are somewhat overlapping. The ability to catabolize other related secondary metabolites indicates that there is regulation at the genetic level.« less

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Cindy; Mueller, Uwe; Panjikar, Santosh; Sun, Lianli; Ruppert, Martin; Zhao, Yu; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C2221 and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å. PMID:17142919

  4. Vinorine synthase from Rauvolfia: the first example of crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an enzyme of the BAHD superfamily.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xueyan; Koepke, Juergen; Bayer, Anja; Linhard, Verena; Fritzsch, Günter; Zhang, Bin; Michel, Hartmut; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2004-09-01

    Crystals of vinorine synthase (VS) from medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpentina expressed in Escherichia coli have been obtained by the hanging-drop technique at 305 K with ammonium sulfate and PEG 400 as precipitants. The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the antiarrhythmic drug ajmaline and is a member of the BAHD superfamily of acyltransferases. So far, no three-dimensional structure of a member of this enzyme family is known. The crystals belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with cell dimensions of a=82.3 A, b=89.6 A and c=136.2 A. Under cryoconditions (120 K), a complete data set up to 2.8 A was collected at a synchrotron source.

  5. The X-ray Crystallographic Structure and Activity Analysis of a Pseudomonas-Specific Subfamily of the HAD Enzyme Superfamily Evidences a Novel Biochemical Function

    SciT

    Peisach,E.; Wang, L.; Burroughs, A.

    2008-01-01

    The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily is a large family of proteins dominated by phosphotransferases. Thirty-three sequence families within the HAD superfamily (HADSF) have been identified to assist in function assignment. One such family includes the enzyme phosphoacetaldehyde hydrolase (phosphonatase). Phosphonatase possesses the conserved Rossmanniod core domain and a C1-type cap domain. Other members of this family do not possess a cap domain and because the cap domain of phosphonatase plays an important role in active site desolvation and catalysis, the function of the capless family members must be unique. A representative of the capless subfamily, PSPTO{_}2114, from the plant pathogenmore » Pseudomonas syringae, was targeted for catalytic activity and structure analyses. The X-ray structure of PSPTO{_}2114 reveals a capless homodimer that conserves some but not all of the intersubunit contacts contributed by the core domains of the phosphonatase homodimer. The region of the PSPTO{_}2114 that corresponds to the catalytic scaffold of phosphonatase (and other HAD phosphotransfereases) positions amino acid residues that are ill suited for Mg+2 cofactor binding and mediation of phosphoryl group transfer between donor and acceptor substrates. The absence of phosphotransferase activity in PSPTO{_}2114 was confirmed by kinetic assays. To explore PSPTO{_}2114 function, the conservation of sequence motifs extending outside of the HADSF catalytic scaffold was examined. The stringently conserved residues among PSPTO{_}2114 homologs were mapped onto the PSPTO{_}2114 three-dimensional structure to identify a surface region unique to the family members that do not possess a cap domain. The hypothesis that this region is used in protein-protein recognition is explored to define, for the first time, HADSF proteins which have acquired a function other than that of a catalyst. Proteins 2008.« less

  6. Natural Occurrence and Characterization of Two Internal Ribosome Entry Site Elements in a Novel Virus, Canine Picodicistrovirus, in the Picornavirus-Like Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Choi, Garnet K. Y.; Huang, Yi; Teng, Jade L. L.; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah; Tse, Herman; Yeung, Man Lung; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Dicistroviridae and Picornaviridae are two phylogenetically related families of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses in the picornavirus-like superfamily with similar gene contents but different genome organizations and hosts. In a surveillance study involving 1,472 samples from 368 dogs over a 22-month period, we identified a novel picornavirus-like virus from 47 fecal and urine samples by the use of reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of three complete genomes revealed that, although it seemed that the virus was most closely related to other picornaviruses, P1, P2, and P3 of the virus possessed very low amino acid identities of <30% to those of all other known picornaviruses and that the amino acid identities between the 3Dpol and 2C of the virus and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and helicases of all other picornaviruses were <35%. Distinct from other picornaviruses, the genomes of the virus contain two putative internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) and two open reading frames, encoding two polyprotein precursors (844 and 1,406 amino acids), separated by an intergenic region (IGR) of 588 bases. A dual-luciferase activity assay using DNA and RNA transfection revealed that both IRESs were functional. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that numbers of viral RNAs ranged from 7.55 × 106 to 1.26 × 109 copies/ml of urine and 1.82 × 106 to 4.97 × 1010 copies/ml of fecal sample. This is the first report of the natural occurrence of two functional IRESs in nondicistroviruses. Based on our results, we have proposed a novel species, canine picodicistrovirus (CPDV), to describe this novel member of the picornavirus-like superfamily, which could represent a novel family of viruses. PMID:22205729

  7. New insights into the phylogeny of the TMBIM superfamily across the three of life: Comparative genomics and synteny networks reveal independent evolution of the BI and LFG families in plants.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Tuz, Samuel D; Pereira-Santana, Alejandro; Zhao, Tao; Schranz, M Eric; Castano, Enrique; Rodriguez-Zapata, Luis C

    2018-04-25

    The Transmembrane BAX Inhibitor Motif containing (TMBIM) superfamily, divided into BAX Inhibitor (BI) and Lifeguard (LFG) families, comprises a group of cytoprotective cell death regulators conserved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, no research has focused on the evolution of this superfamily in plants. We identified 685 TMBIM proteins in 171 organisms from Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and provided a phylogenetic overview of the whole TMBIM superfamily. Then, we used orthology and synteny network analyses to further investigate the evolution and expansion of the BI and LFG families in 48 plants from diverse taxa. Plant BI family forms a single monophyletic group; however, monocot BI sequences transposed to another genomic context during evolution. Plant LFG family, which expanded trough whole genome and tandem duplications, is subdivided in LFG I, LFG IIA, and LFG IIB major phylogenetic groups, and retains synteny in angiosperms. Moreover, two orthologous groups (OGs) are shared between bryophytes and seed plants. Other several lineage-specific OGs are present in plants. This work clarifies the phylogenetic classification of the TMBIM superfamily across the three domains of life. Furthermore, it sheds new light on the evolution of the BI and LFG families in plants providing a benchmark for future research. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumor-induced anorexia and weight loss are mediated by the TGF-beta superfamily cytokine MIC-1.

    PubMed

    Johnen, Heiko; Lin, Shu; Kuffner, Tamara; Brown, David A; Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Bauskin, Asne R; Wu, Liyun; Pankhurst, Greg; Jiang, Lele; Junankar, Simon; Hunter, Mark; Fairlie, W Douglas; Lee, Nicola J; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Baldock, Paul A; Corey, Eva; Apple, Fred S; Murakami, Maryann M; Lin, En-Ju; Wang, Chuansong; During, Matthew J; Sainsbury, Amanda; Herzog, Herbert; Breit, Samuel N

    2007-11-01

    Anorexia and weight loss are part of the wasting syndrome of late-stage cancer, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer, and are thought to be cytokine mediated. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) is produced by many cancers. Examination of sera from individuals with advanced prostate cancer showed a direct relationship between MIC-1 abundance and cancer-associated weight loss. In mice with xenografted prostate tumors, elevated MIC-1 levels were also associated with marked weight, fat and lean tissue loss that was mediated by decreased food intake and was reversed by administration of antibody to MIC-1. Additionally, normal mice given systemic MIC-1 and transgenic mice overexpressing MIC-1 showed hypophagia and reduced body weight. MIC-1 mediates its effects by central mechanisms that implicate the hypothalamic transforming growth factor-beta receptor II, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin. Thus, MIC-1 is a newly defined central regulator of appetite and a potential target for the treatment of both cancer anorexia and weight loss, as well as of obesity.

  9. Cross-Species Analyses Identify the BNIP-2 and Cdc42GAP Homology (BCH) Domain as a Distinct Functional Subclass of the CRAL_TRIO/Sec14 Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anjali Bansal; Wee, Liang En; Zhou, Yi Ting; Hortsch, Michael; Low, Boon Chuan

    2012-01-01

    The CRAL_TRIO protein domain, which is unique to the Sec14 protein superfamily, binds to a diverse set of small lipophilic ligands. Similar domains are found in a range of different proteins including neurofibromatosis type-1, a Ras GTPase-activating Protein (RasGAP) and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs). Proteins containing this structural protein domain exhibit a low sequence similarity and ligand specificity while maintaining an overall characteristic three-dimensional structure. We have previously demonstrated that the BNIP-2 and Cdc42GAP Homology (BCH) protein domain, which shares a low sequence homology with the CRAL_TRIO domain, can serve as a regulatory scaffold that binds to Rho, RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs to control various cell signalling processes. In this work, we investigate 175 BCH domain-containing proteins from a wide range of different organisms. A phylogenetic analysis with ∼100 CRAL_TRIO and similar domains from eight representative species indicates a clear distinction of BCH-containing proteins as a novel subclass within the CRAL_TRIO/Sec14 superfamily. BCH-containing proteins contain a hallmark sequence motif R(R/K)h(R/K)(R/K)NL(R/K)xhhhhHPs (‘h’ is large and hydrophobic residue and ‘s’ is small and weekly polar residue) and can be further subdivided into three unique subtypes associated with BNIP-2-N, macro- and RhoGAP-type protein domains. A previously unknown group of genes encoding ‘BCH-only’ domains is also identified in plants and arthropod species. Based on an analysis of their gene-structure and their protein domain context we hypothesize that BCH domain-containing genes evolved through gene duplication, intron insertions and domain swapping events. Furthermore, we explore the point of divergence between BCH and CRAL-TRIO proteins in relation to their ability to bind small GTPases, GAPs and GEFs and lipid ligands. Our study suggests a need for a more extensive analysis of previously uncharacterized BCH,

  10. Evolution of enzymatic activity in the enolase superfamily: structural and mutagenic studies of the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by o-succinylbenzoate synthase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Klenchin, Vadim A; Taylor Ringia, Erika A; Gerlt, John A; Rayment, Ivan

    2003-12-16

    o-Succinylbenzoate synthase (OSBS) from Escherichia coli, a member of the enolase superfamily, catalyzes an exergonic dehydration reaction in the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway in which 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate (SHCHC) is converted to 4-(2'-carboxyphenyl)-4-oxobutyrate (o-succinylbenzoate or OSB). Our previous structural studies of the Mg(2+).OSB complex established that OSBS is a member of the muconate lactonizing enzyme subgroup of the superfamily: the essential Mg(2+) is coordinated to carboxylate ligands at the ends of the third, fourth, and fifth beta-strands of the (beta/alpha)(7)beta-barrel catalytic domain, and the OSB product is located between the Lys 133 at the end of the second beta-strand and the Lys 235 at the end of the sixth beta-strand [Thompson, T. B., Garrett, J. B., Taylor, E. A, Meganathan, R., Gerlt, J. A., and Rayment, I. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 10662-76]. Both Lys 133 and Lys 235 were separately replaced with Ala, Ser, and Arg residues; all six mutants displayed no detectable catalytic activity. The structure of the Mg(2+).SHCHC complex of the K133R mutant has been solved at 1.62 A resolution by molecular replacement starting from the structure of the Mg(2+).OSB complex. This establishes the absolute configuration of SHCHC: the C1-carboxylate and the C6-OH leaving group are in a trans orientation, requiring that the dehydration proceed via a syn stereochemical course. The side chain of Arg 133 is pointed out of the active site so that it cannot function as a general base, whereas in the wild-type enzyme complexed with Mg(2+).OSB, the side chain of Lys 133 is appropriately positioned to function as the only acid/base catalyst in the syn dehydration. The epsilon-ammonium group of Lys 235 forms a cation-pi interaction with the cyclohexadienyl moiety of SHCHC, suggesting that Lys 235 also stabilizes the enediolate anion intermediate in the syn dehydration via a similar interaction.

  11. Evolutionary history and functional divergence of the cytochrome P450 gene superfamily between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species uncover effects of whole genome and tandem duplications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingyin; Tehrim, Sadia; Wang, Linhai; Dossa, Komivi; Zhang, Xiurong; Ke, Tao; Liao, Boshou

    2017-09-18

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) superfamily is involved in the biosynthesis of various primary and secondary metabolites. However, little is known about the effects of whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication (TD) events on the evolutionary history and functional divergence of P450s in Brassica after splitting from a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana. Using Hidden Markov Model search and manual curation, we detected that Brassica species have nearly 1.4-fold as many P450 members as A. thaliana. Most P450s in A. thaliana and Brassica species were located on pseudo-chromosomes. The inferred phylogeny indicated that all P450s were clustered into two different subgroups. Analysis of WGD event revealed that different P450 gene families had appeared after evolutionary events of species. For the TD event analyses, the P450s from TD events in Brassica species can be divided into ancient and recent parts. Our comparison of influence of WGD and TD events on the P450 gene superfamily between A. thaliana and Brassica species indicated that the family-specific evolution in the Brassica lineage can be attributed to both WGD and TD, whereas WGD was recognized as the major mechanism for the recent evolution of the P450 super gene family. Expression analysis of P450s from A. thaliana and Brassica species indicated that WGD-type P450s showed the same expression pattern but completely different expression with TD-type P450s across different tissues in Brassica species. Selection force analysis suggested that P450 orthologous gene pairs between A. thaliana and Brassica species underwent negative selection, but no significant differences were found between P450 orthologous gene pairs in A. thaliana-B. rapa and A. thaliana-B. oleracea lineages, as well as in different subgenomes in B. rapa or B. oleracea compared with A. thaliana. This study is the first to investigate the effects of WGD and TD on the evolutionary history and functional divergence of P450

  12. Stabilization of different types of transition states in a single enzyme active site: QM/MM analysis of enzymes in the alkaline phosphatase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Hou, Guanhua; Cui, Qiang

    2013-07-17

    The first step for the hydrolysis of a phosphate monoester (pNPP(2-)) in enzymes of the alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily, R166S AP and wild-type NPP, is studied using QM/MM simulations based on an approximate density functional theory (SCC-DFTBPR) and a recently introduced QM/MM interaction Hamiltonian. The calculations suggest that similar loose transition states are involved in both enzymes, despite the fact that phosphate monoesters are the cognate substrates for AP but promiscuous substrates for NPP. The computed loose transition states are clearly different from the more synchronous ones previously calculated for diester reactions in the same AP enzymes. Therefore, our results explicitly support the proposal that AP enzymes are able to recognize and stabilize different types of transition states in a single active site. Analysis of the structural features of computed transition states indicates that the plastic nature of the bimetallic site plays a minor role in accommodating multiple types of transition states and that the high degree of solvent accessibility of the AP active site also contributes to its ability to stabilize diverse transition-state structures without the need of causing large structural distortions of the bimetallic motif. The binding mode of the leaving group in the transition state highlights that vanadate may not always be an ideal transition state analog for loose phosphoryl transfer transition states.

  13. Heterophilic binding of the adhesion molecules poliovirus receptor and immunoglobulin superfamily 4A in the interaction between mouse spermatogenic and Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Tomohiko; Sai, Yoshimichi; Ito, Akihiko; Kato, Yukio; Kurobo, Miho; Murakami, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Emi; Tsuji, Akira; Kitamura, Yukihiko; Iseki, Shoichi

    2007-06-01

    The cell adhesion protein immunoglobulin superfamily 4A (IGSF4A) is expressed on the surfaces of spermatogenic cells in the mouse testis. During spermatogenesis, IGSF4A is considered to bind to the surface of Sertoli cells in a heterophilic manner. To identify this unknown partner of IGSF4A, we generated rat monoclonal antibodies against the membrane proteins of mouse Sertoli cells grown in primary culture. Using these monoclonal antibodies, we isolated a clone that immunostained Sertoli cells and reacted with the product of immunoprecipitation of the homogenate of mouse testis with anti-IGSF4A antibody. Subsequently, to identify the Sertoli cell membrane protein that is recognized by this monoclonal antibody, we performed expression cloning of a cDNA library from the mouse testis. As a result, we identified poliovirus receptor (PVR), which is another IGSF-type cell adhesion molecule, as the binding partner of IGSF4A. The antibodies raised against PVR and IGSF4A immunoprecipitated both antigens in the homogenate of mouse testis. Immunoreactivity for PVR was present in Sertoli cells but not in spermatogenic cells at all stages of spermatogenesis. Overexpression of PVR in TM4, a mouse Sertoli cell line, increased more than three-fold its capacity to adhere to Tera-2, which is a human cell line that expresses IGSF4A. These findings suggest that the heterophilic binding of PVR to IGSF4A is responsible, at least in part, for the interaction between Sertoli and spermatogenic cells during mouse spermatogenesis.

  14. The Foldback-like element Galileo belongs to the P superfamily of DNA transposons and is widespread within the Drosophila genus.

    PubMed

    Marzo, Mar; Puig, Marta; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2008-02-26

    Galileo is the only transposable element (TE) known to have generated natural chromosomal inversions in the genus Drosophila. It was discovered in Drosophila buzzatii and classified as a Foldback-like element because of its long, internally repetitive, terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and lack of coding capacity. Here, we characterized a seemingly complete copy of Galileo from the D. buzzatii genome. It is 5,406 bp long, possesses 1,229-bp TIRs, and encodes a 912-aa transposase similar to those of the Drosophila melanogaster 1360 (Hoppel) and P elements. We also searched the recently available genome sequences of 12 Drosophila species for elements similar to Dbuz\\Galileo by using bioinformatic tools. Galileo was found in six species (ananassae, willistoni, peudoobscura, persimilis, virilis, and mojavensis) from the two main lineages within the Drosophila genus. Our observations place Galileo within the P superfamily of cut-and-paste transposons and extend considerably its phylogenetic distribution. The interspecific distribution of Galileo indicates an ancient presence in the genus, but the phylogenetic tree built with the transposase amino acid sequences contrasts significantly with that of the species, indicating lineage sorting and/or horizontal transfer events. Our results also suggest that Foldback-like elements such as Galileo may evolve from DNA-based transposon ancestors by loss of the transposase gene and disproportionate elongation of TIRs.

  15. The Foldback-like element Galileo belongs to the P superfamily of DNA transposons and is widespread within the Drosophila genus

    PubMed Central

    Marzo, Mar; Puig, Marta; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Galileo is the only transposable element (TE) known to have generated natural chromosomal inversions in the genus Drosophila. It was discovered in Drosophila buzzatii and classified as a Foldback-like element because of its long, internally repetitive, terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and lack of coding capacity. Here, we characterized a seemingly complete copy of Galileo from the D. buzzatii genome. It is 5,406 bp long, possesses 1,229-bp TIRs, and encodes a 912-aa transposase similar to those of the Drosophila melanogaster 1360 (Hoppel) and P elements. We also searched the recently available genome sequences of 12 Drosophila species for elements similar to Dbuz\\Galileo by using bioinformatic tools. Galileo was found in six species (ananassae, willistoni, peudoobscura, persimilis, virilis, and mojavensis) from the two main lineages within the Drosophila genus. Our observations place Galileo within the P superfamily of cut-and-paste transposons and extend considerably its phylogenetic distribution. The interspecific distribution of Galileo indicates an ancient presence in the genus, but the phylogenetic tree built with the transposase amino acid sequences contrasts significantly with that of the species, indicating lineage sorting and/or horizontal transfer events. Our results also suggest that Foldback-like elements such as Galileo may evolve from DNA-based transposon ancestors by loss of the transposase gene and disproportionate elongation of TIRs. PMID:18287066

  16. A novel major facilitator superfamily transporter in Penicillium digitatum (PdMFS2) is required for prochloraz resistance, conidiation and full virulence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi; Wang, Shengqiang; Yuan, Yongze; Zhang, Tingfu; Liu, Jing; Liu, Deli

    2016-08-01

    To clone a novel major facilitator superfamily (MFS, a large protein family with diverse physiological functions in all kingdoms) transporter gene, Pdmfs2, and characterize its function in Penicillium digitatum. A novel MFS transporter gene, Pdmfs2, was isolated from P. digitatum. The full-length DNA of Pdmfs2 had a 1590 bp ORF encoding a full-size MFS transporter with 529 amino acids. In a prochloraz-resistant strain (PdHS-F6), Pdmfs2 transcript level was up-regulated compared with the prochloraz-sensitive strain (PdHS-E3) and could be induced by 7 μg prochloraz/ml. The deletion of Pdmfs2 (ΔPdmfs2) in PdHS-F6 led to increased susceptibility to prochloraz and lower EC50 value (the concentration of prochloraz producing 50 % growth inhibition) compared with the PdHS-F6 or complementation strain (COPdmfs2). The ΔPdmfs2 strain was defective in conidia yield and virulence towards citrus fruits, while the complementation of Pdmfs2 could restore the phenotypic features to a large extent. Pdmfs2 is the second MFS transporter gene in P. digitatum and is required for prochloraz resistance, conidiation and full virulence.

  17. Conotoxin Φ-MiXXVIIA from the Superfamily G2 Employs a Novel Cysteine Framework that Mimics Granulin and Displays Anti-Apoptotic Activity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ai-Hua; Dekan, Zoltan; Smout, Michael J; Wilson, David; Dutertre, Sébastien; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J; Loukas, Alex; Daly, Norelle L; Alewood, Paul F

    2017-11-20

    Conotoxins are a large family of disulfide-rich peptides that contain unique cysteine frameworks that target a broad range of ion channels and receptors. We recently discovered the 33-residue conotoxin Φ-MiXXVIIA from Conus miles with a novel cysteine framework comprising three consecutive cysteine residues and four disulfide bonds. Regioselective chemical synthesis helped decipher the disulfide bond connectivity and the structure of Φ-MiXXVIIA was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The 3D structure displays a unique topology containing two β-hairpins that resemble the N-terminal domain of granulin. Similar to granulin, Φ-MiXXVIIA promotes cell proliferation (EC 50 17.85 μm) while inhibiting apoptosis (EC 50 2.2 μm). Additional framework XXVII sequences were discovered with homologous signal peptides that define the new conotoxin superfamily G2. The novel structure and biological activity of Φ-MiXXVIIA expands the repertoire of disulfide-rich conotoxins that recognize mammalian receptors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The Expansion and Functional Diversification of the Mammalian Ribonuclease A Superfamily Epitomizes the Efficiency of Multigene Families at Generating Biological Novelty

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Stephen M.; Cho, Soochin

    2013-01-01

    The ribonuclease (RNase) A superfamily is a vertebrate-specific gene family. Because of a massive expansion that occurred during the early mammalian evolution, extant mammals in general have much more RNase genes than nonmammalian vertebrates. Mammalian RNases have been associated with diverse physiological functions including digestion, cytotoxicity, angiogenesis, male reproduction, and host defense. However, it is still uncertain when their expansion occurred and how a wide array of functions arose during their evolution. To answer these questions, we generate a compendium of all RNase genes identified in 20 complete mammalian genomes including the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. Using this, we delineate 13 ancient RNase gene lineages that arose before the divergence between the monotreme and the other mammals (∼220 Ma). These 13 ancient gene lineages are differentially retained in the 20 mammals, and the rate of protein sequence evolution is highly variable among them, which suggest that they have undergone extensive functional diversification. In addition, we identify 22 episodes of recent expansion of RNase genes, many of which have signatures of adaptive functional differentiation. Exemplifying this, bursts of gene duplication occurred for the RNase1, RNase4, and RNase5 genes of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), which might have contributed to the species’ effective defense against heavier pathogen loads caused by its communal roosting behavior. Our study illustrates how host-defense systems can generate new functions efficiently by employing a multigene family, which is crucial for a host organism to adapt to its ever-changing pathogen environment. PMID:24162010

  19. Crystal structure of SgcJ, an NTF2-like superfamily protein involved in biosynthesis of the nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Tingting; Chang, Chin -Yuan; Lohman, Jeremy R.; ...

    2016-10-01

    Comparative analysis of the enediyne biosynthetic gene clusters revealed sets of conserved genes serving as outstanding candidates for the enediyne core. Here we report the crystal structures of SgcJ and its homologue NCS-Orf16, together with gene inactivation and site-directed mutagenesis studies, to gain insight into enediyne core biosynthesis. Gene inactivation in vivo establishes that SgcJ is required for C-1027 production in Streptomyces globisporus. SgcJ and NCS-Orf16 share a common structure with the nuclear transport factor 2-like superfamily of proteins, featuring a putative substrate binding or catalytic active site. Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved residues lining this site allowed us tomore » propose that SgcJ and its homologues may play a catalytic role in transforming the linear polyene intermediate, along with other enediyne polyketide synthase-associated enzymes, into an enzyme-sequestered enediyne core intermediate. In conclusion, these findings will help formulate hypotheses and design experiments to ascertain the function of SgcJ and its homologues in nine-membered enediyne core biosynthesis.« less

  20. A single-component multidrug transporter of the major facilitator superfamily is part of a network that protects E scherichia coli from bile salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Stephanie; Alegre, Kamela O; Holdsworth, Scarlett R; Rice, Matthew; Brown, James A; McVeigh, Paul; Kelly, Sharon M; Law, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to high concentrations of bile salts in the human intestinal tract is vital for the survival of enteric bacteria such as E scherichia coli. Although the tripartite AcrAB–TolC efflux system plays a significant role in this resistance, it is purported that other efflux pumps must also be involved. We provide evidence from a comprehensive suite of experiments performed at two different pH values (7.2 and 6.0) that reflect pH conditions that E . coli may encounter in human gut that MdtM, a single-component multidrug resistance transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, functions in bile salt resistance in E . coli by catalysing secondary active transport of bile salts out of the cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, assays performed on a chromosomal ΔacrB mutant transformed with multicopy plasmid encoding MdtM suggested a functional synergism between the single-component MdtM transporter and the tripartite AcrAB–TolC system that results in a multiplicative effect on resistance. Substrate binding experiments performed on purified MdtM demonstrated that the transporter binds to cholate and deoxycholate with micromolar affinity, and transport assays performed on inverted vesicles confirmed the capacity of MdtM to catalyse electrogenic bile salt/H+ antiport. PMID:24684269

  1. Anorexia-cachexia and obesity treatment may be two sides of the same coin: role of the TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15.

