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Sample records for e2 conversion coefficients

  1. Conversion coefficients for H'(3;Ω) for photons.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Rolf

    2017-06-26

    In this work, conversion coefficients for the operational quantity H'(3;Ω) have been calculated for both mono-energetic photons from 2 keV to 50 MeV for angles of incidence from 0° up to 180° in steps of 15° (to complement ICRU 57) as well as for photon reference radiation qualities (to complement ISO 4037). Finally, parameters necessary to determine the influence of the air density on the conversion coefficients have been determined.

  2. Conversion coefficients for determining organ doses in paediatric spine radiography.

    PubMed

    Seidenbusch, Michael; Schneider, Karl

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge of organ and effective doses achieved during paediatric x-ray examinations is an important prerequisite for assessment of radiation burden to the patient. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ and effective doses from entrance doses for segmental spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients are provided regarding the Guidelines of Good Radiographic Technique of the European Commission. Using the personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Säteilyturvakeskus STUK), conversion coefficients for conventional segmental spine radiographs were calculated performing Monte Carlo simulations in mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation field settings. Conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses in about 40 organs and tissues from measured entrance doses during cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus detector distance of 115 cm. The conversion coefficients presented may be used for organ dose assessments from entrance doses measured during spine radiographs of patients of all age groups and all field settings within the optimal and suboptimal standard field settings.

  3. Personal Dose Equivalent Conversion Coefficients For Photons To 1 GEV

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.; Hertel, N. E.

    2010-09-27

    The personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d), is the quantity recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) to be used as an approximation of the protection quantity Effective Dose when performing personal dosemeter calibrations. The personal dose equivalent can be defined for any location and depth within the body. Typically, the location of interest is the trunk where personal dosemeters are usually worn and in this instance a suitable approximation is a 30 cm X 30 cm X 15 cm slab-type phantom. For this condition the personal dose equivalent is denoted as H{sub p,slab}(d) and the depths,more » d, are taken to be 0.007 cm for non-penetrating and 1 cm for penetrating radiation. In operational radiation protection a third depth, 0.3 cm, is used to approximate the dose to the lens of the eye. A number of conversion coefficients for photons are available for incident energies up to several MeV, however, data to higher energies are limited. In this work conversion coefficients up to 1 GeV have been calculated for H{sub p,slab}(10) and H{sub p,slab}(3) using both the kerma approximation and by tracking secondary charged particles. For H{sub p}(0.07) the conversion coefficients were calculated, but only to 10 MeV due to computational limitations. Additionally, conversions from air kerma to H{sub p,slab}(d) have been determined and are reported. The conversion coefficients were determined for discrete incident energies, but analytical fits of the coefficients over the energy range are provided. Since the inclusion of air can influence the production of secondary charged particles incident on the face of the phantom conversion coefficients have been determined both in vacuo and with the source and slab immersed within a sphere in air. The conversion coefficients for the personal dose equivalent are compared to the appropriate protection quantity, calculated according to the recommendations of the latest International Commission on

  4. A method for radiological characterization based on fluence conversion coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froeschl, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Radiological characterization of components in accelerator environments is often required to ensure adequate radiation protection during maintenance, transport and handling as well as for the selection of the proper disposal pathway. The relevant quantities are typical the weighted sums of specific activities with radionuclide-specific weighting coefficients. Traditional methods based on Monte Carlo simulations are radionuclide creation-event based or the particle fluences in the regions of interest are scored and then off-line weighted with radionuclide production cross sections. The presented method bases the radiological characterization on a set of fluence conversion coefficients. For a given irradiation profile and cool-down time, radionuclide production cross-sections, material composition and radionuclide-specific weighting coefficients, a set of particle type and energy dependent fluence conversion coefficients is computed. These fluence conversion coefficients can then be used in a Monte Carlo transport code to perform on-line weighting to directly obtain the desired radiological characterization, either by using built-in multiplier features such as in the PHITS code or by writing a dedicated user routine such as for the FLUKA code. The presented method has been validated against the standard event-based methods directly available in Monte Carlo transport codes.

  5. Internal conversion coefficients of high multipole transitions: Experiment and theories

    SciTech Connect

    Gerl, J.; Vijay Sai, K.; Sainath, M.

    A compilation of the available experimental internal conversion coefficients (ICCs), {alpha}{sub T}, {alpha}{sub K}, {alpha}{sub L}, and ratios K/L and K/LM of high multipole (L > 2) transitions for a number of elements in the range 21 {<=} Z {<=} 94 is presented. Our listing of experimental data includes 194 data sets on 110 E3 transitions, 10 data sets on 6 E4 transitions, 11 data sets on 7 E5 transitions, 38 data sets on 21 M3 transitions, and 132 data sets on 68 M4 transitions. Data with less than 10% experimental uncertainty have been selected for comparison with the theoreticalmore » values of Hager and Seltzer [R.S. Hager, E.C. Seltzer, Nucl. Data Tables A 4 (1968) 1], Rosel et al. [F. Roesel, H.M. Fries, K. Alder, H.C. Pauli, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21 (1978) 91], and BRICC. The relative percentage deviations (%{delta}) have been calculated for each of the above theories and the averages (%{delta}-bar) are estimated. The Band et al. [I.M. Band, M.B. Trzhaskovskaya, C.W. Nestor Jr., P.O. Tikkanen, S. Raman, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 81 (2002) 1] tables, using the BRICC interpolation code, are seen to give theoretical ICCs closest to experimental values.« less

  6. The feasibility of universal DLP-to-risk conversion coefficients for body CT protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. Paul; Paulson, Erik K.; Frush, Donald P.

    2011-03-01

    The effective dose associated with computed tomography (CT) examinations is often estimated from dose-length product (DLP) using scanner-independent conversion coefficients. Such conversion coefficients are available for a small number of examinations, each covering an entire region of the body (e.g., head, neck, chest, abdomen and/or pelvis). Similar conversion coefficients, however, do not exist for examinations that cover a single organ or a sub-region of the body, as in the case of a multi-phase liver examination. In this study, we extended the DLP-to-effective dose conversion coefficient (k factor) to a wide range of body CT protocols and derived the corresponding DLP-to-cancer risk conversion coefficient (q factor). An extended cardiactorso (XCAT) computational model was used, which represented a reference adult male patient. A range of body CT protocols used in clinical practice were categorized based on anatomical regions examined into 10 protocol classes. A validated Monte Carlo program was used to estimate the organ dose associated with each protocol class. Assuming the reference model to be 20 years old, effective dose and risk index (an index of the total risk for cancer incidence) were then calculated and normalized by DLP to obtain the k and q factors. The k and q factors varied across protocol classes; the coefficients of variation were 28% and 9%, respectively. The small variation exhibited by the q factor suggested the feasibility of universal q factors for a wide range of body CT protocols.

  7. Comparison of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for deuterons, tritons and helions.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Kyle; Friedberg, Wallace; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji

    2012-02-01

    Secondary radiation in aircraft and spacecraft includes deuterons, tritons and helions. Two sets of fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients for isotropic exposure to these particles were compared: one used the particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS) radiation transport code coupled with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantoms (PHITS-ICRP) and the other the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) radiation transport code coupled with modified BodyBuilder™ phantoms (MCNPX-BB). Also, two sets of fluence-to-effective dose equivalent conversion coefficients calculated using the PHITS-ICRP combination were compared: one used quality factors based on linear energy transfer; the other used quality factors based on lineal energy (y). Finally, PHITS-ICRP effective dose coefficients were compared with PHITS-ICRP effective dose equivalent coefficients. The PHITS-ICRP and MCNPX-BB effective dose coefficients were similar, except at high energies, where MCNPX-BB coefficients were higher. For helions, at most energies effective dose coefficients were much greater than effective dose equivalent coefficients. For deuterons and tritons, coefficients were similar when their radiation weighting factor was set to 2.

  8. Calculation of conversion coefficients for clinical photon spectra using the MCNP code.

    PubMed

    Lima, M A F; Silva, A X; Crispim, V R

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the MCNP4B code has been employed to calculate conversion coefficients from air kerma to the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10)/Ka, for monoenergetic photon energies from 10 keV to 50 MeV, assuming the kerma approximation. Also estimated are the H*(10)/Ka for photon beams produced by linear accelerators, such as Clinac-4 and Clinac-2500, after transmission through primary barriers of radiotherapy treatment rooms. The results for the conversion coefficients for monoenergetic photon energies, with statistical uncertainty <2%, are compared with those in ICRP publication 74 and good agreements were obtained. The conversion coefficients calculated for real clinic spectra transmitted through walls of concrete of 1, 1.5 and 2 m thick, are in the range of 1.06-1.12 Sv Gy(-1).

  9. Determining organ dose conversion coefficients for external neutron irradiation by using a voxel mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Xiangdong; Qu, Decheng; Ning, Jing; Zhou, Hongmei; Pan, Jie; Yang, Guoshan

    2016-01-01

    A set of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients has been calculated for neutrons with energies <20 MeV using a developed voxel mouse model and Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP), for the purpose of neutron radiation effect evaluation. The calculation used 37 monodirectional monoenergetic neutron beams in the energy range 10−9 MeV to 20 MeV, under five different source irradiation configurations: left lateral, right lateral, dorsal–ventral, ventral–dorsal, and isotropic. Neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for selected organs of the body were presented in the paper, and the effect of irradiation geometry conditions, neutron energy and the organ location on the organ dose was discussed. The results indicated that neutron dose conversion coefficients clearly show sensitivity to irradiation geometry at neutron energy below 1 MeV. PMID:26661852

  10. Organ dose conversion coefficients for pediatric reference computational phantoms in external photon radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Lienard A.

    In the event of a radiological accident or attack, it is important to estimate the organ doses to those exposed. In general, it is difficult to measure organ dose directly in the field and therefore dose conversion coefficients (DCC) are needed to convert measurable values such as air kerma to organ dose. Previous work on these coefficients has been conducted mainly for adults with a focus on radiation protection workers. Hence, there is a large gap in the literature for pediatric values. This study coupled a Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code with International Council of Radiological Protection (ICRP)-adopted University of Florida and National Cancer Institute pediatric reference phantoms to calculate a comprehensive list of dose conversion coefficients (mGy/mGy) to convert air-kerma to organ dose. Parameters included ten phantoms (newborn, 1-year, 5-year, 10-year, 15-year old male and female), 28 organs over 33 energies between 0.01 and 20 MeV in six (6) irradiation geometries relevant to a child who might be exposed to a radiological release: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right-lateral (RLAT), left-lateral (LLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). Dose conversion coefficients to the red bone marrow over 36 skeletal sites were also calculated. It was hypothesized that the pediatric organ dose conversion coefficients would follow similar trends to the published adult values as dictated by human anatomy, but be of a higher magnitude. It was found that while the pediatric coefficients did yield similar patterns to that of the adult coefficients, depending on the organ and irradiation geometry, the pediatric values could be lower or higher than that of the adult coefficients.

  11. Attempts To Catalyze the Electrochemical CO2-to-Methanol Conversion by Biomimetic 2e(-) + 2H(+) Transferring Molecules.

    PubMed

    Saveant, Jean-Michel; Tard, Cédric

    2016-01-27

    In the context of the electrochemical and photochemical conversion of CO2 to liquid fuels, one of the most important issues of contemporary energy and environmental issues, the possibility of pushing the reduction beyond the CO and formate level and catalytically generate products such as methanol is particularly attractive. Biomimetic 2e(-) + 2H(+) is often viewed as a potential hydride donor. This has been the object of a recent interesting attempt (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 14007) in which 6,7-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-2-mercaptopteridine was reported as a catalyst of the electrochemical conversion of CO2 to methanol and formate, based on cyclic voltammetric, (13)C NMR, IR, and GC analyses. After checking electrolysis at the reported potential and at a more negative potential to speed up the reaction, it appears, on (1)H NMR and gas chromatographic grounds, that there is neither catalysis nor methanol and nor formate production. (1)H NMR (with H2O presaturation) brings about an unambiguous answer to the eventual production of methanol and formate, much more so than (13)C NMR, which can even be misleading when no internal standard is used as in the above-mentioned paper. IR analysis is even less conclusive. Use of a GC technique with sufficient sensitivity confirmed the lack of methanol formation. The direct or indirect hydride transfer electrochemical reduction of CO2 to formate and to methanol remains an open question. Original ideas and efforts such as those discussed here are certainly worth tempting. However, in view of the importance of the stakes, it appears necessary to carefully check reports in this area.

  12. P-Wave to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients for wedge corners; model experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gangi, A.F.; Wesson, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    An analytic solution is not available for the diffraction of elastic waves by wedges; however, numerical solutions of finite-difference type are available for selected wedge angles. The P- to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients at wedge tips have been measured on two-dimensional seismic models for stress-free wedges with wedge angles, ??0, of 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120??. The conversion coefficients show two broad peaks and a minimum as a function of the angle between the wedge face and the direction of the incident P-wave. The minimum occurs for the P wave incident parallel to the wedge face and one maximum is near an incidence angle of 90?? to the wedge face. The amplitude of this maximum, relative to the other, decreases as the wedge angle increases. The asymmetry of the conversion coefficients, CPR(??; ??0), relative to parallel incidence (?? = 0) increases as the wedge angle increases. The locations of the maxima and the minimum as well as the asymmetry can be explained qualitatively. The conversion coefficients are measured with an accuracy of ??5% in those regions where there are no interfering waves. A comparison of the data for the 10?? wedge with the theoretical results for a half plane (0?? wedge) shows good correlation. ?? 1978.

  13. Neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for embryo and fetus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Meyerhof, Dorothy; Vlahovich, Slavica

    2004-01-01

    A problem of concern in radiation protection is the exposure of pregnant women to ionising radiation, because of the high radiosensitivity of the embryo and fetus. External neutron exposure is of concern when pregnant women travel by aeroplane. Dose assessments for neutrons frequently rely on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. While neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for adults are recommended in International Commission on Radiological Protection publications and International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements reports, conversion coefficients for embryos and fetuses are not given in the publications. This study undertakes Monte Carlo calculations to determine the mean absorbed doses to the embryo and fetus when the mother is exposed to neutron fields. A new set of mathematical models for the embryo and fetus has been developed at Health Canada and is used together with mathematical phantoms of a pregnant female developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Monoenergetic neutrons from 1 eV to 10 MeV are considered in this study. The irradiation geometries include antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO) geometries. At each of these standard irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the fetal brain and body are calculated; for the embryo at 8 weeks and the fetus at 3, 6 or 9 months. Neutron fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients are derived for the four age groups. Neutron fluence-to-equivalent dose conversion coefficients are given for the AP irradiations which yield the highest radiation dose to the fetal body in the neutron energy range considered here. The results indicate that for neutrons <10 MeV more protection should be given to pregnant women in the first trimester due to the higher absorbed dose per unit neutron fluence to the fetus.

  14. Dose conversion coefficients based on the Chinese mathematical phantom and MCNP code for external photon irradiation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Rui; Li, Junli; Zhang, Zhan; Liu, Liye; Bi, Lei; Ren, Li

    2009-02-01

    A set of conversion coefficients from kerma free-in-air to the organ-absorbed dose are presented for external monoenergetic photon beams from 10 keV to 10 MeV based on the Chinese mathematical phantom, a whole-body mathematical phantom model. The model was developed based on the methods of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory mathematical phantom series and data from the Chinese Reference Man and the Reference Asian Man. This work is carried out to obtain the conversion coefficients based on this model, which represents the characteristics of the Chinese population, as the anatomical parameters of the Chinese are different from those of Caucasians. Monte Carlo simulation with MCNP code is carried out to calculate the organ dose conversion coefficients. Before the calculation, the effects from the physics model and tally type are investigated, considering both the calculation efficiency and precision. In the calculation irradiation conditions include anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, right lateral, left lateral, rotational and isotropic geometries. Conversion coefficients from this study are compared with those recommended in the Publication 74 of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP74) since both the sets of data are calculated with mathematical phantoms. Overall, consistency between the two sets of data is observed and the difference for more than 60% of the data is below 10%. However, significant deviations are also found, mainly for the superficial organs (up to 65.9%) and bone surface (up to 66%). The big difference of the dose conversion coefficients for the superficial organs at high photon energy could be ascribed to kerma approximation for the data in ICRP74. Both anatomical variations between races and the calculation method contribute to the difference of the data for bone surface.

  15. An Accurate New Potential Function for Ground-State X{e}_2 from UV and Virial Coefficient Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roy, Robert J.; Mackie, J. Cameron; Chandrasekhar, Pragna

    2011-06-01

    Determining accurate analytic pair potentials for rare gas dimers has been a longstanding goal in molecular physics. However, most potential energy functions reported to date fail to optimally represent the available spectroscopic data, in spite of the fact that such data provide constraints of unparalleled precision on the attractive potential energy wells of these species. A recent study of ArXe showed that it is a straightforward matter to combine multi-isotopologue spectroscopic data (in that case, microwave, and high resolution UV measurements) and virial coefficients in a direct fit to obtain a flexible analytic potential function that incorporates the theoretically predicted damped inverse-power long-range behaviour. The present work reports the application of this approach to Xe_2, with a direct fit to high resolution rotationally resolved UV emission data for v''=0 and 1, band head data for v''=0-9, and virial coefficient data for T=165-950 K being used to obtain an accurate new potential energy function for the ground state of this Van der Waals molecule. Analogous results for other rare-gas pairs will also be presented, as time permits. L. Piticco, F. Merkt, A.A. Cholewinski, F.R. McCourt and R.J. Le Roy, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 264, 83 (2010). A. Wüest and K.G. Bruin and F. Merkt, Can. J. Chem. 82, 750 (2004). D.E. Freeman, K. Yoshino, and Y. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 61, 4880 (1974). J.H. Dymond, K.N. Marsh, R.C. Wilhoit and K.C. Wong, in Landold-Börnstein, New Series, Group IV, edited by M. Frenkel and K.N. Marsh, Vol. 21 (2003).

