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Sample records for e16 genomic biomarkers

  1. 76 FR 49773 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on E16 Biomarkers Related to Drug or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ...] International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on E16 Biomarkers Related to Drug or Biotechnology Product... availability of a guidance entitled ``E16 Biomarkers Related to Drug or Biotechnology Product Development... development of drug or biotechnology products, including translational medicine approaches, pharmacokinetics...

  2. Genomic Biomarkers for Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michael F.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical risk assessment for cancer predisposition includes a three-generation pedigree and physical examination to identify inherited syndromes. Additionally genetic and genomic biomarkers may identify individuals with a constitutional basis for their disease that may not be evident clinically. Genomic biomarker testing may detect molecular variations in single genes, panels of genes, or entire genomes. The strength of evidence for the association of a genomic biomarker with disease risk may be weak or strong. The factors contributing to clinical validity and utility of genomic biomarkers include functional laboratory analyses and genetic epidemiologic evidence. Genomic biomarkers may be further classified as low, moderate or highly penetrant based on the likelihood of disease. Genomic biomarkers for breast cancer are comprised of rare highly penetrant mutations of genes such as BRCA1 or BRCA2, moderately penetrant mutations of genes such as CHEK2, as well as more common genomic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms, associated with modest effect sizes. When applied in the context of appropriate counseling and interpretation, identification of genomic biomarkers of inherited risk for breast cancer may decrease morbidity and mortality, allow for definitive prevention through assisted reproduction, and serve as a guide to targeted therapy. PMID:26987529

  3. Identifying novel biomarkers in sarcoidosis using genome-based approaches

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Kenneth S.; Garcia, Joe G.N.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis We briefly review conventional biomarkers used clinically to 1) support a diagnosis and 2) monitor disease progression in patients with sarcoidosis. We describe potential new biomarkers identified by genome-wide screening and the approaches to discover these biomarkers. PMID:26593137

  4. Emergence of micronuclei as a genomic biomarker.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Robin; Verma, Parul; Syed, Mohammed Asif; Sharma, Tamanna; Subudhi, Santosh Kumar; Mohanty, Saumyakanta; Gupta, Shivangi

    2015-01-01

    The presence of micronuclei (MN) in mammalian cells is related to several mutagenetic stresses. MN are formed as a result of chromosome damage and can be readily identified in exfoliated epithelial cells. MN is chromatin particles derived from acentric chromosomal fragments, which are not incorporated into the daughter nucleus after mitosis. It can be visualized by chromatin stains. A variety of factors influences the formation of MN in cells such as age, sex, genetic constitution, physical and chemical agents, adverse habits such as tobacco, areca nut chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Micronucleation has important implications in the genomic plasticity of tumor cells. The present paper reviews the origin, fate and scoring criteria of MN that serves as a biomarker of exposure to genetic toxins, and for the risk of cancer.

  5. Emergence of micronuclei as a genomic biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Sabharwal, Robin; Verma, Parul; Syed, Mohammed Asif; Sharma, Tamanna; Subudhi, Santosh Kumar; Mohanty, Saumyakanta; Gupta, Shivangi

    2015-01-01

    The presence of micronuclei (MN) in mammalian cells is related to several mutagenetic stresses. MN are formed as a result of chromosome damage and can be readily identified in exfoliated epithelial cells. MN is chromatin particles derived from acentric chromosomal fragments, which are not incorporated into the daughter nucleus after mitosis. It can be visualized by chromatin stains. A variety of factors influences the formation of MN in cells such as age, sex, genetic constitution, physical and chemical agents, adverse habits such as tobacco, areca nut chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Micronucleation has important implications in the genomic plasticity of tumor cells. The present paper reviews the origin, fate and scoring criteria of MN that serves as a biomarker of exposure to genetic toxins, and for the risk of cancer. PMID:26811590

  6. Genomic and Proteomic Biomarkers for Cancer: A Multitude of Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Tainsky, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers are molecular indicators of a biological status, and as biochemical species can be assayed to evaluate the presence of cancer and therapeutic interventions. Through a variety of mechanisms cancer cells provide the biomarker material for their own detection. Biomarkers may be detectable in the blood, other body fluids, or tissues. The expectation is that the level of an informative biomarker is related to the specific type of disease present in the body. Biomarkers have potential both as diagnostic indicators and monitors of the effectiveness of clinical interventions. Biomarkers are also able to stratify cancer patients to the most appropriate treatment. Effective biomarkers for the early detection of cancer should provide a patient with a better outcome which in turn will translate into more efficient delivery of healthcare. Technologies for the early detection of cancer have resulted in reductions in disease-associated mortalities from cancers that are otherwise deadly if allowed to progress. Such screening technologies have proven that early detection will decrease the morbidity and mortality from cancer. An emerging theme in biomarker research is the expectation that panels of biomarker analytes rather than single markers will be needed to have sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the presymptomatic detection of cancer. Biomarkers may provide prognostic information of disease enabling interventions using targeted therapeutic agents as well as course-corrections in cancer treatment. Novel genomic, proteomic and metabolomic technologies are being used to discover and validate tumor biomarkers individually and in panels. PMID:19406210

  7. Genome Wide Search for Biomarkers to Diagnose Yersinia Infections.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Kumar, Prasun

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial identification on the basis of the highly conserved 16S rRNA (rrs) gene is limited by its presence in multiple copies and a very high level of similarity among them. The need is to look for other genes with unique characteristics to be used as biomarkers. Fifty-one sequenced genomes belonging to 10 different Yersinia species were used for searching genes common to all the genomes. Out of 304 common genes, 34 genes of sizes varying from 0.11 to 4.42 kb, were selected and subjected to in silico digestion with 10 different Restriction endonucleases (RE) (4-6 base cutters). Yersinia species have 6-7 copies of rrs per genome, which are difficult to distinguish by multiple sequence alignments or their RE digestion patterns. However, certain unique combinations of other common gene sequences-carB, fadJ, gluM, gltX, ileS, malE, nusA, ribD, and rlmL and their RE digestion patterns can be used as markers for identifying 21 strains belonging to 10 Yersinia species: Y. aldovae, Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. rohdei, Y. ruckeri, and Y. similis. This approach can be applied for rapid diagnostic applications.

  8. Salivary biomarker development using genomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The use of saliva as a diagnostic sample provides a non-invasive, cost-efficient method of sample collection for disease screening without the need for highly trained professionals. Saliva collection is far more practical and safe compared with invasive methods of sample collection, because of the infection risk from contaminated needles during, for example, blood sampling. Furthermore, the use of saliva could increase the availability of accurate diagnostics for remote and impoverished regions. However, the development of salivary diagnostics has required technical innovation to allow stabilization and detection of analytes in the complex molecular mixture that is saliva. The recent development of cost-effective room temperature analyte stabilization methods, nucleic acid pre-amplification techniques and direct saliva transcriptomic analysis have allowed accurate detection and quantification of transcripts found in saliva. Novel protein stabilization methods have also facilitated improved proteomic analyses. Although candidate biomarkers have been discovered using epigenetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches, transcriptomic analyses have so far achieved the most progress in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and progress towards clinical implementation. Here, we review recent developments in salivary diagnostics that have been accomplished using genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches. PMID:23114182

  9. Biological and Dose Thresholds for an Early Genomic Biomarker of Liver Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional data sources for cancer risk assessment are resource-intensive, retrospective, and not feasible for the vast majority of environmental chemicals. The use of quantitative short-term genomic biomarkers may streamline this process by providing protective limits for known...

  10. Biological and Dose Thresholds for an Early Genomic Biomarker of Liver Carcinogenesis in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional data sources for cancer risk assessment are resource-intensive, retrospective, and not feasible for the vast majority of environmental chemicals. The use of quantitative short-term genomic biomarkers may streamline this process by providing protective limits for known...

  11. The Present and Future of Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer: Proteomics, Genomics, and Immunology Advancements

    PubMed Central

    Gaudreau, Pierre-Olivier; Stagg, John; Soulières, Denis; Saad, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common form of cancer in men worldwide. Biomarkers have emerged as essential tools for treatment and assessment since the variability of disease behavior, the cost and diversity of treatments, and the related impairment of quality of life have given rise to a need for a personalized approach. High-throughput technology platforms in proteomics and genomics have accelerated the development of biomarkers. Furthermore, recent successes of several new agents in PC, including immunotherapy, have stimulated the search for predictors of response and resistance and have improved the understanding of the biological mechanisms at work. This review provides an overview of currently established biomarkers in PC, as well as a selection of the most promising biomarkers within these particular fields of development. PMID:27168728

  12. Genomic biomarkers for molecular imaging: predicting the future.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Mathew L

    2009-07-01

    Over the past few decades, great strides have been made in anatomical imaging of disease that has led to their diagnosis with minimal invasion. Despite these advances, diseases such as cancer continue to take one human life every minute in the United States. Complimentary approaches that pertain directly to the genesis of the disease might contribute to its early diagnosis and subsequent management. In cancer, an array of molecular abnormalities leading to the modulations in expression of key proteins important in the cellular signaling pathways and cell proliferation has been identified. These specific disease fingerprints, biomarkers, are overexpressed on malignant cell surfaces or within the cytoplasm, and they provide unique targets that are promising for improving cancer diagnosis and therapy. We and others have designed, synthesized, and evaluated some novel probes specific for those oncogenes and oncogene product biomarkers for PET and SPECT molecular imaging of certain types of cancers. This article briefly describes this approach and gives specific examples that depict the ability of molecular imaging to detect occult lesions not detectable by current scintigraphic approaches. The article also outlines a few examples predicting other possible applications of targeting such specific probes not yet used.

  13. Genomic and Histopathological Tissue Biomarkers That Predict Radiotherapy Response in Localised Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Anna; Dearnaley, David; Somaiah, Navita

    2015-01-01

    Localised prostate cancer, in particular, intermediate risk disease, has varied survival outcomes that cannot be predicted accurately using current clinical risk factors. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is one of the standard curative treatment options for localised disease and its efficacy is related to wide ranging aspects of tumour biology. Histopathological techniques including immunohistochemistry and a variety of genomic assays have been used to identify biomarkers of tumour proliferation, cell cycle checkpoints, hypoxia, DNA repair, apoptosis, and androgen synthesis, which predict response to radiotherapy. Global measures of genomic instability also show exciting capacity to predict survival outcomes following EBRT. There is also an urgent clinical need for biomarkers to predict the radiotherapy fraction sensitivity of different prostate tumours and preclinical studies point to possible candidates. Finally, the increased resolution of next generation sequencing (NGS) is likely to enable yet more precise molecular predictions of radiotherapy response and fraction sensitivity. PMID:26504789

  14. Advances in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Genomics, Biomarkers, and Antiplatelet Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Barbato, Emanuele; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; Stolen, Craig; Taylor, Angela; Barton, Paul J.; Bartunek, Jozef; Iaizzo, Paul; Judge, Daniel P.; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie; Blaxall, Burns C.; Terzic, Andre; Hall, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The Journal provides the clinician and scientist with the latest advances in discovery research, emerging technologies, pre-clinical research design and testing, and clinical trials. We highlight advances in areas of induced pluripotent stem cells, genomics, biomarkers, multi-modality imaging and antiplatelet biology and therapy. The top publications are critically discussed and presented along with anatomical reviews and FDA insight to provide context. PMID:24659088

  15. Sterol and genomic analyses validate the sponge biomarker hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Gold, David A; Grabenstatter, Jonathan; de Mendoza, Alex; Riesgo, Ana; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Summons, Roger E

    2016-03-08

    Molecular fossils (or biomarkers) are key to unraveling the deep history of eukaryotes, especially in the absence of traditional fossils. In this regard, the sterane 24-isopropylcholestane has been proposed as a molecular fossil for sponges, and could represent the oldest evidence for animal life. The sterane is found in rocks ∼650-540 million y old, and its sterol precursor (24-isopropylcholesterol, or 24-ipc) is synthesized today by certain sea sponges. However, 24-ipc is also produced in trace amounts by distantly related pelagophyte algae, whereas only a few close relatives of sponges have been assayed for sterols. In this study, we analyzed the sterol and gene repertoires of four taxa (Salpingoeca rosetta, Capsaspora owczarzaki, Sphaeroforma arctica, and Creolimax fragrantissima), which collectively represent the major living animal outgroups. We discovered that all four taxa lack C30 sterols, including 24-ipc. By building phylogenetic trees for key enzymes in 24-ipc biosynthesis, we identified a candidate gene (carbon-24/28 sterol methyltransferase, or SMT) responsible for 24-ipc production. Our results suggest that pelagophytes and sponges independently evolved C30 sterol biosynthesis through clade-specific SMT duplications. Using a molecular clock approach, we demonstrate that the relevant sponge SMT duplication event overlapped with the appearance of 24-isopropylcholestanes in the Neoproterozoic, but that the algal SMT duplication event occurred later in the Phanerozoic. Subsequently, pelagophyte algae and their relatives are an unlikely alternative to sponges as a source of Neoproterozoic 24-isopropylcholestanes, consistent with growing evidence that sponges evolved long before the Cambrian explosion ∼542 million y ago.

  16. Sterol and genomic analyses validate the sponge biomarker hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Gold, David A.; Grabenstatter, Jonathan; de Mendoza, Alex; Riesgo, Ana; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2016-01-01

    Molecular fossils (or biomarkers) are key to unraveling the deep history of eukaryotes, especially in the absence of traditional fossils. In this regard, the sterane 24-isopropylcholestane has been proposed as a molecular fossil for sponges, and could represent the oldest evidence for animal life. The sterane is found in rocks ∼650–540 million y old, and its sterol precursor (24-isopropylcholesterol, or 24-ipc) is synthesized today by certain sea sponges. However, 24-ipc is also produced in trace amounts by distantly related pelagophyte algae, whereas only a few close relatives of sponges have been assayed for sterols. In this study, we analyzed the sterol and gene repertoires of four taxa (Salpingoeca rosetta, Capsaspora owczarzaki, Sphaeroforma arctica, and Creolimax fragrantissima), which collectively represent the major living animal outgroups. We discovered that all four taxa lack C30 sterols, including 24-ipc. By building phylogenetic trees for key enzymes in 24-ipc biosynthesis, we identified a candidate gene (carbon-24/28 sterol methyltransferase, or SMT) responsible for 24-ipc production. Our results suggest that pelagophytes and sponges independently evolved C30 sterol biosynthesis through clade-specific SMT duplications. Using a molecular clock approach, we demonstrate that the relevant sponge SMT duplication event overlapped with the appearance of 24-isopropylcholestanes in the Neoproterozoic, but that the algal SMT duplication event occurred later in the Phanerozoic. Subsequently, pelagophyte algae and their relatives are an unlikely alternative to sponges as a source of Neoproterozoic 24-isopropylcholestanes, consistent with growing evidence that sponges evolved long before the Cambrian explosion ∼542 million y ago. PMID:26903629

  17. Noncoding Genomics in Gastric Cancer and the Gastric Precancerous Cascade: Pathogenesis and Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Bloj, Benjamin; Fry, Jacqueline; Wichmann, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death, whose patterns vary among geographical regions and ethnicities. It is a multifactorial disease, and its development depends on infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), host genetic factors, and environmental factors. The heterogeneity of the disease has begun to be unraveled by a comprehensive mutational evaluation of primary tumors. The low-abundance of mutations suggests that other mechanisms participate in the evolution of the disease, such as those found through analyses of noncoding genomics. Noncoding genomics includes single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation of promoter sites, miRNAs, other noncoding RNAs in regulatory regions, and other topics. These processes and molecules ultimately control gene expression. Potential biomarkers are appearing from analyses of noncoding genomics. This review focuses on noncoding genomics and potential biomarkers in the context of gastric cancer and the gastric precancerous cascade. PMID:26379360

  18. Data Mining Approaches for Genomic Biomarker Development: Applications Using Drug Screening Data from the Cancer Genome Project and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.

    PubMed

    Covell, David G

    2015-01-01

    Developing reliable biomarkers of tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance can guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and influence pre-therapy clinical decisions. A popular strategy for developing biomarkers uses characterizations of human tumor samples against a range of cancer drug responses that correlate with genomic change; developed largely from the efforts of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and Sanger Cancer Genome Project (CGP). The purpose of this study is to provide an independent analysis of this data that aims to vet existing and add novel perspectives to biomarker discoveries and applications. Existing and alternative data mining and statistical methods will be used to a) evaluate drug responses of compounds with similar mechanism of action (MOA), b) examine measures of gene expression (GE), copy number (CN) and mutation status (MUT) biomarkers, combined with gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), for hypothesizing biological processes important for drug response, c) conduct global comparisons of GE, CN and MUT as biomarkers across all drugs screened in the CGP dataset, and d) assess the positive predictive power of CGP-derived GE biomarkers as predictors of drug response in CCLE tumor cells. The perspectives derived from individual and global examinations of GEs, MUTs and CNs confirm existing and reveal unique and shared roles for these biomarkers in tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance. Applications of CGP-derived genomic biomarkers to predict the drug response of CCLE tumor cells finds a highly significant ROC, with a positive predictive power of 0.78. The results of this study expand the available data mining and analysis methods for genomic biomarker development and provide additional support for using biomarkers to guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and pre-therapy clinical decisions.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Blood Biomarkers in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Cho, Michael H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Lomas, David A.; Miller, Bruce E.; Kong, Xiangyang; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Agustí, Alvar; Wouters, Emiel; Celli, Bartolome; Coxson, Harvey; Vestbo, Jørgen; MacNee, William; Yates, Julie C.; Rennard, Stephen; Litonjua, Augusto; Qiu, Weiliang; Beaty, Terri H.; Crapo, James D.; Riley, John H.; Tal-Singer, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for circulating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) biomarkers could identify genetic determinants of biomarker levels and COPD susceptibility. Objectives: To identify genetic variants of circulating protein biomarkers and novel genetic determinants of COPD. Methods: GWAS was performed for two pneumoproteins, Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) and surfactant protein D (SP-D), and five systemic inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α) in 1,951 subjects with COPD. For genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (P < 1 × 10−8), association with COPD susceptibility was tested in 2,939 cases with COPD and 1,380 smoking control subjects. The association of candidate SNPs with mRNA expression in induced sputum was also elucidated. Measurements and Main Results: Genome-wide significant susceptibility loci affecting biomarker levels were found only for the two pneumoproteins. Two discrete loci affecting CC16, one region near the CC16 coding gene (SCGB1A1) on chromosome 11 and another locus approximately 25 Mb away from SCGB1A1, were identified, whereas multiple SNPs on chromosomes 6 and 16, in addition to SNPs near SFTPD, had genome-wide significant associations with SP-D levels. Several SNPs affecting circulating CC16 levels were significantly associated with sputum mRNA expression of SCGB1A1 (P = 0.009–0.03). Several SNPs highly associated with CC16 or SP-D levels were nominally associated with COPD in a collaborative GWAS (P = 0.001–0.049), although these COPD associations were not replicated in two additional cohorts. Conclusions: Distant genetic loci and biomarker-coding genes affect circulating levels of COPD-related pneumoproteins. A subset of these protein quantitative trait loci may influence their gene expression in the lung and/or COPD susceptibility. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00292552). PMID

  20. Computational systems biology analysis of biomarkers in lung cancer; unravelling genomic regions which frequently encode biomarkers, enriched pathways, and new candidates.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Ibrahim O; AlYahya, Sami A; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh, Manijeh

    2018-06-15

    Exponentially growing scientific knowledge in scientific publications has resulted in the emergence of a new interdisciplinary science of literature mining. In text mining, the machine reads the published literature and transfers the discovered knowledge to mathematical-like formulas. In an integrative approach in this study, we used text mining in combination with network discovery, pathway analysis, and enrichment analysis of genomic regions for better understanding of biomarkers in lung cancer. Particular attention was paid to non-coding biomarkers. In total, 60 MicroRNA biomarkers were reported for lung cancer, including some prognostic biomarkers. MIR21, MIR155, MALAT1, and MIR31 were the top non-coding RNA biomarkers of lung cancer. Text mining identified 447 proteins which have been studied as biomarkers in lung cancer. EGFR (receptor), TP53 (transcription factor), KRAS, CDKN2A, ENO2, KRT19, RASSF1, GRP (ligand), SHOX2 (transcription factor), and ERBB2 (receptor) were the most studied proteins. Within small molecules, thymosin-a1, oestrogen, and 8-OHdG have received more attention. We found some chromosomal bands, such as 7q32.2, 18q12.1, 6p12, 11p15.5, and 3p21.3 that are highly involved in deriving lung cancer biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Peripheral Blood Gene Expression as a Novel Genomic Biomarker in Complicated Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sweiss, Nadera J.; Chen, Edward S.; Moller, David R.; Knox, Kenneth S.; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Wade, Michael S.; Noth, Imre; Machado, Roberto F.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcoidosis, a systemic granulomatous syndrome invariably affecting the lung, typically spontaneously remits but in ∼20% of cases progresses with severe lung dysfunction or cardiac and neurologic involvement (complicated sarcoidosis). Unfortunately, current biomarkers fail to distinguish patients with remitting (uncomplicated) sarcoidosis from other fibrotic lung disorders, and fail to identify individuals at risk for complicated sarcoidosis. We utilized genome-wide peripheral blood gene expression analysis to identify a 20-gene sarcoidosis biomarker signature distinguishing sarcoidosis (n = 39) from healthy controls (n = 35, 86% classification accuracy) and which served as a molecular signature for complicated sarcoidosis (n = 17). As aberrancies in T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, JAK-STAT (JS) signaling, and cytokine-cytokine receptor (CCR) signaling are implicated in sarcoidosis pathogenesis, a 31-gene signature comprised of T cell signaling pathway genes associated with sarcoidosis (TCR/JS/CCR) was compared to the unbiased 20-gene biomarker signature but proved inferior in prediction accuracy in distinguishing complicated from uncomplicated sarcoidosis. Additional validation strategies included significant association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in signature genes with sarcoidosis susceptibility and severity (unbiased signature genes - CX3CR1, FKBP1A, NOG, RBM12B, SENS3, TSHZ2; T cell/JAK-STAT pathway genes such as AKT3, CBLB, DLG1, IFNG, IL2RA, IL7R, ITK, JUN, MALT1, NFATC2, PLCG1, SPRED1). In summary, this validated peripheral blood molecular gene signature appears to be a valuable biomarker in identifying cases with sarcoidoisis and predicting risk for complicated sarcoidosis. PMID:22984568

  2. Altered metabolomic-genomic signature: A potential noninvasive biomarker of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Helen C; Dachet, Fabien; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Bagla, Shruti; Fuerst, Darren; Stanley, Jeffrey A; Galloway, Matthew P; Loeb, Jeffrey A

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to identify noninvasive biomarkers of human epilepsy that can reliably detect and localize epileptic brain regions. Having noninvasive biomarkers would greatly enhance patient diagnosis, patient monitoring, and novel therapy development. At the present time, only surgically invasive, direct brain recordings are capable of detecting these regions with precision, which severely limits the pace and scope of both clinical management and research progress in epilepsy. We compared high versus low or nonspiking regions in nine medically intractable epilepsy surgery patients by performing integrated metabolomic-genomic-histological analyses of electrically mapped human cortical regions using high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, cDNA microarrays, and histological analysis. We found a highly consistent and predictive metabolite logistic regression model with reduced lactate and increased creatine plus phosphocreatine and choline, suggestive of a chronically altered metabolic state in epileptic brain regions. Linking gene expression, cellular, and histological differences to these key metabolites using a hierarchical clustering approach predicted altered metabolic vascular coupling in the affected regions. Consistently, these predictions were validated histologically, showing both neovascularization and newly discovered, millimeter-sized microlesions. Using a systems biology approach on electrically mapped human cortex provides new evidence for spatially segregated, metabolic derangements in both neurovascular and synaptic architecture in human epileptic brain regions that could be a noninvasively detectable biomarker of epilepsy. These findings both highlight the immense power of a systems biology approach and identify a potentially important role that magnetic resonance spectroscopy can play in the research and clinical management of epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Biomarkers identified for prostate cancer patients through genome-scale screening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei-Yun; Cui, Jia-Jia; Zhu, Tao; Shao, Wei-Hua; Zhao, Yi; Wang, Sai; Zhang, Yu-Peng; Wu, Ji-Chu; Zhang, Le

    2017-11-03

    Prostate cancer is a threat to men and usually occurs in aged males. Though prostate specific antigen level and Gleason score are utilized for evaluation of the prostate cancer in clinic, the biomarkers for this malignancy have not been widely recognized. Furthermore, the outcome varies across individuals receiving comparable treatment regimens and the underlying mechanism is still unclear. We supposed that genetic feature may be responsible for, at least in part, this process and conducted a two-cohort study to compare the genetic difference in tumorous and normal tissues of prostate cancer patients. The Gene Expression Omnibus dataset were used and a total of 41 genes were found significantly differently expressed in tumor tissues as compared with normal prostate tissues. Four genes (SPOCK3, SPON1, PTN and TGFB3) were selected for further evaluation after Gene Ontology analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and clinical association analysis. MIR1908 was also found decreased expression level in prostate cancer whose target genes were found expressing in both prostate tumor and normal tissues. These results indicated that these potential biomarkers deserve attention in prostate cancer patients and the underlying mechanism should be further investigated.

  4. Metabolomic and Genome-wide Association Studies Reveal Potential Endogenous Biomarkers for OATP1B1.

    PubMed

    Yee, S W; Giacomini, M M; Hsueh, C-H; Weitz, D; Liang, X; Goswami, S; Kinchen, J M; Coelho, A; Zur, A A; Mertsch, K; Brian, W; Kroetz, D L; Giacomini, K M

    2016-11-01

    Transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are a major cause of drug toxicities. Using published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the human metabolome, we identified 20 metabolites associated with genetic variants in organic anion transporter, OATP1B1 (P < 5 × 10 -8 ). Of these, 12 metabolites were significantly higher in plasma samples from volunteers dosed with the OATP1B1 inhibitor, cyclosporine (CSA) vs. placebo (q-value < 0.2). Conjugated bile acids and fatty acid dicarboxylates were among the metabolites discovered using both GWAS and CSA administration. In vitro studies confirmed tetradecanedioate (TDA) and hexadecanedioate (HDA) were novel substrates of OATP1B1 as well as OAT1 and OAT3. This study highlights the use of multiple datasets for the discovery of endogenous metabolites that represent potential in vivo biomarkers for transporter-mediated DDIs. Future studies are needed to determine whether these metabolites can serve as qualified biomarkers for organic anion transporters. Quantitative relationships between metabolite levels and modulation of transporters should be established. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  5. Prediction of Chemical Respiratory Sensitizers Using GARD, a Novel In Vitro Assay Based on a Genomic Biomarker Signature

    PubMed Central

    Albrekt, Ann-Sofie; Borrebaeck, Carl A. K.; Lindstedt, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Background Repeated exposure to certain low molecular weight (LMW) chemical compounds may result in development of allergic reactions in the skin or in the respiratory tract. In most cases, a certain LMW compound selectively sensitize the skin, giving rise to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), or the respiratory tract, giving rise to occupational asthma (OA). To limit occurrence of allergic diseases, efforts are currently being made to develop predictive assays that accurately identify chemicals capable of inducing such reactions. However, while a few promising methods for prediction of skin sensitization have been described, to date no validated method, in vitro or in vivo, exists that is able to accurately classify chemicals as respiratory sensitizers. Results Recently, we presented the in vitro based Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD) assay as a novel testing strategy for classification of skin sensitizing chemicals based on measurement of a genomic biomarker signature. We have expanded the applicability domain of the GARD assay to classify also respiratory sensitizers by identifying a separate biomarker signature containing 389 differentially regulated genes for respiratory sensitizers in comparison to non-respiratory sensitizers. By using an independent data set in combination with supervised machine learning, we validated the assay, showing that the identified genomic biomarker is able to accurately classify respiratory sensitizers. Conclusions We have identified a genomic biomarker signature for classification of respiratory sensitizers. Combining this newly identified biomarker signature with our previously identified biomarker signature for classification of skin sensitizers, we have developed a novel in vitro testing strategy with a potent ability to predict both skin and respiratory sensitization in the same sample. PMID:25760038

  6. Predictive Power Estimation Algorithm (PPEA) - A New Algorithm to Reduce Overfitting for Genomic Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangang; Jolly, Robert A.; Smith, Aaron T.; Searfoss, George H.; Goldstein, Keith M.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Dunker, Keith; Li, Shuyu; Thomas, Craig E.; Wei, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Toxicogenomics promises to aid in predicting adverse effects, understanding the mechanisms of drug action or toxicity, and uncovering unexpected or secondary pharmacology. However, modeling adverse effects using high dimensional and high noise genomic data is prone to over-fitting. Models constructed from such data sets often consist of a large number of genes with no obvious functional relevance to the biological effect the model intends to predict that can make it challenging to interpret the modeling results. To address these issues, we developed a novel algorithm, Predictive Power Estimation Algorithm (PPEA), which estimates the predictive power of each individual transcript through an iterative two-way bootstrapping procedure. By repeatedly enforcing that the sample number is larger than the transcript number, in each iteration of modeling and testing, PPEA reduces the potential risk of overfitting. We show with three different cases studies that: (1) PPEA can quickly derive a reliable rank order of predictive power of individual transcripts in a relatively small number of iterations, (2) the top ranked transcripts tend to be functionally related to the phenotype they are intended to predict, (3) using only the most predictive top ranked transcripts greatly facilitates development of multiplex assay such as qRT-PCR as a biomarker, and (4) more importantly, we were able to demonstrate that a small number of genes identified from the top-ranked transcripts are highly predictive of phenotype as their expression changes distinguished adverse from nonadverse effects of compounds in completely independent tests. Thus, we believe that the PPEA model effectively addresses the over-fitting problem and can be used to facilitate genomic biomarker discovery for predictive toxicology and drug responses. PMID:21935387

  7. Convergent functional genomics of anxiety disorders: translational identification of genes, biomarkers, pathways and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Le-Niculescu, H; Balaraman, Y; Patel, S D; Ayalew, M; Gupta, J; Kuczenski, R; Shekhar, A; Schork, N; Geyer, M A; Niculescu, A B

    2011-05-24

    Anxiety disorders are prevalent and disabling yet understudied from a genetic standpoint, compared with other major psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The fact that they are more common, diverse and perceived as embedded in normal life may explain this relative oversight. In addition, as for other psychiatric disorders, there are technical challenges related to the identification and validation of candidate genes and peripheral biomarkers. Human studies, particularly genetic ones, are susceptible to the issue of being underpowered, because of genetic heterogeneity, the effect of variable environmental exposure on gene expression, and difficulty of accrual of large, well phenotyped cohorts. Animal model gene expression studies, in a genetically homogeneous and experimentally tractable setting, can avoid artifacts and provide sensitivity of detection. Subsequent translational integration of the animal model datasets with human genetic and gene expression datasets can ensure cross-validatory power and specificity for illness. We have used a pharmacogenomic mouse model (involving treatments with an anxiogenic drug--yohimbine, and an anti-anxiety drug--diazepam) as a discovery engine for identification of anxiety candidate genes as well as potential blood biomarkers. Gene expression changes in key brain regions for anxiety (prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus) and blood were analyzed using a convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach, which integrates our new data with published human and animal model data, as a translational strategy of cross-matching and prioritizing findings. Our work identifies top candidate genes (such as FOS, GABBR1, NR4A2, DRD1, ADORA2A, QKI, RGS2, PTGDS, HSPA1B, DYNLL2, CCKBR and DBP), brain-blood biomarkers (such as FOS, QKI and HSPA1B), pathways (such as cAMP signaling) and mechanisms for anxiety disorders--notably signal transduction and reactivity to environment, with a prominent role for the

  8. Discovering novel pharmacogenomic biomarkers by imputing drug response in cancer patients from large genomics studies.

    PubMed

    Geeleher, Paul; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wang, Fan; Gruener, Robert F; Nath, Aritro; Morrison, Gladys; Bhutra, Steven; Grossman, Robert L; Huang, R Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    Obtaining accurate drug response data in large cohorts of cancer patients is very challenging; thus, most cancer pharmacogenomics discovery is conducted in preclinical studies, typically using cell lines and mouse models. However, these platforms suffer from serious limitations, including small sample sizes. Here, we have developed a novel computational method that allows us to impute drug response in very large clinical cancer genomics data sets, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The approach works by creating statistical models relating gene expression to drug response in large panels of cancer cell lines and applying these models to tumor gene expression data in the clinical data sets (e.g., TCGA). This yields an imputed drug response for every drug in each patient. These imputed drug response data are then associated with somatic genetic variants measured in the clinical cohort, such as copy number changes or mutations in protein coding genes. These analyses recapitulated drug associations for known clinically actionable somatic genetic alterations and identified new predictive biomarkers for existing drugs. © 2017 Geeleher et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Cadmium-induced genomic instability in Arabidopsis: Molecular toxicological biomarkers for early diagnosis of cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hetong; He, Lei; Song, Jie; Cui, Weina; Zhang, Yanzhao; Jia, Chunyun; Francis, Dennis; Rogers, Hilary J; Sun, Lizong; Tai, Peidong; Hui, Xiujuan; Yang, Yuesuo; Liu, Wan

    2016-05-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis, random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and methylation-sensitive arbitrarily primed PCR (MSAP-PCR) are methods to evaluate the toxicity of environmental pollutants in stress-treated plants and human cancer cells. Here, we evaluate these techniques to screen for genetic and epigenetic alterations of Arabidopsis plantlets exposed to 0-5.0 mg L(-1) cadmium (Cd) for 15 d. There was a substantial increase in RAPD polymorphism of 24.5, and in genomic methylation polymorphism of 30.5-34.5 at CpG and of 14.5-20 at CHG sites under Cd stress of 5.0 mg L(-1) by RAPD and of 0.25-5.0 mg L(-1) by MSAP-PCR, respectively. However, only a tiny increase of 1.5 loci by RAPD occurred under Cd stress of 4.0 mg L(-1), and an additional high dose (8.0 mg L(-1)) resulted in one repeat by MSI analysis. MSAP-PCR detected the most significant epigenetic modifications in plantlets exposed to Cd stress, and the patterns of hypermethylation and polymorphisms were consistent with inverted U-shaped dose responses. The presence of genomic methylation polymorphism in Cd-treated seedlings, prior to the onset of RAPD polymorphism, MSI and obvious growth effects, suggests that these altered DNA methylation loci are the most sensitive biomarkers for early diagnosis and risk assessment of genotoxic effects of Cd pollution in ecotoxicology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cancer Biomarkers from Genome-Scale DNA Methylation: Comparison of Evolutionary and Semantic Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Valavanis, Ioannis; Pilalis, Eleftherios; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation profiling exploits microarray technologies, thus yielding a wealth of high-volume data. Here, an intelligent framework is applied, encompassing epidemiological genome-scale DNA methylation data produced from the Illumina’s Infinium Human Methylation 450K Bead Chip platform, in an effort to correlate interesting methylation patterns with cancer predisposition and, in particular, breast cancer and B-cell lymphoma. Feature selection and classification are employed in order to select, from an initial set of ~480,000 methylation measurements at CpG sites, predictive cancer epigenetic biomarkers and assess their classification power for discriminating healthy versus cancer related classes. Feature selection exploits evolutionary algorithms or a graph-theoretic methodology which makes use of the semantics information included in the Gene Ontology (GO) tree. The selected features, corresponding to methylation of CpG sites, attained moderate-to-high classification accuracies when imported to a series of classifiers evaluated by resampling or blindfold validation. The semantics-driven selection revealed sets of CpG sites performing similarly with evolutionary selection in the classification tasks. However, gene enrichment and pathway analysis showed that it additionally provides more descriptive sets of GO terms and KEGG pathways regarding the cancer phenotypes studied here. Results support the expediency of this methodology regarding its application in epidemiological studies. PMID:27600245

  11. Characterization of neurophysiologic and neurocognitive biomarkers for use in genomic and clinical outcome studies of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Light, Gregory A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Rissling, Anthony J; Radant, Allen; Sugar, Catherine A; Sprock, Joyce; Pela, Marlena; Geyer, Mark A; Braff, David L

    2012-01-01

    Endophenotypes are quantitative, laboratory-based measures representing intermediate links in the pathways between genetic variation and the clinical expression of a disorder. Ideal endophenotypes exhibit deficits in patients, are stable over time and across shifts in psychopathology, and are suitable for repeat testing. Unfortunately, many leading candidate endophenotypes in schizophrenia have not been fully characterized simultaneously in large cohorts of patients and controls across these properties. The objectives of this study were to characterize the extent to which widely-used neurophysiological and neurocognitive endophenotypes are: 1) associated with schizophrenia, 2) stable over time, independent of state-related changes, and 3) free of potential practice/maturation or differential attrition effects in schizophrenia patients (SZ) and nonpsychiatric comparison subjects (NCS). Stability of clinical and functional measures was also assessed. Participants (SZ n = 341; NCS n = 205) completed a battery of neurophysiological (MMN, P3a, P50 and N100 indices, PPI, startle habituation, antisaccade), neurocognitive (WRAT-3 Reading, LNS-forward, LNS-reorder, WCST-64, CVLT-II). In addition, patients were rated on clinical symptom severity as well as functional capacity and status measures (GAF, UPSA, SOF). 223 subjects (SZ n = 163; NCS n = 58) returned for retesting after 1 year. Most neurophysiological and neurocognitive measures exhibited medium-to-large deficits in schizophrenia, moderate-to-substantial stability across the retest interval, and were independent of fluctuations in clinical status. Clinical symptoms and functional measures also exhibited substantial stability. A Longitudinal Endophenotype Ranking System (LERS) was created to rank neurophysiological and neurocognitive biomarkers according to their effect sizes across endophenotype criteria. The majority of neurophysiological and neurocognitive measures exhibited deficits in patients

  12. Characterization of Neurophysiologic and Neurocognitive Biomarkers for Use in Genomic and Clinical Outcome Studies of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Light, Gregory A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Rissling, Anthony J.; Radant, Allen; Sugar, Catherine A.; Sprock, Joyce; Pela, Marlena; Geyer, Mark A.; Braff, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Endophenotypes are quantitative, laboratory-based measures representing intermediate links in the pathways between genetic variation and the clinical expression of a disorder. Ideal endophenotypes exhibit deficits in patients, are stable over time and across shifts in psychopathology, and are suitable for repeat testing. Unfortunately, many leading candidate endophenotypes in schizophrenia have not been fully characterized simultaneously in large cohorts of patients and controls across these properties. The objectives of this study were to characterize the extent to which widely-used neurophysiological and neurocognitive endophenotypes are: 1) associated with schizophrenia, 2) stable over time, independent of state-related changes, and 3) free of potential practice/maturation or differential attrition effects in schizophrenia patients (SZ) and nonpsychiatric comparison subjects (NCS). Stability of clinical and functional measures was also assessed. Methods Participants (SZ n = 341; NCS n = 205) completed a battery of neurophysiological (MMN, P3a, P50 and N100 indices, PPI, startle habituation, antisaccade), neurocognitive (WRAT-3 Reading, LNS-forward, LNS-reorder, WCST-64, CVLT-II). In addition, patients were rated on clinical symptom severity as well as functional capacity and status measures (GAF, UPSA, SOF). 223 subjects (SZ n = 163; NCS n = 58) returned for retesting after 1 year. Results Most neurophysiological and neurocognitive measures exhibited medium-to-large deficits in schizophrenia, moderate-to-substantial stability across the retest interval, and were independent of fluctuations in clinical status. Clinical symptoms and functional measures also exhibited substantial stability. A Longitudinal Endophenotype Ranking System (LERS) was created to rank neurophysiological and neurocognitive biomarkers according to their effect sizes across endophenotype criteria. Conclusions The majority of neurophysiological and neurocognitive

  13. Evaluation of high throughput gene expression platforms using a genomic biomarker signature for prediction of skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Forreryd, Andy; Johansson, Henrik; Albrekt, Ann-Sofie; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-05-16

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) develops upon exposure to certain chemical compounds termed skin sensitizers. To reduce the occurrence of skin sensitizers, chemicals are regularly screened for their capacity to induce sensitization. The recently developed Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD) assay is an in vitro alternative to animal testing for identification of skin sensitizers, classifying chemicals by evaluating transcriptional levels of a genomic biomarker signature. During assay development and biomarker identification, genome-wide expression analysis was applied using microarrays covering approximately 30,000 transcripts. However, the microarray platform suffers from drawbacks in terms of low sample throughput, high cost per sample and time consuming protocols and is a limiting factor for adaption of GARD into a routine assay for screening of potential sensitizers. With the purpose to simplify assay procedures, improve technical parameters and increase sample throughput, we assessed the performance of three high throughput gene expression platforms--nCounter®, BioMark HD™ and OpenArray®--and correlated their performance metrics against our previously generated microarray data. We measured the levels of 30 transcripts from the GARD biomarker signature across 48 samples. Detection sensitivity, reproducibility, correlations and overall structure of gene expression measurements were compared across platforms. Gene expression data from all of the evaluated platforms could be used to classify most of the sensitizers from non-sensitizers in the GARD assay. Results also showed high data quality and acceptable reproducibility for all platforms but only medium to poor correlations of expression measurements across platforms. In addition, evaluated platforms were superior to the microarray platform in terms of cost efficiency, simplicity of protocols and sample throughput. We evaluated the performance of three non-array based platforms using a limited set of

  14. Genome-wide DNA methylation measurements in prostate tissues uncovers novel prostate cancer diagnostic biomarkers and transcription factor binding patterns.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Marie K; Ramaker, Ryne C; Roberts, Brian S; Lasseigne, Brittany N; Gunther, David S; Burwell, Todd C; Davis, Nicholas S; Gulzar, Zulfiqar G; Absher, Devin M; Cooper, Sara J; Brooks, James D; Myers, Richard M

    2017-04-17

    Current diagnostic tools for prostate cancer lack specificity and sensitivity for detecting very early lesions. DNA methylation is a stable genomic modification that is detectable in peripheral patient fluids such as urine and blood plasma that could serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer. We measured genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in 73 clinically annotated fresh-frozen prostate cancers and 63 benign-adjacent prostate tissues using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. We overlaid the most significantly differentially methylated sites in the genome with transcription factor binding sites measured by the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements consortium. We used logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves to assess the performance of candidate diagnostic models. We identified methylation patterns that have a high predictive power for distinguishing malignant prostate tissue from benign-adjacent prostate tissue, and these methylation signatures were validated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas Project. Furthermore, by overlaying ENCODE transcription factor binding data, we observed an enrichment of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 binding in gene regulatory regions with higher DNA methylation in malignant prostate tissues. DNA methylation patterns are greatly altered in prostate cancer tissue in comparison to benign-adjacent tissue. We have discovered patterns of DNA methylation marks that can distinguish prostate cancers with high specificity and sensitivity in multiple patient tissue cohorts, and we have identified transcription factors binding in these differentially methylated regions that may play important roles in prostate cancer development.

  15. A genetic stochastic process model for genome-wide joint analysis of biomarker dynamics and disease susceptibility with longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    He, Liang; Zhbannikov, Ilya; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Yashin, Anatoliy I; Kulminski, Alexander M

    2017-11-01

    Unraveling the underlying biological mechanisms or pathways behind the effects of genetic variations on complex diseases remains one of the major challenges in the post-GWAS (where GWAS is genome-wide association study) era. To further explore the relationship between genetic variations, biomarkers, and diseases for elucidating underlying pathological mechanism, a huge effort has been placed on examining pleiotropic and gene-environmental interaction effects. We propose a novel genetic stochastic process model (GSPM) that can be applied to GWAS and jointly investigate the genetic effects on longitudinally measured biomarkers and risks of diseases. This model is characterized by more profound biological interpretation and takes into account the dynamics of biomarkers during follow-up when investigating the hazards of a disease. We illustrate the rationale and evaluate the performance of the proposed model through two GWAS. One is to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) having interaction effects on type 2 diabetes (T2D) with body mass index (BMI) and the other is to detect SNPs affecting the optimal BMI level for protecting from T2D. We identified multiple SNPs that showed interaction effects with BMI on T2D, including a novel SNP rs11757677 in the CDKAL1 gene (P = 5.77 × 10 -7 ). We also found a SNP rs1551133 located on 2q14.2 that reversed the effect of BMI on T2D (P = 6.70 × 10 -7 ). In conclusion, the proposed GSPM provides a promising and useful tool in GWAS of longitudinal data for interrogating pleiotropic and interaction effects to gain more insights into the relationship between genes, quantitative biomarkers, and risks of complex diseases. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relvant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial - Genomic Health, Inc. — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Validate a panel of tissue-based biomarkers to determine the presence of or progression to clinically relevant prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis. Utilize a novel, biopsy based multi-gene quantitative RT-PCR assay developed by Genomic Health, Oncotype DX Prostate Cancer Assay, which discriminates aggressive from indolent cancer on multivariate modeling of PCa patients.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification of Molecular Pathways and Biomarkers in Response to Arsenic Exposure in Zebrafish Liver

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongyan; Lam, Siew Hong; Shen, Yuan; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    comprehensive investigation of molecular mechanism of asenic toxicity and genome-wide search for potential biomarkers for arsenic exposure. PMID:23922661

  18. Development of micro immunosensors to study genomic and proteomic biomarkers related to cancer and Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhulkar, Shradha

    A report from the National Institutes of Health defines a disease biomarker as a "characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention." Early diagnosis is a crucial factor for incurable disease such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD). During the last decade researchers have discovered that biochemical changes caused by a disease can be detected considerably earlier as compared to physical manifestations/symptoms. In this dissertation electrochemical detection was utilized as the detection strategy as it offers high sensitivity/specificity, ease of operation, and capability of miniaturization and multiplexed detection. Electrochemical detection of biological analytes is an established field, and has matured at a rapid pace during the last 50 years and adapted itself to advances in micro/nanofabrication procedures. Carbon fiber microelectrodes were utilized as the platform sensor due to their high signal to noise ratio, ease and low-cost of fabrication, biocompatibility, and active carbon surface which allows conjugation with biorecognition moieties. This dissertation specifically focuses on the detection of 3 extensively validated biomarkers for cancer and AD. Firstly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) a cancer biomarker was detected using a one-step, reagentless immunosensing strategy. The immunosensing strategy allowed a rapid and sensitive means of VEGF detection with a detection limit of about 38 pg/mL with a linear dynamic range of 0--100 pg/mL. Direct detection of AD-related biomarker amyloid beta (Abeta) was achieved by exploiting its inherent electroactivity. The quantification of the ratio of Abeta1-40/42 (or Abeta ratio) has been established as a reliable test to diagnose AD through human clinical trials. Triple barrel carbon fiber microelectrodes were used to simultaneously detect Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 in

  19. atBioNet--an integrated network analysis tool for genomics and biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yijun; Chen, Minjun; Liu, Zhichao; Ding, Don; Ye, Yanbin; Zhang, Min; Kelly, Reagan; Guo, Li; Su, Zhenqiang; Harris, Stephen C; Qian, Feng; Ge, Weigong; Fang, Hong; Xu, Xiaowei; Tong, Weida

    2012-07-20

    Large amounts of mammalian protein-protein interaction (PPI) data have been generated and are available for public use. From a systems biology perspective, Proteins/genes interactions encode the key mechanisms distinguishing disease and health, and such mechanisms can be uncovered through network analysis. An effective network analysis tool should integrate different content-specific PPI databases into a comprehensive network format with a user-friendly platform to identify key functional modules/pathways and the underlying mechanisms of disease and toxicity. atBioNet integrates seven publicly available PPI databases into a network-specific knowledge base. Knowledge expansion is achieved by expanding a user supplied proteins/genes list with interactions from its integrated PPI network. The statistically significant functional modules are determined by applying a fast network-clustering algorithm (SCAN: a Structural Clustering Algorithm for Networks). The functional modules can be visualized either separately or together in the context of the whole network. Integration of pathway information enables enrichment analysis and assessment of the biological function of modules. Three case studies are presented using publicly available disease gene signatures as a basis to discover new biomarkers for acute leukemia, systemic lupus erythematosus, and breast cancer. The results demonstrated that atBioNet can not only identify functional modules and pathways related to the studied diseases, but this information can also be used to hypothesize novel biomarkers for future analysis. atBioNet is a free web-based network analysis tool that provides a systematic insight into proteins/genes interactions through examining significant functional modules. The identified functional modules are useful for determining underlying mechanisms of disease and biomarker discovery. It can be accessed at: http://www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/BioinformaticsTools/ucm285284.htm.

  20. Integrated analysis of epigenomic and genomic changes by DNA methylation dependent mechanisms provides potential novel biomarkers for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    White-Al Habeeb, Nicole M A; Ho, Linh T; Olkhov-Mitsel, Ekaterina; Kron, Ken; Pethe, Vaijayanti; Lehman, Melanie; Jovanovic, Lidija; Fleshner, Neil; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Nelson, Colleen C; Bapat, Bharati

    2014-09-15

    Epigenetic silencing mediated by CpG methylation is a common feature of many cancers. Characterizing aberrant DNA methylation changes associated with tumor progression may identify potential prognostic markers for prostate cancer (PCa). We treated two PCa cell lines, 22Rv1 and DU-145 with the demethylating agent 5-Aza 2'-deoxycitidine (DAC) and global methylation status was analyzed by performing methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme based differential methylation hybridization strategy followed by genome-wide CpG methylation array profiling. In addition, we examined gene expression changes using a custom microarray. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) identified the most significantly dysregulated pathways. In addition, we assessed methylation status of candidate genes that showed reduced CpG methylation and increased gene expression after DAC treatment, in Gleason score (GS) 8 vs. GS6 patients using three independent cohorts of patients; the publically available The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, and two separate patient cohorts. Our analysis, by integrating methylation and gene expression in PCa cell lines, combined with patient tumor data, identified novel potential biomarkers for PCa patients. These markers may help elucidate the pathogenesis of PCa and represent potential prognostic markers for PCa patients.

  1. Genomic reprograming analysis of the Mesothelial to Mesenchymal Transition identifies biomarkers in peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Carpio, Vicente; Sandoval, Pilar; Aguilera, Abelardo; Albar-Vizcaíno, Patricia; Perez-Lozano, María Luisa; González-Mateo, Guadalupe T.; Acuña-Ruiz, Adrián; García-Cantalejo, Jesús; Botías, Pedro; Bajo, María Auxiliadora; Selgas, Rafael; Sánchez-Tomero, José Antonio; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Piecha, Dorothea; Büchel, Janine; Steppan, Sonja; López-Cabrera, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective renal replacement therapy, but a significant proportion of patients suffer PD-related complications, which limit the treatment duration. Mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT) contributes to the PD-related peritoneal dysfunction. We analyzed the genetic reprograming of MMT to identify new biomarkers that may be tested in PD-patients. Microarray analysis revealed a partial overlapping between MMT induced in vitro and ex vivo in effluent-derived mesothelial cells, and that MMT is mainly a repression process being higher the number of genes that are down-regulated than those that are induced. Cellular morphology and number of altered genes showed that MMT ex vivo could be subdivided into two stages: early/epithelioid and advanced/non-epithelioid. RT-PCR array analysis demonstrated that a number of genes differentially expressed in effluent-derived non-epithelioid cells also showed significant differential expression when comparing standard versus low-GDP PD fluids. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), collagen-13 (COL13), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and gremlin-1 (GREM1) were measured in PD effluents, and except GREM1, showed significant differences between early and advanced stages of MMT, and their expression was associated with a high peritoneal transport status. The results establish a proof of concept about the feasibility of measuring MMT-associated secreted protein levels as potential biomarkers in PD. PMID:28327551

  2. Whole-genome sequencing revealed novel prognostic biomarkers and promising targets for therapy of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Itamochi, Hiroaki; Oishi, Tetsuro; Oumi, Nao; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Mikami, Mikio; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Terao, Yasuhisa; Takehara, Kazuhiro; Ushijima, Kimio; Watari, Hidemichi; Aoki, Daisuke; Kimura, Tadashi; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Kigawa, Junzo; Sugiyama, Toru

    2017-08-22

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is mostly resistant to standard chemotherapy that results in poor patient survival. To understand the genetic background of these tumours, we performed whole-genome sequencing of OCCC tumours. Tumour tissue samples and matched blood samples were obtained from 55 Japanese women diagnosed with OCCC. Whole-genome sequencing was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform according to standard protocols. Alterations to the switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) subunit, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway, and the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras signalling pathway were found in 51%, 42%, and 29% of OCCC tumours, respectively. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for patients with an activated PI3K/Akt signalling pathway was significantly higher than that for those with inactive pathway (91 vs 40%, hazard ratio 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.56), P=0.0010). Similarly, the OS was significantly higher in patients with the activated RTK/Ras signalling pathway than in those with the inactive pathway (91 vs 53%, hazard ratio 0.35 (95% CI 0.13-0.94), P=0.0373). Multivariable analysis revealed that activation of the PI3K/Akt and RTK/Ras signalling pathways was an independent prognostic factor for patients with OCCC. The PI3K/Akt and RTK/Ras signalling pathways may be potential prognostic biomarkers for OCCC patients. Furthermore, our whole-genome sequencing data highlight important pathways for molecular and biological characterisations and potential therapeutic targeting in OCCC.

  3. Genome-wide association study of CSF biomarkers Abeta1-42, t-tau, and p-tau181p in the ADNI cohort.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Swaminathan, S; Shen, L; Risacher, S L; Nho, K; Foroud, T; Shaw, L M; Trojanowski, J Q; Potkin, S G; Huentelman, M J; Craig, D W; DeChairo, B M; Aisen, P S; Petersen, R C; Weiner, M W; Saykin, A J

    2011-01-04

    CSF levels of Aβ1-42, t-tau, and p-tau181p are potential early diagnostic markers for probable Alzheimer disease (AD). The influence of genetic variation on these markers has been investigated for candidate genes but not on a genome-wide basis. We report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of CSF biomarkers (Aβ1-42, t-tau, p-tau181p, p-tau181p/Aβ1-42, and t-tau/Aβ1-42). A total of 374 non-Hispanic Caucasian participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort with quality-controlled CSF and genotype data were included in this analysis. The main effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) under an additive genetic model was assessed on each of 5 CSF biomarkers. The p values of all SNPs for each CSF biomarker were adjusted for multiple comparisons by the Bonferroni method. We focused on SNPs with corrected p<0.01 (uncorrected p<3.10×10(-8)) and secondarily examined SNPs with uncorrected p values less than 10(-5) to identify potential candidates. Four SNPs in the regions of the APOE, LOC100129500, TOMM40, and EPC2 genes reached genome-wide significance for associations with one or more CSF biomarkers. SNPs in CCDC134, ABCG2, SREBF2, and NFATC4, although not reaching genome-wide significance, were identified as potential candidates. In addition to known candidate genes, APOE, TOMM40, and one hypothetical gene LOC100129500 partially overlapping APOE; one novel gene, EPC2, and several other interesting genes were associated with CSF biomarkers that are related to AD. These findings, especially the new EPC2 results, require replication in independent cohorts.

  4. Genomic Biomarkers for the Prediction of Stage and Prognosis of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bagrodia, Aditya; Cha, Eugene K; Sfakianos, John P; Zabor, Emily C; Bochner, Bernard H; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Solit, David B; Coleman, Jonathan A; Iyer, Gopa; Scott, Sasinya N; Shah, Ronak; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Lee, Byron; Desai, Neil B; Ren, Qinghu; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Dalbagni, Guido; Bajorin, Dean F; Reuter, Victor E; Berger, Michael F

    2016-06-01

    Genomic characterization of radical nephroureterectomy specimens in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma may allow for thoughtful integration of systemic and targeted therapies. We sought to determine whether genomic alterations in upper tract urothelial carcinoma are associated with adverse pathological and clinical outcomes. Next generation exon capture sequencing of 300 cancer associated genes was performed in 83 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Genomic alterations were assessed individually and also grouped into core signal transduction pathways or canonical cell functions for association with clinicopathological outcomes. Binary outcomes, including grade (high vs low), T stage (pTa/T1/T2 vs pT3/T4) and organ confined status (pT2 or less and N0/Nx vs greater than pT2 or N+) were assessed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher exact tests as appropriate. Associations between alterations and survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression. Of the 24 most commonly altered genes in 9 pathways TP53/MDM2 alterations and FGFR3 mutations were the only 2 alterations uniformly associated with high grade, advanced stage, nonorgan confined disease, and recurrence-free and cancer specific survival. TP53/MDM2 alterations were associated with adverse clinicopathological outcomes whereas FGFR3 mutations were associated with favorable outcomes. We created a risk score using TP53/MDM2 and FGFR3 status that was able to discriminate between adverse pathological and clinical outcomes, including in the subset of patients with high grade disease. The study is limited by small numbers and lack of validation. Our data indicate that specific genomic alterations in radical nephroureterectomy specimens correlate with tumor grade, stage and cancer specific survival outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-wide association studies for the identification of biomarkers in metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Pattin, Kristine A; Moore, Jason H

    2010-01-01

    The field of genetics as it relates to metabolic disorders such as obesity and type II diabetes is complicated, and along with the medical research community, great strides are being taken to begin to understand the biological and genetic underpinnings of these diseases, with the hope of improving therapeutic, diagnostic and preventive strategies. Although research on metabolic disorders has been continuing for decades, the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003 and the International HapMap Project in 2005 gave rise to an abundance of research tools, such as genome-wide genotyping, which allow researchers to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for detecting genetic variants that confer increased or decreased susceptibility to such complex diseases. In this review, the complex nature of metabolic disorders is discussed, specifically obesity and type II diabetes, as well as the limitations of the GWAS as applied to these disorders. While acknowledging limitations of GWAS, it is hoped to provide an insight about how GWAS can be adapted and advantageous in the clinical setting, enhancing prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. To be able to use the GWAS in a clinical setting is a complex challenge, yet it is hoped that in the future this tool will ultimately allow the development of pharmaceutical options that are capable of targeting the cause of metabolic disorders, not just the symptoms themselves.

  6. Utilization of individualized prostate cancer and genomic biomarkers for the practicing urologist

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Gregory C.; Brown, Gordon A.; Mueller, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer encompasses a complex heterogeneous disease spectrum. Physicians and patients are faced with the ambiguity of who should be screened, biopsied, rebiopsied, treated, or provided with adjuvant therapy. Personalized outcomes and treatments are especially important given the varied nature of the disease, plethora of treatment options, risks of morbidity, and quality of life. Today’s practicing urologist has a multitude of tests from which to choose, creating the difficult task of appropriate use. This review focuses on two blood-, one urine-, and five genomic-based tests, which, when used in the appropriate clinical setting, can facilitate the patient-physician decision-making process. PMID:28959146

  7. Genome-Wide Interaction Study of Omega-3 PUFAs and Other Fatty Acids on Inflammatory Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Health in the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Jenna; Kalsbeek, Anya; Westra, Jason; Disselkoen, Craig; Smith, Caren; Tintle, Nathan

    2017-08-18

    Numerous genetic loci have been identified as being associated with circulating fatty acid (FA) levels and/or inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular health (e.g., C-reactive protein). Recently, using red blood cell (RBC) FA data from the Framingham Offspring Study, we conducted a genome-wide association study of over 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 22 RBC FAs (and associated ratios), including the four Omega-3 FAs (ALA, DHA, DPA, and EPA). Our analyses identified numerous causal loci. In this manuscript, we investigate the extent to which polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels moderate the relationship of genetics to cardiovascular health biomarkers using a genome-wide interaction study approach. In particular, we test for possible gene-FA interactions on 9 inflammatory biomarkers, with 2.5 million SNPs and 12 FAs, including all Omega-3 PUFAs. We identified eighteen novel loci, including loci which demonstrate strong evidence of modifying the impact of heritable genetics on biomarker levels, and subsequently cardiovascular health. The identified genes provide increased clarity on the biological functioning and role of Omega-3 PUFAs, as well as other common fatty acids, in cardiovascular health, and suggest numerous candidate loci for future replication and biological characterization.