    PubMed

    Tsai, V W W; Lin, S; Brown, D A; Salis, A; Breit, S N

    2016-02-01

    Anorexia-cachexia associated with cancer and other diseases is a common and often fatal condition representing a large area of unmet medical need. It occurs most commonly in advanced cancer and is probably a consequence of molecules released by tumour cells, or tumour-associated interstitial or immune cells. These may then act directly on muscle to cause atrophy and/or may cause anorexia, which then leads to loss of both fat and lean mass. Although the aetiological triggers for this syndrome are not well characterized, recent data suggest that MIC-1/GDF15, a transforming growth factor-beta superfamily cytokine produced in large amounts by cancer cells and as a part of other disease processes, may be an important trigger. This cytokine acts on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem to cause anorexia leading to loss of lean and fat mass and eventually cachexia. In animal studies, the circulating concentrations of MIC-1/GDF15 required to cause this syndrome are similar to those seen in patients with advanced cancer, and at least some epidemiological studies support an association between MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels and measures of nutrition. This article will discuss its mechanisms of central appetite regulation, and the available data linking this action to anorexia-cachexia syndromes that suggest it is a potential target for therapy of cancer anorexia-cachexia and conversely may also be useful for the treatment of severe obesity.

  2. Smed-SmB, a member of the LSm protein superfamily, is essential for chromatoid body organization and planarian stem cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Fernandéz-Taboada, Enrique; Moritz, Sören; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Stehling, Martin; Schöler, Hans R; Saló, Emili; Gentile, Luca

    2010-04-01

    Planarians are an ideal model system to study in vivo the dynamics of adult pluripotent stem cells. However, our knowledge of the factors necessary for regulating the 'stemness' of the neoblasts, the adult stem cells of planarians, is sparse. Here, we report on the characterization of the first planarian member of the LSm protein superfamily, Smed-SmB, which is expressed in stem cells and neurons in Schmidtea mediterranea. LSm proteins are highly conserved key players of the splicing machinery. Our study shows that Smed-SmB protein, which is localized in the nucleus and the chromatoid body of stem cells, is required to safeguard the proliferative ability of the neoblasts. The chromatoid body, a cytoplasmatic ribonucleoprotein complex, is an essential regulator of the RNA metabolism required for the maintenance of metazoan germ cells. However, planarian neoblasts and neurons also rely on its functions. Remarkably, Smed-SmB dsRNA-mediated knockdown results in a rapid loss of organization of the chromatoid body, an impairment of the ability to post-transcriptionally process the transcripts of Smed-CycB, and a severe proliferative failure of the neoblasts. This chain of events leads to a quick depletion of the neoblast pool, resulting in a lethal phenotype for both regenerating and intact animals. In summary, our results suggest that Smed-SmB is an essential component of the chromatoid body, crucial to ensure a proper RNA metabolism and essential for stem cell proliferation.

  3. The systematic position and structure of the genus Leyogonimus Ginetsinskaya, 1948 (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) with comments on the taxonomy of the superfamily Microphalloidea Ward, 1901.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Gerard; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Sitko, Jiljí; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2017-09-26

    The systematic position, phylogenetic relationships and composition of the genus Leyogonimus Ginetsinskaya, 1948 have always been uncertain. In the present study, we investigate the taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationships between the type-species L. polyoon (Linstow, 1887) and L. postgonoporus (Neiland, 1951) (previously classified as Macyella), based on newly obtained partial sequences of the nuclear large ribosomal subunit DNA. To test some of the previously proposed systematic arrangements, we have also sequenced specimens of Stomylotrema vicarium Braun, 1901 and Phaneropsolus sp. Our results clearly demonstrate that both L. polyoon and L. postgonoporus belong to the family Pleurogenidae Looss, 1899 within the superfamily Microphalloidea. Thus, the Leyogonimidae Dollfus, 1951 should be recognized as a synonym of the Pleurogenidae. Leyogonimus polyoon clearly constitutes a separate, sister branch to the clade consisting of Collyricloides massanae Vaucher, 1969 and L. postgonoporus. Based on these results, we resurrect the genus Macyella Neiland, 1951 with type-species M. postgonoporus. Besides, Collyricloides Vaucher, 1968 is synonymized with Macyella resulting in new combination Macyella massanae (Vaucher, 1968) comb. nov. Molecular phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated the lack of a close phylogenetic relationships between Stomylotema vicarium and Leyogonimus previously placed by several authors into the family Stomylotrematidae Poche, 1925. The status of the Phaneropsolidae Mehra, 1935 as independent family was confirmed with the addition of the newly sequenced Phaneropsolus sp. from China.

  4. Rice SPX-Major Facility Superfamily3, a Vacuolar Phosphate Efflux Transporter, Is Involved in Maintaining Phosphate Homeostasis in Rice1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Yinghui; Wang, Shoudong; Secco, David; Liu, Yu; Whelan, James; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Shou, Huixia

    2015-01-01

    To maintain a stable cytosol phosphate (Pi) concentration, plant cells store Pi in their vacuoles. When the Pi concentration in the cytosol decreases, Pi is exported from the vacuole into the cytosol. This export is mediated by Pi transporters on the tonoplast. In this study, we demonstrate that SYG1, PHO81, and XPR1 (SPX)-Major Facility Superfamily (MFS) proteins have a similar structure with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) low-affinity Pi transporters Phosphatase87 (PHO87), PHO90, and PHO91. OsSPX-MFS1, OsSPX-MFS2, and OsSPX-MFS3 all localized on the tonoplast of rice (Oryza sativa) protoplasts, even in the absence of the SPX domain. At high external Pi concentration, OsSPX-MFS3 could partially complement the yeast mutant strain EY917 under pH 5.5, which lacks all five Pi transporters present in yeast. In oocytes, OsSPX-MFS3 was shown to facilitate Pi influx or efflux depending on the external pH and Pi concentrations. In contrast to tonoplast localization in plants cells, OsSPX-MFS3 was localized to the plasma membrane when expressed in both yeast and oocytes. Overexpression of OsSPX-MFS3 results in decreased Pi concentration in the vacuole of rice tissues. We conclude that OsSPX-MFS3 is a low-affinity Pi transporter that mediates Pi efflux from the vacuole into cytosol and is coupled to proton movement. PMID:26424157

  5. Thioesterase superfamily member 1 suppresses cold thermogenesis by limiting the oxidation of lipid droplet-derived fatty acids in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kosuke; LeClair, Katherine B; Zhang, Yongzhao; Li, Yingxia; Ozdemir, Cafer; Krisko, Tibor I; Hagen, Susan J; Betensky, Rebecca A; Banks, Alexander S; Cohen, David E

    2016-05-01

    Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a central role in energy homeostasis. Thioesterase superfamily member 1 (Them1), a BAT-enriched long chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase, is upregulated by cold and downregulated by warm ambient temperatures. Them1 (-/-) mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and resistance to diet-induced obesity and diabetes, but the mechanistic contribution of Them1 to the regulation of cold thermogenesis remains unknown. Them1 (-/-) and Them1 (+/+) mice were subjected to continuous metabolic monitoring to quantify the effects of ambient temperatures ranging from thermoneutrality (30 °C) to cold (4 °C) on energy expenditure, core body temperature, physical activity and food intake. The effects of Them1 expression on O2 consumption rates, thermogenic gene expression and lipolytic protein activation were determined ex vivo in BAT and in primary brown adipocytes. Them1 suppressed thermogenesis in mice even in the setting of ongoing cold exposure. Without affecting thermogenic gene transcription, Them1 reduced O2 consumption rates in both isolated BAT and primary brown adipocytes. This was attributable to decreased mitochondrial oxidation of endogenous but not exogenous fatty acids. These results show that Them1 may act as a break on uncontrolled heat production and limit the extent of energy expenditure. Pharmacologic inhibition of Them1 could provide a targeted strategy for the management of metabolic disorders via activation of brown fat.

  6. The three-dimensional structure of the N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase, NagA, from Bacillus subtilis: a member of the urease superfamily.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Florence; Yates, David; Garman, Elspeth; Davies, Gideon J; Brannigan, James A

    2004-01-23

    The enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase, NagA, catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-acetyl group of GlcNAc-6-P to yield glucosamine 6-phosphate and acetate, the first committed step in the biosynthetic pathway to amino-sugar-nucleotides. It is classified into carbohydrate esterase family CE-9 (see afmb.cnrs-mrs.fr/CAZY/). Here we report the cloning, expression, and three-dimensional structure (Protein Data Bank code 1un7) determination by x-ray crystallography of the Bacillus subtilis NagA at a resolution of 2.0 A. The structure presents two domains, a (beta/alpha)(8) barrel enclosing the active center and a small beta barrel domain. The structure is dimeric, and the substrate phosphate coordination at the active center is provided by an Arg/His pair contributed from the second molecule of the dimer. Both the overall structure and the active center bear a striking similarity to the urease superfamily with two metals involved in substrate binding and catalysis. PIXE (Proton-Induced x-ray Emission) data show that iron is the predominant metal in the purified protein. We propose a catalytic mechanism involving proton donation to the leaving group by aspartate, nucleophilic attack by an Fe-bridged hydroxide, and stabilization of the carbonyl oxygen by one of the two Fe atoms of the pair. We believe that this is the first sugar deacetylase to utilize this fold and catalytic mechanism.

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae sigma 1278b has novel genes of the N-acetyltransferase gene superfamily required for L-proline analogue resistance.

    PubMed

    Takagi, H; Shichiri, M; Takemura, M; Mohri, M; Nakamori, S

    2000-08-01

    We discovered on the chromosome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma 1278b novel genes involved in L-proline analogue L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistance which are not present in the standard laboratory strains. The 5.4 kb-DNA fragment was cloned from the genomic library of the L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid-resistant mutant derived from a cross between S. cerevisiae strains S288C and Sigma 1278b. The nucleotide sequence of a 4.5-kb segment exhibited no identity with the sequence in the genome project involving strain S288C. Deletion analysis indicated that one open reading frame encoding a predicted protein of 229 amino acids is indispensable for L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistance. The protein sequence was found to be a member of the N-acetyltransferase superfamily. Genomic Southern analysis and gene disruption showed that two copies of the novel gene with one amino acid change at position 85 required for L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistance were present on chromosomes X and XIV of Sigma 1278b background strains. When this novel MPR1 or MPR2 gene (sigma 1278b gene for L-proline analogue resistance) was introduced into the other S. cerevisiae strains, all of the recombinants were resistant to L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, indicating that both MPR1 and MPR2 are expressed and have a global function in S. cerevisiae.

  8. The transforming growth factor-ss superfamily cytokine macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 is present in high concentrations in the serum of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Moore, A G; Brown, D A; Fairlie, W D; Bauskin, A R; Brown, P K; Munier, M L; Russell, P K; Salamonsen, L A; Wallace, E M; Breit, S N

    2000-12-01

    Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) is a recently described divergent member of the transforming growth factor-ss superfamily. MIC-1 transcription up-regulation is associated with macrophage activation, and this observation led to its cloning. Northern blots indicate that MIC-1 is also present in human placenta. A sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of MIC-1 was developed and used to examine the role of this cytokine in pregnancy. High levels of MIC-1 are present in the sera of pregnant women. The level rises substantially with progress of gestation. MIC-1 can also be detected, in large amounts, in amniotic fluid and placental extracts. In addition, the BeWo placental trophoblastic cell line was found to constitutively express the MIC-1 transcript and secrete large amounts of MIC-1. These findings suggest that the placental trophoblast is a major source of the MIC-1 present in maternal serum and amniotic fluid. We suggest that MIC-1 may promote fetal survival by suppressing the production of maternally derived proinflammatory cytokines within the uterus.

  9. E1-Like Activating Enzyme Atg7 Is Preferentially Sequestered into p62 Aggregates via Its Interaction with LC3-I

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wentao; Chen, Zhixia; Wang, Wei; Stang, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    p62 is constitutively degraded by autophagy via its interaction with LC3. However, the interaction of p62 with LC3 species in the context of the LC3 lipidation process is not specified. Further, the p62-mediated protein aggregation’s effect on autophagy is unclear. We systemically analyzed the interactions of p62 with all known Atg proteins involved in LC3 lipidation. We find that p62 does not interact with LC3 at the stages when it is being processed by Atg4B or when it is complexed or conjugated with Atg3. p62 does interact with LC3-I and LC3-I:Atg7 complex and is preferentially recruited by LC3-II species under autophagic stimulation. Given that Atg4B, Atg3 and LC3-Atg3 are indispensable for LC3-II conversion, our study reveals a protective mechanism for Atg4B, Atg3 and LC3-Atg3 conjugate from being inappropriately sequestered into p62 aggregates. Our findings imply that p62 could potentially impair autophagy by negatively affecting LC3 lipidation and contribute to the development of protein aggregate diseases. PMID:24023838

  10. E1-like activating enzyme Atg7 is preferentially sequestered into p62 aggregates via its interaction with LC3-I.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wentao; Chen, Zhixia; Wang, Wei; Stang, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    p62 is constitutively degraded by autophagy via its interaction with LC3. However, the interaction of p62 with LC3 species in the context of the LC3 lipidation process is not specified. Further, the p62-mediated protein aggregation's effect on autophagy is unclear. We systemically analyzed the interactions of p62 with all known Atg proteins involved in LC3 lipidation. We find that p62 does not interact with LC3 at the stages when it is being processed by Atg4B or when it is complexed or conjugated with Atg3. p62 does interact with LC3-I and LC3-I:Atg7 complex and is preferentially recruited by LC3-II species under autophagic stimulation. Given that Atg4B, Atg3 and LC3-Atg3 are indispensable for LC3-II conversion, our study reveals a protective mechanism for Atg4B, Atg3 and LC3-Atg3 conjugate from being inappropriately sequestered into p62 aggregates. Our findings imply that p62 could potentially impair autophagy by negatively affecting LC3 lipidation and contribute to the development of protein aggregate diseases.

  11. Microbial Relatives of the Seed Storage Proteins of Higher Plants: Conservation of Structure and Diversification of Function during Evolution of the Cupin Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Dunwell, Jim M.; Khuri, Sawsan; Gane, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    This review summarizes the recent discovery of the cupin superfamily (from the Latin term “cupa,” a small barrel) of functionally diverse proteins that initially were limited to several higher plant proteins such as seed storage proteins, germin (an oxalate oxidase), germin-like proteins, and auxin-binding protein. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of two vicilins, seed proteins with a characteristic β-barrel core, led to the identification of a small number of conserved residues and thence to the discovery of several microbial proteins which share these key amino acids. In particular, there is a highly conserved pattern of two histidine-containing motifs with a varied intermotif spacing. This cupin signature is found as a central component of many microbial proteins including certain types of phosphomannose isomerase, polyketide synthase, epimerase, and dioxygenase. In addition, the signature has been identified within the N-terminal effector domain in a subgroup of bacterial AraC transcription factors. As well as these single-domain cupins, this survey has identified other classes of two-domain bicupins including bacterial gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate dioxygenases, fungal oxalate decarboxylases, and legume sucrose-binding proteins. Cupin evolution is discussed from the perspective of the structure-function relationships, using data from the genomes of several prokaryotes, especially Bacillus subtilis. Many of these functions involve aspects of sugar metabolism and cell wall synthesis and are concerned with responses to abiotic stress such as heat, desiccation, or starvation. Particular emphasis is also given to the oxalate-degrading enzymes from microbes, their biological significance, and their value in a range of medical and other applications. PMID:10704478

  12. A Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter Plays a Dual Role in Polar Auxin Transport and Drought Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Remy, Estelle; Cabrito, Tânia R.; Baster, Pawel; Batista, Rita A.; Teixeira, Miguel C.; Friml, Jiri; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Duque, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Many key aspects of plant development are regulated by the polarized transport of the phytohormone auxin. Cellular auxin efflux, the rate-limiting step in this process, has been shown to rely on the coordinated action of PIN-formed (PIN) and B-type ATP binding cassette (ABCB) carriers. Here, we report that polar auxin transport in the Arabidopsis thaliana root also requires the action of a Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporter, Zinc-Induced Facilitator-Like 1 (ZIFL1). Sequencing, promoter-reporter, and fluorescent protein fusion experiments indicate that the full-length ZIFL1.1 protein and a truncated splice isoform, ZIFL1.3, localize to the tonoplast of root cells and the plasma membrane of leaf stomatal guard cells, respectively. Using reverse genetics, we show that the ZIFL1.1 transporter regulates various root auxin-related processes, while the ZIFL1.3 isoform mediates drought tolerance by regulating stomatal closure. Auxin transport and immunolocalization assays demonstrate that ZIFL1.1 indirectly modulates cellular auxin efflux during shootward auxin transport at the root tip, likely by regulating plasma membrane PIN2 abundance. Finally, heterologous expression in yeast revealed that ZIFL1.1 and ZIFL1.3 share H+-coupled K+ transport activity. Thus, by determining the subcellular and tissue distribution of two isoforms, alternative splicing dictates a dual function for the ZIFL1 transporter. We propose that this MFS carrier regulates stomatal movements and polar auxin transport by modulating potassium and proton fluxes in Arabidopsis cells. PMID:23524662

  13. The venom gland transcriptome of the Desert Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii): towards an understanding of venom composition among advanced snakes (Superfamily Colubroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Pahari, Susanta; Mackessy, Stephen P; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2007-01-01

    Background Snake venoms are complex mixtures of pharmacologically active proteins and peptides which belong to a small number of superfamilies. Global cataloguing of the venom transcriptome facilitates the identification of new families of toxins as well as helps in understanding the evolution of venom proteomes. Results We have constructed a cDNA library of the venom gland of a threatened rattlesnake (a pitviper), Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii (Desert Massasauga), and sequenced 576 ESTs. Our results demonstrate a high abundance of serine proteinase and metalloproteinase transcripts, indicating that the disruption of hemostasis is a principle mechanism of action of the venom. In addition to the transcripts encoding common venom proteins, we detected two varieties of low abundance unique transcripts in the library; these encode for three-finger toxins and a novel toxin possibly generated from the fusion of two genes. We also observed polyadenylated ribosomal RNAs in the venom gland library, an interesting preliminary obsevation of this unusual phenomenon in a reptilian system. Conclusion The three-finger toxins are characteristic of most elapid venoms but are rare in viperid venoms. We detected several ESTs encoding this group of toxins in this study. We also observed the presence of a transcript encoding a fused protein of two well-characterized toxins (Kunitz/BPTI and Waprins), and this is the first report of this kind of fusion in a snake toxin transcriptome. We propose that these new venom proteins may have ancillary functions for envenomation. The presence of a fused toxin indicates that in addition to gene duplication and accelerated evolution, exon shuffling or transcriptional splicing may also contribute to generating the diversity of toxins and toxin isoforms observed among snake venoms. The detection of low abundance toxins, as observed in this and other studies, indicates a greater compositional similarity of venoms (though potency will differ) among

  14. A Major Facilitator Superfamily Protein, HepP, Is Involved in Formation of the Heterocyst Envelope Polysaccharide in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    López-Igual, Rocío; Lechno-Yossef, Sigal; Fan, Qing; Herrero, Antonia; Wolk, C. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Some filamentous cyanobacteria such as Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 produce cells, termed heterocysts, specialized in nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts bear a thick envelope containing an inner layer of glycolipids and an outer layer of polysaccharide that restrict the diffusion of air (including O2) into the heterocyst. Anabaena sp. mutants impaired in production of either of those layers show a Fox− phenotype (requiring fixed nitrogen for growth under oxic conditions). We have characterized a set of transposon-induced Fox− mutants in which transposon Tn5-1063 was inserted into the Anabaena sp. chromosome open reading frame all1711 which encodes a predicted membrane protein that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). These mutants showed higher nitrogenase activities under anoxic than under oxic conditions and altered sucrose uptake. Electron microscopy and alcian blue staining showed a lack of the heterocyst envelope polysaccharide (Hep) layer. Northern blot and primer extension analyses showed that, in a manner dependent on the nitrogen-control transcription factor NtcA, all1711 was strongly induced after nitrogen step-down. Confocal microscopy of an Anabaena sp. strain producing an All1711-green fluorescent protein (All1711-GFP) fusion protein showed induction in all cells of the filament but at higher levels in differentiating heterocysts. All1711-GFP was located in the periphery of the cells, consistent with All1711 being a cytoplasmic membrane protein. Expression of all1711 from the PglnA promoter in a multicopy plasmid led to production of a presumptive exopolysaccharide by vegetative cells. These results suggest that All1711, which we denote HepP, is involved in transport of glycoside(s), with a specific physiological role in production of Hep. PMID:22753066

  15. Structural Determinants of Substrate Recognition in the HAD Superfamily Member D-glycero-D-manno-Heptose-1,7-bisphosphate Phosphatase (GmhB)

    SciT

    Nguyen, H.; Wang, L; Huang, H

    2010-01-01

    The haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase (HAD) enzyme superfamily is the largest family of phosphohydrolases. In HAD members, the structural elements that provide the binding interactions that support substrate specificity are separated from those that orchestrate catalysis. For most HAD phosphatases, a cap domain functions in substrate recognition. However, for the HAD phosphatases that lack a cap domain, an alternate strategy for substrate selection must be operative. One such HAD phosphatase, GmhB of the HisB subfamily, was selected for structure-function analysis. Herein, the X-ray crystallographic structures of Escherichia coli GmhB in the apo form (1.6 {angstrom} resolution), in a complex with Mg{supmore » 2+} and orthophosphate (1.8 {angstrom} resolution), and in a complex with Mg{sup 2+} and D-glycero-D-manno-heptose 1{beta},7-bisphosphate (2.2 {angstrom} resolution) were determined, in addition to the structure of Bordetella bronchiseptica GmhB bound to Mg{sup 2+} and orthophosphate (1.7 {angstrom} resolution). The structures show that in place of a cap domain, the GmhB catalytic site is elaborated by three peptide inserts or loops that pack to form a concave, semicircular surface around the substrate leaving group. Structure-guided kinetic analysis of site-directed mutants was conducted in parallel with a bioinformatics study of sequence diversification within the HisB subfamily to identify loop residues that serve as substrate recognition elements and that distinguish GmhB from its subfamily counterpart, the histidinol-phosphate phosphatase domain of HisB. We show that GmhB and the histidinol-phosphate phosphatase domain use the same design of three substrate recognition loops inserted into the cap domain yet, through selective residue usage on the loops, have achieved unique substrate specificity and thus novel biochemical function.« less

  16. Characterization of the Bacteroides fragilis bfr Gene Product Identifies a Bacterial DPS-Like Protein and Suggests Evolutionary Links in the Ferritin Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Gauss, George H.; Reott, Michael A.; Rocha, Edson R.; Young, Mark J.; Douglas, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    A factor contributing to the pathogenicity of Bacteroides fragilis, the most common anaerobic species isolated from clinical infections, is the bacterium's extreme aerotolerance, which allows survival in oxygenated tissues prior to anaerobic abscess formation. We investigated the role of the bacterioferritin-related (bfr) gene in the B. fragilis oxidative stress response. The bfr mRNA levels are increased in stationary phase or in response to O2 or iron. In addition, bfr null mutants exhibit reduced aerotolerance, and the bfr gene product protects DNA from hydroxyl radical cleavage in vitro. Crystallographic studies revealed a protein with a dodecameric structure and greater similarity to an archaeal DNA protection in starved cells (DPS)-like protein than to the 24-subunit bacterioferritins. Similarity to the DPS-like (DPSL) protein extends to the subunit and includes a pair of conserved cysteine residues juxtaposed to a buried dimetal binding site within the four-helix bundle. Compared to archaeal DPSLs, however, this bacterial DPSL protein contains several unique features, including a significantly different conformation in the C-terminal tail that alters the number and location of pores leading to the central cavity and a conserved metal binding site on the interior surface of the dodecamer. Combined, these characteristics confirm this new class of miniferritin in the bacterial domain, delineate the similarities and differences between bacterial DPSL proteins and their archaeal homologs, allow corrected annotations for B. fragilis bfr and other dpsl genes within the bacterial domain, and suggest an evolutionary link within the ferritin superfamily that connects dodecameric DPS to the (bacterio)ferritin 24-mer. PMID:22020642

  17. V-SINEs: A New Superfamily of Vertebrate SINEs That Are Widespread in Vertebrate Genomes and Retain a Strongly Conserved Segment within Each Repetitive Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ogiwara, Ikuo; Miya, Masaki; Ohshima, Kazuhiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2002-01-01

    We have identified a new superfamily of vertebrate short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), designated V-SINEs, that are widespread in fishes and frogs. Each V-SINE includes a central conserved domain preceded by a 5′-end tRNA-related region and followed by a potentially recombinogenic (TG)n tract, with a 3′ tail derived from the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the corresponding partner long interspersed repetitive element (LINE) that encodes a functional reverse transcriptase. The central domain is strongly conserved and is even found in SINEs in the lamprey genome, suggesting that V-SINEs might be ∼550 Myr old or older in view of the timing of divergence of the lamprey lineage from the bony fish lineage. The central conserved domain might have been subject to some form of positive selection. Although the contemporary 3′ tails of V-SINEs differ from one another, it is possible that the original 3′ tail might have been replaced, via recombination, by the 3′ tails of more active partner LINEs, thereby retaining retropositional activity and the ability to survive for long periods on the evolutionary time scale. It seems plausible that V-SINEs may have some function(s) that have been maintained by the coevolution of SINEs and LINEs during the evolution of vertebrates. [The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the DDBJ/GenBank database under accession nos. AB072981–AB073004. Supplemental figures are available online at http://www.genome.org.] PMID:11827951