  16. Determining organ dose conversion coefficients for external neutron irradiation by using a voxel mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Xiangdong; Qu, Decheng; Ning, Jing; Zhou, Hongmei; Pan, Jie; Yang, Guoshan

    2016-03-01

    A set of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients has been calculated for neutrons with energies <20 MeV using a developed voxel mouse model and Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP), for the purpose of neutron radiation effect evaluation. The calculation used 37 monodirectional monoenergetic neutron beams in the energy range 10(-9) MeV to 20 MeV, under five different source irradiation configurations: left lateral, right lateral, dorsal-ventral, ventral-dorsal, and isotropic. Neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for selected organs of the body were presented in the paper, and the effect of irradiation geometry conditions, neutron energy and the organ location on the organ dose was discussed. The results indicated that neutron dose conversion coefficients clearly show sensitivity to irradiation geometry at neutron energy below 1 MeV. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  17. Organ dose conversion coefficients for tube current modulated CT protocols for an adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wanyi; Tian, Xiaoyu; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Zhang, Yakun; Segars, William Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-03-01

    In computed tomography (CT), patient-specific organ dose can be estimated using pre-calculated organ dose conversion coefficients (organ dose normalized by CTDIvol, h factor) database, taking into account patient size and scan coverage. The conversion coefficients have been previously estimated for routine body protocol classes, grouped by scan coverage, across an adult population for fixed tube current modulated CT. The coefficients, however, do not include the widely utilized tube current (mA) modulation scheme, which significantly impacts organ dose. This study aims to extend the h factors and the corresponding dose length product (DLP) to create effective dose conversion coefficients (k factor) database incorporating various tube current modulation strengths. Fifty-eight extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were included in this study representing population anatomy variation in clinical practice. Four mA profiles, representing weak to strong mA dependency on body attenuation, were generated for each phantom and protocol class. A validated Monte Carlo program was used to simulate the organ dose. The organ dose and effective dose was further normalized by CTDIvol and DLP to derive the h factors and k factors, respectively. The h factors and k factors were summarized in an exponential regression model as a function of body size. Such a population-based mathematical model can provide a comprehensive organ dose estimation given body size and CTDIvol. The model was integrated into an iPhone app XCATdose version 2, enhancing the 1st version based upon fixed tube current modulation. With the organ dose calculator, physicists, physicians, and patients can conveniently estimate organ dose.

  18. Dose conversion coefficients for photon exposure of the human eye lens.

    PubMed

    Behrens, R; Dietze, G

    2011-01-21

    In recent years, several papers dealing with the eye lens dose have been published, because epidemiological studies implied that the induction of cataracts occurs even at eye lens doses of less than 500 mGy. Different questions were addressed: Which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens? Is a new definition of the dose quantity H(p)(3) based on a cylinder phantom to represent the human head necessary? Are current conversion coefficients from fluence to equivalent dose to the lens sufficiently accurate? To investigate the latter question, a realistic model of the eye including the inner structure of the lens was developed. Using this eye model, conversion coefficients for electrons have already been presented. In this paper, the same eye model-with the addition of the whole body-was used to calculate conversion coefficients from fluence (and air kerma) to equivalent dose to the lens for photon radiation from 5 keV to 10 MeV. Compared to the values adopted in 1996 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the new values are similar between 40 keV and 1 MeV and lower by up to a factor of 5 and 7 for photon energies at about 10 keV and 10 MeV, respectively. Above 1 MeV, the new values (calculated without kerma approximation) should be applied in pure photon radiation fields, while the values adopted by the ICRP in 1996 (calculated with kerma approximation) should be applied in case a significant contribution from secondary electrons originating outside the body is present.

  19. Dose conversion coefficients for electron exposure of the human eye lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, R.; Dietze, G.; Zankl, M.

    2009-07-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. Two questions arise from this situation: first, which dose quantity is related to the risk of developing a cataract, and second, which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring this dose quantity. While the dose equivalent quantity Hp(0.07) has often been seen as being sufficiently accurate for monitoring the dose to the lens of the eye, this would be questionable in the case when the dose limits were reduced and, thus, it may be necessary to generally use the dose equivalent quantity Hp(3) for this purpose. The basis for a decision, however, must be the knowledge of accurate conversion coefficients from fluence to equivalent dose to the lens. This is especially important for low-penetrating radiation, for example, electrons. Formerly published values of conversion coefficients are based on quite simple models of the eye. In this paper, quite a sophisticated model of the eye including the inner structure of the lens was used for the calculations and precise conversion coefficients for electrons with energies between 0.2 MeV and 12 MeV, and for angles of radiation incidence between 0° and 45° are presented. Compared to the values adopted in 1996 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the new values are up to 1000 times smaller for electron energies below 1 MeV, nearly equal at 1 MeV and above 4 MeV, and by a factor of 1.5 larger at about 1.5 MeV electron energy.

  20. Dose conversion coefficients for electron exposure of the human eye lens.

    PubMed

    Behrens, R; Dietze, G; Zankl, M

    2009-07-07

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. Two questions arise from this situation: first, which dose quantity is related to the risk of developing a cataract, and second, which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring this dose quantity. While the dose equivalent quantity H(p)(0.07) has often been seen as being sufficiently accurate for monitoring the dose to the lens of the eye, this would be questionable in the case when the dose limits were reduced and, thus, it may be necessary to generally use the dose equivalent quantity H(p)(3) for this purpose. The basis for a decision, however, must be the knowledge of accurate conversion coefficients from fluence to equivalent dose to the lens. This is especially important for low-penetrating radiation, for example, electrons. Formerly published values of conversion coefficients are based on quite simple models of the eye. In this paper, quite a sophisticated model of the eye including the inner structure of the lens was used for the calculations and precise conversion coefficients for electrons with energies between 0.2 MeV and 12 MeV, and for angles of radiation incidence between 0 degrees and 45 degrees are presented. Compared to the values adopted in 1996 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the new values are up to 1000 times smaller for electron energies below 1 MeV, nearly equal at 1 MeV and above 4 MeV, and by a factor of 1.5 larger at about 1.5 MeV electron energy.

  1. Dose conversion coefficients for photon exposure of the human eye lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, R.; Dietze, G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several papers dealing with the eye lens dose have been published, because epidemiological studies implied that the induction of cataracts occurs even at eye lens doses of less than 500 mGy. Different questions were addressed: Which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens? Is a new definition of the dose quantity Hp(3) based on a cylinder phantom to represent the human head necessary? Are current conversion coefficients from fluence to equivalent dose to the lens sufficiently accurate? To investigate the latter question, a realistic model of the eye including the inner structure of the lens was developed. Using this eye model, conversion coefficients for electrons have already been presented. In this paper, the same eye model—with the addition of the whole body—was used to calculate conversion coefficients from fluence (and air kerma) to equivalent dose to the lens for photon radiation from 5 keV to 10 MeV. Compared to the values adopted in 1996 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the new values are similar between 40 keV and 1 MeV and lower by up to a factor of 5 and 7 for photon energies at about 10 keV and 10 MeV, respectively. Above 1 MeV, the new values (calculated without kerma approximation) should be applied in pure photon radiation fields, while the values adopted by the ICRP in 1996 (calculated with kerma approximation) should be applied in case a significant contribution from secondary electrons originating outside the body is present.

  2. Standardization and determination of the total internal conversion coefficient of In-111.

    PubMed

    Matos, Izabela T; Koskinas, Marina F; Nascimento, Tatiane S; Yamazaki, Ione M; Dias, Mauro S

    2014-05-01

    The standardization of (111)In by means of a 4πβ-γ coincidence system, composed of a proportional counter in 4π geometry, coupled to a 20% relative efficiency HPGe crystal, for measuring gamma-rays is presented. The data acquisition was performed by means of the software coincidence system (SCS) and the activity was determined by the extrapolation technique. Two gamma-ray windows were selected: at 171 keV and 245 keV total absorption peaks, allowing the determination of the total internal conversion coefficient for these two gamma transitions. The results were compared with those available in the literature. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Calculation of conversion coefficients using Chinese adult reference phantoms for air submersion and ground contamination.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Bo; Liu, Huan; Ren, Li; Li, Junli

    2017-03-21

    The effective and organ equivalent dose coefficients have been widely used to provide assessment of doses received by adult members of the public and by workers exposed to environmental radiation from nuclear facilities under normal or accidental situations. Advancements in phantom types, weighting factors, decay data, etc, have led to the publication of newer results in this regard. This paper presents a new set of conversion coefficients for air submersion and ground contamination (with the use of Geant4) for photons from 15 keV to 10 MeV using the Chinese and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adult reference male and female phantoms. The radiation fields, except for energy spectrum at low energies, were validated by the data obtained from the Monte Carlo code YURI. The effective dose coefficients of monoenergetic photons, obtained for the ICRP adult reference phantoms, agree well with recently published data for air submersion and ground contamination with a plane source at a depth of 0.5 g cm -2 in soil, but an average difference of 36.5% is observed for ground surface contamination with the abovementioned radiation field. The average differences in organ equivalent dose coefficients between the Chinese and the ICRP adult reference phantoms are within 6% for most organs, but noticeable differences of up to 70% or even higher are found at photon energies below 30 keV under air submersion. The effective dose coefficients obtained with the Chinese adult reference phantoms are greater than those of the ICRP adult reference phantoms above 30 keV and 0.5 MeV for ground contamination and air submersion, respectively; the average differences from the Chinese adult reference phantoms are about 3.6% and 0.4% in the whole energy range with maximum differences of 31.8% and 27.6% at 15 keV for air submersion and ground contamination respectively. These differences are attributed to anatomical discrepancies in overlying tissue mass of an

  4. Calculation of conversion coefficients using Chinese adult reference phantoms for air submersion and ground contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Bo; Liu, Huan; Ren, Li; Li, Junli

    2017-03-01

    The effective and organ equivalent dose coefficients have been widely used to provide assessment of doses received by adult members of the public and by workers exposed to environmental radiation from nuclear facilities under normal or accidental situations. Advancements in phantom types, weighting factors, decay data, etc, have led to the publication of newer results in this regard. This paper presents a new set of conversion coefficients for air submersion and ground contamination (with the use of Geant4) for photons from 15 keV to 10 MeV using the Chinese and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adult reference male and female phantoms. The radiation fields, except for energy spectrum at low energies, were validated by the data obtained from the Monte Carlo code YURI. The effective dose coefficients of monoenergetic photons, obtained for the ICRP adult reference phantoms, agree well with recently published data for air submersion and ground contamination with a plane source at a depth of 0.5 g cm-2 in soil, but an average difference of 36.5% is observed for ground surface contamination with the abovementioned radiation field. The average differences in organ equivalent dose coefficients between the Chinese and the ICRP adult reference phantoms are within 6% for most organs, but noticeable differences of up to 70% or even higher are found at photon energies below 30 keV under air submersion. The effective dose coefficients obtained with the Chinese adult reference phantoms are greater than those of the ICRP adult reference phantoms above 30 keV and 0.5 MeV for ground contamination and air submersion, respectively; the average differences from the Chinese adult reference phantoms are about 3.6% and 0.4% in the whole energy range with maximum differences of 31.8% and 27.6% at 15 keV for air submersion and ground contamination respectively. These differences are attributed to anatomical discrepancies in overlying tissue mass of an

  5. Dose conversion coefficients for neutron exposure to the lens of the human eye.

    PubMed

    Manger, R P; Bellamy, M B; Eckerman, K F

    2012-03-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for the lens of the human eye have been calculated for neutron exposure at energies from 1 × 10(-9) to 20 MeV and several standard orientations: anterior-to-posterior, rotational and right lateral. MCNPX version 2.6.0, a Monte Carlo-based particle transport package, was used to determine the energy deposited in the lens of the eye. The human eyeball model was updated by partitioning the lens into sensitive and insensitive volumes as the anterior portion (sensitive volume) of the lens being more radiosensitive and prone to cataract formation. The updated eye model was used with the adult UF-ORNL mathematical phantom in the MCNPX transport calculations.

  6. Dose conversion coefficients for neutron exposure to the lens of the human eye

    SciTech Connect

    Manger, Ryan P; Bellamy, Michael B; Eckerman, Keith F

    Dose conversion coefficients for the lens of the human eye have been calculated for neutron exposure at energies from 1 x 10{sup -9} to 20 MeV and several standard orientations: anterior-to-posterior, rotational and right lateral. MCNPX version 2.6.0, a Monte Carlo-based particle transport package, was used to determine the energy deposited in the lens of the eye. The human eyeball model was updated by partitioning the lens into sensitive and insensitive volumes as the anterior portion (sensitive volume) of the lens being more radiosensitive and prone to cataract formation. The updated eye model was used with the adult UF-ORNL mathematicalmore » phantom in the MCNPX transport calculations.« less

  7. COMPILATION OF CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS FOR THE DOSE TO THE LENS OF THE EYE

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A compilation of fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients for the dose to the lens of the eye is presented. The compilation consists of both previously published data and newly calculated values: photon data (5 keV–50 MeV for both kerma approximation and full electron transport), electron data (10 keV–50 MeV), and positron data (1 keV–50 MeV) – neutron data will be published separately. Values are given for angles of incidence from 0° up to 90° in steps of 15° and for rotational irradiation. The data presented can be downloaded from this article's website and they are ready for use by Report Committee (RC) 26. This committee has been set up by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) and is working on a ‘proposal for a redefinition of the operational quantities for external radiation exposure’. PMID:27542816

  8. Organ dose conversion coefficients for voxel models of the reference male and female from idealized photon exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlattl, H.; Zankl, M.; Petoussi-Henss, N.

    2007-04-01

    A new series of organ equivalent dose conversion coefficients for whole body external photon exposure is presented for a standardized couple of human voxel models, called Rex and Regina. Irradiations from broad parallel beams in antero-posterior, postero-anterior, left- and right-side lateral directions as well as from a 360° rotational source have been performed numerically by the Monte Carlo transport code EGSnrc. Dose conversion coefficients from an isotropically distributed source were computed, too. The voxel models Rex and Regina originating from real patient CT data comply in body and organ dimensions with the currently valid reference values given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the average Caucasian man and woman, respectively. While the equivalent dose conversion coefficients of many organs are in quite good agreement with the reference values of ICRP Publication 74, for some organs and certain geometries the discrepancies amount to 30% or more. Differences between the sexes are of the same order with mostly higher dose conversion coefficients in the smaller female model. However, much smaller deviations from the ICRP values are observed for the resulting effective dose conversion coefficients. With the still valid definition for the effective dose (ICRP Publication 60), the greatest change appears in lateral exposures with a decrease in the new models of at most 9%. However, when the modified definition of the effective dose as suggested by an ICRP draft is applied, the largest deviation from the current reference values is obtained in postero-anterior geometry with a reduction of the effective dose conversion coefficient by at most 12%.

  9. Towards the reanalysis of void coefficients measurements at proteus for high conversion light water reactor lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Hursin, M.; Koeberl, O.; Perret, G.

    2012-07-01

    High Conversion Light Water Reactors (HCLWR) allows a better usage of fuel resources thanks to a higher breeding ratio than standard LWR. Their uses together with the current fleet of LWR constitute a fuel cycle thoroughly studied in Japan and the US today. However, one of the issues related to HCLWR is their void reactivity coefficient (VRC), which can be positive. Accurate predictions of void reactivity coefficient in HCLWR conditions and their comparisons with representative experiments are therefore required. In this paper an inter comparison of modern codes and cross-section libraries is performed for a former Benchmark on Void Reactivitymore » Effect in PWRs conducted by the OECD/NEA. It shows an overview of the k-inf values and their associated VRC obtained for infinite lattice calculations with UO{sub 2} and highly enriched MOX fuel cells. The codes MCNPX2.5, TRIPOLI4.4 and CASMO-5 in conjunction with the libraries ENDF/B-VI.8, -VII.0, JEF-2.2 and JEFF-3.1 are used. A non-negligible spread of results for voided conditions is found for the high content MOX fuel. The spread of eigenvalues for the moderated and voided UO{sub 2} fuel are about 200 pcm and 700 pcm, respectively. The standard deviation for the VRCs for the UO{sub 2} fuel is about 0.7% while the one for the MOX fuel is about 13%. This work shows that an appropriate treatment of the unresolved resonance energy range is an important issue for the accurate determination of the void reactivity effect for HCLWR. A comparison to experimental results is needed to resolve the presented discrepancies. (authors)« less

  10. Air kerma to Hp(3) conversion coefficients for a new cylinder phantom for photon reference radiation qualities.

    PubMed

    Behrens, R

    2012-09-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has issued a standard series on photon reference radiation qualities (ISO 4037). In this series, no conversion coefficients are contained for the quantity personal dose equivalent at a 3 mm depth, H(p)(3). In the past, for this quantity, a slab phantom was recommended as a calibration phantom; however, a cylinder phantom much better approximates the shape of a human head than a slab phantom. Therefore, in this work, the conversion coefficients from air kerma to H(p)(3) for the cylinder phantom are supplied for X- and gamma radiation qualities defined in ISO 4037.

  11. NEURAL NETWORK MODELLING OF CARDIAC DOSE CONVERSION COEFFICIENT FOR ARBITRARY X-RAY SPECTRA.

    PubMed

    Kadri, O; Manai, K

    2016-12-01

    In this article, an approach to compute the dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) is described for the computational voxel phantom 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man' (HDRK-Man) using artificial neural networks (ANN). For this purpose, the voxel phantom was implemented into the Monte Carlo (MC) transport toolkit GEANT4, and the DCCs for more than 30 tissues and organs, due to a broad parallel beam of monoenergetic photons with energy ranging from 15 to 150 keV by a step of 5 keV, were calculated. To study the influence of patient size on DCC values, DCC calculation was performed, for a representative body size population, using five different sizes covering the range of 80-120 % magnification of the original HDRK-Man. The focus of the present study was on the computation of DCC for the human heart. ANN calculation and MC simulation results were compared, and good agreement was observed showing that ANNs can be used as an efficient tool for modelling DCCs for the computational voxel phantom. ANN approach appears to be a significant advance over the time-consuming MC methods for DCC calculation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. COMPILATION OF CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS FOR THE DOSE TO THE LENS OF THE EYE.