  8. Potential candidate genomic biomarkers of drug induced vascular injury in the rat

    SciT

    Dalmas, Deidre A., E-mail: Deidre.A.Dalmas@gsk.com; Scicchitano, Marshall S., E-mail: Marshall.S.Scicchitano@gsk.com; Mullins, David, E-mail: David.R.Mullins@gsk.com

    2011-12-15

    Drug-induced vascular injury is frequently observed in rats but the relevance and translation to humans present a hurdle for drug development. Numerous structurally diverse pharmacologic agents have been shown to induce mesenteric arterial medial necrosis in rats, but no consistent biomarkers have been identified. To address this need, a novel strategy was developed in rats to identify genes associated with the development of drug-induced mesenteric arterial medial necrosis. Separate groups (n = 6/group) of male rats were given 28 different toxicants (30 different treatments) for 1 or 4 days with each toxicant given at 3 different doses (low, mid andmore » high) plus corresponding vehicle (912 total rats). Mesentery was collected, frozen and endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells were microdissected from each artery. RNA was isolated, amplified and Affymetrix GeneChip Registered-Sign analysis was performed on selectively enriched samples and a novel panel of genes representing those which showed a dose responsive pattern for all treatments in which mesenteric arterial medial necrosis was histologically observed, was developed and verified in individual endothelial cell- and vascular smooth muscle cell-enriched samples. Data were confirmed in samples containing mesentery using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan Trade-Mark-Sign ) gene expression profiling. In addition, the performance of the panel was also confirmed using similarly collected samples obtained from a timecourse study in rats given a well established vascular toxicant (Fenoldopam). Although further validation is still required, a novel gene panel has been developed that represents a strategic opportunity that can potentially be used to help predict the occurrence of drug-induced mesenteric arterial medial necrosis in rats at an early stage in drug development. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A gene panel was developed to help predict rat drug-induced mesenteric MAN. Black

  9. Genome-wide analysis of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) mucin genes and their role as biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Grammes, Fabian Thomas; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Jørgensen, Sven Martin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential mucin genes in the Atlantic salmon genome and evaluate tissue-specific distribution and transcriptional regulation in response to aquaculture-relevant stress conditions in post-smolts. Seven secreted gel-forming mucin genes were identified based on several layers of evidence; annotation, transcription, phylogeny and domain structure. Two genes were annotated as muc2 and five genes as muc5. The muc2 genes were predominantly transcribed in the intestinal region while the different genes in the muc5 family were mainly transcribed in either skin, gill or pyloric caeca. In order to investigate transcriptional regulation of mucins during stress conditions, two controlled experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, handling stress induced mucin transcription in the gill, while transcription decreased in the skin and intestine. In the second experiment, long term intensive rearing conditions (fish biomass ~125 kg/m3) interrupted by additional confinement led to increased transcription of mucin genes in the skin at one, seven and fourteen days post-confinement. PMID:29236729

  10. [Pharmacogenomics of the first-line treatment for gastric cancer: advances in the identification of genomic biomarkers for clinical response to chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rojas, Carlos; Ortiz-Lópezj, Rocío; Rojas-Martínez, Augusto

    2014-06-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is often diagnosed at later stages due to the lack of specificity of symptoms associated with the neoplasm, causing high mortality rates worldwide. The first line of adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment includes cytotoxic fluoropyrimidines and platin-containing compounds which cause the formation of DNA adducts. The clinical outcome with these antineoplastic agents depends mainly on tumor sensitivity, which is conditioned by the expression level of the drug targets and the DNA-repair system enzymes. In addition, some germ line polymorphisms, in genes linked to drug metabolism and response to chemotherapy, have been associated with poor responses and the development of adverse effects, even with fatal outcomes in GC patients. The identification of genomic biomarkers, such as individual gene polymorphisms or differential expression patterns of specific genes, in a patient-by-patient context with potential clinical application is the main focus of current pharmacogenomic research, which aims at developing a rational and personalized therapy (i.e., a therapy that ensures maximum efficacy with no predictable side effects). However, because of the future application of genomic technologies in the clinical setting, it is necessary to establish the prognostic value of these genomic biomarkers with genotype-phenotype association studies and to evaluate their prevalence in the population under treatment. These issues are important for their cost-effectiveness evaluation, which determines the feasibility of using these medical genomic research products for GC treatment in the clinical setting.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification of Circular RNAs as a Novel Class of Putative Biomarkers for an Ocular Surface Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Miao; Ge, Hui-Min; Yao, Jin; Zhou, Yun-Fan; Yao, Mu-Di; Liu, Chang; Hu, Hai-Tao; Zhu, Yun-Xi; Shan, Kun; Yan, Biao; Jiang, Qin

    2018-06-27

    Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease with an unknown etiology and threatens vision as it invades into the cornea. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of RNA transcripts that participate in several physiological and pathological processes. However, the role of circRNAs in pathogenesis of pterygium remains largely unknown. Genome-wide circRNA expression profiling was performed to identify pterygium -related circRNAs. GO analysis, pathway analysis, and miRNA response elements analysis was performed to predict the function of differentially expressed circRNAs in pterygium. MTT assays, Ki67 staining, Transwell assay, Hoechst 33342 staining, and Calcein-AM/PI staining were performed to determine the effect of circRNA silencing on pterygium fibroblast and epithelial cell function. Approximately 669 circRNAs were identified to be abnormally expressed in pterygium tissues. GO analysis demonstrated that the host genes of differentially expressed circRNAs were targeted to extracellular matrix organization (ontology: biological process), cytoplasm (ontology: cellular component), and protein binding (ontology: molecular function). Pathway analysis showed that dysregulated circRNAs-mediated regulatory networks were mostly enriched in focal adhesion signaling pathway. Notably, circ_0085020 (circ-LAPTM4B) was shown as a potential biomarker for pterygium. circ_0085020 (circ-LAPTM4B) silencing affected the viability, proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of pterygium fibroblast and epithelial cells in vitro. This study provides evidence that circRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of pterygium and might constitute promising targets for the therapeutic intervention of pterygium. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. NCC-AUC: an AUC optimization method to identify multi-biomarker panel for cancer prognosis from genomic and clinical data.

    PubMed

    Zou, Meng; Liu, Zhaoqi; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-15

    In prognosis and survival studies, an important goal is to identify multi-biomarker panels with predictive power using molecular characteristics or clinical observations. Such analysis is often challenged by censored, small-sample-size, but high-dimensional genomic profiles or clinical data. Therefore, sophisticated models and algorithms are in pressing need. In this study, we propose a novel Area Under Curve (AUC) optimization method for multi-biomarker panel identification named Nearest Centroid Classifier for AUC optimization (NCC-AUC). Our method is motived by the connection between AUC score for classification accuracy evaluation and Harrell's concordance index in survival analysis. This connection allows us to convert the survival time regression problem to a binary classification problem. Then an optimization model is formulated to directly maximize AUC and meanwhile minimize the number of selected features to construct a predictor in the nearest centroid classifier framework. NCC-AUC shows its great performance by validating both in genomic data of breast cancer and clinical data of stage IB Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). For the genomic data, NCC-AUC outperforms Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Support Vector Machine-based Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE) in classification accuracy. It tends to select a multi-biomarker panel with low average redundancy and enriched biological meanings. Also NCC-AUC is more significant in separation of low and high risk cohorts than widely used Cox model (Cox proportional-hazards regression model) and L1-Cox model (L1 penalized in Cox model). These performance gains of NCC-AUC are quite robust across 5 subtypes of breast cancer. Further in an independent clinical data, NCC-AUC outperforms SVM and SVM-RFE in predictive accuracy and is consistently better than Cox model and L1-Cox model in grouping patients into high and low risk categories. In summary, NCC-AUC provides a rigorous optimization framework to

  13. Respiratory Toxicity Biomarkers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The advancement in high throughput genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques have accelerated pace of lung biomarker discovery. A recent growth in the discovery of new lung toxicity/disease biomarkers have led to significant advances in our understanding of pathological proce...

  14. Network Biomarkers of Bladder Cancer Based on a Genome-Wide Genetic and Epigenetic Network Derived from Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic and microRNA (miRNA) regulation are associated with carcinogenesis and the development of cancer. By using the available omics data, including those from next-generation sequencing (NGS), genome-wide methylation profiling, candidate integrated genetic and epigenetic network (IGEN) analysis, and drug response genome-wide microarray analysis, we constructed an IGEN system based on three coupling regression models that characterize protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs), gene regulatory networks (GRNs), miRNA regulatory networks (MRNs), and epigenetic regulatory networks (ERNs). By applying system identification method and principal genome-wide network projection (PGNP) to IGEN analysis, we identified the core network biomarkers to investigate bladder carcinogenic mechanisms and design multiple drug combinations for treating bladder cancer with minimal side-effects. The progression of DNA repair and cell proliferation in stage 1 bladder cancer ultimately results not only in the derepression of miR-200a and miR-200b but also in the regulation of the TNF pathway to metastasis-related genes or proteins, cell proliferation, and DNA repair in stage 4 bladder cancer. We designed a multiple drug combination comprising gefitinib, estradiol, yohimbine, and fulvestrant for treating stage 1 bladder cancer with minimal side-effects, and another multiple drug combination comprising gefitinib, estradiol, chlorpromazine, and LY294002 for treating stage 4 bladder cancer with minimal side-effects.

  15. Genomic analysis, cytokine expression, and microRNA profiling reveal biomarkers of human dietary zinc depletion and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi; Chang, Shou-Mei; Shankar, Meena N; Cousins, Robert J

    2011-12-27

    Implementation of zinc interventions for subjects suspected of being zinc-deficient is a global need, but is limited due to the absence of reliable biomarkers. To discover molecular signatures of human zinc deficiency, a combination of transcriptome, cytokine, and microRNA analyses was applied to a dietary zinc depletion/repletion protocol with young male human subjects. Concomitant with a decrease in serum zinc concentration, changes in buccal and blood gene transcripts related to zinc homeostasis occurred with zinc depletion. Microarray analyses of whole blood RNA revealed zinc-responsive genes, particularly, those associated with cell cycle regulation and immunity. Responses of potential signature genes of dietary zinc depletion were further assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. The diagnostic properties of specific serum microRNAs for dietary zinc deficiency were identified by acute responses to zinc depletion, which were reversible by subsequent zinc repletion. Depression of immune-stimulated TNFα secretion by blood cells was observed after low zinc consumption and may serve as a functional biomarker. Our findings introduce numerous novel candidate biomarkers for dietary zinc status assessment using a variety of contemporary technologies and which identify changes that occur prior to or with greater sensitivity than the serum zinc concentration which represents the current zinc status assessment marker. In addition, the results of gene network analysis reveal potential clinical outcomes attributable to suboptimal zinc intake including immune function defects and predisposition to cancer. These demonstrate through a controlled depletion/repletion dietary protocol that the illusive zinc biomarker(s) can be identified and applied to assessment and intervention strategies.

  16. The NOTCH3 score: a pre-clinical CADASIL biomarker in a novel human genomic NOTCH3 transgenic mouse model with early progressive vascular NOTCH3 accumulation.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Julie W; Klever, Roselin R; Hegeman, Ingrid M; Poole, Dana S; Dauwerse, Hans G; Broos, Ludo A M; Breukel, Cor; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke M; Verbeek, J Sjef; van der Weerd, Louise; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Lesnik Oberstein, Saskia A J

    2015-12-29

    CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy) is a hereditary small vessel disease caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene, leading to toxic NOTCH3 protein accumulation in the small- to medium sized arterioles. The accumulation is systemic but most pronounced in the brain vasculature where it leads to clinical symptoms of recurrent stroke and dementia. There is no therapy for CADASIL, and therapeutic development is hampered by a lack of feasible clinical outcome measures and biomarkers, both in mouse models and in CADASIL patients. To facilitate pre-clinical therapeutic interventions for CADASIL, we aimed to develop a novel, translational CADASIL mouse model. We generated transgenic mice in which we overexpressed the full length human NOTCH3 gene from a genomic construct with the archetypal c.544C > T, p.Arg182Cys mutation. The four mutant strains we generated have respective human NOTCH3 RNA expression levels of 100, 150, 200 and 350 % relative to endogenous mouse Notch3 RNA expression. Immunohistochemistry on brain sections shows characteristic vascular human NOTCH3 accumulation in all four mutant strains, with human NOTCH3 RNA expression levels correlating with age at onset and progression of NOTCH3 accumulation. This finding was the basis for developing the 'NOTCH3 score', a quantitative measure for the NOTCH3 accumulation load. This score proved to be a robust and sensitive method to assess the progression of NOTCH3 accumulation, and a feasible biomarker for pre-clinical therapeutic testing. This novel, translational CADASIL mouse model is a suitable model for pre-clinical testing of therapeutic strategies aimed at delaying or reversing NOTCH3 accumulation, using the NOTCH3 score as a biomarker.

  17. Identification of potential genomic biomarkers of hepatotoxicity caused by reactive metabolites of N-methylformamide: Application of stable isotope labeled compounds in toxicogenomic studies.

    PubMed

    Mutlib, Abdul; Jiang, Ping; Atherton, Jim; Obert, Leslie; Kostrubsky, Seva; Madore, Steven; Nelson, Sidney

    2006-10-01

    identified, which were associated with the metabolism of a certain part of the NMF molecule. The metabolic pathway leading to the production of reactive methyl isocyanate resulted in distinct expression patterns that correlated with histopathologic findings. There was a clear correlation between the expression of certain genes involved in the cell cycle/apoptosis and inflammatory pathways and the presence of reactive metabolite. These genes may serve as potential genomic biomarkers of hepatotoxicity induced by soft-electrophile-producing compounds. However, the robustness of these potential genomic biomarkers will need to be validated using other hepatotoxicants (both soft- and hard-electrophile-producing agents) and compounds known to cause idiosyncratic liver toxicity before being adopted into the drug discovery screening process.

  18. Modeling Gene-Wise Dependencies Improves the Identification of Drug Response Biomarkers in Cancer Studies | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Recent advances in biomedical and sequencing technologies have revealed the genomic landscape of common forms of human cancer in unprecedented detail. Of the genes that drive tumorigenesis when altered, for most cancers it is believed that there exist a small number of “mountains” (genes altered at high frequencies across the population), and a much larger number of “hills” (much less frequently altered genes).

  19. Genome-wide association study of a nicotine metabolism biomarker in African American smokers: impact of chromosome 19 genetic influences.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Meghan J; Ware, Jennifer J; Zhu, Andy Z X; Cole, Christopher B; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nollen, Nikki; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Schnoll, Robert A; Hawk, Larry W; Cinciripini, Paul M; George, Tony P; Lerman, Caryn; Knight, Joanne; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2018-03-01

    The activity of CYP2A6, the major nicotine-inactivating enzyme, is measurable in smokers using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR; 3'hydroxycotinine/cotinine). Due to its role in nicotine clearance, the NMR is associated with smoking behaviours and response to pharmacotherapies. The NMR is highly heritable (~80%), and on average lower in African Americans (AA) versus whites. We previously identified several reduce and loss-of-function CYP2A6 variants common in individuals of African descent. Our current aim was to identify novel genetic influences on the NMR in AA smokers using genome-wide approaches. Genome-wide association study (GWAS). Multiple sites within Canada and the United States. AA smokers from two clinical trials: Pharmacogenetics of Nicotine Addiction Treatment (PNAT)-2 (NCT01314001; n = 504) and Kick-it-at-Swope (KIS)-3 (NCT00666978; n = 450). Genome-wide SNP genotyping, the NMR (phenotype) and population substructure and NMR covariates. Meta-analysis revealed three independent chromosome 19 signals (rs12459249, rs111645190 and rs185430475) associated with the NMR. The top overall hit, rs12459249 (P = 1.47e-39; beta = 0.59 per C (versus T) allele, SE = 0.045), located ~9.5 kb 3' of CYP2A6, remained genome-wide significant after controlling for the common (~10% in AA) non-functional CYP2A6*17 allele. In contrast, rs111645190 and rs185430475 were not genome-wide significant when controlling for CYP2A6*17. In total, 96 signals associated with the NMR were identified; many were not found in prior NMR GWASs in individuals of European descent. The top hits were also associated with the NMR in a third cohort of AA (KIS2; n = 480). None of the hits were in UGT or OCT2 genes. Three independent chromosome 19 signals account for ~20% of the variability in the nicotine metabolite ratio in African American smokers. The hits identified may contribute to inter-ethnic variability in nicotine metabolism, smoking behaviours and tobacco-related disease risk

  20. Genome-wide association study identifies nine novel loci for 2D:4D finger ratio, a putative retrospective biomarker of testosterone exposure in utero

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M; Shevroja, Enisa; Hemani, Gibran; Hysi, Pirro G; Jiang, Yunxuan; Auton, Adam; Boer, Cindy G; Mangino, Massimo; Wang, Carol A; Kemp, John P; McMahon, George; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Hickey, Martha; Trajanoska, Katerina; Wolke, Dieter; Ikram, M Arfan; Montgomery, Grant W; Felix, Janine F; Wright, Margaret J; Mackey, David A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Martin, Nicholas G; Tung, Joyce Y; Davey Smith, George; Pennell, Craig E; Spector, Tim D; van Meurs, Joyce; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Medland, Sarah E; Evans, David M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The ratio of the length of the index finger to that of the ring finger (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic and is commonly used as a non-invasive biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure. Most association studies of 2D:4D ratio with a diverse range of sex-specific traits have typically involved small sample sizes and have been difficult to replicate, raising questions around the utility and precise meaning of the measure. In the largest genome-wide association meta-analysis of 2D:4D ratio to date (N = 15 661, with replication N = 75 821), we identified 11 loci (9 novel) explaining 3.8% of the variance in mean 2D:4D ratio. We also found weak evidence for association (β = 0.06; P = 0.02) between 2D:4D ratio and sensitivity to testosterone [length of the CAG microsatellite repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene] in females only. Furthermore, genetic variants associated with (adult) testosterone levels and/or sex hormone-binding globulin were not associated with 2D:4D ratio in our sample. Although we were unable to find strong evidence from our genetic study to support the hypothesis that 2D:4D ratio is a direct biomarker of prenatal exposure to androgens in healthy individuals, our findings do not explicitly exclude this possibility, and pathways involving testosterone may become apparent as the size of the discovery sample increases further. Our findings provide new insight into the underlying biology shaping 2D:4D variation in the general population. PMID:29659830

  1. Global transcriptomic profiling using small volumes of whole blood: a cost-effective method for translational genomic biomarker identification in small animals.

    PubMed

    Fricano, Meagan M; Ditewig, Amy C; Jung, Paul M; Liguori, Michael J; Blomme, Eric A G; Yang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Blood is an ideal tissue for the identification of novel genomic biomarkers for toxicity or efficacy. However, using blood for transcriptomic profiling presents significant technical challenges due to the transcriptomic changes induced by ex vivo handling and the interference of highly abundant globin mRNA. Most whole blood RNA stabilization and isolation methods also require significant volumes of blood, limiting their effective use in small animal species, such as rodents. To overcome these challenges, a QIAzol-based RNA stabilization and isolation method (QSI) was developed to isolate sufficient amounts of high quality total RNA from 25 to 500 μL of rat whole blood. The method was compared to the standard PAXgene Blood RNA System using blood collected from rats exposed to saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The QSI method yielded an average of 54 ng total RNA per μL of rat whole blood with an average RNA Integrity Number (RIN) of 9, a performance comparable with the standard PAXgene method. Total RNA samples were further processed using the NuGEN Ovation Whole Blood Solution system and cDNA was hybridized to Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2.0 Arrays. The microarray QC parameters using RNA isolated with the QSI method were within the acceptable range for microarray analysis. The transcriptomic profiles were highly correlated with those using RNA isolated with the PAXgene method and were consistent with expected LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The present study demonstrated that the QSI method coupled with NuGEN Ovation Whole Blood Solution system is cost-effective and particularly suitable for transcriptomic profiling of minimal volumes of whole blood, typical of those obtained with small animal species.

  2. Institutional Responsibility and the Flawed Genomic Biomarkers at Duke University: A Missed Opportunity for Transparency and Accountability.

    PubMed

    DeMets, David L; Fleming, Thomas R; Geller, Gail; Ransohoff, David F

    2017-08-01

    When there have been substantial failures by institutional leadership in their oversight responsibility to protect research integrity, the public should demand that these be recognized and addressed by the institution itself, or the funding bodies. This commentary discusses a case of research failures in developing genomic predictors for cancer risk assessment and treatment at a leading university. In its review of this case, the Office of Research Integrity, an agency within the US Department of Health and Human Services, focused their report entirely on one individual faculty member and made no comment on the institution's responsibility and its failure to provide adequate oversight and investigation. These actions missed an important opportunity to emphasize the institution's critical responsibilities in oversight of research integrity and the importance of institutional transparency and accountability.

  3. Pharmacogenomic biomarkers in dermatologic drugs.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Nava Pincus; Maibach, Howard

    2013-12-01

    Biomarkers are becoming increasingly important when considering the efficacy, toxicology, mechanism of action, and risk of adverse events in certain drugs. As availability of bio-genomic information increases, more treatments can be tailored to specific individuals, with a net effect of improved health outcomes. Many dermatology drugs have pharmacogenomic information on their labels. Knowing the risks and benefits associated with genomic biomarkers can aid physicians to make more knowledgeable decisions when identifying treatments for their patients.

  4. BluePen Biomarkers LLC: integrated biomarker solutions

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Ian A; Mesaros, Clementina; Lilley, Patrick; Nunez, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    BluePen Biomarkers provides a unique comprehensive multi-omics biomarker discovery and validation platform. We can quantify, integrate and analyze genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics biomarkers, alongside clinical data, demographics and other phenotypic data. A unique bio-inspired signal processing analytic approach is used that has the proven ability to identify biomarkers in a wide variety of diseases. The resulting biomarkers can be used for diagnosis, prognosis, mechanistic studies and predicting treatment response, in contexts from core research through clinical trials. BluePen Biomarkers provides an additional groundbreaking research goal: identifying surrogate biomarkers from different modalities. This not only provides new biological insights, but enables least invasive, least-cost tests that meet or exceed the predictive quality of current tests. PMID:28031971

  5. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests. PMID:21824406

  6. Chemogenomics: a discipline at the crossroad of high throughput technologies, biomarker research, combinatorial chemistry, genomics, cheminformatics, bioinformatics and artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Maréchal, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Chemogenomics is the study of the interaction of functional biological systems with exogenous small molecules, or in broader sense the study of the intersection of biological and chemical spaces. Chemogenomics requires expertises in biology, chemistry and computational sciences (bioinformatics, cheminformatics, large scale statistics and machine learning methods) but it is more than the simple apposition of each of these disciplines. Biological entities interacting with small molecules can be isolated proteins or more elaborate systems, from single cells to complete organisms. The biological space is therefore analyzed at various postgenomic levels (genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic or any phenotypic level). The space of small molecules is partially real, corresponding to commercial and academic collections of compounds, and partially virtual, corresponding to the chemical space possibly synthesizable. Synthetic chemistry has developed novel strategies allowing a physical exploration of this universe of possibilities. A major challenge of cheminformatics is to charter the virtual space of small molecules using realistic biological constraints (bioavailability, druggability, structural biological information). Chemogenomics is a descendent of conventional pharmaceutical approaches, since it involves the screening of chemolibraries for their effect on biological targets, and benefits from the advances in the corresponding enabling technologies and the introduction of new biological markers. Screening was originally motivated by the rigorous discovery of new drugs, neglecting and throwing away any molecule that would fail to meet the standards required for a therapeutic treatment. It is now the basis for the discovery of small molecules that might or might not be directly used as drugs, but which have an immense potential for basic research, as probes to explore an increasing number of biological phenomena. Concerns about the environmental impact of chemical industry

  7. Genome-wide combination profiling of DNA copy number and methylation for deciphering biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji Woong; Jeong, Kang Jin; Jean, Woo-Sean; Park, Soon Young; Jheon, Sanghoon; Cho, Hyun Min; Park, Chang Gyo; Lee, Hoi Young; Kang, Jaeku

    2011-12-01

    Early detection of lung cancer provides the highest potential for saving lives. To date, no routine screening method enabling early detection is available, which is a key factor in the disease's high mortality rate. Copy number changes and DNA methylation alterations are good indicators of carcinogenesis and cancer prognosis. In this study, we attempted to combine profiles of DNA copy number and methylation patterns in 20 paired cancerous and noncancerous tissue samples from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and we detected several clinically important genes with genetic and epigenetic relationships. Using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), statistically significant differences were observed across the histological subtypes for gains at 1p31.1, 3q26.1, and 3q26.31-3q29 as well as for losses at 1p21.1, 2q33.3, 2q37.3, 3p12.3, 4q35.2, and 13q34 in squamous cell carcinoma (SQ) patients, and losses at 12q24.33 were measured in adenocarcinoma (AD) patients (p < 0.05). In an analysis of DNA methylation at 1505 autosomal CpG loci that are associated with 807 cancer-related genes, we identified six and nine loci with higher and lower DNA methylation levels, respectively, in tumor tissue compared to non-tumor lung tissues from AD patients. In addition, three loci with higher and seven loci with lower DNA methylation levels were identified in tumor tissue from SQ patients compared to non-tumor lung tissue. Subsequently, we searched for regions exhibiting concomitant hypermethylation and genomic loss in both ADs and SQs. One clone representing 7p15.2 (which includes candidate genes such as HOXA9 and HOXA11) and one target ID representing HOXA9_E252_R were detected. Quantitative real-time PCR identified the potential candidate gene HOXA9 as being down-regulated in the majority of NSCLC patients. Moreover, following HOXA9 over-expression, the invasion of representative cell lines, A549 and HCC95, were significantly inhibited. Taken together, our results

  8. Biomarkers of adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Carr, Daniel F; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2018-02-01

    Adverse drug reactions can be caused by a wide range of therapeutics. Adverse drug reactions affect many bodily organ systems and vary widely in severity. Milder adverse drug reactions often resolve quickly following withdrawal of the casual drug or sometimes after dose reduction. Some adverse drug reactions are severe and lead to significant organ/tissue injury which can be fatal. Adverse drug reactions also represent a financial burden to both healthcare providers and the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, a number of stakeholders would benefit from development of new, robust biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and prognostication of adverse drug reactions. There has been significant recent progress in identifying predictive genomic biomarkers with the potential to be used in clinical settings to reduce the burden of adverse drug reactions. These have included biomarkers that can be used to alter drug dose (for example, Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and azathioprine dose) and drug choice. The latter have in particular included human leukocyte antigen (HLA) biomarkers which identify susceptibility to immune-mediated injuries to major organs such as skin, liver, and bone marrow from a variety of drugs. This review covers both the current state of the art with regard to genomic adverse drug reaction biomarkers. We also review circulating biomarkers that have the potential to be used for both diagnosis and prognosis, and have the added advantage of providing mechanistic information. In the future, we will not be relying on single biomarkers (genomic/non-genomic), but on multiple biomarker panels, integrated through the application of different omics technologies, which will provide information on predisposition, early diagnosis, prognosis, and mechanisms. Impact statement • Genetic and circulating biomarkers present significant opportunities to personalize patient therapy to minimize the risk of adverse drug reactions. ADRs are a significant heath issue

  9. Genomic biomarkers and heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Uber, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Clinicians have entered into a new paradigm for managing heart transplant patients with use of multimarker gene expression profiling. Early after transplantation, when corticosteroid modification is the main concern, gene expression testing might assist in optimizing the balance of immunosuppression, defraying the occurrence of rejection, and avoiding crisis intervention. Late after transplantation, the reliance on endomyocardial biopsy could be lessened. These advances, if continually validated in practice, could usher in an era of decreased immunosuppression complications, lesser need for invasive surveillance, and more clinical confidence in immunosuppressive strategies.

  10. Biomarker significance of plasma and tumor miR-21, miR-221, and miR-106a in osteosarcoma. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. Despite the use of surgery and multi-agent chemotherapy, osteosarcoma patients who have a poor response to chemotherapy or develop relapses have a dismal outcome. Identification of biomarkers for active disease may help to monitor tumor burden, detect early relapses, and predict prognosis in these patients. In this study, we examined whether circulating miRNAs can be used as biomarkers in osteosarcoma patients.

  11. Biomarkers in localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Matteo; Buonerba, Carlo; Terracciano, Daniela; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Bottero, Danilo; Deliu, Victor M; Ditonno, Pasquale; Perdonà, Sisto; Autorino, Riccardo; Coman, Ioman; De Placido, Sabino; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; De Cobelli, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers can improve prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. Accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early diagnosis of prostate cancer is not satisfactory, as it is an organ- but not cancer-specific biomarker, and it can be improved by using models that incorporate PSA along with other test results, such as prostate cancer antigen 3, the molecular forms of PSA (proPSA, benign PSA and intact PSA), as well as kallikreins. Recent reports suggest that new tools may be provided by metabolomic studies as shown by preliminary data on sarcosine. Additional molecular biomarkers have been identified by the use of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We review the most relevant biomarkers for early diagnosis and management of localized prostate cancer. PMID:26768791

  12. PSA and beyond: alternative prostate cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of biomarkers for prostate cancer screening, diagnosis and prognosis has the potential to improve the clinical management of the patients. Owing to inherent limitations of the biomarker prostate-specific antigen (PSA), intensive efforts are currently directed towards a search for alternative prostate cancer biomarkers, particularly those that can predict disease aggressiveness and drive better treatment decisions. Methods A literature search of Medline articles focused on recent and emerging advances in prostate cancer biomarkers was performed. The most promising biomarkers that have the potential to meet the unmet clinical needs in prostate cancer patient management and/or that are clinically implemented were selected. Conclusions With the advent of advanced genomic and proteomic technologies, we have in recent years seen an enormous spurt in prostate cancer biomarker research with several promising alternative biomarkers being discovered that show an improved sensitivity and specificity over PSA. The new generation of biomarkers can be tested via serum, urine, or tissue-based assays that have either received regulatory approval by the US Food and Drug Administration or are available as Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-based laboratory developed tests. Additional emerging novel biomarkers for prostate cancer, including circulating tumor cells, microRNAs and exosomes, are still in their infancy. Together, these biomarkers provide actionable guidance for prostate cancer risk assessment, and are expected to lead to an era of personalized medicine. PMID:26790878

  13. Circulating microRNA-150-5p as a novel biomarker for advanced heart failure: A genome-wide prospective study.

    PubMed

    Scrutinio, Domenico; Conserva, Francesca; Passantino, Andrea; Iacoviello, Massimo; Lagioia, Rocco; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2017-06-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRs) are promising biomarkers for heart failure (HF). Previous studies have provided inconsistent miR "signatures." The phenotypic and pathophysiologic heterogeneity of HF may have contributed to this inconsistency. In this study we assessed whether advanced HF (AHF) patients present a distinct miR signature compared with healthy subjects (HS) and mild to moderate HF (MHF) patients. The study consisted of 2 phases: a screening phase and a validation phase. In the screening phase, 752 miRs were profiled in HS and MHF and AHF patients (N = 15), using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technique and global mean normalization. In the validation phase, the miRs found to be significantly dysregulated in AHF patients compared with both HS and MHF patients were validated in 15 HS, 25 patients with MHF and 29 with AHF, using RT-qPCR, and normalizing to exogenous (cel-miR-39) and endogenous controls. In the screening phase, 5 miRs were found to be significantly dysregulated: -26a-5p; -145-3p; -150-5p; -485-3p; and -487b-3p. In the validation phase, miR-150-5p was confirmed to be significantly downregulated in AHF patients when compared with both HS and MHF patients, irrespective of the normalization method used. miR-26a-5p was confirmed to be significantly dysregulated only when normalized to cell-miR-39. Dysregulation of the other miRs could not be confirmed. miR-150-5p was significantly associated with maladaptive remodeling, disease severity and outcome. Our data suggest miR-150-5p as a novel circulating biomarker for AHF. The association of miR-150-5p with maladaptive remodeling, disease severity and outcome supports the pathophysiologic relevance of downregulated miR-150-5p expression to AHF. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Outcome prediction in patients with glioblastoma by using imaging, clinical, and genomic biomarkers: focus on the nonenhancing component of the tumor.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajan; Poisson, Laila M; Gutman, David; Scarpace, Lisa; Hwang, Scott N; Holder, Chad A; Wintermark, Max; Rao, Arvind; Colen, Rivka R; Kirby, Justin; Freymann, John; Jaffe, C Carl; Mikkelsen, Tom; Flanders, Adam

    2014-08-01

    To correlate patient survival with morphologic imaging features and hemodynamic parameters obtained from the nonenhancing region (NER) of glioblastoma (GBM), along with clinical and genomic markers. An institutional review board waiver was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study. Forty-five patients with GBM underwent baseline imaging with contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced T2*-weighted perfusion MR imaging. Molecular and clinical predictors of survival were obtained. Single and multivariable models of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were explored with Kaplan-Meier estimates, Cox regression, and random survival forests. Worsening OS (log-rank test, P = .0103) and PFS (log-rank test, P = .0223) were associated with increasing relative cerebral blood volume of NER (rCBVNER), which was higher with deep white matter involvement (t test, P = .0482) and poor NER margin definition (t test, P = .0147). NER crossing the midline was the only morphologic feature of NER associated with poor survival (log-rank test, P = .0125). Preoperative Karnofsky performance score (KPS) and resection extent (n = 30) were clinically significant OS predictors (log-rank test, P = .0176 and P = .0038, respectively). No genomic alterations were associated with survival, except patients with high rCBVNER and wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation had significantly poor survival (log-rank test, P = .0306; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.62). Combining resection extent with rCBVNER marginally improved prognostic ability (permutation, P = .084). Random forest models of presurgical predictors indicated rCBVNER as the top predictor; also important were KPS, age at diagnosis, and NER crossing the midline. A multivariable model containing rCBVNER, age at diagnosis, and KPS can be used to group patients with more than 1 year of difference in observed

  15. Outcome Prediction in Patients with Glioblastoma by Using Imaging, Clinical, and Genomic Biomarkers: Focus on the Nonenhancing Component of the Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Poisson, Laila M.; Gutman, David; Scarpace, Lisa; Hwang, Scott N.; Holder, Chad A.; Wintermark, Max; Rao, Arvind; Colen, Rivka R.; Kirby, Justin; Freymann, John; Jaffe, C. Carl; Mikkelsen, Tom; Flanders, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To correlate patient survival with morphologic imaging features and hemodynamic parameters obtained from the nonenhancing region (NER) of glioblastoma (GBM), along with clinical and genomic markers. Materials and Methods An institutional review board waiver was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study. Forty-five patients with GBM underwent baseline imaging with contrast material–enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced T2*-weighted perfusion MR imaging. Molecular and clinical predictors of survival were obtained. Single and multivariable models of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were explored with Kaplan-Meier estimates, Cox regression, and random survival forests. Results Worsening OS (log-rank test, P = .0103) and PFS (log-rank test, P = .0223) were associated with increasing relative cerebral blood volume of NER (rCBVNER), which was higher with deep white matter involvement (t test, P = .0482) and poor NER margin definition (t test, P = .0147). NER crossing the midline was the only morphologic feature of NER associated with poor survival (log-rank test, P = .0125). Preoperative Karnofsky performance score (KPS) and resection extent (n = 30) were clinically significant OS predictors (log-rank test, P = .0176 and P = .0038, respectively). No genomic alterations were associated with survival, except patients with high rCBVNER and wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation had significantly poor survival (log-rank test, P = .0306; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.62). Combining resection extent with rCBVNER marginally improved prognostic ability (permutation, P = .084). Random forest models of presurgical predictors indicated rCBVNER as the top predictor; also important were KPS, age at diagnosis, and NER crossing the midline. A multivariable model containing rCBVNER, age at diagnosis, and KPS can be used to group patients with

  16. Biomarkers: an overview for oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Ellen S; Dunn, Debra

    2012-05-01

    To provide an overview of the basic principles of biomarker use in clinical oncology practice and discuss the range of biomarker forms (from genes to constitutional characteristics), biomarker functions (both disease- and drug-related), modalities (protein expression patterns to patient history), the criteria for biomarker validation, and the integral role of bioinformatics. Published nursing and medical literature. The premise of nursing assessment is the same as that of biomarker use - biological variables that appear at one level of biological organization (eg, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, and organism) correspond to processes or events occurring at other levels of biologic organization. The advent of genomic technologies has logarithmically increased the volume of biomarkers, which are expected to provide new insights that improve patient care. Nurses and patients will benefit greatly from the incorporation of molecular biomarkers into patient care. Nurses will be able to better assess (and anticipate) patient needs with the new insights that are available in the post-genomic, personalized medicine era of health care. Although the rapid rate of technological changes and new discoveries will require continuing concerted educational efforts, the improved quality of patient care will be rewarded by better outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Zinc supplementation influences genomic stability biomarkers, antioxidant activity, and zinc transporter genes in an elderly Australian population with low zinc status.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Razinah; Thomas, Philip; Zalewski, Peter; Fenech, Michael

    2015-06-01

    An increased intake of Zinc (Zn) may reduce the risk of degenerative diseases but may prove to be toxic if taken in excess. This study aimed to investigate whether zinc carnosine supplement can improve Zn status, genome stability events, and Zn transporter gene expression in an elderly (65-85 years) South Australian cohort with low plasma Zn levels. A 12-week placebo-controlled intervention trial was performed with 84 volunteers completing the study, (placebo, n = 42) and (Zn group, n = 42). Plasma Zn was significantly increased (p < 0.05) by 5.69% in the Zn supplemented group after 12 weeks. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the micronucleus frequency (-24.18%) was observed for the Zn supplemented cohort relative to baseline compared to the placebo group. Reductions of -7.09% for tail moment and -8.76% for tail intensity were observed for the Zn group (relative to baseline) (p < 0.05). Telomere base damage was found to be also significantly decreased in the Zn group (p < 0.05). Both MT1A and ZIP1 expression showed a significant increase in the Zn supplemented group (p < 0.05). Zn supplementation may have a beneficial effect in an elderly population with low Zn levels by improving Zn status, antioxidant profile, and lowering DNA damage. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The somatic POLE P286R mutation defines a unique subclass of colorectal cancer featuring hypermutation, representing a potential genomic biomarker for immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihun; Kim, Deokhoon; Chun, Sung-Min; Kim, Jiyun; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Inja; Yu, Chang-Sik; Jang, Se Jin

    2016-01-01

    Early-onset colorectal cancers (EOCRCs) may have biological or genomic features distinct from late-onset CRCs (LOCRCs). Previous studies have mostly focused on the germline predisposition conditions of EOCRCs, but we hypothesized that EOCRCs may have distinct somatic aberrations that accelerate cancer development. To identify the somatic aberrations that accelerate cancer development at an early age, we conducted whole exome sequencing for 28 polyposis-unrelated, microsatellite stable (MSS) EOCRCs with no known germline predisposition conditions. Surprisingly, we found two distinct groups in the context of mutational burden: 6 hypermutated cases with 2325 to 10973 mutations and 22 nonhypermutated cases with 47 to 154 mutations. Further analysis revealed that four of the six hypermutated cases had the same POLE P286R mutation. We validated this finding in 83 MSS EOCRCs and 27 MSS LOCRCs, which revealed that 7.2% of EOCRCs (6/83) had the POLE P286R mutation, which was not found in LOCRCs. Clinicopathologically, EOCRCs with POLE mutations occurred far more frequently in the right colon than in the left colon, affecting men more frequently than women. In summary, we have identified a unique subclass of colon cancer characterized by a hypermutation associated with the POLE mutation. The acquisition of the POLE mutation leading to hypermutation can accelerate cancer development. Clinically, this subset with hypermutation may be susceptible to immune checkpoint blockade. PMID:27612425

  19. Sepsis biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Prucha, Miroslav; Bellingan, Geoff; Zazula, Roman

    2015-02-02

    Sepsis is the most frequent cause of death in non-coronary intensive care units (ICUs). In the past 10 years, progress has been made in the early identification of septic patients and in their treatment and these improvements in support and therapy mean that the mortality is gradually decreasing but it still remains unacceptably high. Leaving clinical diagnosis aside, the laboratory diagnostics represent a complex range of investigations that can place significant demands on the system given the speed of response required. There are hundreds of biomarkers which could be potentially used for diagnosis and prognosis in septic patients. The main attributes of successful markers would be high sensitivity, specificity, possibility of bed-side monitoring, and financial accessibility. Only a fraction is used in routine clinical practice because many lack sufficient sensitivity or specificity. The following review gives a short overview of the current epidemiology of sepsis, its pathogenesis and state-of-the-art knowledge on the use of specific biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in its diagnostics. Prospective approaches towards discovery of new diagnostic biomarkers have been shortly mentioned. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome Wide Methylome Alterations in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mullapudi, Nandita; Ye, Bin; Suzuki, Masako; Fazzari, Melissa; Han, Weiguo; Shi, Miao K; Marquardt, Gaby; Lin, Juan; Wang, Tao; Keller, Steven; Zhu, Changcheng; Locker, Joseph D; Spivack, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant cytosine 5-methylation underlies many deregulated elements of cancer. Among paired non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), we sought to profile DNA 5-methyl-cytosine features which may underlie genome-wide deregulation. In one of the more dense interrogations of the methylome, we sampled 1.2 million CpG sites from twenty-four NSCLC tumor (T)-non-tumor (NT) pairs using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme- based HELP-microarray assay. We found 225,350 differentially methylated (DM) sites in adenocarcinomas versus adjacent non-tumor tissue that vary in frequency across genomic compartment, particularly notable in gene bodies (GB; p<2.2E-16). Further, when DM was coupled to differential transcriptome (DE) in the same samples, 37,056 differential loci in adenocarcinoma emerged. Approximately 90% of the DM-DE relationships were non-canonical; for example, promoter DM associated with DE in the same direction. Of the canonical changes noted, promoter (PR) DM loci with reciprocal changes in expression in adenocarcinomas included HBEGF, AGER, PTPRM, DPT, CST1, MELK; DM GB loci with concordant changes in expression included FOXM1, FERMT1, SLC7A5, and FAP genes. IPA analyses showed adenocarcinoma-specific promoter DMxDE overlay identified familiar lung cancer nodes [tP53, Akt] as well as less familiar nodes [HBEGF, NQO1, GRK5, VWF, HPGD, CDH5, CTNNAL1, PTPN13, DACH1, SMAD6, LAMA3, AR]. The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate methylation sites in both PR and GB regions not previously identified in NSCLC, and many non-canonical relationships to gene expression. These DNA methylation features could potentially be developed as risk or diagnostic biomarkers, or as candidate targets for newer methylation locus-targeted preventive or therapeutic agents.

  1. Biomarkers for pediatric sepsis and septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Standage, Stephen W; Wong, Hector R

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is a clinical syndrome defined by physiologic changes indicative of systemic inflammation, which are likely attributable to documented or suspected infection. Septic shock is the progression of those physiologic changes to the extent that delivery of oxygen and metabolic substrate to tissues is compromised. Biomarkers have the potential to diagnose, monitor, stratify and predict outcome in these syndromes. C-reactive protein is elevated in inflammatory and infectious conditions and has long been used as a biomarker indicating infection. Procalcitonin has more recently been shown to better distinguish infection from inflammation. Newer candidate biomarkers for infection include IL-18 and CD64. Lactate facilitates the diagnosis of septic shock and the monitoring of its progression. Multiple stratification biomarkers based on genome-wide expression profiling are under active investigation and present exciting future possibilities. PMID:21171879

  2. Salivary Biomarkers in Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Karolina Elżbieta; Wong, David T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the United States. Its symptoms are often not specific and absent, until the tumors have already metastasized. Therefore, there is an urgent demand for developing rapid, highly accurate and non-invasive tools for cancer screening, early detection, diagnostics, staging and prognostics. Saliva as a multi-constituent oral fluid, comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, extensively supplied by blood. Molecules such as DNAs, RNAs, proteins, metabolites, and microbiota, present in blood, could be also found in saliva. Recently, salivary diagnostics has drawn significant attention for the detection of specific biomarkers, since the sample collection and processing are simple, cost-effective, precise and do not cause patient discomfort. Here, we review recent salivary candidate biomarkers for systemic cancers by dividing them according to their origin into: genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and microbial types. PMID:27943101

  3. Candidate immune biomarkers for radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Levy, Antonin; Nigro, Giulia; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Newly available immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs), capable to revert tumor immune tolerance, are revolutionizing the anticancer armamentarium. Recent evidence also established that ionizing radiation (IR) could produce antitumor immune responses, and may as well synergize with ICBs. Multiple radioimmunotherapy combinations are thenceforth currently assessed in early clinical trials. Past examples have highlighted the need for treatment personalization, and there is an unmet need to decipher immunological biomarkers that could allow selecting patients who could benefit from these promising but expensive associations. Recent studies have identified potential predictive and prognostic immune assays at the cellular (tumor microenvironment composition), genomic (mutational/neoantigen load), and peripheral blood levels. Within this review, we collected the available evidence regarding potential personalized immune biomarker-directed radiation therapy strategies that might be used for patient selection in the era of radioimmunotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Biology and Biomarkers for Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Linsey E; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Pastar, Irena; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2016-09-01

    As the population grows older, the incidence and prevalence of conditions that lead to a predisposition for poor wound healing also increase. Ultimately, this increase in nonhealing wounds has led to significant morbidity and mortality with subsequent huge economic ramifications. Therefore, understanding specific molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant wound healing is of great importance. It has and will continue to be the leading pathway to the discovery of therapeutic targets, as well as diagnostic molecular biomarkers. Biomarkers may help identify and stratify subsets of nonhealing patients for whom biomarker-guided approaches may aid in healing. A series of literature searches were performed using Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Internet searches. Currently, biomarkers are being identified using biomaterials sourced locally from human wounds and/or systemically using high-throughput "omics" modalities (genomic, proteomic, lipidomic, and metabolomic analysis). In this review, we highlight the current status of clinically applicable biomarkers and propose multiple steps in validation and implementation spectrum, including those measured in tissue specimens, for example, β-catenin and c-myc, wound fluid, matrix metalloproteinases and interleukins, swabs, wound microbiota, and serum, for example, procalcitonin and matrix metalloproteinases. Identification of numerous potential biomarkers using different avenues of sample collection and molecular approaches is currently underway. A focus on simplicity and consistent implementation of these biomarkers, as well as an emphasis on efficacious follow-up therapeutics, is necessary for transition of this technology to clinically feasible point-of-care applications.

  5. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    SciT

    Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.

    2008-05-01

    A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triagemore » following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.« less

  6. [Biomarkers: "Found in translation"].

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Brian P; Walther, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    Despite continued increase in global Pharma R & D expenditure, the number of innovative drugs obtaining market approval has declined since 1994. The pharmaceutical industry is now entering a crucial juncture where increasing rates of attrition in clinical drug development as well as increasing development timelines are impacted by external factors such as intense regulatory pricing and safety pressures, increasing sales erosion due to generics, as well as exponential increases in the costs of bringing a drug to market. Despite these difficulties, numerous opportunities exist such as multiple unmet medical needs, the increasing incidence of certain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity due to demographic changes, as well as the emergence of evolving markets such as China, India, and Eastern Europe. Consequently, Pharma is now responding to this challenge by improving both the productivity and the innovation in its drug discovery and development pipelines. In this regard, the advent of new technologies and expertise such as genomics, proteomics, structural biology, and molecular informatics in an integrated systems biology approach also provides a powerful opportunity for Pharma to address some of these difficulties. The key features behind this new strategy imply a discovery process based on an improved understanding of the molecular mechanism of diseases and drugs, translational research that places the patient at the center of the research process, and the application of biomarkers throughout the discovery and development phases. Moreover, new paradigms are required to improve target validation and develop more predictive cellular and animal models of human pathologies, a greater capacity in informatics-based analysis, and, consequently, a greater access to the vast sources of accumulating biological data and its integrated analysis. In the present review, we will address some of these issues and in particular emphasize how the

  7. Experiment and Theory for Nuclear Reactions in Nano-Materials Show e14 - e16 Solid-State Fusion Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Russ

    2005-03-01

    Nano-lattices of deuterium loving metals exhibit coherent behavior by populations of deuterons (d's) occupying a Bloch state. Therein, coherent d-overlap occurs wherein the Bloch condition reduces the Coulomb barrier.Overlap of dd pairs provides a high probability fusion will/must occur. SEM photo evidence showing fusion events is now revealed by laboratories that load or flux d into metal nano-domains. Solid-state dd fusion creates an excited ^4He nucleus entangled in the large coherent population of d's.This contrasts with plasma dd fusion in collision space where an isolated excited ^4He nucleus seeks the ground state via fast particle emission. In momentum limited solid state fusion,fast particle emission is effectively forbidden.Photographed nano-explosive events are beyond the scope of chemistry. Corroboration of the nuclear nature derives from photographic observation of similar events on spontaneous fission, e.g. Cf. We present predictive theory, heat production, and helium isotope data showing reproducible e14 to e16 solid-state fusion reactions.

  8. Defining Pesticide Biomarkers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biomarkers are measurable substances or characteristics in the human body that can be used to monitor the presence of a chemical in the body, biological responses or harm to health. This Web page describes categories of biomarkers and provides examples.

  9. Biomarkers in Computational Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomarkers are a means to evaluate chemical exposure and/or the subsequent impacts on toxicity pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Computational toxicology can integrate biomarker data with knowledge of exposure, chemistry, biology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and e...

  10. Biomarkers in Sporadic and Familial Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lista, Simone; O'Bryant, Sid E; Blennow, Kaj; Dubois, Bruno; Hugon, Jacques; Zetterberg, Henrik; Hampel, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Most forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are sporadic (sAD) or inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion, and less than 1% of cases are autosomal-dominant. Forms of sAD do not exhibit familial aggregation and are characterized by complex genetic and environmental interactions. Recently, the expansion of genomic methodologies, in association with substantially larger combined cohorts, has resulted in various genome-wide association studies that have identified several novel genetic associations of AD. Currently, the most effective methods for establishing the diagnosis of AD are defined by multi-modal pathways, starting with clinical and neuropsychological assessment, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and brain-imaging procedures, all of which have significant cost- and access-to-care barriers. Consequently, research efforts have focused on the development and validation of non-invasive and generalizable blood-based biomarkers. Among the modalities conceptualized by the systems biology paradigm and utilized in the "exploratory biomarker discovery arena", proteome analysis has received the most attention. However, metabolomics, lipidomics, transcriptomics, and epigenomics have recently become key modalities in the search for AD biomarkers. Interestingly, biomarker changes for familial AD (fAD), in many but not all cases, seem similar to those for sAD. The integration of neurogenetics with systems biology/physiology-based strategies and high-throughput technologies for molecular profiling is expected to help identify the causes, mechanisms, and biomarkers associated with the various forms of AD. Moreover, in order to hypothesize the dynamic trajectories of biomarkers through disease stages and elucidate the mechanisms of biomarker alterations, updated and more sophisticated theoretical models have been proposed for both sAD and fAD.

  11. Multiomics Data Triangulation for Asthma Candidate Biomarkers and Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Pecak, Matija; Korošec, Peter; Kunej, Tanja

    2018-06-01

    Asthma is a common complex disorder and has been subject to intensive omics research for disease susceptibility and therapeutic innovation. Candidate biomarkers of asthma and its precision treatment demand that they stand the test of multiomics data triangulation before they can be prioritized for clinical applications. We classified the biomarkers of asthma after a search of the literature and based on whether or not a given biomarker candidate is reported in multiple omics platforms and methodologies, using PubMed and Web of Science, we identified omics studies of asthma conducted on diverse platforms using keywords, such as asthma, genomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics. We extracted data about asthma candidate biomarkers from 73 articles and developed a catalog of 190 potential asthma biomarkers (167 human, 23 animal data), comprising DNA loci, transcripts, proteins, metabolites, epimutations, and noncoding RNAs. The data were sorted according to 13 omics types: genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, interactomics, metabolomics, ncRNAomics, glycomics, lipidomics, environmental omics, pharmacogenomics, phenomics, and integrative omics. Importantly, we found that 10 candidate biomarkers were apparent in at least two or more omics levels, thus promising potential for further biomarker research and development and precision medicine applications. This multiomics catalog reported herein for the first time contributes to future decision-making on prioritization of biomarkers and validation efforts for precision medicine in asthma. The findings may also facilitate meta-analyses and integrative omics studies in the future.

  12. Biomarkers in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Amit; Kalkanis, Alexandros; Judson, Marc A

    2016-11-01

    Numerous biomarkers have been evaluated for the diagnosis, assessment of disease activity, prognosis, and response to treatment in sarcoidosis. In this report, we discuss the clinical and research utility of several biomarkers used to evaluate sarcoidosis. Areas covered: The sarcoidosis biomarkers discussed include serologic tests, imaging studies, identification of inflammatory cells and genetic analyses. Literature was obtained from medical databases including PubMed and Web of Science. Expert commentary: Most of the biomarkers examined in sarcoidosis are not adequately specific or sensitive to be used in isolation to make clinical decisions. However, several sarcoidosis biomarkers have an important role in the clinical management of sarcoidosis when they are coupled with clinical data including the results of other biomarkers.

  13. Biomarkers in Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-02-19

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied. Unfortunately, only a few studies have examined the roles of these biomarkers in pediatric practice. The main aim of this paper is to detail current knowledge regarding the use of biomarkers to diagnose and treat CAP in children, analyzing the most recently published relevant studies. Despite several attempts, the etiologic diagnosis of pediatric CAP and the estimation of the potential outcome remain unsolved problems in most cases. Among traditional biomarkers, procalcitonin (PCT) appears to be the most effective for both selecting bacterial cases and evaluating the severity. However, a precise cut-off separating bacterial from viral and mild from severe cases has not been defined. The three-host protein assay based on C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), plasma interferon-γ protein-10 (IP-10), and micro-array-based whole genome expression arrays might offer more advantages in comparison with former biomarkers. However, further studies are needed before the routine use of those presently in development can be recommended.

  14. Biomarkers for wound healing and their evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patel, S; Maheshwari, A; Chandra, A

    2016-01-01

    A biological marker (biomarker) is a substance used as an indicator of biological state. Advances in genomics, proteomics and molecular pathology have generated many candidate biomarkers with potential clinical value. Research has identified several cellular events and mediators associated with wound healing that can serve as biomarkers. Macrophages, neutrophils, fibroblasts and platelets release cytokines molecules including TNF-α, interleukins (ILs) and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) holds the greatest importance. As a result, various white cells and connective tissue cells release both matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Studies have demonstrated that IL-1, IL-6, and MMPs, levels above normal, and an abnormally high MMP/TIMP ratio are often present in non-healing wounds. Clinical examination of wounds for these mediators could predict which wounds will heal and which will not, suggesting use of these chemicals as biomarkers of wound healing. There is also evidence that the application of growth factors like PDGF will alleviate the recuperating process of chronic, non-healing wounds. Finding a specific biomarker for wound healing status would be a breakthrough in this field and helping treat impaired wound healing.

  15. Biology and Biomarkers for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Lindley, Linsey E.; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Pastar, Irena; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2016-01-01

    Background As the population grows older, the incidence and prevalence of conditions which lead to a predisposition for poor wound healing also increases. Ultimately, this increase in non-healing wounds has led to significant morbidity and mortality with subsequent huge economic ramifications. Therefore, understanding specific molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant wound healing is of great importance. It has, and will continue to be the leading pathway to the discovery of therapeutic targets as well as diagnostic molecular biomarkers. Biomarkers may help identify and stratify subsets of non-healing patients for whom biomarker-guided approaches may aid in healing. Methods A series of literature searches were performed using Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Internet searches. Results Currently, biomarkers are being identified using biomaterials sourced locally, from human wounds and/or systemically using systematic high-throughput “omics” modalities (genomic, proteomic, lipidomic, metabolomic analysis). In this review we highlight the current status of clinically applicable biomarkers and propose multiple steps in validation and implementation spectrum including those measured in tissue specimens e.g. β-catenin and c-myc, wound fluid e.g. MMP’s and interleukins, swabs e.g. wound microbiota and serum e.g. procalcitonin and MMP’s. Conclusions Identification of numerous potential biomarkers utilizing different avenues of sample collection and molecular approaches is currently underway. A focus on simplicity, and consistent implementation of these biomarkers as well as an emphasis on efficacious follow-up therapeutics is necessary for transition of this technology to clinically feasible point-of-care applications. PMID:27556760

  16. Biomarkers in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Goldani, Andre A. S.; Downs, Susan R.; Widjaja, Felicia; Lawton, Brittany; Hendren, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, heterogeneous disorders caused by an interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. In an effort to better target the underlying roots of ASD for diagnosis and treatment, efforts to identify reliable biomarkers in genetics, neuroimaging, gene expression, and measures of the body’s metabolism are growing. For this article, we review the published studies of potential biomarkers in autism and conclude that while there is increasing promise of finding biomarkers that can help us target treatment, there are none with enough evidence to support routine clinical use unless medical illness is suspected. Promising biomarkers include those for mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and immune function. Genetic clusters are also suggesting the potential for useful biomarkers. PMID:25161627

  17. Development of transcriptomics-based biomarkers for selected endocrine disrupting chemicals in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genome-wide transcriptional profiling by microarrays provides a powerful platform for gene expression-based biomarker discovery. After their wide acceptance in human disease diagnosis, prognosis, and drug discovery, these gene signatures are increasingly being adopted for environ...

  18. Development of Transcriptomics-based Biomarkers for Selected Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genome-wide transcriptional profiling by microarrays provides a powerful platform for gene expression-based biomarker discovery. After their wide acceptance in human disease diagnosis, prognosis, and drug discovery, these gene signatures are increasingly being adopted for environ...

  19. Prognostic biomarkers in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Attur, Mukundan; Krasnokutsky-Samuels, Svetlana; Samuels, Jonathan; Abramson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Identification of patients at risk for incident disease or disease progression in osteoarthritis remains challenging, as radiography is an insensitive reflection of molecular changes that presage cartilage and bone abnormalities. Thus there is a widely appreciated need for biochemical and imaging biomarkers. We describe recent developments with such biomarkers to identify osteoarthritis patients who are at risk for disease progression. Recent findings The biochemical markers currently under evaluation include anabolic, catabolic, and inflammatory molecules representing diverse biological pathways. A few promising cartilage and bone degradation and synthesis biomarkers are in various stages of development, awaiting further validation in larger populations. A number of studies have shown elevated expression levels of inflammatory biomarkers, both locally (synovial fluid) and systemically (serum and plasma). These chemical biomarkers are under evaluation in combination with imaging biomarkers to predict early onset and the burden of disease. Summary Prognostic biomarkers may be used in clinical knee osteoarthritis to identify subgroups in whom the disease progresses at different rates. This could facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis and allow us to differentiate phenotypes within a heterogeneous knee osteoarthritis population. Ultimately, such findings may help facilitate the development of disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs). PMID:23169101

  20. Biomarkers in prostate cancer: what’s new?

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, David A.; Chan, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review is intended to provide an overview of the current state of biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa), with a focus on biomarkers approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as biomarkers available from Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA)-certified clinical laboratories within the last 1–2 years. Recent findings During the past 2 years, two biomarkers have been approved by the US FDA. These include proPSA as part of the Prostate Health Index (phi) by Beckman Coulter, Inc and PCA3 as Progensa by Gen Probe, Inc. With the advances in genomic and proteomic technologies, several new CLIA-based laboratory-developed tests have become available. Examples are Oncotype DX from Genomics Health, Inc, and Prolaris from Myriad Genetics, Inc. In most cases, these new tests are based on a combination of multiple genomic or proteomic biomarkers. Summary Several new tests, as discussed in this review, have become available during the last 2 years. Although the intended use of most of these tests is to distinguish PCa from benign prostatic conditions with better sensitivity and specificity than prostate-specific antigen, studies have shown that some of them may also be useful in the differentiation of aggressive from nonaggressive forms of PCa. PMID:24626128

  1. Metabolic products as biomarkers

    Melancon, M.J.; Alscher, R.; Benson, W.; Kruzynski, G.; Lee, R.F.; Sikka, H.C.; Spies, R.B.; Huggett, Robert J.; Kimerle, Richard A.; Mehrle, Paul M.=; Bergman, Harold L.

    1992-01-01

    Ideally, endogenous biomarkers would indicate both exposure and environmental effects of toxic chemicals; however, such comprehensive biochemical and physiological indices are currently being developed and, at the present time, are unavailable for use in environmental monitoring programs. Continued work is required to validate the use of biochemical and physiological stress indices as useful components of monitoring programs. Of the compounds discussed only phytochelatins and porphyrins are currently in biomarkers in a useful state; however, glutathione,metallothioneins, stress ethylene, and polyamines are promising as biomarkers in environmental monitoring.

  2. Cross-platform method for identifying candidate network biomarkers for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Jin, G; Zhou, X; Cui, K; Zhang, X-S; Chen, L; Wong, S T C

    2009-11-01

    Discovering biomarkers using mass spectrometry (MS) and microarray expression profiles is a promising strategy in molecular diagnosis. Here, the authors proposed a new pipeline for biomarker discovery that integrates disease information for proteins and genes, expression profiles in both genomic and proteomic levels, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs) to discover high confidence network biomarkers. Using this pipeline, a total of 474 molecules (genes and proteins) related to prostate cancer were identified and a prostate-cancer-related network (PCRN) was derived from the integrative information. Thus, a set of candidate network biomarkers were identified from multiple expression profiles composed by eight microarray datasets and one proteomics dataset. The network biomarkers with PPIs can accurately distinguish the prostate patients from the normal ones, which potentially provide more reliable hits of biomarker candidates than conventional biomarker discovery methods.

  3. A gene expression biomarker accurately predicts estrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA’s vision for the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) in the 21st Century (EDSP21) includes utilization of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays coupled with computational modeling to prioritize chemicals with the goal of eventually replacing current Tier 1 screening tests. The ToxCast program currently includes 18 HTS in vitro assays that evaluate the ability of chemicals to modulate estrogen receptor α (ERα), an important endocrine target. We propose microarray-based gene expression profiling as a complementary approach to predict ERα modulation and have developed computational methods to identify ERα modulators in an existing database of whole-genome microarray data. The ERα biomarker consisted of 46 ERα-regulated genes with consistent expression patterns across 7 known ER agonists and 3 known ER antagonists. The biomarker was evaluated as a predictive tool using the fold-change rank-based Running Fisher algorithm by comparison to annotated gene expression data sets from experiments in MCF-7 cells. Using 141 comparisons from chemical- and hormone-treated cells, the biomarker gave a balanced accuracy for prediction of ERα activation or suppression of 94% or 93%, respectively. The biomarker was able to correctly classify 18 out of 21 (86%) OECD ER reference chemicals including “very weak” agonists and replicated predictions based on 18 in vitro ER-associated HTS assays. For 114 chemicals present in both the HTS data and the MCF-7 c

  4. Emerging biomarkers in breast cancer care.

    PubMed

    Napieralski, Rudolf; Brünner, Nils; Mengele, Karin; Schmitt, Manfred

    2010-08-01

    Currently, decision-making for breast cancer treatment in the clinical setting is mainly based on clinical data, histomorphological features of the tumor tissue and a few cancer biomarkers such as steroid hormone receptor status (estrogen and progesterone receptors) and oncoprotein HER2 status. Although various therapeutic options were introduced into the clinic in recent decades, with the objective of improving surgery, radiotherapy, biochemotherapy and chemotherapy, varying response of individual patients to certain types of therapy and therapy resistance is still a challenge in breast cancer care. Therefore, since breast cancer treatment should be based on individual features of the patient and her tumor, tailored therapy should be an option by integrating cancer biomarkers to define patients at risk and to reliably predict their course of the disease and/or response to cancer therapy. Recently, candidate-marker approaches and genome-wide transcriptomic and epigenetic screening of different breast cancer tissues and bodily fluids resulted in new promising biomarker panels, allowing breast cancer prognosis, prediction of therapy response and monitoring of therapy efficacy. These biomarkers are now subject of validation in prospective clinical trials.