  18. MicroRNA Superfamilies Descended from miR390 and Their Roles in Secondary Small Interfering RNA Biogenesis in Eudicots[W

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Rui; Meyers, Blake C.; Liu, Zhongchi; Beers, Eric P.; Ye, Songqing; Liu, Zongrang

    2013-01-01

    Trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) are a major class of small RNAs performing essential biological functions in plants. The first reported tasiRNA pathway, that of miR173-TAS1/2, produces tasiRNAs regulating a set of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) genes and has been characterized only in Arabidopsis thaliana to date. Here, we demonstrate that the microRNA (miRNA)-trans-acting small interfering RNA gene (TAS)-pentatricopeptide repeat-containing gene (PPR)-small interfering RNA pathway is a highly dynamic and widespread feature of eudicots. Nine eudicot plants, representing six different plant families, have evolved similar tasiRNA pathways to initiate phased small interfering RNA (phasiRNA) production from PPR genes. The PPR phasiRNA production is triggered by different 22-nucleotide miRNAs, including miR7122, miR1509, and fve-PPRtri1/2, and through distinct mechanistic strategies exploiting miRNA direct targeting or indirect targeting through TAS-like genes (TASL), one-hit or two-hit, or even two layers of tasiRNA–TASL interactions. Intriguingly, although those miRNA triggers display high sequence divergence caused by the occurrence of frequent point mutations and splicing shifts, their corresponding MIRNA genes show pronounced identity to the Arabidopsis MIR173, implying a common origin of this group of miRNAs (super-miR7122). Further analyses reveal that super-miR7122 may have evolved from a newly defined miR4376 superfamily, which probably originated from the widely conserved miR390. The elucidation of this evolutionary path expands our understanding of the course of miRNA evolution, especially for relatively conserved miRNA families. PMID:23695981

  19. bfr1+, a novel gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe which confers brefeldin A resistance, is structurally related to the ATP-binding cassette superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, K; Taguchi, Y; Arioka, M; Kadokura, H; Takatsuki, A; Yoda, K; Yamasaki, M

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated a Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene, bfr1+, which on a multicopy plasmid vector, pDB248', confers resistance to brefeldin A (BFA), an inhibitor of intracellular protein transport. This gene encodes a novel protein of 1,531 amino acids with an intramolecular duplicated structure, each half containing a single ATP-binding consensus sequence and a set of six transmembrane sequences. This structural characteristic of bfr1+ protein resembles that of mammalian P-glycoprotein, which, by exporting a variety of anticancer drugs, has been shown to be responsible for multidrug resistance in tumor cells. Consistent with this is that S. pombe cells harboring bfr1+ on pDB248' are resistant to actinomycin D, cerulenin, and cytochalasin B, as well as to BFA. The relative positions of the ATP-binding sequences and the clusters of transmembrane sequences within the bfr1+ protein are, however, transposed in comparison with those in P-glycoprotein; the bfr1+ protein has N-terminal ATP-binding sequence followed by transmembrane segments in each half of the molecule. The bfr1+ protein exhibited significant homology in primary and secondary structures with two recently identified multidrug resistance gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Snq2 and Sts1/Pdr5/Ydr1. The bfr1+ gene is not essential for cell growth or mating, but a delta bfr1 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to BFA. We propose that the bfr1+ protein is another member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily and serves as an efflux pump of various antibiotics. PMID:7883711

  20. Diversity of function in the isocitrate lyase enzyme superfamily: the Dianthus caryophyllus petal death protein cleaves alpha-keto and alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhibing; Feng, Xiaohua; Song, Ling; Han, Ying; Kim, Alexander; Herzberg, Osnat; Woodson, William R; Martin, Brian M; Mariano, Patrick S; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra

    2005-12-20

    The work described in this paper was carried out to define the chemical function a new member of the isocitrate lyase enzyme family derived from the flowering plant Dianthus caryophyllus. This protein (Swiss-Prot entry Q05957) is synthesized in the senescent flower petals and is named the "petal death protein" or "PDP". On the basis of an analysis of the structural contexts of sequence markers common to the C-C bond lyases of the isocitrate lyase/phosphoenolpyruvate mutase superfamily, a substrate screen that employed a (2R)-malate core structure was designed. Accordingly, stereochemically defined C(2)- and C(3)-substituted malates were synthesized and tested as substrates for PDP-catalyzed cleavage of the C(2)-C(3) bond. The screen identified (2R)-ethyl, (3S)-methylmalate, and oxaloacetate [likely to bind as the hydrate, C(2)(OH)(2) gem-diol] as the most active substrates (for each, k(cat)/K(m) = 2 x 10(4) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). In contrast to the stringent substrate specificities previously observed for the Escherichia coli isocitrate and 2-methylisocitrate lyases, the PDP tolerated hydrogen, methyl, and to a much lesser extent acetate substituents at the C(3) position (S configuration only) and hydoxyl, methyl, ethyl, propyl, and to a much lesser extent isobutyl substituents at C(2) (R configuration only). It is hypothesized that PDP functions in oxalate production in Ca(2+) sequestering and/or in carbon scavenging from alpha-hydroxycarboxylate catabolites during the biochemical transition accompanying petal senescence.

  1. Calcitonin-typical suppression of osteoclastic activity by amphioxus calcitonin superfamily peptides and insights into the evolutionary conservation and diversity of their structures.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Toshio; Shiraishi, Akira; Satake, Honoo; Kuwasako, Kenji; Takahashi, Hiroki; Sato, Masayuki; Urata, Makoto; Wada, Shuichi; Endo, Masato; Ikari, Takahiro; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Srivastav, Ajai K; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2017-05-15

    Calcitonin (CT) is a hormone that decreases serum calcium level by suppressing osteoclastic activity in the vertebrate bone. In vertebrates, the structure-function relationship of CTs has been studied extensively. We recently identified three CT superfamily peptides, Bf-CTFP1 to 3, and clarified the molecular and functional characteristics of their receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae. However, the CT activity of Bf-CTFPs has yet to be investigated. In the present study, a functional analysis of Bf-CTFPs was performed using goldfish scales having both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. All Bf-CTFPs suppressed osteoclastic activity via a goldfish CT receptor. Although the primary amino acid sequences of the Bf-CTFPs showed low sequence similarity to vertebrate CTs, Bf-CTFP1 to 3 share three amino acids, Thr 25 , Thr 27 , and Pro 32 -NH 2 , that are required for receptor binding, with salmon CT. Moreover, homology model analysis revealed that the Bf-CTFPs form alpha-helical structures. The alpha-helical position and length of Bf-CTFP1 and 2 were conserved with those of a highly potent ligand, teleost CT. Interestingly, the composition of the alpha-helix of Bf-CTFP3 differed from those of teleost CT, despite that the action of Bf-CTFP3 on goldfish scales was the same as that of Bf-CTFP1 and 2. Collectively, the present study provides new insights into the structure-function relationship of CT and its functional evolution in chordates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure of the d-alanylgriseoluteic acid biosynthetic protein EhpF, an atypical member of the ANL superfamily of adenylating enzymes

    SciT

    Bera, Asim K.; Atanasova, Vesna; Gamage, Swarna

    2010-06-01

    The structure of EhpF from P. agglomerans has been solved alone and in complex with phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate. Apo EhpF was solved and refined in two different space groups at 1.95 and 2.3 Å resolution and the EhpF–phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate complex structure was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. The structure of EhpF, a 41 kDa protein that functions in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound d-alanylgriseoluteic acid (AGA), is reported. A cluster of approximately 16 genes, including ehpF, located on a 200 kbp plasmid native to certain strains of Pantoea agglomerans encodes the proteins that are required for the conversion ofmore » chorismic acid to AGA. Phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate has been identified as an intermediate in AGA biosynthesis and deletion of ehpF results in accumulation of this compound in vivo. The crystallographic data presented here reveal that EhpF is an atypical member of the acyl-CoA synthase or ANL superfamily of adenylating enzymes. These enzymes typically catalyze two-step reactions involving adenylation of a carboxylate substrate followed by transfer of the substrate from AMP to coenzyme A or another phosphopantetheine. EhpF is distinguished by the absence of the C-terminal domain that is characteristic of enzymes from this family and is involved in phosphopantetheine binding and in the second half of the canonical two-step reaction that is typically observed. Based on the structure of EhpF and a bioinformatic analysis, it is proposed that EhpF and EhpG convert phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate to 6-formylphenazine-1-carboxylate via an adenylyl intermediate.« less

  3. The Rodin-Ohno hypothesis that two enzyme superfamilies descended from one ancestral gene: an unlikely scenario for the origins of translation that will not be dismissed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Because amino acid activation is rate-limiting for uncatalyzed protein synthesis, it is a key puzzle in understanding the origin of the genetic code. Two unrelated classes (I and II) of contemporary aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) now translate the code. Observing that codons for the most highly conserved, Class I catalytic peptides, when read in the reverse direction, are very nearly anticodons for Class II defining catalytic peptides, Rodin and Ohno proposed that the two superfamilies descended from opposite strands of the same ancestral gene. This unusual hypothesis languished for a decade, perhaps because it appeared to be unfalsifiable. Results The proposed sense/antisense alignment makes important predictions. Fragments that align in antiparallel orientations, and contain the respective active sites, should catalyze the same two reactions catalyzed by contemporary synthetases. Recent experiments confirmed that prediction. Invariant cores from both classes, called Urzymes after Ur = primitive, authentic, plus enzyme and representing ~20% of the contemporary structures, can be expressed and exhibit high, proportionate rate accelerations for both amino-acid activation and tRNA acylation. A major fraction (60%) of the catalytic rate acceleration by contemporary synthetases resides in segments that align sense/antisense. Bioinformatic evidence for sense/antisense ancestry extends to codons specifying the invariant secondary and tertiary structures outside the active sites of the two synthetase classes. Peptides from a designed, 46-residue gene constrained by Rosetta to encode Class I and II ATP binding sites with fully complementary sequences both accelerate amino acid activation by ATP ~400 fold. Conclusions Biochemical and bioinformatic results substantially enhance the posterior probability that ancestors of the two synthetase classes arose from opposite strands of the same ancestral gene. The remarkable acceleration by short peptides of the

  4. The RelA/SpoT Homolog (RSH) Superfamily: Distribution and Functional Evolution of ppGpp Synthetases and Hydrolases across the Tree of Life

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Gemma C.; Tenson, Tanel; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2011-01-01

    RelA/SpoT Homologue (RSH) proteins, named for their sequence similarity to the RelA and SpoT enzymes of Escherichia coli, comprise a superfamily of enzymes that synthesize and/or hydrolyze the alarmone ppGpp, activator of the “stringent” response and regulator of cellular metabolism. The classical “long” RSHs Rel, RelA and SpoT with the ppGpp hydrolase, synthetase, TGS and ACT domain architecture have been found across diverse bacteria and plant chloroplasts, while dedicated single domain ppGpp-synthesizing and -hydrolyzing RSHs have also been discovered in disparate bacteria and animals respectively. However, there is considerable confusion in terms of nomenclature and no comprehensive phylogenetic and sequence analyses have previously been carried out to classify RSHs on a genomic scale. We have performed high-throughput sensitive sequence searching of over 1000 genomes from across the tree of life, in combination with phylogenetic analyses to consolidate previous ad hoc identification of diverse RSHs in different organisms and provide a much-needed unifying terminology for the field. We classify RSHs into 30 subgroups comprising three groups: long RSHs, small alarmone synthetases (SASs), and small alarmone hydrolases (SAHs). Members of nineteen previously unidentified RSH subgroups can now be studied experimentally, including previously unknown RSHs in archaea, expanding the “stringent response” to this domain of life. We have analyzed possible combinations of RSH proteins and their domains in bacterial genomes and compared RSH content with available RSH knock-out data for various organisms to determine the rules of combining RSHs. Through comparative sequence analysis of long and small RSHs, we find exposed sites limited in conservation to the long RSHs that we propose are involved in transmitting regulatory signals. Such signals may be transmitted via NTD to CTD intra-molecular interactions, or inter-molecular interactions either among individual

  5. Conservation analysis and decomposition of residue correlation networks in the phospholipase A2 superfamily (PLA2s): Insights into the structure-function relationships of snake venom toxins.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alberto; Bleicher, Lucas; Schrago, Carlos G; Silva Junior, Floriano Paes

    2018-05-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA 2 s) comprise a superfamily of glycerophospholipids hydrolyzing enzymes present in many organisms in nature, whose catalytic activity was majorly unveiled by analysis of snake venoms. The latter have pharmaceutical and biotechnological interests and can be divided into different functional sub-classes. Our goal was to identify important residues and their relation to the functional and class-specific characteristics in the PLA 2 s family with special emphasis on snake venom PLA 2 s (svPLA 2 s). We identified such residues by conservation analysis and decomposition of residue coevolution networks (DRCN), annotated the results based on the available literature on PLA 2 s, structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and related the results to the phylogenetic distribution of these proteins. A filtered alignment of PLA 2 s revealed 14 highly conserved positions and 3 sets of coevolved residues, which were annotated according to their structural or functional role. These residues are mostly involved in ligand binding and catalysis, calcium-binding, the formation of disulfide bridges and a hydrophobic cluster close to the binding site. An independent validation of the inference of structure-function relationships from our co-evolution analysis on the svPLA2s family was obtained by the analysis of the pattern of selection acting on the Viperidae and Elapidae lineages. Additionally, a molecular dynamics simulation on the Lys49 PLA 2 from Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus was carried out to further investigate the correlation of the Lys49-Glu69 pair. Our results suggest this configuration can result in a novel conformation where the binding cavity collapses due to the approximation of two loops caused by a strong salt bridge between Glu69 and Arg34. Finally, phylogenetic analysis indicated a correlation between the presence of residues in the coevolved sets found in this analysis and the clade localization. The results provide a guide for

  6. The tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B polymorphisms predict response to anti-TNF therapy in patients with autoimmune disease: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjuan; Xu, Hui; Wang, Xiuxiu; Gu, Junying; Xiong, Huizi; Shi, Yuling

    2015-09-01

    Numerous published data on the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B (TNFRSF1B) gene polymorphisms are shown to be associated with response or non-response to anti-TNF therapy in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis and Crohn's Disease (CD). The aim of this study is to investigate whether the TNFRSF1B rs1061622 T/G or TNFRSF1A A/G rs767455 polymorphisms can predict the response to anti-TNF-based therapy in patients with autoimmune diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies on the association between TNFRSF1B rs1061622 T/G polymorphism or TNFRSF1A A/G rs767455 polymorphism and non-responsiveness to anti-TNF therapy in autoimmune diseases. A total of 8 studies involving 929 subjects for TNFRSF1B rs1061622 and 564 subjects for TNFRSF1A rs767455 were finally considered. These studies consisted of seven studies on the TNFRSF1B polymorphism and four studies on the TNFRSF1A polymorphism. Meta-analysis showed significant association between the TNFRSF1B rs1061622 allele and non-responders to anti-TNF therapy [T/G odds ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-0.93, p=0.01]. Stratification by disease type indicated an association between the TNFRSF1B rs1061622 allele and non-responders to TNF antagonist in RA (T/G OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.99, p<0.05) and psoriasis (T/G OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.23-0.67, p<0.001), but not in CD (T/G OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.57-0.93, p=0.57). And there was no association between TNFRSF1A rs767455 genotype and non-responders to the anti-TNF therapy (A/G OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.70-1.23, p=0.59). This meta-analysis demonstrates that TNFRSF1B T allele carriers show a better response to anti-TNF therapy, and individuals carrying TNFRSF1A A allele have no relationship with the response to anti-TNF therapy for autoimmune diseases. The genotyping of this polymorphism could help to optimize the treatment by identifying patients with a likely poor response to biological drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. A Major Facilitator Superfamily protein encoded by TcMucK gene is not required for cuticle pigmentation, growth and development in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Mun, Seulgi; Noh, Mi Young; Osanai-Futahashi, Mizuko; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-06-01

    Insect cuticle pigmentation and sclerotization (tanning) are vital physiological processes for insect growth, development and survival. We have previously identified several colorless precursor molecules as well as enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and processing to yield the mature intensely colored body cuticle pigments. A recent study indicated that the Bombyx mori (silkmoth) gene, BmMucK, which encodes a protein orthologous to a Culex pipiens quiquefasciatus (Southern house mosquito) cis,cis, muconate transporter, is a member of the "Major Facilitator Superfamily" (MFS) of transporter proteins and is associated with the appearance of pigmented body segments of naturally occurring body color mutants of B. mori. While RNA interference of the BmMucK gene failed to result in any observable phenotype, RNAi using a dsRNA for an orthologous gene from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, was reported to result in molting defects and darkening of the cuticle and some body parts, leading to the suggestion that orthologs of MucK genes may differ in their functions among insects. To verify the role and essentiality of the ortholog of this gene in development and body pigmentation function in T. castaneum we obtained cDNAs for the orthologous gene (TcMucK) from RNA isolated from the GA-1 wild-type strain of T. castaneum. The sequence of a 1524 nucleotides-long cDNA for TcMucK which encodes the putatively full-length protein, was assembled from two overlapping RT-PCR fragments and the expression profile of this gene during development was analyzed by real-time PCR. This cDNA encodes a 55.8 kDa protein consisting of 507 amino acid residues and includes 11 putative transmembrane segments. Transcripts of TcMucK were detected throughout all of the developmental stages analyzed. The function of this gene was explored by injection of two different double-stranded RNAs targeting different regions of the TcMucK gene (dsTcMucKs) into young larvae to down

  8. Evolution of enzymatic activity in the enolase superfamily: structure of o-succinylbenzoate synthase from Escherichia coli in complex with Mg2+ and o-succinylbenzoate.

    PubMed

    Thompson, T B; Garrett, J B; Taylor, E A; Meganathan, R; Gerlt, J A; Rayment, I

    2000-09-05

    The X-ray structures of the ligand free (apo) and the Mg(2+)*o-succinylbenzoate (OSB) product complex of o-succinylbenzoate synthase (OSBS) from Escherichia coli have been solved to 1.65 and 1.77 A resolution, respectively. The structure of apo OSBS was solved by multiple isomorphous replacement in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1); the structure of the complex with Mg(2+)*OSB was solved by molecular replacement in space group P2(1)2(1)2. The two domain fold found for OSBS is similar to those found for other members of the enolase superfamily: a mixed alpha/beta capping domain formed from segments at the N- and C-termini of the polypeptide and a larger (beta/alpha)(7)beta barrel domain. Two regions of disorder were found in the structure of apo OSBS: (i) the loop between the first two beta-strands in the alpha/beta domain; and (ii) the first sheet-helix pair in the barrel domain. These regions are ordered in the product complex with Mg(2+)*OSB. As expected, the Mg(2+)*OSB pair is bound at the C-terminal end of the barrel domain. The electron density for the phenyl succinate component of the product is well-defined; however, the 1-carboxylate appears to adopt multiple conformations. The metal is octahedrally coordinated by Asp(161), Glu(190), and Asp(213), two water molecules, and one oxygen of the benzoate carboxylate group of OSB. The loop between the first two beta-strands in the alpha/beta motif interacts with the aromatic ring of OSB. Lys(133) and Lys(235) are positioned to function as acid/base catalysts in the dehydration reaction. Few hydrogen bonding or electrostatic interactions are involved in the binding of OSB to the active site; instead, most of the interactions between OSB and the protein are either indirect via water molecules or via hydrophobic interactions. As a result, evolution of both the shape and the volume of the active site should be subject to few structural constraints. This would provide a structural strategy for the evolution of new catalytic

  9. Glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds directly to HVEM, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and a mediator of HSV entry.

    PubMed Central

    Whitbeck, J C; Peng, C; Lou, H; Xu, R; Willis, S H; Ponce de Leon, M; Peng, T; Nicola, A V; Montgomery, R I; Warner, M S; Soulika, A M; Spruce, L A; Moore, W T; Lambris, J D; Spear, P G; Cohen, G H; Eisenberg, R J

    1997-01-01

    Glycoprotein D (gD) is a structural component of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) envelope which is essential for virus entry into host cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells are one of the few cell types which are nonpermissive for the entry of many HSV strains. However, when these cells are transformed with the gene for the herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), the resulting cells, CHO-HVEM12, are permissive for many HSV strains, such as HSV-1(KOS). By virtue of its four cysteine-rich pseudorepeats, HVEM is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily of proteins. Recombinant forms of gD and HVEM, gD-1(306t) and HVEM(200t), respectively, were used to demonstrate a specific physical interaction between these two proteins. This interaction was dependent on native gD conformation but independent of its N-linked oligosaccharides, as expected from previous structure-function studies. Recombinant forms of gD derived from HSV-1(KOS)rid1 and HSV-1(ANG) did not bind to HVEM(200t), explaining the inability of these viruses to infect CHO-HVEM12 cells. A variant gD protein, gD-1(delta290-299t), showed enhanced binding to HVEM(200t) relative to the binding of gD-1(306t). Competition studies showed that gD-1(delta290-299t) and gD-1(306t) bound to the same region of HVEM(200t), suggesting that the differences in binding to HVEM are due to differences in affinity. These differences were also reflected in the ability of gD-1(delta290-299t) but not gD-1(306t) to block HSV type 1 infection of CHO-HVEM12 cells. By gel filtration chromatography, the complex between gD-1(delta290-299t) and HVEM(200t) had a molecular mass of 113 kDa and a molar ratio of 1:2. We conclude that HVEM interacts directly with gD, suggesting that HVEM is a receptor for virion gD and that the interaction between these proteins is a step in HSV entry into HVEM-expressing cells. PMID:9223502

  10. Structural Characterization and Function Determination of a Nonspecific Carboxylate Esterase from the Amidohydrolase Superfamily with a Promiscuous Ability To Hydrolyze Methylphosphonate Esters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The uncharacterized protein Rsp3690 from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily of enzymes. In this investigation the gene for Rsp3690 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity, and the three-dimensional structure was determined to a resolution of 1.8 Å. The protein folds as a distorted (β/α)8-barrel, and the subunits associate as a homotetramer. The active site is localized to the C-terminal end of the β-barrel and is highlighted by the formation of a binuclear metal center with two manganese ions that are bridged by Glu-175 and hydroxide. The remaining ligands to the metal center include His-32, His-34, His-207, His-236, and Asp-302. Rsp3690 was shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of a wide variety of carboxylate esters, in addition to organophosphate and organophosphonate esters. The best carboxylate ester substrates identified for Rsp3690 included 2-naphthyl acetate (kcat/Km = 1.0 × 105 M–1 s–1), 2-naphthyl propionate (kcat/Km = 1.5 × 105 M–1 s–1), 1-naphthyl acetate (kcat/Km = 7.5 × 103 M–1 s–1), 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate (kcat/Km = 2.7 × 103 M–1 s–1), 4-nitrophenyl acetate (kcat/Km = 2.3 × 105 M–1 s–1), and 4-nitrophenyl butyrate (kcat/Km = 8.8 × 105 M–1 s–1). The best organophosphonate ester substrates included ethyl 4-nitrophenyl methylphosphonate (kcat/Km = 3.8 × 105 M–1 s–1) and isobutyl 4-nitrophenyl methylphosphonate (kcat/Km = 1.1 × 104 M–1 s–1). The (SP)-enantiomer of isobutyl 4-nitrophenyl methylphosphonate was hydrolyzed 10 times faster than the less toxic (RP)-enantiomer. The high inherent catalytic activity of Rsp3690 for the hydrolysis of the toxic enantiomer of methylphosphonate esters make this enzyme an attractive target for directed evolution investigations. PMID:24832101

  11. A family of glycoproteins (GP55), which inhibit neurite outgrowth, are members of the Ig superfamily and are related to OBCAM, neurotrimin, LAMP and CEPU-1.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D J; Kim, D S; Clarke, G A; Marshall-Clarke, S; Moss, D J

    1996-12-01

    We have previously identified a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked glycoprotein of 55 kDa (GP55) which inhibits neurite outgrowth. We now provide evidence that GP55, isolated from adult chick brain, consists of at least two bands, both of which are active, i.e., block outgrowth of neurites from chick dorsal root ganglion neurons. An antiserum raised against the adult proteins reverses the inhibition and preliminary experiments suggest that GP55 is restricted to the nervous system, increases during development from very low levels at embryonic day 10 and is most abundant after hatching. Immunofluorescence reveals that GP55 is expressed on neurons cultured from an embryonic day 14 chick brain but is barely detectable on embryonic day 10 dorsal root ganglion neurons or embryonic day 8 forebrain neurons; the neurons which respond to substrate-bound GP55. Peptide sequencing revealed considerable homology with OBCAM, a protein previously identified on the basis of binding opiates. Nested polymerase chain reaction using primers to the OBCAM sequence and internal primers to GP55 peptides produced two different polymerase chain reaction fragments with homology to OBCAM. A full length clone (E19S) corresponding to one polymerase chain reaction product and a partial length clone (E14S) corresponding to the second have been isolated from an embryonic chick brain library. Both are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily and have (or are expected to have) three C2 domains. E19S has 90% homology with LAMP at the amino acid level. This sequence only partially matches the peptides from the adult protein and hence is probably not a major component of the adult proteins. E14S (GP55-A) has 83% homology to OBCAM at the amino acid level over the region sequenced. The sequence matches several of the peptides from the adult protein and is hence likely to correspond to a major component of the adult proteins. Thus members of the GP55 family are related to OBCAM, neurotrimin, LAMP and a