    PubMed

    Behrens, R

    2017-04-28

    A compilation of fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients for the dose to the lens of the eye is presented. The compilation consists of both previously published data and newly calculated values: photon data (5 keV-50 MeV for both kerma approximation and full electron transport), electron data (10 keV-50 MeV), and positron data (1 keV-50 MeV) - neutron data will be published separately. Values are given for angles of incidence from 0° up to 90° in steps of 15° and for rotational irradiation. The data presented can be downloaded from this article's website and they are ready for use by Report Committee (RC) 26. This committee has been set up by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) and is working on a 'proposal for a redefinition of the operational quantities for external radiation exposure'. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Conversion coefficients for determination of dispersed photon dose during radiotherapy: NRUrad input code for MCNP

    PubMed Central

    Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a common cancer treatment module, where a certain amount of dose will be delivered to the targeted organ. This is achieved usually by photons generated by linear accelerator units. However, radiation scattering within the patient’s body and the surrounding environment will lead to dose dispersion to healthy tissues which are not targets of the primary radiation. Determination of the dispersed dose would be important for assessing the risk and biological consequences in different organs or tissues. In the present work, the concept of conversion coefficient (F) of the dispersed dose was developed, in which F = (Dd/Dt), where Dd was the dispersed dose in a non-targeted tissue and Dt is the absorbed dose in the targeted tissue. To quantify Dd and Dt, a comprehensive model was developed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) package to simulate the linear accelerator head, the human phantom, the treatment couch and the radiotherapy treatment room. The present work also demonstrated the feasibility and power of parallel computing through the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) version of MCNP5. PMID:28362837

  14. Conversion coefficients for determination of dispersed photon dose during radiotherapy: NRUrad input code for MCNP.

    PubMed

    Shahmohammadi Beni, Mehrdad; Ng, C Y P; Krstic, D; Nikezic, D; Yu, K N

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a common cancer treatment module, where a certain amount of dose will be delivered to the targeted organ. This is achieved usually by photons generated by linear accelerator units. However, radiation scattering within the patient's body and the surrounding environment will lead to dose dispersion to healthy tissues which are not targets of the primary radiation. Determination of the dispersed dose would be important for assessing the risk and biological consequences in different organs or tissues. In the present work, the concept of conversion coefficient (F) of the dispersed dose was developed, in which F = (Dd/Dt), where Dd was the dispersed dose in a non-targeted tissue and Dt is the absorbed dose in the targeted tissue. To quantify Dd and Dt, a comprehensive model was developed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) package to simulate the linear accelerator head, the human phantom, the treatment couch and the radiotherapy treatment room. The present work also demonstrated the feasibility and power of parallel computing through the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) version of MCNP5.

  15. Organ dose conversion coefficients based on a voxel mouse model and MCNP code for external photon irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Xiangdong; Cheng, Jie; Ning, Jing; Yuan, Yong; Pan, Jie; Yang, Guoshan

    2012-01-01

    A set of conversion coefficients from kerma free-in-air to the organ absorbed dose for external photon beams from 10 keV to 10 MeV are presented based on a newly developed voxel mouse model, for the purpose of radiation effect evaluation. The voxel mouse model was developed from colour images of successive cryosections of a normal nude male mouse, in which 14 organs or tissues were segmented manually and filled with different colours, while each colour was tagged by a specific ID number for implementation of mouse model in Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP). Monte Carlo simulation with MCNP was carried out to obtain organ dose conversion coefficients for 22 external monoenergetic photon beams between 10 keV and 10 MeV under five different irradiation geometries conditions (left lateral, right lateral, dorsal-ventral, ventral-dorsal, and isotropic). Organ dose conversion coefficients were presented in tables and compared with the published data based on a rat model to investigate the effect of body size and weight on the organ dose. The calculated and comparison results show that the organ dose conversion coefficients varying the photon energy exhibits similar trend for most organs except for the bone and skin, and the organ dose is sensitive to body size and weight at a photon energy approximately <0.1 MeV.

  16. Dependence of Seebeck coefficient on a load resistance and energy conversion efficiency in a thermoelectric composite

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Osamu; Odahara, Hirotaka; Ochi, Takahiro

    2007-10-02

    The thermo-emf {delta}V and current {delta}I generated by imposing the alternating temperature gradients (ATG) at a period of T and the steady temperature gradient (STG) on a thermoelectric (TE) composite were measured as a function of t, where t is the lapsed time and T was varied from 60 to or {infinity} s. The STG and ATG were produced by imposing steadily and alternatively a source voltage V in the range from 1.0 to 4.0 V on two Peltier modules sandwiching a composite. {delta}T, {delta}V, {delta}I and V{sub P} oscillate at a period T and their waveforms vary significantly withmore » a change of T, where {delta}V and V{sub P} are the voltage drops in a load resistance R{sub L} and in resistance R{sub P} of two modules. The resultant Seebeck coefficient |{alpha}| = |{delta}V|/{delta}T of a composite under the STG was found to be expressed as |{alpha}| = |{alpha}{sub 0}|(1 - R{sub comp}/R{sub T}), where R{sub T} is the total resistance of a circuit for measuring the output signals and R{sub comp} is the resistance of a composite. The effective generating power {delta}W{sub eff} has a local maximum at T = 960 s for the p-type composite and at T = 480 s for the n-type one. The maximum energy conversion efficiency {eta} of the p- and n-type composites under the ATG produced by imposing a voltage of 4.0 V at an optimum period were 0.22 and 0.23% at {delta}T{sub eff} = 50 K, respectively, which are 42 and 43% higher than those at {delta}T = 42 K under the STG. These maximum {eta} for a TE composite sandwiched between two Peltier modules, were found to be expressed theoretically in terms of R{sub P}, R{sub T}, R{sub L}, {alpha}{sub P} and {alpha}, where {alpha}{sub P} and {alpha} are the resultant Seebeck coefficients of Peltier modules and a TE composite.« less

  17. Dose conversion coefficients for monoenergetic electrons incident on a realistic human eye model with different lens cell populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, P.; Zankl, M.; Schlattl, H.; Vaz, P.

    2011-11-01

    The radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataract has long been generally accepted to be a deterministic effect that does not occur at doses below a threshold of at least 2 Gy. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that the threshold for cataract induction may be much lower or that there may be no threshold at all. A thorough study of this subject requires more accurate dose estimates for the eye lens than those available in ICRP Publication 74. Eye lens absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients for electron irradiation were calculated using a geometrical model of the eye that takes into account different cell populations of the lens epithelium, together with the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code package. For the cell population most sensitive to ionizing radiation—the germinative cells—absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients were determined that are up to a factor of 4.8 higher than the mean eye lens absorbed dose conversion coefficients for electron energies below 2 MeV. Comparison of the results with previously published values for a slightly different eye model showed generally good agreement for all electron energies. Finally, the influence of individual anatomical variability was quantified by positioning the lens at various depths below the cornea. A depth difference of 2 mm between the shallowest and the deepest location of the germinative zone can lead to a difference between the resulting absorbed doses of up to nearly a factor of 5000 for electron energy of 0.7 MeV.

  18. Dose conversion coefficients for monoenergetic electrons incident on a realistic human eye model with different lens cell populations.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, P; Zankl, M; Schlattl, H; Vaz, P

    2011-11-07

    The radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataract has long been generally accepted to be a deterministic effect that does not occur at doses below a threshold of at least 2 Gy. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that the threshold for cataract induction may be much lower or that there may be no threshold at all. A thorough study of this subject requires more accurate dose estimates for the eye lens than those available in ICRP Publication 74. Eye lens absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients for electron irradiation were calculated using a geometrical model of the eye that takes into account different cell populations of the lens epithelium, together with the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code package. For the cell population most sensitive to ionizing radiation-the germinative cells-absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients were determined that are up to a factor of 4.8 higher than the mean eye lens absorbed dose conversion coefficients for electron energies below 2 MeV. Comparison of the results with previously published values for a slightly different eye model showed generally good agreement for all electron energies. Finally, the influence of individual anatomical variability was quantified by positioning the lens at various depths below the cornea. A depth difference of 2 mm between the shallowest and the deepest location of the germinative zone can lead to a difference between the resulting absorbed doses of up to nearly a factor of 5000 for electron energy of 0.7 MeV.

  19. Conversion of time-varying Stokes coefficients into mass anomalies at the Earth's surface considering the Earth's oblateness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditmar, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    Time-varying Stokes coefficients estimated from GRACE satellite data are routinely converted into mass anomalies at the Earth's surface with the expression proposed for that purpose by Wahr et al. (J Geophys Res 103(B12):30,205-30,229, 1998). However, the results obtained with it represent mass transport at the spherical surface of 6378 km radius. We show that the accuracy of such conversion may be insufficient, especially if the target area is located in a polar region and the signal-to-noise ratio is high. For instance, the peak values of mean linear trends in 2003-2015 estimated over Greenland and Amundsen Sea embayment of West Antarctica may be underestimated in this way by about 15%. As a solution, we propose an updated expression for the conversion of Stokes coefficients into mass anomalies. This expression is based on the assumptions that: (i) mass transport takes place at the reference ellipsoid and (ii) at each point of interest, the ellipsoidal surface is approximated by the sphere with a radius equal to the current radial distance from the Earth's center ("locally spherical approximation"). The updated expression is nearly as simple as the traditionally used one but reduces the inaccuracies of the conversion procedure by an order of magnitude. In addition, we remind the reader that the conversion expressions are defined in spherical (geocentric) coordinates. We demonstrate that the difference between mass anomalies computed in spherical and ellipsoidal (geodetic) coordinates may not be negligible, so that a conversion of geodetic colatitudes into geocentric ones should not be omitted.

  20. Dose conversion coefficients for electron exposure of the human eye lens: calculations including a whole body phantom.

    PubMed

    Behrens, R

    2013-07-01

    In this work, conversion coefficients from electron fluence to absorbed dose to the eye lens were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations based on a detailed stylised eye model and a very simple but whole body phantom. These data supersede and complement data published earlier based on the simulation of only a single stylised eye. The new data differ from the old ones by not more than 3, 4, 7 and 16 % for angles of radiation incidence of α=0°, 15°, 30° and 45°, respectively, due to the inclusion of the whole body phantom. The data presented in the present work also complement those of a recent report of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP Publication 116), where conversion coefficients from electron fluence to absorbed dose to the lens of the eye are shown for solely 0°, 180° and isotropic radiation incidence (but for a much broader range of energies). In this article, values are provided for angles of incidence of 0° up to 180° in steps of 15° and for rotational geometry; no systematic deviation was observed from the values given in ICRP Publication 116 for 0° (based on the application of a bare eye) and 180° (based on the application of a voxel whole body phantom). Data are given for monoenergetic electrons from 0.1 up to 10 MeV and for a broad parallel beam geometry in vacuum.

  1. The influence of patient size on dose conversion coefficients: a hybrid phantom study for adult cardiac catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry; Lee, Choonsik; Johnson, Kevin; Siragusa, Daniel; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, the influence of patient size on organ and effective dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) was investigated for a representative interventional fluoroscopic procedure—cardiac catheterization. The study was performed using hybrid phantoms representing an underweight, average and overweight American adult male. Reference body sizes were determined using the NHANES III database and parameterized based on standing height and total body mass. Organ and effective dose conversion coefficients were calculated for anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left anterior oblique and right anterior oblique projections using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.5.0 with the metric dose area product being used as the normalization factor. Results show body size to have a clear influence on DCCs which increased noticeably when body size decreased. It was also shown that if patient size is neglected when choosing a DCC, the organ and effective dose will be underestimated to an underweight patient and will be overestimated to an underweight patient, with errors as large as 113% for certain projections. Results were further compared with those published for a KTMAN-2 Korean patient-specific tomographic phantom. The published DCCs aligned best with the hybrid phantom which most closely matched in overall body size. These results highlighted the need for and the advantages of phantom-patient matching, and it is recommended that hybrid phantoms be used to create a more diverse library of patient-dependent anthropomorphic phantoms for medical dose reconstruction.

  2. BODY SIZE-SPECIFIC EFFECTIVE DOSE CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS FOR CT SCANS.

    PubMed

    Romanyukha, Anna; Folio, Les; Lamart, Stephanie; Simon, Steven L; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-12-01

    Effective dose from computed tomography (CT) examinations is usually estimated using the scanner-provided dose-length product and using conversion factors, also known as k-factors, which correspond to scan regions and differ by age according to five categories: 0, 1, 5, 10 y and adult. However, patients often deviate from the standard body size on which the conversion factor is based. In this study, a method for deriving body size-specific k-factors is presented, which can be determined from a simple regression curve based on patient diameter at the centre of the scan range. Using the International Commission on Radiological Protection reference paediatric and adult computational phantoms paired with Monte Carlo simulation of CT X-ray beams, the authors derived a regression-based k-factor model for the following CT scan types: head-neck, head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, abdomen-pelvis (AP) and chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP). The resulting regression functions were applied to a total of 105 paediatric and 279 adult CT scans randomly sampled from patients who underwent chest, AP and CAP scans at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. The authors have calculated and compared the effective doses derived from the conventional age-specific k-factors with the values computed using their body size-specific k-factor. They found that by using the age-specific k-factor, paediatric patients tend to have underestimates (up to 3-fold) of effective dose, while underweight and overweight adult patients tend to have underestimates (up to 2.6-fold) and overestimates (up to 4.6-fold) of effective dose, respectively, compared with the effective dose determined from their body size-dependent factors. The authors present these size-specific k-factors as an alternative to the existing age-specific factors. The body size-specific k-factor will assess effective dose more precisely and on a more individual level than the conventional age-specific k-factors and, hence, improve

  3. Conversion coefficients from fluence to effective dose for heavy ions with energies up to 3 GeV/A.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Tsuda, S; Sakamoto, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Niita, K

    2003-01-01

    Radiological protection against high-energy heavy ions has been an essential issue in the planning of long-term space missions. The fluence to effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for heavy ions using the particle and heavy ion transport code system PHITS coupled with an anthropomorphic phantom of the MIRD5 type. The calculations were performed for incidences of protons and typical space heavy ions--deuterons, tritons, 3He, alpha particles, 12C, 20Ne, 40Ar, 40Ca and 56Fe--with energies up to 3 GeV/A in the isotropic and anterior-posterior irradiation geometries. A simple fitting formula that can predict the effective dose from almost all kinds of space heavy ions below 3 GeV/A within an accuracy of 30% is deduced from the results.

  4. Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny in the human lung.

    PubMed

    Nikezic, D; Lau, B M F; Stevanovic, N; Yu, K N

    2006-01-01

    To calculate the absorbed dose in the human lung due to inhaled radon progeny, ICRP focussed on the layers containing the target cells, i.e., the basal and secretory cells. Such an approach did not consider details of the sensitive cells in the layers. The present work uses the microdosimetric approach and determines the absorbed alpha-particle energy in non-spherical nuclei of target cells (basal and secretory cells). The absorbed energy for alpha particles emitted by radon progeny in the human respiratory tract was calculated in basal- and secretory-cell nuclei, assuming conical and ellipsoidal forms for these cells. Distributions of specific energy for different combinations of alpha-particle sources, energies and targets are calculated and shown. The dose conversion coefficient for radon progeny is reduced for about 2mSv/WLM when conical and ellipsoidal cell nuclei are considered instead of the layers. While changes in the geometry of secretory-cell nuclei do not have significant effects on their absorbed dose, changes from spherical to conical basal-cell nuclei have significantly reduced their absorbed dose from approximately 4 to approximately 3mGy/WLM. This is expected because basal cells are situated close to the end of the range of 6MeV alpha particles. This also underlines the significance of better and more precise information on targets in the T-B tree. A further change in the dose conversion coefficient can be achieved if a different weighting scheme is adopted for the doses for the cells. The results demonstrate the necessity for better information on the target cells for more accurate dosimetry for radon progeny.

  5. SU-D-209-06: Study On the Dose Conversion Coefficients in Pediatric Radiography with the Development of Children Voxel Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Q; Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai, Shanghai; Zhuo, W

    Purpose: Conversion coefficients of organ dose normalized to entrance skin dose (ESD) are widely used to evaluate the organ doses directly using ESD without time-consuming dose measurement, this work aims to investigate the dose conversion coefficients in pediatric chest and abdomen radiography with the development of 5 years and 10 years old children voxel phantoms. Methods: After segmentation of organs and tissues from CT slice images of ATOM tissue-equivalent phantoms, a 5-year-old and a 10-year-old children computational voxel phantoms were developed for Monte Carlo simulation. The organ doses and the entrance skin dose for pediatric chest postero-anterior projection and abdominalmore » antero-posterior projection were simulated at the same time, and then the organ dose conversion coefficients were calculated.To verify the simulated results, dose measurement was carried out with ATOM tissue-equivalent phantoms for 5 year chest radiography. Results: Simulated results and experimental results matched very well with each other, the result differences of all the organs covered in radiation field were below 16% for 5-year-old child in chest projection. I showed that the conversion coefficients of organs covered in the radiation field were much larger than organs out of the field for all the study cases, for example, the conversion coefficients of stomach, liver intestines, and pancreas are larger for abdomen radiography while conversion coefficients of lungs are larger for chest radiography. Conclusion: The voxel children phantoms were helpful to evaluate the radiation doses more accurately and efficiently. Radiation field was the essential factor that affects the organ dose, use reasonably small field should be encouraged for radiation protection. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(11475047)« less

  6. Radiometer offsets and count conversion coefficients for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) spacecraft for the years 1984, 1985, and 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Shivakumar, Netra D.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert; Bolden, William; Thomas, Susan; Gibson, M. Alan

    1991-01-01

    A compendium is presented of the ground and inflight scanner and nonscanner offsets and count conversion (gain) coefficients used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) production processing of data from the ERBS, NOAA-9, and NOAA-10 satellites for the 1 Nov. 1984 to 31 Dec. 1986.

  7. Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for heavy ions calculated using the PHITS code and the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Endo, Akira; Niita, Koji

    2010-04-21

    The fluence to organ-absorbed-dose and effective-dose conversion coefficients for heavy ions with atomic numbers up to 28 and energies from 1 MeV/nucleon to 100 GeV/nucleon were calculated using the PHITS code coupled to the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms, following the instruction given in ICRP Publication 103 (2007 (Oxford: Pergamon)). The conversion coefficients for effective dose equivalents derived using the radiation quality factors of both Q(L) and Q(y) relationships were also estimated, utilizing the functions for calculating the probability densities of absorbed dose in terms of LET (L) and lineal energy (y), respectively, implemented in PHITS. The calculation results indicate that the effective dose can generally give a conservative estimation of the effective dose equivalent for heavy-ion exposure, although it is occasionally too conservative especially for high-energy lighter-ion irradiations. It is also found from the calculation that the conversion coefficients for the Q(y)-based effective dose equivalents are generally smaller than the corresponding Q(L)-based values because of the conceptual difference between LET and y as well as the numerical incompatibility between the Q(L) and Q(y) relationships. The calculated data of these dose conversion coefficients are very useful for the dose estimation of astronauts due to cosmic-ray exposure.