  5. SELDI PROTEINCHIP-BASED LIVER BIOMARKERS IN FUNGICIDE EXPOSED ZEBRAFISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research presented here is part of a three-phased small fish computational toxicology project using a combination of 1) whole organism endpoints, 2) genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic approaches, and 3) computational modeling to (a) identify new molecular biomarkers of expos...

  6. Biomarkers for PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    post - traumatic stress disorder symptoms in Australian servicemen hospitalized in 1942-1952 Australas Psychiatry 16 (1), 18-21 (2008). 6 J.A...connected disability. Development of biomarkers of PTSD is critical for DOD and VA as objective indicators of PTSD for use in post -deployment medical...for service- connected disability5. Development of biomarkers of PTSD is critical for DOD and VA as objective indicators of PTSD for use in post

  7. Innovation Incentives and Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Stern, Ariel D; Alexander, Brian M; Chandra, Amitabh

    2018-01-01

    Previously, we have discussed the importance of economic incentives in shaping markets for precision medicines. Here we consider incentives for biomarker development, including discovery and establishment. Biomarkers can reveal valuable information regarding diagnosis and prognosis, predict treatment efficacy or toxicity, serve as markers of disease progression, and serve as auxiliary endpoints for clinical trials. Some have multiple uses, while others have a specialized role, resulting in diverse incentives across players in the healthcare system. © 2017, ASCPT.

  8. Biomarkers in earthworms.

    PubMed

    Scott-Fordsmand, J J; Weeks, J M

    2000-01-01

    Earthworms are believed to be so-called key species within ecosystems and are often exposed to a wide range of anthropogenic compounds released to the terrestrial environment. As a consequence, they may suffer from the toxicity of these compounds. For these and other reasons, earthworms have been used extensively in ecotoxicological studies. In recent years the use of other biological responses (biomarkers) to estimate either exposure or resultant effects of chemicals has received increased attention. Biomarkers address the question of bioavailability by only responding to the bioactive fraction. They may incorporate effects following exposure to a mixture of chemicals. Biomarkers may also reduce extrapolation of results from the laboratory to the field, as they may be applicable under both conditions. The present review has drawn together current knowledge on potential biomarkers in earthworms and appraised them in relation to basic requirements needed for supplying information relevant to devising satisfactory risk assessment. A wide range of potential biomarkers have been measured in earthworms, including DNA alteration, induction of metal-binding proteins (MTs and MBP), depression of ChE activity and other enzymatic responses, energy reserve responses, responses in neural impulse conductivity, lysosomal membrane stability, immunological responses, changes in sperm numbers, histopathological changes, and behavioral changes. Both organic and inorganic compounds have been included; however, for each biomarker the main emphasis historically has been placed on only a few chemicals. Dose-response relationships were in some cases observed. Little information is available on the linkage of the biomarker response to effects at population or community levels. The influence of other factors, biotic and abiotic, on the biomarker responses and their temporal duration have been only sporadically reported.

  9. Theranostic Biomarkers for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Svob Strac, Dubravka; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Pivac, Nela

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors. However, there are still no validated and reliable biomarkers in clinical use for schizophrenia. This review will address potential biomarkers in schizophrenia. It will discuss biomarkers in schizophrenia and propose the use of specific blood-based panels that will include a set of markers associated with immune processes, metabolic disorders, and neuroendocrine/neurotrophin/neurotransmitter alterations. The combination of different markers, or complex multi-marker panels, might help in the discrimination of patients with different underlying pathologies and in the better classification of the more homogenous groups. Therefore, the development of the diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic biomarkers is an urgent and an unmet need in psychiatry, with the aim of improving diagnosis, therapy monitoring, prediction of treatment outcome and focus on the personal medicine approach in order to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and decrease health costs worldwide. PMID:28358316

  10. Novel droplet platforms for the detection of disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Zec, Helena; Shin, Dong Jin; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2014-09-01

    Personalized medicine - healthcare based on individual genetic variation - has the potential to transform the way healthcare is delivered to patients. The promise of personalized medicine has been predicated on the predictive and diagnostic power of genomic and proteomic biomarkers. Biomarker screening may help improve health outcomes, for example, by identifying individuals' susceptibility to diseases and predicting how patients will respond to drugs. Microfluidic droplet technology offers an exciting opportunity to revolutionize the accessibility of personalized medicine. A framework for the role of droplet microfluidics in biomarker detection can be based on two main themes. Emulsion-based microdroplet platforms can provide new ways to measure and detect biomolecules. In addition, microdroplet platforms facilitate high-throughput screening of biomarkers. Meanwhile, surface-based droplet platforms provide an opportunity to develop miniaturized diagnostic systems. These platforms may function as portable benchtop environments that dramatically shorten the transition of a benchtop assay into a point-of-care format.

  11. Systems biology of cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sanga; Das, Smarajit; Chakrabarti, Jayprokas

    2013-01-01

    Cancer systems-biology is an ever-growing area of research due to explosion of data; how to mine these data and extract useful information is the problem. To have an insight on carcinogenesis one need to systematically mine several resources, such as databases, microarray and next-generation sequences. This review encompasses management and analysis of cancer data, databases construction and data deposition, whole transcriptome and genome comparison, analysing results from high throughput experiments to uncover cellular pathways and molecular interactions, and the design of effective algorithms to identify potential biomarkers. Recent technical advances such as ChIP-on-chip, ChIP-seq and RNA-seq can be applied to get epigenetic information transformed into a high-throughput endeavour to which systems biology and bioinformatics are making significant inroads. The data from ENCODE and GENCODE projects available through UCSC genome browser can be considered as benchmark for comparison and meta-analysis. A pipeline for integrating next generation sequencing data, microarray data, and putting them together with the existing database is discussed. The understanding of cancer genomics is changing the way we approach cancer diagnosis and treatment. To give a better understanding of utilizing available resources' we have chosen oral cancer to show how and what kind of analysis can be done. This review is a computational genomic primer that provides a bird's eye view of computational and bioinformatics' tools currently available to perform integrated genomic and system biology analyses of several carcinoma.

  12. The search for biomarkers in the critically ill: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Moran, John L; Solomon, Patricia J

    2018-06-01

    The search for biomarkers has been described as a dismal patchwork of fragmented research. We review biomarkers in sepsis in the critically ill in terms of conventional single circulating proteins. Despite sepsis biomarker publications trebling over the past 6 years, currently only one, procalcitonin, has materialised promise. We survey genomic biomarker initiatives, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene signatures. Despite many SNP associations with sepsis susceptibility and a limited number of genome-wide association studies, the status of these associations is that of genomic signposts only. The standing of gene signatures in the paradigmatic discipline, breast cancer, is described. Uncertainties in the understanding of the sepsis process are documented - the dissociation between blood and tissue element activity, or compartmentalisation. The paradox of the active search for gene signatures to refine the sepsis phenotype and discover target subtypes for new therapies in the absence of such therapies is presented.

  13. Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Facilitates Implementation of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines for Lung Cancer Biomarker Testing and Identifies Patients Who May Benefit From Enrollment in Mechanism-Driven Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Suh, James H; Johnson, Adrienne; Albacker, Lee; Wang, Kai; Chmielecki, Juliann; Frampton, Garrett; Gay, Laurie; Elvin, Julia A; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Ali, Siraj; Miller, Vincent A; Stephens, Philip J; Ross, Jeffrey S

    2016-06-01

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) recommend testing for EGFR, BRAF, ERBB2, and MET mutations; ALK, ROS1, and RET rearrangements; and MET amplification. We investigated the feasibility and utility of comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP), a hybrid capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) test, in clinical practice. CGP was performed to a mean coverage depth of 576× on 6,832 consecutive cases of NSCLC (2012-2015). Genomic alterations (GAs) (point mutations, small indels, copy number changes, and rearrangements) involving EGFR, ALK, BRAF, ERBB2, MET, ROS1, RET, and KRAS were recorded. We also evaluated lung adenocarcinoma (AD) cases without GAs, involving these eight genes. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range: 13-88 years) and 53% were female. Among the patients studied, 4,876 (71%) harbored at least one GA involving EGFR (20%), ALK (4.1%), BRAF (5.7%), ERBB2 (6.0%), MET (5.6%), ROS1 (1.5%), RET (2.4%), or KRAS (32%). In the remaining cohort of lung AD without these known drivers, 273 cancer-related genes were altered in at least 0.1% of cases, including STK11 (21%), NF1 (13%), MYC (9.8%), RICTOR (6.4%), PIK3CA (5.4%), CDK4 (4.3%), CCND1 (4.0%), BRCA2 (2.5%), NRAS (2.3%), BRCA1 (1.7%), MAP2K1 (1.2%), HRAS (0.7%), NTRK1 (0.7%), and NTRK3 (0.2%). CGP is practical and facilitates implementation of the NCCN guidelines for NSCLC by enabling simultaneous detection of GAs involving all seven driver oncogenes and KRAS. Furthermore, without additional tissue use or cost, CGP identifies patients with "pan-negative" lung AD who may benefit from enrollment in mechanism-driven clinical trials. National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) recommend testing for several genomic alterations (GAs). The feasibility and utility of comprehensive genomic profiling were studied in NSCLC and in lung adenocarcinoma

  14. Leveraging molecular datasets for biomarker-based clinical trial design in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tanguturi, Shyam K; Trippa, Lorenzo; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Pelton, Kristine; Knoff, David; Sandak, David; Lindeman, Neal I; Ligon, Azra H; Beroukhim, Rameen; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Wen, Patrick Y; Ligon, Keith L; Alexander, Brian M

    2017-07-01

    Biomarkers can improve clinical trial efficiency, but designing and interpreting biomarker-driven trials require knowledge of relationships among biomarkers, clinical covariates, and endpoints. We investigated these relationships across genomic subgroups of glioblastoma (GBM) within our institution (DF/BWCC), validated results in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and demonstrated potential impacts on clinical trial design and interpretation. We identified genotyped patients at DF/BWCC, and clinical associations across 4 common GBM genomic biomarker groups were compared along with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and survival post-progression (SPP). Significant associations were validated in TCGA. Biomarker-based clinical trials were simulated using various assumptions. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)(+) and p53(-) subgroups were more likely isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)(+) patients were older, and patients with O6-DNA methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT)-promoter methylation were more often female. OS, PFS, and SPP were all longer for IDH mutant and MGMT methylated patients, but there was no independent prognostic value for other genomic subgroups. PI3K(+) patients had shorter PFS among IDH wild-type tumors, however, and no DF/BWCC long-term survivors were either EGFR(+) (0% vs 7%, P = .014) or p53(-) (0% vs 10%, P = .005). The degree of biomarker overlap impacted the efficiency of Bayesian-adaptive clinical trials, while PFS and OS distribution variation had less impact. Biomarker frequency was proportionally associated with sample size in all designs. We identified several associations between GBM genomic subgroups and clinical or molecular prognostic covariates and validated known prognostic factors in all survival periods. These results are important for biomarker-based trial design and interpretation of biomarker-only and nonrandomized trials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by

  15. Biomarkers of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is an unusual systemic reaction to what is sometimes an otherwise ordinary infection, and it probably represents a pattern of response by the immune system to injury. A hyper-inflammatory response is followed by an immunosuppressive phase during which multiple organ dysfunction is present and the patient is susceptible to nosocomial infection. Biomarkers to diagnose sepsis may allow early intervention which, although primarily supportive, can reduce the risk of death. Although lactate is currently the most commonly used biomarker to identify sepsis, other biomarkers may help to enhance lactate’s effectiveness; these include markers of the hyper-inflammatory phase of sepsis, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; proteins such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin which are synthesized in response to infection and inflammation; and markers of neutrophil and monocyte activation. Recently, markers of the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis, such as anti-inflammatory cytokines, and alterations of the cell surface markers of monocytes and lymphocytes have been examined. Combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers in a multi-marker panel may help identify patients who are developing severe sepsis before organ dysfunction has advanced too far. Combined with innovative approaches to treatment that target the immunosuppressive phase, these biomarkers may help to reduce the mortality rate associated with severe sepsis which, despite advances in supportive measures, remains high. PMID:23480440

  16. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    SciT

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  17. Biomarkers intersect with the exposome

    PubMed Central

    Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    The exposome concept promotes use of omic tools for discovering biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of disease in studies of diseased and healthy populations. A two-stage scheme is presented for profiling omic features in serum to discover molecular biomarkers and then for applying these biomarkers in follow-up studies. The initial component, referred to as an exposome-wide-association study (EWAS), employs metabolomics and proteomics to interrogate the serum exposome and, ultimately, to identify, validate and differentiate biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of disease. Follow-up studies employ knowledge-driven designs to explore disease causality, prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. PMID:22672124

  18. Novel biomarkers for cardiovascular risk assessment: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    MacNamara, James; Eapen, Danny J; Quyyumi, Arshed; Sperling, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the modern world. Traditional risk algorithms may miss up to 20% of CVD events. Therefore, there is a need for new cardiac biomarkers. Many fields of research are dedicated to improving cardiac risk prediction, including genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. To date, even the most promising biomarkers have only demonstrated modest associations and predictive ability. Few have undergone randomized control trials. A number of biomarkers are targets to new therapies aimed to reduce cardiovascular risk. Currently, some of the most promising risk prediction has been demonstrated with panels of multiple biomarkers. This article reviews the current state and future of proteomic biomarkers and aggregate biomarker panels.

  19. Genomic Medicine and Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Center, David M.; Schwartz, David A.; Solway, Julian; Gail, Dorothy; Laposky, Aaron D.

    2012-01-01

    The recent explosion of genomic data and technology points to opportunities to redefine lung diseases at the molecular level; to apply integrated genomic approaches to elucidate mechanisms of lung pathophysiology; and to improve early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of lung diseases. Research is needed to translate genomic discoveries into clinical applications, such as detecting preclinical disease, predicting patient outcomes, guiding treatment choices, and most of all identifying potential therapeutic targets for lung diseases. The Division of Lung Diseases in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a workshop, “Genomic Medicine and Lung Diseases,” to discuss the potential for integrated genomics and systems approaches to advance 21st century pulmonary medicine and to evaluate the most promising opportunities for this next phase of genomics research to yield clinical benefit. Workshop sessions included (1) molecular phenotypes, molecular biomarkers, and therapeutics; (2) new technology and opportunity; (3) integrative genomics; (4) molecular anatomy of the lung; (5) novel data and information platforms; and (6) recommendations for exceptional research opportunities in lung genomics research. PMID:22652029

  20. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dimri, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1998-08-18

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.

  1. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dirmi, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1996-02-13

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.

  2. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dimri, Goberdhan P.; Campisi, Judith; Peacocke, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, .beta.-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in vitro cell cultures or in vivo.

  3. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dirmi, Goberdhan P.; Campisi, Judith; Peacocke, Monica

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, .beta.-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in in vitro cell cultures or in vivo.

  4. Individual Biomarkers Using Molecular Personalized Medicine Approaches.

    PubMed

    Zenner, Hans P

    2017-01-01

    Molecular personalized medicine tries to generate individual predictive biomarkers to assist doctors in their decision making. These are thought to improve the efficacy and lower the toxicity of a treatment. The molecular basis of the desired high-precision prediction is modern "omex" technologies providing high-throughput bioanalytical methods. These include genomics and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, microbiomics, imaging, and functional analyses. In most cases, producing big data also requires a complex biomathematical analysis. Using molecular personalized medicine, the conventional physician's check of biomarker results may no longer be sufficient. By contrast, the physician may need to cooperate with the biomathematician to achieve the desired prediction on the basis of the analysis of individual big data typically produced by omex technologies. Identification of individual biomarkers using molecular personalized medicine approaches is thought to allow a decision-making for the precise use of a targeted therapy, selecting the successful therapeutic tool from a panel of preexisting drugs or medical products. This should avoid the treatment of nonresponders and responders that produces intolerable unwanted effects. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Biomarkers in Breast Cancer – An Update

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, M.; Fasching, P. A.; Beckmann, M. W.; Kölbl, H.

    2012-01-01

    The therapy of choice for breast cancer patients requiring adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy is increasingly guided by the principle of weighing the individual effectiveness of the therapy against the associated side effects. This has only been made possible by the discovery and validation of modern biomarkers. In the last decades and in the last few years some biomarkers have been integrated in clinical practice and a number have been included in modern study concepts. The importance of biomarkers lies not merely in their prognostic value indicating the future course of disease but also in their use to predict patient response to therapy. Due to the many subgroups, mathematical models and computer-assisted analysis are increasingly being used to assess the prognostic information obtained from established clinical and histopathological factors. In addition to describing some recent computer programmes this overview will focus on established molecular markers which have already been extensively validated in clinical practice and on new molecular markers identified by genome-wide studies. PMID:26640290

  6. Tissue- and Serum-Associated Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ranjit; Lahiri, Nivedita

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the world, is offering a challenge to human beings, with the current modes of treatment being a palliative approach. Lack of proper curative or preventive treatment methods encouraged extensive research around the world with an aim to detect a vaccine or therapeutic target biomolecule that could lead to development of a drug or vaccine against HCC. Biomarkers or biological disease markers have emerged as a potential tool as drug/vaccine targets, as they can accurately diagnose, predict, and even prevent the diseases. Biomarker expression in tissue, serum, plasma, or urine can detect tumor in very early stages of its development and monitor the cancer progression and also the effect of therapeutic interventions. Biomarker discoveries are driven by advanced techniques, such as proteomics, transcriptomics, whole genome sequencing, micro- and micro-RNA arrays, and translational clinics. In this review, an overview of the potential of tissue- and serum-associated HCC biomarkers as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets for drug development is presented. In addition, we highlight recently developed micro-RNA, long noncoding RNA biomarkers, and single-nucleotide changes, which may be used independently or as complementary biomarkers. These active investigations going on around the world aimed at conquering HCC might show a bright light in the near future. PMID:27398029

  7. Biomarkers for the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Nobuhiro; Sawada, Yu; Endo, Itaru; Saito, Keigo; Uemura, Yasushi; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although the prognosis of patients with HCC is generally poor, the 5-year survival rate is > 70% if patients are diagnosed at an early stage. However, early diagnosis of HCC is complicated by the coexistence of inflammation and cirrhosis. Thus, novel biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HCC are required. Currently, the diagnosis of HCC without pathological correlation is achieved by analyzing serum α-fetoprotein levels combined with imaging techniques. Advances in genomics and proteomics platforms and biomarker assay techniques over the last decade have resulted in the identification of numerous novel biomarkers and have improved the diagnosis of HCC. The most promising biomarkers, such as glypican-3, osteopontin, Golgi protein-73 and nucleic acids including microRNAs, are most likely to become clinically validated in the near future. These biomarkers are not only useful for early diagnosis of HCC, but also provide insight into the mechanisms driving oncogenesis. In addition, such molecular insight creates the basis for the development of potentially more effective treatment strategies. In this article, we provide an overview of the biomarkers that are currently used for the early diagnosis of HCC. PMID:26457017

  8. Biomarkers of cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Loumaye, Audrey; Thissen, Jean-Paul

    2017-12-01

    Cachexia is a complex multifactorial syndrome, characterized by loss of skeletal muscle and fat mass, which affects the majority of advanced cancer patients and is associated with poor prognosis. Interestingly, reversing muscle loss in animal models of cancer cachexia leads to prolong survival. Therefore, detecting cachexia and maintaining muscle mass represent a major goal in the care of cancer patients. However, early diagnosis of cancer cachexia is currently limited for several reasons. Indeed, cachexia development is variable according to tumor and host characteristics. In addition, safe, accessible and non-invasive tools to detect skeletal muscle atrophy are desperately lacking in clinical practice. Finally, the precise molecular mechanisms and the key players involved in cancer cachexia remain poorly characterized. The need for an early diagnosis of cancer cachexia supports therefore the quest for a biomarker that might reflect skeletal muscle atrophy process. Current research offers different promising ways to identify such a biomarker. Initially, the quest for a biomarker of cancer cachexia has mostly focused on mediators of muscle atrophy, produced by both tumor and host, in an attempt to define new therapeutic approaches. In another hand, molecules released by the muscle into the circulation during the atrophy process have been also considered as potential biomarkers. More recently, several "omics" studies are emerging to identify new muscular or circulating markers of cancer cachexia. Some genetic markers could also contribute to identify patients more susceptible to develop cachexia. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding potential biomarkers of cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An OMIC biomarker detection algorithm TriVote and its application in methylomic biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Jiamei; Yang, Weifeng; Shu, Yayun; Wei, Zhipeng; Zheng, Weiwei; Feng, Xin; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2018-04-01

    Transcriptomic and methylomic patterns represent two major OMIC data sources impacted by both inheritable genetic information and environmental factors, and have been widely used as disease diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers. Modern transcriptomic and methylomic profiling technologies detect the status of tens of thousands or even millions of probing residues in the human genome, and introduce a major computational challenge for the existing feature selection algorithms. This study proposes a three-step feature selection algorithm, TriVote, to detect a subset of transcriptomic or methylomic residues with highly accurate binary classification performance. TriVote outperforms both filter and wrapper feature selection algorithms with both higher classification accuracy and smaller feature number on 17 transcriptomes and two methylomes. Biological functions of the methylome biomarkers detected by TriVote were discussed for their disease associations. An easy-to-use Python package is also released to facilitate the further applications.

  10. Identification of novel diagnostic biomarkers for thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiliang; Zhang, Qing; Cai, Zhiming; Dai, Yifan; Mou, Lisha

    2017-12-19

    Thyroid carcinoma (THCA) is the most universal endocrine malignancy worldwide. Unfortunately, a limited number of large-scale analyses have been performed to identify biomarkers for THCA. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis using 505 THCA patients and 59 normal controls from The Cancer Genome Atlas. After identifying differentially expressed long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and protein coding genes (PCG), we found vast difference in various lncRNA-PCG co-expressed pairs in THCA. A dysregulation network with scale-free topology was constructed. Four molecules (LA16c-380H5.2, RP11-203J24.8, MLF1 and SDC4) could potentially serve as diagnostic biomarkers of THCA with high sensitivity and specificity. We further represent a diagnostic panel with expression cutoff values. Our results demonstrate the potential application of those four molecules as novel independent biomarkers for THCA diagnosis.

  11. Identification of novel diagnostic biomarkers for thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiliang; Zhang, Qing; Cai, Zhiming; Dai, Yifan; Mou, Lisha

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma (THCA) is the most universal endocrine malignancy worldwide. Unfortunately, a limited number of large-scale analyses have been performed to identify biomarkers for THCA. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis using 505 THCA patients and 59 normal controls from The Cancer Genome Atlas. After identifying differentially expressed long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and protein coding genes (PCG), we found vast difference in various lncRNA-PCG co-expressed pairs in THCA. A dysregulation network with scale-free topology was constructed. Four molecules (LA16c-380H5.2, RP11-203J24.8, MLF1 and SDC4) could potentially serve as diagnostic biomarkers of THCA with high sensitivity and specificity. We further represent a diagnostic panel with expression cutoff values. Our results demonstrate the potential application of those four molecules as novel independent biomarkers for THCA diagnosis. PMID:29340074

  12. Biomarkers for PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    connected disability (5). Development of biomarkers of PTSD is critical for DOD and VA as objective indicators of PTSD for use in post -deployment medical...2 C. W. Hoge, A. Terhakopian, C. A. Castro et al., Association of posttraumatic stress disorder with somatic symptoms, health care visits, and...seen at Department of Veterans Affairs facilities. Arch Intern Med 167, 476- 82 (2007). 5 P. B. Watson and B. Daniels, Follow up of post - traumatic

  13. Quantitative imaging as cancer biomarker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankoff, David A.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to assay tumor biologic features and the impact of drugs on tumor biology is fundamental to drug development. Advances in our ability to measure genomics, gene expression, protein expression, and cellular biology have led to a host of new targets for anticancer drug therapy. In translating new drugs into clinical trials and clinical practice, these same assays serve to identify patients most likely to benefit from specific anticancer treatments. As cancer therapy becomes more individualized and targeted, there is an increasing need to characterize tumors and identify therapeutic targets to select therapy most likely to be successful in treating the individual patient's cancer. Thus far assays to identify cancer therapeutic targets or anticancer drug pharmacodynamics have been based upon in vitro assay of tissue or blood samples. Advances in molecular imaging, particularly PET, have led to the ability to perform quantitative non-invasive molecular assays. Imaging has traditionally relied on structural and anatomic features to detect cancer and determine its extent. More recently, imaging has expanded to include the ability to image regional biochemistry and molecular biology, often termed molecular imaging. Molecular imaging can be considered an in vivo assay technique, capable of measuring regional tumor biology without perturbing it. This makes molecular imaging a unique tool for cancer drug development, complementary to traditional assay methods, and a potentially powerful method for guiding targeted therapy in clinical trials and clinical practice. The ability to quantify, in absolute measures, regional in vivo biologic parameters strongly supports the use of molecular imaging as a tool to guide therapy. This review summarizes current and future applications of quantitative molecular imaging as a biomarker for cancer therapy, including the use of imaging to (1) identify patients whose tumors express a specific therapeutic target; (2) determine

  14. Population-Sequencing as a Biomarker of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei Evolution through Microbial Forensic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jakupciak, John P; Wells, Jeffrey M; Karalus, Richard J; Pawlowski, David R; Lin, Jeffrey S; Feldman, Andrew B

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale genomics projects are identifying biomarkers to detect human disease. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are two closely related select agents that cause melioidosis and glanders. Accurate characterization of metagenomic samples is dependent on accurate measurements of genetic variation between isolates with resolution down to strain level. Often single biomarker sensitivity is augmented by use of multiple or panels of biomarkers. In parallel with single biomarker validation, advances in DNA sequencing enable analysis of entire genomes in a single run: population-sequencing. Potentially, direct sequencing could be used to analyze an entire genome to serve as the biomarker for genome identification. However, genome variation and population diversity complicate use of direct sequencing, as well as differences caused by sample preparation protocols including sequencing artifacts and mistakes. As part of a Department of Homeland Security program in bacterial forensics, we examined how to implement whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis as a judicially defensible forensic method for attributing microbial sample relatedness; and also to determine the strengths and limitations of whole genome sequence analysis in a forensics context. Herein, we demonstrate use of sequencing to provide genetic characterization of populations: direct sequencing of populations.

  15. Population-Sequencing as a Biomarker of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei Evolution through Microbial Forensic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jakupciak, John P.; Wells, Jeffrey M.; Karalus, Richard J.; Pawlowski, David R.; Lin, Jeffrey S.; Feldman, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale genomics projects are identifying biomarkers to detect human disease. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are two closely related select agents that cause melioidosis and glanders. Accurate characterization of metagenomic samples is dependent on accurate measurements of genetic variation between isolates with resolution down to strain level. Often single biomarker sensitivity is augmented by use of multiple or panels of biomarkers. In parallel with single biomarker validation, advances in DNA sequencing enable analysis of entire genomes in a single run: population-sequencing. Potentially, direct sequencing could be used to analyze an entire genome to serve as the biomarker for genome identification. However, genome variation and population diversity complicate use of direct sequencing, as well as differences caused by sample preparation protocols including sequencing artifacts and mistakes. As part of a Department of Homeland Security program in bacterial forensics, we examined how to implement whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis as a judicially defensible forensic method for attributing microbial sample relatedness; and also to determine the strengths and limitations of whole genome sequence analysis in a forensics context. Herein, we demonstrate use of sequencing to provide genetic characterization of populations: direct sequencing of populations. PMID:24455204

  16. [Biomarkers of Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Rachel, Wojciech; Grela, Agatha; Zyss, Tomasz; Zieba, Andrzej; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most abundant age-related psychiatric disorders. The outcome of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease has both individual (the patients and their families) and socio-economic effects. The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease doubles after the age of 65 years, every 4.5 years. An etiologically heterogenic group of disorders related to aging as well as genetic and environmental interactions probably underlie the impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Those factors cause the degeneration of brain tissue which leads to significant cognitive dysfunction. There are two main hypotheses that are linked to the process of neurodegeneration: (i) amyloid cascade and (ii) the role of secretases and dysfunction of mitochondria. From the therapeutic standpoint it is crucial to get an early diagnosis and start with an adequate treatment. The undeniable progress in the field of biomarker research should lead to a better understanding of the early stages of the disorder. So far, the best recognised and described biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease, which can be detected in both cerebrospinal fluid and blood, are: beta-amyloid, tau-protein and phosphorylated tau-protein (phospho-tau). The article discusses the usefulness of the known biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease in early diagnosis.

  17. Blood biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Altuna-Azkargorta, M; Mendioroz-Iriarte, M

    2018-05-08

    The early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) via the use of biomarkers could facilitate the implementation and monitoring of early therapeutic interventions with the potential capacity to significantly modify the course of the disease. Classic cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and approved structural and functional neuroimaging have a limited clinical application given their invasive nature and/or high cost. The identification of more accessible and less costly biomarkers, such as blood biomarkers, would facilitate application in clinical practice. We present a literature review of the main blood biochemical biomarkers with potential use for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease. Blood biomarkers are cost and time effective with regard to cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. However, the immediate applicability of blood biochemical biomarkers in clinical practice is not very likely. The main limitations come from the difficulties in measuring and standardising thresholds between different laboratories and in failures to replicate results. Among all the molecules studied, apoptosis and neurodegeneration biomarkers and the biomarker panels obtained through omics approaches, such as isolated or combined metabolomics, offer the most promising results. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomarkers in cancer screening: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sudhir; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi

    2002-08-01

    The last three decades have witnessed a rapid advancement and diffusion of technology in health services. Technological innovations have given health service providers the means to diagnose and treat an increasing number of illnesses, including cancer. In this effort, research on biomarkers for cancer detection and risk assessment has taken a center stage in our effort to reduce cancer deaths. For the first time, scientists have the technologies to decipher and understand these biomarkers and to apply them to earlier cancer detection. By identifying people at high risk of developing cancer, it would be possible to develop intervention efforts on prevention rather than treatment. Once fully developed and validated, then the regular clinical use of biomarkers in early detection and risk assessment will meet nationally recognized health care needs: detection of cancer at its earliest stage. The dramatic rise in health care costs in the past three decades is partly related to the proliferation of new technologies. More recent analysis indicates that technological change, such as new procedures, products and capabilities, is the primary explanation of the historical increase in expenditure. Biomarkers are the new entrants in this competing environment. Biomarkers are considered as a competing, halfway or add-on technology. Technology such as laboratory tests of biomarkers will cost less compared with computed tomography (CT) scans and other radiographs. However, biomarkers for earlier detection and risk assessment have not achieved the level of confidence required for clinical applications. This paper discusses some issues related to biomarker development, validation and quality assurance. Some data on the trends of diagnostic technologies, proteomics and genomics are presented and discussed in terms of the market share. Eventually, the use of biomarkers in health care could reduce cost by providing noninvasive, sensitive and reliable assays at a fraction of the cost of

  19. Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Alicia J.; Joglekar, Mugdha V.; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A.; Keech, Anthony C.; O'Neal, David N.; Januszewski, Andrzej S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat

  20. Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Alicia J; Joglekar, Mugdha V; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A; Keech, Anthony C; O'Neal, David N; Januszewski, Andrzej S

    2015-01-01

    There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat

  1. Biomarkers for personalized oncology: recent advances and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Madhu

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells and oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with tumors. The last decade has seen significant advances in the development of biomarkers in oncology that play a critical role in understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms which drive tumor initiation, maintenance and progression. Clinical molecular diagnostics and biomarker discoveries in oncology are advancing rapidly as we begin to understand the complex mechanisms that transform a normal cell into an abnormal one. These discoveries have fueled the development of novel drug targets and new treatment strategies. The standard of care for patients with advanced-stage cancers has shifted away from an empirical treatment strategy based on the clinical-pathological profile to one where a biomarker driven treatment algorithm based on the molecular profile of the tumor is used. Recent advances in multiplex genotyping technologies and high-throughput genomic profiling by next-generation sequencing make possible the rapid and comprehensive analysis of the cancer genome of individual patients even from very little tumor biopsy material. Predictive (diagnostic) biomarkers are helpful in matching targeted therapies with patients and in preventing toxicity of standard (systemic) therapies. Prognostic biomarkers identify somatic germ line mutations, changes in DNA methylation, elevated levels of microRNA (miRNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTC) in blood. Predictive biomarkers using molecular diagnostics are currently in use in clinical practice of personalized oncotherapy for the treatment of five diseases: chronic myeloid leukemia, colon, breast, lung cancer and melanoma and these biomarkers are being used successfully to evaluate benefits that can be achieved through targeted therapy. Examples of these molecularly targeted biomarker therapies are: tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia and

  2. Applications of Support Vector Machine (SVM) Learning in Cancer Genomics

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, SHUJUN; CAI, NIANGUANG; PACHECO, PEDRO PENZUTI; NARANDES, SHAVIRA; WANG, YANG; XU, WAYNE

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning with maximization (support) of separating margin (vector), called support vector machine (SVM) learning, is a powerful classification tool that has been used for cancer genomic classification or subtyping. Today, as advancements in high-throughput technologies lead to production of large amounts of genomic and epigenomic data, the classification feature of SVMs is expanding its use in cancer genomics, leading to the discovery of new biomarkers, new drug targets, and a better understanding of cancer driver genes. Herein we reviewed the recent progress of SVMs in cancer genomic studies. We intend to comprehend the strength of the SVM learning and its future perspective in cancer genomic applications. PMID:29275361

  3. Predictive Biomarkers for Asthma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Medrek, Sarah K; Parulekar, Amit D; Hanania, Nicola A

    2017-09-19

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by multiple phenotypes. Treatment of patients with severe disease can be challenging. Predictive biomarkers are measurable characteristics that reflect the underlying pathophysiology of asthma and can identify patients that are likely to respond to a given therapy. This review discusses current knowledge regarding predictive biomarkers in asthma. Recent trials evaluating biologic therapies targeting IgE, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-4 have utilized predictive biomarkers to identify patients who might benefit from treatment. Other work has suggested that using composite biomarkers may offer enhanced predictive capabilities in tailoring asthma therapy. Multiple biomarkers including sputum eosinophil count, blood eosinophil count, fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled breath (FeNO), and serum periostin have been used to identify which patients will respond to targeted asthma medications. Further work is needed to integrate predictive biomarkers into clinical practice.

  4. Regulators of gene expression as biomarkers for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Willard, Stacey S; Koochekpour, Shahriar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advancements in gene expression analysis have led to the discovery of a promising new group of prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers that have the potential to influence diagnosis and the prediction of disease severity. The accumulation of deleterious changes in gene expression is a fundamental mechanism of prostate carcinogenesis. Aberrant gene expression can arise from changes in epigenetic regulation or mutation in the genome affecting either key regulatory elements or gene sequences themselves. At the epigenetic level, a myriad of abnormal histone modifications and changes in DNA methylation are found in PCa patients. In addition, many mutations in the genome have been associated with higher PCa risk. Finally, over- or underexpression of key genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell adhesion and regulation of transcription has been observed. An interesting group of biomarkers are emerging from these studies which may prove more predictive than the standard prostate specific antigen (PSA) serum test. In this review, we discuss recent results in the field of gene expression analysis in PCa including the most promising biomarkers in the areas of epigenetics, genomics and the transcriptome, some of which are currently under investigation as clinical tests for early detection and better prognostic prediction of PCa. PMID:23226612

  5. Value-based genomics.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jun; Pan, Kathy; Fakih, Marwan; Pal, Sumanta; Salgia, Ravi

    2018-03-20

    Advancements in next-generation sequencing have greatly enhanced the development of biomarker-driven cancer therapies. The affordability and availability of next-generation sequencers have allowed for the commercialization of next-generation sequencing platforms that have found widespread use for clinical-decision making and research purposes. Despite the greater availability of tumor molecular profiling by next-generation sequencing at our doorsteps, the achievement of value-based care, or improving patient outcomes while reducing overall costs or risks, in the era of precision oncology remains a looming challenge. In this review, we highlight available data through a pre-established and conceptualized framework for evaluating value-based medicine to assess the cost (efficiency), clinical benefit (effectiveness), and toxicity (safety) of genomic profiling in cancer care. We also provide perspectives on future directions of next-generation sequencing from targeted panels to whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing and describe potential strategies needed to attain value-based genomics.

  6. Value-based genomics

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jun; Pan, Kathy; Fakih, Marwan; Pal, Sumanta; Salgia, Ravi

    2018-01-01

    Advancements in next-generation sequencing have greatly enhanced the development of biomarker-driven cancer therapies. The affordability and availability of next-generation sequencers have allowed for the commercialization of next-generation sequencing platforms that have found widespread use for clinical-decision making and research purposes. Despite the greater availability of tumor molecular profiling by next-generation sequencing at our doorsteps, the achievement of value-based care, or improving patient outcomes while reducing overall costs or risks, in the era of precision oncology remains a looming challenge. In this review, we highlight available data through a pre-established and conceptualized framework for evaluating value-based medicine to assess the cost (efficiency), clinical benefit (effectiveness), and toxicity (safety) of genomic profiling in cancer care. We also provide perspectives on future directions of next-generation sequencing from targeted panels to whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing and describe potential strategies needed to attain value-based genomics. PMID:29644010

  7. Biomarkers in Multiple Sclerosis: An Up-to-Date Overview

    PubMed Central

    Katsavos, Serafeim; Anagnostouli, Maria

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades, the effort of establishing satisfactory biomarkers for multiple sclerosis has been proven to be very difficult, due to the clinical and pathophysiological complexities of the disease. Recent knowledge acquired in the domains of genomics-immunogenetics and neuroimmunology, as well as the evolution in neuroimaging, has provided a whole new list of biomarkers. This variety, though, leads inevitably to confusion in the effort of decision making concerning strategic and individualized therapeutics. In this paper, our primary goal is to provide the reader with a list of the most important characteristics that a biomarker must possess in order to be considered as reliable. Additionally, up-to-date biomarkers are further divided into three subgroups, genetic-immunogenetic, laboratorial, and imaging. The most important representatives of each category are presented in the text and for the first time in a summarizing workable table, in a critical way, estimating their diagnostic potential and their efficacy to correlate with phenotypical expression, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, disability, and therapeutical response. Special attention is given to the “gold standards” of each category, like HLA-DRB1∗ polymorphisms, oligoclonal bands, vitamin D, and conventional and nonconventional imaging techniques. Moreover, not adequately established but quite promising, recently characterized biomarkers, like TOB-1 polymorphisms, are further discussed. PMID:23401777

  8. Application of “omics” to Prion Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Huzarewich, Rhiannon L. C. H.; Siemens, Christine G.; Booth, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    The advent of genomics and proteomics has been a catalyst for the discovery of biomarkers able to discriminate biological processes such as the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Prompt detection of prion diseases is particularly desirable given their transmissibility, which is responsible for a number of human health risks stemming from exogenous sources of prion protein. Diagnosis relies on the ability to detect the biomarker PrPSc, a pathological isoform of the host protein PrPC, which is an essential component of the infectious prion. Immunochemical detection of PrPSc is specific and sensitive enough for antemortem testing of brain tissue, however, this is not the case in accessible biological fluids or for the detection of recently identified novel prions with unique biochemical properties. A complementary approach to the detection of PrPSc itself is to identify alternative, “surrogate” gene or protein biomarkers indicative of disease. Biomarkers are also useful to track the progress of disease, especially important in the assessment of therapies, or to identify individuals “at risk”. In this review we provide perspective on current progress and pitfalls in the use of “omics” technologies to screen body fluids and tissues for biomarker discovery in prion diseases. PMID:20224650

  9. Biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease: current practices and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Heba N; Ciorba, Matthew A

    2012-04-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis represent the two main forms of the idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Currently available blood and stool based biomarkers provide reproducible, quantitative tools that can complement clinical assessment to aid clinicians in IBD diagnosis and management. C-reactive protein and fecal based leukocyte markers can help the clinician distinguish IBD from noninflammatory diarrhea and assess disease activity. The ability to differentiate between forms of IBD and predict risk for disease complications is specific to serologic tests including antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic proteins. Advances in genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic array based technologies are facilitating the development of new biomarkers for IBD. The discovery of novel biomarkers, which can correlate with mucosal healing or predict long-term disease course has the potential to significantly improve patient care. This article reviews the uses and limitations of currently available biomarkers and highlights recent advances in IBD biomarker discovery. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomarkers in Lysosomal Storage Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bobillo Lobato, Joaquin; Jiménez Hidalgo, Maria; Jiménez Jiménez, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker is generally an analyte that indicates the presence and/or extent of a biological process, which is in itself usually directly linked to the clinical manifestations and outcome of a particular disease. The biomarkers in the field of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) have particular relevance where spectacular therapeutic initiatives have been achieved, most notably with the introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). There are two main types of biomarkers. The first group is comprised of those molecules whose accumulation is directly enhanced as a result of defective lysosomal function. These molecules represent the storage of the principal macro-molecular substrate(s) of a specific enzyme or protein, whose function is deficient in the given disease. In the second group of biomarkers, the relationship between the lysosomal defect and the biomarker is indirect. In this group, the biomarker reflects the effects of the primary lysosomal defect on cell, tissue, or organ functions. There is no “gold standard” among biomarkers used to diagnosis and/or monitor LSDs, but there are a number that exist that can be used to reasonably assess and monitor the state of certain organs or functions. A number of biomarkers have been proposed for the analysis of the most important LSDs. In this review, we will summarize the most promising biomarkers in major LSDs and discuss why these are the most promising candidates for screening systems. PMID:28933418

  11. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  12. Value of biomarkers in osteoarthritis: current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lotz, M; Martel-Pelletier, J; Christiansen, C; Brandi, M-L; Bruyère, O; Chapurlat, R; Collette, J; Cooper, C; Giacovelli, G; Kanis, J A; Karsdal, M A; Kraus, V; Lems, W F; Meulenbelt, I; Pelletier, J-P; Raynauld, J-P; Reiter-Niesert, S; Rizzoli, R; Sandell, L J; Van Spil, W E; Reginster, J-Y

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis affects the whole joint structure with progressive changes in cartilage, menisci, ligaments and subchondral bone, and synovial inflammation. Biomarkers are being developed to quantify joint remodelling and disease progression. This article was prepared following a working meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis convened to discuss the value of biochemical markers of matrix metabolism in drug development in osteoarthritis. The best candidates are generally molecules or molecular fragments present in cartilage, bone or synovium and may be specific to one type of joint tissue or common to them all. Many currently investigated biomarkers are associated with collagen metabolism in cartilage or bone, or aggrecan metabolism in cartilage. Other biomarkers are related to non-collagenous proteins, inflammation and/or fibrosis. Biomarkers in osteoarthritis can be categorised using the burden of disease, investigative, prognostic, efficacy of intervention, diagnostic and safety classification. There are a number of promising candidates, notably urinary C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type II and serum cartilage oligomeric protein, although none is sufficiently discriminating to differentiate between individual patients and controls (diagnostic) or between patients with different disease severities (burden of disease), predict prognosis in individuals with or without osteoarthritis (prognostic) or perform so consistently that it could function as a surrogate outcome in clinical trials (efficacy of intervention). Future avenues for research include exploration of underlying mechanisms of disease and development of new biomarkers; technological development; the ‘omics’ (genomics, metabolomics, proteomics and lipidomics); design of aggregate scores combining a panel of biomarkers and/or imaging markers into single diagnostic algorithms; and investigation into the relationship between biomarkers and

  13. Validating Biomarkers for PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Recall Participants by Site Recruitment Site Procedure Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Year 1 Total NYUMC BCI * 6 5 4 6 21 Blood draw 0 8 4 4 16 Self-report 0 7 4 4...15 Brain imaging 1 8 5 0 14 NCT** 0 7 4 4 15 JJPVAMC/MMSM BCI * 2 4 6 3 15 Blood draw 1 4 4 2 11 Self-report 2 2 5 1 10 Brain imaging 1 2 2 0 5...NCT** 0 4 5 1 10 * BCI = Baseline Clinical Interview **NCT = Neurocognitive Testing Table 3. Completed Procedures for Validating Biomarkers New

  14. Potential biomarkers of ageing.

    PubMed

    Simm, Andreas; Nass, Norbert; Bartling, Babett; Hofmann, Britt; Silber, Rolf-Edgar; Navarrete Santos, Alexander

    2008-03-01

    Life span in individual humans is very heterogeneous.Thus, the ageing rate, measured as the decline of functional capacity and stress resistance, is different in every individual. There have been attempts made to analyse this individual age, the so-called biological age, in comparison to chronological age. Biomarkers of ageing should help to characterise this biological age and, as age is a major risk factor in many degenerative diseases,could be subsequently used to identify individuals at high risk of developing age-associated diseases or disabilities. Markers based on oxidative stress, protein glycation,inflammation, cellular senescence and hormonal deregulation are discussed.

  15. Identification of aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation in primordial germ cells between E13 and E16 rat F3 generation vinclozolin lineage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Transgenerational epigenetics (TGE) are currently considered important in disease, but the mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. TGE abnormalities expected to cause disease are likely to be initiated during development and to be mediated by aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation that is heritable between generations. However, because methylation is removed and then re-established during development, it is not easy to identify promoter methylation abnormalities by comparing normal lineages with those expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities. Methods This study applied the recently proposed principal component analysis (PCA)-based unsupervised feature extraction to previously reported and publically available gene expression/promoter methylation profiles of rat primordial germ cells, between E13 and E16 of the F3 generation vinclozolin lineage that are expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities, to identify multiple genes that exhibited aberrant gene expression/promoter methylation during development. Results The biological feasibility of the identified genes were tested via enrichment analyses of various biological concepts including pathway analysis, gene ontology terms and protein-protein interactions. All validations suggested superiority of the proposed method over three conventional and popular supervised methods that employed t test, limma and significance analysis of microarrays, respectively. The identified genes were globally related to tumors, the prostate, kidney, testis and the immune system and were previously reported to be related to various diseases caused by TGE. Conclusions Among the genes reported by PCA-based unsupervised feature extraction, we propose that chemokine signaling pathways and leucine rich repeat proteins are key factors that initiate transgenerational epigenetic-mediated diseases, because multiple genes included in these two categories were identified in this study. PMID:26677731

  16. Identification of aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation in primordial germ cells between E13 and E16 rat F3 generation vinclozolin lineage.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Y-h

    2015-01-01

    Transgenerational epigenetics (TGE) are currently considered important in disease, but the mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. TGE abnormalities expected to cause disease are likely to be initiated during development and to be mediated by aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation that is heritable between generations. However, because methylation is removed and then re-established during development, it is not easy to identify promoter methylation abnormalities by comparing normal lineages with those expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities. This study applied the recently proposed principal component analysis (PCA)-based unsupervised feature extraction to previously reported and publically available gene expression/promoter methylation profiles of rat primordial germ cells, between E13 and E16 of the F3 generation vinclozolin lineage that are expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities, to identify multiple genes that exhibited aberrant gene expression/promoter methylation during development. The biological feasibility of the identified genes were tested via enrichment analyses of various biological concepts including pathway analysis, gene ontology terms and protein-protein interactions. All validations suggested superiority of the proposed method over three conventional and popular supervised methods that employed t test, limma and significance analysis of microarrays, respectively. The identified genes were globally related to tumors, the prostate, kidney, testis and the immune system and were previously reported to be related to various diseases caused by TGE. Among the genes reported by PCA-based unsupervised feature extraction, we propose that chemokine signaling pathways and leucine rich repeat proteins are key factors that initiate transgenerational epigenetic-mediated diseases, because multiple genes included in these two categories were identified in this study.

  17. Urinary biomarkers in hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Mia Gebauer

    2013-02-01

    Hydronephrosis is diagnosed in 0.5-1% of all newborns, and ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) accounts for 35% of those cases. A urinary tract obstruction that occurs during early kidney development affects renal morphogenesis, maturation, and growth, and in the most severe cases, this will ultimately lead to progressive renal tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis with the loss of nephrons. The clinical management of these patients remains a controversial topic. The aim is to preserve renal function by identifying the 15-20% of children who require early surgical intervention from those for whom watchful waiting may be appropriate because of spontaneous resolving/stabilization without significant loss of renal function. Although the patients attend regular follow-ups, including repetitive blood tests, ultrasonographies, and the more invasive diuretic renograms, the surgeons still miss reliably biomarkers that could be used as predictors for renal parenchymal damage and decreased renal function, and thereby provide more clear indications for surgical intervention. The aim of this PhD thesis was to further elucidate the pathophysiology of obstructive nephropathy (study I) and to search for potential candidate biomarkers that may have a predictive and/or diagnostic value in the management of hydronephrosis (study II). Study I: Urine and kidney cytokine profiles in experimental unilateral acute and chronic hydronephrosis. To study the dynamics of the urinary secretion of cytokines after the release of unilateral ureteral obstruction, and to study whether the urinary concentrations of these compounds reliably reflects changes in the renal parenchyma. This was tested in 2 experimental rat models: an acute obstruction model and a chronic obstruction model. The acute obstruction model demonstrated significant differences in the renal levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 in comparison with controls, and these differences were associated with similar

  18. Biomarkers for Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Min; Huber, Bertrand R.; Zhang, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, including dementia, is commonly seen in those afflicted with Parkinson disease (PD), particularly at advanced disease stages. Pathologically, PD with dementia (PD-D) is most often associated with the presence of cortical Lewy bodies, as is the closely related dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Both PD-D and DLB are also frequently complicated by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques, features most often attributed to Alzheimer disease. Biomarkers are urgently needed to differentiate among these disease processes and predict dementia in PD as well as monitor responses of patients to new therapies. A few clinical assessments, along with structural and functional neuroimaging, have been utilized in the last few years with some success in this area. Additionally, a number of other strategies have been employed to identify biochemical/molecular biomarkers associated with cognitive impairment and dementia in PD, e.g., targeted analysis of candidate proteins known to be important to PD pathogenesis and progression in cerebrospinal fluid or blood. Finally, interesting results are emerging from preliminary studies with unbiased and high throughput genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques. The current findings and perspectives of applying these strategies and techniques are reviewed in this article, together with potential areas of advancement. PMID:20522092

  19. The relative contribution of DNA methylation and genetic variants on protein biomarkers for human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Muhammad; Ek, Weronica E.; Karlsson, Torgny; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Associations between epigenetic alterations and disease status have been identified for many diseases. However, there is no strong evidence that epigenetic alterations are directly causal for disease pathogenesis. In this study, we combined SNP and DNA methylation data with measurements of protein biomarkers for cancer, inflammation or cardiovascular disease, to investigate the relative contribution of genetic and epigenetic variation on biomarker levels. A total of 121 protein biomarkers were measured and analyzed in relation to DNA methylation at 470,000 genomic positions and to over 10 million SNPs. We performed epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) and genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses, and integrated biomarker, DNA methylation and SNP data using between 698 and 1033 samples depending on data availability for the different analyses. We identified 124 and 45 loci (Bonferroni adjusted P < 0.05) with effect sizes up to 0.22 standard units’ change per 1% change in DNA methylation levels and up to four standard units’ change per copy of the effective allele in the EWAS and GWAS respectively. Most GWAS loci were cis-regulatory whereas most EWAS loci were located in trans. Eleven EWAS loci were associated with multiple biomarkers, including one in NLRC5 associated with CXCL11, CXCL9, IL-12, and IL-18 levels. All EWAS signals that overlapped with a GWAS locus were driven by underlying genetic variants and three EWAS signals were confounded by smoking. While some cis-regulatory SNPs for biomarkers appeared to have an effect also on DNA methylation levels, cis-regulatory SNPs for DNA methylation were not observed to affect biomarker levels. We present associations between protein biomarker and DNA methylation levels at numerous loci in the genome. The associations are likely to reflect the underlying pattern of genetic variants, specific environmental exposures, or represent secondary effects to the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:28915241

  20. Linkage of exposure and effects using genomics, proteomics and metabolomics in small fish models (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project combines the use of whole organism endpoints, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches, and computational modeling in a systems biology approach to 1) identify molecular indicators of exposure and biomarkers of effect to EDCs representing several modes/...

  1. Biomarkers for lymphoma

    SciT

    Zangar, Richard C.; Varnum, Susan M.

    A biomarker, method, test kit, and diagnostic system for detecting the presence of lymphoma in a person are disclosed. The lymphoma may be Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The person may be a high-risk subject. In one embodiment, a plasma sample from a person is obtained. The level of at least one protein listed in Table S3 in the plasma sample is measured. The level of at least one protein in the plasma sample is compared with the level in a normal or healthy subject. The lymphoma is diagnosed based upon the level of the at least one protein inmore » the plasma sample in comparison to the normal or healthy level.« less

  2. [Autoantibodies as biomarkers].

    PubMed

    Tron, François

    2014-01-01

    Activation and differentiation of autoreactive B-lymphocytes lead to the production of autoantibodies, which are thus the direct consequence of the autoimmune process. They often constitute biomarkers of autoimmune diseases and are measured by tests displaying various diagnosis sensitivity and specificity. Autoantibody titers can be correlated to the disease activity and certain autoantibody populations associated with particular clinical manifestations or tissue lesions. The demonstration that autoantibodies appear years before the onset of autoimmune diseases indicates that their presence in healthy individuals may be a predictive marker of the occurrence of disease. Certain autoantibodies could also be predictive markers of a therapeutic response to biologics and of the occurrence of side effects as well. Thus, autoantibodies are useful tools in the diagnosis and the management of patients with organ specific or non-organ specific autoimmune diseases at different steps of the autoimmune process. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Pesticide Biomarker Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Uploaded datasets are detailed exposure information (chemical concentrations and water quality parameters) for exposures conducted in a flow through diluter system with larval Pimephales promelas to four different pyrethroid pesticides. The GEO submission URL links to the NCBI GEO database and contains gene expression data from whole larvae exposed to different concentrations of the pyrethroids across multiple experiments.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Biales, A., M. Kostich, A. Batt, M. See, R. Flick, D. Gordon, J. Lazorchak, and D. Bencic. Initial Development of a Multigene Omics-Based Exposure Biomarker for Pyrethroid Pesticides. CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 179(0): 27-35, (2016).

  4. Clinical evidence supporting pharmacogenomic biomarker testing provided in US Food and Drug Administration drug labels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Canestaro, William J; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2014-12-01

    Genetic biomarkers that predict a drug's efficacy or likelihood of toxicity are assuming increasingly important roles in the personalization of pharmacotherapy, but concern exists that evidence that links use of some biomarkers to clinical benefit is insufficient. Nevertheless, information about the use of biomarkers appears in the labels of many prescription drugs, which may add confusion to the clinical decision-making process. To evaluate the evidence that supports pharmacogenomic biomarker testing in drug labels and how frequently testing is recommended. Publicly available US Food and Drug Administration databases. We identified drug labels that described the use of a biomarker and evaluated whether the label contained or referenced convincing evidence of its clinical validity (ie, the ability to predict phenotype) and clinical utility (ie, the ability to improve clinical outcomes) using guidelines published by the Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Working Group. We graded the completeness of the citation of supporting studies and determined whether the label recommended incorporation of biomarker test results in therapeutic decision making. Of the 119 drug-biomarker combinations, only 43 (36.1%) had labels that provided convincing clinical validity evidence, whereas 18 (15.1%) provided convincing evidence of clinical utility. Sixty-one labels (51.3%) made recommendations about how clinical decisions should be based on the results of a biomarker test; 36 (30.3%) of these contained convincing clinical utility data. A full description of supporting studies was included in 13 labels (10.9%). Fewer than one-sixth of drug labels contained or referenced convincing evidence of clinical utility of biomarker testing, whereas more than half made recommendations based on biomarker test results. It may be premature to include biomarker testing recommendations in drug labels when convincing data that link testing to patient outcomes do not exist.

  5. Evaluating biomarkers to model cancer risk post cosmic ray exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sridhara, Deepa M.; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Blattnig, Steve R.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Doetsch, Paul W.; Dynan, William S.; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Hlatky, Lynn; Kidane, Yared; Kronenberg, Amy; Naidu, Mamta D.; Peterson, Leif E.; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Saha, Janapriya; Snijders, Antoine M.; Srinivasan, Kalayarasan; Tang, Jonathan; Werner, Erica; Pluth, Janice M.

    2017-01-01

    Robust predictive models are essential to manage the risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Chronic exposure to cosmic rays in the context of the complex deep space environment may place astronauts at high cancer risk. To estimate this risk, it is critical to understand how radiation-induced cellular stress impacts cell fate decisions and how this in turn alters the risk of carcinogenesis. Exposure to the heavy ion component of cosmic rays triggers a multitude of cellular changes, depending on the rate of exposure, the type of damage incurred and individual susceptibility. Heterogeneity in dose, dose rate, radiation quality, energy and particle flux contribute to the complexity of risk assessment. To unravel the impact of each of these factors, it is critical to identify sensitive biomarkers that can serve as inputs for robust modeling of individual risk of cancer or other long-term health consequences of exposure. Limitations in sensitivity of biomarkers to dose and dose rate, and the complexity of longitudinal monitoring, are some of the factors that increase uncertainties in the output from risk prediction models. Here, we critically evaluate candidate early and late biomarkers of radiation exposure and discuss their usefulness in predicting cell fate decisions. Some of the biomarkers we have reviewed include complex clustered DNA damage, persistent DNA repair foci, reactive oxygen species, chromosome aberrations and inflammation. Other biomarkers discussed, often assayed for at longer points post exposure, include mutations, chromosome aberrations, reactive oxygen species and telomere length changes. We discuss the relationship of biomarkers to different potential cell fates, including proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and loss of stemness, which can propagate genomic instability and alter tissue composition and the underlying mRNA signatures that contribute to cell fate decisions. Our goal is to highlight factors that are important in choosing

  6. Evaluating biomarkers to model cancer risk post cosmic ray exposure.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Deepa M; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Blattnig, Steve R; Costes, Sylvain V; Doetsch, Paul W; Dynan, William S; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Hlatky, Lynn; Kidane, Yared; Kronenberg, Amy; Naidu, Mamta D; Peterson, Leif E; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L; Saha, Janapriya; Snijders, Antoine M; Srinivasan, Kalayarasan; Tang, Jonathan; Werner, Erica; Pluth, Janice M

    2016-06-01

    Robust predictive models are essential to manage the risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Chronic exposure to cosmic rays in the context of the complex deep space environment may place astronauts at high cancer risk. To estimate this risk, it is critical to understand how radiation-induced cellular stress impacts cell fate decisions and how this in turn alters the risk of carcinogenesis. Exposure to the heavy ion component of cosmic rays triggers a multitude of cellular changes, depending on the rate of exposure, the type of damage incurred and individual susceptibility. Heterogeneity in dose, dose rate, radiation quality, energy and particle flux contribute to the complexity of risk assessment. To unravel the impact of each of these factors, it is critical to identify sensitive biomarkers that can serve as inputs for robust modeling of individual risk of cancer or other long-term health consequences of exposure. Limitations in sensitivity of biomarkers to dose and dose rate, and the complexity of longitudinal monitoring, are some of the factors that increase uncertainties in the output from risk prediction models. Here, we critically evaluate candidate early and late biomarkers of radiation exposure and discuss their usefulness in predicting cell fate decisions. Some of the biomarkers we have reviewed include complex clustered DNA damage, persistent DNA repair foci, reactive oxygen species, chromosome aberrations and inflammation. Other biomarkers discussed, often assayed for at longer points post exposure, include mutations, chromosome aberrations, reactive oxygen species and telomere length changes. We discuss the relationship of biomarkers to different potential cell fates, including proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and loss of stemness, which can propagate genomic instability and alter tissue composition and the underlying mRNA signatures that contribute to cell fate decisions. Our goal is to highlight factors that are important in choosing

  7. Evaluating biomarkers to model cancer risk post cosmic ray exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Deepa M.; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Blattnig, Steve R.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Doetsch, Paul W.; Dynan, William S.; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Hlatky, Lynn; Kidane, Yared; Kronenberg, Amy; Naidu, Mamta D.; Peterson, Leif E.; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Saha, Janapriya; Snijders, Antoine M.; Srinivasan, Kalayarasan; Tang, Jonathan; Werner, Erica; Pluth, Janice M.