  12. Disruption of M-T5, a novel myxoma virus gene member of poxvirus host range superfamily, results in dramatic attenuation of myxomatosis in infected European rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Mossman, K; Lee, S F; Barry, M; Boshkov, L; McFadden, G

    1996-01-01

    Myxoma virus is a pathogenic poxvirus that induces a lethal myxomatosis disease profile in European rabbits, which is characterized by fulminating lesions at the primary site of inoculation, rapid dissemination to secondary internal organs and peripheral external sites, and supervening gram-negative bacterial infection. Here we describe the role of a novel myxoma virus protein encoded by the M-T5 open reading frame during pathogenesis. The myxoma virus M-T5 protein possesses no significant sequence homology to nonviral proteins but is a member of a larger poxviral superfamily designated host range proteins. An M-T5- mutant virus was constructed by disruption of both copies of the M-T5 gene followed by insertion of the selectable marker p7.5Ecogpt. Although the M-T5- deletion mutant replicated with wild-type kinetics in rabbit fibroblasts, infection of a rabbit CD4+ T-cell line (RL5) with the myxoma virus M-T5- mutant virus resulted in the rapid and complete cessation of both host and viral protein synthesis, accompanied by the manifestation of all the classical features of programmed cell death. Infection of primary rabbit peripheral mononuclear cells with the myxoma virus M-T5-mutant virus resulted in the apoptotic death of nonadherent lymphocytes but not adherent monocytes. Within the European rabbit, disruption of the M-T5 open reading frame caused a dramatic attenuation of the rapidly lethal myxomatosis infection, and none of the infected rabbits displayed any of the characteristic features of myxomatosis. The two most significant histological observations in rabbits infected with the M-T5-mutant virus were (i) the lack of progression of the infection past the primary site of inoculation, coupled with the establishment of a rapid and effective inflammatory reaction, and (ii) the inability of the virus to initiate a cellular reaction within secondary immune organs. We conclude that M-T5 functions as a critical virulence factor by allowing productive infection of

  13. Disruption of M-T5, a novel myxoma virus gene member of poxvirus host range superfamily, results in dramatic attenuation of myxomatosis in infected European rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mossman, K; Lee, S F; Barry, M; Boshkov, L; McFadden, G

    1996-07-01

    Myxoma virus is a pathogenic poxvirus that induces a lethal myxomatosis disease profile in European rabbits, which is characterized by fulminating lesions at the primary site of inoculation, rapid dissemination to secondary internal organs and peripheral external sites, and supervening gram-negative bacterial infection. Here we describe the role of a novel myxoma virus protein encoded by the M-T5 open reading frame during pathogenesis. The myxoma virus M-T5 protein possesses no significant sequence homology to nonviral proteins but is a member of a larger poxviral superfamily designated host range proteins. An M-T5- mutant virus was constructed by disruption of both copies of the M-T5 gene followed by insertion of the selectable marker p7.5Ecogpt. Although the M-T5- deletion mutant replicated with wild-type kinetics in rabbit fibroblasts, infection of a rabbit CD4+ T-cell line (RL5) with the myxoma virus M-T5- mutant virus resulted in the rapid and complete cessation of both host and viral protein synthesis, accompanied by the manifestation of all the classical features of programmed cell death. Infection of primary rabbit peripheral mononuclear cells with the myxoma virus M-T5-mutant virus resulted in the apoptotic death of nonadherent lymphocytes but not adherent monocytes. Within the European rabbit, disruption of the M-T5 open reading frame caused a dramatic attenuation of the rapidly lethal myxomatosis infection, and none of the infected rabbits displayed any of the characteristic features of myxomatosis. The two most significant histological observations in rabbits infected with the M-T5-mutant virus were (i) the lack of progression of the infection past the primary site of inoculation, coupled with the establishment of a rapid and effective inflammatory reaction, and (ii) the inability of the virus to initiate a cellular reaction within secondary immune organs. We conclude that M-T5 functions as a critical virulence factor by allowing productive infection of

  14. Basic Residues R260 and K357 Affect the Conformational Dynamics of the Major Facilitator Superfamily Multidrug Transporter LmrP

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; van Veen, Hendrik W.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary-active multidrug transporters can confer resistance on cells to pharmaceuticals by mediating their extrusion away from intracellular targets via substrate/H+(Na+) antiport. While the interactions of catalytic carboxylates in these transporters with coupling ions and substrates (drugs) have been studied in some detail, the functional importance of basic residues has received much less attention. The only two basic residues R260 and K357 in transmembrane helices in the Major Facilitator Superfamily transporter LmrP from Lactococcus lactis are present on the outer surface of the protein, where they are exposed to the phospholipid head group region of the outer leaflet (R260) and inner leaflet (K357) of the cytoplasmic membrane. Although our observations on the proton-motive force dependence and kinetics of substrate transport, and substrate-dependent proton transport demonstrate that K357A and R260A mutants are affected in ethidium-proton and benzalkonium-proton antiport compared to wildtype LmrP, our findings suggest that R260 and K357 are not directly involved in the binding of substrates or the translocation of protons. Secondary-active multidrug transporters are thought to operate by a mechanism in which binding sites for substrates are alternately exposed to each face of the membrane. Disulfide crosslinking experiments were performed with a double cysteine mutant of LmrP that reports the substrate-stimulated transition from the outward-facing state to the inward-facing state with high substrate-binding affinity. In the experiments, the R260A and K357A mutations were found to influence the dynamics of these major protein conformations in the transport cycle, potentially by removing the interactions of R260 and K357 with phospholipids and/or other residues in LmrP. The R260A and K357A mutations therefore modify the maximum rate at which the transport cycle can operate and, as the transitions between conformational states are differently affected by

  15. The Crystal Structure and Small-Angle X-Ray Analysis of CsdL/TcdA Reveal a New tRNA Binding Motif in the MoeB/E1 Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    López-Estepa, Miguel; Ardá, Ana; Savko, Martin; Round, Adam; Shepard, William E.; Bruix, Marta; Coll, Miquel; Fernández, Francisco J.; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Vega, M. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic N 6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (‘cyclic t6A’, ct6A) is a non-thiolated hypermodification found in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) in bacteria, protists, fungi and plants. In bacteria and yeast cells ct6A has been shown to enhance translation fidelity and efficiency of ANN codons by improving the faithful discrimination of aminoacylated tRNAs by the ribosome. To further the understanding of ct6A biology we have determined the high-resolution crystal structures of CsdL/TcdA in complex with AMP and ATP, an E1-like activating enzyme from Escherichia coli, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent dehydration of t6A to form ct6A. CsdL/TcdA is a dimer whose structural integrity and dimer interface depend critically on strongly bound K+ and Na+ cations. By using biochemical assays and small-angle X-ray scattering we show that CsdL/TcdA can associate with tRNA with a 1:1 stoichiometry and with the proper position and orientation for the cyclization of t6A. Furthermore, we show by nuclear magnetic resonance that CsdL/TcdA engages in transient interactions with CsdA and CsdE, which, in the latter case, involve catalytically important residues. These short-lived interactions may underpin the precise channeling of sulfur atoms from cysteine to CsdL/TcdA as previously characterized. In summary, the combination of structural, biophysical and biochemical methods applied to CsdL/TcdA has afforded a more thorough understanding of how the structure of this E1-like enzyme has been fine tuned to accomplish ct6A synthesis on tRNAs while providing support for the notion that CsdA and CsdE are able to functionally interact with CsdL/TcdA. PMID:25897750

  16. Another cat and mouse game: Deciphering the evolution of the SCGB superfamily and exploring the molecular similarity of major cat allergen Fel d 1 and mouse ABP using computational approaches

    PubMed Central

    Pageat, Patrick; Bienboire-Frosini, Cécile

    2018-01-01

    The mammalian secretoglobin (SCGB) superfamily contains functionally diverse members, among which the major cat allergen Fel d 1 and mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) display similar subunits. We searched for molecular similarities between Fel d 1 and ABP to examine the possibility that they play similar roles. We aimed to i) cluster the evolutionary relationships of the SCGB superfamily; ii) identify divergence patterns, structural overlap, and protein-protein docking between Fel d 1 and ABP dimers; and iii) explore the residual interaction between ABP dimers and steroid binding in chemical communication using computational approaches. We also report that the evolutionary tree of the SCGB superfamily comprises seven unique palm-like clusters, showing the evolutionary pattern and divergence time tree of Fel d 1 with 28 ABP paralogs. Three ABP subunits (A27, BG27, and BG26) share phylogenetic relationships with Fel d 1 chains. The Fel d 1 and ABP subunits show similarities in terms of sequence conservation, identical motifs and binding site clefts. Topologically equivalent positions were visualized through superimposition of ABP A27:BG27 (AB) and ABP A27:BG26 (AG) dimers on a heterodimeric Fel d 1 model. In docking, Fel d 1-ABP dimers exhibit the maximum surface binding ability of AG compared with that of AB dimers and the several polar interactions between ABP dimers with steroids. Hence, cat Fel d 1 is an ABP-like molecule in which monomeric chains 1 and 2 are the equivalent of the ABPA and ABPBG monomers, respectively. These findings suggest that the biological and molecular function of Fel d 1 is similar to that of ABP in chemical communication, possibly via pheromone and/or steroid binding. PMID:29771985

  17. Another cat and mouse game: Deciphering the evolution of the SCGB superfamily and exploring the molecular similarity of major cat allergen Fel d 1 and mouse ABP using computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Rajesh; Pageat, Patrick; Bienboire-Frosini, Cécile

    2018-01-01

    The mammalian secretoglobin (SCGB) superfamily contains functionally diverse members, among which the major cat allergen Fel d 1 and mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) display similar subunits. We searched for molecular similarities between Fel d 1 and ABP to examine the possibility that they play similar roles. We aimed to i) cluster the evolutionary relationships of the SCGB superfamily; ii) identify divergence patterns, structural overlap, and protein-protein docking between Fel d 1 and ABP dimers; and iii) explore the residual interaction between ABP dimers and steroid binding in chemical communication using computational approaches. We also report that the evolutionary tree of the SCGB superfamily comprises seven unique palm-like clusters, showing the evolutionary pattern and divergence time tree of Fel d 1 with 28 ABP paralogs. Three ABP subunits (A27, BG27, and BG26) share phylogenetic relationships with Fel d 1 chains. The Fel d 1 and ABP subunits show similarities in terms of sequence conservation, identical motifs and binding site clefts. Topologically equivalent positions were visualized through superimposition of ABP A27:BG27 (AB) and ABP A27:BG26 (AG) dimers on a heterodimeric Fel d 1 model. In docking, Fel d 1-ABP dimers exhibit the maximum surface binding ability of AG compared with that of AB dimers and the several polar interactions between ABP dimers with steroids. Hence, cat Fel d 1 is an ABP-like molecule in which monomeric chains 1 and 2 are the equivalent of the ABPA and ABPBG monomers, respectively. These findings suggest that the biological and molecular function of Fel d 1 is similar to that of ABP in chemical communication, possibly via pheromone and/or steroid binding.

  18. The crystal structures of the tri-functional Chloroflexus aurantiacus and bi-functional Rhodobacter sphaeroides malyl-CoA lyases and comparison with CitE-like superfamily enzymes and malate synthases.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Jan; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2013-11-09

    Malyl-CoA lyase (MCL) is a promiscuous carbon-carbon bond lyase that catalyzes the reversible cleavage of structurally related Coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters. This enzyme plays a crucial, multifunctional role in the 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle for autotrophic CO2 fixation in Chloroflexus aurantiacus. A second, phylogenetically distinct MCL from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is involved in the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway for acetate assimilation. Both MCLs belong to the large superfamily of CitE-like enzymes, which includes the name-giving β-subunit of citrate lyase (CitE), malyl-CoA thioesterases and other enzymes of unknown physiological function. The CitE-like enzyme superfamily also bears sequence and structural resemblance to the malate synthases. All of these different enzymes share highly conserved catalytic residues, although they catalyze distinctly different reactions: C-C bond formation and cleavage, thioester hydrolysis, or both (the malate synthases). Here we report the first crystal structures of MCLs from two different phylogenetic subgroups in apo- and substrate-bound forms. Both the C. aurantiacus and the R. sphaeroides MCL contain elaborations on the canonical β8/α8 TIM barrel fold and form hexameric assemblies. Upon ligand binding, changes in the C-terminal domains of the MCLs result in closing of the active site, with the C-terminal domain of one monomer forming a lid over and contributing side chains to the active site of the adjacent monomer. The distinctive features of the two MCL subgroups were compared to known structures of other CitE-like superfamily enzymes and to malate synthases, providing insight into the structural subtleties that underlie the functional versatility of these enzymes. Although the C. aurantiacus and the R. sphaeroides MCLs have divergent primary structures (~37% identical), their tertiary and quaternary structures are very similar. It can be assumed that the C-C bond formation catalyzed by the MCLs occurs as proposed for

  19. Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism

    SciT

    Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne

    The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively.

  20. Irregular chiasm-C-roughest, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, affects sense organ spacing on the Drosophila antenna by influencing the positioning of founder cells on the disc ectoderm.

    PubMed

    Venugopala Reddy, G; Reiter, C; Shanbhag, S; Fischbach, K F; Rodrigues, V

    1999-10-01

    We describe a role for Irregular chiasmC-roughest (IrreC-rst), an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily member, in patterning sense organs on the Drosophila antenna. IrreC-rst protein is initially expressed homogeneously on apical profiles of ectodermal cells in regions of the antennal disc. During specification of founder cells (FCs), the intracellular protein distribution changes and becomes concentrated in regions where specific intercellular contacts presumably occur. Loss of function mutations as well as misexpression of irreC-rst results in an altered arrangement of FCs within the disc compared to wildtype. Sense organ development occurs normally, although spacing is affected. Unlike its role in interommatidial spacing, irreC-rst does not affect apoptosis during antennal development. We propose that IrreC-rst affects the spatial relationship between sensory and ectodermal cells during FC delamination.

  1. A SNARE-Like Superfamily Protein SbSLSP from the Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Confers Salt and Drought Tolerance by Maintaining Membrane Stability, K+/Na+ Ratio, and Antioxidant Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dinkar; Yadav, Narendra Singh; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    About 1000 salt-responsive ESTs were identified from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata. Among these, a novel salt-inducible gene SbSLSP (Salicornia brachiata SNARE-like superfamily protein), showed up-regulation upon salinity and dehydration stress. The presence of cis-regulatory motifs related to abiotic stress in the putative promoter region supports our finding that SbSLSP gene is inducible by abiotic stress. The SbSLSP protein showed a high sequence identity to hypothetical/uncharacterized proteins from Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Eucalyptus grandis, and Prunus persica and with SNARE-like superfamily proteins from Zostera marina and Arabidopsis thaliana. Bioinformatics analysis predicted a clathrin adaptor complex small-chain domain and N-myristoylation site in the SbSLSP protein. Subcellular localization studies indicated that the SbSLSP protein is mainly localized in the plasma membrane. Using transgenic tobacco lines, we establish that overexpression of SbSLSP resulted in elevated tolerance to salt and drought stress. The improved tolerance was confirmed by alterations in a range of physiological parameters, including high germination and survival rate, higher leaf chlorophyll contents, and reduced accumulation of Na+ ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, overexpressing lines also showed lower water loss, higher cell membrane stability, and increased accumulation of proline and ROS-scavenging enzymes. Overexpression of SbSLSP also enhanced the transcript levels of ROS-scavenging and signaling enzyme genes. This study is the first investigation of the function of the SbSLSP gene as a novel determinant of salinity/drought tolerance. The results suggest that SbSLSP could be a potential candidate to increase salinity and drought tolerance in crop plants for sustainable agriculture in semi-arid saline soil. PMID:27313584

  2. The neurotrophins act synergistically with LIF and members of the TGF-beta superfamily to promote the survival of spiral ganglia neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Marzella, P L; Gillespie, L N; Clark, G M; Bartlett, P F; Kilpatrick, T J

    1999-12-01

    A number of growth factor families have been implicated in normal inner ear development, auditory neuron survival and protection. Several growth factors, including transforming growth factor-beta5 (TGF-beta5) and TGF-beta3, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were tested for their ability, individually or in combination, to promote auditory neuron survival in dissociated cell cultures of early rat post-natal spiral ganglion cells (SGCs). The results indicate that at discrete concentrations all growth factors act in an additive fashion and some in synergy when promoting neuronal survival. These findings support the hypothesis that growth factors from different families may be interdependent when sustaining neuronal integrity.

  3. Structural Basis of the Induced-Fit Mechanism of 1,4-Dihydroxy-2-Naphthoyl Coenzyme A Synthase from the Crotonase Fold Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Li, Yan; Jiang, Ming; Zhou, Jiahai; Guo, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    1, 4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl coenzyme A (DHNA-CoA) synthase is a typical crotonase fold enzyme with an implicated role of conformational changes in catalysis. We have identified these conformational changes by determining the structures of its Escherichia coli and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 orthologues in complex with a product analog. The structural changes include the folding of an active-site loop into a β-hairpin and significant reorientation of a helix at the carboxy terminus. Interestingly, a new interface is formed between the ordered loop and the reoriented helix, both of which also form additional interactions with the coenzyme A moiety of the ligand. Site-directed mutation of the amino acid residues involved in these ligand-induced interactions significantly diminishes the enzyme activity. These results suggest a catalytically essential induced-fit that is likely initiated by the enzyme-ligand interactions at the active site. PMID:23658663

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein and bone metastasis, implication and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin; Mason, Malcolm D; Jiang, Wen G

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastasis is one of the most common and severe complications in advanced malignancies, particularly in the three leading cancers; breast cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. It is currently incurable and causes severe morbidities, including bone pain, hypercalcemia, pathological fracture, spinal cord compression and consequent paralysis. However, the mechanisms underlying the development of bone metastasis remain largely unknown. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the TGF-beta superfamily and are pluripotent factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and postnatal homeostasis of various organs and tissues, by controlling cellular differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Since they are potent regulators for bone formation, there is an increasing interest to investigate BMPs and their roles in bone metastasis. BMPs have been implicated in various neoplasms, at both primary and secondary tumors, particularly skeletal metastasis. Recently studies have also suggested that BMP signaling and their antagonists play pivotal roles in bone metastasis. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of aberrations of BMPs which have been indicated in tumor progression, and particularly in the development of bone metastasis.

  5. Expression of transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) proteins and their role in hepatic stellate cell motility and wound healing migration.

    PubMed

    Mazzocca, Antonio; Carloni, Vinicio; Sciammetta, Silvia; Cordella, Claudia; Pantaleo, Pietro; Caldini, Anna; Gentilini, Paolo; Pinzani, Massimo

    2002-09-01

    Migration of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is a key event in the progression of liver fibrosis. Little is known about transmembrane proteins involved in HSC motility. Tetraspanins (TM4SF) have been implicated in cell development, differentiation, motility and tumor cell invasion. We evaluated the expression and function of four TM4SF, namely CD9, CD81, CD63 and CD151, and their involvement in HSC migration, adhesion, and proliferation. All TM4SF investigated were highly expressed at the human HSC surface with different patterns of intracellular distribution. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the four TM4SF inhibited HSC migration induced by extracellular matrix proteins in both wound healing and haptotaxis assays. This inhibition was independent of the ECM substrates employed (collagen type I or IV, laminin), and was comparable to that obtained by incubating the cells with an anti-beta1 blocking mAb. Importantly, cell adhesion was unaffected by the incubation with the same antibodies. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed different patterns of association between the four TM4SF studied and beta1 integrin. Finally, anti-TM4SF antibodies did not affect HSC growth. These findings provide the first characterization of tetraspanins expression and of their role in HSC migration, a key event in liver tissue wound healing and fibrogenesis.

  6. Genome-wide analyses of the bHLH superfamily in crustaceans: reappraisal of higher-order groupings and evidence for lineage-specific duplications

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins represent a key group of transcription factors implicated in numerous eukaryotic developmental and signal transduction processes. Characterization of bHLHs from model species such as humans, fruit flies, nematodes and plants have yielded important information on their functions and evolutionary origin. However, relatively little is known about bHLHs in non-model organisms despite the availability of a vast number of high-throughput sequencing datasets, enabling previously intractable genome-wide and cross-species analyses to be now performed. We extensively searched for bHLHs in 126 crustacean species represented across major Crustacea taxa and identified 3777 putative bHLH orthologues. We have also included seven whole-genome datasets representative of major arthropod lineages to obtain a more accurate prediction of the full bHLH gene complement. With focus on important food crop species from Decapoda, we further defined higher-order groupings and have successfully recapitulated previous observations in other animals. Importantly, we also observed evidence for lineage-specific bHLH expansions in two basal crustaceans (branchiopod and copepod), suggesting a mode of evolution through gene duplication as an adaptation to changing environments. In-depth analysis on bHLH-PAS members confirms the phenomenon coined as ‘modular evolution’ (independently evolved domains) typically seen in multidomain proteins. With the amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis as the exception, our analyses have focused on crustacean transcriptome datasets. Hence, there is a clear requirement for future analyses on whole-genome sequences to overcome potential limitations associated with transcriptome mining. Nonetheless, the present work will serve as a key resource for future mechanistic and biochemical studies on bHLHs in economically important crustacean food crop species. PMID:29657824

  7. Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of the secretin receptor superfamily with an unusual extracellular domain

    SciT

    Hamann, J.; Hamann, D.; Lier, R.A.W.

    1995-08-15

    CD97 is a monomeric glycoprotein of 75 to 85 kDa that is induced rapidly on the surface of most leukocytes upon activation. We herein report the isolation of a cDNA encoding human CD97 by expression cloning in COS cells. The 3-kb cDNA clone encodes a mature polypeptide chain of 722 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 79 kDa. Within the C-terminal part of the protein, a region with seven hydrophobic segments was identified, suggesting that CD97 is a seven-span transmembrane molecule. Sequence comparison indicates that CD97 is the first leukocyte Ag in a recently described superfamily that includesmore » the receptors for secretin, calcitonin, and other mammalian and insect peptide hormones. Different from these receptors, CD97 has an extended extracellular region of 433 amino acids that possesses three N-terminal epidermal growth factor-like domains, two of them with a calcium-binding site, and single Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif. The existence of structural elements characteristic for extracellular matrix proteins in a seven-span transmembrane molecule makes CD97 a receptor potentially involved in both adhesion and signaling processes early after leukocyte activation. The gene encoding CD97 is localized on chromosome 19 (19p13.12-13.2).« less

  8. Exposure to Organophosphates Reduces the Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Neonatal Rat Brain Regions: Similarities and Differences in the Effects of Chlorpyrifos and Diazinon on the Fibroblast Growth Factor Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Slotkin, Theodore A.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    Background The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) superfamily of neurotrophic factors plays critical roles in neural cell development, brain assembly, and recovery from neuronal injury. Objectives We administered two organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos and diazinon, to neonatal rats on postnatal days 1–4, using doses below the threshold for systemic toxicity or growth impairment, and spanning the threshold for barely detectable cholinesterase inhibition: 1 mg/kg/day chlorpyrifos and 1 or 2 mg/kg/day diazinon. Methods Using microarrays, we then examined the regional expression of mRNAs encoding the FGFs and their receptors (FGFRs) in the forebrain and brain stem. Results Chlorpyrifos and diazinon both markedly suppressed fgf20 expression in the forebrain and fgf2 in the brain stem, while elevating brain stem fgfr4 and evoking a small deficit in brain stem fgf22. However, they differed in that the effects on fgf2 and fgfr4 were significantly larger for diazinon, and the two agents also showed dissimilar, smaller effects on fgf11, fgf14, and fgfr1. Conclusions The fact that there are similarities but also notable disparities in the responses to chlorpyrifos and diazinon, and that robust effects were seen even at doses that do not inhibit cholinesterase, supports the idea that organophosphates differ in their propensity to elicit developmental neurotoxicity, unrelated to their anticholinesterase activity. Effects on neurotrophic factors provide a mechanistic link between organophosphate injury to developing neurons and the eventual, adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:17589599

  9. Synthesis and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    A general context for defining and using goals in institutional research is discussed, contributions of authors in this journal issue are reviewed, and implications for research are examined. (Author/LBH)

  10. Identification, by molecular cloning, of a novel type of I2-superfamily conotoxin precursor and two novel I2-conotoxins from the worm-hunter snail Conus spurius from the Gulf of México.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Aguilar, Manuel B; Falcón, Andrés

    2010-03-01

    cDNA was prepared from the venom duct of a single Conus spurius specimen collected near the coast of Campeche, México. From it, PCR products were generated aiming to clone I-conotoxin precursors. Thirty clones were sequenced and predicted to encode ten distinct precursors: seven of I(2)-conotoxins and three of I(2)-like-conotoxins. These precursors contain three different, mature toxins, sr11a, sr11b and sr11c, of which two are novel and one (sr11a) has been previously purified and characterized from the venom of this species. The precursors include a 26- (I(2)) or 23- residue signal peptide (I(2)-like), a 31-residue "pro" region (I(2)-like), and a 32-residue mature toxin region (I(2) and I(2)-like). In addition, all the precursors have a 13-residue "post" region which contains a gamma-carboxylation recognition sequence that directs the gamma-carboxylation of Glu-9 and Glu-10 of toxin sr11a and, possibly, Glu-13 of toxin sr11b and Glu-9 of toxin sr11c. This is the first time that a "post" region has been found in precursors of I-conotoxins that also contain a "pro" region. The "post" peptide is enzymatically processed to yield the amidated mature toxin sr11a, which implies that gamma-carboxylation occurs before amidation. Phylogenetic analysis at the whole precursor level indicates that the I(2)-like-conotoxins of C. spurius are more related to I(2)-conotoxins than to I(1)- and I(3)-conotoxins from other species, and that they might represent a new subgroup of the I(2)-superfamily. The three I-conotoxins from C. spurius have charge differences at seven to nine positions, suggesting that they might have different molecular target types or subtypes. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel member of the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily from Caenorhabditis elegans preferentially catalyses the N-acetylation of thialysine [S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The putative diamine N-acetyltransferase D2023.4 has been cloned from the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The 483 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encodes a deduced polypeptide of 18.6 kDa. Accordingly, the recombinantly expressed His6-tagged protein forms an enzymically active homodimer with a molecular mass of approx. 44000 Da. The protein belongs to the GNAT (GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase) superfamily, and its amino acid sequence exhibits considerable similarity to mammalian spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferases. However, neither the polyamines spermidine and spermine nor the diamines putrescine and cadaverine were efficiently acetylated by the protein. The smaller diamines diaminopropane and ethylenediamine, as well as L-lysine, represent better substrates, but, surprisingly, the enzyme most efficiently catalyses the N-acetylation of amino acids analogous with L-lysine. As determined by the kcat/Km values, the C. elegans N-acetyltransferase prefers thialysine [S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine], followed by O-(2-aminoethyl)-L-serine and S-(2-aminoethyl)-D,L-homocysteine. Reversed-phase HPLC and mass spectrometric analyses revealed that N-acetylation of L-lysine and L-thialysine occurs exclusively at the amino moiety of the side chain. Remarkably, heterologous expression of C. elegans N-acetyltransferase D2023.4 in Escherichia coli, which does not possess a homologous gene, results in a pronounced resistance against the anti-metabolite thialysine. Furthermore, C. elegans N-acetyltransferase D2023.4 exhibits the highest homology with a number of GNATs found in numerous genomes from bacteria to mammals that have not been biochemically characterized so far, suggesting a novel group of GNAT enzymes closely related to spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase, but with a distinct substrate specificity. Taken together, we propose to name the enzyme ‘thialysine Nε-acetyltransferase’. PMID:15283700

  12. H-2RIIBP, a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that binds to both the regulatory element of major histocompatibility class I genes and the estrogen response element.