  8. Comparing Hp(3) evaluated from the conversion coefficients from air kerma to personal dose equivalent for eye lens dosimetry calibrated on a new cylindrical PMMA phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esor, J.; Sudchai, W.; Monthonwattana, S.; Pungkun, V.; Intang, A.

    2017-06-01

    Based on a new occupational dose limit recommended by ICRP (2011), the annual dose limit for the lens of the eye for workers should be reduced from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y averaged over 5 consecutive years in which no single year exceeding 50 mSv. This new dose limit directly affects radiologists and cardiologists whose work involves high radiation exposure over 20 mSv/y. Eye lens dosimetry (Hp(3)) has become increasingly important and should be evaluated directly based on dosimeters that are worn closely to the eye. Normally, Hp(3) dose algorithm was carried out by the combination of Hp(0.07) and Hp(10) values while dosimeters were calibrated on slab PMMA phantom. Recently, there were three reports from European Union that have shown the conversion coefficients from air kerma to Hp(3). These conversion coefficients carried out by ORAMED, PTB and CEA Saclay projects were performed by using a new cylindrical head phantom. In this study, various delivered doses were calculated using those three conversion coefficients while nanoDot, small OSL dosimeters, were used for Hp(3) measurement. These calibrations were performed with a standard X-ray generator at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). Delivered doses (Hp(3)) using those three conversion coefficients were compared with Hp(3) from nanoDot measurements. The results showed that percentage differences between delivered doses evaluated from the conversion coefficient of each project and Hp(3) doses evaluated from the nanoDots were found to be not exceeding -11.48 %, -8.85 % and -8.85 % for ORAMED, PTB and CEA Saclay project, respectively.

  9. Radiometer offsets and count conversion coefficients for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) spacecraft for the years 1987, 1988, and 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert; Bolden, William; Thomas, Susan; Gibson, M. Alan

    1993-01-01

    This document contains a compendium of the ground and in-flight scanner and non-scanner offsets and count conversion (gain) coefficients used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) production processing of data from the ERBS satellite for the period from 1 January 1987 to 31 December 1989; for the NOAA-9 satellite, for the month of January 1987; and for the NOAA-10 satellite, for the period from 1 January 1987 to 31 May 1989.

  10. Dose estimation for astronauts using dose conversion coefficients calculated with the PHITS code and the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Endo, Akira; Sihver, Lembit; Niita, Koji

    2011-03-01

    Absorbed-dose and dose-equivalent rates for astronauts were estimated by multiplying fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients in the units of Gy.cm(2) and Sv.cm(2), respectively, and cosmic-ray fluxes around spacecrafts in the unit of cm(-2) s(-1). The dose conversion coefficients employed in the calculation were evaluated using the general-purpose particle and heavy ion transport code system PHITS coupled to the male and female adult reference computational phantoms, which were released as a common ICRP/ICRU publication. The cosmic-ray fluxes inside and near to spacecrafts were also calculated by PHITS, using simplified geometries. The accuracy of the obtained absorbed-dose and dose-equivalent rates was verified by various experimental data measured both inside and outside spacecrafts. The calculations quantitatively show that the effective doses for astronauts are significantly greater than their corresponding effective dose equivalents, because of the numerical incompatibility between the radiation quality factors and the radiation weighting factors. These results demonstrate the usefulness of dose conversion coefficients in space dosimetry. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  11. Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for neutrons and protons calculated using the PHITS code and ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Endo, Akira; Zankl, Maria; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Niita, Koji

    2009-04-07

    The fluence to organ-dose and effective-dose conversion coefficients for neutrons and protons with energies up to 100 GeV was calculated using the PHITS code coupled to male and female adult reference computational phantoms, which are to be released as a common ICRP/ICRU publication. For the calculation, the radiation and tissue weighting factors, w(R) and w(T), respectively, as revised in ICRP Publication 103 were employed. The conversion coefficients for effective dose equivalents derived using the radiation quality factors of both Q(L) and Q(y) relationships were also estimated, utilizing the functions for calculating the probability densities of the absorbed dose in terms of LET (L) and lineal energy (y), respectively, implemented in PHITS. By comparing these data with the corresponding data for the effective dose, we found that the numerical compatibilities of the revised w(R) with the Q(L) and Q(y) relationships are fairly established. The calculated data of these dose conversion coefficients are indispensable for constructing the radiation protection systems based on the new recommendations given in ICRP103 for aircrews and astronauts, as well as for workers in accelerators and nuclear facilities.

  12. Organ and effective dose conversion coefficients for a sitting female hybrid computational phantom exposed to monoenergetic protons in idealized irradiation geometries.

    PubMed

    Alves, M C; Santos, W S; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E; Hunt, John G; Carvalho Júnior, A B

    2014-12-21

    The conversion coefficients (CCs) relate protection quantities, mean absorbed dose (DT) and effective dose (E), with physical radiation field quantities, such as fluence (Φ). The calculation of CCs through Monte Carlo simulations is useful for estimating the dose in individuals exposed to radiation. The aim of this work was the calculation of conversion coefficients for absorbed and effective doses per fluence (DT/ Φ and E/Φ) using a sitting and standing female hybrid phantom (UFH/NCI) exposure to monoenergetic protons with energy ranging from 2 MeV to 10 GeV. The radiation transport code MCNPX was used to develop exposure scenarios implementing the female UFH/NCI phantom in sitting and standing postures. Whole-body irradiations were performed using the recommended irradiation geometries by ICRP publication 116 (AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT and ISO). In most organs, the conversion coefficients DT/Φ were similar for both postures. However, relative differences were significant for organs located in the abdominal region, such as ovaries, uterus and urinary bladder, especially in the AP, RLAT and LLAT geometries. Anatomical differences caused by changing the posture of the female UFH/NCI phantom led an attenuation of incident protons with energies below 150 MeV by the thigh of the phantom in the sitting posture, for the front-to-back irradiation, and by the arms and hands of the phantom in the standing posture, for the lateral irradiation.

  13. Flexible Dielectric Nanocomposites with Ultrawide Zero-Temperature Coefficient Windows for Electrical Energy Storage and Conversion under Extreme Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Khurram; Xu, Yang; Gao, Chao; Li, Hanying; Dang, Zhi-Min; Hasan, Tawfique; Luo, Jack; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2017-03-01

    Polymer dielectrics offer key advantages over their ceramic counterparts such as flexibility, scalability, low cost, and high breakdown voltages. However, a major drawback that limits more widespread application of polymer dielectrics is their temperature-dependent dielectric properties. Achieving dielectric constants with low/zero-temperature coefficient (L/0TC) over a broad temperature range is essential for applications in diverse technologies. Here, we report a hybrid filler strategy to produce polymer composites with an ultrawide L/0TC window of dielectric constant, as well as a significantly enhanced dielectric value, maximum energy storage density, thermal conductivity, and stability. By creating a series of percolative polymer composites, we demonstrated hybrid carbon filler based composites can exhibit a zero-temperature coefficient window of 200 °C (from -50 to 150 °C), the widest 0TC window for all polymer composite dielectrics reported to date. We further show the electric and dielectric temperature coefficient of the composites is highly stable against stretching and bending, even under AC electric field with frequency up to 1 MHz. We envision that our method will push the functional limits of polymer dielectrics for flexible electronics in extreme conditions such as in hybrid vehicles, aerospace, power electronics, and oil/gas exploration.

  14. Comparison of effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients e31,f of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films between direct and converse piezoelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujiura, Yuichi; Kawabe, Saneyuki; Kurokawa, Fumiya; Hida, Hirotaka; Kanno, Isaku

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients (e31,f) of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films from both the direct and converse piezoelectric effects of unimorph cantilevers. (001) preferentially oriented polycrystalline PZT thin films and (001)/(100) epitaxial PZT thin films were deposited on (111)Pt/Ti/Si and (001)Pt/MgO substrates, respectively, by rf-magnetron sputtering, and their piezoelectric responses owing to intrinsic and extrinsic effects were examined. The direct and converse |e31,f| values of the polycrystalline PZT thin films were calculated as 6.4 and 11.5-15.0 C/m2, respectively, whereas those of the epitaxial PZT thin films were calculated as 3.4 and 4.6-4.8 C/m2, respectively. The large |e31,f| of the converse piezoelectric property of the polycrystalline PZT thin films is attributed to extrinsic piezoelectric effects. Furthermore, the polycrystalline PZT thin films show a clear nonlinear piezoelectric contribution, which is the same as the Rayleigh-like behavior reported in bulk PZT. In contrast, the epitaxial PZT thin films on the MgO substrate show a piezoelectric response owing to the intrinsic and linear extrinsic effects, and no nonlinear contribution was observed.

  15. ON THE DEGREE OF CONVERSION AND COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION OF A SINGLE FIBER COMPOSITE USING A FBG SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, M.; Botsis, J.; Coric, D.

    2008-08-28

    The increasing needs of extending the lifetime in high-technology fields, such as space and aerospace, rail transport and naval systems, require quality enhancing of the composite materials either from a processing standing point or in the sense of resistance to service conditions. It is well accepted that the final quality of composite materials and structures is strongly influenced by processing parameters like curing and post-curing temperatures, rate of heating and cooling, applied vacuum, etc. To optimize manufacturing cycles, residual strains evolution due to chemical shrinkage and other physical parameters of the constituent materials must be characterized in situ. Such knowledgemore » can lead to a sensible reduction in defects and to improved physical and mechanical properties of final products. In this context continuous monitoring of strains distribution developed during processing is important in understanding and retrieving components' and materials' characteristics such as local strains gradients, degree of curing, coefficient of thermal expansion, moisture absorption, etc.« less

  16. Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the posture modification of Adult Male (AM) and Adult Female (AF) reference phantoms of ICRP 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeano, D. C.; Santos, W. S.; Alves, M. C.; Souza, D. N.; Carvalho, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to modify the standing posture of the anthropomorphic reference phantoms of ICRP publication 110, AM (Adult Male) and AF (Adult Female), to the sitting posture. The change of posture was performed using the Visual Monte Carlo software (VMC) to rotate the thigh region of the phantoms and position it between the region of the leg and trunk. Scion Image software was used to reconstruct and smooth the knee and hip contours of the phantoms in a sitting posture. For 3D visualization of phantoms, the VolView software was used. In the change of postures, the organ and tissue masses were preserved. The MCNPX was used to calculate the equivalent and effective dose conversion coefficients (CCs) per fluence for photons for six irradiation geometries suggested by ICRP publication 110 (AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT and ISO) and energy range 0.010-10 MeV. The results were compared between the standing and sitting postures, for both sexes, in order to evaluate the differences of scattering and absorption of radiation for different postures. Significant differences in the CCs for equivalent dose were observed in the gonads, colon, prostate, urinary bladder and uterus, which are present in the pelvic region, and in organs distributed throughout the body, such as the lymphatic nodes, muscle, skeleton and skin, for the phantoms of both sexes. CCs for effective dose showed significant differences of up to 16% in the AP irradiation geometry, 27% in the PA irradiation geometry and 13% in the ROT irradiation geometry. These results demonstrate the importance of using phantoms in different postures in order to obtain more precise conversion coefficients for a given exposure scenario.

  17. Monte Carlo determination of the conversion coefficients Hp(3)/Ka in a right cylinder phantom with 'PENELOPE' code. Comparison with 'MCNP' simulations.

    PubMed

    Daures, J; Gouriou, J; Bordy, J M

    2011-03-01

    This work has been performed within the frame of the European Union ORAMED project (Optimisation of RAdiation protection for MEDical staff). The main goal of the project is to improve standards of protection for medical staff for procedures resulting in potentially high exposures and to develop methodologies for better assessing and for reducing, exposures to medical staff. The Work Package WP2 is involved in the development of practical eye-lens dosimetry in interventional radiology. This study is complementary of the part of the ENEA report concerning the calculations with the MCNP-4C code of the conversion factors related to the operational quantity H(p)(3). In this study, a set of energy- and angular-dependent conversion coefficients (H(p)(3)/K(a)), in the newly proposed square cylindrical phantom made of ICRU tissue, have been calculated with the Monte-Carlo code PENELOPE and MCNP5. The H(p)(3) values have been determined in terms of absorbed dose, according to the definition of this quantity, and also with the kerma approximation as formerly reported in ICRU reports. At a low-photon energy (up to 1 MeV), the two results obtained with the two methods are consistent. Nevertheless, large differences are showed at a higher energy. This is mainly due to the lack of electronic equilibrium, especially for small angle incidences. The values of the conversion coefficients obtained with the MCNP-4C code published by ENEA quite agree with the kerma approximation calculations obtained with PENELOPE. We also performed the same calculations with the code MCNP5 with two types of tallies: F6 for kerma approximation and *F8 for estimating the absorbed dose that is, as known, due to secondary electrons. PENELOPE and MCNP5 results agree for the kerma approximation and for the absorbed dose calculation of H(p)(3) and prove that, for photon energies larger than 1 MeV, the transport of the secondary electrons has to be taken into account.

  18. The E(2) particle

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Subir; Pal, Probir; Physics Department, Uluberia College, Uluberia, Howrah 711315

    2009-12-15

    Recently it has been advocated [A. G. Cohen and S. L. Glashow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 021601 (2006)] that for describing nature within the minimal symmetry requirement, certain subgroups of the Lorentz group may play a fundamental role. One such group is E(2) which induces a Lie algebraic noncommutative spacetime [M. M. Sheikh-Jabbari and A. Tureanu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 261601 (2008); arXiv:0811.3670] where translation invariance is not fully maintained. We have constructed a consistent structure of noncommutative phase space for this system, and furthermore we have studied an appropriate point particle action on it. Interestingly, the Einstein dispersion relationmore » p{sup 2}=m{sup 2} remains intact. The model is constructed by exploiting a dual canonical phase space following the scheme developed by us earlier [S. Ghosh and P. Pal, Phys. Rev. D 75, 105021 (2007)].« less

  19. Fluence-to-Absorbed Dose Conversion Coefficients for Use in Radiological Protection of Embryo and Foetus Against External Exposure to Muons from 20MeV to 50GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing

    2008-08-07

    This study used the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external muon fields. Monoenergetic muons ranging from 20 MeV to 50 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include anteroposterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), isotropic (ISO), and top-down (TOP). At each of these irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months, respectively. Muon fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages. Since such conversion coefficients aremore » yet unknown, the results presented here fill a data gap.« less

  20. The Papillomavirus E2 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Alison A., E-mail: amcbride@nih.gov

    2013-10-15

    The papillomavirus E2 proteins are pivotal to the viral life cycle and have well characterized functions in transcriptional regulation, initiation of DNA replication and partitioning the viral genome. The E2 proteins also function in vegetative DNA replication, post-transcriptional processes and possibly packaging. This review describes structural and functional aspects of the E2 proteins and their binding sites on the viral genome. It is intended to be a reference guide to this viral protein. - Highlights: • Overview of E2 protein functions. • Structural domains of the papillomavirus E2 proteins. • Analysis of E2 binding sites in different genera of papillomaviruses.more » • Compilation of E2 associated proteins. • Comparison of key mutations in distinct E2 functions.« less

  1. AIR KERMA TO Hp(3) CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS FOR IEC 61267 RQR X-RAY RADIATION QUALITIES: APPLICATION TO DOSE MONITORING OF THE LENS OF THE EYE IN MEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS.

    PubMed

    Principi, S; Guardiola, C; Duch, M A; Ginjaume, M

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies highlight the fact that the new eye lens dose limit can be exceeded in interventional radiology procedures and that eye lens monitoring could be required for these workers. The recommended operational quantity for monitoring of eye lens exposure is the personal dose equivalent at 3 mm depth Hp(3) (ICRU 51). However, there are no available conversion coefficients in international standards, while in the literature coefficients have only been calculated for monoenergetic beams and for ISO 4037-1 X-ray qualities. The aim of this article is to provide air kerma to Hp(3) conversion coefficients for a cylindrical phantom made of ICRU-4 elements tissue-equivalent material for RQR radiation qualities (IEC-61267) from 40 to 120 kV and for angles of incidence from 0 to 180°, which are characteristic of medical workplace. Analytic calculations using interpolation techniques and Monte Carlo modelling have been compared. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients for neutron beams from 0.001 eV to 100 GeV calculated for a set of pregnant female and fetus models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranenko, Valery; Xu, X. George

    2008-03-01

    Protection of fetuses against external neutron exposure is an important task. This paper reports a set of absorbed dose conversion coefficients for fetal and maternal organs for external neutron beams using the RPI-P pregnant female models and the MCNPX code. The newly developed pregnant female models represent an adult female with a fetus including its brain and skeleton at the end of each trimester. The organ masses were adjusted to match the reference values within 1%. For the 3 mm cubic voxel size, the models consist of 10-15 million voxels for 35 organs. External monoenergetic neutron beams of six standard configurations (AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT, ROT and ISO) and source energies 0.001 eV-100 GeV were considered. The results are compared with previous data that are based on simplified anatomical models. The differences in dose depend on source geometry, energy and gestation periods: from 20% up to 140% for the whole fetus, and up to 100% for the fetal brain. Anatomical differences are primarily responsible for the discrepancies in the organ doses. For the first time, the dependence of mother organ doses upon anatomical changes during pregnancy was studied. A maximum of 220% increase in dose was observed for the placenta in the nine months model compared to three months, whereas dose to the pancreas, small and large intestines decreases by 60% for the AP source for the same models. Tabulated dose conversion coefficients for the fetus and 27 maternal organs are provided.

  3. The B(E2;4^+1->2^+1) / B(E2;2^+1->0^+1) Ratio in Even-Even Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loelius, C.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Zamick, L.; G"Urdal, G.