    2016-06-01

    Robust predictive models are essential to manage the risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Chronic exposure to cosmic rays in the context of the complex deep space environment may place astronauts at high cancer risk. To estimate this risk, it is critical to understand how radiation-induced cellular stress impacts cell fate decisions and how this in turn alters the risk of carcinogenesis. Exposure to the heavy ion component of cosmic rays triggers a multitude of cellular changes, depending on the rate of exposure, the type of damage incurred and individual susceptibility. Heterogeneity in dose, dose rate, radiation quality, energy and particle flux contribute to the complexity of risk assessment. To unravel the impact of each of these factors, it is critical to identify sensitive biomarkers that can serve as inputs for robust modeling of individual risk of cancer or other long-term health consequences of exposure. Limitations in sensitivity of biomarkers to dose and dose rate, and the complexity of longitudinal monitoring, are some of the factors that increase uncertainties in the output from risk prediction models. Here, we critically evaluate candidate early and late biomarkers of radiation exposure and discuss their usefulness in predicting cell fate decisions. Some of the biomarkers we have reviewed include complex clustered DNA damage, persistent DNA repair foci, reactive oxygen species, chromosome aberrations and inflammation. Other biomarkers discussed, often assayed for at longer points post exposure, include mutations, chromosome aberrations, reactive oxygen species and telomere length changes. We discuss the relationship of biomarkers to different potential cell fates, including proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and loss of stemness, which can propagate genomic instability and alter tissue composition and the underlying mRNA signatures that contribute to cell fate decisions. Our goal is to highlight factors that are important in choosing

  8. The Use of Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Ashley V.; Brito, Joseph M.; Yadav, Kamlesh K.; Yadav, Shalini S.; Tewari, Ashutosh K.; Renzulli, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer screening and diagnosis has been guided by prostate-specific antigen levels for the past 25 years, but with the most recent US Preventive Services Task Force screening recommendations, as well as concerns regarding overdiagnosis and overtreatment, a new wave of prostate cancer biomarkers has recently emerged. These assays allow the testing of urine, serum, or prostate tissue for molecular signs of prostate cancer, and provide information regarding both diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we discuss 12 commercially available biomarker assays approved for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. The results of clinical validation studies and clinical decision-making studies are presented. This information is designed to assist urologists in making clinical decisions with respect to ordering and interpreting these tests for different patients. There are numerous fluid and biopsy-based genomic tests available for prostate cancer patients that provide the physician and patient with different information about risk of future disease and treatment outcomes. It is important that providers be able to recommend the appropriate test for each individual patient; this decision is based on tissue availability and prognostic information desired. Future studies will continue to emphasize the important role of genomic biomarkers in making individualized treatment decisions for prostate cancer patients. PMID:29472826

  9. Schizophrenia proteomics: biomarkers on the path to laboratory medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    Over two million Americans are afflicted with schizophrenia, a debilitating mental health disorder with a unique symptomatic and epidemiological profile. Genomics studies have hinted towards candidate schizophrenia susceptibility chromosomal loci and genes. Modern proteomic tools, particularly mass spectrometry and expression scanning, aim to identify both pathogenic-revealing and diagnostically significant biomarkers. Only a few studies on basic proteomics have been conducted for psychiatric disorders relative to the plethora of cancer specific experiments. One such proteomic utility enables the discovery of proteins and biological marker fingerprinting profiling techniques (SELDI-TOF-MS), and then subjects them to tandem mass spectrometric fragmentation and de novo protein sequencing (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) for the accurate identification and characterization of the proteins. Such utilities can explain the pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disease, provide more objective testing methods, and further demonstrate a biological basis to mental illness. Although clinical proteomics in schizophrenia have yet to reveal a biomarker with diagnostic specificity, methods that better characterize the disorder using endophenotypes can advance findings. Schizophrenia biomarkers could potentially revolutionize its psychopharmacology, changing it into a more hypothesis and genomic/proteomic-driven science. PMID:16846510

  10. Genomic biomarkers and clinical outcomes of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Izzotti, Alberto

    2011-07-01

    Clinical and experimental studies in humans provide evidence that moderate physical activity significantly decreases artery oxidative damage to nuclear DNA, DNA-adducts related to age and dyslipedemia, and mitochondrial DNA damage. Maintenance of adequate mitochondrial function is crucial for preventing lipid accumulation and peroxidation occurring in atherosclerosis. Studies performed on human muscle biopsies analyzing gene expression in living humans reveal that physically active subjects improve the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and of related microRNAs. The attenuation of oxidative damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA by physical activity resulted in beneficial effects due to polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases genes. Subjects bearing null GSTM1/T1 polymorphisms have poor life expectancy in the case of being sedentary, which was increased 2.6-fold in case they performed physical activity. These findings indicate that the preventive effect of physical activity undergoes interindividual variation affected by genetic polymorphisms. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Aberrantly methylated DNA as a biomarker in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars M; Guldberg, Per; Sölétormos, György

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant DNA hypermethylation at gene promoters is a frequent event in human breast cancer. Recent genome-wide studies have identified hundreds of genes that exhibit differential methylation between breast cancer cells and normal breast tissue. Due to the tumor-specific nature of DNA hypermethylation events, their use as tumor biomarkers is usually not hampered by analytical signals from normal cells, which is a general problem for existing protein tumor markers used for clinical assessment of breast cancer. There is accumulating evidence that DNA-methylation changes in breast cancer patients occur early during tumorigenesis. This may open up for effective screening, and analysis of blood or nipple aspirate may later help in diagnosing breast cancer. As a more detailed molecular characterization of different types of breast cancer becomes available, the ability to divide patients into subgroups based on DNA biomarkers may improve prognosis. Serial monitoring of DNA-methylation markers in blood during treatment may be useful, particularly when the cancer burden is below the detection level for standard imaging techniques. Overall, aberrant DNA methylation has a great potential as a versatile biomarker tool for screening, diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of breast cancer. Standardization of methods and biomarker panels will be required to fully exploit this clinical potential.

  12. A Robust Biomarker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; Steele, A.; Toporski, J.; Walsh, M. M.; Allen, C. C.; Guidry, S.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Chafetz, H. S.

    2000-01-01

    containing fossil biofilm, including the 3.5 b.y..-old carbonaceous cherts from South Africa and Australia. As a result of the unique compositional, structural and "mineralisable" properties of bacterial polymer and biofilms, we conclude that bacterial polymers and biofilms constitute a robust and reliable biomarker for life on Earth and could be a potential biomarker for extraterrestrial life.

  13. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  14. Next generation sequencing applications for microRNA biomarker discovery in toxicological studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology will be reviewed for its base pair resolution, wide dynamic range, and insights into the genome and transcriptome, with special focus upon the biomarker potential of microRNAs (miRNAs). The first part of this presentation reviews commo...

  15. Oncology biomarkers: discovery, validation, and clinical use.

    PubMed

    Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M

    2012-05-01

    To discuss the discovery, validation, and clinical use of multiple types of biomarkers. Medical literature and published guidelines. Formal validation of biomarkers should include both retrospective analyses of well-characterized samples as well as a prospective clinical trial in which the biomarker is tested for its ability to predict the presence of disease or the efficacy of a cancer therapy. Biomarker development is complicated, with very few biomarker discoveries leading to clinically useful tests. Nurses should understand how a biomarker was developed, including the sensitivity and specificity before applying new biomarkers in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    An, Manxia; Gao, Youhe

    2015-12-01

    Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluid Biomarkers in Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Fagan, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Research progress has provided detailed understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). This knowledge has been translated into new drug candidates with putative disease-modifying effects, which are now being tested in clinical trials. The promise of effective therapy has created a great need for biomarkers able to detect AD in the predementia phase, because drugs will probably be effective only if neurodegeneration is not too advanced. In this chapter, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma biomarkers are reviewed. The core CSF biomarkers total tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau (P-tau) and the 42 amino acid form of β-amyloid (Aβ42) reflect AD pathology, and have high diagnostic accuracy to diagnose AD with dementia and prodromal AD in mild cognitive impairment cases. The rationale for the use of CSF biomarkers to identify and monitor the mechanism of action of new drug candidates is also outlined in this chapter. PMID:22951438

  18. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    An, Manxia; Gao, Youhe

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome. PMID:26751805

  19. Genomic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer or for Lynch syndrome, a form of hereditary colorectal cancer, are not ... the effective integration of genomics into health practice—Lynch syndrome ACCE Model for Evaluating Genetic Tests Recommendations by ...

  20. Translational progress on tumor biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhou, Xiaolin; Lu, Yi; Xie, Liye; Chen, Qian; Keller, Evan T; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to apply basic research achievements to the clinic. In particular, mechanistic studies should be developed by bench researchers, depending upon clinical demands, in order to improve the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. To date, translational medicine has been addressed in cancer biology, particularly in the identification and characterization of novel tumor biomarkers. This review focuses on the recent achievements and clinical application prospects in tumor biomarkers based on translational medicine. PMID:26557902

  1. BIOMARKERS for CHRONIC FATIGUE

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Gordon; Fletcher, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue that persists for 6 months or more is termed chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue (CF) in combination with a minimum of 4 of 8 symptoms and the absence of diseases that could explain these symptoms, constitute the case definition for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Inflammation, immune system activation, autonomic dysfunction, impaired functioning in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and neuroendocrine dysregulation have all been suggested as root causes of fatigue. The identification of objective markers consistently associated with CFS/ME is an important goal in relation to diagnosis and treatment, as the current case definitions are based entirely on physical signs and symptoms. This review is focused on the recent literature related to biomarkers for fatigue associated with CFS/ME and, for comparison, those associated with other diseases. These markers are distributed across several of the body’s core regulatory systems. A complex construct of symptoms emerges from alterations and/or dysfunctions in the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. We propose that new insight will depend on our ability to develop and deploy an integrative profiling of CFS/ME pathogenesis at the molecular level. Until such a molecular signature is obtained efforts to develop effective treatments will continue to be severely limited. PMID:22732129

  2. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  3. CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Anne M.; Grant, Elizabeth A.; Holtzman, David M.; Morris, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To test whether CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers (β-amyloid 42 [Aβ42], tau, phosphorylated tau at threonine 181 [ptau181], tau/Aβ42, and ptau181/Aβ42) predict future decline in noncognitive outcomes among individuals cognitively normal at baseline. Methods: Longitudinal data from participants (N = 430) who donated CSF within 1 year of a clinical assessment indicating normal cognition and were aged 50 years or older were analyzed. Mixed linear models were used to test whether baseline biomarker values predicted future decline in function (instrumental activities of daily living), weight, behavior, and mood. Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes and Mini-Mental State Examination scores were also examined. Results: Abnormal levels of each biomarker were related to greater impairment with time in behavior (p < 0.035) and mood (p < 0.012) symptoms, and more difficulties with independent activities of daily living (p < 0.012). However, biomarker levels were unrelated to weight change with time (p > 0.115). As expected, abnormal biomarker values also predicted more rapidly changing Mini-Mental State Examination (p < 0.041) and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (p < 0.001) scores compared with normal values. Conclusions: CSF biomarkers among cognitively normal individuals are associated with future decline in some, but not all, noncognitive Alzheimer disease symptoms studied. Additional work is needed to determine the extent to which these findings generalize to other samples. PMID:24212387

  4. Long Non-Coding RNA as Potential Biomarker for Prostate Cancer: Is It Making a Difference?

    PubMed

    Deng, Junli; Tang, Jie; Wang, Guo; Zhu, Yuan-Shan

    2017-03-07

    Whole genome transcriptomic analyses have identified numerous long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts that are increasingly implicated in cancer biology. LncRNAs are found to promote essential cancer cell functions such as proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, with the potential to serve as novel biomarkers of various cancers and to further reveal uncharacterized aspects of tumor biology. However, the biological and molecular mechanisms as well as the clinical applications of lncRNAs in diverse diseases are not completely understood, and remain to be fully explored. LncRNAs may be critical players and regulators in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and progression, and could serve as potential biomarkers for prostate cancer. This review focuses on lncRNA biomarkers that are already available for clinical use and provides an overview of lncRNA biomarkers that are under investigation for clinical development in prostate cancer.

  5. The future: biomarkers, biosensors, neuroinformatics, and e-neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of molecular biomarkers for psychological, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders is beginning to change current diagnostic paradigms for this debilitating family of mental illnesses. The development of new genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools has created the prospect of sensitive and specific biochemical tests to replace traditional pen-and-paper questionnaires. In the future, the realization of biosensor technologies, point-of-care testing, and the fusion of clinical biomarker data, electroencephalogram, and MRI data with the patient's past medical history, biopatterns, and prognosis may create personalized bioprofiles or fingerprints for brain disorders. Further, the application of mobile communications technology and grid computing to support data-, computation- and knowledge-based tasks will assist disease prediction, diagnosis, prognosis, and compliance monitoring. It is anticipated that, ultimately, mobile devices could become the next generation of personalized pharmacies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Secure searching of biomarkers through hybrid homomorphic encryption scheme.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miran; Song, Yongsoo; Cheon, Jung Hee

    2017-07-26

    As genome sequencing technology develops rapidly, there has lately been an increasing need to keep genomic data secure even when stored in the cloud and still used for research. We are interested in designing a protocol for the secure outsourcing matching problem on encrypted data. We propose an efficient method to securely search a matching position with the query data and extract some information at the position. After decryption, only a small amount of comparisons with the query information should be performed in plaintext state. We apply this method to find a set of biomarkers in encrypted genomes. The important feature of our method is to encode a genomic database as a single element of polynomial ring. Since our method requires a single homomorphic multiplication of hybrid scheme for query computation, it has the advantage over the previous methods in parameter size, computation complexity, and communication cost. In particular, the extraction procedure not only prevents leakage of database information that has not been queried by user but also reduces the communication cost by half. We evaluate the performance of our method and verify that the computation on large-scale personal data can be securely and practically outsourced to a cloud environment during data analysis. It takes about 3.9 s to search-and-extract the reference and alternate sequences at the queried position in a database of size 4M. Our solution for finding a set of biomarkers in DNA sequences shows the progress of cryptographic techniques in terms of their capability can support real-world genome data analysis in a cloud environment.

  7. The Effects of Exercise on Cardiovascular Biomarkers: New Insights, Recent Data, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Che, Lin; Li, Dong

    2017-01-01

    The benefit of regular exercise or physical activity with appropriate intensity on improving cardiopulmonary function and endurance has long been accepted with less controversy. The challenge remains, however, quantitatively evaluate the effect of exercise on cardiovascular health due in part to the amount and intensity of exercise varies widely plus lack of effective, robust and efficient biomarker evaluation systems. Better evaluating the overall function of biomarker and validate biomarkers utility in cardiovascular health should improve the evidence regarding the benefit or the effect of exercise or physical activity on cardiovascular health, in turn increasing the efficiency of the biomarker on individuals with mild to moderate cardiovascular risk. In this review, beyond traditional cytokines, chemokines and inflammatory factors, we systemic reviewed the latest novel biomarkers in metabolomics, genomics, proteomics, and molecular imaging mainly focus on heart health, as well as cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. Furthermore, we highlight the state-of-the-art biomarker developing techniques and its application in the field of heart health. Finally, we discuss the clinical relevance of physical activity and exercise on key biomarkers in molecular basis and practical considerations.

  8. Role of biomarkers in the management of antibiotic therapy: an expert panel review: I – currently available biomarkers for clinical use in acute infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the context of worldwide increasing antimicrobial resistance, good antimicrobial prescribing in more needed than ever; unfortunately, information available to clinicians often are insufficient to rely on. Biomarkers might provide help for decision-making and improve antibiotic management. The purpose of this expert panel review was to examine currently available literature on the potential role of biomarkers to improve antimicrobial prescribing, by answering three questions: 1) Which are the biomarkers available for this purpose?; 2) What is their potential role in the initiation of antibiotic therapy?; and 3) What is their role in the decision to stop antibiotic therapy? To answer these questions, studies reviewed were limited to recent clinical studies (<15 years), involving a substantial number of patients (>50) and restricted to controlled trials and meta-analyses for answering questions 2 and 3. With regard to the first question concerning routinely available biomarkers, which might be useful for antibiotic management of acute infections, these are currently limited to C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Other promising biomarkers that may prove useful in the near future but need to undergo more extensive clinical testing include sTREM-1, suPAR, ProADM, and Presepsin. New approaches to biomarkers of infections include point-of-care testing and genomics. PMID:23837559

  9. A migration signature and plasma biomarker panel for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Balasenthil, Seetharaman; Chen, Nanyue; Lott, Steven T; Chen, Jinyun; Carter, Jennifer; Grizzle, William E; Frazier, Marsha L; Sen, Subrata; Killary, Ann McNeill

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a disease of extremely poor prognosis for which there are no reliable markers of asymptomatic disease. To identify pancreatic cancer biomarkers, we focused on a genomic interval proximal to the most common fragile site in the human genome, chromosome 3p12, which undergoes smoking-related breakage, loss of heterozygosity, and homozygous deletion as an early event in many epithelial tumors, including pancreatic cancers. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified a seven-gene panel (TNC, TFPI, TGFBI, SEL-1L, L1CAM, WWTR1, and CDC42BPA) that was differentially expressed across three different expression platforms, including pancreatic tumor/normal samples. In addition, Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) and literature searches indicated that this seven-gene panel functions in one network associated with cellular movement/morphology/development, indicative of a "migration signature" of the 3p pathway. We tested whether two secreted proteins from this panel, tenascin C (TNC) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), could serve as plasma biomarkers. Plasma ELISA assays for TFPI/TNC resulted in a combined area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 and, with addition of CA19-9, a combined AUC for the three-gene panel (TNC/TFPI/CA19-9), of 0.99 with 100% specificity at 90% sensitivity and 97.22% sensitivity at 90% specificity. Validation studies using TFPI only in a blinded sample set increased the performance of CA19-9 from an AUC of 0.84 to 0.94 with the two-gene panel. Results identify a novel 3p pathway-associated migration signature and plasma biomarker panel that has utility for discrimination of pancreatic cancer from normal controls and promise for clinical application. ©2010 AACR.

  10. A Migration Signature and Plasma Biomarker Panel for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Balasenthil, Seetharaman; Chen, Nanyue; Lott, Steven T.; Chen, Jinyun; Carter, Jennifer; Grizzle, William E.; Frazier, Marsha L.; Sen, Subrata; Killary, Ann McNeill

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a disease of extremely poor prognosis for which there are no reliable markers of asymptomatic disease. To identify pancreatic cancer biomarkers, we focused on a genomic interval proximal to the most common fragile site in the human genome, chromosome 3p12, which undergoes smoking-related breakage, loss of heterozygosity, and homozygous deletion as an early event in many epithelial tumors, including pancreatic cancers. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified a seven-gene panel (TNC, TFPI, TGFBI, SEL-1L, L1CAM, WWTR1, and CDC42BPA) that was differentially expressed across three different expression platforms, including pancreatic tumor/normal samples. In addition, Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) and literature searches indicated that this seven-gene panel functions in one network associated with cellular movement/morphology/development, indicative of a “migration signature” of the 3p pathway. We tested whether two secreted proteins from this panel, tenascin C (TNC) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), could serve as plasma biomarkers. Plasma ELISA assays for TFPI/TNC resulted in a combined area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 and, with addition of CA19-9, a combined AUC for the three-gene panel (TNC/TFPI/CA19-9), of 0.99 with 100% specificity at 90% sensitivity and 97.22% sensitivity at 90% specificity. Validation studies using TFPI only in a blinded sample set increased the performance of CA19-9 from an AUC of 0.84 to 0.94 with the two-gene panel. Results identify a novel 3p pathway–associated migration signature and plasma biomarker panel that has utility for discrimination of pancreatic cancer from normal controls and promise for clinical application. PMID:21071578

  11. Genome databases

    SciT

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts inmore » the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.« less

  12. Early detection: the impact of genomics.

    PubMed

    van Lanschot, M C J; Bosch, L J W; de Wit, M; Carvalho, B; Meijer, G A

    2017-08-01

    The field of genomics has shifted our view on disease development by providing insights in the molecular and functional processes encoded in the genome. In the case of cancer, many alterations in the DNA accumulate that enable tumor growth or even metastatic dissemination. Identification of molecular signatures that define different stages of progression towards cancer can enable early tumor detection. In this review, the impact of genomics will be addressed using early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) as an example. Increased understanding of the adenoma-to-carcinoma progression has led to the discovery of several diagnostic biomarkers. This combined with technical advancements, has facilitated the development of molecular tests for non-invasive early CRC detection in stool and blood samples. Even though several tests have already made it to clinical practice, sensitivity and specificity for the detection of precancerous lesions still need improvement. Besides the diagnostic qualities, also the accuracy of the intermediate endpoint is an important issue on how the effectiveness of a novel test is perceived. Here, progression biomarkers may provide a more precise measure than the currently used morphologically based features. Similar developments in biomarker use for early detection have taken place in other cancer types.

  13. DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Preeclampsia

    SciT

    Anderson, Cindy M.; Ralph, Jody L.; Wright, Michelle L.

    Background: Preeclampsia contributes significantly to pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality as well as future risk of cardiovascular disease in mother and offspring, and preeclampsia in offspring. The lack of reliable methods for early detection limits the opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and timely treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore distinct DNA methylation patterns associated with preeclampsia in both maternal cells and fetal-derived tissue that represent potential biomarkers to predict future preeclampsia and inheritance in children. Method: A convenience sample of nulliparous women (N = 55) in the first trimester of pregnancy was recruited for this prospective study. Genome-widemore » DNA methylation was quantified in first-trimester maternal peripheral white blood cells and placental chorionic tissue from normotensive women and those with preeclampsia (n = 6/group). Results: Late-onset preeclampsia developed in 12.7% of women. Significant differences in DNA methylation were identified in 207 individual linked cytosine and guanine (CpG) sites in maternal white blood cells collected in the first trimester (132 sites with gain and 75 sites with loss of methylation), which were common to approximately 75% of the differentially methylated CpG sites identified in chorionic tissue of fetal origin. Conclusion: This study is the first to identify maternal epigenetic targets and common targets in fetal-derived tissue that represent putative biomarkers for early detection and heritable risk of preeclampsia. Findings may pave the way for diagnosis of preeclampsia prior to its clinical presentation and acute damaging effects, and the potential for prevention of the detrimental long-term sequelae.« less

  14. Synthesis of eukaryotic lipid biomarkers in the bacterial domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welander, P. V.; Banta, A. B.; Lee, A. K.; Wei, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Lipid biomarkers are organic molecules preserved in sediments and sedimentary rocks that can function as geological proxies for certain microbial taxa or for specific environmental conditions. These molecular fossils provide a link between organisms and their environments in both modern and ancient settings and have afforded significant insight into ancient climatic events, mass extinctions, and various evolutionary transitions throughout Earth's history. However, the proper interpretation of lipid biomarkers is dependent on a broad understanding of their diagenetic precursors in modern systems. This includes understanding the taphonomic transformations that these molecules undergo, their biosynthetic pathways, and the ecological conditions that affect their cellular production. In this study, we focus on one group of lipid biomarkers - the sterols. These are polycyclic isoprenoidal lipids that have a high preservation potential and play a critical role in the physiology of most eukaryotes. However, the synthesis and function of these lipids in the bacterial domain has not been fully explored. Here we utilize a combination of bioinformatics, microbial genetics, and biochemistry to demonstrate that bacterial sterol producers are more prevalent in environmental metagenomic samples than in the genomic databases of cultured organisms and to identify novel proteins required to synthesize and modify sterols in bacteria. These proteins represent a distinct pathway for sterol synthesis exclusive to bacteria and indicate that sterol synthesis in bacteria may have evolved independently of eukaryotic sterol biosynthesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate how studies in extant bacteria can provide insight into the biological sources and the biosynthetic pathways of specific lipid biomarkers and in turn may allow for more robust interpretation of biomarker signatures.

  15. Personalized Cancer Medicine: Molecular Diagnostics, Predictive biomarkers, and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez de Castro, D; Clarke, P A; Al-Lazikani, B; Workman, P

    2013-01-01

    The progressive elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of cancer has fueled the rational development of targeted drugs for patient populations stratified by genetic characteristics. Here we discuss general challenges relating to molecular diagnostics and describe predictive biomarkers for personalized cancer medicine. We also highlight resistance mechanisms for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors in lung cancer. We envisage a future requiring the use of longitudinal genome sequencing and other omics technologies alongside combinatorial treatment to overcome cellular and molecular heterogeneity and prevent resistance caused by clonal evolution. PMID:23361103

  16. Listeria Genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanes, Didier; Sousa, Sandra; Cossart, Pascale

    The opportunistic intracellular foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has become a paradigm for the study of host-pathogen interactions and bacterial adaptation to mammalian hosts. Analysis of L. monocytogenes infection has provided considerable insight into how bacteria invade cells, move intracellularly, and disseminate in tissues, as well as tools to address fundamental processes in cell biology. Moreover, the vast amount of knowledge that has been gathered through in-depth comparative genomic analyses and in vivo studies makes L. monocytogenes one of the most well-studied bacterial pathogens. This chapter provides an overview of progress in the exploration of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data in Listeria spp. to understand genome evolution and diversity, as well as physiological aspects of metabolism used by bacteria when growing in diverse environments, in particular in infected hosts.

  17. Hypersaline Microbial Mat Lipid Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsegereda; Turk, Kendra A.; Summons, Roger E.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers and compound specific isotopic abundances are powerful tools for studies of contemporary microbial ecosystems. Knowledge of the relationship of biomarkers to microbial physiology and community structure creates important links for understanding the nature of early organisms and paleoenvironments. Our recent work has focused on the hypersaline microbial mats in evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Specific biomarkers for diatoms, cyanobacteria, archaea, green nonsulfur (GNS), sulfate reducing, sulfur oxidizing and methanotrophic bacteria have been identified. Analyses of the ester-bound fatty acids indicate a highly diverse microbial community, dominated by photosynthetic organisms at the surface. The delta C-13 of cyanobacterial biomarkers such as the monomethylalkanes and hopanoids are consistent with the delta C-13 measured for bulk mat (-10%o), while a GNS biomarker, wax esters (WXE), suggests a more depleted delta C-13 for GNS biomass (-16%o). This isotopic relationship is different than that observed in mats at Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (YSNP) where GNS appear to grow photoheterotrophic ally. WXE abundance, while relatively low, is most pronounced in an anaerobic zone just below the cyanobacterial layer. The WXE isotope composition at GN suggests that these bacteria utilize photoautotrophy incorporating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) via the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway using H2S or H2.

  18. Biomarkers of aging in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Jake; Lambert, Adrian J; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald; Magwere, Tapiwanashe; Miwa, Satomi; Driege, Yasmine; Brand, Martin D; Partridge, Linda

    2010-08-01

    Low environmental temperature and dietary restriction (DR) extend lifespan in diverse organisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila, switching flies between temperatures alters the rate at which mortality subsequently increases with age but does not reverse mortality rate. In contrast, DR acts acutely to lower mortality risk; flies switched between control feeding and DR show a rapid reversal of mortality rate. Dietary restriction thus does not slow accumulation of aging-related damage. Molecular species that track the effects of temperatures on mortality but are unaltered with switches in diet are therefore potential biomarkers of aging-related damage. However, molecular species that switch upon instigation or withdrawal of DR are thus potential biomarkers of mechanisms underlying risk of mortality, but not of aging-related damage. Using this approach, we assessed several commonly used biomarkers of aging-related damage. Accumulation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) correlated strongly with mortality rate of flies at different temperatures but was independent of diet. Hence, fluorescent AGEs are biomarkers of aging-related damage in flies. In contrast, five oxidized and glycated protein adducts accumulated with age, but were reversible with both temperature and diet, and are therefore not markers either of acute risk of dying or of aging-related damage. Our approach provides a powerful method for identification of biomarkers of aging.

  19. Biomarkers of ageing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Jake; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald; Magwere, Tapiwanashe; Miwa, Satomi; Driege, Yasmine; Brand, Martin D.; Partridge, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Summary Low environmental temperature and dietary restriction (DR) extend lifespan in diverse organisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila, switching flies between temperatures alters the rate at which mortality subsequently increases with age but does not reverse mortality rate. In contrast, DR acts acutely to lower mortality risk; flies switched between control feeding and DR show a rapid reversal of mortality rate. DR thus does not slow accumulation of ageing-related damage. Molecular species that track the effects of temperatures on mortality but are unaltered with switches in diet are therefore potential biomarkers of ageing-related damage. However, molecular species that switch upon instigation or withdrawal of DR are thus potential biomarkers of mechanisms underlying risk of mortality, but not of ageing-related damage. Using this approach, we assessed several commonly used biomarkers of ageing-related damage. Accumulation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) correlated strongly with mortality rate of flies at different temperatures but was independent of diet. Hence fluorescent AGEs are biomarkers of ageing-related damage in flies. In contrast, five oxidised and glycated protein adducts accumulated with age, but were reversible with both temperature and diet, and are therefore not markers either of acute risk of dying or of ageing-related damage. Our approach provides a powerful method for identification of biomarkers of ageing. PMID:20367621

  20. Biomarkers in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Aditi; Januzzi, James L

    2015-06-01

    The care of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure is being reshaped by the availability and understanding of several novel and emerging heart failure biomarkers. The gold standard biomarkers in heart failure are B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Novel biomarkers that are increasingly involved in the processes of myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation, and ventricular remodeling are showing promise in improving diagnosis and prognosis among patients with acute decompensated heart failure. These include midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, soluble ST2, galectin-3, highly-sensitive troponin, and midregional proadrenomedullin. There has also been an emergence of biomarkers for evaluation of acute decompensated heart failure that assist in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea, such as procalcitonin (for identification of acute pneumonia), as well as markers that predict complications of acute decompensated heart failure, such as renal injury markers. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology and usefulness of established and emerging biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain CECT 8145, Able To Improve Metabolic Syndrome In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chenoll, E; Codoñer, F M; Silva, A; Martinez-Blanch, J F; Martorell, P; Ramón, D; Genovés, S

    2014-03-27

    Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain CECT 8145 is able to reduce body fat content and improve metabolic syndrome biomarkers. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which may provide insights into its safety status and functional role.

  2. Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers of NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Kinner, Sonja; Reeder, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional imaging modalities, including ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR), play an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by allowing noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. However, conventional imaging modalities are limited as biomarkers of NAFLD for various reasons. Multi-parametric quantitative MRI techniques overcome many of the shortcomings of conventional imaging and allow comprehensive and objective evaluation of NAFLD. MRI can provide unconfounded biomarkers of hepatic fat, iron, and fibrosis in a single examination—a virtual biopsy has become a clinical reality. In this article, we will review the utility and limitation of conventional US, CT, and MR imaging for the diagnosis NAFLD. Recent advances in imaging biomarkers of NAFLD are also discussed with an emphasis in multi-parametric quantitative MRI. PMID:26848588

  3. Gastric biomarkers: a global review.

    PubMed

    Baniak, Nick; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, S C; Kanthan, Rani

    2016-08-11

    Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with a poor 5-year survival and large global burden of disease. The disease is biologically and genetically heterogeneous with a poorly understood carcinogenesis at the molecular level. Despite the many prognostic, predictive, and therapeutic biomarkers investigated to date, gastric cancer continues to be detected at an advanced stage with resultant poor clinical outcomes. This is a global review of gastric biomarkers with an emphasis on HER2, E-cadherin, fibroblast growth factor receptor, mammalian target of rapamycin, and hepatocyte growth factor receptor as well as sections on microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, matrix metalloproteinases, PD-L1, TP53, and microsatellite instability. A deeper understanding of the pathogenesis and biological features of gastric cancer, including the identification and characterization of diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and therapeutic biomarkers, hopefully will provide improved clinical outcomes.

  4. Protein biomarkers of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Mariana P; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse can lead to a number of health and social issues. Our current inability to accurately assess long-term drinking behaviors is an important obstacle to its diagnosis and treatment. Biomarkers for chronic alcohol consumption have made a number of important advances but have yet to become highly accurate and as accepted as objective tests for other diseases. Thus, there is a crucial need for the development of more sensitive and specific markers of alcohol abuse. Recent advancements in proteomic technologies have greatly increased the potential for alcohol abuse biomarker discovery. Here, the authors review established and novel protein biomarkers for long-term alcohol consumption and the proteomic technologies that have been used in their study. PMID:22967079

  5. Analytical validation considerations of multiplex mass-spectrometry-based proteomic platforms for measuring protein biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Boja, Emily S; Fehniger, Thomas E; Baker, Mark S; Marko-Varga, György; Rodriguez, Henry

    2014-12-05

    Protein biomarker discovery and validation in current omics era are vital for healthcare professionals to improve diagnosis, detect cancers at an early stage, identify the likelihood of cancer recurrence, stratify stages with differential survival outcomes, and monitor therapeutic responses. The success of such biomarkers would have a huge impact on how we improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients and alleviate the financial burden of healthcare systems. In the past, the genomics community (mostly through large-scale, deep genomic sequencing technologies) has been steadily improving our understanding of the molecular basis of disease, with a number of biomarker panels already authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use (e.g., MammaPrint, two recently cleared devices using next-generation sequencing platforms to detect DNA changes in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene). Clinical proteomics, on the other hand, albeit its ability to delineate the functional units of a cell, more likely driving the phenotypic differences of a disease (i.e., proteins and protein-protein interaction networks and signaling pathways underlying the disease), "staggers" to make a significant impact with only an average ∼ 1.5 protein biomarkers per year approved by the FDA over the past 15-20 years. This statistic itself raises the concern that major roadblocks have been impeding an efficient transition of protein marker candidates in biomarker development despite major technological advances in proteomics in recent years.

  6. Genome mapping

    Genome maps can be thought of much like road maps except that, instead of traversing across land, they traverse across the chromosomes of an organism. Genetic markers serve as landmarks along the chromosome and provide researchers information as to how close they may be to a gene or region of inter...

  7. Breast cancer and protein biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Gam, Lay-Harn

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is a healthcare concern of women worldwide. Despite procedures being available for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, researchers are working intensively on the disease in order to improve the life quality of breast cancer patients. At present, there is no single treatment known to bring a definite cure for breast cancer. One of the possible solutions for combating breast cancer is through identification of reliable protein biomarkers that can be effectively used for early detection, prognosis and treatments of the cancer. Therefore, the task of identification of biomarkers for breast cancer has become the focus of many researchers worldwide. PMID:24520539

  8. Biomarkers in Sleep Apnea and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying Y; Mehra, Reena

    2017-08-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in heart failure (HF) and may confer significant stress to the cardiovascular system and increases the risk for future cardiovascular events. The present review will provide updates on the current understanding of the relationship of SDB and common HF biomarkers and the effect of positive airway pressure therapy on these biomarkers, with particular emphasis in patients with coexisting SDB and HF. Prior studies have examined the relationship between HF biomarkers and SDB, and the effect of SDB treatment on these biomarkers, with less data available in the context of coexisting SDB and HF. Overall, however, the association of SDB and circulating biomarkers has been inconsistent. Further research is needed to elucidate the relationship between biomarkers and SDB in HF, to evaluate the clinical utility of biomarkers over standard methods in large, prospective studies and also to assess the impact of treatment of SDB on these biomarkers in HF via interventional studies.

  9. International Team Identifies Biomarker for Scleroderma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Identifies Biomarker for Scleroderma Spotlight on Research International Team Identifies Biomarker for Scleroderma By Kirstie Saltsman, Ph. ... suggests it stems from immune system malfunction. The team chose to focus on immune cells called plasmacytoid ...

  10. Progress on the biomarkers for tuberculosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tiwei; Xie, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat to global health. Biomarkers derived from pathogen-host interaction can facilitate the monitoring of active TB. The recent progress regarding such biomarkers is summarized, including those can be used from serum, sputum, urine, or breath monitoring. A wide range of potential biomarkers such as protein antigens, cell-free nucleic acids, and lipoarabinomannose were compiled. The possible use of biomarkers for infection identification and monitoring drug efficacy are also presented.

  11. Molecular genetics and genomics progress in urothelial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Netto, George J

    2013-11-01

    The clinical management of solid tumor patients has recently undergone a paradigm shift as the result of the accelerated advances in cancer genetics and genomics. Molecular diagnostics is now an integral part of routine clinical management in lung, colon, and breast cancer patients. In a disappointing contrast, molecular biomarkers remain largely excluded from current management algorithms of urologic malignancies. The need for new treatment alternatives and validated prognostic molecular biomarkers that can help clinicians identify patients in need of early aggressive management is pressing. Identifying robust predictive biomarkers that can stratify response to newly introduced targeted therapeutics is another crucially needed development. The following is a brief discussion of some promising candidate biomarkers that may soon become a part of clinical management of bladder cancers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Clinical Neuropathology practice news 2-2014: ATRX, a new candidate biomarker in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Haberler, Christine; Wöhrer, Adelheid

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide molecular approaches have substantially elucidated molecular alterations and pathways involved in the oncogenesis of brain tumors. In gliomas, several molecular biomarkers including IDH mutation, 1p/19q co-deletion, and MGMT promotor methylation status have been introduced into neuropathological practice. Recently, mutations of the ATRX gene have been found in various subtypes and grades of gliomas and were shown to refine the prognosis of malignant gliomas in combination with IDH and 1p/19q status. Mutations of ATRX are associated with loss of nuclear ATRX protein expression, detectable by a commercially available antibody, thus turning ATRX into a promising prognostic candidate biomarker in the routine neuropathological setting.

  13. Cancer Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    [[{"fid":"175","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Cancer

  14. Biomarkers to guide clinical therapeutics in rheumatology?

    PubMed

    Robinson, William H; Mao, Rong

    2016-03-01

    The use of biomarkers in rheumatology can help identify disease risk, improve diagnosis and prognosis, target therapy, assess response to treatment, and further our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of disease. Here, we discuss the recent advances in biomarkers for rheumatic disorders, existing impediments to progress in this field, and the potential of biomarkers to enable precision medicine and thereby transform rheumatology. Although significant challenges remain, progress continues to be made in biomarker discovery and development for rheumatic diseases. The use of next-generation technologies, including large-scale sequencing, proteomic technologies, metabolomic technologies, mass cytometry, and other single-cell analysis and multianalyte analysis technologies, has yielded a slew of new candidate biomarkers. Nevertheless, these biomarkers still require rigorous validation and have yet to make their way into clinical practice and therapeutic development. This review focuses on advances in the biomarker field in the last 12 months as well as the challenges that remain. Better biomarkers, ideally mechanistic ones, are needed to guide clinical decision making in rheumatology. Although the use of next-generation techniques for biomarker discovery is making headway, it is imperative that the roadblocks in our search for new biomarkers are overcome to enable identification of biomarkers with greater diagnostic and predictive utility. Identification of biomarkers with robust diagnostic and predictive utility would enable precision medicine in rheumatology.

  15. Electrochemical Genosensing of Circulating Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Campuzano, Susana; Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Pingarrón, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Management and prognosis of diseases requires the measurement in non- or minimally invasively collected samples of specific circulating biomarkers, consisting of any measurable or observable factors in patients that indicate normal or disease-related biological processes or responses to therapy. Therefore, on-site, fast and accurate determination of these low abundance circulating biomarkers in scarcely treated body fluids is of great interest for health monitoring and biological applications. In this field, electrochemical DNA sensors (or genosensors) have demonstrated to be interesting alternatives to more complex conventional strategies. Currently, electrochemical genosensors are considered very promising analytical tools for this purpose due to their fast response, low cost, high sensitivity, compatibility with microfabrication technology and simple operation mode which makes them compatible with point-of-care (POC) testing. In this review, the relevance and current challenges of the determination of circulating biomarkers related to relevant diseases (cancer, bacterial and viral infections and neurodegenerative diseases) are briefly discussed. An overview of the electrochemical nucleic acid–based strategies developed in the last five years for this purpose is given to show to both familiar and non-expert readers the great potential of these methodologies for circulating biomarker determination. After highlighting the main features of the reported electrochemical genosensing strategies through the critical discussion of selected examples, a conclusions section points out the still existing challenges and future directions in this field. PMID:28420103

  16. DOSE RECONSTRUCTION FROM URINARY BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of biomarkers for human health risk assessment is attractive because they are an indicator of the dose that actually entered the body by all mechanisms. This is an important consideration given the need to include aggregate exposures from diet and other pathways for pes...

  17. Biomarkers of environmental benzene exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, C; Yu, R; Roy, A; Georgopoulos, P

    1996-01-01

    Environmental exposures to benzene result in increases in body burden that are reflected in various biomarkers of exposure, including benzene in exhaled breath, benzene in blood and urinary trans-trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. A review of the literature indicates that these biomarkers can be used to distinguish populations with different levels of exposure (such as smokers from nonsmokers and occupationally exposed from environmentally exposed populations) and to determine differences in metabolism. Biomarkers in humans have shown that the percentage of benzene metabolized by the ring-opening pathway is greater at environmental exposures than that at higher occupational exposures, a trend similar to that found in animal studies. This suggests that the dose-response curve is nonlinear; that potential different metabolic mechanisms exist at high and low doses; and that the validity of a linear extrapolation of adverse effects measured at high doses to a population exposed to lower, environmental levels of benzene is uncertain. Time-series measurements of the biomarker, exhaled breath, were used to evaluate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Biases were identified between the PBPK model predictions and experimental data that were adequately described using an empirical compartmental model. It is suggested that a mapping of the PBPK model to a compartmental model can be done to optimize the parameters in the PBPK model to provide a future framework for developing a population physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. PMID:9118884

  18. Accounting for control mislabeling in case-control biomarker studies.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Mattias; Holmes, Chris C

    2011-12-02

    In biomarker discovery studies, uncertainty associated with case and control labels is often overlooked. By omitting to take into account label uncertainty, model parameters and the predictive risk can become biased, sometimes severely. The most common situation is when the control set contains an unknown number of undiagnosed, or future, cases. This has a marked impact in situations where the model needs to be well-calibrated, e.g., when the prediction performance of a biomarker panel is evaluated. Failing to account for class label uncertainty may lead to underestimation of classification performance and bias in parameter estimates. This can further impact on meta-analysis for combining evidence from multiple studies. Using a simulation study, we outline how conventional statistical models can be modified to address class label uncertainty leading to well-calibrated prediction performance estimates and reduced bias in meta-analysis. We focus on the problem of mislabeled control subjects in case-control studies, i.e., when some of the control subjects are undiagnosed cases, although the procedures we report are generic. The uncertainty in control status is a particular situation common in biomarker discovery studies in the context of genomic and molecular epidemiology, where control subjects are commonly sampled from the general population with an established expected disease incidence rate.

  19. Biomarkers of adult and developmental neurotoxicity

    SciT

    Slikker, William; Bowyer, John F.

    2005-08-07

    Neurotoxicity may be defined as any adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system by a biological, chemical, or physical agent. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to assess adult and developmental neurotoxicity due to the complex and diverse functions of the nervous system. The overall strategy for understanding developmental neurotoxicity is based on two assumptions: (1) significant differences in the adult versus the developing nervous system susceptibility to neurotoxicity exist and they are often developmental stage dependent; (2) a multidisciplinary approach using neurobiological, including gene expression assays, neurophysiological, neuropathological, and behavioral function is necessarymore » for a precise assessment of neurotoxicity. Application of genomic approaches to developmental studies must use the same criteria for evaluating microarray studies as those in adults including consideration of reproducibility, statistical analysis, homogenous cell populations, and confirmation with non-array methods. A study using amphetamine to induce neurotoxicity supports the following: (1) gene expression data can help define neurotoxic mechanism(s) (2) gene expression changes can be useful biomarkers of effect, and (3) the site-selective nature of gene expression in the nervous system may mandate assessment of selective cell populations.« less

  20. Metabolomics for Biomarker Discovery in Gastroenterological Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nishiumi, Shin; Suzuki, Makoto; Kobayashi, Takashi; Matsubara, Atsuki; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    The study of the omics cascade, which involves comprehensive investigations based on genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, etc., has developed rapidly and now plays an important role in life science research. Among such analyses, metabolome analysis, in which the concentrations of low molecular weight metabolites are comprehensively analyzed, has rapidly developed along with improvements in analytical technology, and hence, has been applied to a variety of research fields including the clinical, cell biology, and plant/food science fields. The metabolome represents the endpoint of the omics cascade and is also the closest point in the cascade to the phenotype. Moreover, it is affected by variations in not only the expression but also the enzymatic activity of several proteins. Therefore, metabolome analysis can be a useful approach for finding effective diagnostic markers and examining unknown pathological conditions. The number of studies involving metabolome analysis has recently been increasing year-on-year. Here, we describe the findings of studies that used metabolome analysis to attempt to discover biomarker candidates for gastroenterological cancer and discuss metabolome analysis-based disease diagnosis. PMID:25003943

  1. Biomarkers in Immunoglobulin Light Chain Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Kufová, Z; Sevcikova, T; Growkova, K; Vojta, P; Filipová, J; Adam, Z; Pour, L; Penka, M; Rysava, R; Němec, P; Brozova, L; Vychytilova, P; Jurczyszyn, A; Grosicki, S; Barchnicka, A; Hajdúch, M; Simicek, M; Hájek, R

    2017-01-01

    Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis - ALA) is a monoclonal gammopathy characterized by presence of aberrant plasma cells producing amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light chains. This leads to formation of amyloid fibrils in various organs and tissues, mainly in heart and kidney, and causes their dysfunction. As amyloid depositing in target organs is irreversible, there is a big effort to identify biomarker that could help to distinguish ALA from other monoclonal gammopathies in the early stages of disease, when amyloid deposits are not fatal yet. High throughput technologies bring new opportunities to modern cancer research as they enable to study disease within its complexity. Sophisticated methods such as next generation sequencing, gene expression profiling and circulating microRNA profiling are new approaches to study aberrant plasma cells from patients with light chain amyloidosis and related diseases. While generally known mutation in multiple myeloma patients (KRAS, NRAS, MYC, TP53) were not found in ALA, number of mutated genes is comparable. Transcriptome of ALA patients proves to be more similar to monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance patients, moreover level of circulating microRNA, that are known to correlate with heart damage, is increased in ALA patients, where heart damage in ALA typical symptom.Key words: amyloidosis - plasma cell - genome - transcriptome - microRNA.

  2. Epigenetic Alterations in Colorectal Cancer: Emerging Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Grady, William M.; Goel, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the fundamental processes driving the initiation and progression of CRC is the accumulation of a variety of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of cancer epigenetics, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation, microRNA (miRNA) and noncoding RNA deregulation, and alterations in histone modification states. Assessment of the colon cancer “epigenome” has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and altered miRNA expression. The average CRC methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes and dozens of altered miRNAs. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these epigenetic alterations, called driver events, is presumed to have a functional role in CRC. In addition, the advances in our understanding of epigenetic alterations in CRC have led to these alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic applications. Progress in this field suggests that these epigenetic alterations will be commonly used in the near future to direct the prevention and treatment of CRC. PMID:26216839

  3. Personal genomics services: whose genomes?

    PubMed

    Gurwitz, David; Bregman-Eschet, Yael

    2009-07-01

    New companies offering personal whole-genome information services over the internet are dynamic and highly visible players in the personal genomics field. For fees currently ranging from US$399 to US$2500 and a vial of saliva, individuals can now purchase online access to their individual genetic information regarding susceptibility to a range of chronic diseases and phenotypic traits based on a genome-wide SNP scan. Most of the companies offering such services are based in the United States, but their clients may come from nearly anywhere in the world. Although the scientific validity, clinical utility and potential future implications of such services are being hotly debated, several ethical and regulatory questions related to direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing strategies of genetic tests have not yet received sufficient attention. For example, how can we minimize the risk of unauthorized third parties from submitting other people's DNA for testing? Another pressing question concerns the ownership of (genotypic and phenotypic) information, as well as the unclear legal status of customers regarding their own personal information. Current legislation in the US and Europe falls short of providing clear answers to these questions. Until the regulation of personal genomics services catches up with the technology, we call upon commercial providers to self-regulate and coordinate their activities to minimize potential risks to individual privacy. We also point out some specific steps, along the trustee model, that providers of DTC personal genomics services as well as regulators and policy makers could consider for addressing some of the concerns raised below.

  4. The circulating non-coding RNA landscape for biomarker research: lessons and prospects from cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    St Ecedil Pień, Ewa; Costa, Marina C; Kurc, Szczepan; Drożdż, Anna; Cortez-Dias, Nuno; Enguita, Francisco J

    2018-06-07

    Pervasive transcription of the human genome is responsible for the production of a myriad of non-coding RNA molecules (ncRNAs) some of them with regulatory functions. The pivotal role of ncRNAs in cardiovascular biology has been unveiled in the last decade, starting from the characterization of the involvement of micro-RNAs in cardiovascular development and function, and followed by the use of circulating ncRNAs as biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases. The human non-coding secretome is composed by several RNA species that circulate in body fluids and could be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and outcome prediction. In cardiovascular diseases, secreted ncRNAs have been described as biomarkers of several conditions including myocardial infarction, cardiac failure, and atrial fibrillation. Among circulating ncRNAs, micro-RNAs (miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been proposed as biomarkers in different cardiovascular diseases. In comparison with standard biomarkers, the biochemical nature of ncRNAs offers better stability and flexible storage conditions of the samples, and increased sensitivity and specificity. In this review we describe the current trends and future prospects of the use of the ncRNA secretome components as biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases, including the opening questions related with their secretion mechanisms and regulatory actions.

  5. New and emerging prognostic and predictive genetic biomarkers in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Anthony V.

    2016-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous disease at the genetic level. Chromosomal abnormalities are used as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers to provide subtype, outcome and drug response information. t(12;21)/ETV6-RUNX1 and high hyper-diploidy are good-risk prognostic biomarkers whereas KMT2A (MLL) translocations, t(17;19)/TCF3-HLF, haploidy or low hypodiploidy are high-risk biomarkers. t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1 patients require targeted treatment (imatinib/dasatinib), whereas iAMP21 patients achieve better outcomes when treated intensively. High-risk genetic biomarkers are four times more prevalent in adults compared to children. The application of genomic technologies to cases without an established abnormality (B-other) reveals copy number alterations which can be used either individually or in combination as prognostic biomarkers. Transcriptome sequencing studies have identified a network of fusion genes involving kinase genes - ABL1, ABL2, PDGFRB, CSF1R, CRLF2, JAK2 and EPOR. In vitro and in vivo studies along with emerging clinical observations indicate that patients with a kinase-activating aberration may respond to treatment with small molecular inhibitors like imatinib/dasatinib and ruxolitinib. Further work is required to determine the true frequency of these abnormalities across the age spectrum and the optimal way to incorporate such inhibitors into protocols. In conclusion, genetic biomarkers are playing an increasingly important role in the management of patients with ALL. PMID:27033238

  6. Citrus Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Talon, Manuel; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The historical developments of linkage mapping, markers and breeding, EST projects, physical mapping, an international citrus genome sequencing project, and critical functional analysis are described. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, there has been substantial progress. Citrus researchers engaged in international collaborations provide optimism about future productivity and contributions to the benefit of citrus industries worldwide and to the human population who can rely on future widespread availability of this health-promoting and aesthetically pleasing fruit crop. PMID:18509486

  7. Biomarkers of (osteo)arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mobasheri, Ali; Henrotin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arthritic diseases are a major cause of disability and morbidity, and cause an enormous burden for health and social care systems globally. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. The key risk factors for the development of OA are age, obesity, joint trauma or instability. Metabolic and endocrine diseases can also contribute to the pathogenesis of OA. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that OA is a whole-organ disease that is influenced by systemic mediators, inflammaging, innate immunity and the low-grade inflammation induced by metabolic syndrome. Although all joint tissues are implicated in disease progression in OA, articular cartilage has received the most attention in the context of aging, injury and disease. There is increasing emphasis on the early detection of OA as it has the capacity to target and treat the disease more effectively. Indeed it has been suggested that this is the era of “personalized prevention” for OA. However, the development of strategies for the prevention of OA require new and sensitive biomarker tools that can detect the disease in its molecular and pre-radiographic stage, before structural and functional alterations in cartilage integrity have occurred. There is also evidence to support a role for biomarkers in OA drug discovery, specifically the development of disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs. This Special Issue of Biomarkers is dedicated to recent progress in the field of OA biomarkers. The papers in this Special Issue review the current state-of-the-art and discuss the utility of OA biomarkers as diagnostic and prognostic tools. PMID:26954784

  8. Antibody arrays in biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jarad J; Burgess, Rob; Mao, Ying-Qing; Luo, Shuhong; Tang, Hao; Jones, Valerie Sloane; Weisheng, Bao; Huang, Ren-Yu; Chen, Xuesong; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2015-01-01

    All of life is regulated by complex and organized chemical reactions that help dictate when to grow, to move, to reproduce, and to die. When these processes go awry, or are interrupted by pathological agents, diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, or infections can result. Cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, adipokines, and other chemical moieties make up a vast subset of these chemical reactions that are altered in disease states, and monitoring changes in these molecules could provide for the identification of disease biomarkers. From the first identification of carcinoembryonic antigen, to the discovery of prostate-specific antigen, to numerous others described within, biomarkers of disease are detectable in a plethora of sample types. The growing number of biomarkers for infection, autoimmunity, and cancer allow for increasingly early detection, to identification of novel drug targets, to prognostic indicators of disease outcome. However, more and more studies are finding that a single cytokine or growth factor is insufficient as a true disease biomarker and that a more global perspective is needed to understand true disease biology. Such a broad view requires a multiplexed platform for chemical detection, and antibody arrays meet and exceed this need by performing this detection in a high-throughput fashion. Herein, we will discuss how antibody arrays have evolved, and how they have helped direct new drug target design, helped identify therapeutic disease markers, and helped in earlier disease detection. From asthma to renal disease, and neurological dysfunction to immunologic disorders, antibody arrays afford a bright future for new biomarkers discovery. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ancient genomics

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten E.; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Barnett, Ross; Campos, Paula F.; Cappellini, Enrico; Ermini, Luca; Fernández, Ruth; da Fonseca, Rute; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Hansen, Anders J.; Jónsson, Hákon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Margaryan, Ashot; Martin, Michael D.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten; Velasco, Marcela Sandoval; Schroeder, Hannes; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Wales, Nathan; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when testing specific hypotheses related to the past. PMID:25487338

  10. Systemic lupus erythematosus biomarkers: the challenging quest

    PubMed Central

    Wren, Jonathan D.; Munroe, Melissa E.; Mohan, Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Abstract SLE, a multisystem heterogeneous disease, is characterized by production of antibodies to cellular components, with activation of both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Decades of investigation of blood biomarkers has resulted in incremental improvements in the understanding of SLE. Owing to the heterogeneity of immune dysregulation, no single biomarker has emerged as a surrogate for disease activity or prediction of disease. Beyond identification of surrogate biomarkers, a multitude of clinical trials have sought to inhibit elevated SLE biomarkers for therapeutic benefit. Armed with new -omics technologies, the necessary yet daunting quest to identify better surrogate biomarkers and successful therapeutics for SLE continues with tenacity. PMID:28013203

  11. Implementation of proteomic biomarkers: making it work

    PubMed Central

    Mischak, Harald; Ioannidis, John PA; Argiles, Angel; Attwood, Teresa K; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Broenstrup, Mark; Charonis, Aristidis; Chrousos, George P; Delles, Christian; Dominiczak, Anna; Dylag, Tomasz; Ehrich, Jochen; Egido, Jesus; Findeisen, Peter; Jankowski, Joachim; Johnson, Robert W; Julien, Bruce A; Lankisch, Tim; Leung, Hing Y; Maahs, David; Magni, Fulvio; Manns, Michael P; Manolis, Efthymios; Mayer, Gert; Navis, Gerjan; Novak, Jan; Ortiz, Alberto; Persson, Frederik; Peter, Karlheinz; Riese, Hans H; Rossing, Peter; Sattar, Naveed; Spasovski, Goce; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Vanholder, Raymond; Schanstra, Joost P; Vlahou, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    While large numbers of proteomic biomarkers have been described, they are generally not implemented in medical practice. We have investigated the reasons for this shortcoming, focusing on hurdles downstream of biomarker verification, and describe major obstacles and possible solutions to ease valid biomarker implementation. Some of the problems lie in suboptimal biomarker discovery and validation, especially lack of validated platforms with well-described performance characteristics to support biomarker qualification. These issues have been acknowledged and are being addressed, raising the hope that valid biomarkers may start accumulating in the foreseeable future. However, successful biomarker discovery and qualification alone does not suffice for successful implementation. Additional challenges include, among others, limited access to appropriate specimens and insufficient funding, the need to validate new biomarker utility in interventional trials, and large communication gaps between the parties involved in implementation. To address this problem, we propose an implementation roadmap. The implementation effort needs to involve a wide variety of stakeholders (clinicians, statisticians, health economists, and representatives of patient groups, health insurance, pharmaceutical companies, biobanks, and regulatory agencies). Knowledgeable panels with adequate representation of all these stakeholders may facilitate biomarker evaluation and guide implementation for the specific context of use. This approach may avoid unwarranted delays or failure to implement potentially useful biomarkers, and may expedite meaningful contributions of the biomarker community to healthcare. PMID:22519700

  12. Biomarkers of PTSD: military applications and considerations.

    PubMed

    Lehrner, Amy; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Although there are no established biomarkers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as yet, biological investigations of PTSD have made progress identifying the pathophysiology of PTSD. Given the biological and clinical complexity of PTSD, it is increasingly unlikely that a single biomarker of disease will be identified. Rather, investigations will more likely identify different biomarkers that indicate the presence of clinically significant PTSD symptoms, associate with risk for PTSD following trauma exposure, and predict or identify recovery. While there has been much interest in PTSD biomarkers, there has been less discussion of their potential clinical applications, and of the social, legal, and ethical implications of such biomarkers. This article will discuss possible applications of PTSD biomarkers, including the social, legal, and ethical implications of such biomarkers, with an emphasis on military applications. Literature on applications of PTSD biomarkers and on potential ethical and legal implications will be reviewed. Biologically informed research findings hold promise for prevention, assessment, treatment planning, and the development of prophylactic and treatment interventions. As with any biological indicator of disorder, there are potentially positive and negative clinical, social, legal, and ethical consequences of using such biomarkers. Potential clinical applications of PTSD biomarkers hold promise for clinicians, patients, and employers. The search for biomarkers of PTSD should occur in tandem with an interdisciplinary discussion regarding the potential implications of applying biological findings in clinical and employment settings.

  13. Clinical trial designs for testing biomarker-based personalized therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tze Leung; Lavori, Philip W; Shih, Mei-Chiung I; Sikic, Branimir I

    2014-01-01

    . Simulations are used to examine small-to-moderate sample properties. Conclusion Innovative clinical trial designs are needed to address the difficulties and issues in the development and validation of biomarker-based personalized therapies. The article shows the advantages of using likelihood inference and interim analysis to meet the challenges in the sample size needed and in the constantly evolving biomarker landscape and genomic and proteomic technologies. PMID:22397801

  14. Cross-study projections of genomic biomarkers: an evaluation in cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Joseph E; Carvalho, Carlos M; Chen, Julia Ling-Yu; Chi, Jen-Tsan; West, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Human disease studies using DNA microarrays in both clinical/observational and experimental/controlled studies are having increasing impact on our understanding of the complexity of human diseases. A fundamental concept is the use of gene expression as a "common currency" that links the results of in vitro controlled experiments to in vivo observational human studies. Many studies--in cancer and other diseases--have shown promise in using in vitro cell manipulations to improve understanding of in vivo biology, but experiments often simply fail to reflect the enormous phenotypic variation seen in human diseases. We address this with a framework and methods to dissect, enhance and extend the in vivo utility of in vitro derived gene expression signatures. From an experimentally defined gene expression signature we use statistical factor analysis to generate multiple quantitative factors in human cancer gene expression data. These factors retain their relationship to the original, one-dimensional in vitro signature but better describe the diversity of in vivo biology. In a breast cancer analysis, we show that factors can reflect fundamentally different biological processes linked to molecular and clinical features of human cancers, and that in combination they can improve prediction of clinical outcomes.

  15. Applications of Support Vector Machine (SVM) Learning in Cancer Genomics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shujun; Cai, Nianguang; Pacheco, Pedro Penzuti; Narrandes, Shavira; Wang, Yang; Xu, Wayne

    2018-01-01

    Machine learning with maximization (support) of separating margin (vector), called support vector machine (SVM) learning, is a powerful classification tool that has been used for cancer genomic classification or subtyping. Today, as advancements in high-throughput technologies lead to production of large amounts of genomic and epigenomic data, the classification feature of SVMs is expanding its use in cancer genomics, leading to the discovery of new biomarkers, new drug targets, and a better understanding of cancer driver genes. Herein we reviewed the recent progress of SVMs in cancer genomic studies. We intend to comprehend the strength of the SVM learning and its future perspective in cancer genomic applications. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. The emerging genomics and systems biology research lead to systems genomics studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mary Qu; Yoshigoe, Kenji; Yang, William; Tong, Weida; Qin, Xiang; Dunker, A; Chen, Zhongxue; Arbania, Hamid R; Liu, Jun S; Niemierko, Andrzej; Yang, Jack Y

    2014-01-01

    Synergistically integrating multi-layer genomic data at systems level not only can lead to deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms related to disease initiation and progression, but also can guide pathway-based biomarker and drug target identification. With the advent of high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies, sequencing both DNA and RNA has generated multi-layer genomic data that can provide DNA polymorphism, non-coding RNA, messenger RNA, gene expression, isoform and alternative splicing information. Systems biology on the other hand studies complex biological systems, particularly systematic study of complex molecular interactions within specific cells or organisms. Genomics and molecular systems biology can be merged into the study of genomic profiles and implicated biological functions at cellular or organism level. The prospectively emerging field can be referred to as systems genomics or genomic systems biology. The Mid-South Bioinformatics Centre (MBC) and Joint Bioinformatics Ph.D. Program of University of Arkansas at Little Rock and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences are particularly interested in promoting education and research advancement in this prospectively emerging field. Based on past investigations and research outcomes, MBC is further utilizing differential gene and isoform/exon expression from RNA-seq and co-regulation from the ChiP-seq specific for different phenotypes in combination with protein-protein interactions, and protein-DNA interactions to construct high-level gene networks for an integrative genome-phoneme investigation at systems biology level.