    PubMed

    Hamada, K; Gleason, S L; Levi, B Z; Hirschfeld, S; Appella, E; Ozato, K

    1989-11-01

    Transcription of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes is regulated by the conserved MHC class I regulatory element (CRE). The CRE has two factor-binding sites, region I and region II, both of which elicit enhancer function. By screening a mouse lambda gt 11 library with the CRE as a probe, we isolated a cDNA clone that encodes a protein capable of binding to region II of the CRE. This protein, H-2RIIBP (H-2 region II binding protein), bound to the native region II sequence, but not to other MHC cis-acting sequences or to mutant region II sequences, similar to the naturally occurring region II factor in mouse cells. The deduced amino acid sequence of H-2RIIBP revealed two putative zinc fingers homologous to the DNA-binding domain of steroid/thyroid hormone receptors. Although sequence similarity in other regions was minimal, H-2RIIBP has apparent modular domains characteristic of the nuclear hormone receptors. Further analyses showed that both H-2RIIBP and the natural region II factor bind to the estrogen response element (ERE) of the vitellogenin A2 gene. The ERE is composed of a palindrome, and half of this palindrome resembles the region II binding site of the MHC CRE. These results indicate that H-2RIIBP (i) is a member of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors and (ii) may regulate not only MHC class I genes but also genes containing the ERE and related sequences. Sequences homologous to the H-2RIIBP gene are widely conserved in the animal kingdom. H-2RIIBP mRNA is expressed in many mouse tissues, in agreement with the distribution of the natural region II factor.

  13. An overview of the serpin superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ruby HP; Zhang, Qingwei; McGowan, Sheena; Buckle, Ashley M; Silverman, Gary A; Wong, Wilson; Rosado, Carlos J; Langendorf, Chris G; Pike, Rob N; Bird, Philip I; Whisstock, James C

    2006-01-01

    Serpins are a broadly distributed family of protease inhibitors that use a conformational change to inhibit target enzymes. They are central in controlling many important proteolytic cascades, including the mammalian coagulation pathways. Serpins are conformationally labile and many of the disease-linked mutations of serpins result in misfolding or in pathogenic, inactive polymers. PMID:16737556

  14. Mariner and the ITm Superfamily of Transposons.

    PubMed

    Tellier, Michael; Bouuaert, Corentin Claeys; Chalmers, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    The IS630-Tc1-mariner (ITm) family of transposons is one of the most widespread in nature. The phylogenetic distribution of its members shows that they do not persist for long in a given lineage, but rely on frequent horizontal transfer to new hosts. Although they are primarily selfish genomic-parasites, ITm transposons contribute to the evolution of their hosts because they generate variation and contribute protein domains and regulatory regions. Here we review the molecular mechanism of ITm transposition and its regulation. We focus mostly on the mariner elements, which are understood in the greatest detail owing to in vitro reconstitution and structural analysis. Nevertheless, the most important characteristics are probably shared across the grouping. Members of the ITm family are mobilized by a cut-and-paste mechanism and integrate at 5'-TA dinucleotide target sites. The elements encode a single transposase protein with an N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The phosphoryl-transferase reactions during the DNA-strand breaking and joining reactions are performed by the two metal-ion mechanism. The metal ions are coordinated by three or four acidic amino acid residues located within an RNase H-like structural fold. Although all of the strand breaking and joining events at a given transposon end are performed by a single molecule of transposase, the reaction is coordinated by close communication between transpososome components. During transpososome assembly, transposase dimers compete for free transposon ends. This helps to protect the host by dampening an otherwise exponential increase in the rate of transposition as the copy number increases.

  15. P-NITROPHENOL METABOLISM BY JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) LIVER MICROSOMES AND S-9 FRACTION: ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE FOR THE EXISTENCE OF A CYP2E1-LIKE ISOFORM IN TELEOSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liver microsomes and S-9 fraction of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) metabolized the CYP2E1 specific substrate, p-nitrophenol (PNP), to a single hydroxylated product, 4-nitrocatechol. The use of liver S-9 fraction proved to be a viable alternative to liver microsomes and allowe...

  16. The canonical methionine 392 of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (gelatinase A) is not required for catalytic efficiency or structural integrity: probing the role of the methionine-turn in the metzincin metalloprotease superfamily.

    PubMed

    Butler, Georgina S; Tam, Eric M; Overall, Christopher M

    2004-04-09

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are an important family of extracellular proteases that process a variety of biologically significant molecules. MMPs are members of the metzincin superfamily of >770 zinc endopeptidases, which includes astacins, serralysins, adamalysins, leishmanolysins, and snapalysins. Metzincins are characterized by an absolutely conserved methionine residue COOH-terminal to the third histidine in the consensus sequence HEXXHXXGXX(H/D), where the histidine residues chelate a catalytic zinc ion. The canonical methionine is part of a tight 1,4-beta-turn that loops the polypeptide chain beneath the catalytic zinc ion, forming a hydrophobic floor to the Zn(2+) ion binding site. The role of this methionine is uncertain, but its absolute conservation indicates an essential catalytic or structural function. To investigate this hypothesis, we replaced Met-392 that forms the Met-turn of human MMP-2 (gelatinase A) by site-directed mutagenesis. The catalytic competence of leucine and serine mutants was assessed. (M392L)MMP-2 and (M392S)MMP-2 cleaved the physiological substrates gelatin, native type I collagen, and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 with similar efficiency to wild-type MMP-2. These mutants also cleaved two quenched fluorescent peptide substrates with a k(cat)/K(m) comparable to wild-type MMP-2 and underwent 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate-induced autoactivation with similar kinetics. (M392L)MMP-2 and (M392S)MMP-2 were inhibited by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, -2, and -4 and by the zinc chelators 1,10-phenanthroline and a synthetic hydroxamate inhibitor, Batimastat, similar to the wild-type protein, indicating an unaltered active site topography. A tryptic susceptibility assay also suggested that (M392L)MMP-2 and (M392S)MMP-2 were correctly folded. These results challenge the dogma that this methionine residue and the Met-turn, which are absolutely conserved in all of the subfamilies of the metzincins, play an

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana NIP7;1: An Anther-Specific Boric Acid Transporter of the Aquaporin Superfamily Regulated by an Unusual Tyrosine in Helix 2 of the Transport Pore

    SciT

    Li, Tian; Choi, Won-Gyu; Baudry, Jerome Y

    Plant nodulin-26 intrinsic proteins (NIPs) are members of the aquaporin superfamily that serve as multifunctional transporters of uncharged metabolites. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a specific NIP pore subclass, known as the NIP II proteins, is represented by AtNIP5;1 and AtNIP6;1, which encode channel proteins expressed in roots and leaf nodes, respectively, that participate in the transport of the critical cell wall nutrient boric acid. Modeling of the protein encoded by the AtNIP7;1 gene shows that it is a third member of the NIP II pore subclass in Arabidopsis. However, unlike AtNIP5;1 and AtNIP6;1 proteins, which form constitutive boric acid channels, AtNIP7;1more » forms a channel with an extremely low intrinsic boric acid transport activity. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations of AtNIP7;1 suggest that a conserved tyrosine residue (Tyr81) located in transmembrane helix 2 adjacent to the aromatic arginine (ar/R) pore selectivity region stabilizes a closed pore conformation through interaction with the canonical Arg220 in ar/R region. Substitution of Tyr81 with a Cys residue, characteristic of established NIP boric acid channels, results in opening of the AtNIP7;1 pore that acquires a robust, transport activity for boric acid as well as other NIP II test solutes (glycerol and urea). Substitution of a Phe for Tyr81 also opens the channel, supporting the prediction from MD simulations that hydrogen bond interaction between the Tyr81 phenol group and the ar/R Arg may contribute to the stabilization of a closed pore state. Expression analyses show that AtNIP7;1 is selectively expressed in developing anther tissues of young floral buds of A. thaliana, principally in developing pollen grains of stage 9 11 anthers. Because boric acid is both an essential nutrient as well as a toxic compound at high concentrations, it is proposed that Tyr81 modulates transport and may provide an additional level of regulation for this transporter in male gametophyte

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana NIP7;1: an anther-specific boric acid transporter of the aquaporin superfamily regulated by an unusual tyrosine in helix 2 of the transport pore.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian; Choi, Won-Gyu; Wallace, Ian S; Baudry, Jerome; Roberts, Daniel M

    2011-08-09

    Plant nodulin-26 intrinsic proteins (NIPs) are members of the aquaporin superfamily that serve as multifunctional transporters of uncharged metabolites. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a specific NIP pore subclass, known as the NIP II proteins, is represented by AtNIP5;1 and AtNIP6;1, which encode channel proteins expressed in roots and leaf nodes, respectively, that participate in the transport of the critical cell wall nutrient boric acid. Modeling of the protein encoded by the AtNIP7;1 gene shows that it is a third member of the NIP II pore subclass in Arabidopsis. However, unlike AtNIP5;1 and AtNIP6;1 proteins, which form constitutive boric acid channels, AtNIP7;1 forms a channel with an extremely low intrinsic boric acid transport activity. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations of AtNIP7;1 suggest that a conserved tyrosine residue (Tyr81) located in transmembrane helix 2 adjacent to the aromatic arginine (ar/R) pore selectivity region stabilizes a closed pore conformation through interaction with the canonical Arg220 in ar/R region. Substitution of Tyr81 with a Cys residue, characteristic of established NIP boric acid channels, results in opening of the AtNIP7;1 pore that acquires a robust, transport activity for boric acid as well as other NIP II test solutes (glycerol and urea). Substitution of a Phe for Tyr81 also opens the channel, supporting the prediction from MD simulations that hydrogen bond interaction between the Tyr81 phenol group and the ar/R Arg may contribute to the stabilization of a closed pore state. Expression analyses show that AtNIP7;1 is selectively expressed in developing anther tissues of young floral buds of A. thaliana, principally in developing pollen grains of stage 9-11 anthers. Because boric acid is both an essential nutrient as well as a toxic compound at high concentrations, it is proposed that Tyr81 modulates transport and may provide an additional level of regulation for this transporter in male gametophyte development

  19. Dissecting protein loops with a statistical scalpel suggests a functional implication of some structural motifs.

    PubMed

    Regad, Leslie; Martin, Juliette; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2011-06-20

    One of the strategies for protein function annotation is to search particular structural motifs that are known to be shared by proteins with a given function. Here, we present a systematic extraction of structural motifs of seven residues from protein loops and we explore their correspondence with functional sites. Our approach is based on the structural alphabet HMM-SA (Hidden Markov Model - Structural Alphabet), which allows simplification of protein structures into uni-dimensional sequences, and advanced pattern statistics adapted to short sequences. Structural motifs of interest are selected by looking for structural motifs significantly over-represented in SCOP superfamilies in protein loops. We discovered two types of structural motifs significantly over-represented in SCOP superfamilies: (i) ubiquitous motifs, shared by several superfamilies and (ii) superfamily-specific motifs, over-represented in few superfamilies. A comparison of ubiquitous words with known small structural motifs shows that they contain well-described motifs as turn, niche or nest motifs. A comparison between superfamily-specific motifs and biological annotations of Swiss-Prot reveals that some of them actually correspond to functional sites involved in the binding sites of small ligands, such as ATP/GTP, NAD(P) and SAH/SAM. Our findings show that statistical over-representation in SCOP superfamilies is linked to functional features. The detection of over-represented motifs within structures simplified by HMM-SA is therefore a promising approach for prediction of functional sites and annotation of uncharacterized proteins.

  20. Dissecting protein loops with a statistical scalpel suggests a functional implication of some structural motifs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the strategies for protein function annotation is to search particular structural motifs that are known to be shared by proteins with a given function. Results Here, we present a systematic extraction of structural motifs of seven residues from protein loops and we explore their correspondence with functional sites. Our approach is based on the structural alphabet HMM-SA (Hidden Markov Model - Structural Alphabet), which allows simplification of protein structures into uni-dimensional sequences, and advanced pattern statistics adapted to short sequences. Structural motifs of interest are selected by looking for structural motifs significantly over-represented in SCOP superfamilies in protein loops. We discovered two types of structural motifs significantly over-represented in SCOP superfamilies: (i) ubiquitous motifs, shared by several superfamilies and (ii) superfamily-specific motifs, over-represented in few superfamilies. A comparison of ubiquitous words with known small structural motifs shows that they contain well-described motifs as turn, niche or nest motifs. A comparison between superfamily-specific motifs and biological annotations of Swiss-Prot reveals that some of them actually correspond to functional sites involved in the binding sites of small ligands, such as ATP/GTP, NAD(P) and SAH/SAM. Conclusions Our findings show that statistical over-representation in SCOP superfamilies is linked to functional features. The detection of over-represented motifs within structures simplified by HMM-SA is therefore a promising approach for prediction of functional sites and annotation of uncharacterized proteins. PMID:21689388

  1. Epigenetics: ambiguities and implications.

    PubMed

    Stotz, Karola; Griffiths, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Everyone has heard of 'epigenetics', but the term means different things to different researchers. Four important contemporary meanings are outlined in this paper. Epigenetics in its various senses has implications for development, heredity, and evolution, and also for medicine. Concerning development, it cements the vision of a reactive genome strongly coupled to its environment. Concerning heredity, both narrowly epigenetic and broader 'exogenetic' systems of inheritance play important roles in the construction of phenotypes. A thoroughly epigenetic model of development and evolution was Waddington's aim when he introduced the term 'epigenetics' in the 1940s, but it has taken the modern development of molecular epigenetics to realize this aim. In the final sections of the paper we briefly outline some further implications of epigenetics for medicine and for the nature/nurture debate.

  2. Gene Expression Analysis Implicates a Death Receptor Pathway in Schizophrenia Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Catts, Vibeke Sørensen; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    An increase in apoptotic events may underlie neuropathology in schizophrenia. By data-mining approaches, we identified significant expression changes in death receptor signaling pathways in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of patients with schizophrenia, particularly implicating the Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily member 6 (FAS) receptor and the Tumor Necrosis Factor [ligand] Superfamily member 13 (TNFSF13) in schizophrenia. We sought to confirm and replicate in an independent tissue collection the noted mRNA changes with quantitative real-time RT-PCR. To test for regional and diagnostic specificity, tissue from orbital frontal cortex (OFC) was examined and a bipolar disorder group included. In schizophrenia, we confirmed and replicated significantly increased expression of TNFSF13 mRNA in the DLPFC. Also, a significantly larger proportion of subjects in the schizophrenia group had elevated FAS receptor expression in the DLPFC relative to unaffected controls. These changes were not observed in the bipolar disorder group. In the OFC, there were no significant differences in TNFSF13 or FAS receptor mRNA expression. Decreases in BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID) mRNA transcript levels were found in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder groups affecting both the DLPFC and the OFC. We tested if TNFSF13 mRNA expression correlated with neuronal mRNAs in the DLPFC, and found significant negative correlations with interneuron markers, parvalbumin and somatostatin, and a positive correlation with PPP1R9B (spinophilin), but not DLG4 (PSD-95). The expression of TNFSF13 mRNA in DLPFC correlated negatively with tissue pH, but decreasing pH in cultured cells did not cause increased TNFSF13 mRNA nor did exogenous TNFSF13 decrease pH. We concluded that increased TNFSF13 expression may be one of several cell-death cytokine abnormalities that contribute to the observed brain pathology in schizophrenia, and while increased TNFSF13 may be associated with lower

  3. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  4. Implications of antisocial parents.

    PubMed

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  5. Structuralism and Its Heuristic Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Ruth M.

    1984-01-01

    The author defines structuralism (a method for modeling and analyzing event systems in a space-time framework), traces its origins to the work of J. Piaget and M. Fourcault, and discusses its implications for learning. (CL)

  6. The Management Implications of Appil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodey, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Physics Project for Independent Learning (Appil) consists of 10 units based on three themes, namely, materials, forces and fields, and waves. Discusses the content and aims of the project, its emphasis on student-centered learning, managerial advantages, characteristics of the teacher's role, resource implications, and other topics.…

  7. WATER IMPLICATIONS OF BIOFUELS PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation requested by the National Academy of Science (NAS) for a Colloquium on Water Quality Implications of Biofuels Production, to be held at the NAS in Washington, D.C. on July 12, 2007. This presentation will address the influence of ethanol on hydrocarbon plumes and th...

  8. Astrosociological Implications of Astrobiology (Revisited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pass, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Supporters of astrobiology continue to organize the field around formalized associations and organizations under the guise of the so-called ``hard'' sciences (e.g., biology and the related physical/natural sciences). The so-called ``soft'' sciences-including sociology and the other social sciences, the behavioral sciences, and the humanities-remain largely separated from this dynamically growing field. However, as argued in this paper, space exploration involving the search for extraterrestrial life should be viewed as consisting of two interrelated parts (i.e., two sides of the same coin): astrobiology and astrosociology. Together, these two fields broadly combine the two major branches of science as they relate to the relationship between human life and alien life, as appropriate. Moreover, with a formalized system of collaboration, these two complimentary fields would also focus on the implications of their research to human beings as well as their cultures and social structures. By placing the astrosociological implications of astrobiology at a high enough priority, scientists interested in the search for alien life can augment their focus to include the social, cultural, and behavioral implications that were always associated with their work (yet previously overlooked or understated, and too often misunderstood). Recognition of the astrosociological implications expands our perception about alien life by creating a new emphasis on their ramifications to human life on Earth.

  9. Social Implications of Biological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobman, Arnold B.

    Political and social implications of biological research, with particular reference to consequences for education, are discussed in this collection of papers presented at the 1969 convention of the National Association of Biology Teachers. Commentary papers by a panel of three, including at least one high school biology teacher and one expert in…

  10. Safety implications from design exceptions.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to: a) summarize past design exceptions to document their frequency and reason for their use and b) determine if any adverse safety implications can be related to adopting design policies and practices related to des...

  11. Military Implications of Global Warming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-20

    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  12. Cultural Diversity: Implications for Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairrels, Veda

    1999-01-01

    Explores the implications of an increasingly diverse school population for the process of teacher collaboration. Focuses on the competencies for collaboration as pertinent to diverse exceptional learners, the role of the special education teacher, and the concept of collaboration across disciplines. (Author/CR)

  13. Policy Implications of Education Informatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Jo Ann; O'Brien, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: This concluding article identifies the policy implications of education informatics and explores impacts of current copyright laws, legislative structures, publishing practices, and education organizations. Synthesizing the discussions in the preceding articles, this article highlights the importance of designing information…

  14. Implications of a Moral Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Robert E.

    A research memorandum presents the results of an on-going study into the implications of a moral science. Adopting a moral stance in scientific investigation would entail the abandonment of analytic modes of inquiry for more holistic, open-ended ones. The basic premise of a moral science is that it is possible for men to reach agreement on what is…

  15. OSHA: Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Presented in this document are several articles concerning recommendations about the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) and its implications for higher education. It is time for an educated look at facilities and programs and the beginning of plans which, in the long run, will bring colleges and universities into compliance with…

  16. Railroad cost conditions : implications for policy

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-05-10

    This report, which is posted on the FRA homepage, includes a simplified framework for examining the welfare implications of railroad mergers and competition. It examines the cost implications of mergers and competition over existing rail lines by tes...

  17. Healthcare rationing: issues and implications.

    PubMed

    Cypher, D P

    1997-01-01

    What methods, if any, should be used to practice healthcare rationing? This article looks at healthcare rationing in the United States, identifies ethical issues associated with implementing healthcare rationing, and addresses legal implications. The author utilizes sources from published literature and her own experience. Society must recognize that it does not have the resources available to fulfill all healthcare needs of all its members. Resolution will bring conflict and compromise.

  18. Head capsule characters in the Hymenoptera and their phylogenetic implications

    PubMed Central

    Vilhelmsen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The head capsule of a taxon sample of three outgroup and 86 ingroup taxa is examined for characters of possible phylogenetic significance within Hymenoptera. 21 morphological characters are illustrated and scored, and their character evolution explored by mapping them onto a phylogeny recently produced from a large morphological data set. Many of the characters are informative and display unambiguous changes. Most of the character support demonstrated is supportive at the superfamily or family level. In contrast, only few characters corroborate deeper nodes in the phylogeny of Hymenoptera. PMID:22259288

  19. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  20. Phospho-control of TGF-β superfamily signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wrighton, Katharine H; Lin, Xia; Feng, Xin-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family control a broad range of cellular responses in metazoan organisms via autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine modes. Thus, aberrant TGF-β signaling can play a key role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. TGF-β signaling pathways are activated by a short phospho-cascade, from receptor phosphorylation to the subsequent phosphorylation and activation of downstream signal transducers called R-Smads. R-Smad phosphorylation state determines Smad complex assembly/disassembly, nuclear import/export, transcriptional activity and stability, and is thus the most critical event in TGF-β signaling. Dephosphorylation of R-Smads by specific phosphatases prevents or terminates TGF-β signaling, highlighting the need to consider Smad (de)phosphorylation as a tightly controlled and dynamic event. This article illustrates the essential roles of reversible phosphorylation in controlling the strength and duration of TGF-β signaling and the ensuing physiological responses. PMID:19114991

  1. On the Origin of Protein Superfamilies and Superfolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magner, Abram; Szpankowski, Wojciech; Kihara, Daisuke

    2015-02-01

    Distributions of protein families and folds in genomes are highly skewed, having a small number of prevalent superfamiles/superfolds and a large number of families/folds of a small size. Why are the distributions of protein families and folds skewed? Why are there only a limited number of protein families? Here, we employ an information theoretic approach to investigate the protein sequence-structure relationship that leads to the skewed distributions. We consider that protein sequences and folds constitute an information theoretic channel and computed the most efficient distribution of sequences that code all protein folds. The identified distributions of sequences and folds are found to follow a power law, consistent with those observed for proteins in nature. Importantly, the skewed distributions of sequences and folds are suggested to have different origins: the skewed distribution of sequences is due to evolutionary pressure to achieve efficient coding of necessary folds, whereas that of folds is based on the thermodynamic stability of folds. The current study provides a new information theoretic framework for proteins that could be widely applied for understanding protein sequences, structures, functions, and interactions.

  2. Conflict management: importance and implications.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Laurie

    2017-01-26

    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  3. Cosmological Implications of Electroweak Monopole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. M.

    2018-01-01

    In this talk we review the basic features of the electroweak monopole, and estimate the remnant electroweak monopole density of the standard model in the present universe. We show that, although the electroweak phase transition is of the first order, the monopole production comes from the thermal fluctuations of the Higgs field after the phase transition, not the vacuum bubble collisions during the phase transition. Moreover, most of the monopoles produced initially are annihilated as soon as created, and this annihilation continues very long time, longer than the muon pair annihilation time. As the result the remnant monopole density at present universe becomes very small, of 10-11 of the critical density, too small to be the dark matter. We discuss the physical implications of our results on the ongoing monopole detection experiments.