    2009-10-01

    We considered 207 even-even nuclei throughout the chart of nuclides for which the NNDC Tables had data on the energies and lifetimes of the 2^+1 and 4^+1 states. Using these data we calculated for each nucleus the electric quadrupole transition strengths B(E2;4^+1->2^+1) and B(E2;2^+1->0^+1), as well as their ratio. The internal conversion coefficients were obtained by using the NNDC HSICC calculator. For each nucleus we plotted the B(E2) ratio against A, N, and Z. We found that for close to 90% of the nuclei considered the ratio had values between 0.5 and 2.5. Most of the outliers had magic numbers of protons or neutrons. Our ratio results were compared with the theoretical predictions for this ratio by different models--10/7 in the rotational model and 2 in the simplest vibrational model. In the rotational regions (for 150 < A < 180 and A > 220) the ratios were indeed close to 10/7. For the few nuclei thought to be vibrational the ratios were usually less than 2. Otherwise, we got a wide scatter of ratio values. Hence other models, including the NpNn scheme, must be considered in interpreting these results.

  4. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    and Homeland Defense. As a part of the E-2D AHE radar modernization effort, the Navy also invested in integrating a full glass cockpit and full...Communication Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management capability. The glass cockpit will also provide the capability for the pilot or co-pilot to...hours at a station distance of 200nm Flat Turn Service Ceiling =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission profile =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission

  5. Comparison of conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma for photons using a male adult voxel simulator in sitting and standing posture with geometry of irradiation antero-posterior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeano, D. C.; Cavalcante, F. R.; Carvalho, A. B.; Hunt, J.

    2014-02-01

    The dose conversion coefficient (DCC) is important to quantify and assess effective doses associated with medical, professional and public exposures. The calculation of DCCs using anthropomorphic simulators and radiation transport codes is justified since in-vivo measurement of effective dose is extremely difficult and not practical for occupational dosimetry. DCCs have been published by the ICRP using simulators in a standing posture, which is not always applicable to all exposure scenarios, providing an inaccurate dose estimation. The aim of this work was to calculate DCCs for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma (H/Kair) using the Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code and the VOXTISS8 adult male voxel simulator in sitting and standing postures. In both postures, the simulator was irradiated by a plane source of monoenergetic photons in antero-posterior (AP) geometry. The photon energy ranged from 15 keV to 2 MeV. The DCCs for both postures were compared and the DCCs for the standing simulator were higher. For certain organs, the difference of DCCs were more significant, as in gonads (48% higher), bladder (16% higher) and colon (11% higher). As these organs are positioned in the abdominal region, the posture of the anthropomorphic simulator modifies the form in which the radiation is transported and how the energy is deposited. It was also noted that the average percentage difference of conversion coefficients was 33% for the bone marrow, 11% for the skin, 13% for the bone surface and 31% for the muscle. For other organs, the percentage difference of the DCCs for both postures was not relevant (less than 5%) due to no anatomical changes in the organs of the head, chest and upper abdomen. We can conclude that is important to obtain DCCs using different postures from those present in the scientific literature.

  6. Metric Conversion

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-12

    Metric Weights and Measures The metric system is based on 10s.  For example, 10 millimeters = 1 centimeter, 10 ... Special Publications: NIST Guide to SI Units: Conversion Factors NIST Guide to SI Units: Conversion Factors listed ...

  7. The Astro-E2 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    The Astro-E2 observatory is a rebuild of the original Astro-E observatory that was lost during launch in February 2000. It is scheduled for launch into low earth orbit on a Japanese M-V rocket in early 2005. The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, is developing the observatory with major contributions from the US. The three instruments on the observatory are the high-resolution x-ray spectrometer (the XRS) featuring a 30-pixel x-ray microcalorimeter array, a set of four CCD cameras (the XIS) and a combination photo-diode/scintillator detector system (the HXD) that will extend the band pass up to nearly 700 keV. A significant feature of Astro-E2 is that all of the instruments are coaligned and operated simultaneously. With its high spectral resolution and collecting area for spectroscopy above 1 keV, Astro-E2 should enable major discovery space and pioneer new technology for use in space. Prime areas for investigation are supernova remnants, active galaxies and the measurement of black hole properties via relativistically-broadened Fe-K emission galaxies. A number of enhancements have been made for the Astro-E2/XRS, including a higher resolution microcalorimeter array, ii mechanical cooler for longer cryogen life, and an improved in-flight calibration system. The Astro-E2/XIS has also been improved to include two back-side-illuminated CCDs to enhance the low energy response. Improvements have also been made to the x-ray mirrors used for both the XRS and XIS to sharpen the point spread function and reduce the effects of stray light. In this talk we will present the essential features of Astro-E2, paying particular attention to the enhancements, and describe the major scientific strengths of the observatory.

  8. E2E: A Summary of the e2e Learning Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Development Agency, London (England).

    This publication is a summary of the E2E (Entry to Employment) Learning Framework that provides guidance on program implementation. (E2E is a new learning program for young people not yet ready or able to enter Modern Apprenticeship programs, a Level 2 program, or employment directly.) Section 2 highlights core values to which all involved should…

  9. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  10. Conversation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  11. Conversion Disorder.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Anthony

    2018-06-01

    This article provides a broad overview of conversion disorder, encompassing diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiologic theories, functional neuroimaging findings, outcome data, prognostic indicators, and treatment. Two important changes have been made to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria: the criteria that conversion symptoms must be shown to be involuntary and occurring as the consequence of a recent stressor have been dropped. Outcome studies show that the rate of misdiagnosis has declined precipitously since the 1970s and is now around 4%. Functional neuroimaging has revealed a fairly consistent pattern of hypoactivation in brain regions linked to the specific conversion symptom, accompanied by ancillary activations in limbic, paralimbic, and basal ganglia structures. Cognitive-behavioral therapy looks promising as the psychological treatment of choice, although more definitive data are still awaited, while preliminary evidence indicates that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation could prove beneficial as well. Symptoms of conversion are common in neurologic and psychiatric settings, affecting up to 20% of patients. The full syndrome of conversion disorder, while less prevalent, is associated with a guarded prognosis and a troubled psychosocial outcome. Much remains uncertain with respect to etiology, although advances in neuroscience and technology are providing reproducible findings and new insights. Given the confidence with which the diagnosis can be made, treatment should not be delayed, as symptom longevity can influence outcome.

  12. Pictorial Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Kristina

    1982-01-01

    Provides the rationale for considering communication in a graphic domain and suggests a specific goal for designing work stations which provide graphic capabilities in educational settings. The central element of this recommendation is the "pictorial conversation", a highly interactive exchange that includes pictures as the central elements.…

  13. Conversation Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Vernita

    2016-01-01

    The author, a consultant on school equity, describes a common situation: teachers try to discuss the issue of inequitable outcomes for students of color, and all of a sudden, the conversation stalls. Such discussions are not the norm for educators. They often shut down or disengage emotionally because of various fears. When schools realize that…

  14. Conversational sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  15. Conversational sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  16. 26 CFR 1.503(e)-2 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Requirements. 1.503(e)-2 Section 1.503(e)-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(e)-2 Requirements. (a) In general. The requirements... price may not be a valid price for 1,000 bonds and the purchase may therefore not meet the requirements...

  17. 26 CFR 1.503(e)-2 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Requirements. 1.503(e)-2 Section 1.503(e)-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(e)-2 Requirements. (a) In general. The requirements... price may not be a valid price for 1,000 bonds and the purchase may therefore not meet the requirements...

  18. 26 CFR 1.503(e)-2 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements. 1.503(e)-2 Section 1.503(e)-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(e)-2 Requirements. (a) In general. The requirements... price may not be a valid price for 1,000 bonds and the purchase may therefore not meet the requirements...

  19. Diabetes and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in E2F1/E2F2 double-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Ainhoa; Murga, Matilde; Laresgoiti, Usua; Skoudy, Anouchka; Bernales, Irantzu; Fullaondo, Asier; Moreno, Bernardino; Lloreta, José; Field, Seth J; Real, Francisco X; Zubiaga, Ana M

    2004-05-01

    E2F transcription factors are thought to be key regulators of cell growth control. Here we use mutant mouse strains to investigate the function of E2F1 and E2F2 in vivo. E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant mice develop nonautoimmune insulin-deficient diabetes and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction characterized by endocrine and exocrine cell dysplasia, a reduction in the number and size of acini and islets, and their replacement by ductal structures and adipose tissue. Mutant pancreatic cells exhibit increased rates of DNA replication but also of apoptosis, resulting in severe pancreatic atrophy. The expression of genes involved in DNA replication and cell cycle control was upregulated in the E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant pancreas, suggesting that their expression is repressed by E2F1/E2F2 activities and that the inappropriate cell cycle found in the mutant pancreas is likely the result of the deregulated expression of these genes. Interestingly, the expression of ductal cell and adipocyte differentiation marker genes was also upregulated, whereas expression of pancreatic cell marker genes were downregulated. These results suggest that E2F1/E2F2 activity negatively controls growth of mature pancreatic cells and is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated pancreatic phenotypes in the adult.

  20. E2F1 and E2F2 prevent replicative stress and subsequent p53-dependent organ involution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Ara, A; Zenarruzabeitia, O; Buelta, L; Merino, J; Zubiaga, A M

    2015-10-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires tight regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. E2F1 and E2F2 transcription factors share a critical role in tissue homeostasis, since their combined inactivation results in overall organ involution, specially affecting the pancreatic gland, which subsequently triggers diabetes. We have examined the mechanism by which these E2Fs regulate tissue homeostasis. We show that pancreas atrophy in E2F1/E2F2 double-knockout (DKO) mice is associated with mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of the p53 pathway in young animals, before the development of diabetes. A deregulated expression of E2F target genes was detected in pancreatic cells of young DKO animals, along with unscheduled DNA replication and activation of a DNA damage response. Importantly, suppression of DNA replication in vivo with aphidicolin led to a significant inhibition of the p53 pathway in DKO pancreas, implying a causal link between DNA replication stress and p53 activation in this model. We further show that activation of the p53 pathway has a key role in the aberrant phenotype of DKO mice, since targeted inactivation of p53 gene abrogated cellular apoptosis and prevented organ involution and insulin-dependent diabetes in mice lacking E2F1/E2F2. Unexpectedly, p53 inactivation unmasked oncogenic features of E2F1/E2F2-depleted cells, as evidenced by an accelerated tumor development in triple-knockout mice compared with p53(-/-) mice. Collectively, our data reveal a role for E2F1 and E2F2 as suppressors of replicative stress in differentiating cells, and uncover the existence of a robust E2F-p53 regulatory axis to enable tissue homeostasis and prevent tumorigenesis. These findings have implications in the design of approaches targeting E2F for cancer therapy.

  1. E2F1 and E2F2 prevent replicative stress and subsequent p53-dependent organ involution

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Ara, A; Zenarruzabeitia, O; Buelta, L; Merino, J; Zubiaga, A M

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires tight regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. E2F1 and E2F2 transcription factors share a critical role in tissue homeostasis, since their combined inactivation results in overall organ involution, specially affecting the pancreatic gland, which subsequently triggers diabetes. We have examined the mechanism by which these E2Fs regulate tissue homeostasis. We show that pancreas atrophy in E2F1/E2F2 double-knockout (DKO) mice is associated with mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of the p53 pathway in young animals, before the development of diabetes. A deregulated expression of E2F target genes was detected in pancreatic cells of young DKO animals, along with unscheduled DNA replication and activation of a DNA damage response. Importantly, suppression of DNA replication in vivo with aphidicolin led to a significant inhibition of the p53 pathway in DKO pancreas, implying a causal link between DNA replication stress and p53 activation in this model. We further show that activation of the p53 pathway has a key role in the aberrant phenotype of DKO mice, since targeted inactivation of p53 gene abrogated cellular apoptosis and prevented organ involution and insulin-dependent diabetes in mice lacking E2F1/E2F2. Unexpectedly, p53 inactivation unmasked oncogenic features of E2F1/E2F2-depleted cells, as evidenced by an accelerated tumor development in triple-knockout mice compared with p53−/− mice. Collectively, our data reveal a role for E2F1 and E2F2 as suppressors of replicative stress in differentiating cells, and uncover the existence of a robust E2F-p53 regulatory axis to enable tissue homeostasis and prevent tumorigenesis. These findings have implications in the design of approaches targeting E2F for cancer therapy. PMID:25656653

  2. Aerobic batch degradation of 17-beta estradiol (E2) by activated sludge: effects of spiking E2 concentrations, MLVSS and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Fusheng; Yuasa, Akira; Obara, Aya; Mathews, Alexander P

    2005-05-01

    Aerobic batch degradation of 17beta estradiol (E2) spiked into the activated sludge liquor from a sewage treatment plant was studied; and the likely impacts of E2's initial concentrations (C0), microbial population densities (MLVSS) and temperatures (TEMPT) were examined for a variety of combinations of these three factors: C0 = 10, 30 and 50 microgl(-1); MLVSS = 1750, 875 and 435 mgl(-1); and TEMPT = 5, 20 and 35 degrees C. The results, together with those obtained through two control runs performed using a killed sludge sample, demonstrated clearly that E2 was eliminated from the aqueous phase readily under appropriate MLVSS and temperature levels, with the role of sorption by biomass being less significant. By fitting observed concentration data with a first-order rate expression, the degradation rate constants (k) under all experimental conditions were estimated. The magnitude of k changed markedly in the range of 0.23-4.79 h(-1), following a general order that the higher the MLVSS was, the higher the rate constant, and that the higher the temperature, the higher the rate constant. An obvious increasing trend of the biomass-modified average rate constant (k') with increases in the temperature was also presented: the k' values at 5, 20 and 35 degrees C were 0.79, 1.77 and 3.29l MLVSS g(-1)h(-1), respectively. Furthermore, based upon the estimated k values, the temperature coefficients (theta) over the ranges of 5-20 and 20-35 degrees C were determined. In similarity with the magnitude of theta reported for ordinary BOD-based organic matrices in domestic wastewater, the theta values of E2 varied in the range of 1.026-1.09, suggesting that the temperature impacts on the degradation rates of E2 and BOD constituents are probably similar.

  3. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Eva; Toussaint, Mathilda J. M.; Tooten, Peter C. J.; van Essen, Saskia C.; van Liere, Elsbeth A.; Youssef, Sameh A.; Bongiovanni, Laura; de Bruin, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age. PMID:29329320

  4. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization.

    PubMed

    Matondo, Ramadhan B; Moreno, Eva; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; Tooten, Peter C J; van Essen, Saskia C; van Liere, Elsbeth A; Youssef, Sameh A; Bongiovanni, Laura; de Bruin, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age.

  5. Measuring Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

  6. Analysis of E2F factors during epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wing Y; Dagnino, Lina

    2005-01-01

    The multigene E2F family of transcription factors is central in the control of cell cycle progression. The expression and activity of E2F proteins is tightly regulated transcriptionally and posttranslationally as a function of the proliferation and differentiation status of the cell. In this chapter, we review protocols designed to determine E2F mRNA abundance in tissues by in situ hybridization techniques. The ability to culture primary epidermal keratinocytes and maintain them as either undifferentiated or terminally differentiated cells allows the biochemical and molecular characterization of changes in E2F expression and activity. Thus, we also discuss in detail methods to analyze E2F protein abundance by immunoblot and their ability to bind DNA in cultured cells using electrophoretic mobility shift assays.

  7. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Binds to E2F1 and Inhibits E2F1-induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Jennifer L.; Fan, Yunxia; Chang, Xiaoqing; Peng, Li; Knudsen, Erik S.; Xia, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Cellular stress by DNA damage induces checkpoint kinase-2 (CHK2)-mediated phosphorylation and stabilization of the E2F1 transcription factor, leading to induction of apoptosis by activation of a subset of proapoptotic E2F1 target genes, including Apaf1 and p73. This report characterizes an interaction between the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, and E2F1 that results in the attenuation of E2F1-mediated apoptosis. In Ahr−/− fibroblasts stably transfected with a doxycycline-regulated AHR expression vector, inhibition of AHR expression causes a significant elevation of oxidative stress, γH2A.X histone phosphorylation, and E2F1-dependent apoptosis, which can be blocked by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of E2F1 expression. In contrast, ligand-dependent AHR activation protects these cells from etoposide-induced cell death. In cells expressing both proteins, AHR and E2F1 interact independently of the retinoblastoma protein (RB), because AHR and E2F1 coimmunoprecipitate from extracts of RB-negative cells. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicate that AHR and E2F1 bind to the Apaf1 promoter at a region containing a consensus E2F1 binding site but no AHR binding sites. AHR activation represses Apaf1 and TAp73 mRNA induction by a constitutively active CHK2 expression vector. Furthermore, AHR overexpression blocks the transcriptional induction of Apaf1 and p73 and the accumulation of sub-G0/G1 cells resulting from ectopic overexpression of E2F1. These results point to a proproliferative, antiapoptotic function of the Ah receptor that likely plays a role in tumor progression. PMID:18524851

  8. Anti-E1E2 antibodies status prior therapy favors direct-acting antiviral treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Virlogeux, Victor; Berthillon, Pascale; Bordes, Isabelle; Larrat, Sylvie; Crouy, Stéphanie; Scholtès, Caroline; Pradat, Pierre; Maynard, Marianne; Zoulim, Fabien; Leroy, Vincent; Chemin, Isabelle; Trépo, Christian; Petit, Marie-Anne

    2018-03-15

    Presence of anti-E1E2 antibodies was previously associated with spontaneous cure of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and predictive before treatment of a sustained virological response (SVR) to bi- or tri-therapy in naïve or experienced patients, regardless of HCV genotype. We investigated the impact of anti-E1E2 seroprevalence at baseline on treatment response in patients receiving direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. We screened anti-E1E2 antibodies by ELISA in serum samples collected at treatment initiation for two groups of patients: 59 with SVR at the end of DAA treatment and 44 relapsers after DAA treatment. Nineteen patients received a combination of ribavirin (RBV) or PEG-interferon/ribavirin with sofosbuvir or daclatasvir and others received interferon-free treatment with DAA±RBV. HCV viral load was measured at different time points during treatment in a subgroup of patients. A significant association was observed between presence of anti-E1E2 and HCV viral load<6log10 prior treatment. Among patients with anti-E1E2 at baseline, 70% achieved SVR whereas among patients without anti-E1E2, only 45% achieved SVR. Conversely, 66% of patients experiencing DAA-failure were anti-E1E2 negative at baseline. In the multivariate analysis, presence of anti-E1E2 was significantly associated with SVR after adjustment on potential cofounders such as age, sex, fibrosis stage, prior HCV treatment and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. The presence of anti-E1E2 at treatment initiation is a predictive factor of SVR among patients treated with DAA and more likely among patients with low initial HCV viral load (<6log10). Absence of anti-E1E2 at baseline could predict DAA-treatment failure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Sibling rivalry in the E2F family.