  17. Clinical biomarkers of angiogenesis inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Aaron P.; Citrin, Deborah E.; Camphausen, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction An expanding understanding of the importance of angiogenesis in oncology and the development of numerous angiogenesis inhibitors are driving the search for biomarkers of angiogenesis. We review currently available candidate biomarkers and surrogate markers of anti-angiogenic agent effect. Discussion A number of invasive, minimally invasive, and non-invasive tools are described with their potential benefits and limitations. Diverse markers can evaluate tumor tissue or biological fluids, or specialized imaging modalities. Conclusions The inclusion of these markers into clinical trials may provide insight into appropriate dosing for desired biological effects, appropriate timing of additional therapy, prediction of individual response to an agent, insight into the interaction of chemotherapy and radiation following exposure to these agents, and perhaps most importantly, a better understanding of the complex nature of angiogenesis in human tumors. While many markers have potential for clinical use, it is not yet clear which marker or combination of markers will prove most useful. PMID:18414993

  18. An exploration into study design for biomarker identification: issues and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jacqueline A; Brown, Robert; Paul, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Genomic profiling produces large amounts of data and a challenge remains in identifying relevant biological processes associated with clinical outcome. Many candidate biomarkers have been identified but few have been successfully validated and make an impact clinically. This review focuses on some of the study design issues encountered in data mining for biomarker identification with illustrations of how study design may influence the final results. This includes issues of clinical endpoint use and selection, power, statistical, biological and clinical significance. We give particular attention to study design for the application of supervised clustering methods for identification of gene networks associated with clinical outcome and provide recommendations for future work to increase the success of identification of clinically relevant biomarkers.

  19. Potential biomarker panels in overall breast cancer management: advancements by multilevel diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Girotra, Shantanu; Yeghiazaryan, Kristina; Golubnitschaja, Olga

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer (BC) prevalence has reached an epidemic scale with half a million deaths annually. Current deficits in BC management include predictive and preventive approaches, optimized screening programs, individualized patient profiling, highly sensitive detection technologies for more precise diagnostics and therapy monitoring, individualized prediction and effective treatment of BC metastatic disease. To advance BC management, paradigm shift from delayed to predictive, preventive and personalized medical services is essential. Corresponding step forwards requires innovative multilevel diagnostics procuring specific panels of validated biomarkers. Here, we discuss current instrumental advancements including genomics, proteomics, epigenetics, miRNA, metabolomics, circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells with a focus on biomarker discovery and multilevel diagnostic panels. A list of the recommended biomarker candidates is provided.

  20. Insight into novel biomarkers in penile cancer: Redefining the present and future treatment paradigm?

    PubMed

    Zargar-Shoshtari, Kamran; Sharma, Pranav; Spiess, Philippe E

    2017-11-02

    Biomarkers are increasingly used in the diagnosis and management of various malignancies. Selected biomarkers may also play a role in management of certain cases of penile carcinoma. In this article, we provide an overview of the clinical role of such markers in the management of penile cancer. This is a nonsystematic review of relevant literature assessing biomarkers in penile carcinoma. Evidence of infections with human papillomavirus and its surrogate markers may have important prognostic value in patients with localized or metastatic penile cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen, p53, C-reactive protein, Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1, as well as other markers have been studied with various degree of evidence in support of clinical utility in penile cancer. No single marker may have all the answers, and future research should focus on genomic analysis of individual penile tumors, attempting to identify specific targets for treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum Antibody Biomarkers for ASD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    autism blood biomarker. In addition, we have identified two new proteins that are linked to ASD. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ASD, autism spectrum disorders . TD...4 8. Appendices…………………………………………………………. 5 3 Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder ...immune responses in young children with autism spectrum disorders : their relationship to gastrointestinal symptoms and dietary intervention

  2. Biomarkers in Advanced Larynx Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Carol R.; Kumar, Bhavna; Bellile, Emily; Lee, Julia; Taylor, Jeremy; D’Silva, Nisha; Cordell, Kitrina; Kleer, Celina; Kupfer, Robbi; Kumar, Pawan; Urba, Susan; Worden, Francis; Eisbruch, Avraham; Wolf, Gregory T.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Prince, Mark E.P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Hogikyan, Norman D.; Moyer, Jeffrey S.; Carey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To determine if tumor biomarkers were predictive of outcome in a prospective cohort of patients with advanced larynx cancer treated in a phase II clinical trial. Study Design Prospectively collected biopsy specimens from 58 patients entered into a Phase II trial of organ preservation in advanced laryngeal cancer were evaluated for expression of a large panel of biomarkers and correlations with outcome were determined. Methods Tissue microarrays were constructed from pretreatment biopsies and stained for cyclin D1, CD24, EGFR, MDM2, PCNA, p53, survivin, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, BAK, rhoC, and NFκB. Pattern of invasion and p53 mutations were assessed. Correlations with overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), time free from indication of surgery, induction chemotherapy response, and chemoradiation response were determined. Cox models were used to assess combinations of these biomarkers. Results Low expression of BAK was associated with response to induction chemotherapy. Low expression of BAK and cytoplasmic NFκB was associated with chemoradiation response. Aggressive histologic growth pattern was associated with response induction chemotherapy. Expression of cyclin D1 was predictive of overall and disease-specific survival. Overexpression of EGFR was also associated with an increased risk of death from disease. Bcl-xL expression increased significantly in persistent/recurrent tumors specimens when compared to pretreatment specimens derived from the same patient (p = 0.0003). Conclusions Evaluation of biomarker expression in pretreatment biopsy specimens can lend important predictive and prognostic information for patients with advanced larynx cancer. PMID:23775802

  3. Psychophysiological biomarkers of workplace stressors

    PubMed Central

    Chandola, Tarani; Heraclides, Alexandros; Kumari, Meena

    2010-01-01

    Workplace stressors are associated with greater coronary heart disease risk, although there is debate over the psychophysiological consequences of work stress. This study builds on recent reviews and examines the literature linking work stress with sympatho-adrenal biomarkers (plasma catecholamines and heart rate variability) and HPA axis biomarkers- the post-morning profile of cortisol. Methods Relevant studies using appropriate search terms were searched using the bibliographic databases PubMed, Embase, Biosys and Toxline. Four studies on plasma catecholamines, ten studies on heart rate variability, and sixteen studies on post-morning cortisol were reviewed. Results In the majority of studies that examined the association of HRV and work stress, greater reports of work stress is associated with lower heart rate variability. The findings for plasma catecholamines and cortisol secretion are less clear cut and suffer from poorer quality of studies in general. Conclusion There is evidence that work stress is related to elevated stress responses in terms of sympatho-adrenal and HPA axis biomarkers. PMID:19914288

  4. Biomarkers in adult posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Hua, Cong; Zhao, Gang

    2017-08-01

    Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus is a severe complication following intracranial hemorrhage. Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus is often associated with high morbidity and mortality and serves as an important clinical predictor of adverse outcomes after intracranial hemorrhage. Currently, no effective medical intervention exists to improve functional outcomes in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus patients because little is still known about the mechanisms of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus pathogenesis. Because a better understanding of the posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus pathogenesis would facilitate development of clinical treatments, this is an active research area. The purpose of this review is to describe recent progress in elucidation of molecular mechanisms that cause posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. What we are certain of is that the entry of blood into the ventricular system and subarachnoid space results in release of lytic blood products which cause a series of physiological and pathological changes in the brain. Blood components that can be linked to pathology would serve as disease biomarkers. From studies of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, such biomarkers are known to mutually synergize to initiate and promote posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus progression. These findings suggest that modulation of biomarker expression or function may benefit posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus patients.

  5. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status. PMID:23237668

  6. Chapter 6 state of the science of pediatric traumatic brain injury: biomarkers and gene association studies.

    PubMed

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Eads, Julia K; Berndt, Suzanna Boyce; Bennett, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Our objective is to review the most widely used biomarkers and gene studies reported in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) literature, to describe their findings, and to discuss the discoveries and gaps that advance the understanding of brain injury and its associated outcomes. Ultimately, we aim to inform the science for future research priorities. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for published English language studies conducted in the last 10 years to identify reviews and completed studies of biomarkers and gene associations in pediatric TBI. Of the 131 biomarker articles, only 16 were specific to pediatric TBI patients, whereas of the gene association studies in children with TBI, only four were included in this review. Biomarker and gene attributes are grossly understudied in pediatric TBI in comparison to adults. Although recent advances recognize the importance of biomarkers in the study of brain injury, the limited number of studies and genomic associations in the injured brain has shown the need for common data elements, larger sample sizes, heterogeneity, and common collection methods that allow for greater understanding of the injured pediatric brain. By building on to the consortium of interprofessional scientists, continued research priorities would lead to improved outcome prediction and treatment strategies for children who experience a TBI. Understanding recent advances in biomarker and genomic studies in pediatric TBI is important because these advances may guide future research, collaborations, and interventions. It is also important to ensure that nursing is a part of this evolving science to promote improved outcomes in children with TBIs.

  7. Multiple biomarkers in molecular oncology. I. Molecular diagnostics applications in cervical cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Douglas P

    2007-03-01

    The screening for cervical carcinoma and its malignant precursors (cervical neoplasia) currently employs morphology-based detection methods (Papanicolaou [Pap] smear) in addition to the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus. The combination of the Pap smear with human papillomavirus testing has achieved significant improvements in sensitivity for the detection of cervical disease. Diagnosis of cervical neoplasia is dependent upon histology assessment of cervical biopsy specimens. Attempts to improve the specificity of cervical disease screening have focused on the investigation of molecular biomarkers for adjunctive use in combination with the Pap smear. Active research into the genomic and proteomic alterations that occur during human papillomavirus-induced neoplastic transformation have begun to characterize some of the basic mechanisms inherent to the disease process of cervical cancer development. This research continues to demonstrate the complexity of multiple genomic and proteomic alterations that accumulate during the tumorigenesis process. Despite this diversity, basic patterns of uncontrolled signal transduction, cell cycle deregulation, activation of DNA replication and altered extracellular matrix interactions are beginning to emerge as common features inherent to cervical cancer development. Some of these gene or protein expression alterations have been investigated as potential biomarkers for screening and diagnostics applications. The contribution of multiple gene alterations in the development of cervical cancer suggests that the application of multiple biomarker panels has the potential to develop clinically useful molecular diagnostics. In this review, the application of biomarkers for the improvement of sensitivity and specificity of the detection of cervical neoplasia within cytology specimens will be discussed.

  8. The platypus genome unraveled.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-06-13

    The genome of the platypus has been sequenced, assembled, and annotated by an international genomics team. Like the animal itself the platypus genome contains an amalgam of mammal, reptile, and bird-like features.

  9. The search for drug-targetable diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Gang; Adom, Djamilatou; Paczesny, Sophie

    2018-05-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) continues to be the leading cause of late morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), which is an increasingly applied curative method for both benign and malignant hematologic disorders. Biomarker identification is crucial for the development of noninvasive and cost-effective cGVHD diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive test for use in clinic. Furthermore, biomarkers may help to gain a better insight on ongoing pathophysiological processes. The recent widespread application of omics technologies including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and cytomics provided opportunities to discover novel biomarkers. Areas covered: This review focuses on biomarkers identified through omics that play a critical role in target identification for drug development, and that were verified in at least two independent cohorts. It also summarizes the current status on omics tools used to identify these useful cGVHD targets. We briefly list the biomarkers identified and verified so far. We further address challenges associated to their exploitation and application in the management of cGVHD patients. Finally, insights on biomarkers that are drug targetable and represent potential therapeutic targets are discussed. Expert commentary: We focus on biomarkers that play an essential role in target identification.

  10. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines. PMID:25237628

  11. Cardiovascular disease biomarkers across autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, Joseph; Shields, Kelly J; Liu, Chau-Ching; Manzi, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is increasingly recognized as a major cause of premature mortality among those with autoimmune disorders. There is an urgent need to identify those patients with autoimmune disease who are at risk for CVD so as to optimize therapeutic intervention and ultimately prevention. Accurate identification, monitoring and stratification of such patients will depend upon a panel of biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. This review will discuss some of the most recent biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in autoimmune disease, including lipid oxidation, imaging biomarkers to characterize coronary calcium, plaque, and intima media thickness, biomarkers of inflammation and activated complement, genetic markers, endothelial biomarkers, and antiphospholipid antibodies. Clinical implementation of these biomarkers will not only enhance patient care but also likely accelerate the pharmaceutical pipeline for targeted intervention to reduce or eliminate cardiovascular disease in the setting of autoimmunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomarker Qualification: Toward a Multiple Stakeholder Framework for Biomarker Development, Regulatory Acceptance, and Utilization.

    PubMed

    Amur, S; LaVange, L; Zineh, I; Buckman-Garner, S; Woodcock, J

    2015-07-01

    The discovery, development, and use of biomarkers for a variety of drug development purposes are areas of tremendous interest and need. Biomarkers can become accepted for use through submission of biomarker data during the drug approval process. Another emerging pathway for acceptance of biomarkers is via the biomarker qualification program developed by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER, US Food and Drug Administration). Evidentiary standards are needed to develop and evaluate various types of biomarkers for their intended use and multiple stakeholders, including academia, industry, government, and consortia must work together to help develop this evidence. The article describes various types of biomarkers that can be useful in drug development and evidentiary considerations that are important for qualification. A path forward for coordinating efforts to identify and explore needed biomarkers is proposed for consideration. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  13. [Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a genomic perspective].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Morales, Silvia; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Ramírez-Bello, Julián

    In parallel to the human genome sequencing project, several technological platforms have been developed that let us gain insight into the genome structure of human entities, as well as evaluate their usefulness in the clinical approach of the patient. Thus, in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common pediatric malignancy, genomic tools promise to be useful to detect patients at high risk of relapse, either at diagnosis or during treatment (minimal residual disease), and they also increase the possibility to identify cases at risk of adverse reactions to chemotherapy. Therefore, the physician could offer patient-tailored therapeutic schemes. A clear example of the useful genomic tools is the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) gene, where the presence of two null alleles (homozygous or compound heterozygous) indicates the need to reduce the dose of mercaptopurine by up to 90% to avoid toxic effects which could lead to the death of the patient. In this review, we provide an overview of the genomic perspective of ALL, describing some strategies that contribute to the identification of biomarkers with potential clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Biomarker Utility using a PBPK Model for Carbaryl

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many types of biomarkers; the two common ones are biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of effect. The utility of a biomarker for estimating exposures or predicting risks depends on the strength of the correlation between biomarker concentrations and exposure/effects. I...

  15. Ensembl Genomes 2016: more genomes, more complexity.

    PubMed

    Kersey, Paul Julian; Allen, James E; Armean, Irina; Boddu, Sanjay; Bolt, Bruce J; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Christensen, Mikkel; Davis, Paul; Falin, Lee J; Grabmueller, Christoph; Humphrey, Jay; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Khobova, Julia; Aranganathan, Naveen K; Langridge, Nicholas; Lowy, Ernesto; McDowall, Mark D; Maheswari, Uma; Nuhn, Michael; Ong, Chuang Kee; Overduin, Bert; Paulini, Michael; Pedro, Helder; Perry, Emily; Spudich, Giulietta; Tapanari, Electra; Walts, Brandon; Williams, Gareth; Tello-Ruiz, Marcela; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Ware, Doreen; Bolser, Daniel M; Howe, Kevin L; Kulesha, Eugene; Lawson, Daniel; Maslen, Gareth; Staines, Daniel M

    2016-01-04

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrating resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species, complementing the resources for vertebrate genomics developed in the context of the Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org). Together, the two resources provide a consistent set of programmatic and interactive interfaces to a rich range of data including reference sequence, gene models, transcriptional data, genetic variation and comparative analysis. This paper provides an update to the previous publications about the resource, with a focus on recent developments. These include the development of new analyses and views to represent polyploid genomes (of which bread wheat is the primary exemplar); and the continued up-scaling of the resource, which now includes over 23 000 bacterial genomes, 400 fungal genomes and 100 protist genomes, in addition to 55 genomes from invertebrate metazoa and 39 genomes from plants. This dramatic increase in the number of included genomes is one part of a broader effort to automate the integration of archival data (genome sequence, but also associated RNA sequence data and variant calls) within the context of reference genomes and make it available through the Ensembl user interfaces. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Ensembl Genomes 2016: more genomes, more complexity

    PubMed Central

    Kersey, Paul Julian; Allen, James E.; Armean, Irina; Boddu, Sanjay; Bolt, Bruce J.; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Christensen, Mikkel; Davis, Paul; Falin, Lee J.; Grabmueller, Christoph; Humphrey, Jay; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Khobova, Julia; Aranganathan, Naveen K.; Langridge, Nicholas; Lowy, Ernesto; McDowall, Mark D.; Maheswari, Uma; Nuhn, Michael; Ong, Chuang Kee; Overduin, Bert; Paulini, Michael; Pedro, Helder; Perry, Emily; Spudich, Giulietta; Tapanari, Electra; Walts, Brandon; Williams, Gareth; Tello–Ruiz, Marcela; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Ware, Doreen; Bolser, Daniel M.; Howe, Kevin L.; Kulesha, Eugene; Lawson, Daniel; Maslen, Gareth; Staines, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrating resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species, complementing the resources for vertebrate genomics developed in the context of the Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org). Together, the two resources provide a consistent set of programmatic and interactive interfaces to a rich range of data including reference sequence, gene models, transcriptional data, genetic variation and comparative analysis. This paper provides an update to the previous publications about the resource, with a focus on recent developments. These include the development of new analyses and views to represent polyploid genomes (of which bread wheat is the primary exemplar); and the continued up-scaling of the resource, which now includes over 23 000 bacterial genomes, 400 fungal genomes and 100 protist genomes, in addition to 55 genomes from invertebrate metazoa and 39 genomes from plants. This dramatic increase in the number of included genomes is one part of a broader effort to automate the integration of archival data (genome sequence, but also associated RNA sequence data and variant calls) within the context of reference genomes and make it available through the Ensembl user interfaces. PMID:26578574

  17. Ensembl genomes 2016: more genomes, more complexity

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrating resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species, complementing the resources for vertebrate genomics developed in the context of the Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org). Together, the two resources provide a consistent...

  18. Omics-based biomarkers: current status and potential use in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Héctor; Guzmán-Ortiz, Ana Laura; Díaz-Sánchez, Hugo; Valle-Rios, Ricardo; Aguirre-Hernández, Jesús

    In recent years, the use of high-throughput omics technologies has led to the rapid discovery of many candidate biomarkers. However, few of them have made the transition to the clinic. In this review, the promise of omics technologies to contribute to the process of biomarker development is described. An overview of the current state in this area is presented with examples of genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and microbiomics biomarkers in the field of oncology, along with some proposed strategies to accelerate their validation and translation to improve the care of patients with neoplasms. The inherent complexity underlying neoplasms combined with the requirement of developing well-designed biomarker discovery processes based on omics technologies present a challenge for the effective development of biomarkers that may be useful in guiding therapies, addressing disease risks, and predicting clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolomics, Nutrition, and Potential Biomarkers of Food Quality, Intake, and Health Status.

    PubMed

    Sébédio, Jean-Louis

    Diet, dietary patterns, and other environmental factors such as exposure to toxins are playing an important role in the prevention/development of many diseases, like obesity, type 2 diabetes, and consequently on the health status of individuals. A major challenge nowadays is to identify novel biomarkers to detect as early as possible metabolic dysfunction and to predict evolution of health status in order to refine nutritional advices to specific population groups. Omics technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics coupled with statistical and bioinformatics tools have already shown great potential in this research field even if so far only few biomarkers have been validated. For the past two decades, important analytical techniques have been developed to detect as many metabolites as possible in human biofluids such as urine, blood, and saliva. In the field of food science and nutrition, many studies have been carried out for food authenticity, quality, and safety, as well as for food processing. Furthermore, metabolomic investigations have been carried out to discover new early biomarkers of metabolic dysfunction and predictive biomarkers of developing pathologies (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, etc.). Great emphasis is also placed in the development of methodologies to identify and validate biomarkers of nutrients exposure. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological Networks for Cancer Candidate Biomarkers Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wenying; Xue, Wenjin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Due to its extraordinary heterogeneity and complexity, cancer is often proposed as a model case of a systems biology disease or network disease. There is a critical need of effective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and/or outcome prediction from system level analyses. Methods based on integrating omics data into networks have the potential to revolutionize the identification of cancer biomarkers. Deciphering the biological networks underlying cancer is undoubtedly important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the disease and identifying effective biomarkers. In this review, the networks constructed for cancer biomarker discovery based on different omics level data are described and illustrated from recent advances in the field. PMID:27625573

  1. Development of Biomarkers for Screening Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Global Data Mining and Multiple Reaction Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Su Jong; Jang, Eun Sun; Yu, Jiyoung; Cho, Geunhee; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Youngsoo

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and aggressive cancers and is associated with a poor survival rate. Clinically, the level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of HCC. The discovery of useful biomarkers for HCC, focused solely on the proteome, has been difficult; thus, wide-ranging global data mining of genomic and proteomic databases from previous reports would be valuable in screening biomarker candidates. Further, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), based on triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, has been effective with regard to high-throughput verification, complementing antibody-based verification pipelines. In this study, global data mining was performed using 5 types of HCC data to screen for candidate biomarker proteins: cDNA microarray, copy number variation, somatic mutation, epigenetic, and quantitative proteomics data. Next, we applied MRM to verify HCC candidate biomarkers in individual serum samples from 3 groups: a healthy control group, patients who have been diagnosed with HCC (Before HCC treatment group), and HCC patients who underwent locoregional therapy (After HCC treatment group). After determining the relative quantities of the candidate proteins by MRM, we compared their expression levels between the 3 groups, identifying 4 potential biomarkers: the actin-binding protein anillin (ANLN), filamin-B (FLNB), complementary C4-A (C4A), and AFP. The combination of 2 markers (ANLN, FLNB) improved the discrimination of the before HCC treatment group from the healthy control group compared with AFP. We conclude that the combination of global data mining and MRM verification enhances the screening and verification of potential HCC biomarkers. This efficacious integrative strategy is applicable to the development of markers for cancer and other diseases. PMID:23717429

  2. Development of biomarkers for screening hepatocellular carcinoma using global data mining and multiple reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Kyunggon; Yu, Su Jong; Jang, Eun Sun; Yu, Jiyoung; Cho, Geunhee; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Youngsoo

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and aggressive cancers and is associated with a poor survival rate. Clinically, the level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of HCC. The discovery of useful biomarkers for HCC, focused solely on the proteome, has been difficult; thus, wide-ranging global data mining of genomic and proteomic databases from previous reports would be valuable in screening biomarker candidates. Further, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), based on triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, has been effective with regard to high-throughput verification, complementing antibody-based verification pipelines. In this study, global data mining was performed using 5 types of HCC data to screen for candidate biomarker proteins: cDNA microarray, copy number variation, somatic mutation, epigenetic, and quantitative proteomics data. Next, we applied MRM to verify HCC candidate biomarkers in individual serum samples from 3 groups: a healthy control group, patients who have been diagnosed with HCC (Before HCC treatment group), and HCC patients who underwent locoregional therapy (After HCC treatment group). After determining the relative quantities of the candidate proteins by MRM, we compared their expression levels between the 3 groups, identifying 4 potential biomarkers: the actin-binding protein anillin (ANLN), filamin-B (FLNB), complementary C4-A (C4A), and AFP. The combination of 2 markers (ANLN, FLNB) improved the discrimination of the before HCC treatment group from the healthy control group compared with AFP. We conclude that the combination of global data mining and MRM verification enhances the screening and verification of potential HCC biomarkers. This efficacious integrative strategy is applicable to the development of markers for cancer and other diseases.

  3. Connecting genomic alterations to cancer biology with proteomics: the NCI Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Matthew J; Gillette, Michael; Carr, Steven A; Paulovich, Amanda G; Smith, Richard D; Rodland, Karin K; Townsend, R Reid; Kinsinger, Christopher; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Liebler, Daniel C

    2013-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium is applying the latest generation of proteomic technologies to genomically annotated tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program, a joint initiative of the NCI and the National Human Genome Research Institute. By providing a fully integrated accounting of DNA, RNA, and protein abnormalities in individual tumors, these datasets will illuminate the complex relationship between genomic abnormalities and cancer phenotypes, thus producing biologic insights as well as a wave of novel candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets amenable to verification using targeted mass spectrometry methods. ©2013 AACR.

  4. Funding Opportunity: Genomic Data Centers

    Cancer.gov

    Funding Opportunity CCG, Funding Opportunity Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG, Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG RFA, Center for cancer genomics rfa, genomic data analysis network, genomic data analysis network centers,

  5. Semi-automated literature mining to identify putative biomarkers of disease from multiple biofluids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computational methods for mining of biomedical literature can be useful in augmenting manual searches of the literature using keywords for disease-specific biomarker discovery from biofluids. In this work, we develop and apply a semi-automated literature mining method to mine abstracts obtained from PubMed to discover putative biomarkers of breast and lung cancers in specific biofluids. Methodology A positive set of abstracts was defined by the terms ‘breast cancer’ and ‘lung cancer’ in conjunction with 14 separate ‘biofluids’ (bile, blood, breastmilk, cerebrospinal fluid, mucus, plasma, saliva, semen, serum, synovial fluid, stool, sweat, tears, and urine), while a negative set of abstracts was defined by the terms ‘(biofluid) NOT breast cancer’ or ‘(biofluid) NOT lung cancer.’ More than 5.3 million total abstracts were obtained from PubMed and examined for biomarker-disease-biofluid associations (34,296 positive and 2,653,396 negative for breast cancer; 28,355 positive and 2,595,034 negative for lung cancer). Biological entities such as genes and proteins were tagged using ABNER, and processed using Python scripts to produce a list of putative biomarkers. Z-scores were calculated, ranked, and used to determine significance of putative biomarkers found. Manual verification of relevant abstracts was performed to assess our method’s performance. Results Biofluid-specific markers were identified from the literature, assigned relevance scores based on frequency of occurrence, and validated using known biomarker lists and/or databases for lung and breast cancer [NCBI’s On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Cancer Gene annotation server for cancer genomics (CAGE), NCBI’s Genes & Disease, NCI’s Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), and others]. The specificity of each marker for a given biofluid was calculated, and the performance of our semi-automated literature mining method assessed for breast and lung cancer

  6. Enabling functional genomics with genome engineering

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Isaac B.; Gersbach, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genome engineering technologies have made the precise control over genome sequence and regulation possible across a variety of disciplines. These tools can expand our understanding of fundamental biological processes and create new opportunities for therapeutic designs. The rapid evolution of these methods has also catalyzed a new era of genomics that includes multiple approaches to functionally characterize and manipulate the regulation of genomic information. Here, we review the recent advances of the most widely adopted genome engineering platforms and their application to functional genomics. This includes engineered zinc finger proteins, TALEs/TALENs, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system as nucleases for genome editing, transcription factors for epigenome editing, and other emerging applications. We also present current and potential future applications of these tools, as well as their current limitations and areas for future advances. PMID:26430154

  7. Enabling functional genomics with genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Isaac B; Gersbach, Charles A

    2015-10-01

    Advances in genome engineering technologies have made the precise control over genome sequence and regulation possible across a variety of disciplines. These tools can expand our understanding of fundamental biological processes and create new opportunities for therapeutic designs. The rapid evolution of these methods has also catalyzed a new era of genomics that includes multiple approaches to functionally characterize and manipulate the regulation of genomic information. Here, we review the recent advances of the most widely adopted genome engineering platforms and their application to functional genomics. This includes engineered zinc finger proteins, TALEs/TALENs, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system as nucleases for genome editing, transcription factors for epigenome editing, and other emerging applications. We also present current and potential future applications of these tools, as well as their current limitations and areas for future advances. © 2015 Hilton and Gersbach; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Genomics and functional genomics in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciT

    Blaby, Ian K.; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.

    The availability of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii nuclear genome sequence continues to enable researchers to address biological questions relevant to algae, land plants and animals in unprecedented ways. As we continue to characterize and understand biological processes in C. reinhardtii and translate that knowledge to other systems, we are faced with the realization that many genes encode proteins without a defined function. The field of functional genomics aims to close this gap between genome sequence and protein function. Transcriptomes, proteomes and phenomes can each provide layers of gene-specific functional data while supplying a global snapshot of cellular behavior under different conditions.more » Herein we present a brief history of functional genomics, the present status of the C. reinhardtii genome, how genome-wide experiments can aid in supplying protein function inferences, and provide an outlook for functional genomics in C. reinhardtii.« less

  9. Genomics and functional genomics in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    DOE PAGES

    Blaby, Ian K.; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.

    2017-03-21

    The availability of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii nuclear genome sequence continues to enable researchers to address biological questions relevant to algae, land plants and animals in unprecedented ways. As we continue to characterize and understand biological processes in C. reinhardtii and translate that knowledge to other systems, we are faced with the realization that many genes encode proteins without a defined function. The field of functional genomics aims to close this gap between genome sequence and protein function. Transcriptomes, proteomes and phenomes can each provide layers of gene-specific functional data while supplying a global snapshot of cellular behavior under different conditions.more » Herein we present a brief history of functional genomics, the present status of the C. reinhardtii genome, how genome-wide experiments can aid in supplying protein function inferences, and provide an outlook for functional genomics in C. reinhardtii.« less

  10. Translating Metabolomics to Cardiovascular Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Todd; Hazen, Stanley L.; Tang, W. H. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics is the systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints of small-molecules, or metabolite profiles, that are related to a variety of cellular metabolic processes in a cell, organ, or organism. While mRNA gene expression data and proteomic analyses do not tell the whole story of what might be happening in a cell, metabolic profiling provides direct and indirect physiologic insights that can potentially be detectable in a wide range of biospecimens. Although not specific to cardiac conditions, translating metabolomics to cardiovascular biomarkers has followed the traditional path of biomarker discovery from identification and confirmation to clinical validation and bedside testing. With technological advances in metabolomic tools (such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry) and more sophisticated bioinformatics and analytical techniques, the ability to measure low-molecular-weight metabolites in biospecimens provides a unique insight into established and novel metabolic pathways. Systemic metabolomics may provide physiologic understanding of cardiovascular disease states beyond traditional profiling, and may involve descriptions of metabolic responses of an individual or population to therapeutic interventions or environmental exposures. PMID:22824112

  11. Ocular biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Heaton, George R; Davis, Benjamin M; Turner, Lisa A; Cordeiro, Maria F

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterised clinically by a progressive decline in executive functions, memory and cognition. Classic neuropathological hallmarks of AD include intracellular hyper-phosphorylated tau protein which forms neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), and extracellular deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) protein, the primary constituent of senile plaques (SP). The gradual process of pathogenic amyloid accumulation is thought to occur 10-20 years prior to symptomatic manifestation. Advance detection of these deposits therefore offers a highly promising avenue for prodromal AD diagnosis. Currently, the most sophisticated method of 'probable AD' diagnosis is via neuroimaging or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) biomarker analysis. Whilst these methods have reported a high degree of diagnostic specificity and accuracy, they fall significantly short in terms of practicality; they are often highly invasive, expensive or unsuitable for large-scale population screening. In recent years, ocular screening has received substantial attention from the scientific community due to its potential for non-invasive and inexpensive central nervous system (CNS) imaging. In this appraisal we build upon our previous reviews detailing ocular structural and functional changes in AD (Retinal manifestations of Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Retinal Neurodegeneration) and consider their use as biomarkers. In addition, we present an overview of current advances in the use of fluorescent reporters to detect AD pathology through non-invasive retinal imaging.

  12. Biomarkers of aggression in dementia.

    PubMed

    Gotovac, Kristina; Nikolac Perković, Matea; Pivac, Nela; Borovečki, Fran

    2016-08-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome defined by progressive global impairment of acquired cognitive abilities. It can be caused by a number of underlying conditions. The most common types of dementia are Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite the fact that cognitive impairment is central to the dementia, noncognitive symptoms, most commonly described nowadays as neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) exist almost always at certain point of the illness. Aggression as one of the NPS represents danger both for patients and caregivers and the rate of aggression correlates with the loss of independence, cognitive decline and poor outcome. Therefore, biomarkers of aggression in dementia patients would be of a great importance. Studies have shown that different genetic factors, including monoamine signaling and processing, can be associated with various NPS including aggression. There have been significant and multiple neurotransmitter changes identified in the brains of patients with dementia and some of these changes have been involved in the etiology of NPS. Aggression specific changes have also been observed in neuropathological studies. The current consensus is that the best approach for development of such biomarkers may be incorporation of genetics (polymorphisms), neurobiology (neurotransmitters and neuropathology) and neuroimaging techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. GenomeFingerprinter: the genome fingerprint and the universal genome fingerprint analysis for systematic comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yuncan; Ai, Hannan; Meng, Fanmei; Zhao, Lei

    2013-01-01

    No attention has been paid on comparing a set of genome sequences crossing genetic components and biological categories with far divergence over large size range. We define it as the systematic comparative genomics and aim to develop the methodology. First, we create a method, GenomeFingerprinter, to unambiguously produce a set of three-dimensional coordinates from a sequence, followed by one three-dimensional plot and six two-dimensional trajectory projections, to illustrate the genome fingerprint of a given genome sequence. Second, we develop a set of concepts and tools, and thereby establish a method called the universal genome fingerprint analysis (UGFA). Particularly, we define the total genetic component configuration (TGCC) (including chromosome, plasmid, and phage) for describing a strain as a systematic unit, the universal genome fingerprint map (UGFM) of TGCC for differentiating strains as a universal system, and the systematic comparative genomics (SCG) for comparing a set of genomes crossing genetic components and biological categories. Third, we construct a method of quantitative analysis to compare two genomes by using the outcome dataset of genome fingerprint analysis. Specifically, we define the geometric center and its geometric mean for a given genome fingerprint map, followed by the Euclidean distance, the differentiate rate, and the weighted differentiate rate to quantitatively describe the difference between two genomes of comparison. Moreover, we demonstrate the applications through case studies on various genome sequences, giving tremendous insights into the critical issues in microbial genomics and taxonomy. We have created a method, GenomeFingerprinter, for rapidly computing, geometrically visualizing, intuitively comparing a set of genomes at genome fingerprint level, and hence established a method called the universal genome fingerprint analysis, as well as developed a method of quantitative analysis of the outcome dataset. These have set

  14. Navigating yeast genome maintenance with functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Measday, Vivien; Stirling, Peter C

    2016-03-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity is a fundamental requirement of all organisms. To address this, organisms have evolved extremely faithful modes of replication, DNA repair and chromosome segregation to combat the deleterious effects of an unstable genome. Nonetheless, a small amount of genome instability is the driver of evolutionary change and adaptation, and thus a low level of instability is permitted in populations. While defects in genome maintenance almost invariably reduce fitness in the short term, they can create an environment where beneficial mutations are more likely to occur. The importance of this fact is clearest in the development of human cancer, where genome instability is a well-established enabling characteristic of carcinogenesis. This raises the crucial question: what are the cellular pathways that promote genome maintenance and what are their mechanisms? Work in model organisms, in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has provided the global foundations of genome maintenance mechanisms in eukaryotes. The development of pioneering genomic tools inS. cerevisiae, such as the systematic creation of mutants in all nonessential and essential genes, has enabled whole-genome approaches to identifying genes with roles in genome maintenance. Here, we review the extensive whole-genome approaches taken in yeast, with an emphasis on functional genomic screens, to understand the genetic basis of genome instability, highlighting a range of genetic and cytological screening modalities. By revealing the biological pathways and processes regulating genome integrity, these analyses contribute to the systems-level map of the yeast cell and inform studies of human disease, especially cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Exploring Other Genomes: Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the importance of genomes other than the human genome project and provides information on the identified bacterial genomes Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Leprosy, Cholera, Meningitis, Tuberculosis, Bubonic Plague, and plant pathogens. Considers the computer's use in genome studies. (Contains 14 references.) (YDS)

  16. Omics-Based Identification of Biomarkers for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a head and neck cancer that is highly found in distinct geographic areas, such as Southeast Asia. The management of NPC remains burdensome as the prognosis is poor due to the late presentation of the disease and the complex nature of NPC pathogenesis. Therefore, it is necessary to find effective molecular markers for early detection and therapeutic measure of NPC. In this paper, the discovery of molecular biomarker for NPC through the emerging omics technologies including genomics, miRNA-omics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics will be extensively reviewed. These markers have been shown to play roles in various cellular pathways in NPC progression. The knowledge on their function will help us understand in more detail the complexity in tumor biology, leading to the better strategies for early detection, outcome prediction, detection of disease recurrence, and therapeutic approach. PMID:25999660

  17. Genomics and transcriptomics in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Dopazo, Joaquin

    2014-02-01

    The popularization of genomic high-throughput technologies is causing a revolution in biomedical research and, particularly, is transforming the field of drug discovery. Systems biology offers a framework to understand the extensive human genetic heterogeneity revealed by genomic sequencing in the context of the network of functional, regulatory and physical protein-drug interactions. Thus, approaches to find biomarkers and therapeutic targets will have to take into account the complex system nature of the relationships of the proteins with the disease. Pharmaceutical companies will have to reorient their drug discovery strategies considering the human genetic heterogeneity. Consequently, modeling and computational data analysis will have an increasingly important role in drug discovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The somatic genomic landscape of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Cameron W; Verhaak, Roel G W; McKenna, Aaron; Campos, Benito; Noushmehr, Houtan; Salama, Sofie R; Zheng, Siyuan; Chakravarty, Debyani; Sanborn, J Zachary; Berman, Samuel H; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bernard, Brady; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Genovese, Giannicola; Shmulevich, Ilya; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Zou, Lihua; Vegesna, Rahulsimham; Shukla, Sachet A; Ciriello, Giovanni; Yung, W K; Zhang, Wei; Sougnez, Carrie; Mikkelsen, Tom; Aldape, Kenneth; Bigner, Darell D; Van Meir, Erwin G; Prados, Michael; Sloan, Andrew; Black, Keith L; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Friedman, William; Andrews, David W; Guha, Abhijit; Iacocca, Mary; O'Neill, Brian P; Foltz, Greg; Myers, Jerome; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Penny, Robert; Kucherlapati, Raju; Perou, Charles M; Hayes, D Neil; Gibbs, Richard; Marra, Marco; Mills, Gordon B; Lander, Eric; Spellman, Paul; Wilson, Richard; Sander, Chris; Weinstein, John; Meyerson, Matthew; Gabriel, Stacey; Laird, Peter W; Haussler, David; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda

    2013-10-10

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors, including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA expression, supporting a role in telomerase reactivation. Correlative analyses confirm that the survival advantage of the proneural subtype is conferred by the G-CIMP phenotype, and MGMT DNA methylation may be a predictive biomarker for treatment response only in classical subtype GBM. Integrative analysis of genomic and proteomic profiles challenges the notion of therapeutic inhibition of a pathway as an alternative to inhibition of the target itself. These data will facilitate the discovery of therapeutic and diagnostic target candidates, the validation of research and clinical observations and the generation of unanticipated hypotheses that can advance our molecular understanding of this lethal cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Somatic Genomic Landscape of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Cameron W.; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; McKenna, Aaron; Campos, Benito; Noushmehr, Houtan; Salama, Sofie R.; Zheng, Siyuan; Chakravarty, Debyani; Sanborn, J. Zachary; Berman, Samuel H.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bernard, Brady; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Genovese, Giannicola; Shmulevich, Ilya; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Zou, Lihua; Vegesna, Rahulsimham; Shukla, Sachet A.; Ciriello, Giovanni; Yung, WK; Zhang, Wei; Sougnez, Carrie; Mikkelsen, Tom; Aldape, Kenneth; Bigner, Darell D.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Prados, Michael; Sloan, Andrew; Black, Keith L.; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Friedman, William; Andrews, David W.; Guha, Abhijit; Iacocca, Mary; O’Neill, Brian P.; Foltz, Greg; Myers, Jerome; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Penny, Robert; Kucherlapati, Raju; Perou, Charles M.; Hayes, D. Neil; Gibbs, Richard; Marra, Marco; Mills, Gordon B.; Lander, Eric; Spellman, Paul; Wilson, Richard; Sander, Chris; Weinstein, John; Meyerson, Matthew; Gabriel, Stacey; Laird, Peter W.; Haussler, David; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda

    2013-01-01

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multi-dimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA expression, supporting a role in telomerase reactivation. Correlative analyses confirm that the survival advantage of the proneural subtype is conferred by the G-CIMP phenotype, and MGMT DNA methylation may be a predictive biomarker for treatment response only in classical subtype GBM. Integrative analysis of genomic and proteomic profiles challenges the notion of therapeutic inhibition of a pathway as an alternative to inhibition of the target itself. These data will facilitate the discovery of therapeutic and diagnostic target candidates, the validation of research and clinical observations and the generation of unanticipated hypotheses that can advance our molecular understanding of this lethal cancer. PMID:24120142

  20. Pharmacogenomic biomarker information in drug labels approved by the United States food and drug administration: prevalence of related drug use.

    PubMed

    Frueh, Felix W; Amur, Shashi; Mummaneni, Padmaja; Epstein, Robert S; Aubert, Ronald E; DeLuca, Teresa M; Verbrugge, Robert R; Burckart, Gilbert J; Lesko, Lawrence J

    2008-08-01

    To review the labels of United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs to identify those that contain pharmacogenomic biomarker information, and to collect prevalence information on the use of those drugs for which pharmacogenomic information is included in the drug labeling. Retrospective analysis. The Physicians' Desk Reference Web site, Drugs@FDA Web site, and manufacturers' Web sites were used to identify drug labels containing pharmacogenomic information, and the prescription claims database of a large pharmacy benefits manager (insuring > 55 million individuals in the United States) was used to obtain drug utilization data. Pharmacogenomic biomarkers were defined, FDA-approved drug labels containing this information were identified, and utilization of these drugs was determined. Of 1200 drug labels reviewed for the years 1945-2005, 121 drug labels contained pharmacogenomic information based on a key word search and follow-up screening. Of those, 69 labels referred to human genomic biomarkers, and 52 referred to microbial genomic biomarkers. Of the labels referring to human biomarkers, 43 (62%) pertained to polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme metabolism, with CYP2D6 being most common. Of 36.1 million patients whose prescriptions were processed by a large pharmacy benefits manager in 2006, about 8.8 million (24.3%) received one or more drugs with human genomic biomarker information in the drug label. Nearly one fourth of all outpatients received one or more drugs that have pharmacogenomic information in the label for that drug. The incorporation and appropriate use of pharmacogenomic information in drug labels should be tested for its ability to improve drug use and safety in the United States.

  1. DEVELOPING BIOMARKERS FOR MYCOTOXIN EXPOSURE AND EFFECT

    The purpose of this presentation is to briefly summarize the toxicology and current state of biomarker development for commercially important mycotoxins with a focus on their potential usefulness in farm animals. Combining information about known exposure, clinical indicators and biomarkers will pro...

  2. Comparing biomarkers as principal surrogate endpoints.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Gilbert, Peter B

    2011-12-01

    Recently a new definition of surrogate endpoint, the "principal surrogate," was proposed based on causal associations between treatment effects on the biomarker and on the clinical endpoint. Despite its appealing interpretation, limited research has been conducted to evaluate principal surrogates, and existing methods focus on risk models that consider a single biomarker. How to compare principal surrogate value of biomarkers or general risk models that consider multiple biomarkers remains an open research question. We propose to characterize a marker or risk model's principal surrogate value based on the distribution of risk difference between interventions. In addition, we propose a novel summary measure (the standardized total gain) that can be used to compare markers and to assess the incremental value of a new marker. We develop a semiparametric estimated-likelihood method to estimate the joint surrogate value of multiple biomarkers. This method accommodates two-phase sampling of biomarkers and is more widely applicable than existing nonparametric methods by incorporating continuous baseline covariates to predict the biomarker(s), and is more robust than existing parametric methods by leaving the error distribution of markers unspecified. The methodology is illustrated using a simulated example set and a real data set in the context of HIV vaccine trials. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  3. Permethrin Exposure Dosimetry: Biomarkers and Modifiable Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    the effect of body weight/ BMI and total energy expenditure on permethrin absorption and dose, as determined by measurement of urinary biomarkers...body weight/ BMI and total energy expenditure on permethrin absorption and dose, as determined by measurement of urinary biomarkers (3PBA and cis- and

  4. DNA Methylation Biomarkers: Cancer and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Mikeska, Thomas; Craig, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are naturally-occurring characteristics by which a particular pathological process or disease can be identified or monitored. They can reflect past environmental exposures, predict disease onset or course, or determine a patient’s response to therapy. Epigenetic changes are such characteristics, with most epigenetic biomarkers discovered to date based on the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation. Many tissue types are suitable for the discovery of DNA methylation biomarkers including cell-based samples such as blood and tumor material and cell-free DNA samples such as plasma. DNA methylation biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive power are already in clinical trials or in a clinical setting for cancer. Outside cancer, strong evidence that complex disease originates in early life is opening up exciting new avenues for the detection of DNA methylation biomarkers for adverse early life environment and for estimation of future disease risk. However, there are a number of limitations to overcome before such biomarkers reach the clinic. Nevertheless, DNA methylation biomarkers have great potential to contribute to personalized medicine throughout life. We review the current state of play for DNA methylation biomarkers, discuss the barriers that must be crossed on the way to implementation in a clinical setting, and predict their future use for human disease. PMID:25229548

  5. SuperPhy: predictive genomics for the bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Matthew D; Laing, Chad R; Manji, Akiff; Kruczkiewicz, Peter; Taboada, Eduardo N; Gannon, Victor P J

    2016-04-12

    Predictive genomics is the translation of raw genome sequence data into a phenotypic assessment of the organism. For bacterial pathogens, these phenotypes can range from environmental survivability, to the severity of human disease. Significant progress has been made in the development of generic tools for genomic analyses that are broadly applicable to all microorganisms; however, a fundamental missing component is the ability to analyze genomic data in the context of organism-specific phenotypic knowledge, which has been accumulated from decades of research and can provide a meaningful interpretation of genome sequence data. In this study, we present SuperPhy, an online predictive genomics platform ( http://lfz.corefacility.ca/superphy/ ) for Escherichia coli. The platform integrates the analytical tools and genome sequence data for all publicly available E. coli genomes and facilitates the upload of new genome sequences from users under public or private settings. SuperPhy provides real-time analyses of thousands of genome sequences with results that are understandable and useful to a wide community, including those in the fields of clinical medicine, epidemiology, ecology, and evolution. SuperPhy includes identification of: 1) virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants 2) statistical associations between genotypes, biomarkers, geospatial distribution, host, source, and phylogenetic clade; 3) the identification of biomarkers for groups of genomes on the based presence/absence of specific genomic regions and single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 4) in silico Shiga-toxin subtype. SuperPhy is a predictive genomics platform that attempts to provide an essential link between the vast amounts of genome information currently being generated and phenotypic knowledge in an organism-specific context.

  6. Validation of Biomarker Proteins Using Reverse Capture Protein Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Jozwik, Catherine; Eidelman, Ofer; Starr, Joshua; Pollard, Harvey B; Srivastava, Meera

    2017-01-01

    Genomics has revolutionized large-scale and high-throughput sequencing and has led to the discovery of thousands of new proteins. Protein chip technology is emerging as a miniaturized and highly parallel platform that is suited to rapid, simultaneous screening of large numbers of proteins and the analysis of various protein-binding activities, enzyme substrate relationships, and posttranslational modifications. Specifically, reverse capture protein microarrays provide the most appropriate platform for identifying low-abundance, disease-specific biomarker proteins in a sea of high-abundance proteins from biological fluids such as blood, serum, plasma, saliva, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid as well as tissues and cells obtained by biopsy. Samples from hundreds of patients can be spotted in serial dilutions on many replicate glass slides. Each slide can then be probed with one specific antibody to the biomarker of interest. That antibody's titer can then be determined quantitatively for each patient, allowing for the statistical assessment and validation of the diagnostic or prognostic utility of that particular antigen. As the technology matures and the availability of validated, platform-compatible antibodies increases, the platform will move further into the desirable realm of discovery science for detecting and quantitating low-abundance signaling proteins. In this chapter, we describe methods for the successful application of the reverse capture protein microarray platform for which we have made substantial contributions to the development and application of this method, particularly in the use of body fluids other than serum/plasma.

  7. Tamoxifen resistance: from cell culture experiments towards novel biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Nass, Norbert; Kalinski, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Tamoxifen is still the most frequently used antiestrogen for the treatment of patients with premenopausal, estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. However, in 20-30% of these cases, tamoxifen therapy fails due to an existing or developing resistance. The prediction of tamoxifen resistance by appropriate biomarker analysis and the development of novel therapies for tamoxifen resistance in premenopausal breast cancer is, therefore, an important goal of ongoing research. Tamoxifen resistance is associated with altered estrogen receptor expression especially on the plasma membrane, including the alternative G-protein coupled receptor GPR-30 (GPER) and estrogen receptor splice products, such as ERα36. Tamoxifen resistant cells often use alternative pathways to promote proliferation in the absence of genomic estrogen signaling. These pathways involve the epidermal growth factor EGF, the inflammation associated transcription factor NF-κB- and the IGF-1 pathway. Tamoxifen resistant mamma carcinoma cell lines are useful models to understand tamoxifen resistance in-vitro and to search for prognostic or predictive biomarkers. Furthermore, such cell lines can be used to identify potential targets for therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumour biomarkers: homeostasis as a novel prognostic indicator

    PubMed Central

    Falco, Michela; Palma, Giuseppe; Rea, Domenica; De Biase, Davide; Scala, Stefania; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Facchini, Gaetano; Perdonà, Sisto; Barbieri, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘personalized medicine’ refers to a medical procedure that consists in the grouping of patients based on their predicted individual response to therapy or risk of disease. In oncologic patients, a ‘tailored’ therapeutic approach may potentially improve their survival and well-being by not only reducing the tumour, but also enhancing therapeutic response and minimizing the adverse effects. Diagnostic tests are often used to select appropriate and optimal therapies that rely both on patient genome and other molecular/cellular analysis. Several studies have shown that lifestyle and environmental factors can influence the epigenome and that epigenetic events may be involved in carcinogenesis. Thus, in addition to traditional biomarkers, epigenetic factors are raising considerable interest, because they could potentially be used as an excellent tool for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we summarize the role of conventional cancer genetic biomarkers and their association with epigenomics. Furthermore, we will focus on the so-called ‘homeostatic biomarkers’ that result from the physiological response to cancer, emphasizing the concept that an altered ‘new’ homeostasis influence not only tumour environment, but also the whole organism. PMID:27927793

  9. Pathway mapping and development of disease-specific biomarkers: protein-based network biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Zhu, Zhitu; Zhu, Yichun; Wang, Jian; Mei, Yunqing; Cheng, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    It is known that a disease is rarely a consequence of an abnormality of a single gene, but reflects the interactions of various processes in a complex network. Annotated molecular networks offer new opportunities to understand diseases within a systems biology framework and provide an excellent substrate for network-based identification of biomarkers. The network biomarkers and dynamic network biomarkers (DNBs) represent new types of biomarkers with protein–protein or gene–gene interactions that can be monitored and evaluated at different stages and time-points during development of disease. Clinical bioinformatics as a new way to combine clinical measurements and signs with human tissue-generated bioinformatics is crucial to translate biomarkers into clinical application, validate the disease specificity, and understand the role of biomarkers in clinical settings. In this article, the recent advances and developments on network biomarkers and DNBs are comprehensively reviewed. How network biomarkers help a better understanding of molecular mechanism of diseases, the advantages and constraints of network biomarkers for clinical application, clinical bioinformatics as a bridge to the development of diseases-specific, stage-specific, severity-specific and therapy predictive biomarkers, and the potentials of network biomarkers are also discussed. PMID:25560835

  10. Using Cardiac Biomarkers in Veterinary Practice.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    Blood-based assays for various cardiac biomarkers can assist in the diagnosis of heart disease in dogs and cats. The two most common markers are cardiac troponin-I and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Biomarker assays can assist in differentiating cardiac from noncardiac causes of respiratory signs and detection of preclinical cardiomyopathy. Increasingly, studies indicate that cardiac biomarker testing can help assess the risk of morbidity and mortality in animals with heart disease. Usage of cardiac biomarker testing in clinical practice relies on proper patient selection, correct interpretation of test results, and incorporation of biomarker testing into existing diagnostic methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using cardiac biomarkers in veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Mark A

    2013-11-01

    Blood-based assays for various cardiac biomarkers can assist in the diagnosis of heart disease in dogs and cats. The two most common markers are cardiac troponin-I and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Biomarker assays can assist in differentiating cardiac from noncardiac causes of respiratory signs and detection of preclinical cardiomyopathy. Increasingly, studies indicate that cardiac biomarker testing can help assess the risk of morbidity and mortality in animals with heart disease. Usage of cardiac biomarker testing in clinical practice relies on proper patient selection, correct interpretation of test results, and incorporation of biomarker testing into existing diagnostic methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Lauren M; Wild, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is enriched in brain-derived components and represents an accessible and appealing means of interrogating the CNS milieu to study neurodegenerative diseases and identify biomarkers to facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. Many such CSF biomarkers have been proposed for Huntington's disease (HD) but none has been validated for clinical trial use. Across many studies proposing dozens of biomarker candidates, there is a notable lack of statistical power, consistency, rigor and validation. Here we review proposed CSF biomarkers including neurotransmitters, transglutaminase activity, kynurenine pathway metabolites, oxidative stress markers, inflammatory markers, neuroendocrine markers, protein markers of neuronal death, proteomic approaches and mutant huntingtin protein itself. We reflect on the need for large-scale, standardized CSF collections with detailed phenotypic data to validate and qualify much-needed CSF biomarkers for clinical trial use in HD.

  13. RECENT ADVANCES IN BIOMARKERS IN SEVERE BURNS.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Castilla, Mireia; Roca, Oriol; Masclans, Joan R; Barret, Joan P

    2016-02-01

    The pathophysiology of burn injuries is tremendously complex. A thorough understanding is essential for correct treatment of the burned area and also to limit the appearance of organ dysfunction, which, in fact, is a key determinant of morbidity and mortality. In this context, research into biomarkers may play a major role. Biomarkers have traditionally been considered an important area of medical research: the measurement of certain biomarkers has led to a better understanding of pathophysiology, while others have been used either to assess the effectiveness of specific treatments or for prognostic purposes. Research into biomarkers may help to improve the prognosis of patients with severe burn injury. The aim of the present clinical review is to discuss new evidence of the value of biomarkers in this setting.

  14. The Indian Consensus Document on cardiac biomarker.

    PubMed

    Satyamurthy, I; Dalal, Jamshed J; Sawhney, J P S; Mohan, J C; Chogle, Shubha A; Desai, Nagaraj; Sathe, Shireesh P; Maisel, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances, the diagnosis and management of heart failure evades the clinicians. The etiology of congestive heart failure (CHF) in the Indian scenario comprises of coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. With better insights into the pathophysiology of CHF, biomarkers have evolved rapidly and received diagnostic and prognostic value. In CHF biomarkers prove as measures of the extent of pathophysiological derangement; examples include biomarkers of myocyte necrosis, myocardial remodeling, neurohormonal activation, etc. In CHF biomarkers act as indicators for the presence, degree of severity and prognosis of the disease, they may be employed in combination with the present conventional clinical assessments. These make the biomarkers feasible options against the present expensive measurements and may provide clinical benefits. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic biomarkers in cancer.

    PubMed

    Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Montezuma, Diana; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Growing cancer incidence and mortality worldwide demands development of accurate biomarkers to perfect detection, diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring. Urologic (prostate, bladder, kidney), lung, breast and colorectal cancers are the most common and despite major advances in their characterization, this has seldom translated into biomarkers amenable for clinical practice. Epigenetic alterations are innovative cancer biomarkers owing to stability, frequency, reversibility and accessibility in body fluids, entailing great potential of assay development to assist in patient management. Several studies identified putative epigenetic cancer biomarkers, some of which have been commercialized. However, large multicenter validation studies are required to foster translation to the clinics. Herein we review the most promising epigenetic detection, diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for the most common cancers.

  16. Genome Maps, a new generation genome browser.

    PubMed

    Medina, Ignacio; Salavert, Francisco; Sanchez, Rubén; de Maria, Alejandro; Alonso, Roberto; Escobar, Pablo; Bleda, Marta; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2013-07-01

    Genome browsers have gained importance as more genomes and related genomic information become available. However, the increase of information brought about by new generation sequencing technologies is, at the same time, causing a subtle but continuous decrease in the efficiency of conventional genome browsers. Here, we present Genome Maps, a genome browser that implements an innovative model of data transfer and management. The program uses highly efficient technologies from the new HTML5 standard, such as scalable vector graphics, that optimize workloads at both server and client sides and ensure future scalability. Thus, data management and representation are entirely carried out by the browser, without the need of any Java Applet, Flash or other plug-in technology installation. Relevant biological data on genes, transcripts, exons, regulatory features, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, karyotype and so forth, are imported from web services and are available as tracks. In addition, several DAS servers are already included in Genome Maps. As a novelty, this web-based genome browser allows the local upload of huge genomic data files (e.g. VCF or BAM) that can be dynamically visualized in real time at the client side, thus facilitating the management of medical data affected by privacy restrictions. Finally, Genome Maps can easily be integrated in any web application by including only a few lines of code. Genome Maps is an open source collaborative initiative available in the GitHub repository (https://github.com/compbio-bigdata-viz/genome-maps). Genome Maps is available at: http://www.genomemaps.org.

  17. Genome Maps, a new generation genome browser

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Ignacio; Salavert, Francisco; Sanchez, Rubén; de Maria, Alejandro; Alonso, Roberto; Escobar, Pablo; Bleda, Marta; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Genome browsers have gained importance as more genomes and related genomic information become available. However, the increase of information brought about by new generation sequencing technologies is, at the same time, causing a subtle but continuous decrease in the efficiency of conventional genome browsers. Here, we present Genome Maps, a genome browser that implements an innovative model of data transfer and management. The program uses highly efficient technologies from the new HTML5 standard, such as scalable vector graphics, that optimize workloads at both server and client sides and ensure future scalability. Thus, data management and representation are entirely carried out by the browser, without the need of any Java Applet, Flash or other plug-in technology installation. Relevant biological data on genes, transcripts, exons, regulatory features, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, karyotype and so forth, are imported from web services and are available as tracks. In addition, several DAS servers are already included in Genome Maps. As a novelty, this web-based genome browser allows the local upload of huge genomic data files (e.g. VCF or BAM) that can be dynamically visualized in real time at the client side, thus facilitating the management of medical data affected by privacy restrictions. Finally, Genome Maps can easily be integrated in any web application by including only a few lines of code. Genome Maps is an open source collaborative initiative available in the GitHub repository (https://github.com/compbio-bigdata-viz/genome-maps). Genome Maps is available at: http://www.genomemaps.org. PMID:23748955

  18. How many genomics targets can a portfolio afford?

    PubMed

    Betz, Ulrich A K

    2005-08-01

    The pharmaceutical industry can look back at a history of successful innovations. Although genomics technologies have provided drug discovery pipelines with a plethora of new potential drug targets, solid target validation is crucial to avoiding high attrition rates. Biomarkers for patient stratification and approaches for personalized medicine will further help to reduce the risk associated with new targets. To achieve an overall risk balance, portfolios have to be supplemented with precedented targets, me-too approaches and line extensions of existing drugs. However, capitalizing on genomics investments and working on unprecedented targets is essential for a continuous stream of innovative drugs.

  19. Break Breast Cancer Addiction by CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haitao; Jaeger, MariaLynn; Walker, Averi; Wei, Daniel; Leiker, Katie; Weitao, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading diagnosed cancer for women globally. Evolution of breast cancer in tumorigenesis, metastasis and treatment resistance appears to be driven by the aberrant gene expression and protein degradation encoded by the cancer genomes. The uncontrolled cancer growth relies on these cellular events, thus constituting the cancerous programs and rendering the addiction towards them. These programs are likely the potential anticancer biomarkers for Personalized Medicine of breast cancer. This review intends to delineate the impact of the CRSPR/Cas-mediated genome editing in identification and validation of these anticancer biomarkers. It reviews the progress in three aspects of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the breast cancer genomes: Somatic genome editing, transcription and protein degradation addictions. PMID:29344267

  20. Break Breast Cancer Addiction by CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haitao; Jaeger, MariaLynn; Walker, Averi; Wei, Daniel; Leiker, Katie; Weitao, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading diagnosed cancer for women globally. Evolution of breast cancer in tumorigenesis, metastasis and treatment resistance appears to be driven by the aberrant gene expression and protein degradation encoded by the cancer genomes. The uncontrolled cancer growth relies on these cellular events, thus constituting the cancerous programs and rendering the addiction towards them. These programs are likely the potential anticancer biomarkers for Personalized Medicine of breast cancer. This review intends to delineate the impact of the CRSPR/Cas-mediated genome editing in identification and validation of these anticancer biomarkers. It reviews the progress in three aspects of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the breast cancer genomes: Somatic genome editing, transcription and protein degradation addictions.

  1. A Decision Support Framework for Genomically Informed Investigational Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amber; Holla, Vijaykumar; Bailey, Ann Marie; Brusco, Lauren; Chen, Ken; Routbort, Mark; Patel, Keyur P.; Zeng, Jia; Kopetz, Scott; Davies, Michael A.; Piha-Paul, Sarina A.; Hong, David S.; Eterovic, Agda Karina; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Broaddus, Russell; Bernstam, Elmer V.; Shaw, Kenna R.; Mendelsohn, John; Mills, Gordon B.