  4. Higher Education for Everybody? Issues and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    The theme of the 1970 Annual Meeting of the American Council of Education was "Higher Education for Everybody? Issues and Implications." The papers in this volume address themselves to the question of universal higher education and to the implications of this goal on institutional goals and practices as these relate to a student population that…

  5. Nanotechnology Environmental and Health Implications (NEHI) | Nano

    Communities Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues Ethical, Legal, and Societal Issues Federal Legislation Event Past Events Nanotechnology Environmental and Health Implications (NEHI) Related Resources Visit Health Implications working group of the Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (NSET

  6. The Microchip Revolution: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Michele Geslin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses positive and negative implications of microcomputer technology for teachers and students; how this technology will facilitate barrier breakdown between school and society; possible political implications; and how the principles of anticipation, design, and planning will facilitate a smooth transitional course in school and society. (MBR)

  7. Mining TCGA Data Using Boolean Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Subarna; Tsang, Emily K.; Zeng, Haoyang; Meister, Michela; Dill, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Boolean implications (if-then rules) provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression) from the glioblastoma (GBM) and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV) data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at http://crookneck.stanford.edu/microarray/TCGANetworks/. PMID:25054200

  8. Fosphenytoin. Pharmacoeconomic implications of therapy.

    PubMed

    Holliday, S M; Benfield, P; Plosker, G L

    1998-12-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of Fosphenytoin. Advantages. More rapid intravenous administration than phenytoin and no need for an in-line filter. May be administered by intramuscular injection. Lower potential for local tissue and cardiac toxicity than phenytoin. Associated with less pain and phlebitis at the injection site, fewer reductions in infusion rate and fewer changes of administration site because of injection site complications than phenytoin. Benefits in terms of ease of administration and improved tolerability vs phenytoin have pharmacoeconomic implications which may translate into an overall cost advantage. Disadvantages. Approximately 10-fold higher acquisition cost vs phenytoin. Fosphenytoin is a parenterally administered prodrug of phenytoin, used in the treatment of patients with seizures. Advantages of fosphenytoin over phenytoin include more rapid intravenous administration, no need for an intravenous filter, and a lower potential for local tissue and cardiac toxicity. Unlike phenytoin, fosphenytoin may also be administered by intramuscular injection. Pharmacoeconomic data from a small study of patients with acute seizures in a US emergency department showed an overall cost advantage of fosphenytoin over phenytoin, despite a considerably greater acquisition cost of fosphenytoin. The main cost drivers for phenytoin therapy were treatment costs associated with adverse events. In view of the limited pharmacoeconomic data currently available, it is in the interests of individual institutions to conduct their own formal pharmacoeconomic studies applying local cost data and patterns of clinical practise to determine whether fosphenytoin should replace phenytoin on their formularly list.

  9. Implications of human tissue studies

    SciT

    Kathren, R.L.

    1986-10-01

    Through radiochemical analysis of voluntary tissue donations, the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries are gaining improved understanding of the distribution and biokinetics of actinide elements in occupationally exposed persons. Evaluation of the first two whole body contributions to the Transuranium Registry revealed an inverse proportionality between actinide concentration and bone ash fraction. The analysis of a whole body with a documented /sup 241/Am deposition indicated a significantly shorter half-time in liver and a greater fraction resident in the skeleton than predicted by existing models. Other studies of the Registries are designed to evaluate in vivo estimates of actinide depositionmore » with those derived from postmortem tissue analysis, compare results of animal experiments with human data, and reviw histopathologic slides for tissue toxicity that might be attributable to exposure to uranium and the transuranic elements. The implications of these recent findings and other work of the Registries are discussed from the standpoint of their potential impact on biokinetic modeling, internal dose assessment, safety standards, and operational health physics practices.« less

  10. Trace elements: implications for nursing.

    PubMed

    Hayter, J

    1980-01-01

    Although most were unknown a few years ago, present evidence indicates that at least 25 trace elements have some pertinence to health. Unlike vitamins, they cannot be synthesized. Some trace elements are now considered important only because of their harmful effects but traces of them may be essential. Zinc is especially important during puberty, pregnancy and menopause and is related to protein metabolism. Both fluoride and cadmium accumulate in the body year after year. Cadmium is positively correlated with several chronic diseases, especially hypertension. It is obtained from smoking and drinking soft water. Silicon, generally associated with silicosis, may be necessary for healthy bone and connective tissue. Chromium, believed to be the glucose tolerance factor, is obtained from brewer's yeast, spices, and whole wheat products. Copper deficiency may be implicated in a wide range of cardiovascular and blood related disorders. Either marginal deficiencies or slight excesses of most trace elements are harmful. Nurses should instruct patients to avoid highly refined foods, fad diets, or synthetic and fabricated foods. A well balanced and varied diet is the best safeguard against trace element excesses or deficiencies.

  11. Green buildings: Implications for acousticians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    This presentation will deal with the practical implications of green design protocols of the US Green Building Council on interior acoustics of buildings. Three areas of particular consequence to acousticians will be discussed. Ventilation Systems: reduced energy consumption goals dictate reliance on natural cooling and ventilation using ambient air when possible. The consequent large openings in the building envelope to bring fresh air into rooms, and similar sized openings to transfer the mixed air out, can severely compromise the noise isolation of the rooms concerned. Radiant Cooling: the heavy concrete floors of buildings can be used as a thermal flywheel to lessen the cooling load, which forces the concrete ceilings to be exposed to the occupied rooms for heat transfer, and strictly limits the application of acoustical absorption on the ceilings. This challenges the room acoustics design. Green Materials: the LEED protocols require the elimination of potentially harmful finishes, including fibrous materials which may impact air quality or contribute to health problems. Since the backbone of sound absorption is glass and mineral fibres, this further challenges provision of superior room acoustics. Examples and commentary will be provided based on current and recent projects.

  12. Geometric Implications of Maxwell's Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Felix T.

    2015-03-01

    Maxwell's synthesis of the varied results of the accumulated knowledge of electricity and magnetism, based largely on the searching insights of Faraday, still provide new issues to explore. A case in point is a well recognized anomaly in the Maxwell equations: The laws of electricity and magnetism require two 3-vector and two scalar equations, but only six dependent variables are available to be their solutions, the 3-vectors E and B. This leaves an apparent redundancy of two degrees of freedom (J. Rosen, AJP 48, 1071 (1980); Jiang, Wu, Povinelli, J. Comp. Phys. 125, 104 (1996)). The observed self-consistency of the eight equations suggests that they contain additional information. This can be sought as a previously unnoticed constraint connecting the space and time variables, r and t. This constraint can be identified. It distorts the otherwise Euclidean 3-space of r with the extremely slight, time dependent curvature k (t) =Rcurv-2 (t) of the 3-space of a hypersphere whose radius has the time dependence dRcurv / dt = +/- c nonrelativistically, or dRcurvLor / dt = +/- ic relativistically. The time dependence is exactly that of the Hubble expansion. Implications of this identification will be explored.

  13. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-04-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  14. Personal Narratives: Cultural Differences and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Lynn S.; McCabe, Allyssa

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the misdiagnosis of cultural difference deficits and how mistaking deficits in narrative production for cultural differences can be avoided. Findings reveal the implications for intervention.

  15. A behaviorological thanatology: Foundations and implications

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1998-01-01

    Foundation principles supporting a behaviorological thanatology are reviewed, including concepts of life, person, death, value, right, ethic, and body/person distinctions. These natural science foundations are contrasted with traditional foundations, and their respective implications are speculatively explored. PMID:22478293

  16. Travel and environmental implications of school siting.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-10-01

    Over the next few decades, thousands of schools will be built : or renovated. : The planning decisions : around that construction and renovation will have important implications for education and community quality of : life. : Recent trends in travel...

  17. Epistemological and Treatment Implications of Nonlinear Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, A. H.

    The treatment implications of understanding mind as solely epiphenomenal to nonlinearly founded neurobiology are discussed. G. Klimovsky's epistemological understanding of psychoanalysis as a science is rejected and treatment approaches integrating W. R. Bion's and D. W. Winnicott's work are supported.

  18. Neurosurgical implications of Carney complex.

    PubMed

    Watson, J C; Stratakis, C A; Bryant-Greenwood, P K; Koch, C A; Kirschner, L S; Nguyen, T; Carney, J A; Oldfield, E H

    2000-03-01

    The authors present their neurosurgical experience with Carney complex. Carney complex, characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, cardiac myxomas, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, pituitary tumors, and nerve sheath tumors (NSTs), is a recently described, rare, autosomal-dominant familial syndrome that is relatively unknown to neurosurgeons. Neurosurgery is required to treat pituitary adenomas and a rare NST, the psammomatous melanotic schwannoma (PMS), in patients with Carney complex. Cushing's syndrome, a common component of the complex, is caused by primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease and is not secondary to an adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. The authors reviewed 14 cases of Carney complex, five from the literature and nine from their own experience. Of the 14 pituitary adenomas recognized in association with Carney complex, 12 developed growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion (producing gigantism in two patients and acromegaly in 10), and results of immunohistochemical studies in one of the other two were positive for GH. The association of PMSs with Carney complex was established in 1990. Of the reported tumors, 28% were associated with spinal nerve sheaths. The spinal tumors occurred in adults (mean age 32 years, range 18-49 years) who presented with pain and radiculopathy. These NSTs may be malignant (10%) and, as with the cardiac myxomas, are associated with significant rates of morbidity and mortality. Because of the surgical comorbidity associated with cardiac myxoma and/or Cushing's syndrome, recognition of Carney complex has important implications for perisurgical patient management and family screening. Study of the genetics of Carney complex and of the biological abnormalities associated with the tumors may provide insight into the general pathobiological abnormalities associated with the tumors may provide insight into the general pathobiological features of pituitary adenomas and NSTs.

  19. Vague Congruences and Quotient Lattice Implication Algebras

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to further develop the congruence theory on lattice implication algebras. Firstly, we introduce the notions of vague similarity relations based on vague relations and vague congruence relations. Secondly, the equivalent characterizations of vague congruence relations are investigated. Thirdly, the relation between the set of vague filters and the set of vague congruences is studied. Finally, we construct a new lattice implication algebra induced by a vague congruence, and the homomorphism theorem is given. PMID:25133207

  20. Regulation of the ATPase activity of ABCE1 from Pyrococcus abyssi by Fe-S cluster status and Mg²⁺: implication for ribosomal function.

    PubMed

    Sims, Lynn M; Igarashi, Robert Y

    2012-08-15

    Ribosomal function is dependent on multiple proteins. The ABCE1 ATPase, a unique ABC superfamily member that bears two Fe₄S₄ clusters, is crucial for ribosomal biogenesis and recycling. Here, the ATPase activity of the Pyrococcus abyssi ABCE1 (PabABCE1) was studied using both apo- (without reconstituted Fe-S clusters) and holo- (with full complement of Fe-S clusters reconstituted post-purification) forms, and is shown to be jointly regulated by the status of Fe-S clusters and Mg²⁺. Typically ATPases require Mg²⁺, as is true for PabABCE1, but Mg²⁺ also acts as a negative allosteric effector that modulates ATP affinity of PabABCE1. Physiological [Mg²⁺] inhibits the PabABCE1 ATPase (K(i) of ∼1 μM) for both apo- and holo-PabABCE1. Comparative kinetic analysis of Mg²⁺ inhibition shows differences in degree of allosteric regulation between the apo- and holo-PabABCE1 where the apparent ATP K(m) of apo-PabABCE1 increases >30-fold from ∼30 μM to over 1 mM with M²⁺. This effect would significantly convert the ATPase activity of PabABCE1 from being independent of cellular energy charge (φ) to being dependent on φ with cellular [Mg²⁺]. These findings uncover intricate overlapping effects by both [Mg²⁺] and the status of Fe-S clusters that regulate ABCE1's ATPase activity with implications to ribosomal function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nursing implications of personalized and precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Hammer, Marilyn J; Dungan, Jennifer R

    2014-05-01

    Identify and discuss the nursing implications of personalized and precision oncology care. PubMed, CINAHL. The implications in personalized and precision cancer nursing care include interpretation and clinical use of novel and personalized information including genetic testing; patient advocacy and support throughout testing, anticipation of results and treatment; ongoing chronic monitoring; and support for patient decision-making. Attention must also be given to the family and ethical implications of a personalized approach to care. Nurses face increasing challenges and opportunities in communication, support, and advocacy for patients given the availability of advanced testing, care and treatment in personalized and precision medicine. Nursing education and continuing education, clinical decision support, and health systems changes will be necessary to provide personalized multidisciplinary care to patients, in which nurses play a key role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Forecasting continuously increasing life expectancy: what implications?

    PubMed

    Le Bourg, Eric

    2012-04-01

    It has been proposed that life expectancy could linearly increase in the next decades and that median longevity of the youngest birth cohorts could reach 105 years or more. These forecasts have been criticized but it seems that their implications for future maximal lifespan (i.e. the lifespan of the last survivors) have not been considered. These implications make these forecasts untenable and it is less risky to hypothesize that life expectancy and maximal lifespan will reach an asymptotic limit in some decades from now. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Counseling: Implications for Community Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenhorn, Nancy; Lawson, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Special issue of the "Journal of Health Psychology" (Vol. 7, No. 2, 2002) was reviewed. Articles covered a variety of qualitative studies conducted using an interpretive phenomenological analysis method to examine the interviews with people who had received genetic testing and counseling. Implications for the broader counseling field…

  4. Feminist Developmental Theory: Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wastell, Colin A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the importance of counseling guided by a life-span development model. Emphasizes that one popular theory should be modified by taking into account a broader understanding of life-span development in terms of commonalities and differences in male and female development. Examines implications with borderline personality disorder and…

  5. Implications for Veterinary Medical Education: Postprofessional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahrs, Robert F.

    1980-01-01

    Concern about delivery of veterinary medical services to animal agriculture and implications for postprofessional veterinary medical education are discussed. The individual needs and goals of livestock producers, practicing veterinarians, and veterinary academicians are so varied that actual delivery of veterinary medical services is difficult to…

  6. Technology in Education: Implications and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellner, Ronald D., Ed.; And Others

    Nine of the 15 papers in this collection consider the current uses of technology in education and the implications of this use; the six remaining papers focus on applications of technology in education. The papers are: (1) "A Qualitative Synthesis of Pictorial Complexity on Learner Achievement" (Jay Angert, Jon Denton, and Francis Clark); (2)…

  7. Instructional Implications of Inquiry in Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David

    A contract deliverable on the NIE Communication Skills Project, this report consists of three separate documents describing the instructional implications of the analytic and empirical work carried out for the "Classroom Instruction in Reading Comprehension" part of the project: (1) Guidelines for Phrasal Segmentation; (2) Parsing Tasks…

  8. Implicational Schemata and the Attribution of Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Glenn D.; Spores, John M.

    Attribution of a disposition or trait to a person asserts information about the pattern of that person's behavior. Past research has suggested that a moral disposition implies only moral behavior, while an immoral disposition implies both moral and immoral behavior. The effect of these implicational schemata on attributions of morality was…

  9. Global Implications of Great Lakes Wildlife Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colborn, Theo

    1991-01-01

    Data on the health of wildlife in the Great Lakes ecosystem are reviewed. Researchers infer from data on eight species that the effects in offspring are the result of exposure to chlorinated chemicals by adults and passed to the offspring via maternal transfer. Policy implications are discussed. (CW)

  10. Access to Federal Information: Trends and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Suzanne; Jamison, Carolyn

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of growing trend toward contracting out government printing to private sector highlights Government Printing Office duties, commercial publications, competition from National Technical Information Service, Ronald Reagan's moratorium on publication, use of microfiche, and implications of changes in government printing and distribution…

  11. Feedback: Implications for Further Research and Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishikawa, Sue S.

    This report reviews current literature on feedback and suggests practical implications of feedback research for educators. A definition of feedback is offered, and past definitions in prior research are noted. An analysis of the current state of knowledge of feedback discusses the historical development of feedback theory and suggests that…

  12. Understanding predation: implications toward forest management

    Harvey R. Smith

    1991-01-01

    It is generally accepted that when gypsy moths rest in the litter survival is low due to predation by ground-foraging generalist predators and that predation can maintain these populations indefinitely. Forest Service research on predators of gypsy moth continues to focus on population dynamics, the mechanisms of predation and forest management implications.

  13. Ritalin Update: Implications for Reading Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Robert B., Jr.; Werner, Patrice Holden

    1987-01-01

    Investigates how Ritalin, a powerful stimulant drug frequently prescribed for children exhibiting hyperactive behavior, poor attention span, and/or distractibility, is prescribed for children in educational settings, what doses seem appropriate, and what effect Ritalin has on reading achievement. Discusses the implications of Ritalin research for…

  14. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  15. Total Quality Management: Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.; Julius, Daniel J., Ed.

    This book contains 19 papers describing the implementation of Total Quality Management in a variety of higher education settings. Following a Foreword by Peter Likins and a Preface by Daniel J. Julius, the chapter titles and authors are: (1) "TQM: Implications for Higher Education--A Look Back to the Future" (Allan M. Hoffman and Randall…

  16. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchey, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

  17. Total Quality Management: Implications for Educational Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Stuart C.

    1992-01-01

    Deming's "System of Profound Knowledge" is even more fundamental than his 14-principle system transformation guide and is based on 4 elements: systems theory, statistical variation, a theory of knowledge, and psychology. Management should revamp total system processes so that quality of product is continually improved. Implications for…

  18. Solar variability: Implications for global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lean, Judith; Rind, David

    1994-01-01

    Solar variability is examined in search of implications for global change. The topics covered include the following: solar variation modification of global surface temperature; the significance of solar variability with respect to future climate change; and methods of reducing the uncertainty of the potential amplitude of solar variability on longer time scales.

  19. Demographics of Aging: Implications for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betourney, William

    Through a series of four successfully field-tested activities, secondary students examine the changing age structure of the U.S. population and consider some of the implications for the future as the proportion of elders increases and the proportion of youth declines. In the first activity "Age/Sex Pyramids," students use population…

  20. Medical implications of employee assistance programmes.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, G G; Doyle, Y; Grange, C

    1999-04-01

    The development of employee assistance programmes (EAPs) has significant implications for doctors, especially general practitioners and psychiatrists. This paper discusses the importance of training counsellors to detect serious psychological disorders among people who use an EAP service and the need for clinicians to accept referrals of those users who are identified as being in need of further medical treatment.

  1. Ethical Implications of Digital Imaging in Photojournalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Danal; Lasorsa, Dominic L.

    Arguing that the news media are about to adopt digital imaging systems that will have far-reaching implications for the practice of journalism, this paper discusses how the news media is expected to adopt the new technology and explains why the marriage of journalism and digital imaging will create ethical issues with respect to photo manipulation…

  2. Pedagogical Implications on Medical Students' Linguistic Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Yanling

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an extended teaching implication is performed based on the study of medical students' linguistic needs in Tawian (Hwang, Lin, 2010). The aims of previous study were to provide a description of the linguistic needs and perceptions of medical students and faculty members in Taiwan. However, this paper put more thoughts on the…

  3. Information Technology Monopolies: Implications for Library Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Marina I.

    1998-01-01

    Explores library-related implications of the U.S. Department of Justice's investigations into the operations of Microsoft and Intel and suggests that developing a broader understanding of information technology marketing is crucial to the short- and long-term future of libraries. (MES)

  4. Satellite Power System (SPS) military implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    The military implications of the reference satellite power system (SPS) were examined is well as important military related study tasks. Primary areas of investigation were the potential of the SPS as a weapon, for supporting U.S. military preparedness, and for affecting international relations. In addition, the SPS's relative vulnerability to overt military action, terrorist attacks, and sabotage was considered.

  5. Implications of the behavioral approach to hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Starker, S

    1975-07-01

    The findings of behaviorally oriented research regarding the importance of cognitive-motivational variables in hypnosis are examined and some clinical and theoretical implications are explored. Hypnosis seems usefully conceptualized as a complex configuration or gestalt of interacting variables on several different levels, for example, cognitive, motivational, social, physiologic.

  6. Understanding Student Article Retrieval Behaviors: Instructional Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine P.; Dutt-Doner, Karen; Schoen, David

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of full-text databases amongst 425 undergraduate and graduate students in western New York. A review of literature implicated convenience, time issues, article retrieval option knowledge, and the appreciation and understanding of research article quality as potential predictors of full-text reliance. These variables…

  7. Childhood Obesity: Implications for Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heston, Melissa L.

    1983-01-01

    Physical education teachers can help obese children develop effective movement patterns while encouraging an active lifestyle. Teachers should be familiar with: (1) the impact of obesity on children's physical and mental health; (2) the importance of exercise for weight control; and (3) implications for the physical education program. (PP)

  8. Unconventional eating practices and their health implications.

    PubMed

    Hanning, R M; Zlotkin, S H

    1985-04-01

    The authors discuss a number of unconventional or faddist foods and eating practices and their health implications. Among the topics included are vegetarianism, Zen macrobiotic diets, fast foods, junk foods, megavitamins and their toxicity, health foods, fad diets in infancy, and elimination diets.

  9. Racial Storylines and Implications for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasir, N. S.; Snyder, C. R.; Shah, N.; Ross, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we theorize the relation between race and schooling and consider the implications for learning. While the body of research on culture and learning has come to define learning as an inherently cultural and social process, scholars have few theoretical tools to help us think about the role of race and racism in relation to students'…

  10. Tiered Pricing: Implications for Library Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Karla

    2005-01-01

    In recent years an increasing number of publishers have adopted tiered pricing of journals. The design and implications of tiered-pricing models, however, are poorly understood. Tiered pricing can be modeled using several variables. A survey of current tiered-pricing models documents the range of key variables used. A sensitivity analysis…

  11. Action Implications in Adult Basic Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    Eight articles on adult basic education are presented. The articles adapted from 1971 workshop presentations are: Action Implications for ABE Directors by Alan Knox; ABE Budget Development, by Donald G. Butcher; Competent ABE Instructors, by William D. Dowling; Interview Techniques and Training, by Norman Kagan; Reading: The Basic in Adult Basic…

  12. Federal Tax Implications of Charitable Gift Annuities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitell, Conrad

    1975-01-01

    Surveys the federal tax implications of "immediate" charitable gift annuities (annuity payments beginning within one year of transfer) and "deferred payment" charitable gift annuities (beginning at a specified date), both of which enable individuals to make a charitable gift, retain a form of life income, and achieve federal…

  13. The CHARGE Association: Implications for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas W.; Dunne, Michele T.

    1988-01-01

    CHARGE association is described as a diagnostic label for a group of congenital malformations, including coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae, retarded postnatal growth/central nervous system defects, genital hypoplasia, and ear deformities. Etiology and characteristics of the CHARGE association are discussed, along with implications for…

  14. Play and the Young Child: Musical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Tim

    After noting the near-universal presence of rhythmic response in play in all cultures, this paper looks first at the historical development of theories of play, and then examines current theories of play and their implications in the teaching of music to young children. The first section reviews 19th and early 20th century theories of play,…

  15. Implications of Telecommuting in a Library Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meglio, Delores

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of telecommuting possibilities focuses on a program at Information Access Company that allows indexers and abstractors to work at home. Employer and employee expectations are discussed, equipment provisions are described, employee benefits are examined, and implications for the library environment are suggested. (LRW)

  16. Implications of Shifting Technology in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Janet; Holland, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the implications of shifting technology trends by looking at what we've lost or are losing, where we are, and where we need to go for making the needed transitions in knowledge and skills. Areas of growth within new media and the tech industry are good indicators of our growing interests in mobility, improved quality,…

  17. People and Technology Today: Some Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Sedano, Alfredo; Paris, Ana Costa; Mut, Maite Dassoy

    2011-01-01

    The present article approaches some of the educational implications borne by humanity with technological progress. We begin by pointing out significant data that classify what is considered relevant. Then, confronting the future is discussed by analyzing the attitudes necessary to promote the goals. Confronted with these challenges, three possible…

  18. Educational Implications of Microelectronics and Microprocessors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, N. D. C., Ed.

    This conference report explores microelectronic technology, its effect on educational methods and objectives, and its implications for educator responsibilities. Two main areas were considered: the significance of the likely impact of the large scale introduction of microprocessors and microelectronics on commercial and industrial processes, the…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Research Review and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesbach, Linda Sue; Polloway, Edward A.

    Research on fetal alcohol syndrome is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the implications of the syndrome for the development of mental retardation and other handicapping conditions. Attention is given to historical aspects; epidemiology; physiological and behavioral characteristics; and concerns related to diagnosis, prevention, and…

  20. Subtleties of Hidden Quantifiers in Implication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical conjectures and theorems are most often of the form P(x) ? Q(x), meaning ?x,P(x) ? Q(x). The hidden quantifier ?x is crucial in understanding the implication as a statement with a truth value. Here P(x) and Q(x) alone are only predicates, without truth values, since they contain unquantified variables. But standard textbook…

  1. Customer Service: Implications for Reference Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1995-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increasing emphasis on customer service in business research and management. Two concepts in understanding business customer service practices are discussed: the service encounter and total quality management. Highlights include customer service research and practices in business; implications for library reference…

  2. CATV and Its Implications for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomassen, Cora E., Ed.

    The theme of the nineteenth Allerton Park Institute, held in November, 1973, centered on the implications of cable television for libraries. Nine of the oral presentations were edited for inclusion in this collection. The subjects covered are: the relationship between libraries and cable TV; the possibilities of a community network; franchising…

  3. Teacher's Experiences in PBL: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching…

  4. Social Constructionism and Ethics: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Jeffrey T.; Rudes, James

    2008-01-01

    Social constructionism is set forth as an epistemological framework from which to establish an ethical base for the field of counseling. The development of the social constructionist movement in counseling is described. Implications of a social constructionist position are considered in relation to ethics. A case example is provided to illustrate…

  5. Gender and Employment. Current Statistics and Their Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity Issues, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains three fact sheets on gender and employment statistics and their implications. The fact sheets are divided into two sections--statistics and implications. The statistics present the current situation of men and women workers as they relate to occupations, education, and earnings. The implications express suggestions for…

  6. Cognitive reserve: implications for assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Stern, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This article reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies that can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Teacher's experiences in PBL: implications for practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching practices in higher education. For data collection, the research method used was written narratives to these teachers, at the end of the PBL semester. Findings suggest that teachers express a positive view of PBL as a learning approach. They identify student motivation and engagement, along with a better understanding of the application of concepts in real-life situations, as important outcomes of the project for students. Besides this, teachers also highlight the importance of the development of transversal skills by students throughout the project. Recommendations for future work and implications for practice will also be discussed.