    PubMed

    Trimarchi, Jeffrey M; Lees, Jacqueline A

    2002-01-01

    The E2F transcription factor family determines whether or not a cell will divide by controlling the expression of key cell-cycle regulators. The individual E2Fs can be divided into distinct subgroups that act in direct opposition to one another to promote either cellular proliferation or cell-cycle exit and terminal differentiation. What is the underlying molecular basis of this 'push-me-pull-you' regulation, and what are its biological consequences?

  10. Release of colicin E2 from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, A P; Rosenbusch, J P

    1981-07-01

    Treatment of Escherichia coli K-12(ColE2.P9) with 500 ng of mitomycin C per ml resulted in rapid and almost synchronous colicin E2 production. Colicin accumulated outside the cytoplasmic membrane, most probably in the periplasmic space. Colicin release occurred during a period in which the turbidity of the culture declined markedly. Periplasmic alkaline phosphatase was released during the same period, but cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase release was delayed.

  11. EBP1 is a novel E2F target gene regulated by transforming growth factor-β.

    PubMed

    Judah, David; Chang, Wing Y; Dagnino, Lina

    2010-11-10

    Regulation of gene expression requires transcription factor binding to specific DNA elements, and a large body of work has focused on the identification of such sequences. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that eukaryotic transcription factors can exhibit widespread, nonfunctional binding to genomic DNA sites. Conversely, some of these proteins, such as E2F, can also modulate gene expression by binding to non-consensus elements. E2F comprises a family of transcription factors that play key roles in a wide variety of cellular functions, including survival, differentiation, activation during tissue regeneration, metabolism, and proliferation. E2F factors bind to the Erb3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) promoter in live cells. We now show that E2F binding to the EBP1 promoter occurs through two tandem DNA elements that do not conform to typical consensus E2F motifs. Exogenously expressed E2F1 activates EBP1 reporters lacking one, but not both sites, suggesting a degree of redundancy under certain conditions. E2F1 increases the levels of endogenous EBP1 mRNA in breast carcinoma and other transformed cell lines. In contrast, in non-transformed primary epidermal keratinocytes, E2F, together with the retinoblastoma family of proteins, appears to be involved in decreasing EBP1 mRNA abundance in response to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor-β1. Thus, E2F is likely a central coordinator of multiple responses that culminate in regulation of EBP1 gene expression, and which may vary depending on cell type and context.

  12. A MUB E2 structure reveals E1 selectivity between cognate ubiquitin E2s in eukaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Malley, Konstantin R.; Brenner, Caitlin C.; Koroleva, Olga; Korolev, Sergey; Downes, Brian P.

    2016-08-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) is a protein modifier that controls processes ranging from protein degradation to endocytosis, but early-acting regulators of the three-enzyme ubiquitylation cascade are unknown. Here we report that the prenylated membrane-anchored ubiquitin-fold protein (MUB) is an early-acting regulator of subfamily-specific E2 activation. An AtMUB3:AtUBC8 co-crystal structure defines how MUBs inhibit E2~Ub formation using a combination of E2 backside binding and a MUB-unique lap-bar loop to block E1 access. Since MUBs tether Arabidopsis group VI E2 enzymes (related to HsUbe2D and ScUbc4/5) to the plasma membrane, and inhibit E2 activation at physiological concentrations, they should function as potent plasma membrane localized regulators of Ub chain synthesis in eukaryotes. Our findings define a biochemical function for MUB, a family of highly conserved Ub-fold proteins, and provide an example of selective activation between cognate Ub E2s, previously thought to be constitutively activated by E1s.

  13. Keesom coefficients in gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnasco, Valerio; Battezzati, Michele; Rapallo, Arnaldo; Costa, Camilla

    2006-09-01

    T-dependent long-range Keesom coefficients are evaluated up to the R-10 term for small values of the dimensionless parameter |a|. For large values of |a| corrections must be introduced mostly for the dipole-dipole term, the correct values of C6 being best obtained from a recently derived asymptotic formula. The corresponding attractive energies are the isotropic electrostatic contributions to the interaction energy and are temperature-dependent. Comparison with long-range induction and dispersion energy results for some simple polar axially symmetric molecules in the gas phase shows that at R = 10 a0 and T = 293 K the electrostatic dipole-dipole component is dominant for ∣ a11∣ > 0.5. For centrosymmetric molecules the corresponding electrostatic contribution is usually negligible with respect to dispersion.

  14. Evolutionary and biophysical relationships among the papillomavirus E2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Blakaj, Dukagjin M; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Chen, Zigui; Hegde, Rashmi; Fiser, Andras; Burk, Robert D; Brenowitz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) may result in clinical conditions ranging from benign warts to invasive cancer. The HPV E2 protein represses oncoprotein transcription and is required for viral replication. HPV E2 binds to palindromic DNA sequences of highly conserved four base pair sequences flanking an identical length variable 'spacer'. E2 proteins directly contact the conserved but not the spacer DNA. Variation in naturally occurring spacer sequences results in differential protein affinity that is dependent on their sensitivity to the spacer DNA's unique conformational and/or dynamic properties. This article explores the biophysical character of this core viral protein with the goal of identifying characteristics that associated with risk of virally caused malignancy. The amino acid sequence, 3d structure and electrostatic features of the E2 protein DNA binding domain are highly conserved; specific interactions with DNA binding sites have also been conserved. In contrast, the E2 protein's transactivation domain does not have extensive surfaces of highly conserved residues. Rather, regions of high conservation are localized to small surface patches. Implications to cancer biology are discussed.

  15. E2F4 is required for early eye patterning.

    PubMed

    Ruzhynsky, Vladimir A; Furimsky, Marosh; Park, David S; Wallace, Valerie A; Slack, Ruth S

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, studies reveal novel functions for cell cycle proteins during development. Here, we investigated the role of E2F4 in eye development. E2F4-deficient mouse embryos exhibit severe early eye patterning defects, which are evident from embryonic day 11.5 and characterized by aberrant shape of the optic cup, coloboma as well as abnormal eye pigmentation. Loss of E2F4 is associated with proximal-distal patterning defects in the optic vesicle. These defects are characterized by the expansion of optic stalk marker gene expression to the optic cup and reduced expression of ventral optic cup markers. These defects are associated with a split of Shh expression domain at the ventral midline of the forebrain and expansion of the Shh activity into the ventral optic cup. Despite these patterning defects, early neuronal differentiation and Shh expression in the retina are not affected by E2F4 deletion. Overall, the results of our studies show a novel role of E2F4 in the early eye development. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Revisiting Grodzins systematics of B(E2) values

    DOE PAGES

    Pritychenko, B.; Birch, M.; Singh, B.

    2017-04-03

    Using Grodzins formalism, we analyze systematics of our latest evaluated B(E2) data for all the even–even nuclei in Z=2–104. The analysis indicates a low predictive power of systematics for a large number of cases, and a strong correlation between B(E2) fit values and nuclear structure effects. These findings provide a strong rationale for introduction of individual or elemental (grouped by Z) fit parameters. The current estimates of quadrupole collectivities for systematics of even–even nuclei yield complementary values for comparison with experimental results and theoretical calculations. Furthermore, the lists of fit parameters and predicted B(E2) values are given and possible implicationsmore » are discussed.« less

  17. B (e 2 ;21+→01+) value in 90Kr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régis, J.-M.; Jolie, J.; Saed-Samii, N.; Warr, N.; Pfeiffer, M.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T.; Simpson, G. S.; Drouet, F.; Vancraeyenest, A.; de France, G.; Clément, E.; Stezowski, O.; Ur, C. A.; Urban, W.; Regan, P. H.; Podolyák, Zs.; Larijani, C.; Townsley, C.; Carroll, R.; Wilson, E.; Fraile, L. M.; Mach, H.; Paziy, V.; Olaizola, B.; Vedia, V.; Bruce, A. M.; Roberts, O. J.; Smith, J. F.; Kröll, T.; Hartig, A.-L.; Ignatov, A.; Ilieva, S.; Thürauf, M.; Lalkovski, S.; Ivanova, D.; Kisyov, S.; Korten, W.; Salsac, M.-D.; Zielińska, M.; Mǎrginean, N.; Ghitǎ, D. G.; Licǎ, R.; Petrache, C. M.; Astier, A.; Leguillon, R.

    2014-12-01

    A smooth onset of collectivity in 88 ,92 ,94 ,96Kr has been determined from reported B (E 2 ;21+→01+) and E (21+) values. This is in contrast to the sudden onset in even-even Zr, Mo, and Sr isotopes. Our objective was to complete the systematics by determining the B (E 2 ;21+→01+) value in 90Kr, which was produced by cold-neutron-induced fission of 235U . The lifetime of the 21+ state in 90Kr was measured via the electronic γ -γ timing technique using the EXILL and FATIMA spectrometers. Based on the measured mean lifetime of τ = 15(10) ps, the B (E 2 ;21+→01+) value of 13 -5+26 W.u. in 90Kr is determined for the first time and the smooth onset of deformation in the even-even Kr isotopes beyond neutron number N =50 is confirmed.

  18. pVHL's kryptonite: E2-EPF UCP.

    PubMed

    Ohh, Michael

    2006-08-01

    E2-EPF ubiquitin carrier protein (UCP) is a member of an E2 family of enzymes that catalyzes the ligation of ubiquitin to proteins targeted for destruction by the proteasome. UCP is overexpressed in common human cancers, suggesting its involvement in oncogenesis, but a physiologic target of UCP has not been identified. In a recent report published in Nature Medicine, Jung et al. identified von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein, which targets the alpha subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) for ubiquitin-mediated destruction, as a bona fide substrate of UCP and demonstrated a potential pVHL-HIF pathway-dependent role for UCP in cancer development.

  19. Random phage mimotopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies against the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2).

    PubMed Central

    Cha, S; Leung, P S; Van de Water, J; Tsuneyama, K; Joplin, R E; Ansari, A A; Nakanuma, Y; Schatz, P J; Cwirla, S; Fabris, L E; Neuberger, J M; Gershwin, M E; Coppel, R L

    1996-01-01

    Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), is the autoantigen most commonly recognized by autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We identified a peptide mimotope(s) of PDC-E2 by screening a phage-epitope library expressing random dodecapeptides in the pIII coat protein of fd phage using C355.1, a murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes a conformation-dependent epitope in the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 and uniquely stains the apical region of bile duct epithelium (BDE) only in patients with PBC. Eight different sequences were identified in 36 phage clones. WMSYPDRTLRTS was present in 29 clones; WESYPFRVGTSL, APKTYVSVSGMV, LTYVSLQGRQGH, LDYVPLKHRHRH, AALWGVKVRHVS, KVLNRIMAGVRH and GNVALVSSRVNA were singly represented. Three common amino acid motifs (W-SYP, TYVS, and VRH) were shared among all peptide sequences. Competitive inhibition of the immunohistochemical staining of PBC BDE was performed by incubating the peptides WMSYPDRTLRTS, WESYPDRTLRTS, APKTYVSVSGMV, and AALWGVKVRHVS with either C355.1 or a second PDC-E2-specific mAb, C150.1. Both mAbs were originally generated to PDC-E2 but map to distinct regions of PDC-E2. Two of the peptides, although selected by reaction with C355.1, strongly inhibited the staining of BDE by C150.1, whereas the peptide APKTYVSVSGMV consistently inhibited the staining of C355.1 on biliary duct epithelium more strongly than the typical mitochondrial staining of hepatocytes. Rabbit sera raised against the peptide WMSYPDRTLRTS stained BDE of livers and isolated bile duct epithelial cells of PBC patients more intensively than controls. The rabbit sera stained all size ducts in normals, but only small/medium-sized ductules in PBC livers. These studies provide evidence that the antigen present in BDE is a molecular mimic of PDC-E2, and not PDC-E2 itself. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855289

  20. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For rules...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For rules...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For rules...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DREDGING AND DISPOSAL (E2-D2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Effects of Dredging and Disposal" ("E2-D2") searchable database of published reports and studies about environmental impacts associated with dredging and disposal operations. Many of the reports and studies are ava...

  4. Prostaglandin E2 Regulation of Chondrocyte Proliferation and Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    lipopolysaccharide- and TNF-induced cartilage breakdown in bovine nasal cartilage(121’. The use of medications that modulate PGE2 production may have an adverse...Levine, P. Goldhaber. 1972. Evidence that the bone resorption stimulating factor produced by mouse fibrosarcoma cells is prostaglandin E2. J. Exp. Med

  5. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For rules...

  6. Conversion of PCDP Dialogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Alfred M.

    An introduction to the problems involved in conversion of computer dialogues from one computer language to another is presented. Conversion of individual dialogues by complete rewriting is straightforward, if tedious. To make a general conversion of a large group of heterogeneous dialogue material from one language to another at one step is more…

  7. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  8. Learning through Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Klein, Adria F.; Pinnell, Gay Su

    1996-01-01

    Through teacher-child conversation, experts use oral language to help novices take on more complex tasks; and Reading Recovery children, who are obviously having difficulty with school-based learning, are especially in need of significant conversations with adults. Reading and writing processes are supported through conversation with Reading…

  9. Chang'e-2 spacecraft observations of asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianghui; Jiang, Yun; Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Su; Yu, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 completed a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 meters from the asteroid's surface. The observations show that Toutatis has an irregular surface and its shape resembles a ginger-root of a smaller lobe (head) and a larger lobe (body). Such bilobate shape is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis. In addition, the high-resolution images better than 3 meters provide a number of new discoveries about this asteroid, such as an 800-meter depression at the end of the large lobe, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, boulders, indicating that Toutatis is probably a rubble-pile asteroid. Chang'e-2 observations have significantly revealed new insights into the geological features and the formation and evolution of this asteroid. In final, we brief the future Chinese asteroid mission concept.

  10. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Zachary D.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    Testing has been conducted on Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs)-E2 at NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) project. This testing has been conducted to understand sensitivities of convertor parameters due to environmental and operational changes during operation of the ASRG in missions to space. This paper summarizes test results and explains the operation of the ASRG during space missions

  11. Formulation of Ames 24E2 IR-black coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sheldon M.

    1991-01-01

    The formulation of Ames 24E2 IR-black coating and a rationale for the selection of its components are given. The objective was to make a very rough, very thick, and highly absorbing coating to attenuate the specular reflectance of telescope baffles at far-IR wavelengths. Application and curing instructions are also given. Outgassing measurements are quite low following a 24-hour radiative cure.

  12. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  13. Domain structure and reorientation in CoF e2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abes, M.; Koops, C. T.; Hrkac, S. B.; McCord, J.; Urs, N. O.; Wolff, N.; Kienle, L.; Ren, W. J.; Bouchenoire, L.; Murphy, B. M.; Magnussen, O. M.

    2016-05-01

    The microscopic processes underlying magnetostriction in ferrites were studied for the case of CoF e2O4 single crystals by high-resolution in situ x-ray diffraction and complementary magnetic microscopy techniques. The data support the reports of Yang and Ren [Phys. Rev. B 77, 014407 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.014407] that magnetostriction in these materials originates from the switching of crystallographic domains, similar to ferroelastic or ferroelectric domain switching, and reveals the presence of two coexisting tetragonal spinel structures, corresponding to domains of high and of low strain. The latter alternate in the crystal, separated by 90° domain boundaries, and can be explained by the effect of internal stress emerging during the transition into the ferrimagnetic phase. During magnetization of the sample two structural transitions are observed: a conversion of the transversal into axial domains at 1.95 kOe and a growth of the high-strain domains at the cost of the low-strain axial domains at 2.8 kOe. These microscopic changes are in good agreement with the macroscopic magnetization and magnetostriction behavior of CoF e2O4 .

  14. Graph characterization via Ihara coefficients.

    PubMed

    Ren, Peng; Wilson, Richard C; Hancock, Edwin R

    2011-02-01

    The novel contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we demonstrate how to characterize unweighted graphs in a permutation-invariant manner using the polynomial coefficients from the Ihara zeta function, i.e., the Ihara coefficients. Second, we generalize the definition of the Ihara coefficients to edge-weighted graphs. For an unweighted graph, the Ihara zeta function is the reciprocal of a quasi characteristic polynomial of the adjacency matrix of the associated oriented line graph. Since the Ihara zeta function has poles that give rise to infinities, the most convenient numerically stable representation is to work with the coefficients of the quasi characteristic polynomial. Moreover, the polynomial coefficients are invariant to vertex order permutations and also convey information concerning the cycle structure of the graph. To generalize the representation to edge-weighted graphs, we make use of the reduced Bartholdi zeta function. We prove that the computation of the Ihara coefficients for unweighted graphs is a special case of our proposed method for unit edge weights. We also present a spectral analysis of the Ihara coefficients and indicate their advantages over other graph spectral methods. We apply the proposed graph characterization method to capturing graph-class structure and clustering graphs. Experimental results reveal that the Ihara coefficients are more effective than methods based on Laplacian spectra.

  15. Procrustes Matching by Congruence Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korth, Bruce; Tucker, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    Matching by Procrustes methods involves the transformation of one matrix to match with another. A special least squares criterion, the congruence coefficient, has advantages as a criterion for some factor analytic interpretations. A Procrustes method maximizing the congruence coefficient is given. (Author/JKS)

  16. Transfer having a coupling coefficient higher than its active material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesieutre, George A. (Inventor); Davis, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A coupling coefficient is a measure of the effectiveness with which a shape-changing material (or a device employing such a material) converts the energy in an imposed signal to useful mechanical energy. Device coupling coefficients are properties of the device and, although related to the material coupling coefficients, are generally different from them. This invention describes a class of devices wherein the apparent coupling coefficient can, in principle, approach 1.0, corresponding to perfect electromechanical energy conversion. The key feature of this class of devices is the use of destabilizing mechanical pre-loads to counter inherent stiffness. The approach is illustrated for piezoelectric and thermoelectrically actuated devices. The invention provides a way to simultaneously increase both displacement and force, distinguishing it from alternatives such as motion amplification, and allows transducer designers to achieve substantial performance gains for actuator and sensor devices.