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly improving understanding of molecular oncology, emerging novel therapeutics, and increasingly available and affordable next-generation sequencing have created an opportunity for delivering genomically informed personalized cancer therapy. However, to implement genomically informed therapy requires that a clinician interpret the patient’s molecular profile, including molecular characterization of the tumor and the patient’s germline DNA. In this Commentary, we review existing data and tools for precision oncology and present a framework for reviewing the available biomedical literature on therapeutic implications of genomic alterations. Genomic alterations, including mutations, insertions/deletions, fusions, and copy number changes, need to be curated in terms of the likelihood that they alter the function of a “cancer gene” at the level of a specific variant in order to discriminate so-called “drivers” from “passengers.” Alterations that are targetable either directly or indirectly with approved or investigational therapies are potentially “actionable.” At this time, evidence linking predictive biomarkers to therapies is strong for only a few genomic markers in the context of specific cancer types. For these genomic alterations in other diseases and for other genomic alterations, the clinical data are either absent or insufficient to support routine clinical implementation of biomarker-based therapy. However, there is great interest in optimally matching patients to early-phase clinical trials. Thus, we need accessible, comprehensive, and frequently updated knowledge bases that describe genomic changes and their clinical implications, as well as continued education of clinicians and patients. PMID:25863335

  2. Molecular biomarkers in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Elimova, Elena; Wadhwa, Roopma; Shiozaki, Hironori; Sudo, Kazuki; Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Badgwell, Brian D; Das, Prajnan; Matamoros, Aurelio; Song, Shumei; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2015-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) represents a serious health problem on a global scale. Despite some recent advances in the field, the prognosis in metastatic GC remains poor. Even in localized disease the adjunctive therapies improve overall survival (OS) by only approximately 10%. A better understanding of molecular biology, which would lead to improved treatment options, is needed and is the basis for this review. Many potential biomarkers of prognostic significance have been identified, including ALDH, SHH, Sox9, HER2, EGFR, VEGF, Hippo/YAP, and MET. However, inhibition of only HER2 protein has led to a modest survival benefit. A new approach to GC treatment, which is a disease influenced by inflammation, is the exploitation of the immune system to fight disease. Two interesting targets/prognostic markers that bear further investigation in GC are PD1 and PDL, particularly given their success in the treatment of other inflammation/immune-associated malignancies.

  3. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    SciT

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functionalmore » genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here« less

  4. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    SciT

    Grigoriev, Igor

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supportedmore » by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.« less

  5. Clinical significance of BRAF non-V600E mutations on the therapeutic effects of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody treatment in patients with pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer: the Biomarker Research for anti-EGFR monoclonal Antibodies by Comprehensive Cancer genomics (BREAC) study.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Eiji; Yoshino, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Muro, Kei; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Nishina, Tomohiro; Yuki, Satoshi; Shitara, Kohei; Bando, Hideaki; Mimaki, Sachiyo; Nakai, Chikako; Matsushima, Koutatsu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Akagi, Kiwamu; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Nomura, Shogo; Fujii, Satoshi; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Sugiyama, Masaya; Nishida, Nao; Mizokami, Masashi; Koh, Yasuhiro; Abe, Yukiko; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2017-11-07

    Patients with BRAF V600E -mutated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) have a poorer prognosis as well as resistance to anti-EGFR antibodies. However, it is unclear whether BRAF mutations other than BRAF V600E (BRAF non-V600E mutations) contribute to anti-EGFR antibody resistance. This study was composed of exploratory and inference cohorts. Candidate biomarkers identified by whole exome sequencing from super-responders and nonresponders in the exploratory cohort were validated by targeted resequencing for patients who received anti-EGFR antibody in the inference cohort. In the exploratory cohort, 31 candidate biomarkers, including KRAS/NRAS/BRAF mutations, were identified. Targeted resequencing of 150 patients in the inference cohort revealed 40 patients with RAS (26.7%), 9 patients with BRAF V600E (6.0%), and 7 patients with BRAF non-V600E mutations (4.7%), respectively. The response rates in RAS, BRAF V600E , and BRAF non-V600E were lower than those in RAS/BRAF wild-type (2.5%, 0%, and 0% vs 31.9%). The median PFS in BRAF non-V600E mutations was 2.4 months, similar to that in RAS or BRAF V600E mutations (2.1 and 1.6 months) but significantly worse than that in wild-type RAS/BRAF (5.9 months). Although BRAF non-V600E mutations identified were a rare and unestablished molecular subtype, certain BRAF non-V600E mutations might contribute to a lesser benefit of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody treatment.

  6. The role of quantitative mass spectrometry in the discovery of pancreatic cancer biomarkers for translational science

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, it has become evident that genetic changes alone are not sufficient to understand most disease processes including pancreatic cancer. Genome sequencing has revealed a complex set of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer such as point mutations, chromosomal losses, gene amplifications and telomere shortening that drive cancerous growth through specific signaling pathways. Proteome-based approaches are important complements to genomic data and provide crucial information of the target driver molecules and their post-translational modifications. By applying quantitative mass spectrometry, this is an alternative way to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis and personalized medicine. We review the current quantitative mass spectrometric technologies and analyses that have been developed and applied in the last decade in the context of pancreatic cancer. Examples of candidate biomarkers that have been identified from these pancreas studies include among others, asporin, CD9, CXC chemokine ligand 7, fibronectin 1, galectin-1, gelsolin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, metalloproteinase inhibitor 1, stromal cell derived factor 4, and transforming growth factor beta-induced protein. Many of these proteins are involved in various steps in pancreatic tumor progression including cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, metastasis, immune response and angiogenesis. These new protein candidates may provide essential information for the development of protein diagnostics and targeted therapies. We further argue that new strategies must be advanced and established for the integration of proteomic, transcriptomic and genomic data, in order to enhance biomarker translation. Large scale studies with meta data processing will pave the way for novel and unexpected correlations within pancreatic cancer, that will benefit the patient, with targeted treatment. PMID:24708694

  7. CBD: a biomarker database for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueli; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Cao, Yang; Ye, Benchen; Peng, Qiliang; Liu, Xingyun; Shen, Bairong; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) biomarker database (CBD) was established based on 870 identified CRC biomarkers and their relevant information from 1115 original articles in PubMed published from 1986 to 2017. In this version of the CBD, CRC biomarker data were collected, sorted, displayed and analysed. The CBD with the credible contents as a powerful and time-saving tool provide more comprehensive and accurate information for further CRC biomarker research. The CBD was constructed under MySQL server. HTML, PHP and JavaScript languages have been used to implement the web interface. The Apache was selected as HTTP server. All of these web operations were implemented under the Windows system. The CBD could provide to users the multiple individual biomarker information and categorized into the biological category, source and application of biomarkers; the experiment methods, results, authors and publication resources; the research region, the average age of cohort, gender, race, the number of tumours, tumour location and stage. We only collect data from the articles with clear and credible results to prove the biomarkers are useful in the diagnosis, treatment or prognosis of CRC. The CBD can also provide a professional platform to researchers who are interested in CRC research to communicate, exchange their research ideas and further design high-quality research in CRC. They can submit their new findings to our database via the submission page and communicate with us in the CBD.Database URL: http://sysbio.suda.edu.cn/CBD/.

  8. Tissue-based biomarkers in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Clinton, Timothy N.; Bagrodia, Aditya; Lotan, Yair; Margulis, Vitaly; Raj, Ganesh V; Woldu, Solomon L

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Existing risk stratification tools based on standard clinlicopathologic variables (prostate specific antigen [PSA], Gleason score, and tumor stage) provide a modest degree of predictive ability. Advances in high-throughput sequencing has led to the development of several novel tissue-based biomarkers that can improve prognostication in prostate cancer management. Areas Covered The authors review commercially-available, tissue-based biomarker assays that improve upon existing risk-stratification tools in several areas of prostate cancer management, including the appropriateness of active surveillance and aiding in decision making regarding the use of adjuvant therapy. Additionally, some of the obstacles to the widespread adoption of these biomarkers and discuss several investigational sources of new biomarkers are discussed. Expert Commentary Work is ongoing to answer pertinent clinical questions in prostate cancer management including which patients should undergo biopsy, active surveillance, receive adjuvant therapy, and what systemic therapy is best in the first-line. Incorporation into novel biomarkers may allow for the incorporation of a ‘personalized’ approach to management. Further validation will be required and questions of cost must be considered before wide scale adoption of these biomarkers. Tumor heterogeneity may impose a ceiling on the prognostic ability of biomarkers using currently available techniques. PMID:29226251

  9. Possible and False Biomarkers from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.

    2004-01-01

    The Search for life in the Solar System is one of NASA's main goals for the coming decade. We may never observe alien life directly; we or our robotic craft may always be removed from it by many years, or meters of crust. If we do find evidence of Life elsewhere in the Solar System it will probably be in form of chemical biomarkers, quintessentially biological molecules that indicate the presence of micro-organisms. What molecules would be truly indicative of alien life? Chlorophyll fragments, which are often used by geochemists are probably far too specific. Simpler molecules, such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleo-bases might seem to be biomarkers, but they can form non-biotically in space. Alkyl substituted aromatics in ALH 84001 have been invoked as biomarkers, but they are not strong evidence in and of themselves. Understanding the range of nonbiological organic molecules which could act as false biomarkers in space is a prerequisite for any reasonable search for true biomarkers on other worlds. When simple organics arrive at the surface of a body like Europa, either from below or from space, how long do they survive and what do they make? How can we distinguish these from real biomarkers? In this talk I will present some ideas about what might be useful qualities to consider in a potential biomarker, and will ask for advice from the attendant geochemists.

  10. CBD: a biomarker database for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueli; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Ye, Benchen; Peng, Qiliang; Liu, Xingyun; Shen, Bairong; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) biomarker database (CBD) was established based on 870 identified CRC biomarkers and their relevant information from 1115 original articles in PubMed published from 1986 to 2017. In this version of the CBD, CRC biomarker data were collected, sorted, displayed and analysed. The CBD with the credible contents as a powerful and time-saving tool provide more comprehensive and accurate information for further CRC biomarker research. The CBD was constructed under MySQL server. HTML, PHP and JavaScript languages have been used to implement the web interface. The Apache was selected as HTTP server. All of these web operations were implemented under the Windows system. The CBD could provide to users the multiple individual biomarker information and categorized into the biological category, source and application of biomarkers; the experiment methods, results, authors and publication resources; the research region, the average age of cohort, gender, race, the number of tumours, tumour location and stage. We only collect data from the articles with clear and credible results to prove the biomarkers are useful in the diagnosis, treatment or prognosis of CRC. The CBD can also provide a professional platform to researchers who are interested in CRC research to communicate, exchange their research ideas and further design high-quality research in CRC. They can submit their new findings to our database via the submission page and communicate with us in the CBD. Database URL: http://sysbio.suda.edu.cn/CBD/ PMID:29846545

  11. Biomarkers for Cystic Fibrosis Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Muhlebach, Marianne S.; Clancy, JP; Heltshe, Sonya L.; Ziady, Assem; Kelley, Tom; Accurso, Frank; Pilewski, Joseph; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Joseloff, Elizabeth; Sagel, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To provide a review of the status of biomarkers in cystic fibrosis drug development, including regulatory definitions and considerations, a summary of biomarkers in current use with supportive data, current gaps, and future needs. Methods Biomarkers are considered across several areas of CF drug development, including cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulation, infection, and inflammation. Results Sweat chloride, nasal potential difference, and intestinal current measurements have been standardized and examined in the context of multicenter trials to quantify CFTR function. Detection and quantification of pathogenic bacteria in CF respiratory cultures (e.g.: Pseudomonas aeruginosa) is commonly used in early phase antimicrobial clinical trials, and to monitor safety of therapeutic interventions. Sputum (e.g.: neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, calprotectin) and blood biomarkers (e.g.: C reactive protein, calprotectin, serum amyloid A) have had variable success in detecting response to inflammatory treatments. Conclusions Biomarkers are used throughout the drug development process in CF, and many have been used in early phase clinical trials to provide proof of concept, detect drug bioactivity, and inform dosing for later-phase studies. Advances in the precision of current biomarkers, and the identification of new biomarkers with ‘omics-based technologies, are needed to accelerate CF drug development. PMID:28215711

  12. Genomic expression patterns in medication overuse headaches

    PubMed Central

    Hershey, Andrew D; Burdine, Danny; Kabbouche, Marielle A; Powers, Scott W

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic daily headache (CDH) and chronic migraine (CM) are one of the most frequent problems encountered in neurology, are often difficult to treat, and frequently complicated by medication-overuse headache (MOH). Proper recognition of MOH may alter treatment outcome and prevent long term disability. Objective This study identifies the unique genomic expression pattern MOH that respond to cessation of the overused medication. Methods Baseline occurrence of MOH and typical pattern of response to medication cessation were measured from a large database. Whole blood samples from patients with CM with or without MOH were obtained and their genomic profile was assessed. Affymetrix human U133 plus2 arrays were used to examine the genomic expression patterns prior to treatment and 6–12 weeks later. Headache characterisation and response to treatment based on headache frequency and disability were compared. Results Of 1311 patients reporting daily or continuous headaches, 513 (39.1%) reported overusing analgesic medication. At follow-up, 44.5% had a 50% or greater reduction in headache frequency, while 41.6% had no change. Blood genomic expression patterns were obtained on 33 patients with 19 (57.6%) overusing analgesic medication with a unique genomic expression pattern in MOH that responded to cessation of analgesics. Gene ontology of these samples indicated a significant number were involved with brain and immunological tissues, including multiple signalling pathways and apoptosis. Conclusions Blood genomic patterns can accurately identify MOH patients that respond to medication cessation. These results suggest that MOH involves a unique molecular biology pathway that can be identified with a specific biomarker. PMID:20974594

  13. Sequencing-based breast cancer diagnostics as an alternative to routine biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Mattias; Klevebring, Daniel; Lindberg, Johan; Ivansson, Emma; Rosin, Gustaf; Kis, Lorand; Celebioglu, Fuat; Fredriksson, Irma; Czene, Kamila; Frisell, Jan; Hartman, Johan; Bergh, Jonas; Grönberg, Henrik

    2016-11-30

    Sequencing-based breast cancer diagnostics have the potential to replace routine biomarkers and provide molecular characterization that enable personalized precision medicine. Here we investigate the concordance between sequencing-based and routine diagnostic biomarkers and to what extent tumor sequencing contributes clinically actionable information. We applied DNA- and RNA-sequencing to characterize tumors from 307 breast cancer patients with replication in up to 739 patients. We developed models to predict status of routine biomarkers (ER, HER2,Ki-67, histological grade) from sequencing data. Non-routine biomarkers, including mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and ERBB2(HER2), and additional clinically actionable somatic alterations were also investigated. Concordance with routine diagnostic biomarkers was high for ER status (AUC = 0.95;AUC(replication) = 0.97) and HER2 status (AUC = 0.97;AUC(replication) = 0.92). The transcriptomic grade model enabled classification of histological grade 1 and histological grade 3 tumors with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98;AUC(replication) = 0.94). Clinically actionable mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and ERBB2(HER2) were detected in 5.5% of patients, while 53% had genomic alterations matching ongoing or concluded breast cancer studies. Sequencing-based molecular profiling can be applied as an alternative to histopathology to determine ER and HER2 status, in addition to providing improved tumor grading and clinically actionable mutations and molecular subtypes. Our results suggest that sequencing-based breast cancer diagnostics in a near future can replace routine biomarkers.

  14. Integrating plant and animal biology for the search of novel DNA damage biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Nikitaki, Zacharenia; Holá, Marcela; Donà, Mattia; Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Angelis, Karel J; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Macovei, Anca; Balestrazzi, Alma

    Eukaryotic genome surveillance is dependent on the multiple, highly coordinated network functions of the DNA damage response (DDR). Highlighted conserved features of DDR in plants and animals represent a challenging opportunity to develop novel interdisciplinary investigations aimed at expanding the sets of DNA damage biomarkers currently available for radiation exposure monitoring (REM) in environmental and biomedical applications. In this review, common and divergent features of the most relevant DDR players in animals and plants are described, including the intriguing example of the plant and animal kingdom-specific master regulators SOG1 (suppressor of gamma response) and p53. The potential of chromatin remodelers as novel predictive biomarkers of DNA damage is considered since these highly evolutionarily conserved proteins provide a docking platform for the DNA repair machinery. The constraints of conventional REM biomarkers can be overcome using biomarkers identified with the help of the pool provided by high-throughput techniques. The complexity of radiation-responsive animal and plant transcriptomes and their usefulness as sources of novel REM biomarkers are discussed, focusing on ionizing (IR) and UV-radiation. The possible advantages resulting from the exploitation of plants as sources of novel DNA damage biomarkers for monitoring the response to radiation-mediated genotoxic stress are listed. Plants could represent an ideal system for the functional characterization of knockout mutations in DDR genes which compromise cell survival in animals. However, the pronounced differences between plant and animal cells need to be carefully considered in order to avoid any misleading interpretations. Radioresistant plant-based systems might be useful to explore the molecular bases of LD (low dose)/LDR (low dose rate) responses since nowadays it is extremely difficult to perform an accurate assessment of LD/LDR risk to human health. To overcome these constraints

  15. Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice

    SciT

    Gordon, Terry

    2013-01-25

    Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in whichmore » the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also

  16. Biomarkers for equine joint injury and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    McIlwraith, C Wayne; Kawcak, Christopher E; Frisbie, David D; Little, Christopher B; Clegg, Peter D; Peffers, Mandy J; Karsdal, Morten A; Ekman, Stina; Laverty, Sheila; Slayden, Richard A; Sandell, Linda J; Lohmander, L S; Kraus, Virginia B

    2018-03-01

    We report the results of a symposium aimed at identifying validated biomarkers that can be used to complement clinical observations for diagnosis and prognosis of joint injury leading to equine osteoarthritis (OA). Biomarkers might also predict pre-fracture change that could lead to catastrophic bone failure in equine athletes. The workshop was attended by leading scientists in the fields of equine and human musculoskeletal biomarkers to enable cross-disciplinary exchange and improve knowledge in both. Detailed proceedings with strategic planning was written, added to, edited and referenced to develop this manuscript. The most recent information from work in equine and human osteoarthritic biomarkers was accumulated, including the use of personalized healthcare to stratify OA phenotypes, transcriptome analysis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscal injuries in the human knee. The spectrum of "wet" biomarker assays that are antibody based that have achieved usefulness in both humans and horses, imaging biomarkers and the role they can play in equine and human OA was discussed. Prediction of musculoskeletal injury in the horse remains a challenge, and the potential usefulness of spectroscopy, metabolomics, proteomics, and development of biobanks to classify biomarkers in different stages of equine and human OA were reviewed. The participants concluded that new information and studies in equine musculoskeletal biomarkers have potential translational value for humans and vice versa. OA is equally important in humans and horses, and the welfare issues associated with catastrophic musculoskeletal injury in horses add further emphasis to the need for good validated biomarkers in the horse. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:823-831, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Biomarkers of exposure, sensitivity and disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: This review is to evaluate the use of biomarkers as an indication of past exposure to radiation or other environmental insults, individual sensitivity and risk for the development of late occurring disease. OVERVIEW: Biomarkers can be subdivided depending on their applications. Markers of exposure and dose can be used to reconstruct and predict past accidental or occupational exposures when limited or no physical measurements were available. Markers of risk or susceptibility can help identify sensitivity individuals that are at increased risk for development of spontaneous disease and may help predict the increased risk in sensitive individuals associated with environmental or therapeutic radiation exposures. Markers of disease represent the initial cellular or molecular changes that occur during disease development. Each of these types of biomarkers serves a unique purpose. OUTLINE: This paper concentrates on biomarkers of dose and exposure and provides a brief review of biomarkers of sensitivity and disease. The review of biomarkers of dose and exposure will demonstrate the usefulness of biomarkers in evaluation of physical factors associated with radiation exposure, such as LET, doserate and dose distribution. It will also evaluate the use of biomarkers to establish relationships that exist between exposure parameters such as energy deposition, environmental concentration of radioactive materials, alpha traversals and dose. In addition, the importance of biological factors on the magnitude of the biomarker response will be reviewed. Some of the factors evaluated will be the influence of species, tissue, cell types and genetic background. The review will demonstrate that markers of sensitivity and disease often have little usefulness in dose-reconstruction and, by the same token, many markers of dose or exposure may not be applicable for prediction of sensitivity or risk.

  18. Biomarkers in DILI: One More Step Forward

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Stephens, Camilla; Andrade, Raúl J.; Lucena, M. Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Despite being relatively rare, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a serious condition, both for the individual patient due to the risk of acute liver failure, and for the drug development industry and regulatory agencies due to associations with drug development attritions, black box warnings, and postmarketing withdrawals. A major limitation in DILI diagnosis and prediction is the current lack of specific biomarkers. Despite refined usage of traditional liver biomarkers in DILI, reliable disease outcome predictions are still difficult to make. These limitations have driven the growing interest in developing new more sensitive and specific DILI biomarkers, which can improve early DILI prediction, diagnosis, and course of action. Several promising DILI biomarker candidates have been discovered to date, including mechanistic-based biomarker candidates such as glutamate dehydrogenase, high-mobility group box 1 protein and keratin-18, which can also provide information on the injury mechanism of different causative agents. Furthermore, microRNAs have received much attention lately as potential non-invasive DILI biomarker candidates, in particular miR-122. Advances in “omics” technologies offer a new approach for biomarker exploration studies. The ability to screen a large number of molecules (e.g., metabolites, proteins, or DNA) simultaneously enables the identification of ‘toxicity signatures,’ which may be used to enhance preclinical safety assessments and disease diagnostics. Omics-based studies can also provide information on the underlying mechanisms of distinct forms of DILI that may further facilitate the identification of early diagnostic biomarkers and safer implementation of personalized medicine. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the area of DILI biomarker studies. PMID:27597831

  19. Rapid biosensing tools for cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Esimbekova, Elena N; Kratasyuk, Valentina A

    2017-01-15

    The present review critically discusses the latest developments in the field of smart diagnostic systems for cancer biomarkers. A wide coverage of recent biosensing approaches involving aptamers, enzymes, DNA probes, fluorescent probes, interacting proteins and antibodies in vicinity to transducers such as electrochemical, optical and piezoelectric is presented. Recent advanced developments in biosensing approaches for cancer biomarker owes much credit to functionalized nanomaterials due to their unique opto-electronic properties and enhanced surface to volume ratio. Biosensing methods for a plenty of cancer biomarkers has been summarized emphasizing the key principles involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Emerging ocular biomarkers of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Peter; Hadoux, Xavier; Alwan, Mostafa; Keel, Stuart; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Interest in reliable biomarkers of Alzheimer disease, the leading cause of dementia, has been fuelled by challenges in diagnosing the disease and monitoring disease progression as well as the response to therapy. A range of ocular manifestations of Alzheimer disease, including retinal and lens amyloid-beta accumulation, retinal nerve fiber layer loss, and retinal vascular changes, have been proposed as potential biomarkers of the disease. Herein, we examine the evidence regarding the potential value of these ocular biomarkers of Alzheimer disease. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. Portable Biomarker Detection with Magnetic Nanotags

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Drew A.; Wang, Shan X.; Murmann, Boris; Gaster, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hand-held, portable biosensor platform for quantitative biomarker measurement. By combining magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) tags with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) spin-valve sensors, the hand-held platform achieves highly sensitive (picomolar) and specific biomarker detection in less than 20 minutes. The rapid analysis and potential low cost make this technology ideal for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Furthermore, this platform is able to detect multiple biomarkers simultaneously in a single assay, creating a promising diagnostic tool for a vast number of applications. PMID:22495252

  2. Synthesis of 13(R)-Hydroxy-7Z,10Z,13R,14E,16Z,19Z Docosapentaenoic Acid (13R-HDPA) and Its Biosynthetic Conversion to the 13-Series Resolvins

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators are biosynthesized during the resolution phase of acute inflammation from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Recently, the isolation and identification of the four novel mediators denoted 13-series resolvins, namely, RvT1 (1), RvT2 (2), RvT3 (3) and RvT4 (4), were reported, which showed potent bioactions characteristic for specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Herein, based on results from LC/MS-MS metabololipidomics and the stereoselective synthesis of 13(R)-hydroxy-7Z,10Z,13R,14E,16Z,19Z docosapentaenoic acid (13R-HDPA, 5), we provide direct evidence that the four novel mediators 1–4 are all biosynthesized from the pivotal intermediate 5. The UV and LC/MS-MS results from synthetic 13R-HDPA (5) matched those from endogenously and biosynthetically produced material obtained from in vivo infectious exudates, endothelial cells, and human recombinant COX-2 enzyme. Stereochemically pure 5 was obtained with the use of a chiral pool starting material that installed the configuration at the C-13 atom as R. Two stereoselective Z-Wittig reactions and two Z-selective reductions of internal alkynes afforded the geometrically pure alkene moieties in 5. Incubation of 5 with isolated human neutrophils gave all four RvTs. The results presented herein provide new knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and the enzymatic origin of RvTs 1–4. PMID:27704804

  3. Molecular Diagnosis and Biomarker Identification on SELDI proteomics data by ADTBoost method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Yong; Chakraborty, Amit; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2005-01-01

    Clinical proteomics is an emerging field that will have great impact on molecular diagnosis, identification of disease biomarkers, drug discovery and clinical trials in the post-genomic era. Protein profiling in tissues and fluids in disease and pathological control and other proteomics techniques will play an important role in molecular diagnosis with therapeutics and personalized healthcare. We introduced a new robust diagnostic method based on ADTboost algorithm, a novel algorithm in proteomics data analysis to improve classification accuracy. It generates classification rules, which are often smaller and easier to interpret. This method often gives most discriminative features, which can be utilized as biomarkers for diagnostic purpose. Also, it has a nice feature of providing a measure of prediction confidence. We carried out this method in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease data acquired by surface enhanced laser-desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) experiments. Our method is shown to have outstanding prediction capacity through the cross-validation, ROC analysis results and comparative study. Our molecular diagnosis method provides an efficient way to distinguish ALS disease from neurological controls. The results are expressed in a simple and straightforward alternating decision tree format or conditional format. We identified most discriminative peaks in proteomic data, which can be utilized as biomarkers for diagnosis. It will have broad application in molecular diagnosis through proteomics data analysis and personalized medicine in this post-genomic era.

  4. DNA methylation biomarkers for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chongchang; Ye, Meng; Ni, Shumin; Li, Qun; Ye, Dong; Li, Jinyun; Shen, Zhishen; Deng, Hongxia

    2018-06-21

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The current study aimed to identify aberrantly methylated-differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. In addition, we screened for DEGs affected by DNA methylation modification and further investigated their prognostic values for HNSCC. We included microarray data of DNA methylation (GSE25093 and GSE33202) and gene expression (GSE23036 and GSE58911) from Gene Expression Omnibus. Aberrantly methylated-DEGs were analyzed with R software. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA sequencing and DNA methylation (Illumina HumanMethylation450) databases were utilized for validation. In total, 27 aberrantly methylated genes accompanied by altered expression were identified. After confirmation by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, 2 hypermethylated-low-expression genes (FAM135B and ZNF610) and 2 hypomethylated-high-expression genes (HOXA9 and DCC) were identified. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve confirmed the diagnostic value of these four methylated genes for HNSCC. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that FAM135B methylation was a favorable independent prognostic biomarker for overall survival of HNSCC patients.

  5. KRAS Genomic Status Predicts the Sensitivity of Ovarian Cancer Cells to Decitabine | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Decitabine, a cancer therapeutic that inhibits DNA methylation, produces variable antitumor response rates in patients with solid tumors that might be leveraged clinically with identification of a predictive biomarker. In this study, we profiled the response of human ovarian, melanoma, and breast cancer cells treated with decitabine, finding that RAS/MEK/ERK pathway activation and DNMT1 expression correlated with cytotoxic activity. Further, we showed that KRAS genomic status predicted decitabine sensitivity in low-grade and high-grade serous ovarian cancer cells.

  6. Genomic Data Commons | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI’s Center for Cancer Genomics launches the Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data sharing platform for the cancer research community. The mission of the GDC is to enable data sharing across the entire cancer research community, to ultimately support precision medicine in oncology.

  7. RWEN: Response-Weighted Elastic Net For Prediction of Chemosensitivity of Cancer Cell Lines. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Motivation: In recent years there have been several efforts to generate sensitivity profiles of collections of genomically characterized cell lines to panels of candidate therapeutic compounds. These data provide the basis for the development of in silico models of sensitivity based on cellular, genetic, or expression biomarkers of cancer cells. However, a remaining challenge is an efficient way to identify accurate sets of biomarkers to validate.

  8. Sorting Five Human Tumor Types Reveals Specific Biomarkers and Background Classification Genes.

    PubMed

    Roche, Kimberly E; Weinstein, Marvin; Dunwoodie, Leland J; Poehlman, William L; Feltus, Frank A

    2018-05-25

    We applied two state-of-the-art, knowledge independent data-mining methods - Dynamic Quantum Clustering (DQC) and t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) - to data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We showed that the RNA expression patterns for a mixture of 2,016 samples from five tumor types can sort the tumors into groups enriched for relevant annotations including tumor type, gender, tumor stage, and ethnicity. DQC feature selection analysis discovered 48 core biomarker transcripts that clustered tumors by tumor type. When these transcripts were removed, the geometry of tumor relationships changed, but it was still possible to classify the tumors using the RNA expression profiles of the remaining transcripts. We continued to remove the top biomarkers for several iterations and performed cluster analysis. Even though the most informative transcripts were removed from the cluster analysis, the sorting ability of remaining transcripts remained strong after each iteration. Further, in some iterations we detected a repeating pattern of biological function that wasn't detectable with the core biomarker transcripts present. This suggests the existence of a "background classification" potential in which the pattern of gene expression after continued removal of "biomarker" transcripts could still classify tumors in agreement with the tumor type.

  9. Potentials of single-cell biology in identification and validation of disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Niu, Furong; Wang, Diane C; Lu, Jiapei; Wu, Wei; Wang, Xiangdong

    2016-09-01

    Single-cell biology is considered a new approach to identify and validate disease-specific biomarkers. However, the concern raised by clinicians is how to apply single-cell measurements for clinical practice, translate the message of single-cell systems biology into clinical phenotype or explain alterations of single-cell gene sequencing and function in patient response to therapies. This study is to address the importance and necessity of single-cell gene sequencing in the identification and development of disease-specific biomarkers, the definition and significance of single-cell biology and single-cell systems biology in the understanding of single-cell full picture, the development and establishment of whole-cell models in the validation of targeted biological function and the figure and meaning of single-molecule imaging in single cell to trace intra-single-cell molecule expression, signal, interaction and location. We headline the important role of single-cell biology in the discovery and development of disease-specific biomarkers with a special emphasis on understanding single-cell biological functions, e.g. mechanical phenotypes, single-cell biology, heterogeneity and organization of genome function. We have reason to believe that such multi-dimensional, multi-layer, multi-crossing and stereoscopic single-cell biology definitely benefits the discovery and development of disease-specific biomarkers. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Molecular classification of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: personalized medicine, genetics and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hambly, Nathan; Shimbori, Chiko; Kolb, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive fibrotic lung disease associated with high morbidity and poor survival. Characterized by substantial disease heterogeneity, the diagnostic considerations, clinical course and treatment response in individual patients can be variable. In the past decade, with the advent of high-throughput proteomic and genomic technologies, our understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF has greatly improved and has led to the recognition of novel treatment targets and numerous putative biomarkers. Molecular biomarkers with mechanistic plausibility are highly desired in IPF, where they have the potential to accelerate drug development, facilitate early detection in susceptible individuals, improve prognostic accuracy and inform treatment recommendations. Although the search for candidate biomarkers remains in its infancy, attractive targets such as MUC5B and MPP7 have already been validated in large cohorts and have demonstrated their potential to improve clinical predictors beyond that of routine clinical practices. The discovery and implementation of future biomarkers will face many challenges, but with strong collaborative efforts among scientists, clinicians and the industry the ultimate goal of personalized medicine may be realized. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. GENOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of recently developed and emerging genomics technologies on environmental sciences has significant implications for human and ecological risk assessment issues. The linkage of data generated from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabalomics, and ecology can be ...

  12. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  13. Visualization for genomics: the Microbial Genome Viewer.

    PubMed

    Kerkhoven, Robert; van Enckevort, Frank H J; Boekhorst, Jos; Molenaar, Douwe; Siezen, Roland J

    2004-07-22

    A Web-based visualization tool, the Microbial Genome Viewer, is presented that allows the user to combine complex genomic data in a highly interactive way. This Web tool enables the interactive generation of chromosome wheels and linear genome maps from genome annotation data stored in a MySQL database. The generated images are in scalable vector graphics (SVG) format, which is suitable for creating high-quality scalable images and dynamic Web representations. Gene-related data such as transcriptome and time-course microarray experiments can be superimposed on the maps for visual inspection. The Microbial Genome Viewer 1.0 is freely available at http://www.cmbi.kun.nl/MGV

  14. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Thomas R; Powers, John H

    2012-11-10

    One of the most important considerations in designing clinical trials is the choice of outcome measures. These outcome measures could be clinically meaningful endpoints that are direct measures of how patients feel, function, and survive. Alternatively, indirect measures, such as biomarkers that include physical signs of disease, laboratory measures, and radiological tests, often are considered as replacement endpoints or 'surrogates' for clinically meaningful endpoints. We discuss the definitions of clinically meaningful endpoints and surrogate endpoints, and provide examples from recent clinical trials. We provide insight into why indirect measures such as biomarkers may fail to provide reliable evidence about the benefit-to-risk profile of interventions. We also discuss the nature of evidence that is important in assessing whether treatment effects on a biomarker reliably predict effects on a clinically meaningful endpoint, and provide insights into why this reliability is specific to the context of use of the biomarker. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints In Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Thomas R.; Powers, John H

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important considerations in designing clinical trials is the choice of outcome measures. These outcome measures could be clinically meaningful endpoints that are direct measures of how patients feel, function and survive. Alternatively, indirect measures, such as biomarkers that include physical signs of disease, laboratory measures and radiological tests, often are considered as replacement endpoints or “surrogates” for clinically meaningful endpoints. We discuss the definitions of clinically meaningful endpoints and surrogate endpoints, and provide examples from recent clinical trials. We provide insight into why indirect measures such as biomarkers may fail to provide reliable evidence about the benefit-to-risk profile of interventions. We also discuss the nature of evidence that is important in assessing whether treatment effects on a biomarker reliably predict effects on a clinically meaningful endpoint, and provide insights into why this reliability is specific to the context of use of the biomarker. . PMID:22711298

  16. Biomarkers in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Villanova, Federica; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O

    2013-04-01

    Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated disease of the skin, which associates in 20-30% of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The immunopathogenesis of both conditions is not fully understood as it is the result of a complex interaction between genetic, environmental and immunological factors. At present there is no cure for psoriasis and there are no specific markers that can accurately predict disease progression and therapeutic response. Therefore, biomarkers for disease prognosis and response to treatment are urgently needed to help clinicians with objective indications to improve patient management and outcomes. Although many efforts have been made to identify psoriasis/PsA biomarkers none of them has yet been translated into routine clinical practice. In this review we summarise the different classes of possible biomarkers explored in psoriasis and PsA so far and discuss novel strategies for biomarker discovery.

  17. Novel Biomarker for Prognosis, Treatment Response

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog about a study of a new type of cancer biomarker that measures the extent of chromosomal instability as a way to potentially predict patient prognosis and help guide cancer treatment choices.

  18. Incorporating prognostic imaging biomarkers into clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A prognostic imaging biomarker can be defined as an imaging characteristic that is objectively measurable and provides information on the likely outcome of the cancer disease in an untreated individual and should be distinguished from predictive imaging biomarkers and imaging markers of response. A range of tumour characteristics of potential prognostic value can be measured using a variety imaging modalities. However, none has currently been adopted into routine clinical practice. This article considers key examples of emerging prognostic imaging biomarkers and proposes an evaluation framework that aims to demonstrate clinical efficacy and so support their introduction into the clinical arena. With appropriate validation within an established evaluation framework, prognostic imaging biomarkers have the potential to contribute to individualized cancer care, in some cases reducing the financial burden of expensive cancer treatments by facilitating their more rational use. PMID:24060808

  19. BIOMARKER ASSAYS IN NIPPLE APIRATE FLUID

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The noninvasive technique of nipple aspiration as a potential source of biomarkers of breast cancer risk was evaluated. The feasibility of performing mutagenesis assays, amplifying DNA and performing protein electrophoresis on nipple aspirate fluid was explored. ...

  20. Inflammatory mediators as biomarkers in brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Domenico; Picone, Pasquale; Caruana, Luca; Vasto, Sonya; Barera, Annalisa; Caruso, Calogero; Di Carlo, Marta

    2014-06-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in progressive death of the neurons. The definite diagnosis of a neurodegenerative disorder is disadvantaged by the difficulty in obtaining biopsies and thereby to validate the clinical diagnosis with pathological results. Biomarkers are valuable indicators for detecting different phases of a disease such as prevention, early onset, treatment, progression, and monitoring the effect of pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Inflammation occurs in neurodegenerative diseases, and identification and validation of molecules involved in this process could be a strategy for finding new biomarkers. The ideal inflammatory biomarker needs to be easily measurable, must be reproducible, not subject to wide variation in the population, and unaffected by external factors. Our review summarizes the most important inflammation biomarkers currently available, whose specificity could be utilized for identifying and monitoring distinctive phases of different neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Biomarker monitoring in sports doping control.

    PubMed

    Pottgiesser, Torben; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf

    2012-06-01

    Biomarker monitoring can be considered a new era in the effort against doping. Opposed to the old concept in doping control of direct detection of a prohibited substance in a biological sample such as urine or blood, the new paradigm allows a personalized longitudinal monitoring of biomarkers that indicate non-physiological responses independently of the used doping technique or substance, and may cause sanctioning of illicit practices. This review presents the development of biomarker monitoring in sports doping control and focuses on the implementation of the Athlete Biological Passport as the current concept of the World Anti Doping Agency for the detection of blood doping (hematological module). The scope of the article extends to the description of novel biomarkers and future concepts of application.

  2. The quest for fragile X biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Westmark, Cara J

    2014-12-01

    Fragile X is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and the leading known genetic cause of autism. There is currently no cure or approved medication for fragile X although various drugs target specific disease symptoms and a large number of therapeutics are in various stages of clinical development. Multiple recent clinical trials have failed on their primary endpoints indicating that there is a compelling need for validated biomarkers and outcome measures in fragile X. There are currently no validated blood-based biomarkers to assess disease severity or to monitor drug efficacy in fragile X syndrome. Herein, we review candidate blood protein biomarkers including extracellular-regulated kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, matrix metalloproteinase 9, amyloid-beta and amyloid-beta protein precursor. Bench-to-bedside plans for fragile X syndrome are severely limited by the lack of validated outcome measures. The reviewed candidate biomarkers are at early stages of validation and deserve further investigation.

  3. Genomics for Everyone

    Chain, Patrick

    2018-05-31

    Genomics — the genetic mapping and DNA sequencing of sets of genes or the complete genomes of organisms, along with related genome analysis and database work — is emerging as one of the transformative sciences of the 21st century. But current bioinformatics tools are not accessible to most biological researchers. Now, a new computational and web-based tool called EDGE Bioinformatics is working to fulfill the promise of democratizing genomics.

  4. Genomics for Everyone

    SciT

    Chain, Patrick

    Genomics — the genetic mapping and DNA sequencing of sets of genes or the complete genomes of organisms, along with related genome analysis and database work — is emerging as one of the transformative sciences of the 21st century. But current bioinformatics tools are not accessible to most biological researchers. Now, a new computational and web-based tool called EDGE Bioinformatics is working to fulfill the promise of democratizing genomics.

  5. Proteomics as a Tool for Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Elise C.; Azad, Nilofer; Annunziata, Christina; Dhamoon, Amit S.; Whiteley, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Novel technologies are now being advanced for the purpose of identification and validation of new disease biomarkers. A reliable and useful clinical biomarker must a) come from a readily attainable source, such as blood or urine, b) have sufficient sensitivity to correctly identify affected individuals, c) have sufficient specificity to avoid incorrect labeling of unaffected persons, and d) result in a notable benefit for the patient through intervention, such as survival or life quality improvement. Despite these critical descriptors, the few available FDA-approved biomarkers for cancer do not completely fit this definition and their benefits are limited to a small number of cancers. Ovarian cancer exemplifies the need for a diagnostic biomarker of early stage disease. Symptoms are present but not specific to the disease, delaying diagnosis until an advanced and generally incurable stage in over 70% of affected women. As such, diagnostic intervention in the form of oopherectomy can be performed in the appropriate at-risk population if identified such as with a new accurate, sensitive, and specific biomarker. If early stage disease is identified, the requirement for survival and life quality improvement will be met. One of the new technologies applied to biomarker discovery is tour-de-force analysis of serum peptides and proteins. Optimization of mass spectrometry techniques coupled with advanced bioinformatics approaches has yielded informative biomarker signatures discriminating presence of cancer from unaffected in multiple studies from different groups. Validation and randomized outcome studies are needed to determine the true value of these new biomarkers in early diagnosis, and improved survival and quality of life. PMID:18057524

  6. Descriptive Biomarkers for Assessing Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    0721 TITLE: Descriptive Biomarkers for Assessing Breast Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kathleen F. Arcaro...Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Sept 2008 - 14 Sept 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Descriptive Biomarkers for Assessing Breast Cancer Risk 5a...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to determine if exfoliated epithelial cells present in breast milk can be used to assess

  7. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Epub 2015 Apr 23. PubMed PMID: 25960184; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4495663. 6. Liangpunsakul S. ChREBP, SIRT1 and ethanol metabolism - a complicated...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0497 TITLE: Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Suthat Liangpunsakul...2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15Sept2014 - 14Sep2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5a

  8. Office of Cancer Genomics |

    Cancer.gov

    The mission of the NCI’s Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG) is to enhance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cancer, advance and accelerate genomics science and technology development, and efficiently translate the genomics data to improve cancer research, prevention, early detection, diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Imaging biomarkers in liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Berzigotti, A; França, M; Martí-Aguado, D; Martí-Bonmatí, L

    There is a need for early identification of patients with chronic liver diseases due to their increasing prevalence and morbidity-mortality. The degree of liver fibrosis determines the prognosis and therapeutic options in this population. Liver biopsy represents the reference standard for fibrosis staging. However, given its limitations and complications, different non-invasive methods have been developed recently for the in vivo quantification of fibrosis. Due to their precision and reliability, biomarkers' measurements derived from Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance stand out. This article reviews the different acquisition techniques and image processing methods currently used in the evaluation of liver fibrosis, focusing on their diagnostic performance, applicability and clinical value. In order to properly interpret their results in the appropriate clinical context, it seems necessary to understand the techniques and their quality parameters, the standardization and validation of the measurement units and the quality control of the methodological problems. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Complement system biomarkers in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kopczynska, Maja; Zelek, Wioleta M; Vespa, Simone; Touchard, Samuel; Wardle, Mark; Loveless, Samantha; Thomas, Rhys H; Hamandi, Khalid; Morgan, B Paul

    2018-05-24

    To explore whether complement dysregulation occurs in a routinely recruited clinical cohort of epilepsy patients, and whether complement biomarkers have potential to be used as markers of disease severity and seizure control. Plasma samples from 157 epilepsy cases (106 with focal seizures, 46 generalised seizures, 5 unclassified) and 54 controls were analysed. Concentrations of 10 complement analytes (C1q, C3, C4, factor B [FB], terminal complement complex [TCC], iC3b, factor H [FH], Clusterin [Clu], Properdin, C1 Inhibitor [C1Inh] plus C-reactive protein [CRP]) were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis were used to test whether combinations of complement analytes were predictive of epilepsy diagnoses and seizure occurrence. Correlation between number and type of anti-epileptic drugs (AED) and complement analytes was also performed. We found: CONCLUSION: This study adds to evidence implicating complement in pathogenesis of epilepsy and may allow the development of better therapeutics and prognostic markers in the future. Replication in a larger sample set is needed to validate the findings of the study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Constraint programming based biomarker optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Manli; Luo, Youxi; Sun, Guoquan; Mai, Guoqin; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2015-01-01

    Efficient and intuitive characterization of biological big data is becoming a major challenge for modern bio-OMIC based scientists. Interactive visualization and exploration of big data is proven to be one of the successful solutions. Most of the existing feature selection algorithms do not allow the interactive inputs from users in the optimizing process of feature selection. This study investigates this question as fixing a few user-input features in the finally selected feature subset and formulates these user-input features as constraints for a programming model. The proposed algorithm, fsCoP (feature selection based on constrained programming), performs well similar to or much better than the existing feature selection algorithms, even with the constraints from both literature and the existing algorithms. An fsCoP biomarker may be intriguing for further wet lab validation, since it satisfies both the classification optimization function and the biomedical knowledge. fsCoP may also be used for the interactive exploration of bio-OMIC big data by interactively adding user-defined constraints for modeling.

  12. Crevicular Fluid Biomarkers and Periodontal Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Min; Braun, Thomas M.; Ramseier, Christoph A.; Sugai, Jim V.; Giannobile, William V.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Assess the ability of a panel of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers as predictors of periodontal disease progression (PDP). Materials and Methods 100 individuals participated in a 12-month longitudinal investigation and categorized into 4 groups according to their periodontal status. GCF, clinical parameters, and saliva were collected bi-monthly. Sub-gingival plaque and serum were collected bi-annually. For 6 months, no periodontal treatment was provided. At 6-months, patients received periodontal therapy and continued participation from 6-12 months. GCF samples were analyzed by ELISA for MMP-8, MMP-9, OPG, CRP and IL-1β. Differences in median levels of GCF biomarkers were compared between stable and progressing participants using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (p=0.05). Clustering algorithm was used to evaluate the ability of oral biomarkers to classify patients as either stable or progressing. Results Eighty-three individuals completed the 6-month monitoring phase. With the exception of GCF C-reactive protein, all biomarkers were significantly higher in the PDP group compared to stable patients. Clustering analysis showed highest sensitivity levels when biofilm pathogens and GCF biomarkers were combined with clinical measures, 74% (95% CI = 61,86). Conclusions Signature of GCF fluid-derived biomarkers combined with pathogens and clinical measures provides a sensitive measure for discrimination of PDP (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00277745). PMID:24303954

  13. CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer disease: "noncognitive" outcomes.

    PubMed

    Roe, Catherine M; Fagan, Anne M; Grant, Elizabeth A; Holtzman, David M; Morris, John C

    2013-12-03

    To test whether CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers (β-amyloid 42 [Aβ42], tau, phosphorylated tau at threonine 181 [ptau181], tau/Aβ42, and ptau181/Aβ42) predict future decline in noncognitive outcomes among individuals cognitively normal at baseline. Longitudinal data from participants (N = 430) who donated CSF within 1 year of a clinical assessment indicating normal cognition and were aged 50 years or older were analyzed. Mixed linear models were used to test whether baseline biomarker values predicted future decline in function (instrumental activities of daily living), weight, behavior, and mood. Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes and Mini-Mental State Examination scores were also examined. Abnormal levels of each biomarker were related to greater impairment with time in behavior (p < 0.035) and mood (p < 0.012) symptoms, and more difficulties with independent activities of daily living (p < 0.012). However, biomarker levels were unrelated to weight change with time (p > 0.115). As expected, abnormal biomarker values also predicted more rapidly changing Mini-Mental State Examination (p < 0.041) and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (p < 0.001) scores compared with normal values. CSF biomarkers among cognitively normal individuals are associated with future decline in some, but not all, noncognitive Alzheimer disease symptoms studied. Additional work is needed to determine the extent to which these findings generalize to other samples.

  14. Blood biomarker for Parkinson disease: peptoids

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Umar; Zaman, Sayed; Hynan, Linda S; Brown, L Steven; Dewey, Richard B; Karp, David; German, Dwight C

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Because dopaminergic neuronal loss begins years before motor symptoms appear, a biomarker for the early identification of the disease is critical for the study of putative neuroprotective therapies. Brain imaging of the nigrostriatal dopamine system has been used as a biomarker for early disease along with cerebrospinal fluid analysis of α-synuclein, but a less costly and relatively non-invasive biomarker would be optimal. We sought to identify an antibody biomarker in the blood of PD patients using a combinatorial peptoid library approach. We examined serum samples from 75 PD patients, 25 de novo PD patients, and 104 normal control subjects in the NINDS Parkinson’s Disease Biomarker Program. We identified a peptoid, PD2, which binds significantly higher levels of IgG3 antibody in PD versus control subjects (P<0.0001) and is 68% accurate in identifying PD. The PD2 peptoid is 84% accurate in identifying de novo PD. Also, IgG3 levels are significantly higher in PD versus control serum (P<0.001). Finally, PD2 levels are positively correlated with the United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale score (r=0.457, P<0001), a marker of disease severity. The PD2 peptoid may be useful for the early-stage identification of PD, and serve as an indicator of disease severity. Additional studies are needed to validate this PD biomarker. PMID:27812535

  15. Single Domain Antibodies as New Biomarker Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Katja; Leow, Chiuan Yee; Chuah, Candy; McCarthy, James

    2017-01-01

    Biomarkers are defined as indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers have been widely used for early detection, prediction of response after treatment, and for monitoring the progression of diseases. Antibodies represent promising tools for recognition of biomarkers, and are widely deployed as analytical tools in clinical settings. For immunodiagnostics, antibodies are now exploited as binders for antigens of interest across a range of platforms. More recently, the discovery of antibody surface display and combinatorial chemistry techniques has allowed the exploration of new binders from a range of animals, for instance variable domains of new antigen receptors (VNAR) from shark and variable heavy chain domains (VHH) or nanobodies from camelids. These single domain antibodies (sdAbs) have some advantages over conventional murine immunoglobulin owing to the lack of a light chain, making them the smallest natural biomarker binders thus far identified. In this review, we will discuss several biomarkers used as a means to validate diseases progress. The potential functionality of modern singe domain antigen binders derived from phylogenetically early animals as new biomarker detectors for current diagnostic and research platforms development will be described. PMID:29039819

  16. Paleo-reconstruction: Using multiple biomarker parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengzheng

    Advanced technologies have played essential roles in the development of molecular organic geochemistry. In this thesis, we have developed several new techniques and explored their applications, alone and with previous techniques, to paleo-reconstruction. First, we developed a protocol to separate biomarker fractions for accurate measurement of compound-specific isotope analysis. This protocol involves combination of zeolite adduction and HPLC separation. Second, an integrated study of traditional biomarker parameters, diamondoids and compound-specific biomarker isotopes, differentiated oil groups from Saudi Arabia. Specifically, Cretaceous reservoired oils were divided into three groups and the Jurassic reservoired oils were divided into two groups. Third, biomarker acids provide an alternative way to characterize biodegradation. Oils from San Joaquin Valley, U.S.A. and oils from Mediterranean display drastically different acid profiles. These differences in biomarker acids probably reflect different processes of biodegradation. Fourth, by analyzing biomarker distributions in the organic-rich rocks recording the onset of Late Ordovician extinction, we propose that changes in salinity associated with eustatic sea-level fall, contributed at least locally to the extinction of graptolite species.

  17. Crevicular fluid biomarkers and periodontal disease progression.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Janet S; Morelli, Thiago; Oh, Min; Braun, Thomas M; Ramseier, Christoph A; Sugai, Jim V; Giannobile, William V

    2014-02-01

    Assess the ability of a panel of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers as predictors of periodontal disease progression (PDP). In this study, 100 individuals participated in a 12-month longitudinal investigation and were categorized into four groups according to their periodontal status. GCF, clinical parameters and saliva were collected bi-monthly. Subgingival plaque and serum were collected bi-annually. For 6 months, no periodontal treatment was provided. At 6 months, patients received periodontal therapy and continued participation from 6 to 12 months. GCF samples were analysed by ELISA for MMP-8, MMP-9, Osteoprotegerin, C-reactive Protein and IL-1β. Differences in median levels of GCF biomarkers were compared between stable and progressing participants using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (p = 0.05). Clustering algorithm was used to evaluate the ability of oral biomarkers to classify patients as either stable or progressing. Eighty-three individuals completed the 6-month monitoring phase. With the exception of GCF C-reactive protein, all biomarkers were significantly higher in the PDP group compared to stable patients. Clustering analysis showed highest sensitivity levels when biofilm pathogens and GCF biomarkers were combined with clinical measures, 74% (95% CI = 61, 86). Signature of GCF fluid-derived biomarkers combined with pathogens and clinical measures provides a sensitive measure for discrimination of PDP (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00277745). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Impact of Biomarkers on Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Carrigan, Patricia; Krahn, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The field of personalized medicine that involves the use of measuring biomarkers in clinical samples is an area of high interest and one that has tremendous impact on drug development. With the emergence of more sensitive and specific technologies that are now able to be run in clinical settings and the ability to accurately measure biomarkers, there is a need to understand how biomarkers are defined, how they are used in clinical trials, and most importantly how they are used in conjunction with drug treatment. Biomarker approaches have entered into early clinical trials and are increasingly being used to develop new diagnostics that help to differentiate or stratify the likely outcomes of therapeutic intervention. Tremendous efforts have been made to date to discover novel biomarkers for use in clinical practice. Still, the number of markers that make it into clinical practice is rather low. In the next following chapters, we will explain the various classifications of biomarkers, how they are applied, measured, and used in personalized medicine specifically focusing on how they are used in de-risking the 10 plus years drug development process and lastly how they are validated and transformed into companion diagnostic assays.

  19. Transfer Learning of Classification Rules for Biomarker Discovery and Verification from Molecular Profiling Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ganchev, Philip; Malehorn, David; Bigbee, William L.; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel framework for integrative biomarker discovery from related but separate data sets created in biomarker profiling studies. The framework takes prior knowledge in the form of interpretable, modular rules, and uses them during the learning of rules on a new data set. The framework consists of two methods of transfer of knowledge from source to target data: transfer of whole rules and transfer of rule structures. We evaluated the methods on three pairs of data sets: one genomic and two proteomic. We used standard measures of classification performance and three novel measures of amount of transfer. Preliminary evaluation shows that whole-rule transfer improves classification performance over using the target data alone, especially when there is more source data than target data. It also improves performance over using the union of the data sets. PMID:21571094

  20. Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ravi; Blom, Jochen; Palva, Airi; Siezen, Roland J.; de Vos, Willem M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The genus Lactobacillus includes a diverse group of bacteria consisting of many species that are associated with fermentations of plants, meat or milk. In addition, various lactobacilli are natural inhabitants of the intestinal tract of humans and other animals. Finally, several Lactobacillus strains are marketed as probiotics as their consumption can confer a health benefit to host. Presently, 154 Lactobacillus species are known and a growing fraction of these are subject to draft genome sequencing. However, complete genome sequences are needed to provide a platform for detailed genomic comparisons. Therefore, we selected a total of 20 genomes of various Lactobacillus strains for which complete genomic sequences have been reported. These genomes had sizes varying from 1.8 to 3.3 Mb and other characteristic features, such as G+C content that ranged from 33% to 51%. The Lactobacillus pan genome was found to consist of approximately 14 000 protein‐encoding genes while all 20 genomes shared a total of 383 sets of orthologous genes that defined the Lactobacillus core genome (LCG). Based on advanced phylogeny of the proteins encoded by this LCG, we grouped the 20 strains into three main groups and defined core group genes present in all genomes of a single group, signature group genes shared in all genomes of one group but absent in all other Lactobacillus genomes, and Group‐specific ORFans present in core group genes of one group and absent in all other complete genomes. The latter are of specific value in defining the different groups of genomes. The study provides a platform for present individual comparisons as well as future analysis of new Lactobacillus genomes. PMID:21375712

  1. The Sequenced Angiosperm Genomes and Genome Databases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Jiawei; Guo, Xinyue; Chen, Junhao; Wang, Zhengjia; Lin, Zhenguo; Tang, Haibao; Zhang, Liangsheng

    2018-01-01

    Angiosperms, the flowering plants, provide the essential resources for human life, such as food, energy, oxygen, and materials. They also promoted the evolution of human, animals, and the planet earth. Despite the numerous advances in genome reports or sequencing technologies, no review covers all the released angiosperm genomes and the genome databases for data sharing. Based on the rapid advances and innovations in the database reconstruction in the last few years, here we provide a comprehensive review for three major types of angiosperm genome databases, including databases for a single species, for a specific angiosperm clade, and for multiple angiosperm species. The scope, tools, and data of each type of databases and their features are concisely discussed. The genome databases for a single species or a clade of species are especially popular for specific group of researchers, while a timely-updated comprehensive database is more powerful for address of major scientific mysteries at the genome scale. Considering the low coverage of flowering plants in any available database, we propose construction of a comprehensive database to facilitate large-scale comparative studies of angiosperm genomes and to promote the collaborative studies of important questions in plant biology.

  2. The Sequenced Angiosperm Genomes and Genome Databases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Jiawei; Guo, Xinyue; Chen, Junhao; Wang, Zhengjia; Lin, Zhenguo; Tang, Haibao; Zhang, Liangsheng

    2018-01-01

    Angiosperms, the flowering plants, provide the essential resources for human life, such as food, energy, oxygen, and materials. They also promoted the evolution of human, animals, and the planet earth. Despite the numerous advances in genome reports or sequencing technologies, no review covers all the released angiosperm genomes and the genome databases for data sharing. Based on the rapid advances and innovations in the database reconstruction in the last few years, here we provide a comprehensive review for three major types of angiosperm genome databases, including databases for a single species, for a specific angiosperm clade, and for multiple angiosperm species. The scope, tools, and data of each type of databases and their features are concisely discussed. The genome databases for a single species or a clade of species are especially popular for specific group of researchers, while a timely-updated comprehensive database is more powerful for address of major scientific mysteries at the genome scale. Considering the low coverage of flowering plants in any available database, we propose construction of a comprehensive database to facilitate large-scale comparative studies of angiosperm genomes and to promote the collaborative studies of important questions in plant biology. PMID:29706973

  3. Computational Biomarker Pipeline from Discovery to Clinical Implementation: Plasma Proteomic Biomarkers for Cardiac Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen Freue, Gabriela V.; Meredith, Anna; Smith, Derek; Bergman, Axel; Sasaki, Mayu; Lam, Karen K. Y.; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Opushneva, Nina; Takhar, Mandeep; Lin, David; Wilson-McManus, Janet; Balshaw, Robert; Keown, Paul A.; Borchers, Christoph H.; McManus, Bruce; Ng, Raymond T.; McMaster, W. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Recent technical advances in the field of quantitative proteomics have stimulated a large number of biomarker discovery studies of various diseases, providing avenues for new treatments and diagnostics. However, inherent challenges have limited the successful translation of candidate biomarkers into clinical use, thus highlighting the need for a robust analytical methodology to transition from biomarker discovery to clinical implementation. We have developed an end-to-end computational proteomic pipeline for biomarkers studies. At the discovery stage, the pipeline emphasizes different aspects of experimental design, appropriate statistical methodologies, and quality assessment of results. At the validation stage, the pipeline focuses on the migration of the results to a platform appropriate for external validation, and the development of a classifier score based on corroborated protein biomarkers. At the last stage towards clinical implementation, the main aims are to develop and validate an assay suitable for clinical deployment, and to calibrate the biomarker classifier using the developed assay. The proposed pipeline was applied to a biomarker study in cardiac transplantation aimed at developing a minimally invasive clinical test to monitor acute rejection. Starting with an untargeted screening of the human plasma proteome, five candidate biomarker proteins were identified. Rejection-regulated proteins reflect cellular and humoral immune responses, acute phase inflammatory pathways, and lipid metabolism biological processes. A multiplex multiple reaction monitoring mass-spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay was developed for the five candidate biomarkers and validated by enzyme-linked immune-sorbent (ELISA) and immunonephelometric assays (INA). A classifier score based on corroborated proteins demonstrated that the developed MRM-MS assay provides an appropriate methodology for an external validation, which is still in progress. Plasma proteomic biomarkers of acute cardiac

  4. Validation of biomarkers of food intake-critical assessment of candidate biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Dragsted, L O; Gao, Q; Scalbert, A; Vergères, G; Kolehmainen, M; Manach, C; Brennan, L; Afman, L A; Wishart, D S; Andres Lacueva, C; Garcia-Aloy, M; Verhagen, H; Feskens, E J M; Praticò, G

    2018-01-01

    Biomarkers of food intake (BFIs) are a promising tool for limiting misclassification in nutrition research where more subjective dietary assessment instruments are used. They may also be used to assess compliance to dietary guidelines or to a dietary intervention. Biomarkers therefore hold promise for direct and objective measurement of food intake. However, the number of comprehensively validated biomarkers of food intake is limited to just a few. Many new candidate biomarkers emerge from metabolic profiling studies and from advances in food chemistry. Furthermore, candidate food intake biomarkers may also be identified based on extensive literature reviews such as described in the guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev). To systematically and critically assess the validity of candidate biomarkers of food intake, it is necessary to outline and streamline an optimal and reproducible validation process. A consensus-based procedure was used to provide and evaluate a set of the most important criteria for systematic validation of BFIs. As a result, a validation procedure was developed including eight criteria, plausibility, dose-response, time-response, robustness, reliability, stability, analytical performance, and inter-laboratory reproducibility. The validation has a dual purpose: (1) to estimate the current level of validation of candidate biomarkers of food intake based on an objective and systematic approach and (2) to pinpoint which additional studies are needed to provide full validation of each candidate biomarker of food intake. This position paper on biomarker of food intake validation outlines the second step of the BFIRev procedure but may also be used as such for validation of new candidate biomarkers identified, e.g., in food metabolomic studies.