  8. Clinical implications of contemporary gender theory.

    PubMed

    Kulish, Nancy

    2010-04-01

    The current intellectual scene in psychoanalysis is marked by vigorous theoretical controversies about gender. The ideas being debated have important implications for clinical work, which have not been thoroughly explicated or integrated into common practice. These implications include the following: gender can accrue idiosyncratic meanings; gender identity is considered fluid and rigidity of gender identity deemed problematic; gender-related conflicts are typically described as divergent; analysis of superego conflicts related to gender becomes particularly important; and, finally, gender-related biases are seen as inevitable and must be taken into account in the clinical situation. A detailed clinical example illustrates the application of these ideas. While the more dramatic cases related to gender have been more frequent subjects of study, conflicts about gender are everyday occurrences for our patients and deserve further attention.

  9. Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the release of the final document, Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa. This report provides a synthesis of information on the interactive effects of climate change and other stressors on the reefs of American Samoa as well as an assessment of potential management responses. This report provides the coral reef managers of American Samoa, as well as other coral reef managers in the Pacific region, with some management options to help enhance the capacity of local coral reefs to resist the negative effects of climate change. This report was designed to take advantage of diverse research and monitoring efforts that are ongoing in American Samoa to: analyze and compile the results of multiple research projects that focus on understanding climate-related stressors and their effects on coral reef ecosystem degradation and recovery; and assess implications for coral reef managment of the combined information, including possible response options.

  10. Disease implication of hyper-Hippo signalling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Ping; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2016-10-01

    The Hippo signalling pathway regulates cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation, thus exerting profound effects on cellular homeostasis. Inhibition of Hippo signalling has been frequently implicated in human cancers, indicating a well-known tumour suppressor function of the Hippo pathway. However, it is less certain whether and how hyperactivation of the Hippo pathway affects biological outcome in living cells. This review describes current knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of the Hippo pathway, mainly focusing on hyperactivation of the Hippo signalling nexus. The disease implications of hyperactivated Hippo signalling have also been discussed, including arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and diabetes. By highlighting the significance of disease-relevant Hippo signalling activation, this review can offer exciting prospects to address the onset and potential reversal of Hippo-related disorders. © 2016 The Authors.

  11. Disease implication of hyper-Hippo signalling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo signalling pathway regulates cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation, thus exerting profound effects on cellular homeostasis. Inhibition of Hippo signalling has been frequently implicated in human cancers, indicating a well-known tumour suppressor function of the Hippo pathway. However, it is less certain whether and how hyperactivation of the Hippo pathway affects biological outcome in living cells. This review describes current knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of the Hippo pathway, mainly focusing on hyperactivation of the Hippo signalling nexus. The disease implications of hyperactivated Hippo signalling have also been discussed, including arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and diabetes. By highlighting the significance of disease-relevant Hippo signalling activation, this review can offer exciting prospects to address the onset and potential reversal of Hippo-related disorders. PMID:27805903

  12. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:23941972

  13. Regional Implications of an Independent Kurdistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Germany) could hold implications for Tehran’s outlook on the Kurdish issue. An Iran relieved of sanctions would be free to intensify its invest- ments in...international community and its neighbors, it could enable the Kurdistan Region–Iraq to free itself of the political instability and financial uncertainties...Syrian Democratic Union Party (Partiya Yekîtiya Demokrat, or YPD), and the Iranian Party for Free Life of Kurdistan (PJAK). We examine each country’s

  14. Physician-Rating Web Sites: Ethical Implications.

    PubMed

    Samora, Julie Balch; Lifchez, Scott D; Blazar, Philip E

    2016-01-01

    To understand the ethical and professional implications of physician behavior changes secondary to online physician-rating Web sites (PRWs). The American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) Ethics and Professionalism Committee surveyed the ASSH membership regarding PRWs. We sent a 14-item questionnaire to 2,664 active ASSH members who practice in both private and academic settings in the United States. We received 312 responses, a 12% response incidence. More than 65% of the respondents had a slightly or highly unfavorable impression of these Web sites. Only 34% of respondents had ever updated or created a profile for PRWs, although 62% had observed inaccuracies in their profile. Almost 90% of respondents had not made any changes in their practice owing to comments or reviews. One-third of respondents had solicited favorable reviews from patients, and 3% of respondents have paid to improve their ratings. PRWs are going to become more prevalent, and more research is needed to fully understand the implications. There are several ethical implications that PRWs pose to practicing physicians. We contend that it is morally unsound to pay for good reviews. The recourse for physicians when an inaccurate and potentially libelous review has been written is unclear. Some physicians have required patients to sign a waiver preventing them from posting negative comments online. We propose the development of a task force to assess the professional, ethical, and legal implications of PRWs, including working with companies to improve accuracy of information, oversight, and feedback opportunities. It is expected that PRWs will play an increasing role in the future; it is unclear whether there will be a uniform reporting system, or whether these online ratings will influence referral patterns and/or quality improvement. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental Degradation: Implications for National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-30

    national interests, one can readily determine the points of confluencP. When the major security implications have been identified. realistic security...planning can be accomplished effectivelv. The major potential threat of East-West confrontation. characterized by massive conventional and nuclear arsenals...degradation. Economic infrastructures, the relative scarcity of resources, and surging population qrowth can combine to create a world not far removed from

  16. Molecular Heterogeneity in Glioblastoma: Potential Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Nicole Renee; Khong, Peter; Parkinson, Jonathon Fergus; Howell, Viive Maarika; Wheeler, Helen Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas, (grade 4 astrocytomas), are aggressive primary brain tumors characterized by histopathological heterogeneity. High-resolution sequencing technologies have shown that these tumors also feature significant inter-tumoral molecular heterogeneity. Molecular subtyping of these tumors has revealed several predictive and prognostic biomarkers. However, intra-tumoral heterogeneity may undermine the use of single biopsy analysis for determining tumor genotype and has implications for potential targeted therapies. The clinical relevance and theories of tumoral molecular heterogeneity in glioblastoma are discussed. PMID:25785247

  17. The Nuremberg Code: its history and implications.

    PubMed

    Kious, B M

    2001-01-01

    The Nuremberg Code is a foundational document in the ethics of medical research and human experimentation; the principle its authors espoused in 1946 have provided the framework for modern codes that address the same issues, and have received little challenge and only slight modification in decades since. By analyzing the Code's tragic genesis and its normative implications, it is possible to understand some of the essence of modern experimental ethics, as well as certain outstanding controversies that still plague medical science.

  18. Implications of Organizational Planning for Crisis Relocation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    AD-A 23 956 IMPLICATIONS OF ORGANIZATIDNAL PLANNING FOR CRISIS RELOCATION(U) NORTH CAROLINA DEPT OF CRIME CONTROL AND PUBLIC SAFETY RALEIG.. M A...policies of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Division of Emergency Management North Carolina Department of Crime Control and Public Safety...North Carolina Department of Crime Control and Work Unit 0 4412 1 Public Safety, 116 W.Jones St. ,Raleigh, NC 27611 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND

  19. Childhood Externalizing Behavior: Theory and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    TOPIC Childhood externalizing behavior PURPOSE To analyze the construct of externalizing behavior (aggression, delinquency, and hyperactivity), illustrate the biosocial model of childhood externalizing, and draw clinical implications for nursing research and practice. SOURCES A review of the literature based on psychological, psychiatric, and nursing journals. CONCLUSIONS A better understanding of childhood externalizing behavior problems and the risk factors underlying them are essential to prevent them. The employment of an integrative biosocial perspective is argued to be important in understanding this behavior. PMID:15535385

  20. Functional Imaging for Prostate Cancer: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Seo, Youngho

    2012-01-01

    Functional radionuclide imaging modalities, now commonly combined with anatomical imaging modalities CT or MRI (SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI) are promising tools for the management of prostate cancer particularly for therapeutic implications. Sensitive detection capability of prostate cancer using these imaging modalities is one issue; however, the treatment of prostate cancer using the information that can be obtained from functional radionuclide imaging techniques is another challenging area. There are not many SPECT or PET radiotracers that can cover the full spectrum of the management of prostate cancer from initial detection, to staging, prognosis predictor, and all the way to treatment response assessment. However, when used appropriately, the information from functional radionuclide imaging improves, and sometimes significantly changes, the whole course of the cancer management. The limitations of using SPECT and PET radiotracers with regards to therapeutic implications are not so much different from their limitations solely for the task of detecting prostate cancer; however, the specific imaging target and how this target is reliably imaged by SPECT and PET can potentially make significant impact in the treatment of prostate cancer. Finally, while the localized prostate cancer is considered manageable, there is still significant need for improvement in noninvasive imaging of metastatic prostate cancer, in treatment guidance, and in response assessment from functional imaging including radionuclide-based techniques. In this review article, we present the rationale of using functional radionuclide imaging and the therapeutic implications for each of radionuclide imaging agent that have been studied in human subjects. PMID:22840598

  1. Myasthenia Gravis and Its Aeromedical Implications.

    PubMed

    Jagathesan, Tania; O'Brien, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune condition where antibodies form against the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, eventually causing damage to the motor end plate. The clinical features include muscle fatigability as well as ocular, bulbar, and limb weakness, which can have implications on the role of a pilot or air traffic controller. This retrospective study reviewed the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority (UK CAA) experience of myasthenia gravis. A search of the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority medical records database from 1990 to 2016 identified 11 individuals with a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Data were extracted for the class of medical certificate, age at diagnosis, symptoms, acetylcholine receptor antibody status, treatment, the time from diagnosis to loss of medical certification, and the reasons for loss of certification. There were two Class 1 certificate holders (for professional flying) and six Class 2 certificate holders (for private pilot flying) and three air traffic controllers. The mean and median ages at diagnosis were 53 and 57 yr, respectively, with a range of 28-67 yr. The mean and median intervals from diagnosis to loss of certification were 22 and 11 mo, respectively, with a range of 0 to 108 mo. The aeromedical implications of myasthenia gravis, including complications, types of treatment, and functional impact, are considered. A policy for medical certification following a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis is proposed.Jagathesan T, O'Brien MD. Myasthenia gravis and its aeromedical implications. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):30-33.

  2. Energy Drinks: Implications for the Breastfeeding Mother.

    PubMed

    Thorlton, Janet; Ahmed, Azza; Colby, David A

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding women may experience disrupted sleep schedules and be tempted to turn to popular energy drinks to reduce fatigue and enhance alertness, prompting the question: What are the maternal and child health implications for breastfeeding mothers consuming energy drinks? Caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks contain a variety of herbal ingredients and vitamins; however, ingredient amounts may not be clearly disclosed on product labels. Interactions between herbal ingredients and caffeine are understudied and not well defined in the literature. Some infants can be sensitive to caffeine and display increased irritability and sleep disturbances when exposed to caffeine from breastmilk. Breastfeeding women who consume energy drinks may be ingesting herbal ingredients that have not undergone scientific evaluation, and if taking prenatal vitamins, may unknowingly exceed the recommended daily intake. Caffeinated products are marketed in newer ways, fueling concerns about health consequences of caffeine exposure. We present implications associated with consumption of caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks among breastfeeding women. Product safety, labeling, common ingredients, potential interactions, and clinical implications are discussed. Healthcare providers should encourage breastfeeding women to read product labels for ingredients, carbohydrate content, serving size, and to discourage consumption of energy drinks when breastfeeding and/or taking prenatal vitamins, to avoid potential vitamin toxicity.

  3. The Social Implications of Light at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshaw, Colin

    2015-08-01

    Summary: It has been shown that Light at Night (LAN) has serious implications for both the environment and human health. What is considered here are the social implications that arise from these problems, and what needs to be done to redress these issues.Introduction: Light at Night is a serious environmental problem whose environmental and medical implications have been seriously underestimated. If no action is taken the problem will become progressively worse and may reach a point where nothing can be done about it. The issues arising from it need to be identified andappropriate action taken to mitigate these issues as far as possible. Hopefully this can be done amicably by self regulation within communities, but if this fails then stringent anti-light pollution legislation will have to be enacted. Some countries and local authorities have already begun to make faltering steps in this direction1, but so far the measures taken have been minimal and largely ineffective. Light at Night (and the light pollution resulting from it) therefore remains a problem and continues to get worse despite the measures already taken to reduce it. Domes of scattered light continue to hang above our cities, killing off our wildlife and endangering public health. Attitudes need to change and urgent measures need to be taken in order to reduce or eliminate its impact.

  4. [Gut microbiota: Description, role and pathophysiologic implications].

    PubMed

    Landman, C; Quévrain, E

    2016-06-01

    The human gut contains 10(14) bacteria and many other micro-organisms such as Archaea, viruses and fungi. Studying the gut microbiota showed how this entity participates to gut physiology and beyond this to human health, as a real "hidden organ". In this review, we aimed to bring information about gut microbiota, its structure, its roles and its implication in human pathology. After bacterial colonization in infant, intestinal microbial composition is unique for each individual although more than 95% can be assigned to four major phyla. The use of culture independent methods and more recently the development of high throughput sequencing allowed to depict precisely gut microbiota structure and diversity as well as its alteration in diseases. Gut microbiota is implicated in the maturation of the host immune system and in many fundamental metabolic pathways including sugars and proteins fermentation and metabolism of bile acids and xenobiotics. Imbalance of gut microbial populations or dysbiosis has important functional consequences and is implicated in many digestive diseases (inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, etc.) but also in obesity and autism. These observations have led to a surge of studies exploring therapeutics which aims to restore gut microbiota equilibrium such as probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation. But recent research also investigates biological activity of microbial products which could lead to interesting therapeutics leads. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The mucin MUC4 is a transcriptional and post-transcriptional target of K-ras oncogene in pancreatic cancer. Implication of MAPK/AP-1, NF-κB and RalB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Romain; Skrypek, Nicolas; Duchêne, Belinda; Renaud, Florence; Martínez-Maqueda, Daniel; Vincent, Audrey; Porchet, Nicole; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Jonckheere, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    The membrane-bound mucinMUC4 is a high molecularweight glycoprotein frequently deregulated in cancer. In pancreatic cancer, one of the most deadly cancers in occidental countries, MUC4 is neo-expressed in the preneoplastic stages and thereafter is involved in cancer cell properties leading to cancer progression and chemoresistance. K-ras oncogene is a small GTPase of the RAS superfamily, highly implicated in cancer. K-ras mutations are considered as an initiating event of pancreatic carcinogenesis and K-ras oncogenic activities are necessary components of cancer progression. However, K-ras remains clinically undruggable. Targeting early downstream K-ras signaling in cancer may thus appear as an interesting strategy and MUC4 regulation by K-ras in pancreatic carcinogenesis remains unknown. Using the Pdx1-Cre; LStopL-K-rasG12D mouse model of pancreatic carcinogenesis, we show that the in vivo early neo-expression of the mucin Muc4 in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplastic lesions (PanINs) induced by mutated K-ras is correlated with the activation of ERK, JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In vitro, transfection of constitutively activated K-rasG12V in pancreatic cancer cells led to the transcriptional upregulation of MUC4. This activation was found to be mediated at the transcriptional level by AP-1 and NF-κB transcription factors via MAPK, JNK and NF-κB pathways and at the posttranscriptional level by a mechanism involving the RalB GTPase. Altogether, these results identify MUC4 as a transcriptional and post-transcriptional target of K-ras in pancreatic cancer. This opens avenues in developing new approaches to target the early steps of this deadly cancer.

  6. The ENCODE project: implications for psychiatric genetics.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, D H; Dwyer, S; O'Donovan, M C; Owen, M J

    2013-05-01

    The ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project is a public research consortium that aims to identify all functional elements of the human genome sequence. The project comprised 1640 data sets, from 147 different cell type and the findings were released in a coordinated set of 34 publications across several journals. The ENCODE publications report that 80.4% of the human genome displays some functionality. These data have important implications for interpreting results from large-scale genetics studies. We reviewed some of the key findings from the ENCODE publications and discuss how they can influence or inform further investigations into the genetic factors contributing to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Operational Implications of Pivots of Maneuver,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-05

    Offensive from the Second World War , and Douglas MacArthur’s Inchon/Pusan Breakout operations will be examined to aid in the validation of the...different services together ;n a cohesive plan. Significant technological improvenentIS eare m a de du r IrI the Fi rst Worl d War , however i t was...AD-A240 322 ) Operational Implications of Pivots of Maneuver A Monograph by Major Paul C. Jussel Armor DTICS ~FIECTE D SEP 1 21991 D School of

  8. Cancer biology and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Paula Trahan

    2006-08-01

    The media seem to announce a new scientific discovery related to cancer daily. Oncology nurses are challenged to keep up with the explosion of new knowledge and to understand how it ultimately relates to the care of patients with cancer. A framework for classifying new knowledge can be useful as nurses seek to understand the biology of cancer and its related implications for practice. To understand the molecular roots of cancer, healthcare practitioners specializing in cancer care require insight into genes, their messages, and the proteins produced from those messages, as well as the new tools of molecular biology.

  9. The local work function: Concept and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandelt, K.

    1997-02-01

    The term 'local work function' is now widely applied. The present work discusses the common physical basis of 'photoemission of adsorbed xenon (PAX)' and 'two-photon photonemissionspectroscopy of image potential states' as local work function probes. New examples with bimetallic and defective surfaces are presented which demonstrate the capability of PAX measurements for the characterization of heterogeneous surfaces on an atomic scale. Finally, implications of the existence of short-range variations of the surface potential at surface steps are addressed. In particular, dynamical work function change measurements are a sensitive probe for the step-density at surfaces and, as such, a powerful in-situ method to monitor film growth.

  10. Cosmological implications of Higgs near-criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, J. R.

    2018-01-01

    The Standard Model electroweak (EW) vacuum, in the absence of new physics below the Planck scale, lies very close to the boundary between stability and metastability, with the last option being the most probable. Several cosmological implications of this so-called `near-criticality' are discussed. In the metastable vacuum case, the main challenges that the survival of the EW vacuum faces during the evolution of the Universe are analysed. In the stable vacuum case, the possibility of implementing Higgs inflation is critically examined. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.

  11. Implications of organizational ethics to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ells, Carolyn; MacDonald, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Organizational ethics is an emerging field concerned with the study and practice of the ethical behaviour of organizations. For effective application to healthcare settings, we argue that organizational ethics requires attention to organizations' special characteristics combined with tools borrowed from the fields of business ethics and bioethics. We identify and discuss several implications of this burgeoning field to healthcare organizations, showing how organizational ethics can facilitate policy making, accountability, self-evaluation, and patient and business perspectives. In our conclusion, we suggest an action plan for healthcare organizations to help them respond appropriately to their ethical responsibilities.

  12. Neutrino masses, neutrino oscillations, and cosmological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical concepts and motivations for considering neutrinos having finite masses are discussed and the experimental situation on searches for neutrino masses and oscillations is summarized. The solar neutrino problem, reactor, deep mine and accelerator data, tri decay experiments and double beta-decay data are considered and cosmological implications and astrophysical data relating to neutrino masses are reviewed. The neutrino oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem, the missing mass problem in galaxy halos and galaxy cluster galaxy formation and clustering, and radiative neutrino decay and the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation are examined.

  13. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gut microbiota: Implications in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-05-01

    Gut microbiota (GM) can influence various neurological outcomes, like cognition, learning, and memory. Commensal GM modulates brain development and behavior and has been implicated in several neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anxiety, stress and much more. A recent study has shown that Parkinson's disease patients suffer from GM dysbiosis, but whether it is a cause or an effect is yet to be understood. In this review, we try to connect the dots between GM and PD pathology using direct and indirect evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Titanium Corrosion: Implications For Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rucha; Penmetsa, Deepika Shree Lakshmi; Thomas, Raison; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2016-12-01

    Titanium has been considered as one of the most biocompatible metals. Studies testing its corrosion resistance have proposed that the titanium oxide layer formed on the metal surface is lost under certain unavoidable conditions to which it is exposed in the oral environment. This questions its property of corrosion resistance in the oral cavity. Hence, there is a need to understand the mechanisms of corrosion, which can help in the long-term stability and function of implants. Here, we review the possible pathways of corrosion of titanium in the oral cavity, its implications and proposed methods of prevention of corrosion. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  17. Cosmological implications of Higgs near-criticality.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, J R

    2018-03-06

    The Standard Model electroweak (EW) vacuum, in the absence of new physics below the Planck scale, lies very close to the boundary between stability and metastability, with the last option being the most probable. Several cosmological implications of this so-called 'near-criticality' are discussed. In the metastable vacuum case, the main challenges that the survival of the EW vacuum faces during the evolution of the Universe are analysed. In the stable vacuum case, the possibility of implementing Higgs inflation is critically examined.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  18. Career success implications of political skill.

    PubMed

    Todd, Samuel Y; Harris, Kenneth J; Harris, Ranida B; Wheeler, Anthony R

    2009-06-01

    The authors investigated the individual characteristic of political skill and its relation to 5 different career-related outcomes (total compensation, promotions, career satisfaction, life satisfaction, and perceived external job mobility). They examined data obtained from a sample of 191 employees working a wide range of occupations. The results reveal that political skill is associated with 4 of the 5 outcomes. In addition, they examined the 4 dimensions of political skill and found that the networking ability dimension dominates the relations with the examined outcomes. The authors discuss practical implications, limitations, and directions for future research.

  19. Social Security reform: implications for women.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J B; Rix, S E

    2000-01-01

    Despite recent economic gains for women, a substantial gender gap in financial security during old age remains, making women more dependent than men upon Social Security. Social Security plays an important role in providing for women's economic security. The implications for women of several proposed changes in Social Security policy, including the call for the partial privatization of Social Security via the introduction of individual accounts, are analyzed. Many of the proposals would have the effect of asking women, particularly low-income women, to shoulder a disproportionate share of the risks and burdens associated with the changes.

  20. Implications of pressure diffusion for shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ram, Ram Bachan

    1989-01-01

    The report deals with the possible implications of pressure diffusion for shocks in one dimensional traveling waves in an ideal gas. From this new hypothesis all aspects of such shocks can be calculated except shock thickness. Unlike conventional shock theory, the concept of entropy is not needed or used. Our analysis shows that temperature rises near a shock, which is of course an experimental fact; however, it also predicts that very close to a shock, density increases faster than pressure. In other words, a shock itself is cold.

  1. Variations of Fathering: Implications for Social Policy. Single Fathers with Custody: Implications for Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Shirley May Harmon

    This document summarizes current knowledge about single custodial fathers, and draws implications for social policy. Through a review of the literature, the following characteristics of single fathers are described: socioeconomic status, race, custody status, religion, age, employment, parental history, homemaking skills, motivation for custody,…

  2. Forensic implications: adolescent sexting and cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Korenis, Panagiota; Billick, Stephen Bates

    2014-03-01

    Adolescence is marked by establishing a sense of identity, core values, a sense of one's relationship to the outside world and heightened peer relationships. In addition, there is also risk taking, impulsivity, self exploration and dramatic increase in sexuality. The dramatic increase in the use of cell phones and the Internet has additional social implications of sexting and cyberbullying. Sexting refers to the practice of sending sexually explicit material including language or images to another person's cell phone. Cyberbullying refers to the use of this technology to socially exclude, threaten, insult or shame another person. Studies of cell phone use in the 21st century report well over 50% of adolescents use them and that text messaging is the communication mode of choice. Studies also show a significant percentage of adolescents send and receive sex messaging, both text and images. This paper will review this expanding literature. Various motivations for sexting will also be reviewed. This new technology presents many dangers for adolescents. The legal implications are extensive and psychiatrists may play an important role in evaluation of some of these adolescents in the legal context. This paper will also make suggestions on future remedies and preventative actions.

  3. Limitations and implications of stream classification

    Juracek, K.E.; Fitzpatrick, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Stream classifications that are based on channel form, such as the Rosgen Level II classification, are useful tools for the physical description and grouping of streams and for providing a means of communication for stream studies involving scientists and (or) managers with different backgrounds. The Level II classification also is used as a tool to assess stream stability, infer geomorphic processes, predict future geomorphic response, and guide stream restoration or rehabilitation activities. The use of the Level II classification for these additional purposes is evaluated in this paper. Several examples are described to illustrate the limitations and management implications of the Level II classification. Limitations include: (1) time dependence, (2) uncertain applicability across physical environments, (3) difficulty in identification of a true equilibrium condition, (4) potential for incorrect determination of bankfull elevation, and (5) uncertain process significance of classification criteria. Implications of using stream classifications based on channel form, such as Rosgen's, include: (1) acceptance of the limitations, (2) acceptance of the risk of classifying streams incorrectly, and (3) classification results may be used inappropriately. It is concluded that use of the Level II classification for purposes beyond description and communication is not appropriate. Research needs are identified that, if addressed, may help improve the usefulness of the Level II classification.