  17. Astro-E2 Magnesium Diboride High Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, J. S.; Tuttle, J. G.; Riall, S.; Mustafi, S.; Gray, A.; Edmonds, R.; Marrero, V.

    2003-01-01

    The recent discovery of superconducting properties in MgB_2 and rapid development of small diameter steel-clad wires has opened up the possibility of enhancing the design of the baseline Astro-E2 high current lead assembly. Replacing YBCO filaments with MgB_2 wires and modifying the heat sink location can give much higher margins against quench from temperature oscillations of the 4 K heat sink, although wih some overall thermal penalty. The design and performance of a new lead assembly during flight qualification is discussed, with emphasis on thermal, structural, and electrical test results.

  18. Validating computational predictions of night-time ventilation in Stanford's Y2E2 building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Lamberti, Giacomo; Gorle, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    Natural ventilation can significantly reduce building energy consumption, but robust design is a challenging task. We previously presented predictions of natural ventilation performance in Stanford's Y2E2 building using two models with different levels of fidelity, embedded in an uncertainty quantification framework to identify the dominant uncertain parameters and predict quantified confidence intervals. The results showed a slightly high cooling rate for the volume-averaged temperature, and the initial thermal mass temperature and window discharge coefficients were found to have an important influence on the results. To further investigate the potential role of these parameters on the observed discrepancies, the current study is performing additional measurements in the Y2E2 building. Wall temperatures are recorded throughout the nightflush using thermocouples; flow rates through windows are measured using hotwires; and spatial variability in the air temperature is explored. The measured wall temperatures are found the be within the range of our model assumptions, and the measured velocities agree reasonably well with our CFD predications. Considerable local variations in the indoor air temperature have been recorded, largely explaining the discrepancies in our earlier validation study. Future work will therefore focus on a local validation of the CFD results with the measurements. Center for Integrated Facility Engineering (CIFE).

  19. Electronic, magnetic, transport, and thermal properties of single-crystalline UF e2A l10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troć, R.; Samsel-Czekała, M.; Talik, E.; Wawryk, R.; Gajek, Z.; Pasturel, M.

    2015-09-01

    The valence and core-level x-ray photoemission spectra (XPS), performed on an UF e2A l10 single crystal, were measured using the Al Kα radiation. The results of valence XPS show practically two separate regions of spectral intensity, one just at the Fermi level (EF) and the other one being a wide content with its maximum at about 0.8 eV below EF. These give rise to two electronic configurations of the 5 f states in the studied aluminide, itinerant and localized ones, i.e., their dual character. In such a situation the corresponding valence spectra, calculated within the local density approximation (LDA), well explain the former configuration, being responsible for a metallic behavior of the studied compound. Moreover, this behavior is confirmed clearly also by our results of magnetotransport measurements. On the other hand, the obtained magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and thermoelectric power data support very well the local character of the 5 f2 -electron configuration of the U4 + ion in UF e2A l10 having the orthorhombic and cage-type crystal structure. Based on that configuration, the magnetic and thermal characteristics of the compound were modeled by the effective crystal field (CF) potential in the intermediate coupling scheme using initial parameters obtained by the angular overlap model (AOM). The obtained final CF parameters yielded the CF level scheme, composed of only singlets, proper for orthorhombic symmetry. Such a set of singlets reproduces in a satisfactory way both the strongly anisotropic temperature variations of the magnetic susceptibility, measured along the three main crystallographic directions, as well as the Schottky anomaly, evaluated using specific heat results of isomorphic ThF e2A l10 as a phonon reference. Also, the strongly anisotropic behavior of the Seebeck coefficient and its low temperature maxima observed for the compound studied here have been explained roughly by the CF effect.

  20. Prostaglandin E(2) synthase inhibition as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Jitesh P; Srivastava, Punit K; Dev, Rishabh; Dastidar, Sunanda G; Ray, Abhijit

    2009-07-01

    Most NSAIDs function by inhibiting biosynthesis of PGE(2) by inhibition of COX-1 and/or COX-2. Since COX-1 has a protective function in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), non-selective inhibition of both cycloxy genases leads to moderate to severe gastro-intestinal intolerance. Attempts to identify selective inhibitors of COX-2, led to the identification of celecoxib and rofecoxib. However, long-term use of these drugs has serious adverse effects of sudden myocardial infarction and thrombosis. Drug-mediated imbalance in the levels of prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)) and thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) with a bias towards TXA(2) may be the primary reason for these events. This resulted in the drugs being withdrawn from the market, leaving a need for an effective and safe anti-inflammatory drug. Recently, the focus of research has shifted to enzymes downstream of COX in the prosta glandin biosynthetic pathway such as prostaglandin E(2) synthases. Microsomal prostaglandin E(2) synthase-1 (mPGES-1) specifically isomerizes PGH(2) to PGE(2), under inflammatory conditions. In this review, we examine the biology of mPGES-1 and its role in disease. Progress in designing molecules that can selectively inhibit mPGES-1 is reviewed. mPGES-1 has the potential to be a target for anti-inflammatory therapy, devoid of adverse GIT and cardiac effects and warrants further investigation.

  1. Solar thermal conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review of the fundamentals of the conversion of solar energy into mechanical work (or electricity via generators) is given. Both past and present work on several conversion concepts are discussed. Solar collectors, storage systems, energy transport, and various types of engines are examined. Ongoing work on novel concepts of collectors, energy storage and thermal energy conversion are outlined and projections for the future are described. Energy costs for various options are predicted and margins and limitations are discussed.

  2. Conversing with Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    I/NET, Inc., is making the dream of natural human-computer conversation a practical reality. Through a combination of advanced artificial intelligence research and practical software design, I/NET has taken the complexity out of developing advanced, natural language interfaces. Conversational capabilities like pronoun resolution, anaphora and ellipsis processing, and dialog management that were once available only in the laboratory can now be brought to any application with any speech recognition system using I/NET s conversational engine middleware.

  3. E2F1 and E2F2 induction in response to DNA damage preserves genomic stability in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniela S; Campalans, Anna; Belluscio, Laura M; Carcagno, Abel L; Radicella, J Pablo; Cánepa, Eduardo T; Pregi, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    E2F transcription factors regulate a wide range of biological processes, including the cellular response to DNA damage. In the present study, we examined whether E2F family members are transcriptionally induced following treatment with several genotoxic agents, and have a role on the cell DNA damage response. We show a novel mechanism, conserved among diverse species, in which E2F1 and E2F2, the latter specifically in neuronal cells, are transcriptionally induced after DNA damage. This upregulation leads to increased E2F1 and E2F2 protein levels as a consequence of de novo protein synthesis. Ectopic expression of these E2Fs in neuronal cells reduces the level of DNA damage following genotoxic treatment, while ablation of E2F1 and E2F2 leads to the accumulation of DNA lesions and increased apoptotic response. Cell viability and DNA repair capability in response to DNA damage induction are also reduced by the E2F1 and E2F2 deficiencies. Finally, E2F1 and E2F2 accumulate at sites of oxidative and UV-induced DNA damage, and interact with γH2AX DNA repair factor. As previously reported for E2F1, E2F2 promotes Rad51 foci formation, interacts with GCN5 acetyltransferase and induces histone acetylation following genotoxic insult. The results presented here unveil a new mechanism involving E2F1 and E2F2 in the maintenance of genomic stability in response to DNA damage in neuronal cells.

  4. E2F1 and E2F2 induction in response to DNA damage preserves genomic stability in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Daniela S; Campalans, Anna; Belluscio, Laura M; Carcagno, Abel L; Radicella, J Pablo; Cánepa, Eduardo T; Pregi, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    E2F transcription factors regulate a wide range of biological processes, including the cellular response to DNA damage. In the present study, we examined whether E2F family members are transcriptionally induced following treatment with several genotoxic agents, and have a role on the cell DNA damage response. We show a novel mechanism, conserved among diverse species, in which E2F1 and E2F2, the latter specifically in neuronal cells, are transcriptionally induced after DNA damage. This upregulation leads to increased E2F1 and E2F2 protein levels as a consequence of de novo protein synthesis. Ectopic expression of these E2Fs in neuronal cells reduces the level of DNA damage following genotoxic treatment, while ablation of E2F1 and E2F2 leads to the accumulation of DNA lesions and increased apoptotic response. Cell viability and DNA repair capability in response to DNA damage induction are also reduced by the E2F1 and E2F2 deficiencies. Finally, E2F1 and E2F2 accumulate at sites of oxidative and UV-induced DNA damage, and interact with γH2AX DNA repair factor. As previously reported for E2F1, E2F2 promotes Rad51 foci formation, interacts with GCN5 acetyltransferase and induces histone acetylation following genotoxic insult. The results presented here unveil a new mechanism involving E2F1 and E2F2 in the maintenance of genomic stability in response to DNA damage in neuronal cells. PMID:25892555

  5. Triply differential (e,2e) studies of phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, G. B.; Neves, R. F. C.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Ali, E.; Madison, D. H.; Ning, C. G.; Nixon, K. L.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    We have measured (e,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the electron-impact ionisation of phenol with coplanar asymmetrical kinematics for an incident electron energy of 250 eV. Experimental measurements of the angular distribution of the slow outgoing electrons at 20 eV are obtained when the incident electron scatters through angles of -5°, -10°, and -15°, respectively. The TDCS data are compared with calculations performed within the molecular 3-body distorted wave model. In this case, a mixed level of agreement, that was dependent on the kinematical condition being probed, was observed between the theoretical and experimental results in the binary peak region. The experimental intensity of the recoil features under all kinematical conditions was relatively small, but was still largely underestimated by the theoretical calculations.

  6. Triply differential (e,2e) studies of phenol.

    PubMed

    da Silva, G B; Neves, R F C; Chiari, L; Jones, D B; Ali, E; Madison, D H; Ning, C G; Nixon, K L; Lopes, M C A; Brunger, M J

    2014-09-28

    We have measured (e,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the electron-impact ionisation of phenol with coplanar asymmetrical kinematics for an incident electron energy of 250 eV. Experimental measurements of the angular distribution of the slow outgoing electrons at 20 eV are obtained when the incident electron scatters through angles of -5°, -10°, and -15°, respectively. The TDCS data are compared with calculations performed within the molecular 3-body distorted wave model. In this case, a mixed level of agreement, that was dependent on the kinematical condition being probed, was observed between the theoretical and experimental results in the binary peak region. The experimental intensity of the recoil features under all kinematical conditions was relatively small, but was still largely underestimated by the theoretical calculations.

  7. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  8. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu

    2009-10-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  9. E2F mediates enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferation.

    PubMed

    Elkon, Ran; Drost, Jarno; van Haaften, Gijs; Jenal, Mathias; Schrier, Mariette; Oude Vrielink, Joachim A F; Agami, Reuven

    2012-07-02

    The majority of mammalian genes contain multiple poly(A) sites in their 3' UTRs. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation are emerging as an important layer of gene regulation as they generate transcript isoforms that differ in their 3' UTRs, thereby modulating genes' response to 3' UTR-mediated regulation. Enhanced cleavage at 3' UTR proximal poly(A) sites resulting in global 3' UTR shortening was recently linked to proliferation and cancer. However, mechanisms that regulate this enhanced alternative polyadenylation are unknown. Here, we explored, on a transcriptome-wide scale, alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation. We applied a deep-sequencing technique for identification and quantification of poly(A) sites to two human cellular models, each examined under proliferative, arrested and transformed states. In both cell systems we observed global 3' UTR shortening associated with proliferation, a link that was markedly stronger than the association with transformation. Furthermore, we found that proliferation is also associated with enhanced cleavage at intronic poly(A) sites. Last, we found that the expression level of the set of genes that encode for 3'-end processing proteins is globally elevated in proliferation, and that E2F transcription factors contribute to this regulation. Our results comprehensively identify alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and transformation, and demonstrate that the enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferative conditions results not only in global 3' UTR shortening but also in enhanced premature cleavage in introns. Our results also indicate that E2F-mediated co-transcriptional regulation of 3'-end processing genes is one of the mechanisms that links enhanced alternative polyadenylation to proliferation.

  10. E2F mediates enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The majority of mammalian genes contain multiple poly(A) sites in their 3' UTRs. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation are emerging as an important layer of gene regulation as they generate transcript isoforms that differ in their 3' UTRs, thereby modulating genes' response to 3' UTR-mediated regulation. Enhanced cleavage at 3' UTR proximal poly(A) sites resulting in global 3' UTR shortening was recently linked to proliferation and cancer. However, mechanisms that regulate this enhanced alternative polyadenylation are unknown. Results Here, we explored, on a transcriptome-wide scale, alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation. We applied a deep-sequencing technique for identification and quantification of poly(A) sites to two human cellular models, each examined under proliferative, arrested and transformed states. In both cell systems we observed global 3' UTR shortening associated with proliferation, a link that was markedly stronger than the association with transformation. Furthermore, we found that proliferation is also associated with enhanced cleavage at intronic poly(A) sites. Last, we found that the expression level of the set of genes that encode for 3'-end processing proteins is globally elevated in proliferation, and that E2F transcription factors contribute to this regulation. Conclusions Our results comprehensively identify alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and transformation, and demonstrate that the enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferative conditions results not only in global 3' UTR shortening but also in enhanced premature cleavage in introns. Our results also indicate that E2F-mediated co-transcriptional regulation of 3'-end processing genes is one of the mechanisms that links enhanced alternative polyadenylation to proliferation. PMID:22747694

  11. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  12. Changing Our Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Mark

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a principal is inspired to change the conversations with students and staff members from discipline and deficit to hope and planning for future achievement. He wants conversations to be more about academic goals and decision making and less about discipline and random acceptance of postsecondary plans. He has asked all staff…

  13. The Conversation Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Acy L.

    2012-01-01

    The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…

  14. Common conversion factors.

    PubMed

    2001-05-01

    This appendix presents tables of some of the more common conversion factors for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales.

  15. NUCLEAR CONVERSION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-09-13

    A nuclear conversion apparatus is described which comprises a body of neutron moderator, tubes extending therethrough, uranium in the tubes, a fluid- circulating system associated with the tubes, a thorium-containing fluid coolant in the system and tubes, and means for withdrawing the fluid from the system and replacing it in the system whereby thorium conversion products may be recovered.

  16. Alpine radar conversion for LAWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a ship-born weather radar system operating in X-band developed by the DHI Group to detect precipitation in urban areas. To date more than thirty units are installed in different settings around the world. A LAWR was also deployed in the Alps, at 3883 m a.s.l. on the Kl. Matterhorn (Valais, Switzerland). This was the highest LAWR of the world and it led to the development of an Alpine LAWR system that, besides featuring important technological improvements needed to withstand the severe Alpine conditions, required the development of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which is the main focus of this contribution. The LAWR system is equipped with the original FURUNO fan-beam slotted antenna and the original logarithmic receiver, which limits the radar observations to the video signal (L) withour providing the reflectivity (Z). The beam is 0.95 deg wide and 20 deg high. It can detect precipitation to a max range of 60 km. In order to account for the limited availability of raw signal and information and the specific mountain set-up, the conversion model had to be developed differently from the state-of-the-art radar conversion technique used for this class of radars. In particular, the ARCOM is based on a model used to simulate a spatial dependent factor, hereafter called ACF, which is in turn function of parameters that take in account climatological conditions, also used in other conversion methods, but additionally accounting for local radar beam features and for orographic forcings such as the effective sampling power (sP), which is modelled by means of antenna pattern, geometric ground clutter and their interaction. The result is a conversion factor formulated to account for a range correction that is based on the increase of the sampling volume, partial beam blocking and local climatological conditions. The importance of the latter in this study is double with respect to the standard conversion technique for this

  17. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki; Sakaki, Michiko; Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu

    2018-01-01

    Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other) measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node) are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients were strongly

  18. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Naoki; Sakaki, Michiko; Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu

    2018-01-01

    Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other) measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node) are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients were strongly

  19. Structural flexibility of a conserved antigenic region in hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2 recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Meola, Annalisa; Tarr, Alexander W; England, Patrick; Meredith, Luke W; McClure, C Patrick; Foung, Steven K H; McKeating, Jane A; Ball, Jonathan K; Rey, Felix A; Krey, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) targeting glycoprotein E2 are important for the control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. One conserved antigenic site (amino acids 412 to 423) is disordered in the reported E2 structure, but a synthetic peptide mimicking this site forms a β-hairpin in complex with three independent NAbs. Our structure of the same peptide in complex with NAb 3/11 demonstrates a strikingly different extended conformation. We also show that residues 412 to 423 are essential for virus entry but not for E2 folding. Together with the neutralizing capacity of the 3/11 Fab fragment, this indicates an unexpected structural flexibility within this epitope. NAbs 3/11 and AP33 (recognizing the extended and β-hairpin conformations, respectively) display similar neutralizing activities despite converse binding kinetics. Our results suggest that HCV utilizes conformational flexibility as an immune evasion strategy, contributing to the limited immunogenicity of this epitope in patients, similar to the conformational flexibility described for other enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. Approximately 180 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and neutralizing antibodies play an important role in controlling the replication of this major human pathogen. We show here that one of the most conserved antigenic sites within the major glycoprotein E2 (amino acids 412 to 423), which is disordered in the recently reported crystal structure of an E2 core fragment, can adopt different conformations in the context of the infectious virus particle. Recombinant Fab fragments recognizing different conformations of this antigenic site have similar neutralization activities in spite of converse kinetic binding parameters. Of note, an antibody response targeting this antigenic region is less frequent than those targeting other more immunogenic regions in E2. Our results suggest that the observed conformational flexibility in this conserved antigenic

  20. Magnetic imaging of antiferromagnetic and superconducting phases in R bxF e2 -yS e2 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazi, J.; Mousavi, T.; Dudin, P.; van der Laan, G.; Maccherozzi, F.; Krzton-Maziopa, A.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.; Speller, S. C.