  5. Identification of Significant Gene Signatures and Prognostic Biomarkers for Patients With Cervical Cancer by Integrated Bioinformatic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofang; Tian, Run; Gao, Hugh; Yan, Feng; Ying, Le; Yang, Yongkang; Yang, Pei

    2018-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of death with gynecological malignancies. We aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis and biomarkers for cervical cancer by integrated bioinformatic analysis. We employed RNA-sequencing details of 254 cervical squamous cell carcinomas and 3 normal samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. To explore the distinct pathways, messenger RNA expression was submitted to a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and protein–protein interaction network analysis of differentially expressed genes were performed. Then, we conducted pathway enrichment analysis for modules acquired in protein–protein interaction analysis and obtained a list of pathways in every module. After intersecting the results from the 3 approaches, we evaluated the survival rates of both mutual pathways and genes in the pathway, and 5 survival-related genes were obtained. Finally, Cox hazards ratio analysis of these 5 genes was performed. DNA replication pathway (P < .001; 12 genes included) was suggested to have the strongest association with the prognosis of cervical squamous cancer. In total, 5 of the 12 genes, namely, minichromosome maintenance 2, minichromosome maintenance 4, minichromosome maintenance 5, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and ribonuclease H2 subunit A were significantly correlated with survival. Minichromosome maintenance 5 was shown as an independent prognostic biomarker for patients with cervical cancer. This study identified a distinct pathway (DNA replication). Five genes which may be prognostic biomarkers and minichromosome maintenance 5 were identified as independent prognostic biomarkers for patients with cervical cancer. PMID:29642758

  6. Chromium and Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Sandra S.; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Many metals serve as micronutrients which protect against genomic instability. Chromium is most abundant in its trivalent and hexavalent forms. Trivalent chromium has historically been considered an essential element, though recent data indicate that while it can have pharmacological effects and value, it is not essential. There are no data indicating that trivalent chromium promotes genomic stability and, instead may promote genomic instability. Hexavalent chromium is widely accepted as highly toxic and carcinogenic with no nutritional value. Recent data indicate that it causes genomic instability and also has no role in promoting genomic stability. PMID:22192535

  7. Exploitation of Gene Expression and Cancer Biomarkers in Paving the Path to Era of Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Hala Fawzy Mohamed; Al-Amodi, Hiba Saeed A Bagader

    2017-08-01

    Cancer therapy agents have been used extensively as cytotoxic drugs against tissue or organ of a specific type of cancer. With the better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis and cellular events during cancer progression and metastasis, it is now possible to use targeted therapy for these molecular events. Targeted therapy is able to identify cancer patients with dissimilar genetic defects at cellular level for the same cancer type and consequently requires individualized approach for treatment. Cancer therapy begins to shift steadily from the traditional approach of "one regimen for all patients" to a more individualized approach, through which each patient will be treated specifically according to their specific genetic defects. Personalized medicine accordingly requires identification of indicators or markers that guide in the decision making of such therapy to the chosen patients for more effective therapy. Cancer biomarkers are frequently used in clinical practice for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as identification of responsive patients and prediction of treatment response of cancer patient. The rapid breakthrough and development of microarray and sequencing technologies is probably the main tool for paving the way toward "individualized biomarker-driven cancer therapy" or "personalized medicine". In this review, we aim to provide an updated knowledge and overview of the current landscape of cancer biomarkers and their role in personalized medicine, emphasizing the impact of genomics on the implementation of new potential targeted therapies and development of novel cancer biomarkers in improving the outcome of cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Genetics Society of China. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbial genomic taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A need for a genomic species definition is emerging from several independent studies worldwide. In this commentary paper, we discuss recent studies on the genomic taxonomy of diverse microbial groups and a unified species definition based on genomics. Accordingly, strains from the same microbial species share >95% Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), >95% identity based on multiple alignment genes, <10 in Karlin genomic signature, and > 70% in silico Genome-to-Genome Hybridization similarity (GGDH). Species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) and supertree analysis. In addition to the established requirements for species descriptions, we propose that new taxa descriptions should also include at least a draft genome sequence of the type strain in order to obtain a clear outlook on the genomic landscape of the novel microbe. The application of the new genomic species definition put forward here will allow researchers to use genome sequences to define simultaneously coherent phenotypic and genomic groups. PMID:24365132

  9. Bacterial Genome Instability

    PubMed Central

    Darmon, Elise

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial genomes are remarkably stable from one generation to the next but are plastic on an evolutionary time scale, substantially shaped by horizontal gene transfer, genome rearrangement, and the activities of mobile DNA elements. This implies the existence of a delicate balance between the maintenance of genome stability and the tolerance of genome instability. In this review, we describe the specialized genetic elements and the endogenous processes that contribute to genome instability. We then discuss the consequences of genome instability at the physiological level, where cells have harnessed instability to mediate phase and antigenic variation, and at the evolutionary level, where horizontal gene transfer has played an important role. Indeed, this ability to share DNA sequences has played a major part in the evolution of life on Earth. The evolutionary plasticity of bacterial genomes, coupled with the vast numbers of bacteria on the planet, substantially limits our ability to control disease. PMID:24600039

  10. Genomic mutation consequence calculator.

    PubMed

    Major, John E

    2007-11-15

    The genomic mutation consequence calculator (GMCC) is a tool that will reliably and quickly calculate the consequence of arbitrary genomic mutations. GMCC also reports supporting annotations for the specified genomic region. The particular strength of the GMCC is it works in genomic space, not simply in spliced transcript space as some similar tools do. Within gene features, GMCC can report on the effects on splice site, UTR and coding regions in all isoforms affected by the mutation. A considerable number of genomic annotations are also reported, including: genomic conservation score, known SNPs, COSMIC mutations, disease associations and others. The manual interface also offers link outs to various external databases and resources. In batch mode, GMCC returns a csv file which can easily be parsed by the end user. GMCC is intended to support the many tumor resequencing efforts, but can be useful to any study investigating genomic mutations.

  11. Whole-genome alignment.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Colin N

    2012-01-01

    Whole-genome alignment (WGA) is the prediction of evolutionary relationships at the nucleotide level between two or more genomes. It combines aspects of both colinear sequence alignment and gene orthology prediction, and is typically more challenging to address than either of these tasks due to the size and complexity of whole genomes. Despite the difficulty of this problem, numerous methods have been developed for its solution because WGAs are valuable for genome-wide analyses, such as phylogenetic inference, genome annotation, and function prediction. In this chapter, we discuss the meaning and significance of WGA and present an overview of the methods that address it. We also examine the problem of evaluating whole-genome aligners and offer a set of methodological challenges that need to be tackled in order to make the most effective use of our rapidly growing databases of whole genomes.

  12. Biomarkers, Natural Course and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Arenillas, Juan F; López-Cancio, Elena; Wong, Ka Sing

    2016-01-01

    Increasing our knowledge about intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) natural history and prognostic factors is essential to improve its preventive therapy and thus reduce the dramatic clinical consequences caused by this entity. ICAS is characterized by a chronic and progressive course until it becomes symptomatic, mostly through complication of an unstable intracranial atherosclerotic plaque. Population-based studies in healthy subjects have shown that the prevalence of asymptomatic ICAS is higher in Asian than in Caucasian populations. In both settings, asymptomatic ICAS is associated with classical vascular risk factors and with the metabolic syndrome, and it is burdened with an increasing risk of having incident stroke and cognitive impairment. When it reaches its symptomatic stage, ICAS is a dynamic and aggressive condition, and affected patients are at high risk of having recurrent stroke and other major vascular events. The Stenting versus Aggressive Medical Therapy for Intracranial Arterial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial has recently shown a robust impact of intensive medical therapy reducing the risk of clinical recurrence of symptomatic ICAS. However, even under best medical therapy and degree of risk factor control, symptomatic ICAS-related recurrence risk continues to be the highest among all stroke etiologic subtypes. The second part of the chapter reviews the current understanding of prognostic factors that may help discriminate the high-risk ICAS patients, divided into local factors (vulnerable ICAS plaque) and systemic factors (vulnerable ICAS patient). Regarding research on local factors, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMRI) is an emerging technique that allows in vivo evaluation of intracranial arterial wall, which is displacing our research focus from intracranial stenosis degree towards intracranial atherosclerotic plaque composition and activity. Characterization of the vulnerable ICAS patient may be improved with biomarker research. The

  13. Enabling responsible public genomics.

    PubMed

    Conley, John M; Doerr, Adam K; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    As scientific understandings of genetics advance, researchers require increasingly rich datasets that combine genomic data from large numbers of individuals with medical and other personal information. Linking individuals' genetic data and personal information precludes anonymity and produces medically significant information--a result not contemplated by the established legal and ethical conventions governing human genomic research. To pursue the next generation of human genomic research and commerce in a responsible fashion, scientists, lawyers, and regulators must address substantial new issues, including researchers' duties with respect to clinically significant data, the challenges to privacy presented by genomic data, the boundary between genomic research and commerce, and the practice of medicine. This Article presents a new model for understanding and addressing these new challenges--a "public genomics" premised on the idea that ethically, legally, and socially responsible genomics research requires openness, not privacy, as its organizing principle. Responsible public genomics combines the data contributed by informed and fully consenting information altruists and the research potential of rich datasets in a genomic commons that is freely and globally available. This Article examines the risks and benefits of this public genomics model in the context of an ambitious genetic research project currently under way--the Personal Genome Project. This Article also (i) demonstrates that large-scale genomic projects are desirable, (ii) evaluates the risks and challenges presented by public genomics research, and (iii) determines that the current legal and regulatory regimes restrict beneficial and responsible scientific inquiry while failing to adequately protect participants. The Article concludes by proposing a modified normative and legal framework that embraces and enables a future of responsible public genomics.

  14. Genome-wide comparison of medieval and modern Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Singh, Pushpendra; Mendum, Thomas A; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Jäger, Günter; Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Economou, Christos; Benjak, Andrej; Busso, Philippe; Nebel, Almut; Boldsen, Jesper L; Kjellström, Anna; Wu, Huihai; Stewart, Graham R; Taylor, G Michael; Bauer, Peter; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Besra, Gurdyal S; Tucker, Katie; Roffey, Simon; Sow, Samba O; Cole, Stewart T; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes

    2013-07-12

    Leprosy was endemic in Europe until the Middle Ages. Using DNA array capture, we have obtained genome sequences of Mycobacterium leprae from skeletons of five medieval leprosy cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark. In one case, the DNA was so well preserved that full de novo assembly of the ancient bacterial genome could be achieved through shotgun sequencing alone. The ancient M. leprae sequences were compared with those of 11 modern strains, representing diverse genotypes and geographic origins. The comparisons revealed remarkable genomic conservation during the past 1000 years, a European origin for leprosy in the Americas, and the presence of an M. leprae genotype in medieval Europe now commonly associated with the Middle East. The exceptional preservation of M. leprae biomarkers, both DNA and mycolic acids, in ancient skeletons has major implications for palaeomicrobiology and human pathogen evolution.

  15. Cross-Disciplinary Biomarkers Research: Lessons Learned by the CKD Biomarkers Consortium.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Ballard, Shawn; Batlle, Daniel; Bonventre, Joseph V; Böttinger, Erwin P; Feldman, Harold I; Klein, Jon B; Coresh, Josef; Eckfeldt, John H; Inker, Lesley A; Kimmel, Paul L; Kusek, John W; Liu, Kathleen D; Mauer, Michael; Mifflin, Theodore E; Molitch, Mark E; Nelsestuen, Gary L; Rebholz, Casey M; Rovin, Brad H; Sabbisetti, Venkata S; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Waikar, Sushrut S; Whitehead, Krista M; Nelson, Robert G

    2015-05-07

    Significant advances are needed to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of persons with CKD. Discovery of new biomarkers and improvements in currently available biomarkers for CKD hold great promise to achieve these necessary advances. Interest in identification and evaluation of biomarkers for CKD has increased substantially over the past decade. In 2009, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases established the CKD Biomarkers Consortium (http://www.ckdbiomarkersconsortium.org/), a multidisciplinary, collaborative study group located at over a dozen academic medical centers. The main objective of the consortium was to evaluate new biomarkers for purposes related to CKD in established prospective cohorts, including those enriched for CKD. During the first 5 years of the consortium, many insights into collaborative biomarker research were gained that may be useful to other investigators involved in biomarkers research. These lessons learned are outlined in this Special Feature and include a wide range of issues related to biospecimen collection, storage, and retrieval, and the internal and external quality assessment of laboratories that performed the assays. The authors propose that investigations involving biomarker discovery and validation are greatly enhanced by establishing and following explicit quality control metrics, including the use of blind replicate and proficiency samples, by carefully considering the conditions under which specimens are collected, handled, and stored, and by conducting pilot and feasibility studies when there are concerns about the condition of the specimens or the accuracy or reproducibility of the assays. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Clinical proteomic biomarkers: relevant issues on study design & technical considerations in biomarker development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biomarker research is continuously expanding in the field of clinical proteomics. A combination of different proteomic–based methodologies can be applied depending on the specific clinical context of use. Moreover, current advancements in proteomic analytical platforms are leading to an expansion of biomarker candidates that can be identified. Specifically, mass spectrometric techniques could provide highly valuable tools for biomarker research. Ideally, these advances could provide with biomarkers that are clinically applicable for disease diagnosis and/ or prognosis. Unfortunately, in general the biomarker candidates fail to be implemented in clinical decision making. To improve on this current situation, a well-defined study design has to be established driven by a clear clinical need, while several checkpoints between the different phases of discovery, verification and validation have to be passed in order to increase the probability of establishing valid biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the technical proteomic platforms that are available along the different stages in the biomarker discovery pipeline, exemplified by clinical applications in the field of bladder cancer biomarker research. PMID:24679154

  17. Quantitative imaging biomarker ontology (QIBO) for knowledge representation of biomedical imaging biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Andrew J; Liu, Tiffany Ting; Savig, Erica; Suzek, Baris E; Ouellette, M; Danagoulian, J; Wernsing, G; Rubin, Daniel L; Paik, David

    2013-08-01

    A widening array of novel imaging biomarkers is being developed using ever more powerful clinical and preclinical imaging modalities. These biomarkers have demonstrated effectiveness in quantifying biological processes as they occur in vivo and in the early prediction of therapeutic outcomes. However, quantitative imaging biomarker data and knowledge are not standardized, representing a critical barrier to accumulating medical knowledge based on quantitative imaging data. We use an ontology to represent, integrate, and harmonize heterogeneous knowledge across the domain of imaging biomarkers. This advances the goal of developing applications to (1) improve precision and recall of storage and retrieval of quantitative imaging-related data using standardized terminology; (2) streamline the discovery and development of novel imaging biomarkers by normalizing knowledge across heterogeneous resources; (3) effectively annotate imaging experiments thus aiding comprehension, re-use, and reproducibility; and (4) provide validation frameworks through rigorous specification as a basis for testable hypotheses and compliance tests. We have developed the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Ontology (QIBO), which currently consists of 488 terms spanning the following upper classes: experimental subject, biological intervention, imaging agent, imaging instrument, image post-processing algorithm, biological target, indicated biology, and biomarker application. We have demonstrated that QIBO can be used to annotate imaging experiments with standardized terms in the ontology and to generate hypotheses for novel imaging biomarker-disease associations. Our results established the utility of QIBO in enabling integrated analysis of quantitative imaging data.

  18. Intermediate phenotypes and biomarkers of treatment outcome in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Leuchter, Andrew F.; Hunter, Aimee M.; Krantz, David E.; Cook, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a pleomorphic illness originating from gene x environment interactions. Patients with differing symptom phenotypes receive the same diagnosis and similar treatment recommendations without regard to genomics, brain structure or function, or other physiologic or psychosocial factors. Using this present approach, only one third of patients enter remission with the first medication prescribed, and patients may take longer than 1 year to enter remission with repeated trials. Research to improve treatment effectiveness recently has focused on identification of intermediate phenotypes (IPs) that could parse the heterogeneous population of patients with MDD into subgroups with more homogeneous responses to treatment. Such IPs could be used to develop biomarkers that could be applied clinically to match patients with the treatment that would be most likely to lead to remission. Putative biomarkers include genetic polymorphisms, RNA and protein expression (transcriptome and proteome), neurotransmitter levels (metabolome), additional measures of signaling cascades, oscillatory synchrony, neuronal circuits and neural pathways (connectome), along with other possible physiologic measures. All of these measures represent components of a continuum that extends from proximity to the genome to proximity to the clinical phenotype of depression, and there are many levels along this continuum at which useful IPs may be defined. Because of the highly integrative nature of brain systems and the complex neurobiology of depression, the most useful biomarkers are likely to be those with intermediate proximity both to the genome and the clinical phenotype of MDD. Translation of findings across the spectrum from genotype to phenotype promises to better characterize the complex disruptions in signaling and neuroplasticity that accompany MDD, and ultimately to lead to greater understanding of the causes of depressive illness. PMID:25733956

  19. Parkinson's disease biomarkers: perspective from the NINDS Parkinson's Disease Biomarkers Program

    PubMed Central

    Gwinn, Katrina; David, Karen K; Swanson-Fischer, Christine; Albin, Roger; Hillaire-Clarke, Coryse St; Sieber, Beth-Anne; Lungu, Codrin; Bowman, F DuBois; Alcalay, Roy N; Babcock, Debra; Dawson, Ted M; Dewey, Richard B; Foroud, Tatiana; German, Dwight; Huang, Xuemei; Petyuk, Vlad; Potashkin, Judith A; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Sutherland, Margaret; Walt, David R; West, Andrew B; Zhang, Jing; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Scherzer, Clemens R; Vaillancourt, David E; Rosenthal, Liana S

    2017-01-01

    Biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis, prognostication and clinical trial cohort selection are an urgent need. While many promising markers have been discovered through the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Parkinson's Disease Biomarker Program (PDBP) and other mechanisms, no single PD marker or set of markers are ready for clinical use. Here we discuss the current state of biomarker discovery for platforms relevant to PDBP. We discuss the role of the PDBP in PD biomarker identification and present guidelines to facilitate their development. These guidelines include: harmonizing procedures for biofluid acquisition and clinical assessments, replication of the most promising biomarkers, support and encouragement of publications that report negative findings, longitudinal follow-up of current cohorts including the PDBP, testing of wearable technologies to capture readouts between study visits and development of recently diagnosed (de novo) cohorts to foster identification of the earliest markers of disease onset. PMID:28644039

  20. Genomic and epigenomic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, De-Chen; Mayakonda, Anand; Dinh, Huy Q.; Huang, Pinbo; Lin, Lehang; Liu, Xiaoping; Ding, Ling-wen; Wang, Jie; Berman, Benjamin P.; Song, Er-Wei; Yin, Dong; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the intratumoral heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is instructive for developing personalized therapy and identifying molecular biomarkers. Here we applied whole-exome sequencing to 69 samples from 11 patients to resolve the genetic architecture of subclonal diversification. Spatial genomic diversity was found in all 11 HCC cases, with 29% of driver mutations being heterogeneous, including TERT, ARID1A, NOTCH2, and STAG2. Similar with other cancer types, TP53 mutations were always shared between all tumor regions i.e. located on the “trunk” of the evolutionary tree. In addition, we found that variants within several drug targets such as KIT, SYK and PIK3CA were mutated in a fully clonal manner, indicating their therapeutic potentials for HCC. Temporal dissection of mutational signatures suggested that mutagenic processes associated with exposure to aristolochic acid and aflatoxin might play a more important role in early, as opposed to late, stages of HCC development. Moreover, we observed extensive intratumoral epigenetic heterogeneity in HCC based on multiple independent analytical methods and showed that intratumoral methylation heterogeneity might play important roles in the biology of HCC cells. Our results also demonstrated prominent heterogeneity of intratumoral methylation even in a stable HCC genome. Together, these findings highlight widespread intratumoral heterogeneity at both the genomic and epigenomic levels in HCC and provide an important molecular foundation for better understanding the pathogenesis of this malignancy. PMID:28302680

  1. Nervous system regulation of the cancer genome

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Genomics-based analyses have provided deep insight into the basic biology of cancer and are now clarifying the molecular pathways by which psychological and social factors can regulate tumor cell gene expression and genome evolution. This review summarizes basic and clinical research on neural and endocrine regulation of the cancer genome and its interactions with the surrounding tumor microenvironment, including the specific types of genes subject to neural and endocrine regulation, the signal transduction pathways that mediate such effects, and therapeutic approaches that might be deployed to mitigate their impact. Beta-adrenergic signaling from the sympathetic nervous system has been found to up-regulated a diverse array of genes that contribute to tumor progression and metastasis, whereas glucocorticoid-regulated genes can inhibit DNA repair and promote cancer cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy. Relationships between socio-environmental risk factors, neural and endocrine signaling to the tumor microenvironment, and transcriptional responses by cancer cells and surrounding stromal cells are providing new mechanistic insights into the social epidemiology of cancer, new therapeutic approaches for protecting the health of cancer patients, and new molecular biomarkers for assessing the impact of behavioral and pharmacologic interventions. PMID:23207104

  2. Whole-exome/genome sequencing and genomics.

    PubMed

    Grody, Wayne W; Thompson, Barry H; Hudgins, Louanne

    2013-12-01

    As medical genetics has progressed from a descriptive entity to one focused on the functional relationship between genes and clinical disorders, emphasis has been placed on genomics. Genomics, a subelement of genetics, is the study of the genome, the sum total of all the genes of an organism. The human genome, which is contained in the 23 pairs of nuclear chromosomes and in the mitochondrial DNA of each cell, comprises >6 billion nucleotides of genetic code. There are some 23,000 protein-coding genes, a surprisingly small fraction of the total genetic material, with the remainder composed of noncoding DNA, regulatory sequences, and introns. The Human Genome Project, launched in 1990, produced a draft of the genome in 2001 and then a finished sequence in 2003, on the 50th anniversary of the initial publication of Watson and Crick's paper on the double-helical structure of DNA. Since then, this mass of genetic information has been translated at an ever-increasing pace into useable knowledge applicable to clinical medicine. The recent advent of massively parallel DNA sequencing (also known as shotgun, high-throughput, and next-generation sequencing) has brought whole-genome analysis into the clinic for the first time, and most of the current applications are directed at children with congenital conditions that are undiagnosable by using standard genetic tests for single-gene disorders. Thus, pediatricians must become familiar with this technology, what it can and cannot offer, and its technical and ethical challenges. Here, we address the concepts of human genomic analysis and its clinical applicability for primary care providers.

  3. Emerging role of immunotherapy in urothelial carcinoma - immunobiology/biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Sweis, Randy F.; Galsky, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Urothelial bladder cancer is one of the first cancers recognized to be immunogenic since 40 years ago when the use of bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) was shown to prevent recurrence. Since that time, our knowledge of immune biology of cancer has expanded tremendously, and bladder cancer patients finally have new active immunotherapeutic drugs with on the horizon. Anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/(programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) therapy has shown impressively durable responses in urothelial bladder cancer (UBC), but the reported response rates warrant improvement. To outline potential strategies to overcome tumor immune resistance, herein, we summarize current models of tumor immunology with a specific focus on bladder cancer. Recognition of tumor-specific antigens through cross-presentation, T cell priming and activation, and trafficking of immune cells to the tumor microenvironment are some of the critical steps we now understand to be necessary for an effective anti-tumor immune response. Many of the involved steps are important targets for therapeutic interventions. As new immunotherapies are developed, predictive biomarkers will also be important to select patients most likely to respond and to better understand tumor biology. Several potential biomarkers are reviewed including PD-L1 expression, identification of T cell-inflamed/non-T cell-inflamed tumors based on immune gene expression, intrinsic molecular subtyping based on luminal/basal or the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) groups, T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing, and somatic mutational density. Within even the past few years our current knowledge of immune biology has exploded, and we are highly optimistic about the future of UBC therapy that will be available to patients. PMID:27836246

  4. Integrated analysis of numerous heterogeneous gene expression profiles for detecting robust disease-specific biomarkers and proposing drug targets.

    PubMed

    Amar, David; Hait, Tom; Izraeli, Shai; Shamir, Ron

    2015-09-18

    Genome-wide expression profiling has revolutionized biomedical research; vast amounts of expression data from numerous studies of many diseases are now available. Making the best use of this resource in order to better understand disease processes and treatment remains an open challenge. In particular, disease biomarkers detected in case-control studies suffer from low reliability and are only weakly reproducible. Here, we present a systematic integrative analysis methodology to overcome these shortcomings. We assembled and manually curated more than 14,000 expression profiles spanning 48 diseases and 18 expression platforms. We show that when studying a particular disease, judicious utilization of profiles from other diseases and information on disease hierarchy improves classification quality, avoids overoptimistic evaluation of that quality, and enhances disease-specific biomarker discovery. This approach yielded specific biomarkers for 24 of the analyzed diseases. We demonstrate how to combine these biomarkers with large-scale interaction, mutation and drug target data, forming a highly valuable disease summary that suggests novel directions in disease understanding and drug repurposing. Our analysis also estimates the number of samples required to reach a desired level of biomarker stability. This methodology can greatly improve the exploitation of the mountain of expression profiles for better disease analysis. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. The use of multiplexed MRM for the discovery of biomarkers to differentiate iron-deficiency anemia from anemia of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Dominik; Cohen Freue, Gabriela V; Sojo, Luis; Kuzyk, Michael A; Ratkay, Leslie; Parker, Carol E; Goldberg, Y Paul; Borchers, Christoph H

    2012-06-27

    In this study we demonstrate the use of a multiplexed MRM-based assay to distinguish among normal (NL) and iron-metabolism disorder mouse models, particularly, iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), inflammation (INFL), and inflammation and anemia (INFL+IDA). Our initial panel of potential biomarkers was based on the analysis of 14 proteins expressed by candidate genes involved in iron transport and metabolism. Based on this study, we were able to identify a panel of 8 biomarker proteins: apolipoprotein A4 (APO4), transferrin, transferrin receptor 1, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, lactoferrin, hemopexin, and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP8) that clearly distinguish among the normal and disease models. Within this set of proteins, transferrin showed the best individual classification accuracy over all samples (72%) and within the NL group (94%). Compared to the best single-protein biomarker, transferrin, the use of the composite 8-protein biomarker panel improved the classification accuracy from 94% to 100% in the NL group, from 50% to 72% in the INFL group, from 66% to 96% in the IDA group, and from 79% to 83% in the INFL+IDA group. Based on these findings, validation of the utility of this potentially important biomarker panel in human samples in an effort to differentiate IDA, inflammation, and combinations thereof, is now warranted. This article is part of a Special Section entitled: Understanding genome regulation and genetic diversity by mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of renal biomarkers for use in clinical trials: biomarker evaluation in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Brott, David A; Adler, Scott H; Arani, Ramin; Lovick, Susan C; Pinches, Mark; Furlong, Stephen T

    2014-01-01

    Background Several preclinical urinary biomarkers have been qualified and accepted by the health authorities (US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, and Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency) for detecting drug-induced kidney injury during preclinical toxicologic testing. Validated human assays for many of these biomarkers have become commercially available, and this study was designed to characterize some of the novel clinical renal biomarkers. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical renal biomarkers in a typical Phase I healthy volunteer population to determine confidence intervals (pilot reference intervals), intersubject and intrasubject variability, effects of food intake, effect of sex, and vendor assay comparisons. Methods Spot urine samples from 20 male and 19 female healthy volunteers collected on multiple days were analyzed using single analyte and multiplex assays. The following analytes were measured: α-1-microglobulin, β-2-microglobulin, calbindin, clusterin, connective tissue growth factor, creatinine, cystatin C, glutathione S-transferase-α, kidney injury marker-1, microalbumin, N-acetyl-β-(D) glucosaminidase, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, osteopontin, Tamm-Horsfall urinary glycoprotein, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, trefoil factor 3, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Results Confidence intervals were determined from the single analyte and multiplex assays. Intersubject and intrasubject variability ranged from 38% to 299% and from 29% to 82% for biomarker concentration, and from 24% to 331% and from 10% to 67% for biomarker concentration normalized to creatinine, respectively. There was no major effect of food intake or sex. Single analyte and multiplex assays correlated with r2≥0.700 for five of six biomarkers when evaluating biomarker concentration, but for only two biomarkers when evaluating concentration normalized to creatinine. Conclusion Confidence intervals as well as

  7. Characterization of renal biomarkers for use in clinical trials: biomarker evaluation in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Brott, David A; Adler, Scott H; Arani, Ramin; Lovick, Susan C; Pinches, Mark; Furlong, Stephen T

    2014-01-01

    Several preclinical urinary biomarkers have been qualified and accepted by the health authorities (US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, and Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency) for detecting drug-induced kidney injury during preclinical toxicologic testing. Validated human assays for many of these biomarkers have become commercially available, and this study was designed to characterize some of the novel clinical renal biomarkers. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical renal biomarkers in a typical Phase I healthy volunteer population to determine confidence intervals (pilot reference intervals), intersubject and intrasubject variability, effects of food intake, effect of sex, and vendor assay comparisons. Spot urine samples from 20 male and 19 female healthy volunteers collected on multiple days were analyzed using single analyte and multiplex assays. The following analytes were measured: α-1-microglobulin, β-2-microglobulin, calbindin, clusterin, connective tissue growth factor, creatinine, cystatin C, glutathione S-transferase-α, kidney injury marker-1, microalbumin, N-acetyl-β-(D) glucosaminidase, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, osteopontin, Tamm-Horsfall urinary glycoprotein, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, trefoil factor 3, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Confidence intervals were determined from the single analyte and multiplex assays. Intersubject and intrasubject variability ranged from 38% to 299% and from 29% to 82% for biomarker concentration, and from 24% to 331% and from 10% to 67% for biomarker concentration normalized to creatinine, respectively. There was no major effect of food intake or sex. Single analyte and multiplex assays correlated with r (2)≥0.700 for five of six biomarkers when evaluating biomarker concentration, but for only two biomarkers when evaluating concentration normalized to creatinine. Confidence intervals as well as intersubject and intrasubject

  8. Systematic review and meta-analysis of immunohistochemical prognostic biomarkers in resected oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    McCormick Matthews, L H; Noble, F; Tod, J; Jaynes, E; Harris, S; Primrose, J N; Ottensmeier, C; Thomas, G J; Underwood, T J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) is one of the fastest rising malignancies with continued poor prognosis. Many studies have proposed novel biomarkers but, to date, no immunohistochemical markers of survival after oesophageal resection have entered clinical practice. Here, we systematically review and meta-analyse the published literature, to identify potential biomarkers. Methods: Relevant articles were identified via Ovid medline 1946–2013. For inclusion, studies had to conform to REporting recommendations for tumor MARKer (REMARK) prognostic study criteria. The primary end-point was a pooled hazard ratio (HR) and variance, summarising the effect of marker expression on prognosis. Results: A total of 3059 articles were identified. After exclusion of irrelevant titles and abstracts, 214 articles were reviewed in full. Nine molecules had been examined in more than one study (CD3, CD8, COX-2, EGFR, HER2, Ki67, LgR5, p53 and VEGF) and were meta-analysed. Markers with largest survival effects were COX-2 (HR=2.47, confidence interval (CI)=1.15–3.79), CD3 (HR=0.51, 95% CI=0.32–0.70), CD8 (HR=0.55, CI=0.31–0.80) and EGFR (HR=1.65, 95% CI=1.14–2.16). Discussion: Current methods have not delivered clinically useful molecular prognostic biomarkers in OAC. We have highlighted the paucity of good-quality robust studies in this field. A genome-to-protein approach would be better suited for the development and subsequent validation of biomarkers. Large collaborative projects with standardised methodology will be required to generate clinically useful biomarkers. PMID:26110972

  9. Methodological requirements for valid tissue-based biomarker studies that can be used in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    True, Lawrence D

    2014-03-01

    Paralleling the growth of ever more cost efficient methods to sequence the whole genome in minute fragments of tissue has been the identification of increasingly numerous molecular abnormalities in cancers--mutations, amplifications, insertions and deletions of genes, and patterns of differential gene expression, i.e., overexpression of growth factors and underexpression of tumor suppressor genes. These abnormalities can be translated into assays to be used in clinical decision making. In general terms, the result of such an assay is subject to a large number of variables regarding the characteristics of the available sample, particularities of the used assay, and the interpretation of the results. This review discusses the effects of these variables on assays of tissue-based biomarkers, classified by macromolecule--DNA, RNA (including micro RNA, messenger RNA, long noncoding RNA, protein, and phosphoprotein). Since the majority of clinically applicable biomarkers are immunohistochemically detectable proteins this review focuses on protein biomarkers. However, the principles outlined are mostly applicable to any other analyte. A variety of preanalytical variables impacts on the results obtained, including analyte stability (which is different for different analytes, i.e., DNA, RNA, or protein), period of warm and of cold ischemia, fixation time, tissue processing, sample storage time, and storage conditions. In addition, assay variables play an important role, including reagent specificity (notably but not uniquely an issue concerning antibodies used in immunohistochemistry), technical components of the assay, quantitation, and assay interpretation. Finally, appropriateness of an assay for clinical application is an important issue. Reference is made to publicly available guidelines to improve on biomarker development in general and requirements for clinical use in particular. Strategic goals are formulated in order to improve on the quality of biomarker reporting

  10. Separate class true discovery rate degree of association sets for biomarker identification.

    PubMed

    Crager, Michael R; Ahmed, Murat

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Efron showed that biological features in a high-dimensional study can be divided into classes and a separate false discovery rate (FDR) analysis can be conducted in each class using information from the entire set of features to assess the FDR within each class. We apply this separate class approach to true discovery rate degree of association (TDRDA) set analysis, which is used in clinical-genomic studies to identify sets of biomarkers having strong association with clinical outcome or state while controlling the FDR. Careful choice of classes based on prior information can increase the identification power of the separate class analysis relative to the overall analysis.

  11. Comprehensive Analysis of Cancer-Proteogenome to Identify Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis and Prognosis of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Hem D

    2017-10-25

    During the past century, our understanding of cancer diagnosis and treatment has been based on a monogenic approach, and as a consequence our knowledge of the clinical genetic underpinnings of cancer is incomplete. Since the completion of the human genome in 2003, it has steered us into therapeutic target discovery, enabling us to mine the genome using cutting edge proteogenomics tools. A number of novel and promising cancer targets have emerged from the genome project for diagnostics, therapeutics, and prognostic markers, which are being used to monitor response to cancer treatment. The heterogeneous nature of cancer has hindered progress in understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to abnormal cellular growth. Since, the start of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the International Genome consortium projects, there has been tremendous progress in genome sequencing and immense numbers of cancer genomes have been completed, and this approach has transformed our understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancers. By employing Genomics and proteomics technologies, an immense amount of genomic data is being generated on clinical tumors, which has transformed the cancer landscape and has the potential to transform cancer diagnosis and prognosis. A complete molecular view of the cancer landscape is necessary for understanding the underlying mechanisms of cancer initiation to improve diagnosis and prognosis, which ultimately will lead to personalized treatment. Interestingly, cancer proteome analysis has also allowed us to identify biomarkers to monitor drug and radiation resistance in patients undergoing cancer treatment. Further, TCGA-funded studies have allowed for the genomic and transcriptomic characterization of targeted cancers, this analysis aiding the development of targeted therapies for highly lethal malignancy. High-throughput technologies, such as complete proteome, epigenome, protein-protein interaction, and pharmacogenomics

  12. Short-term biomarkers of apple consumption.

    PubMed

    Saenger, Theresa; Hübner, Florian; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    Urinary biomarkers are used to estimate the nutritional intake of humans. The aim of this study was to distinguish between low, medium, and high apple consumption by quantifying possible intake biomarkers in urine samples after apple consumption by HPLC-MS/MS. Apples were chosen as they are the most consumed fruits in Germany. Thirty subjects took part in 7-day study. They abstained from apples and apple products except for one weighed apple portion resembling one, two, or four apples. Before apple consumption and during the following days spot urine samples were collected. These urine samples were incubated with β-glucuronidase, diluted, and directly measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Phloretin, epicatechin, procyanidin B2, and quercetin were detected in urine using Scheduled MRM TM mode. Phloretin was confirmed as a urinary biomarker of apple intake and had the ability to discriminate between low or medium (one or two apples) and high apple consumption (four apples). The groups also differ in the excretion of epicatechin and procyanidin B2. Apple consumption can be monitored by urinary biomarkers for a period of at least 12 h after consumption. Furthermore the amount of apples consumed can be estimated by the concentration of certain biomarkers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Biomarker development targeting unmet clinical needs.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Phillip J; Lord, Sarah J; St John, Andrew; Sandberg, Sverre; Cobbaert, Christa M; Lennartz, Lieselotte; Verhagen-Kamerbeek, Wilma D J; Ebert, Christoph; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Horvath, Andrea R

    2016-09-01

    The introduction of new biomarkers can lead to inappropriate utilization of tests if they do not fill in existing gaps in clinical care. We aimed to define a strategy and checklist for identifying unmet needs for biomarkers. A multidisciplinary working group used a 4-step process: 1/ scoping literature review; 2/ face-to-face meetings to discuss scope, strategy and checklist items; 3/ iterative process of feedback and consensus to develop the checklist; 4/ testing and refinement of checklist items using case scenarios. We used clinical pathway mapping to identify clinical management decisions linking biomarker testing to health outcomes and developed a 14-item checklist organized into 4 domains: 1/ identifying and 2/ verifying the unmet need; 3/ validating the intended use; and 4/ assessing the feasibility of the new biomarker to influence clinical practice and health outcome. We present an outcome-focused approach that can be used by multiple stakeholders for any medical test, irrespective of the purpose and role of testing. The checklist intends to achieve more efficient biomarker development and translation into practice. We propose the checklist is field tested by stakeholders, and advocate the role of the clinical laboratory professional to foster trans-sector collaboration in this regard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Searching for ‘omic’ biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, David; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Meredith, Anna; McManus, Bruce M

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases impose enormous social and economic burdens on both individual citizens and on society as a whole. Clinical indicators such as high blood pressure, blood cholesterol and obesity have had some utility in identifying those who are at increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, there remains an urgent need for sensitive and specific indicators, preferably acquired through minimally invasive means, to help stratify patients for more personalized health care. As such, there has been a steadily growing interest in searching for ‘omic’ biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases. Historically, the transition of cardiac biomarker discovery to implementation has been a lengthy and somewhat unregulated process. Recent technological advancements, as well as concurrent efforts by regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (United States) and Health Canada to establish policies and guidelines in the ‘omic’ arena, have helped propel the discovery and validation of biomarkers forward. The present paper provides perspective on current strategies in the bio-marker development pathway, as well as the potential limitations associated with each step from discovery to clinical uptake. Canadian biomarker studies now underway illustrate the possibilities for assessment of risk, diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapy, and for the drug discovery process. PMID:19521568

  15. Protein biomarker validation via proximity ligation assays.

    PubMed

    Blokzijl, A; Nong, R; Darmanis, S; Hertz, E; Landegren, U; Kamali-Moghaddam, M

    2014-05-01

    The ability to detect minute amounts of specific proteins or protein modifications in blood as biomarkers for a plethora of human pathological conditions holds great promise for future medicine. Despite a large number of plausible candidate protein biomarkers published annually, the translation to clinical use is impeded by factors such as the required size of the initial studies, and limitations of the technologies used. The proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a versatile molecular tool that has the potential to address some obstacles, both in validation of biomarkers previously discovered using other techniques, and for future routine clinical diagnostic needs. The enhanced specificity of PLA extends the opportunities for large-scale, high-performance analyses of proteins. Besides advantages in the form of minimal sample consumption and an extended dynamic range, the PLA technique allows flexible assay reconfiguration. The technology can be adapted for detecting protein complexes, proximity between proteins in extracellular vesicles or in circulating tumor cells, and to address multiple post-translational modifications in the same protein molecule. We discuss herein requirements for biomarker validation, and how PLA may play an increasing role in this regard. We describe some recent developments of the technology, including proximity extension assays, the use of recombinant affinity reagents suitable for use in proximity assays, and the potential for single cell proteomics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  16. Computational biology for cardiovascular biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Azuaje, Francisco; Devaux, Yvan; Wagner, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Computational biology is essential in the process of translating biological knowledge into clinical practice, as well as in the understanding of biological phenomena based on the resources and technologies originating from the clinical environment. One such key contribution of computational biology is the discovery of biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes using 'omic' information. This process involves the predictive modelling and integration of different types of data and knowledge for screening, diagnostic or prognostic purposes. Moreover, this requires the design and combination of different methodologies based on statistical analysis and machine learning. This article introduces key computational approaches and applications to biomarker discovery based on different types of 'omic' data. Although we emphasize applications in cardiovascular research, the computational requirements and advances discussed here are also relevant to other domains. We will start by introducing some of the contributions of computational biology to translational research, followed by an overview of methods and technologies used for the identification of biomarkers with predictive or classification value. The main types of 'omic' approaches to biomarker discovery will be presented with specific examples from cardiovascular research. This will include a review of computational methodologies for single-source and integrative data applications. Major computational methods for model evaluation will be described together with recommendations for reporting models and results. We will present recent advances in cardiovascular biomarker discovery based on the combination of gene expression and functional network analyses. The review will conclude with a discussion of key challenges for computational biology, including perspectives from the biosciences and clinical areas.

  17. Drug-Encoded Biomarkers for Monitoring Biological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bedenk, Kristina; Zhang, Qian; Frentzen, Alexa; Cappello, Joseph; Fischer, Utz; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2015-01-01

    Blood tests are necessary, easy-to-perform and low-cost alternatives for monitoring of oncolytic virotherapy and other biological therapies in translational research. Here we assessed three candidate proteins with the potential to be used as biomarkers in biological fluids: two glucuronidases from E. coli (GusA) and Staphylococcus sp. RLH1 (GusPlus), and the luciferase from Gaussia princeps (GLuc). The three genes encoding these proteins were inserted individually into vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 genome under the control of an identical promoter. The three resulting recombinant viruses were used to infect tumor cells in cultures and human tumor xenografts in nude mice. In contrast to the actively secreted GLuc, the cytoplasmic glucuronidases GusA and GusPlus were released into the supernatants only as a result of virus-mediated oncolysis. GusPlus resulted in the most sensitive detection of enzyme activity under controlled assay conditions in samples containing as little as 1 pg/ml of GusPlus, followed by GusA (25 pg/ml) and GLuc (≥375 pg/ml). Unexpectedly, even though GusA had a lower specific activity compared to GusPlus, the substrate conversion in the serum of tumor-bearing mice injected with the GusA-encoding virus strains was substantially higher than that of GusPlus. This was attributed to a 3.2 fold and 16.2 fold longer half-life of GusA in the blood stream compared to GusPlus and GLuc respectively, thus a more sensitive monitor of virus replication than the other two enzymes. Due to the good correlation between enzymatic activity of expressed marker gene and virus titer, we conclude that the amount of the biomarker protein in the body fluid semiquantitatively represents the amount of virus in the infected tumors which was confirmed by low light imaging. We found GusA to be the most reliable biomarker for monitoring oncolytic virotherapy among the three tested markers. PMID:26348361

  18. Emerging biomarkers for cancer immunotherapy in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Margaret L; Johnson, Douglas B; Balko, Justin M

    2017-09-14

    The treatment and prognosis of metastatic melanoma has changed substantially since the advent of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), agents that enhance the anti-tumor immune response. Despite the success of these agents, clinically actionable biomarkers to aid patient and regimen selection are lacking. Herein, we summarize and review the evidence for candidate biomarkers of response to ICIs in melanoma. Many of these candidates can be examined as parts of a known molecular pathway of immune response, while others are clinical in nature. Due to the ability of ICIs to illicit dramatic and durable responses, well-validated biomarkers that can be effectively implemented in the clinic will require strong negative predictive values that do not limit patients with who may benefit from ICI therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular biomarkers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Brett; Brown, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biomarkers are highly desired in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), where they hold the potential to elucidate underlying disease mechanisms, accelerated drug development, and advance clinical management. Currently, there are no molecular biomarkers in widespread clinical use for IPF, and the search for potential markers remains in its infancy. Proposed core mechanisms in the pathogenesis of IPF for which candidate markers have been offered include alveolar epithelial cell dysfunction, immune dysregulation, and fibrogenesis. Useful markers reflect important pathological pathways, are practically and accurately measured, have undergone extensive validation, and are an improvement upon the current approach for their intended use. The successful development of useful molecular biomarkers is a central challenge for the future of translational research in IPF and will require collaborative efforts among those parties invested in advancing the care of patients with IPF. PMID:25260757

  20. Biomarkers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Swords, Douglas S; Firpo, Matthew A; Scaife, Courtney L; Mulvihill, Sean J

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of 7.7%. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage not amenable to potentially curative resection. A substantial portion of this review is dedicated to reviewing the current literature on carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9), which is currently the only guideline-recommended biomarker for PDAC. It provides valuable prognostic information, can predict resectability, and is useful in decision making about neoadjuvant therapy. We also discuss carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 125, serum biomarker panels, circulating tumor cells, and cell-free nucleic acids. Although many biomarkers have now been studied in relation to PDAC, significant work still needs to be done to validate their usefulness in the early detection of PDAC and management of patients with PDAC.

  1. Biomarkers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Swords, Douglas S; Firpo, Matthew A; Scaife, Courtney L; Mulvihill, Sean J

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of 7.7%. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage not amenable to potentially curative resection. A substantial portion of this review is dedicated to reviewing the current literature on carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9), which is currently the only guideline-recommended biomarker for PDAC. It provides valuable prognostic information, can predict resectability, and is useful in decision making about neoadjuvant therapy. We also discuss carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 125, serum biomarker panels, circulating tumor cells, and cell-free nucleic acids. Although many biomarkers have now been studied in relation to PDAC, significant work still needs to be done to validate their usefulness in the early detection of PDAC and management of patients with PDAC. PMID:28003762

  2. Experimental Design in Clinical 'Omics Biomarker Discovery.

    PubMed

    Forshed, Jenny

    2017-11-03

    This tutorial highlights some issues in the experimental design of clinical 'omics biomarker discovery, how to avoid bias and get as true quantities as possible from biochemical analyses, and how to select samples to improve the chance of answering the clinical question at issue. This includes the importance of defining clinical aim and end point, knowing the variability in the results, randomization of samples, sample size, statistical power, and how to avoid confounding factors by including clinical data in the sample selection, that is, how to avoid unpleasant surprises at the point of statistical analysis. The aim of this Tutorial is to help translational clinical and preclinical biomarker candidate research and to improve the validity and potential of future biomarker candidate findings.

  3. Cardiac Biomarkers: a Focus on Cardiac Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Forough, Reza; Scarcello, Catherine; Perkins, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Historically, biomarkers have been used in two major ways to maintain and improve better health status: first, for diagnostic purposes, and second, as specific targets to treat various diseases. A new era in treatment and even cure for the some diseases using reprograming of somatic cells is about to be born. In this approach, scientists are successfully taking human skin cells (previously considered terminally-differentiated cells) and re-programming them into functional cardiac myocytes and other cell types in vitro. A cell reprograming approach for treatment of cardiovascular diseases will revolutionize the field of medicine and significantly expand the human lifetime. Availability of a comprehensive catalogue for cardiac biomarkers is necessary for developing cell reprograming modalities to treat cardiac diseases, as well as for determining the progress of reprogrammed cells as they become cardiac cells. In this review, we present a comprehensive survey of the cardiac biomarkers currently known. PMID:23074366

  4. Biomarkers in the evolution of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Nonimaging biomarkers can be applied in differential diagnosis, evaluation of disease progression and therapy monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). Presence of oligoclonal IgG bands in cerebrospinal fluid is a diagnostic element and a negative predictor of MS evolution. AQP4 antibodies are pathogenic and diagnostic for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein develop in about 50% of predominantly pediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, but their possible role in pathogenesis is unknown. Currently, there are no individualized biomarkers suitable to track disease progression. Neutralizing antibodies against IFN-β, natalizumab and daclizumab arise with variable frequency and reduce treatment efficacy. The anti-John Cunningham virus antibody index has potential as a biomarker for risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

  5. Biomarkers for CNS involvement in pediatric lupus

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Tamar B; Putterman, Chaim; Goilav, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    CNS disease, or central neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (cNPSLE), occurs frequently in pediatric lupus, leading to significant morbidity and poor long-term outcomes. Diagnosing cNPSLE is especially difficult in pediatrics; many current diagnostic tools are invasive and/or costly, and there are no current accepted screening mechanisms. The most complicated aspect of diagnosis is differentiating primary disease from other etiologies; research to discover new biomarkers is attempting to address this dilemma. With many mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cNPSLE, biomarker profiles across several modalities (molecular, psychometric and neuroimaging) will need to be used. For the care of children with lupus, the challenge will be to develop biomarkers that are accessible by noninvasive measures and reliable in a pediatric population. PMID:26079959

  6. Comparative Genomics in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Oti, Martin; Pane, Attilio; Sammeth, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Since the pioneering studies of Thomas Hunt Morgan and coworkers at the dawn of the twentieth century, Drosophila melanogaster and its sister species have tremendously contributed to unveil the rules underlying animal genetics, development, behavior, evolution, and human disease. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies launched Drosophila into the post-genomic era and paved the way for unprecedented comparative genomics investigations. The complete sequencing and systematic comparison of the genomes from 12 Drosophila species represents a milestone achievement in modern biology, which allowed a plethora of different studies ranging from the annotation of known and novel genomic features to the evolution of chromosomes and, ultimately, of entire genomes. Despite the efforts of countless laboratories worldwide, the vast amount of data that were produced over the past 15 years is far from being fully explored.In this chapter, we will review some of the bioinformatic approaches that were developed to interrogate the genomes of the 12 Drosophila species. Setting off from alignments of the entire genomic sequences, the degree of conservation can be separately evaluated for every region of the genome, providing already first hints about elements that are under purifying selection and therefore likely functional. Furthermore, the careful analysis of repeated sequences sheds light on the evolutionary dynamics of transposons, an enigmatic and fascinating class of mobile elements housed in the genomes of animals and plants. Comparative genomics also aids in the computational identification of the transcriptionally active part of the genome, first and foremost of protein-coding loci, but also of transcribed nevertheless apparently noncoding regions, which were once considered "junk" DNA. Eventually, the synergy between functional and comparative genomics also facilitates in silico and in vivo studies on cis-acting regulatory elements, like transcription factor binding

  7. National Plant Genome Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    trials have also identified new objectives for vegetable breeding programs, expedited by knowledge and tools from crop genomics and farmer demand...The same tools and resources are being applied to develop improved crops and new breeding strategies, as well. With the sequencing of the rice genome...marker-assisted breeding strategies for wheat • Establishment of a comparative cereal genomics database, Gramene, which uses the complete rice

  8. Biomarkers in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a comparison with biomarkers in cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, Nanguneri; Grom, Alexei; Gram, Hermann

    2014-09-01

    This review summarizes biomarkers in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). Broadly, the markers are classified under protein, cellular, gene expression and genetic markers. We also compare the biomarkers in sJIA to biomarkers in cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS). Recent publications showing the similarity of clinical response of sJIA and CAPS to anti-interleukin 1 therapies prompted a comparison at the biomarker level. sJIA traditionally is classified under the umbrella of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. At the clinical phenotypic level, sJIA has several features that are more similar to those seen in CAPS. In this review, we summarize biomarkers in sJIA and CAPS and draw upon the various similarities and differences between the two families of diseases. The main differences between sJIA and CAPS biomarkers are genetic markers, with CAPS being a family of monogenic diseases with mutations in NLRP3. There have been a small number of publications describing cellular biomarkers in sJIA with no such studies described for CAPS. Many of the protein marker's characteristics of sJIA are also seen to characterize CAPS. The gene expression data in both sJIA and CAPS show a strong upregulation of innate immunity pathways. In addition, we describe a strong similarity between sJIA and CAPS at the gene expression level in which several genes that form a part of the erythropoiesis signature are upregulated in both sJIA and CAPS.

  9. Laboratory issues: use of nutritional biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Blanck, Heidi Michels; Bowman, Barbara A; Cooper, Gerald R; Myers, Gary L; Miller, Dayton T

    2003-03-01

    Biomarkers of nutritional status provide alternative measures of dietary intake. Like the error and variation associated with dietary intake measures, the magnitude and impact of both biological (preanalytical) and laboratory (analytical) variability need to be considered when one is using biomarkers. When choosing a biomarker, it is important to understand how it relates to nutritional intake and the specific time frame of exposure it reflects as well as how it is affected by sampling and laboratory procedures. Biological sources of variation that arise from genetic and disease states of an individual affect biomarkers, but they are also affected by nonbiological sources of variation arising from specimen collection and storage, seasonality, time of day, contamination, stability and laboratory quality assurance. When choosing a laboratory for biomarker assessment, researchers should try to make sure random and systematic error is minimized by inclusion of certain techniques such as blinding of laboratory staff to disease status and including external pooled standards to which laboratory staff are blinded. In addition analytic quality control should be ensured by use of internal standards or certified materials over the entire range of possible values to control method accuracy. One must consider the effect of random laboratory error on measurement precision and also understand the method's limit of detection and the laboratory cutpoints. Choosing appropriate cutpoints and reducing error is extremely important in nutritional epidemiology where weak associations are frequent. As part of this review, serum lipids are included as an example of a biomarker whereby collaborative efforts have been put forth to both understand biological sources of variation and standardize laboratory results.

  10. Between Two Fern Genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ferns are the only major lineage of vascular plants not represented by a sequenced nuclear genome. This lack of genome sequence information significantly impedes our ability to understand and reconstruct genome evolution not only in ferns, but across all land plants. Azolla and Ceratopteris are ideal and complementary candidates to be the first ferns to have their nuclear genomes sequenced. They differ dramatically in genome size, life history, and habit, and thus represent the immense diversity of extant ferns. Together, this pair of genomes will facilitate myriad large-scale comparative analyses across ferns and all land plants. Here we review the unique biological characteristics of ferns and describe a number of outstanding questions in plant biology that will benefit from the addition of ferns to the set of taxa with sequenced nuclear genomes. We explain why the fern clade is pivotal for understanding genome evolution across land plants, and we provide a rationale for how knowledge of fern genomes will enable progress in research beyond the ferns themselves. PMID:25324969

  11. [Landscape and ecological genomics].

    PubMed

    Tetushkin, E Ia

    2013-10-01

    Landscape genomics is the modern version of landscape genetics, a discipline that arose approximately 10 years ago as a combination of population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. It studies the effects of environmental variables on gene flow and other microevolutionary processes that determine genetic connectivity and variations in populations. In contrast to population genetics, it operates at the level of individual specimens rather than at the level of population samples. Another important difference between landscape genetics and genomics and population genetics is that, in the former, the analysis of gene flow and local adaptations takes quantitative account of landforms and features of the matrix, i.e., hostile spaces that separate species habitats. Landscape genomics is a part of population ecogenomics, which, along with community genomics, is a major part of ecological genomics. One of the principal purposes of landscape genomics is the identification and differentiation of various genome-wide and locus-specific effects. The approaches and computation tools developed for combined analysis of genomic and landscape variables make it possible to detect adaptation-related genome fragments, which facilitates the planning of conservation efforts and the prediction of species' fate in response to expected changes in the environment.

  12. Evolutionary genomics of Entamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Weedall, Gareth D.; Hall, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a human pathogen that causes amoebic dysentery and leads to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding the genome and evolution of the parasite will help explain how, when and why it causes disease. Here we review current knowledge about the evolutionary genomics of Entamoeba: how differences between the genomes of different species may help explain different phenotypes, and how variation among E. histolytica parasites reveals patterns of population structure. The imminent expansion of the amount genome data will greatly improve our knowledge of the genus and of pathogenic species within it. PMID:21288488

  13. Genomes by design

    PubMed Central

    Haimovich, Adrian D.; Muir, Paul; Isaacs, Farren J.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing has revealed the complete genome sequences of numerous organisms, establishing a fundamental and growing understanding of genetic variation and phenotypic diversity. Engineering at the gene, network and whole-genome scale aims to introduce targeted genetic changes both to explore emergent phenotypes and to introduce new functionalities. Expansion of these approaches into massively parallel platforms establishes the ability to generate targeted genome modifications, elucidating causal links between genotype and phenotype, as well as the ability to design and reprogramme organisms. In this Review, we explore techniques and applications in genome engineering, outlining key advances and defining challenges. PMID:26260262

  14. Fungal Genomics Program

    SciT

    Grigoriev, Igor

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scalemore » genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.« less

  15. MIPS plant genome information resources.

    PubMed

    Spannagl, Manuel; Haberer, Georg; Ernst, Rebecca; Schoof, Heiko; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2007-01-01

    The Munich Institute for Protein Sequences (MIPS) has been involved in maintaining plant genome databases since the Arabidopsis thaliana genome project. Genome databases and analysis resources have focused on individual genomes and aim to provide flexible and maintainable data sets for model plant genomes as a backbone against which experimental data, for example from high-throughput functional genomics, can be organized and evaluated. In addition, model genomes also form a scaffold for comparative genomics, and much can be learned from genome-wide evolutionary studies.

  16. Biomarkers of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Automobiles

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ian; St Helen, Gideon; Meyers, Matthew; Dempsey, Delia A.; Havel, Christopher; Jacob, Peyton; Northcross, Amanda; Hammond, S. Katharine; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were: (1) to characterize the exposure of nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle using biomarkers, (2) to describe the time-course of the biomarkers over 24 h, and (3) to examine the relationship between tobacco biomarkers and airborne concentrations of SHS markers. Methods Eight nonsmokers were individually exposed to SHS in cars with fully open front windows and closed back windows over an hour from a smoker who smoked 3 cigarettes at 20 min intervals. The nonsmokers sat in the backseat-passenger side, while the smoker sat in the driver’s seat. Plasma cotinine and urine cotinine, 3-hydroxycotinine (3HC), and 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) were compared in samples taken at baseline and several time-points after exposure. Nicotine, particulate matter (PM2.5), and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured inside and outside the vehicle and ventilation rates in the cars were measured. Results Average plasma cotinine and the molar sum of urine cotinine and 3HC (COT+3HC) increased 4-fold, urine cotinine increased 6-fold, and urine NNAL increased ~27 times compared to baseline biomarker levels. Plasma cotinine, urine COT+3HC and NNAL peaked at 4–8 hours post-exposure while urine cotinine peaked within 4 hours. Plasma cotinine was significantly correlated to PM2.5 (Spearman correlation (rs = 0.94) and CO (rs = 0.76) but not to air nicotine. The correlations between urine biomarkers, cotinine, COT+3HC, and NNAL and air nicotine, PM2.5, and CO were moderate but non-significant (rs range, 0.31 – 0.60). Conclusion Brief SHS exposure in cars resulted in substantial increases in levels of tobacco biomarkers in nonsmokers. For optimal characterization of SHS exposure, tobacco biomarkers should be measured within 4–8 h post-exposure. Additional studies are needed to better describe the relationship between tobacco biomarkers and environmental markers of SHS. PMID:23349229

  17. Biomarkers of secondhand smoke exposure in automobiles.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian A; St Helen, Gideon; Meyers, Matthew J; Dempsey, Delia A; Havel, Christopher; Jacob, Peyton; Northcross, Amanda; Hammond, S Katharine; Benowitz, Neal L

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to characterise the exposure of non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle using biomarkers, (2) to describe the time course of the biomarkers over 24 h, and (3) to examine the relationship between tobacco biomarkers and airborne concentrations of SHS markers. Eight non-smokers were individually exposed to SHS in cars with fully open front windows and closed back windows over an hour from a smoker who smoked three cigarettes at 20 min intervals. The non-smokers sat in the back seat on the passenger side, while the smoker sat in the driver's seat. Plasma cotinine and urine cotinine, 3-hydroxycotinine (3HC) and 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) were compared in samples taken at baseline (BL) and several time-points after exposure. Nicotine, particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured inside and outside the vehicle and ventilation rates in the cars were measured. Average plasma cotinine and the molar sum of urine cotinine and 3HC (COT+3HC) increased four-fold, urine cotinine increased six-fold and urine NNAL increased ∼27 times compared to BL biomarker levels. Plasma cotinine, urine COT+3HC and NNAL peaked at 4-8 h post-exposure while urine cotinine peaked within 4 h. Plasma cotinine was significantly correlated to PM2.5 (Spearman correlation rs=0.94) and CO (rs=0.76) but not to air nicotine. The correlations between urine biomarkers, cotinine, COT+3HC and NNAL, and air nicotine, PM2.5 and CO were moderate but non-significant (rs range =  0.31-0.60). Brief SHS exposure in cars resulted in substantial increases in levels of tobacco biomarkers in non-smokers. For optimal characterisation of SHS exposure, tobacco biomarkers should be measured within 4-8 h post-exposure. Additional studies are needed to better describe the relationship between tobacco biomarkers and environmental markers of SHS.

  18. [Biomarkers of Metabolism and Iron Nutrition].

    PubMed

    Sermini, Carmen Gloria; Acevedo, María José; Arredondo, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide, and the most susceptible groups are infants, preschoolers, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women. It is therefore essential to understand the mechanisms of regulation of iron uptake, transport, and absorption at the cellular level, particularly in enterocytes, and to identify blood biomarkers that allow the evaluation of iron status. This review describes how iron absorption is regulated by intestinal epithelial cells, the main proteins involved (iron transporters, oxidoreductases, storage proteins), and the main blood biomarkers of iron metabolism.

  19. Biomarkers of multiorgan injury in neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Saima; Molloy, Eleanor J

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major contributor to neurodevelopmental deficits including cerebral palsy in term and near-term infants. The long-term neurodevelopmental outcome is difficult to predict with certainty in first few days of life. Multiorgan involvement is common but not part of the diagnostic criteria for NE. The most frequently involved organs are the heart, liver, kidneys and hematological system. Cerebral and organ involvement is associated with the release of organ specific biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. These biomarkers may have a role in the assessment of the severity of asphyxia and long-term outcome in neonates with NE.