  4. Global implications of China's healthcare reform.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Tang, Shenglan; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing healthcare reform in China has a powerful spillover effect beyond the health sector and the borders of China. A successful completion of the Chinese reform will offer a new model for social justice development, shift the global economy toward sustainability and create a new hub for science and technology in medical and health science. However, reforming the healthcare system in the most populated country is a daunting task. China will not live up to its promise, and all the potentials may end with hype not hope if coherent national strategies are not constructed and state-of-the-art navigation is not achieved with staggering domestic and global challenges. The cost of failure will be immensely high, socioeconomic costs for Chinese and an opportunity cost for the world as a whole. A full appreciation of the global implications of China's healthcare reform is crucial in keeping China receptive toward good practices evidence-approved elsewhere and open minded to fulfill its international obligations. More critically, the appreciation yields constructive engagements from global community toward a joint development and global prosperity. The current report provides a multiple disciplinary assessment on the global implications of the healthcare reform in China. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Implication of alcohol consumption on aggregate wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Parackal, Mathew; Parackal, Sherly

    2017-07-01

    The effects of drinking alcohol extend beyond the individuals concerned to the wider community. While there is recognition of such a global implication, currently no study has quantified the impact of alcohol consumption on aggregate wellbeing. This study aims to address this gap and attempts to investigate the impact of various levels of alcohol consumption on aggregate happiness. The study was carried out on a random selection of participants ( n = 1,817) drawn from the 3Di consumer panel, comprising over 170,000 New Zealanders aged 18 and above. Using a subjective happiness scale (SHS) in conjunction with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), investigation was carried out to find whether drinking behaviour affected aggregate happiness. SHS and AUDIT scores were negatively correlated and the strength of the correlation increased with the intensity of problematic drinking. Regression analysis showed that the beta coefficient was positive for the low-risk (.074) and negative for the high-risk (-.081) category, suggesting approaches to intervene with the growing problem of alcohol consumption in modern societies. Measurements of happiness can explain the global implication of alcohol in wellbeing terms. The findings of this study indicated that low-risk drinkers affected aggregate happiness positively, whereas high-risk drinkers affected aggregate happiness negatively. While the latter observation is not new, the former raises the need to promote moderation in drinking alcohol for the common good of everyone.

  6. Satellite power system (SPS) military implications

    SciT

    Bain, C.N.

    1978-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine military implications of the NASA Reference SPS and to identify important military related study tasks that could be completed during fiscal year 1979. Primary areas of investigation were the potential of the SPS as a weapon, for supporting U.S. military preparedness and for affecting international relations. In addition, the SPS's relative vulnerability to overt military action, terrorist attacks, and sabotage was considered. The SPS could act as an electronic warfare weapon and, with modification, as a marginally effective energy-beaming weapon. The system could support military preparedness by providing energy for a strong and stablemore » U.S. economy and by providing a powered platform for military systems, system segments, and operations. The SPS would be vulnerable to military action, terrorism and sabotage unless hardened against these attacks by design, security, and a self-defense system. Tasks identified for completion in fiscal year 1979 include (a) a detailed vulnerability study, (b) evaluation of an SPS self-defense system concept, (c) determination of the effect of SPS flexibility to deliver different sized electrical loads on the ability to gain SPS support from individual nations, and (d) investigation of the effect of SPS deployment schedule on obtaining needed agreements, providing security, and controlling risks of armed conflict. A fifth and long-term task would consist of a worldwide survey identifiying military implications of the SPS that result from the specific requirements of potential SPS power customers.« less

  7. Clinical implications of numeracy: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Wendy; Reyna, Valerie F; Fagerlin, Angela; Lipkus, Isaac; Peters, Ellen

    2008-06-01

    Low numeracy is pervasive and constrains informed patient choice, reduces medication compliance, limits access to treatments, impairs risk communication, and affects medical outcomes; therefore, it is incumbent upon providers to minimize its adverse effects. We provide an overview of research on health numeracy and discuss its implications in clinical contexts. Low numeracy cannot be reliably inferred on the basis of patients' education, intelligence, or other observable characteristics. Objective and subjective assessments of numeracy are available in short forms and could be used to tailor health communication. Low scorers on these assessments are subject to cognitive biases, irrelevant cues (e.g., mood), and sharper temporal discounting. Because prevention of the leading causes of death (e.g., cancer and cardiovascular disease) depends on taking action now to prevent serious consequences later, those low in numeracy are likely to require more explanation of risk to engage in prevention behaviors. Visual displays can be used to make numerical relations more transparent, and different types of displays have different effects (e.g., greater risk avoidance). Ironically, superior quantitative processing seems to be achieved by focusing on qualitative gist and affective meaning, which has important implications for empowering patients to take advantage of the evidence in evidence-based medicine.

  8. Pathophysiology and implications of intradialytic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Van Buren, Peter Noel

    2017-07-01

    Intradialytic hypertension occurs regularly in 10--15% of hemodialysis patients. A large observational study recently showed that intradialytic hypertension of any magnitude increased mortality risk comparable to the most severe degrees of intradialytic hypotension. The present review review discusses the most recent evidence underlying the pathophysiology of intradialytic hypertension and implications for its management. Patients with intradialytic hypertension typically have small interdialytic weight gains, but bioimpedance spectroscopy shows these patients have significant chronic extracellular volume excess. Intradialytic hypertension patients have lower albumin and predialysis urea nitrogen levels, which may contribute to small reductions in osmolarity that prevents blood pressure decreases. Intradialytic vascular resistance surges remain implicated as the driving force for blood pressure increases, but mediators other than endothelin-1 may be responsible. Beyond dry weight reduction, the only controlled intervention shown to interrupt the blood pressure increase is lowering dialysate sodium. Patients with recurrent intradialytic hypertension should be identified as high-risk patients. Dry weight should be re-evaluated, even if patients do not clinically appear volume overloaded. Antihypertensive drugs should be prescribed because of the persistently elevated ambulatory blood pressure. Dialysate sodium reduction should be considered, although the long term effects of this intervention are uncertain.

  9. Neutrino mass implications for muon decay parameters

    SciT

    Erwin, Rebecca J.; Kile, Jennifer; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

    2007-02-01

    We use the scale of neutrino mass and naturalness considerations to obtain model-independent expectations for the magnitude of possible contributions to muon decay Michel parameters from new physics above the electroweak symmetry-breaking scale. Focusing on Dirac neutrinos, we obtain a complete basis of dimension four and dimension six effective operators that are invariant under the gauge symmetry of the standard model and that contribute to both muon decay and neutrino mass. We show that - in the absence of fine tuning - the most stringent neutrino-mass naturalness bounds on chirality-changing vector operators relevant to muon decay arise from one-loop operatormore » mixing. The bounds we obtain on their contributions to the Michel parameters are 2 orders of magnitude stronger than bounds previously obtained in the literature. In addition, we analyze the implications of one-loop matching considerations and find that the expectations for the size of various scalar and tensor contributions to the Michel parameters are considerably smaller than derived from previous estimates of two-loop operator mixing. We also show, however, that there exist gauge-invariant operators that generate scalar and tensor contributions to muon decay but whose flavor structure allows them to evade neutrino-mass naturalness bounds. We discuss the implications of our analysis for the interpretation of muon-decay experiments.« less

  10. Clinical Implications of Numeracy: Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Fagerlin, Angela; Lipkus, Isaac; Peters, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Background Low numeracy is pervasive and constrains informed patient choice, reduces medication compliance, limits access to treatments, impairs risk communication, and affects medical outcomes; therefore, it is incumbent upon providers to minimize its adverse effects. Purpose We provide an overview of research on health numeracy and discuss its implications in clinical contexts. Conclusions Low numeracy cannot be reliably inferred on the basis of patients’ education, intelligence, or other observable characteristics. Objective and subjective assessments of numeracy are available in short forms and could be used to tailor health communication. Low scorers on these assessments are subject to cognitive biases, irrelevant cues (e.g., mood), and sharper temporal discounting. Because prevention of the leading causes of death (e.g., cancer and cardiovascular disease) depends on taking action now to prevent serious consequences later, those low in numeracy are likely to require more explanation of risk to engage in prevention behaviors. Visual displays can be used to make numerical relations more transparent, and different types of displays have different effects (e.g., greater risk avoidance). Ironically, superior quantitative processing seems to be achieved by focusing on qualitative gist and affective meaning, which has important implications for empowering patients to take advantage of the evidence in evidence-based medicine. PMID:18677452

  11. Growing Global Migration and Its Implications for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    Growing Global Migration and Its Implications for the United States NIE 2001-02D March 2001 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...00-00-2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Growing Global Migration and Its Implications for the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Growing Global Migration and Its Implications for the United States This

  12. The fossil record and taphonomy of butterflies and moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera): implications for evolutionary diversity and divergence-time estimates.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C; Davis, Donald R

    2015-02-04

    It is conventionally accepted that the lepidopteran fossil record is significantly incomplete when compared to the fossil records of other, very diverse, extant insect orders. Such an assumption, however, has been based on cumulative diversity data rather than using alternative statistical approaches from actual specimen counts. We reviewed documented specimens of the lepidopteran fossil record, currently consisting of 4,593 known specimens that are comprised of 4,262 body fossils and 331 trace fossils. The temporal distribution of the lepidopteran fossil record shows significant bias towards the late Paleocene to middle Eocene time interval. Lepidopteran fossils also record major shifts in preservational style and number of represented localities at the Mesozoic stage and Cenozoic epoch level of temporal resolution. Only 985 of the total known fossil specimens (21.4%) were assigned to 23 of the 40 extant lepidopteran superfamilies. Absolute numbers and proportions of preservation types for identified fossils varied significantly across superfamilies. The secular increase of lepidopteran family-level diversity through geologic time significantly deviates from the general pattern of other hyperdiverse, ordinal-level lineages. Our statistical analyses of the lepidopteran fossil record show extreme biases in preservation type, age, and taxonomic composition. We highlight the scarcity of identified lepidopteran fossils and provide a correspondence between the latest lepidopteran divergence-time estimates and relevant fossil occurrences at the superfamily level. These findings provide caution in interpreting the lepidopteran fossil record through the modeling of evolutionary diversification and in determination of divergence time estimates.

  13. A synopsis of collective alpha effects and implications for ITER

    SciT

    Sigmar, D.J.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following: Alpha Interaction with Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes; Alpha Interaction with Ballooning Modes; Alpha Interaction with Fishbone Oscillations; and Implications for ITER.

  14. Structural Basis of the Interaction of a Trypanosoma cruzi Surface Molecule Implicated in Oral Infection with Host Cells and Gastric Mucin

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Cristian; Yoshida, Nobuko; Bahia, Diana; Sobreira, Tiago J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Host cell invasion and dissemination within the host are hallmarks of virulence for many pathogenic microorganisms. As concerns Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease, the insect vector-derived metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT) initiate infection by invading host cells, and later blood trypomastigotes disseminate to diverse organs and tissues. Studies with MT generated in vitro and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCT), as counterparts of insect-borne and bloodstream parasites, have implicated members of the gp85/trans-sialidase superfamily, MT gp82 and TCT Tc85-11, in cell invasion and interaction with host factors. Here we analyzed the gp82 structure/function characteristics and compared them with those previously reported for Tc85-11. One of the gp82 sequences identified as a cell binding site consisted of an α-helix, which connects the N-terminal β-propeller domain to the C-terminal β-sandwich domain where the second binding site is nested. In the gp82 structure model, both sites were exposed at the surface. Unlike gp82, the Tc85-11 cell adhesion sites are located in the N-terminal β-propeller region. The gp82 sequence corresponding to the epitope for a monoclonal antibody that inhibits MT entry into target cells was exposed on the surface, upstream and contiguous to the α-helix. Located downstream and close to the α-helix was the gp82 gastric mucin binding site, which plays a central role in oral T. cruzi infection. The sequences equivalent to Tc85-11 laminin-binding sites, which have been associated with the parasite ability to overcome extracellular matrices and basal laminae, was poorly conserved in gp82, compatible with its reduced capacity to bind laminin. Our study indicates that gp82 is structurally suited for MT to initiate infection by the oral route, whereas Tc85-11, with its affinity for laminin, would facilitate the parasite dissemination through diverse organs and tissues. PMID:22860068

  15. Public health implications of emerging zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Meslin, F X; Stöhr, K; Heymann, D

    2000-04-01

    Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens which originate from animals or products of animal origin. A wide variety of animal species, both domestic and wild, act as reservoirs for these pathogens, which may be viruses, bacteria or parasites. Given the extensive distribution of the animal species affected, the effective surveillance, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases pose a significant challenge. The authors describe the direct and indirect implications for public health of emerging zoonoses. Direct implications are defined as the consequences for human health in terms of morbidity and mortality. Indirect implications are defined as the effect of the influence of emerging zoonotic disease on two groups of people, namely: health professionals and the general public. Professional assessment of the importance of these diseases influences public health practices and structures, the identification of themes for research and allocation of resources at both national and international levels. The perception of the general public regarding the risks involved considerably influences policy-making in the health field. Extensive outbreaks of zoonotic disease are not uncommon, especially as the disease is often not recognised as zoonotic at the outset and may spread undetected for some time. However, in many instances, the direct impact on health of these new, emerging or re-emerging zoonoses has been small compared to that of other infectious diseases affecting humans. To illustrate the tremendous indirect impact of emerging zoonotic diseases on public health policy and structures and on public perception of health risks, the authors provide a number of examples, including that of the Ebola virus, avian influenza, monkeypox and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Recent epidemics of these diseases have served as a reminder of the existence of infectious diseases and of the capacity of these diseases to occur unexpectedly in new

  16. Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

  17. Human rights and implications for managers.

    PubMed

    Bunner, K L

    1994-01-01

    Although the Canadian Human Rights Act was enacted in 1977 and The Charter of Rights and Freedoms was introduced in 1981, a paucity of Canadian literature regarding their implications for nursing managers is apparent. The modern nursing unit manager is faced with a variety of decisions pertaining to employment, performance evaluations, and delegation of responsibilities, which if not sensitively and fairly handled may expose the manager and the organization to non-defensible vulnerabilities. This paper briefly reviews pertinent human rights issues in the nursing setting and the effect of human rights considerations on the management of a nursing unit. Discrimination, harassment, the hiring process, performance appraisal and discipline are discussed along with recommendations regarding mandatory inservices for managers.

  18. The interior of Venus and Tectonic implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Malin, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted in the present consideration of the Venus lithosphere and its implications for plate tectonics that the major linear elevated regions of Venus, which are associated with Beta Regio and Aphrodite Terra, do not seem to have the shape required for sure interpretation as the divergent plate boundaries of seafloor spreading. Such tectonics instead appear to be confined to the median plains, and may not be resolvable in the Pioneer Venus altimetry data. The ratios of gravity anomalies to topographic heights indicate that surface load compensation occurs at depths greater than about 100 km under the western Aphrodite Terra and 400 km under Beta Regio, with at least some of this compensation probably being maintained by mantle convection. It is also found that the shape of Venus's hypsogram is very different from the ocean mode of the earth's hypsogram, and it is proposed that Venus tectonics resemble intraplate, basin-and-swell tectonics on earth.

  19. Immunological implications of pregnancy-induced microchimerism

    PubMed Central

    Kinder, Jeremy M.; Stelzer, Ina A.; Arck, Petra C.; Way, Sing Sing

    2017-01-01

    Immunological identity is traditionally defined by genetically encoded antigens, with equal maternal and paternal contributions as a result of Mendelian inheritance. However, vertically transferred maternal cells also persist in individuals at very low levels throughout postnatal development. Reciprocally, mothers are seeded during pregnancy with genetically foreign fetal cells that persist long after parturition. Recent findings suggest that these microchimeric cells expressing noninherited familially relevant antigenic traits are not accidental souvenirs of pregnancy, but are purposefully retained within mothers and their offspring to promote genetic fitness by improving the outcome of future pregnancies. Here, we discuss the immunological implications, benefits and potential consequences of individuals being constitutively chimeric with a biologically active ‘microchiome’ of genetically foreign cells. PMID:28480895

  20. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, TCS, EVA Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don

    2011-01-01

    Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration then the Human Exploration Framework Teams (HEFT and HEFT2) evaluated potential exploration missions and the infrastructure and technology needs for those missions. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed by the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to, and then inhabit and explore, the moon. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), Thermal Control (TCS), and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems.

  1. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  2. Psychosocial implications of blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis.

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, J D; Warwar, R E; Bienenfeld, D G; Marciniszyn, S L; Markert, R J

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate, for the first time, the psychosocial implications of blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis. METHODS: Two hundred ten individuals rated whole-face photographs of a series of patients on the basis of 11 different personal characteristics: intelligence, throat, friendliness, health, trustworthiness, hard work, mental illness, financial success, attractiveness, alcoholism, and happiness. Preoperative and postoperative photographs of both male and female patients with bilateral blepharoptosis and/or dermatochalasis were used. The paired t test was used to compare preoperative and postoperative ratings on the 11 characteristics. RESULTS: The preoperative photographs were rated more negatively than the postoperative photographs (P < .01-P < .001) on all 11 characteristics for both male and female patients by the 210 study subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Members of society seem to view individuals with blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis negatively. These psychosocial attitudes may lead to unjust bias toward affected patients, and surgical correction likely provides benefits beyond improved visual function. PMID:11797321

  3. IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

  4. e-Science and its implications.

    PubMed

    Hey, Tony; Trefethen, Anne

    2003-08-15

    After a definition of e-science and the Grid, the paper begins with an overview of the technological context of Grid developments. NASA's Information Power Grid is described as an early example of a 'prototype production Grid'. The discussion of e-science and the Grid is then set in the context of the UK e-Science Programme and is illustrated with reference to some UK e-science projects in science, engineering and medicine. The Open Standards approach to Grid middleware adopted by the community in the Global Grid Forum is described and compared with community-based standardization processes used for the Internet, MPI, Linux and the Web. Some implications of the imminent data deluge that will arise from the new generation of e-science experiments in terms of archiving and curation are then considered. The paper concludes with remarks about social and technological issues posed by Grid-enabled 'collaboratories' in both scientific and commercial contexts.

  5. [Mental Imagery: Neurophysiology and Implications in Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Nathalie Tamayo

    2014-03-01

    To provide an explanation about what mental imagery is and some implications in psychiatry. This article is a narrative literature review. There are many terms in which imagery representations are described in different fields of research. They are defined as perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus, and can be created in any sensory modality. Their neurophysiological substrate is almost the same as the one activated during sensory perception. There is no unified theory about its function, but it is possibly the way that our brain uses and manipulates the information to respond to the environment. Mental imagery is an everyday phenomenon, and when it occurs in specific patterns it can be a sign of mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. The health implications of deportation policy.

    PubMed

    Morris, Juliana E; Palazuelos, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The United States detains and deports over 400,000 people annually. This large-scale effort has important consequences for the health of affected individuals and communities. A growing body of research suggests that deportation increases stress and mental illness, economic deprivation, and individual exposure to violence, while also contributing to destabilization and crime at the community level. The challenges to reintegration experienced by deportees are additional push factors that increase their desire to re-emigrate. Furthermore, the related destabilization of local communities also contributes to the push, not just for deportees, but for all affected people in the region. This phenomenon has important implications for the long-term effectiveness of current U.S. deportation policies, which may be contributing to destabilization in home countries and thus potentiating further unauthorized emigration to the U.S.

  7. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) and Thermal Control System (TCS) Systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

  8. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Many options for exploration of the Moon and Mars have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration VSE was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of the moon and Mars and those of the Augustine human spaceflight commission for the implications of each architecture on the Environmental Control and Life Support, ExtraVehicular Activity and Thermal Control systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

  9. Patterns of Drug Distribution: Implications and Issues#

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    This article delineates various patterns of illicit sales of drugs, especially at the retail (and near-retail) level, addressing a variety of central issues about drug sales and distribution documented during the past 30 years, including: a) the links between drug consumption and drug distribution activities; b) the various distribution roles; c) various levels of the distribution hierarchy; d) types of retail and wholesale markets; e) the association of drug distribution with nondrug associated criminality and violence. The article also will address the implications of drug distribution: whether various public policies such as supply reduction and source interdiction affect illicit drug markets, and how policing strategies and various law enforcement strategies can influence the involvement of individual participation in drug distribution activities. The overlooked contribution of treatment for “drug abuse” to reducing drug sales and distribution activities also will be considered as will other critical unresolved issues. PMID:14582578

  10. Racism and cardiovascular disease: implications for nursing.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jennifer; McGibbon, Elizabeth; Waldron, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The social determinants of health (SDH) are recognized as a prominent influence on health outcomes across the lifespan. Racism is identified as a key SDH. In this article, the authors describe the concept of racism as an SDH, its impact in discriminatory actions and inactions, and the implications for cardiovascular nurses. Although research in Canada on the links among racism, stress, and cardiovascular disease is limited, there is growing evidence about the stress of racism and its long-term impact on cardiovascular health. The authors discuss how cardiovascular nursing could be enhanced through an understanding of racism-related stress, and race-based differences in cardiovascular care. The authors conclude with strategies for action to address this nursing concern.

  11. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  12. IPAD products and implications for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The betterment of productivity through the improvement of product quality and the reduction of cost is addressed. Productivity improvement is sought through (1) reduction of required resources, (2) improved ask results through the management of such saved resources, (3) reduced downstream costs through manufacturing-oriented engineering, and (4) lowered risks in the making of product design decisions. The IPAD products are both hardware architecture and software distributed over a number of heterogeneous computers in this architecture. These IPAD products are described in terms of capability and engineering usefulness. The future implications of state-of-the-art IPAD hardware and software architectures are discussed in terms of their impact on the functions and on structures of organizations concerned with creating products.

  13. Epigenetics: relevance and implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Rozek, Laura S; Dolinoy, Dana C; Sartor, Maureen A; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2014-01-01

    Improved understanding of the multilayer regulation of the human genome has led to a greater appreciation of environmental, nutritional, and epigenetic risk factors for human disease. Chromatin remodeling, histone tail modifications, and DNA methylation are dynamic epigenetic changes responsive to external stimuli. Careful interpretation can provide insights for actionable public health through collaboration between population and basic scientists and through integration of multiple data sources. We review key findings in environmental epigenetics both in human population studies and in animal models, and discuss the implications of these results for risk assessment and public health protection. To ultimately succeed in identifying epigenetic mechanisms leading to complex phenotypes and disease, researchers must integrate the various animal models, human clinical approaches, and human population approaches while paying attention to life-stage sensitivity, to generate effective prescriptions for human health evaluation and disease prevention.

  14. Regulated necrosis and its implications in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Aki, Toshihiko; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Uemura, Koichi

    2015-07-03

    Recent research developments have revealed that caspase-dependent apoptosis is not the sole form of regulated cell death. Caspase-independent, but genetically regulated, forms of cell death include pyroptosis, necroptosis, parthanatos, and the recently discovered ferroptosis and autosis. Importantly, regulated necrosis can be modulated by small molecule inhibitors/activators, confirming the cell autonomous mechanism of these forms of cell death. The success of small molecule-mediated manipulation of regulated necrosis has produced great changes in the field of cell death research, and has also brought about significant changes in the fields of pharmacology as well as toxicology. In this review, we intend to summarize the modes of regulated cell death other than apoptosis, and discuss their implications in toxicology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gestalt theory: implications for radiology education.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Nicholas A; Gunderman, Richard B

    2008-05-01

    The Gestalt theory of modern psychology is grounded in the ideas that holistic rather than atomistic approaches are necessary to understand the mind, and that the mental whole is greater than the sum of its component parts. Although the Gestalt school fell out of favor due to its descriptive rather than explanatory nature, it permanently changed our understanding of perception. For the radiologist, such fundamental Gestalt concepts as figure-ground relationships and a variety of "grouping principles" (the laws of closure, proximity, similarity, common region, continuity, and symmetry) are ubiquitous in daily work, not to mention in art and personal life. By considering the applications of these principles and the stereotypical ways in which humans perceive visual stimuli, a radiology learner may incur fewer errors of diagnosis. This article serves to introduce several important principles of Gestalt theory, identify examples of these principles in widely recognizable fine art, and highlight their implications for radiology education.

  16. Policy Implications of Air Quality Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinbaum, C.

    2004-12-01

    While an integrated assessment approach will be required to achieve and sustain improvements in the air quality of Mexico City Metropolitan Area's (MCMA), policy strategies must be based on a solid understanding of the pollutant emissions and atmospheric processes that lead to unacceptable levels of air pollution. The required level of understanding can only be achieved by comprehensive atmospheric measurements followed by a coordinated atmospheric modeling program. The innovative, two-phase atmospheric measurement program, which was a collaborative effort between Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Mexican Metropolitan Environmental Commission, with exploratory measurements in February 2002 and extensive measurements from late March through early May of 2003, was an important step towards meeting these requirements. Although the extensive data sets from the two measurement programs are still being analyzed by the investigators, their preliminary analysis efforts have yielded important insights into the nature and extent of air pollution problem in the MCMA, which in turn will have important policy implications.

  17. Closed culture plant studies: Implications for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoshizaki, T.

    1986-01-01

    Arabidopsis plants were grown in closed cultures similar to those used in space experiments. A shift in metabolism from photosynthesis to respiration is indicated by the accumulation of CO2 in the culture atmosphere. Reproductive growth is suppressed. Plant growth and development is apparently related to the atmospheric volume available to each plant. The implications of these findings to closed ecological systems are given: (1) there is a need for an open culture having ample gas exchange, (2) CO2 levels must be maintained within prescribed limits, (3) the minimum atmospheric volume required for each plant is dependent on the precision of the gas monitors and of the subsystems used to maintain appropriate levels of various atmospheric components, and (4) volatiles such as ethylene and terpenes emanating from plants be monitored and reduced to benign concentrations.

  18. Androgens: basic biology and clinical implication.

    PubMed

    Orwoll, E S

    2001-10-01

    Although androgens have been considered essential modulators of bone biology in men, recent studies have indicated that estrogen may have an important, if not dominant, role. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence that androgens have independent skeletal actions. Nonaromatizable androgens influence a variety of aspects of bone cell biology and are capable of modulating bone remodeling and bone mass. It appears that androgens are particularly important in the control of periosteal bone formation, an effect that might underlie the gender difference in bone size. Alterations in androgen receptor functio