  20. Biomarkers and Targeted Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karandish, Fataneh; Mallik, Sanku

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) constitutes 90% of pancreatic cancers. PDAC is a complex and devastating disease with only 1%–3% survival rate in five years after the second stage. Treatment of PDAC is complicated due to the tumor microenvironment, changing cell behaviors to the mesenchymal type, altered drug delivery, and drug resistance. Considering that pancreatic cancer shows early invasion and metastasis, critical research is needed to explore different aspects of the disease, such as elaboration of biomarkers, specific signaling pathways, and gene aberration. In this review, we highlight the biomarkers, the fundamental signaling pathways, and their importance in targeted drug delivery for pancreatic cancers. PMID:27147897

  1. Biomarkers and Targeted Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Karandish, Fataneh; Mallik, Sanku

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) constitutes 90% of pancreatic cancers. PDAC is a complex and devastating disease with only 1%-3% survival rate in five years after the second stage. Treatment of PDAC is complicated due to the tumor microenvironment, changing cell behaviors to the mesenchymal type, altered drug delivery, and drug resistance. Considering that pancreatic cancer shows early invasion and metastasis, critical research is needed to explore different aspects of the disease, such as elaboration of biomarkers, specific signaling pathways, and gene aberration. In this review, we highlight the biomarkers, the fundamental signaling pathways, and their importance in targeted drug delivery for pancreatic cancers.

  2. Oral Metagenomic Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0320 TITLE: Oral Metagenomic Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Edward K Chan CONTRACTING...Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0320 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Edward K Chan 5d...significant difference in the oral  microbiome at the subspecies level of individuals with  rheumatoid   arthritis  (RA). The goal is to test the

  3. Home - The Cancer Genome Atlas - Cancer Genome - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a comprehensive and coordinated effort to accelerate our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of genome analysis technologies, including large-scale genome sequencing.

  4. De Novo Identification of Biomarker Proteins Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many studies have shown that biological fluids contain an important number of biomarkers associated with various pathologies. For instance, there has been extensive research to identify effective biomarkers as prognostic indicators of breast cancer. An effective approach for biom...

  5. Genomic analysis of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Hazard, Florette K; Zmoos, Anne-Flore; Jahchan, Nadine; Chaib, Hassan; Garfin, Phillip M; Rangaswami, Arun; Snyder, Michael P; Sage, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric tumors are relatively infrequent, but are often associated with significant lethality and lifelong morbidity. A major goal of pediatric cancer research has been to identify key drivers of tumorigenesis to eventually develop targeted therapies to enhance cure rate and minimize acute and long-term toxic effects. Here, we used genomic approaches to identify biomarkers and candidate drivers for fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC), a very rare subtype of pediatric liver cancer for which limited therapeutic options exist. In-depth genomic analyses of one tumor followed by immunohistochemistry validation on seven other tumors showed expression of neuroendocrine markers in FL-HCC. DNA and RNA sequencing data further showed that common cancer pathways are not visibly altered in FL-HCC but identified two novel structural variants, both resulting in fusion transcripts. The first, a 400 kb deletion, results in a DNAJB1-PRKCA fusion transcript, which leads to increased cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity in the index tumor case and other FL-HCC cases compared with normal liver. This PKA fusion protein is oncogenic in HCC cells. The second gene fusion event, a translocation between the CLPTM1L and GLIS3 genes, generates a transcript whose product also promotes cancer phenotypes in HCC cell lines. These experiments further highlight the tumorigenic role of gene fusions in the etiology of pediatric solid tumors and identify both candidate biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets for this lethal pediatric disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Better cancer biomarker discovery through better study design.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Andrew; Ahsan, Habibul; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-12-01

    High-throughput laboratory technologies coupled with sophisticated bioinformatics algorithms have tremendous potential for discovering novel biomarkers, or profiles of biomarkers, that could serve as predictors of disease risk, response to treatment or prognosis. We discuss methodological issues in wedding high-throughput approaches for biomarker discovery with the case-control study designs typically used in biomarker discovery studies, especially focusing on nested case-control designs. We review principles for nested case-control study design in relation to biomarker discovery studies and describe how the efficiency of biomarker discovery can be effected by study design choices. We develop a simulated prostate cancer cohort data set and a series of biomarker discovery case-control studies nested within the cohort to illustrate how study design choices can influence biomarker discovery process. Common elements of nested case-control design, incidence density sampling and matching of controls to cases are not typically factored correctly into biomarker discovery analyses, inducing bias in the discovery process. We illustrate how incidence density sampling and matching of controls to cases reduce the apparent specificity of truly valid biomarkers 'discovered' in a nested case-control study. We also propose and demonstrate a new case-control matching protocol, we call 'antimatching', that improves the efficiency of biomarker discovery studies. For a valid, but as yet undiscovered, biomarker(s) disjunctions between correctly designed epidemiologic studies and the practice of biomarker discovery reduce the likelihood that true biomarker(s) will be discovered and increases the false-positive discovery rate. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2012 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  7. Microarray Genomic Systems Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    11 species), Escherichia coli TOP10 (7 strains), and Geobacillus stearothermophilus . Using standard molecular biology methods, we isolated genomic...comparisons. Results: Different species of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Bacillus bacteria, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus produce qualitatively...oligonucleotides to labelled genomic DNA from a set of test samples, including eleven Bacillus species, Geobacillus stearothermophilus , and seven Escherichia

  8. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    PubMed

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetics and Genomics

    Good progress is being made on genetics and genomics of sugar beet, however it is in process and the tools are now being generated and some results are being analyzed. The GABI BeetSeq project released a first draft of the sugar beet genome of KWS2320, a dihaploid (see http://bvseq.molgen.mpg.de/Gen...

  10. Genomic understanding of dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senjie

    2011-01-01

    The phylum of dinoflagellates is characterized by many unusual and interesting genomic and physiological features, the imprint of which, in its immense genome, remains elusive. Much novel understanding has been achieved in the last decade on various aspects of dinoflagellate biology, but most remarkably about the structure, expression pattern and epigenetic modification of protein-coding genes in the nuclear and organellar genomes. Major findings include: 1) the great diversity of dinoflagellates, especially at the base of the dinoflagellate tree of life; 2) mini-circularization of the genomes of typical dinoflagellate plastids (with three membranes, chlorophylls a, c1 and c2, and carotenoid peridinin), the scrambled mitochondrial genome and the extensive mRNA editing occurring in both systems; 3) ubiquitous spliced leader trans-splicing of nuclear-encoded mRNA and demonstrated potential as a novel tool for studying dinoflagellate transcriptomes in mixed cultures and natural assemblages; 4) existence and expression of histones and other nucleosomal proteins; 5) a ribosomal protein set expected of typical eukaryotes; 6) genetic potential of non-photosynthetic solar energy utilization via proton-pump rhodopsin; 7) gene candidates in the toxin synthesis pathways; and 8) evidence of a highly redundant, high gene number and highly recombined genome. Despite this progress, much more work awaits genome-wide transcriptome and whole genome sequencing in order to unfold the molecular mechanisms underlying the numerous mysterious attributes of dinoflagellates. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Phanerochaete chrysosporium genomics

    Luis F. Larrondo; Rafael Vicuna; Dan Cullen

    2005-01-01

    A high quality draft genome sequence has been generated for the lignocellulose-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Martinez et al. 2004). Analysis of the genome in the context of previously established genetics and physiology is presented. Transposable elements and their potential relationship to genes involved in lignin degradation are systematically...

  12. SERUM BIOMARKERS OF AGING IN THE BROWN NORWAY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Serum biomarkers to identify susceptibility to disease in aged humans are well researched. On the other hand, our understanding of biomarkers in animal models of aging is limited. Hence, we applied a commercially available panel of 58 serum analytes to screen for possible biomark...

  13. Biomarkers: Delivering on the expectation of molecularly driven, quantitative health.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jennifer L; Altman, Russ B

    2018-02-01

    Biomarkers are the pillars of precision medicine and are delivering on expectations of molecular, quantitative health. These features have made clinical decisions more precise and personalized, but require a high bar for validation. Biomarkers have improved health outcomes in a few areas such as cancer, pharmacogenetics, and safety. Burgeoning big data research infrastructure, the internet of things, and increased patient participation will accelerate discovery in the many areas that have not yet realized the full potential of biomarkers for precision health. Here we review themes of biomarker discovery, current implementations of biomarkers for precision health, and future opportunities and challenges for biomarker discovery. Impact statement Precision medicine evolved because of the understanding that human disease is molecularly driven and is highly variable across patients. This understanding has made biomarkers, a diverse class of biological measurements, more relevant for disease diagnosis, monitoring, and selection of treatment strategy. Biomarkers' impact on precision medicine can be seen in cancer, pharmacogenomics, and safety. The successes in these cases suggest many more applications for biomarkers and a greater impact for precision medicine across the spectrum of human disease. The authors assess the status of biomarker-guided medical practice by analyzing themes for biomarker discovery, reviewing the impact of these markers in the clinic, and highlight future and ongoing challenges for biomarker discovery. This work is timely and relevant, as the molecular, quantitative approach of precision medicine is spreading to many disease indications.

  14. Biomarkers: New breakthroughs in the world of air pollution studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session aims are to show the use of biomarkers in better understanding health effects derived from air pollution and to provide updates on the utility of new biomarker techniques including “omics”-type of analyses. Presentations that focus on improved use of biomarkers of...

  15. Biomarkers and diagnostics in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gaggin, Hanna K; Januzzi, James L

    2013-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) biomarkers have dramatically impacted the way HF patients are evaluated and managed. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) are the gold standard biomarkers in determining the diagnosis and prognosis of HF, and studies on natriuretic peptide-guided HF management look promising. An array of additional biomarkers has emerged, each reflecting different pathophysiological processes in the development and progression of HF: myocardial insult, inflammation and remodeling. Novel biomarkers, such as mid-regional pro atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), mid-regional pro adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), highly sensitive troponins, soluble ST2 (sST2), growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15 and Galectin-3, show potential in determining prognosis beyond the established natriuretic peptides, but their role in the clinical care of the patient is still partially defined and more studies are needed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart failure pathogenesis and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Erum A

    2016-03-01

    Kidney disease and its related comorbidities impose a large public health burden. Despite this, the number of clinical trials in nephrology lags behind many other fields. An important factor contributing to the relatively slow pace of nephrology trials is that existing clinical endpoints have significant limitations. "Hard" endpoints for chronic kidney disease, such as progression to end-stage renal disease, may not be reached for decades. Traditional biomarkers, such as serum creatinine in acute kidney injury, may lack sensitivity and predictive value. Finding new biomarkers to serve as surrogate endpoints is therefore an important priority in kidney disease research and may help to accelerate nephrology clinical trials. In this paper, I first review key concepts related to the selection of clinical trial endpoints and discuss statistical and regulatory considerations related to the evaluation of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints. This is followed by a discussion of the challenges and opportunities in developing novel biomarkers and surrogate endpoints in three major areas of nephrology research: acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

  17. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Kidney disease and its related comorbidities impose a large public health burden. Despite this, the number of clinical trials in nephrology lags behind many other fields. An important factor contributing to the relatively slow pace of nephrology trials is that existing clinical endpoints have significant limitations. “Hard” endpoints for chronic kidney disease, such as progression to end-stage renal disease, may not be reached for decades. Traditional biomarkers, such as serum creatinine in acute kidney injury, may lack sensitivity and predictive value. Finding new biomarkers to serve as surrogate endpoints is therefore an important priority in kidney disease research and may help to accelerate nephrology clinical trials. In this paper, I first review key concepts related to the selection of clinical trial endpoints and discuss statistical and regulatory considerations related to the evaluation of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints. This is followed by a discussion of the challenges and opportunities in developing novel biomarkers and surrogate endpoints in three major areas of nephrology research: acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:25980469

  18. Multiplexed Electrochemical Immunosensors for Clinical Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Campuzano, Susana; Pingarrón, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Management and prognosis of disease requires the accurate determination of specific biomarkers indicative of normal or disease-related biological processes or responses to therapy. Moreover since multiple determinations of biomarkers have demonstrated to provide more accurate information than individual determinations to assist the clinician in prognosis and diagnosis, the detection of several clinical biomarkers by using the same analytical device hold enormous potential for early detection and personalized therapy and will simplify the diagnosis providing more information in less time. In this field, electrochemical immunosensors have demonstrated to offer interesting alternatives against conventional strategies due to their simplicity, fast response, low cost, high sensitivity and compatibility with multiplexed determination, microfabrication technology and decentralized determinations, features which made them very attractive for integration in point-of-care (POC) devices. Therefore, in this review, the relevance and current challenges of multiplexed determination of clinical biomarkers are briefly introduced, and an overview of the electrochemical immunosensing platforms developed so far for this purpose is given in order to demonstrate the great potential of these methodologies. After highlighting the main features of the selected examples, the unsolved challenges and future directions in this field are also briefly discussed. PMID:28448466

  19. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    NUMBER Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0497 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...suspected of alcohol abuse. Toxicol Lett, 151(1), 235-241. Graham, D. P., Cardon , A. L., & Uhl, G. R. (2008). An update on substance use and treatment

  20. IMMUNOASSAYS FOR BIOMARKERS AND NEUTRACEUTICALS/PHARMACEUTICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Product is an abstract for an invited oral platform presentation to be given at the Pittsburgh Conference to be held February 25 - March 2, 2007 in Chicago, Ilinois. The presentation will describe methods research for the development of bioanalytical methods to measure biomarker...

  1. Biomarkers Indigenous to Late Archean Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigenbrode, J. L.; Freeman, K. H.; Summons, R. E.; Love, G. D.; Snape, C. E.

    2003-12-01

    Two new lines of evidence support the authenticity of molecular fossils in late Archean rocks of the Hamersley Province, Western Australia. Specifically, they support 1) a syngenetic relationship between the kerogen and extractable biomarkers, and 2) a indigenous relationship between extractable compounds and the host rocks. Carbon skeletons released from kerogen via high-pressure hydropyrolysis match those found in associated extracted bitumen. Biomarker ratios indicate less mature steranes and terpanes (i.e. hopanes and tricyclic terpanes) are embedded in the kerogen matrix as compared to the highly mature steranes and terpanes in the extracts, which is similar to findings in other hydropyrolysis experiments. Lithology-associated variations in biomarker distributions are noteworthy and suggest environmental settings are associated with differing biotic ecosystems. The evidence reported here confirms the 2.7 Ga antiquity of diverse biosynthetic pathways. Molecular data, together with isotopic data, indicate aerobic and anaerobic respiration pathways were fundamental to the complex microbial biogeochemistry of the late Archean. The biomarkers in these rocks support an early radiation of the three domains of life and radiation within the bacteria, such that clades of cyanobacteria, green sulfur bacteria, and proteobacteria had been established.

  2. Biomarkers and Genetics in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Surovi; Annex, Brian H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is highly prevalent and there is considerable diversity in the initial clinical manifestation and disease progression among individuals. Currently, there is no ideal biomarker to screen for PAD, to risk stratify patients with PAD, or to monitor therapeutic response to revascularization procedures. Advances in human genetics have markedly enhanced the ability to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches across a host of human diseases, but such developments in the field of PAD are lagging. CONTENT In this article, we will discuss the epidemiology, traditional risk factors for, and clinical presentations of PAD. We will discuss the possible role of genetic factors and gene–environment interactions in the development and/or progression of PAD. We will further explore future avenues through which genetic advances can be used to better our understanding of the pathophysiology of PAD and potentially find newer therapeutic targets. We will discuss the potential role of biomarkers in identifying patients at risk for PAD and for risk stratifying patients with PAD, and novel approaches to identification of reliable biomarkers in PAD. SUMMARY The exponential growth of genetic tools and newer technologies provides opportunities to investigate and identify newer pathways in the development and progression of PAD, and thereby in the identification of newer biomarkers and therapies. PMID:27872083

  3. Blood Biomarkers in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Guiot, Julien; Moermans, Catherine; Henket, Monique; Corhay, Jean-Louis; Louis, Renaud

    2017-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal lung disease of unknown origin whose incidence has been increasing over the latest decade partly as a consequence of population ageing. New anti-fibrotic therapy including pirfenidone and nintedanib have now proven efficacy in slowing down the disease. Nevertheless, diagnosis and follow-up of IPF remain challenging. This review examines the recent literature on potentially useful blood molecular and cellular biomarkers in IPF. Most of the proposed biomarkers belong to chemokines (IL-8, CCL18), proteases (MMP-1 and MMP-7), and growth factors (IGBPs) families. Circulating T cells and fibrocytes have also gained recent interest in that respect. Up to now, though several interesting candidates are profiling there has not been a single biomarker, which proved to be specific of the disease and predictive of the evolution (decline of pulmonary function test values, risk of acute exacerbation or mortality). Large scale multicentric studies are eagerly needed to confirm the utility of these biomarkers.

  4. LIPID BIOMARKER ANALYSIS OF MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many marine eukaryotic algae have been shown to possess characteristic chemotaxonomic lipid biomarkers. Dinoflagellates in particular are often characterized by the presence of sterols and pigments that are rarely found in other classes of algae. To evaluate the utility of chemic...

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Candidates for Parkinsonian Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu, Radu; Mondello, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The Parkinsonian disorders are a large group of neurodegenerative diseases including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) and atypical Parkinsonian disorders (APD), such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The etiology of these disorders is not known although it is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the greatest obstacles for developing efficacious disease-modifying treatment strategies is the lack of biomarkers. Reliable biomarkers are needed for early and accurate diagnosis, to measure disease progression, and response to therapy. In this review several of the most promising cerebrospinal biomarker candidates are discussed. Alpha-synuclein seems to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and its levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid and in plasma. In a similar way, tau protein accumulation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Urate, a potent antioxidant, seems to be associated to the risk of developing PD and with its progression. Neurofilament light chain levels are increased in APD compared with PD and healthy controls. The new “omics” techniques are potent tools offering new insights in the patho-etiology of these disorders. Some of the difficulties encountered in developing biomarkers are discussed together with future perspectives. PMID:23346074

  6. Quantitative multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers

    DOEpatents

    Mukundan, Harshini; Xie, Hongzhi; Swanson, Basil I.; Martinez, Jennifer; Grace, Wynne K.

    2016-02-09

    The present invention addresses the simultaneous detection and quantitative measurement of multiple biomolecules, e.g., pathogen biomarkers through either a sandwich assay approach or a lipid insertion approach. The invention can further employ a multichannel, structure with multi-sensor elements per channel.

  7. Quantitative multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers

    DOEpatents

    Mukundan, Harshini; Xie, Hongzhi; Swanson, Basil I; Martinez, Jennifer; Grace, Wynne K

    2014-10-14

    The present invention addresses the simultaneous detection and quantitative measurement of multiple biomolecules, e.g., pathogen biomarkers through either a sandwich assay approach or a lipid insertion approach. The invention can further employ a multichannel, structure with multi-sensor elements per channel.

  8. Consensus Paper: Radiological Biomarkers of Cerebellar Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baldarçara, Leonardo; Currie, Stuart; Hadjivassiliou, M.; Hoggard, Nigel; Jack, Allison; Jackowski, Andrea P.; Mascalchi, Mario; Parazzini, Cecilia; Reetz, Kathrin; Righini, Andrea; Schulz, Jörg B.; Vella, Alessandra; Webb, Sara Jane; Habas, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary and sporadic cerebellar ataxias represent a vast and still growing group of diseases whose diagnosis and differentiation cannot only rely on clinical evaluation. Brain imaging including magnetic resonance (MR) and nuclear medicine techniques allows for characterization of structural and functional abnormalities underlying symptomatic ataxias. These methods thus constitute a potential source of radiological biomarkers, which could be used to identify these diseases and differentiate subgroups of them, and to assess their severity and their evolution. Such biomarkers mainly comprise qualitative and quantitative data obtained from MR including proton spectroscopy, diffusion imaging, tractography, voxel-based morphometry, functional imaging during task execution or in a resting state, and from SPETC and PET with several radiotracers. In the current article, we aim to illustrate briefly some applications of these neuroimaging tools to evaluation of cerebellar disorders such as inherited cerebellar ataxia, fetal developmental malformations, and immune-mediated cerebellar diseases and of neurodegenerative or early-developing diseases, such as dementia and autism in which cerebellar involvement is an emerging feature. Although these radiological biomarkers appear promising and helpful to better understand ataxia-related anatomical and physiological impairments, to date, very few of them have turned out to be specific for a given ataxia with atrophy of the cerebellar system being the main and the most usual alteration being observed. Consequently, much remains to be done to establish sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of available MR and nuclear medicine features as diagnostic, progression and surrogate biomarkers in clinical routine. PMID:25382714

  9. Biomarker Guided Therapy in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Sema

    2015-01-01

    This review article addresses the question of whether biomarker-guided therapy is ready for clinical implementation in chronic heart failure. The most well-known biomarkers in heart failure are natriuretic peptides, namely B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-BNP. They are well-established in the diagnostic process of acute heart failure and prediction of disease prognosis. They may also be helpful in screening patients at risk of developing heart failure. Although studied by 11 small- to medium-scale trials resulting in several positive meta-analyses, it is less well-established whether natriuretic peptides are also helpful for guiding chronic heart failure therapy. This uncertainty is expressed by differences in European and American guideline recommendations. In addition to reviewing the evidence surrounding the use of natriuretic peptides to guide chronic heart failure therapy, this article gives an overview of the shortcomings of the trials, how the results may be interpreted and the future directions necessary to fill the current gaps in knowledge. Therapy guidance in chronic heart failure using other biomarkers has not been prospectively tested to date. Emerging biomarkers, such as galectin-3 and soluble ST2, might be useful in this regard, as suggested by several post-hoc analyses. PMID:28785440

  10. Biomarkers in Pediatric ARDS: Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Orwoll, Benjamin E; Sapru, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common among mechanically ventilated children and accompanies up to 30% of all pediatric intensive care unit deaths. Though ARDS diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, biological markers of acute lung damage have been extensively studied in adults and children. Biomarkers of inflammation, alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial disruption, disordered coagulation, and associated derangements measured in the circulation and other body fluids, such as bronchoalveolar lavage, have improved our understanding of pathobiology of ARDS. The biochemical signature of ARDS has been increasingly well described in adult populations, and this has led to the identification of molecular phenotypes to augment clinical classifications. However, there is a paucity of data from pediatric ARDS (pARDS) patients. Biomarkers and molecular phenotypes have the potential to identify patients at high risk of poor outcomes, and perhaps inform the development of targeted therapies for specific groups of patients. Additionally, because of the lower incidence of and mortality from ARDS in pediatric patients relative to adults and lack of robust clinical predictors of outcome, there is an ongoing interest in biological markers as surrogate outcome measures. The recent definition of pARDS provides additional impetus for the measurement of established and novel biomarkers in future pediatric studies in order to further characterize this disease process. This chapter will review the currently available literature and discuss potential future directions for investigation into biomarkers in ARDS among children.

  11. Biomarkers in Pediatric ARDS: Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Orwoll, Benjamin E.; Sapru, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common among mechanically ventilated children and accompanies up to 30% of all pediatric intensive care unit deaths. Though ARDS diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, biological markers of acute lung damage have been extensively studied in adults and children. Biomarkers of inflammation, alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial disruption, disordered coagulation, and associated derangements measured in the circulation and other body fluids, such as bronchoalveolar lavage, have improved our understanding of pathobiology of ARDS. The biochemical signature of ARDS has been increasingly well described in adult populations, and this has led to the identification of molecular phenotypes to augment clinical classifications. However, there is a paucity of data from pediatric ARDS (pARDS) patients. Biomarkers and molecular phenotypes have the potential to identify patients at high risk of poor outcomes, and perhaps inform the development of targeted therapies for specific groups of patients. Additionally, because of the lower incidence of and mortality from ARDS in pediatric patients relative to adults and lack of robust clinical predictors of outcome, there is an ongoing interest in biological markers as surrogate outcome measures. The recent definition of pARDS provides additional impetus for the measurement of established and novel biomarkers in future pediatric studies in order to further characterize this disease process. This chapter will review the currently available literature and discuss potential future directions for investigation into biomarkers in ARDS among children. PMID:27313995

  12. Novel biomarkers for sepsis: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Frederik Fruergaard; Petersen, J Asger

    2017-11-01

    Sepsis is a prevalent condition among hospitalized patients that carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Rapid recognition of sepsis as the cause of deterioration is desirable, so effective treatment can be initiated rapidly. Traditionally, diagnosis was based on presence of two or more positive SIRS criteria due to infection. However, recently published sepsis-3 criteria put more emphasis on organ dysfunction caused by infection in the definition of sepsis. Regardless of this, no gold standard for diagnosis exist, and clinicians still rely on a number of traditional and novel biomarkers to discriminate between patients with and without infection, as the cause of deterioration. Narrative review of current literature. A number of the most promising biomarkers for diagnoses and prognostication of sepsis are presented. Procalcitonin, presepsin, CD64, suPAR, and sTREM-1 are the best evaluated biomarkers for diagnosis and prognostication of sepsis to date. All have limitations in differentiation between infected and non-infected patients with SIRS, and their future role in diagnosis needs to be evaluated. It is important to test utility, performance, and validity of future biomarkers before implementing them in routine clinical care. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    prostate cancer research community for testing candidate biomarkers. Groups using the resource include Dr. Jeremy Squire, Dr. Gustavo Ayala, and Dr...Ferrari, Javier Hernandez , Antonio Hurtado-Coll, Kyle Kuchinsky, Janet Liew, Rosario Mendez-Meza, Elizabeth Smith, Imelda Tenggarra, Xiaotun Zhang

  14. Biomarkers in Japanese Encephalitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kant Upadhyay, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    JE is a flavivirus generated dreadful CNS disease which causes high mortality in various pediatric groups. JE disease is currently diagnosed by measuring the level of viral antigens and virus neutralization IgM antibodies in blood serum and CSF by ELISA. However, it is not possible to measure various disease-identifying molecules, structural and molecular changes occurred in tissues, and cells by using such routine methods. However, few important biomarkers such as cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, neuro-imaging, brain mapping, immunotyping, expression of nonstructural viral proteins, systematic mRNA profiling, DNA and protein microarrays, active caspase-3 activity, reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, levels of stress-associated signaling molecules, and proinflammatory cytokines could be used to confirm the disease at an earlier stage. These biomarkers may also help to diagnose mutant based environment specific alterations in JEV genotypes causing high pathogenesis and have immense future applications in diagnostics. There is an utmost need for the development of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable physiological, immunological, biochemical, biophysical, molecular, and therapeutic biomarkers to confirm the disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Hence, the present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of JE disease and its related disorders in the future. PMID:24455705

  15. Validation of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ziding Feng, Ph.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER Email : ZFeng3@mdanderson.org 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...algorithm to facilitate the scoring of TMA stains. We will work with investigators to write papers reporting tested TMA Biomarkers. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  16. Reconciled rat and human metabolic networks for comparative toxicogenomics and biomarker predictions

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Edik M.; Rawls, Kristopher D.; Dougherty, Bonnie V.; Li, Zhuo I.; Kolling, Glynis L.; Ye, Ping; Wallqvist, Anders; Papin, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    The laboratory rat has been used as a surrogate to study human biology for more than a century. Here we present the first genome-scale network reconstruction of Rattus norvegicus metabolism, iRno, and a significantly improved reconstruction of human metabolism, iHsa. These curated models comprehensively capture metabolic features known to distinguish rats from humans including vitamin C and bile acid synthesis pathways. After reconciling network differences between iRno and iHsa, we integrate toxicogenomics data from rat and human hepatocytes, to generate biomarker predictions in response to 76 drugs. We validate comparative predictions for xanthine derivatives with new experimental data and literature-based evidence delineating metabolite biomarkers unique to humans. Our results provide mechanistic insights into species-specific metabolism and facilitate the selection of biomarkers consistent with rat and human biology. These models can serve as powerful computational platforms for contextualizing experimental data and making functional predictions for clinical and basic science applications. PMID:28176778

  17. How Nanotechnology and Biomedical Engineering Are Supporting the Identification of Predictive Biomarkers in Neuro-Oncology.

    PubMed

    Ganau, Mario; Paris, Marco; Syrmos, Nikolaos; Ganau, Laura; Ligarotti, Gianfranco K I; Moghaddamjou, Ali; Prisco, Lara; Ambu, Rossano; Chibbaro, Salvatore

    2018-02-26

    The field of neuro-oncology is rapidly progressing and internalizing many of the recent discoveries coming from research conducted in basic science laboratories worldwide. This systematic review aims to summarize the impact of nanotechnology and biomedical engineering in defining clinically meaningful predictive biomarkers with a potential application in the management of patients with brain tumors. Data were collected through a review of the existing English literature performed on Scopus, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, and/or Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials: all available basic science and clinical papers relevant to address the above-stated research question were included and analyzed in this study. Based on the results of this systematic review we can conclude that: (1) the advances in nanotechnology and bioengineering are supporting tremendous efforts in optimizing the methods for genomic, epigenomic and proteomic profiling; (2) a successful translational approach is attempting to identify a growing number of biomarkers, some of which appear to be promising candidates in many areas of neuro-oncology; (3) the designing of Randomized Controlled Trials will be warranted to better define the prognostic value of those biomarkers and biosignatures.

  18. Innovative biomarkers in psychiatric disorders: a major clinical challenge in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lozupone, Madia; Seripa, Davide; Stella, Eleonora; La Montagna, Maddalena; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Quaranta, Nicola; Veneziani, Federica; Cester, Alberto; Sardone, Rodolfo; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Giannelli, Gianluigi; Bisceglia, Paola; Bringiotti, Roberto; Daniele, Antonio; Greco, Antonio; Bellomo, Antonello; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Panza, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Currently, the diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses is based upon DSM-5 criteria. Although endophenotype-specificity for a particular disorder is discussed, the identification of objective biomarkers is ongoing for aiding diagnosis, prognosis, or clinical response to treatment. We need to improve the understanding of the biological abnormalities in psychiatric illnesses across conventional diagnostic boundaries. The present review investigates the innovative post-genomic knowledge used for psychiatric illness diagnostics and treatment response, with a particular focus on proteomics. Areas covered: This review underlines the contribution that psychiatric innovative biomarkers have reached in relation to diagnosis and theragnosis of psychiatric illnesses. Furthermore, it encompasses a reliable representation of their involvement in disease through proteomics, metabolomics/pharmacometabolomics and lipidomics techniques, including the possible role that gut microbiota and CYP2D6 polimorphisms may play in psychiatric illnesses. Expert opinion: Etiologic heterogeneity, variable expressivity, and epigenetics may impact clinical manifestations, making it difficult for a single measurement to be pathognomonic for multifaceted psychiatric disorders. Academic, industry, or government's partnerships may successfully identify and validate new biomarkers so that unfailing clinical tests can be developed. Proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics techniques are considered to be helpful tools beyond neuroimaging and neuropsychology for the phenotypic characterization of brain diseases.

  19. Precision Oncology Medicine: The Clinical Relevance of Patient-Specific Biomarkers Used to Optimize Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Keith T; Chau, Cindy H; Price, Douglas K; Figg, William D

    2016-12-01

    Precision medicine in oncology is the result of an increasing awareness of patient-specific clinical features coupled with the development of genomic-based diagnostics and targeted therapeutics. Companion diagnostics designed for specific drug-target pairs were the first to widely utilize clinically applicable tumor biomarkers (eg, HER2, EGFR), directing treatment for patients whose tumors exhibit a mutation susceptible to an FDA-approved targeted therapy (eg, trastuzumab, erlotinib). Clinically relevant germline mutations in drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (eg, TPMT, DPYD) have been shown to impact drug response, providing a rationale for individualized dosing to optimize treatment. The use of multigene expression-based assays to analyze an array of prognostic biomarkers has been shown to help direct treatment decisions, especially in breast cancer (eg, Oncotype DX). More recently, the use of next-generation sequencing to detect many potential "actionable" cancer molecular alterations is further shifting the 1 gene-1 drug paradigm toward a more comprehensive, multigene approach. Currently, many clinical trials (eg, NCI-MATCH, NCI-MPACT) are assessing novel diagnostic tools with a combination of different targeted therapeutics while also examining tumor biomarkers that were previously unexplored in a variety of cancer histologies. Results from ongoing trials such as the NCI-MATCH will help determine the clinical utility and future development of the precision-medicine approach. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Emerging Role of MicroRNAs as Liquid Biopsy Biomarkers in Gastrointestinal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Shigeyasu, Kunitoshi; Toden, Shusuke; Zumwalt, Timothy J.; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Goel, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    Cancer has emerged as a leading cause of mortality worldwide, claiming over 8 million lives annually. Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers account for ~35% of these mortalities. Recent advances in diagnostic and treatment strategies have reduced mortality among GI cancer patients, yet a significant number of patients still develop late-stage cancer, where treatment options are inadequate. Emerging interests in ‘liquid biopsies’ have encouraged investigators to identify and develop clinically-relevant noninvasive genomic and epigenomic signatures that can be exploited as biomarkers capable of detecting premalignant and early-stage cancers. In this context, microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small non-coding RNAs that are frequently dysregulated in cancers, have emerged as promising entities for such diagnostic purposes. Albeit the future looks promising, current approaches for detecting miRNAs in blood and other biofluids remain inadequate. This review summarizes existing efforts to exploit circulating miRNAs as cancer biomarkers, evaluates their potential and challenges as liquid biopsy-based biomarkers for GI cancers. PMID:28143873

  1. Controversies regarding and perspectives on clinical utility of biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pei-Pei; Xia, Ju-Feng; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kokudo, Norihiro; Tang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide parallels that of persistent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to recommendations by the World Health Organization guidelines for HBV/HCV, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) testing and abdominal ultrasound should be performed in routine surveillance of HCC every 6 mo for high-risk patients. These examinations have also been recommended worldwide by many other HCC guidelines over the past few decades. In recent years, however, the role of AFP in HCC surveillance and diagnosis has diminished due to advances in imaging modalities. AFP was excluded from the surveillance and/or diagnostic criteria in the HCC guidelines published by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases in 2010, the European Association for the Study of the Liver in 2012, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network in 2014. Other biomarkers, including the Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), des-γ-carboxyprothrombin, Dickkopf-1, midkine, and microRNA, are being studied in this regard. Furthermore, increasing attention has focused on the clinical utility of biomarkers as pre-treatment predictors for tumor recurrence and as post-treatment monitors. Serum and tissue-based biomarkers and genomics may aid in the diagnosis of HCC, determination of patient prognosis, and selection of appropriate treatment. However, further studies are needed to better characterize the accuracy and potential role of these approaches in clinical practice. PMID:26755875

  2. Blood-borne biomarkers and bioindicators for linking exposure to health effects in environmental health science.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.

  3. Genetic biomarkers for brain hemisphere differentiation in Parkinson's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourani, Mou'ath; Mendes, Alexandre; Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2007-11-01

    This work presents a study on the genetic profile of the left and right hemispheres of the brain of a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal is to characterize, in a genetic basis, PD as a disease that affects these two brain regions in different ways. Using the same whole-genome microarray expression data introduced by Brown et al. (2002) [1], we could find significant differences in the expression of some key genes, well-known to be involved in the mechanisms of dopamine production control and PD. The problem of selecting such genes was modeled as the MIN (α,β)—FEATURE SET problem [2]; a similar approach to that employed previously to find biomarkers for different types of cancer using gene expression microarray data [3]. The Feature Selection method produced a series of genetic signatures for PD, with distinct expression profiles in the Parkinson's model and control mice experiments. In addition, a close examination of the genes composing those signatures shows that many of them belong to genetic pathways or have ontology annotations considered to be involved in the onset and development of PD. Such elements could provide new clues on which mechanisms are implicated in hemisphere differentiation in PD.

  4. Active Transposition in Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng Ran Lisa; Burns, Kathleen H.; Boeke, Jef D.

    2013-01-01

    Transposons are DNA sequences capable of moving in genomes. Early evidence showed their accumulation in many species and suggested their continued activity in at least isolated organisms. In the past decade, with the development of various genomic technologies, it has become abundantly clear that ongoing activity is the rule rather than the exception. Active transposons of various classes are observed throughout plants and animals, including humans. They continue to create new insertions, have an enormous variety of structural and functional impact on genes and genomes, and play important roles in genome evolution. Transposon activities have been identified and measured by employing various strategies. Here, we summarize evidence of current transposon activity in various plant and animal genomes. PMID:23145912

  5. Microbial Genomes Multiply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    2002-01-01

    The publication of the first complete sequence of a bacterial genome in 1995 was a signal event, underscored by the fact that the article has been cited more than 2,100 times during the intervening seven years. It was a marvelous technical achievement, made possible by automatic DNA-sequencing machines. The feat is the more impressive in that complete genome sequencing has now been adopted in many different laboratories around the world. Four years ago in these columns I examined the situation after a dozen microbial genomes had been completed. Now, with upwards of 60 microbial genome sequences determined and twice that many in progress, it seems reasonable to assess just what is being learned. Are new concepts emerging about how cells work? Have there been practical benefits in the fields of medicine and agriculture? Is it feasible to determine the genomic sequence of every bacterial species on Earth? The answers to these questions maybe Yes, Perhaps, and No, respectively.

  6. [Parental genome imprinting].

    PubMed

    Babinet, C

    1993-01-01

    Genetical as well as experimental embryology methods have permitted, in recent years, to uncover a very important feature of mammalian embryonic development: it has been shown that female and male genomic complements are differentially imprinted in such a way that contribution of both a maternally and a paternally derived genome are absolutely necessary for the embryo to complete its normal development. Differential genomic imprinting seems therefore to impose some new and essential kind of information to the one already contained in the genomic sequences. The differential imprinting should be imposed on the genetic material during gametogenesis and persist throughout somatic development after fertilization. It should then be erased in the germ cell line and be established again in sperm and egg genomes. The recent discovery of several mouse genes which are imprinted should permit to address the question of the molecular mechanisms of imprinting.

  7. Genomic Heterogeneity as a Barrier to Precision Medicine in Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pectasides, Eirini; Stachler, Matthew D; Derks, Sarah; Liu, Yang; Maron, Steven; Islam, Mirazul; Alpert, Lindsay; Kwak, Heewon; Kindler, Hedy; Polite, Blase; Sharma, Manish R; Allen, Kenisha; O'Day, Emily; Lomnicki, Samantha; Maranto, Melissa; Kanteti, Rajani; Fitzpatrick, Carrie; Weber, Christopher; Setia, Namrata; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Hart, John; Nagy, Rebecca J; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Choi, Min-Gew; Min, Byung-Hoon; Nason, Katie S; O'Keefe, Lea; Watanabe, Masayuki; Baba, Hideo; Lanman, Rick; Agoston, Agoston T; Oh, David J; Dunford, Andrew; Thorner, Aaron R; Ducar, Matthew D; Wollison, Bruce M; Coleman, Haley A; Ji, Yuan; Posner, Mitchell C; Roggin, Kevin; Turaga, Kiran; Chang, Paul; Hogarth, Kyle; Siddiqui, Uzma; Gelrud, Andres; Ha, Gavin; Freeman, Samuel S; Rhoades, Justin; Reed, Sarah; Gydush, Greg; Rotem, Denisse; Davison, Jon; Imamura, Yu; Adalsteinsson, Viktor; Lee, Jeeyun; Bass, Adam J; Catenacci, Daniel V

    2018-01-01

    Gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA) is a lethal disease where targeted therapies, even when guided by genomic biomarkers, have had limited efficacy. A potential reason for the failure of such therapies is that genomic profiling results could commonly differ between the primary and metastatic tumors. To evaluate genomic heterogeneity, we sequenced paired primary GEA and synchronous metastatic lesions across multiple cohorts, finding extensive differences in genomic alterations, including discrepancies in potentially clinically relevant alterations. Multiregion sequencing showed significant discrepancy within the primary tumor (PT) and between the PT and disseminated disease, with oncogene amplification profiles commonly discordant. In addition, a pilot analysis of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing demonstrated the feasibility of detecting genomic amplifications not detected in PT sampling. Lastly, we profiled paired primary tumors, metastatic tumors, and cfDNA from patients enrolled in the personalized antibodies for GEA (PANGEA) trial of targeted therapies in GEA and found that genomic biomarkers were recurrently discrepant between the PT and untreated metastases. Divergent primary and metastatic tissue profiling led to treatment reassignment in 32% (9/28) of patients. In discordant primary and metastatic lesions, we found 87.5% concordance for targetable alterations in metastatic tissue and cfDNA, suggesting the potential for cfDNA profiling to enhance selection of therapy. Significance: We demonstrate frequent baseline heterogeneity in targetable genomic alterations in GEA, indicating that current tissue sampling practices for biomarker testing do not effectively guide precision medicine in this disease and that routine profiling of metastatic lesions and/or cfDNA should be systematically evaluated. Cancer Discov; 8(1); 37-48. ©2017 AACR. See related commentary by Sundar and Tan, p. 14 See related article by Janjigian et al., p. 49 This article is highlighted

  8. Histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation is a biomarker of the effects of culture on zygotes

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, C; Li, Y; Jin, X L

    2017-01-01

    Acetylation of histone proteins is a major determinant of chromatin structure and function. Fertilisation triggers a round of chromatin remodelling that prepares the genome for the first round of transcription from the new embryonic genome. In this study we confirm that fertilisation leads to a marked progressive increase in the level of histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation in both the paternally and maternally derived genomes. The culture of zygotes in simple defined media caused a marked increase in the global level of acetylation and this affected the male pronucleus more than the female. The culture created a marked asymmetry in staining between the two pronuclei that was not readily detected in zygotes collected directly from the reproductive tract and was ameliorated to some extent by optimized culture media. The increased acetylation caused by culture resulted in increased transcription of Hspa1b, a marker of embryonic genome activation. Pharmacological analyses showed the hyperacetylation of H3K9 and the increased expression of Hspa1b caused by culture were due to the altered net activity of a range of histone acetylases and deacetylases. The marked hyperacetylation of histone 3 lysine 9 caused by culture of zygotes may serve as an early biomarker for the effects of culture on the normal function of the embryo. The results also provide further evidence for an effect of the stresses associated with assisted reproductive technologies on the normal patterns of epigenetic reprogramming in the early embryo. PMID:28878090

  9. Association between genomic instability and evolutionary chromosomal rearrangements in Neotropical Primates.

    PubMed

    Puntieri, Fiona; Andrioli, Nancy B; Nieves, Mariela

    2018-06-14

    During the last decades the mammalian genome has been proposed to have regions prone to breakage and reorganization concentrated in certain chromosomal bands that seem to correspond to evolutionary breakpoints. These bands are likely to be involved in chromosome fragility or instability. In Primates, some biomarkers of genetic damage may be associated with various degrees of genomic instability. Here, we investigated the usefulness of Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) as a biomarker of potential sites of frequent chromosome breakage and rearrangement in Alouatta caraya, Ateles chamek, Ateles paniscus and Cebus cay. These Neotropical species have particular genomic and chromosomal features allowing the analysis of genomic instability for comparative purposes. We determined the frequency of spontaneous induction of SCEs and assessed the relationship between these and structural rearrangements implicated in the evolution of the primates of interest. Overall, A. caraya and C. cay presented a low proportion of statistically significant unstable bands, suggesting fairly stable genomes and the existence of some kind of protection against endogenous damage. In contrast, Ateles showed a highly significant proportion of unstable bands; these were mainly found in the rearranged regions, which is consistent with the numerous genomic reorganizations that might have occurred during the evolution of this genus.

  10. SPP1 and AGER as potential prognostic biomarkers for lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiguo; Fan, Junli; Chen, Qiang; Lei, Caipeng; Qiao, Bin; Liu, Qin

    2018-05-01

    Overdue treatment and prognostic evaluation lead to low survival rates in patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). To date, effective biomarkers for prognosis are still required. The aim of the present study was to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as biomarkers for prognostic evaluation of LUAD. DEGs in tumor and normal samples were identified and analyzed for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes/Gene Ontology functional enrichments. The common genes that are up and downregulated were selected for prognostic analysis using RNAseq data in The Cancer Genome Atlas. Differential expression analysis was performed with 164 samples in GSE10072 and GSE7670 datasets. A total of 484 DEGs that were present in GSE10072 and GSE7670 datasets were screened, including secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) that was highly expressed and DEGs ficolin 3, advanced glycosylation end-product specific receptor (AGER), transmembrane protein 100 that were lowly expressed in tumor tissues. These four key genes were subsequently verified using an independent dataset, GSE19804. The gene expression model was consistent with GSE10072 and GSE7670 datasets. The dysregulation of highly expressed SPP1 and lowly expressed AGER significantly reduced the median survival time of patients with LUAD. These findings suggest that SPP1 and AGER are risk factors for LUAD, and these two genes may be utilized in the prognostic evaluation of patients with LUAD. Additionally, the key genes and functional enrichments may provide a reference for investigating the molecular expression mechanisms underlying LUAD.

  11. Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative biomarkers as quantitative phenotypes: Genetics core aims, progress, and plans

    PubMed Central

    Saykin, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Swaminathan, Shanker; Kim, Sungeun; Risacher, Shannon L.; Nho, Kwangsik; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Craig, David W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Jason L.; Moore, Jason H.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Green, Robert C.; Bertram, Lars; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The role of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Genetics Core is to facilitate the investigation of genetic influences on disease onset and trajectory as reflected in structural, functional, and molecular imaging changes; fluid biomarkers; and cognitive status. Major goals include (1) blood sample processing, genotyping, and dissemination, (2) genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of longitudinal phenotypic data, and (3) providing a central resource, point of contact and planning group for genetics within Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Genome-wide array data have been publicly released and updated, and several neuroimaging GWAS have recently been reported examining baseline magnetic resonance imaging measures as quantitative phenotypes. Other preliminary investigations include copy number variation in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease and GWAS of baseline cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and longitudinal changes on magnetic resonance imaging. Blood collection for RNA studies is a new direction. Genetic studies of longitudinal phenotypes hold promise for elucidating disease mechanisms and risk, development of therapeutic strategies, and refining selection criteria for clinical trials. PMID:20451875

  12. Systematic approach identifies RHOA as a potential biomarker therapeutic target for Asian gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hae Rim; Park, Hee Seo; Park, Sungjin; Ahn, Young Zoo; Huh, Iksoo; Balch, Curt; Ku, Ja-Lok; Powis, Garth; Park, Taesung; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Kim, Yon Hui

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a highly heterogeneous disease, in dire need of specific, biomarker-driven cancer therapies. While the accumulation of cancer “Big Data” has propelled the search for novel molecular targets for GC, its specific subpathway and cellular functions vary from patient to patient. In particular, mutations in the small GTPase gene RHOA have been identified in recent genome-wide sequencing of GC tumors. Moreover, protein overexpression of RHOA was reported in Chinese populations, while RHOA mutations were found in Caucasian GC tumors. To develop evidence-based precision medicine for heterogeneous cancers, we established a systematic approach to integrate transcriptomic and genomic data. Predicted signaling subpathways were then laboratory-validated both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in the identification of new candidate therapeutic targets. Here, we show: i) differences in RHOA expression patterns, and its pathway activity, between Asian and Caucasian GC tumors; ii) in vitro and in vivo perturbed RHOA expression inhibits GC cell growth in high RHOA-expressing cell lines; iii) inverse correlation between RHOA and RHOB expression; and iv) an innovative small molecule design strategy for RHOA inhibitors. In summary, RHOA, and its oncogenic signaling pathway, represent a strong biomarker-driven therapeutic target for Asian GC. This comprehensive strategy represents a promising approach for the development of “hit” compounds. PMID:27806312

  13. Systematic approach identifies RHOA as a potential biomarker therapeutic target for Asian gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hae Ryung; Nam, Seungyoon; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Jin-Hee; Jung, Hae Rim; Park, Hee Seo; Park, Sungjin; Ahn, Young Zoo; Huh, Iksoo; Balch, Curt; Ku, Ja-Lok; Powis, Garth; Park, Taesung; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Kim, Yon Hui

    2016-12-06

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a highly heterogeneous disease, in dire need of specific, biomarker-driven cancer therapies. While the accumulation of cancer "Big Data" has propelled the search for novel molecular targets for GC, its specific subpathway and cellular functions vary from patient to patient. In particular, mutations in the small GTPase gene RHOA have been identified in recent genome-wide sequencing of GC tumors. Moreover, protein overexpression of RHOA was reported in Chinese populations, while RHOA mutations were found in Caucasian GC tumors. To develop evidence-based precision medicine for heterogeneous cancers, we established a systematic approach to integrate transcriptomic and genomic data. Predicted signaling subpathways were then laboratory-validated both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in the identification of new candidate therapeutic targets. Here, we show: i) differences in RHOA expression patterns, and its pathway activity, between Asian and Caucasian GC tumors; ii) in vitro and in vivo perturbed RHOA expression inhibits GC cell growth in high RHOA-expressing cell lines; iii) inverse correlation between RHOA and RHOB expression; and iv) an innovative small molecule design strategy for RHOA inhibitors. In summary, RHOA, and its oncogenic signaling pathway, represent a strong biomarker-driven therapeutic target for Asian GC. This comprehensive strategy represents a promising approach for the development of "hit" compounds.

  14. Exploring candidate biomarkers for lung and prostate cancers using gene expression and flux variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Yazdan; Khosravi, Pegah; Zabihinpour, Zahra; Habibi, Mahnaz

    2018-02-19

    Genome-scale metabolic models have provided valuable resources for exploring changes in metabolism under normal and cancer conditions. However, metabolism itself is strongly linked to gene expression, so integration of gene expression data into metabolic models might improve the detection of genes involved in the control of tumor progression. Herein, we considered gene expression data as extra constraints to enhance the predictive powers of metabolic models. We reconstructed genome-scale metabolic models for lung and prostate, under normal and cancer conditions to detect the major genes associated with critical subsystems during tumor development. Furthermore, we utilized gene expression data in combination with an information theory-based approach to reconstruct co-expression networks of the human lung and prostate in both cohorts. Our results revealed 19 genes as candidate biomarkers for lung and prostate cancer cells. This study also revealed that the development of a complementary approach (integration of gene expression and metabolic profiles) could lead to proposing novel biomarkers and suggesting renovated cancer treatment strategies which have not been possible to detect using either of the methods alone.

  15. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks

    PubMed Central

    French, Katherine L.; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M.; Schoon, Petra L.; Zumberge, J. Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A.; George, Simon C.; Love, Gordon D.; Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-01-01

    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (<37.9 pg per gram of rock) and total sterane (<32.9 pg per gram of rock) concentrations comparable to those measured in blanks and negative control samples. In contrast, hopanes and steranes measured in the exteriors of conventionally drilled and curated rocks of stratigraphic equivalence reach concentrations of 389.5 pg per gram of rock and 1,039 pg per gram of rock, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories. PMID:25918387

  16. Chiral Biomarkers and Microfossils in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Homochirality of the biomolecules (D-sugars of DNA and RNA and L-amino acids of proteins) is a fundamental property of all life on Earth. Abiotic mechanisms yield racemic mixtures (D/L=1) of chiral molecules and after the death of an organism, the enantiopure chiral biomolecules slowly racemize. Several independent investigators have now established that the amino acids present in CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites have a moderate to strong excess of the L-enantiomer. Stable isotope data have established that these amino acids are both indigenous and extraterrestrial. Carbonaceous meteorites also contain many other strong chemical biomarkers including purines and pyrimidines (nitrogen heterocycles of nucleic acids); pristine and phytane (components of the chlorophyll pigment) and morphological biomarkers (microfossils of filamentous cyanobacteria). Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis reveals that nitrogen is below the detectability level in most of the meteorite filaments as well as in Cambrian Trilobites and filaments of 2.7 Gya Archaean cyanobacteria from Karelia. The deficiency of nitrogen in the filaments and the total absence of sugars, of twelve of the life-critical protein amino acids, and two of the nucleobases of DNA and RNA provide clear and convincing evidence that these filaments are not modern biological contaminants. This paper reviews the chiral, chemical biomarkers morphological biomarkers and microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites. This paper reviews chiral and morphological biomarkers and discusses the missing nitrogen, sugars, protein amino acids, and nucleobases as ?bio-discriminators? that exclude modern biological contaminants as a possible explanation for the permineralized cyanobacterial filaments found in the meteorites.

  17. A sequence-based survey of the complex structural organization of tumor genomes

    SciT

    Collins, Colin; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Volik, Stanislav

    2008-04-03

    The genomes of many epithelial tumors exhibit extensive chromosomal rearrangements. All classes of genome rearrangements can be identified using End Sequencing Profiling (ESP), which relies on paired-end sequencing of cloned tumor genomes. In this study, brain, breast, ovary and prostate tumors along with three breast cancer cell lines were surveyed with ESP yielding the largest available collection of sequence-ready tumor genome breakpoints and providing evidence that some rearrangements may be recurrent. Sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed translocations and complex tumor genome structures that include coamplification and packaging of disparate genomic loci with associated molecular heterogeneity. Comparison ofmore » the tumor genomes suggests recurrent rearrangements. Some are likely to be novel structural polymorphisms, whereas others may be bona fide somatic rearrangements. A recurrent fusion transcript in breast tumors and a constitutional fusion transcript resulting from a segmental duplication were identified. Analysis of end sequences for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed candidate somatic mutations and an elevated rate of novel SNPs in an ovarian tumor. These results suggest that the genomes of many epithelial tumors may be far more dynamic and complex than previously appreciated and that genomic fusions including fusion transcripts and proteins may be common, possibly yielding tumor-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets.« less

  18. Phytozome Comparative Plant Genomics Portal

    SciT

    Goodstein, David; Batra, Sajeev; Carlson, Joseph

    2014-09-09

    The Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Institute is a genomics user facility supporting DOE mission science in the areas of Bioenergy, Carbon Cycling, and Biogeochemistry. The Plant Program at the JGI applies genomic, analytical, computational and informatics platforms and methods to: 1. Understand and accelerate the improvement (domestication) of bioenergy crops 2. Characterize and moderate plant response to climate change 3. Use comparative genomics to identify constrained elements and infer gene function 4. Build high quality genomic resource platforms of JGI Plant Flagship genomes for functional and experimental work 5. Expand functional genomic resources for Plant Flagship genomes

  19. Identifying candidate drivers of drug response in heterogeneous cancer by mining high throughput genomics data.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Sheida

    2016-08-15

    With advances in technologies, huge amounts of multiple types of high-throughput genomics data are available. These data have tremendous potential to identify new and clinically valuable biomarkers to guide the diagnosis, assessment of prognosis, and treatment of complex diseases, such as cancer. Integrating, analyzing, and interpreting big and noisy genomics data to obtain biologically meaningful results, however, remains highly challenging. Mining genomics datasets by utilizing advanced computational methods can help to address these issues. To facilitate the identification of a short list of biologically meaningful genes as candidate drivers of anti-cancer drug resistance from an enormous amount of heterogeneous data, we employed statistical machine-learning techniques and integrated genomics datasets. We developed a computational method that integrates gene expression, somatic mutation, and copy number aberration data of sensitive and resistant tumors. In this method, an integrative method based on module network analysis is applied to identify potential driver genes. This is followed by cross-validation and a comparison of the results of sensitive and resistance groups to obtain the final list of candidate biomarkers. We applied this method to the ovarian cancer data from the cancer genome atlas. The final result contains biologically relevant genes, such as COL11A1, which has been reported as a cis-platinum resistant biomarker for epithelial ovarian carcinoma in several recent studies. The described method yields a short list of aberrant genes that also control the expression of their co-regulated genes. The results suggest that the unbiased data driven computational method can identify biologically relevant candidate biomarkers. It can be utilized in a wide range of applications that compare two conditions with highly heterogeneous datasets.

  20. Genomics and proteomics in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Genomics and proteomics have become increasingly important in biomedical science in the past decade, as they provide an opportunity for hypothesis-free experiments that can yield major insights not previously foreseen when scientific and clinical questions are based only on hypothesis-driven approaches. Use of these tools, therefore, opens new avenues for uncovering physiological and pathological pathways. Liver fibrosis is a complex disease provoked by a range of chronic injuries to the liver, among which are viral hepatitis, (non-) alcoholic steatohepatitis and autoimmune disorders. Some chronic liver patients will never develop fibrosis or cirrhosis, whereas others rapidly progress towards cirrhosis in a few years. This variety can be caused by disease-related factors (for example, viral genotype) or host-factors (genetic/epigenetic). It is vital to establish accurate tools to identify those patients at highest risk for disease severity or progression in order to determine who are in need of immediate therapies. Moreover, there is an urgent imperative to identify non-invasive markers that can accurately distinguish mild and intermediate stages of fibrosis. Ideally, biomarkers can be used to predict disease progression and treatment response, but these studies will take many years due to the requirement for lengthy follow-up periods to assess outcomes. Current genomic and proteomic research provides many candidate biomarkers, but independent validation of these biomarkers is lacking, and reproducibility is still a key concern. Thus, great opportunities and challenges lie ahead in the field of genomics and proteomics, which, if successful, could transform the diagnosis and treatment of chronic fibrosing liver diseases. PMID:22214245

  1. Blood DNA methylation biomarkers predict clinical reactivity in food-sensitized infants.

    PubMed

    Martino, David; Dang, Thanh; Sexton-Oates, Alexandra; Prescott, Susan; Tang, Mimi L K; Dharmage, Shyamali; Gurrin, Lyle; Koplin, Jennifer; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Allen, Katrina J; Saffery, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of food allergy (FA) can be challenging because approximately half of food-sensitized patients are asymptomatic. Current diagnostic tests are excellent makers of sensitization but poor predictors of clinical reactivity. Thus oral food challenges (OFCs) are required to determine a patient's risk of reactivity. We sought to discover genomic biomarkers of clinical FA with utility for predicting food challenge outcomes. Genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiling was performed on blood mononuclear cells from volunteers who had undergone objective OFCs, concurrent skin prick tests, and specific IgE tests. Fifty-eight food-sensitized patients (aged 11-15 months) were assessed, half of whom were clinically reactive. Thirteen nonallergic control subjects were also assessed. Reproducibility was assessed in an additional 48 samples by using methylation data from an independent population of patients with clinical FA. Using a supervised learning approach, we discovered a DNAm signature of 96 CpG sites that predict clinical outcomes. Diagnostic scores were derived from these 96 methylation sites, and cutoffs were determined in a sensitivity analysis. Methylation biomarkers outperformed allergen-specific IgE and skin prick tests for predicting OFC outcomes. FA status was correctly predicted in the replication cohort with an accuracy of 79.2%. DNAm biomarkers with clinical utility for predicting food challenge outcomes are readily detectable in blood. The development of this technology in detailed follow-up studies will yield highly innovative diagnostic assays. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantification of the heterogeneity of prognostic cellular biomarkers in ewing sarcoma using automated image and random survival forest analysis.

    PubMed

    Bühnemann, Claudia; Li, Simon; Yu, Haiyue; Branford White, Harriet; Schäfer, Karl L; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio; Machado, Isidro; Picci, Piero; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Athanasou, Nicholas A; Noble, J Alison; Hassan, A Bassim

    2014-01-01

    Driven by genomic somatic variation, tumour tissues are typically heterogeneous, yet unbiased quantitative methods are rarely used to analyse heterogeneity at the protein level. Motivated by this problem, we developed automated image segmentation of images of multiple biomarkers in Ewing sarcoma to generate distributions of biomarkers between and within tumour cells. We further integrate high dimensional data with patient clinical outcomes utilising random survival forest (RSF) machine learning. Using material from cohorts of genetically diagnosed Ewing sarcoma with EWSR1 chromosomal translocations, confocal images of tissue microarrays were segmented with level sets and watershed algorithms. Each cell nucleus and cytoplasm were identified in relation to DAPI and CD99, respectively, and protein biomarkers (e.g. Ki67, pS6, Foxo3a, EGR1, MAPK) localised relative to nuclear and cytoplasmic regions of each cell in order to generate image feature distributions. The image distribution features were analysed with RSF in relation to known overall patient survival from three separate cohorts (185 informative cases). Variation in pre-analytical processing resulted in elimination of a high number of non-informative images that had poor DAPI localisation or biomarker preservation (67 cases, 36%). The distribution of image features for biomarkers in the remaining high quality material (118 cases, 104 features per case) were analysed by RSF with feature selection, and performance assessed using internal cross-validation, rather than a separate validation cohort. A prognostic classifier for Ewing sarcoma with low cross-validation error rates (0.36) was comprised of multiple features, including the Ki67 proliferative marker and a sub-population of cells with low cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio of CD99. Through elimination of bias, the evaluation of high-dimensionality biomarker distribution within cell populations of a tumour using random forest analysis in quality controlled tumour

  3. Phase II cancer clinical trials for biomarker-guided treatments.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The design and analysis of cancer clinical trials with biomarker depend on various factors, such as the phase of trials, the type of biomarker, whether the used biomarker is validated or not, and the study objectives. In this article, we demonstrate the design and analysis of two Phase II cancer clinical trials, one with a predictive biomarker and the other with an imaging prognostic biomarker. Statistical testing methods and their sample size calculation methods are presented for each trial. We assume that the primary endpoint of these trials is a time to event variable, but this concept can be used for any type of endpoint.

  4. Study Designs and Statistical Analyses for Biomarker Research

    PubMed Central

    Gosho, Masahiko; Nagashima, Kengo; Sato, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers are becoming increasingly important for streamlining drug discovery and development. In addition, biomarkers are widely expected to be used as a tool for disease diagnosis, personalized medication, and surrogate endpoints in clinical research. In this paper, we highlight several important aspects related to study design and statistical analysis for clinical research incorporating biomarkers. We describe the typical and current study designs for exploring, detecting, and utilizing biomarkers. Furthermore, we introduce statistical issues such as confounding and multiplicity for st