    2018-02-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cuprate materials, with the ability to carry large electrical currents with no resistance at easily reachable temperatures, have stimulated enormous scientific and industrial interest since their discovery in the 1980's. However, technological applications of these promising compounds have been limited by their chemical and microstructural complexity and the challenging processing strategies required for the exploitation of their extraordinary properties. The lack of theoretical understanding of the mechanism for superconductivity in these HTS materials has also hindered the search for new superconducting systems with enhanced performance. The unexpected discovery in 2008 of HTS iron-based compounds has provided an entirely new family of materials for studying the crucial interplay between superconductivity and magnetism in unconventional superconductors. Alkali-metal-doped iron selenide (AxF e2 -yS e2 , A =alkali metal ) compounds are of particular interest owing to the coexistence of superconductivity at relatively high temperatures with antiferromagnetism. Intrinsic phase separation on the mesoscopic scale is also known to occur in what were intended to be single crystals of these compounds, making it difficult to interpret bulk property measurements. Here, we use a combination of two advanced microscopy techniques to provide direct evidence of the magnetic properties of the individual phases. First, x-ray linear dichroism studies in a photoelectron emission microscope, and supporting multiplet calculations, indicate that the matrix (majority) phase is antiferromagnetic whereas the minority phase is nonmagnetic at room temperature. Second, cryogenic magnetic force microscopy demonstrates unambiguously that superconductivity occurs only in the minority phase. The correlation of these findings with previous microstructural studies and bulk measurements paves the way for understanding the intriguing electronic and magnetic

  1. Hyperforin, an Anti-Inflammatory Constituent from St. John's Wort, Inhibits Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1 and Suppresses Prostaglandin E2 Formation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Koeberle, Andreas; Rossi, Antonietta; Bauer, Julia; Dehm, Friederike; Verotta, Luisella; Northoff, Hinnak; Sautebin, Lidia; Werz, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The acylphloroglucinol hyperforin (Hyp) from St. John's wort possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties which were ascribed among others to the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. Here, we investigated whether Hyp also interferes with prostanoid generation in biological systems, particularly with key enzymes participating in prostaglandin (PG)E2 biosynthesis, i.e., cyclooxygenases (COX)-1/2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1 which play key roles in inflammation and tumorigenesis. Similar to the mPGES-1 inhibitors MK-886 and MD-52, Hyp significantly suppressed PGE2 formation in whole blood assays starting at 0.03–1 μM, whereas the concomitant generation of COX-derived 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, thromboxane B2, and 6-keto PGF1α was not significantly suppressed up to 30 μM. In cell-free assays, Hyp efficiently blocked the conversion of PGH2 to PGE2 mediated by mPGES-1 (IC50 = 1 μM), and isolated COX enzymes were not (COX-2) or hardly (COX-1) suppressed. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Hyp (4 mg kg−1) to rats impaired exudate volume and leukocyte numbers in carrageenan-induced pleurisy associated with reduced PGE2 levels, and Hyp (given i.p.) inhibited carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema formation (ED50 = 1 mg kg−1) being superior over indomethacin (ED50 = 5 mg kg−1). We conclude that the suppression of PGE2 biosynthesis in vitro and in vivo by acting on mPGES-1 critically contributes to the anti-inflammatory efficiency of Hyp. PMID:21687502

  2. Roles of prostaglandin E2 in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Takayuki

    2011-06-01

    Prostaglandins are one of the major groups of chemical mediators in the mammalian body. Among prostaglandins, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most abundant prostanoid in humans and involved in regulating many different fundamental biological functions. PGE2 signaling is mediated by four distinct E-prostanoid receptors (EPs) namely EP1-4. Recently, accumulating evidence indicates critical, but complex roles of EP signaling in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases depending on the context of neuronal injury. Four distinct EPs are expressed in the stria vascularis, spiral ligament, spiral ganglion and organ of Corti, indicating an involvement of EP signaling in the cochlear function. Activation of EP4 in cochleae significantly attenuates noise-induced damage in cochleae, and activation of EP2 or EP4 induces the formation of vascular endothelial growth factor in cochleae. These findings strongly suggest that individual EP signaling may be involved in the maintenance of the cochlear sensory system similarly to the central nervous system. This review highlights recent findings on EP signaling in the central nervous system, and presents its possible roles in regulation of blood flow, protection of sensory cells and immune responses in cochleae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of prostaglandin E2 on parturition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hirsbrunner, G; Zanolari, P; Althaus, H; Hüsler, J; Steiner, A

    2007-09-22

    A double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled field study of the influence of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on cattle at parturition was carried out. The extent of cervical opening and the intensity of labour were scored before administration of the compound and 10 minutes later; routine birth assistance was then continued by the veterinarian. Successful birth occurred more quickly in the cows treated with PGE2. The extent of cervical opening before the administration of the drug had a significant effect on the time to delivery, but the intensity of labour and a concomitant infusion of calcium did not have significant effects on this period. The less open the cervix before administration of the drug, the more the duration of parturition differed between the two groups, with the placebo group taking longer. A telephone follow-up inquiry found no significant differences between the cows postpartum; there were cases of mastitis and hypocalcaemia in both groups. The incidence of retained fetal membranes and the mortality of the calves were higher in the placebo group, but in neither case was the difference significant.

  4. Prevotella intermedia induces prostaglandin E2 via multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Guan, S-M; Fu, S-M; He, J-J; Zhang, M

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays important roles in the bone resorption of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis via specific prostaglandin receptors (i.e., EP1-EP4). In this study, the authors examined whether Prevotella intermedia regulates PGE(2) production and EP expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLs); they also explored the potential signaling pathways involved in PGE(2) production. P. intermedia induced PGE(2) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indomethacin and NS-398 completely abrogated the P. intermedia-induced PGE(2) production without modulating COX-2 expression. Specific inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and protein kinase C--but not c-AMP and protein kinase A--significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced COX-2 and PGE(2) expression. P. intermedia reduced EP1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicate that the COX-2-dependent induction of PGE(2) by P. intermedia in hPDLs is mediated by multiple signaling pathways.

  5. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Karpius, Peter Joseph

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U 3O 8 yellowcake into UF 6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  6. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Orthogonality of spherical harmonic coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, M. G.

    1980-08-01

    Orthogonality relations are obtained for the spherical harmonic coefficients of functions defined on the surface of a sphere. Following a brief discussion of the orthogonality of Fourier series coefficients, consideration is given to the values averaged over all orientations of the coordinate system of the spherical harmonic coefficients of a function defined on the surface of a sphere that can be expressed in terms of Legendre polynomials for the special case where the function is the sum of two delta functions located at two different points on the sphere, and for the case of an essentially arbitrary function. It is noted that the orthogonality relations derived have found applications in statistical studies of the geomagnetic field.

  8. Seebeck coefficient of one electron

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, Zahid A. K., E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk

    2014-03-07

    The Seebeck coefficient of one electron, driven thermally into a semiconductor single-electron box, is investigated theoretically. With a finite temperature difference ΔT between the source and charging island, a single electron can charge the island in equilibrium, directly generating a Seebeck effect. Seebeck coefficients for small and finite ΔT are calculated and a thermally driven Coulomb staircase is predicted. Single-electron Seebeck oscillations occur with increasing ΔT, as one electron at a time charges the box. A method is proposed for experimental verification of these effects.

  9. Responsive Teaching through Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.

  10. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOEpatents

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  11. Conversion of laser energy to gas kinetic energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques for the gas phase absorption of laser radiation for ultimate conversion to gas kinetic energy are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on absorption by the vibration rotation bands of diatomic molecules at high pressures. This high pressure absorption appears to offer efficient conversion of laser energy to gas translational energy. Bleaching and chemical effects are minimized and the variation of the total absorption coefficient with temperature is minimal.

  12. Conversational Flow Promotes Solidarity

    PubMed Central

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of “we-ness”. Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed. PMID:24265683

  13. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    PubMed

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  14. Tables of the coefficients A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, N.

    1974-01-01

    Numerical coefficients required to express the angular distribution for the rotationally elastic or inelastic scattering of electrons from a diatomic molecule were tabulated for the case of nitrogen and in the energy range from 0.20 eV to 10.0 eV. Five different rotational states are considered.

  15. Integer Solutions of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    A good formula is like a good story, rich in description, powerful in communication, and eye-opening to readers. The formula presented in this article for determining the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (x + y)n is one such "good read." The beauty of this formula is in its simplicity--both describing a quantitative situation…

  16. Irrational "Coefficients" in Renaissance Algebra.

    PubMed

    Oaks, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    Argument From the time of al-Khwārizmī in the ninth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century algebraists did not allow irrational numbers to serve as coefficients. To multiply by x, for instance, the result was expressed as the rhetorical equivalent of . The reason for this practice has to do with the premodern concept of a monomial. The coefficient, or "number," of a term was thought of as how many of that term are present, and not as the scalar multiple that we work with today. Then, in sixteenth-century Europe, a few algebraists began to allow for irrational coefficients in their notation. Christoff Rudolff (1525) was the first to admit them in special cases, and subsequently they appear more liberally in Cardano (1539), Scheubel (1550), Bombelli (1572), and others, though most algebraists continued to ban them. We survey this development by examining the texts that show irrational coefficients and those that argue against them. We show that the debate took place entirely in the conceptual context of premodern, "cossic" algebra, and persisted in the sixteenth century independent of the development of the new algebra of Viète, Decartes, and Fermat. This was a formal innovation violating prevailing concepts that we propose could only be introduced because of the growing autonomy of notation from rhetorical text.

  17. Prediction of stream volatilization coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    Equations are developed for predicting the liquid-film and gas-film reference-substance parameters for quantifying volatilization of organic solutes from streams. Molecular weight and molecular-diffusion coefficients of the solute are used as correlating parameters. Equations for predicting molecular-diffusion coefficients of organic solutes in water and air are developed, with molecular weight and molal volume as parameters. Mean absolute errors of prediction for diffusion coefficients in water are 9.97% for the molecular-weight equation, 6.45% for the molal-volume equation. The mean absolute error for the diffusion coefficient in air is 5.79% for the molal-volume equation. Molecular weight is not a satisfactory correlating parameter for diffusion in air because two equations are necessary to describe the values in the data set. The best predictive equation for the liquid-film reference-substance parameter has a mean absolute error of 5.74%, with molal volume as the correlating parameter. The best equation for the gas-film parameter has a mean absolute error of 7.80%, with molecular weight as the correlating parameter.

  18. Non-coding RNA derived from the region adjacent to the human HO-1 E2 enhancer selectively regulates HO-1 gene induction by modulating Pol II binding

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Atsushi; Mimura, Junsei; Itoh, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have disclosed the function of enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), which are long non-coding RNAs transcribed from gene enhancer regions, in transcriptional regulation. However, it remains unclear whether eRNAs are involved in the regulation of human heme oxygenase-1 gene (HO-1) induction. Here, we report that multiple nuclear-enriched eRNAs are transcribed from the regions adjacent to two human HO-1 enhancers (i.e. the distal E2 and proximal E1 enhancers), and some of these eRNAs are induced by the oxidative stress-causing reagent diethyl maleate (DEM). We demonstrated that the expression of one forward direction (5′ to 3′) eRNA transcribed from the human HO-1 E2 enhancer region (named human HO-1enhancer RNA E2-3; hereafter called eRNA E2-3) was induced by DEM in an NRF2-dependent manner in HeLa cells. Conversely, knockdown of BACH1, a repressor of HO-1 transcription, further increased DEM-inducible eRNA E2-3 transcription as well as HO-1 expression. In addition, we showed that knockdown of eRNA E2-3 selectively down-regulated DEM-induced HO-1 expression. Furthermore, eRNA E2-3 knockdown attenuated DEM-induced Pol II binding to the promoter and E2 enhancer regions of HO-1 without affecting NRF2 recruitment to the E2 enhancer. These findings indicate that eRNAE2-3 is functional and is required for HO-1 induction. PMID:25404134

  19. DUF6 Conversion Facility EISs

    Science.gov Websites

    Conversion EIS Documents News FAQs Internet Resources Glossary Home » Conversion Facility EISs EIS Logo Guide | DU Uses | DUF6 Management | DUF6 Conversion Facility EISs | Documents News | FAQs | Internet

  20. Elevated autophagy gene expression in adipose tissue of obese humans: A potential non-cell-cycle-dependent function of E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Haim, Yulia; Blüher, Matthias; Slutsky, Noa; Goldstein, Nir; Klöting, Nora; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Kirshtein, Boris; Ginsberg, Doron; Gericke, Martin; Guiu Jurado, Esther; Kovsan, Julia; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Kachko, Leonid; Bashan, Nava; Gepner, Yiftach; Shai, Iris; Rudich, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy genes' expression is upregulated in visceral fat in human obesity, associating with obesity-related cardio-metabolic risk. E2F1 (E2F transcription factor 1) was shown in cancer cells to transcriptionally regulate autophagy. We hypothesize that E2F1 regulates adipocyte autophagy in obesity, associating with endocrine/metabolic dysfunction, thereby, representing non-cell-cycle function of this transcription factor. E2F1 protein (N=69) and mRNA (N=437) were elevated in visceral fat of obese humans, correlating with increased expression of ATG5 (autophagy-related 5), MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 β), but not with proliferation/cell-cycle markers. Elevated E2F1 mainly characterized the adipocyte fraction, whereas MKI67 (marker of proliferation Ki-67) was elevated in the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue. In human visceral fat explants, chromatin-immunoprecipitation revealed body mass index (BMI)-correlated increase in E2F1 binding to the promoter of MAP1LC3B, but not to the classical cell cycle E2F1 target, CCND1 (cyclin D1). Clinically, omental fat E2F1 expression correlated with insulin resistance, circulating free-fatty-acids (FFA), and with decreased circulating ADIPOQ/adiponectin, associations attenuated by adjustment for autophagy genes. Overexpression of E2F1 in HEK293 cells enhanced promoter activity of several autophagy genes and autophagic flux, and sensitized to further activation of autophagy by TNF. Conversely, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-derived adipocytes from e2f1 knockout mice (e2f1−/−) exhibited lower autophagy gene expression and flux, were more insulin sensitive, and secreted more ADIPOQ. Furthermore, e2f1−/− MEF-derived adipocytes, and autophagy-deficient (by Atg7 siRNA) adipocytes were resistant to cytokines-induced decrease in ADIPOQ secretion. Jointly, upregulated E2F1 sensitizes adipose tissue autophagy to inflammatory stimuli, linking visceral obesity to adipose and systemic

  1. E2 protein cage as a multifunctional nanoplatform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmau Mallorqui, Merce

    Caged protein systems such as viral capsids, heat shock proteins, and ferritin are spherical structures that occur naturally in living organisms and are a growing class of biomimetic templates used to create new materials in nanotechnology. Such systems have been proposed as general drug carriers since they form highly symmetric nanoscale architectures that offer the potential to be tailored according to the desired application. Within this framework, this dissertation focuses on the design and development of a new drug delivery nanoplatform based on the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase protein from Bacillus stearothermophilus. This scaffold forms a 25-nm nanocapsule structure with a hollow cavity. We produced a variant of this protein consisting only of the structural core, and found the thermostability of this self-assembled scaffold to be unusually high, with an onset unfolding temperature of 81.1 +/- 0.9°C and an apparent midpoint unfolding temperature of 91.4 +/- 1.4°C. To evaluate the potential of this scaffold for encapsulation of guest molecules in the internal cavity, we made variants which altered the physicochemical properties of the hollow internal surface. These mutants, yielding up to 240 mutations within this cavity, assembled into correct architectures and exhibited high thermostability that was also comparable to the wild-type scaffold. To show the applicability of this scaffold we coupled two drug-like small molecules to the internal cavity. We also developed a new strategy for encapsulation of small hydrophobic drug molecules. This method is based on hydrophobic differences between the interior cavity and the external buffer to nucleate drug-like agents inside the protein cage. We demonstrate that internal mutations can introduce non-native functionality and enable molecular encapsulation within the cavity while still retaining the dodecahedral structure. Another surface amenable to modifications is the interface between subunits. Such

  2. Functional synergy between DP-1 and E2F-1 in the cell cycle-regulating transcription factor DRTF1/E2F.

    PubMed Central

    Bandara, L R; Buck, V M; Zamanian, M; Johnston, L H; La Thangue, N B

    1993-01-01

    It is widely believed that the cellular transcription factor DRTF1/E2F integrates cell cycle events with the transcription apparatus because during cell cycle progression in mammalian cells it interacts with molecules that are important regulators of cellular proliferation, such as the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor gene product (pRb), p107, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. Thus, pRb, which negatively regulates early cell cycle progression and is frequently mutated in tumour cells, and the Rb-related protein p107, bind to and repress the transcriptional activity of DRTF1/E2F. Viral oncoproteins, such as adenovirus E1a and SV40 large T antigen, overcome such repression by sequestering pRb and p107 and in so doing are likely to activate genes regulated by DRTF1/E2F, such as cdc2, c-myc and DHFR. Two sequence-specific DNA binding proteins, E2F-1 and DP-1, which bind to the E2F site, contain a small region of similarity. The functional relationship between them has, however, been unclear. We report here that DP-1 and E2F-1 exist in a DNA binding complex in vivo and that they bind efficiently and preferentially as a heterodimer to the E2F site. Moreover, studies in yeast and Drosophila cells indicate that DP-1 and E2F-1 interact synergistically in E2F site-dependent transcriptional activation. Images PMID:8223441

  3. Laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of laser energy to other, more useful, forms is an important element of any space power transmission system employing lasers. In general the user, at the receiving sight, will require the energy in a form other than laser radiation. In particular, conversion to rocket power and electricity are considered to be two major areas where one must consider various conversion techniques. Three systems (photovoltaic cells, MHD generators, and gas turbines) have been identified as the laser-to-electricity conversion systems that appear to meet most of the criteria for a space-based system. The laser thruster also shows considerable promise as a space propulsion system. At this time one cannot predict which of the three laser-to-electric converters will be best suited to particular mission needs. All three systems have some particular advantages, as well as disadvantages. It would be prudent to continue research on all three systems, as well as the laser rocket thruster. Research on novel energy conversion systems, such as the optical rectenna and the reverse free-electron laser, should continue due to their potential for high payoff.

  4. Isomolybdate conversion coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating solution and process forms a stable and corrosion-resistant layer on metal substrates or layers or, more preferably, on a boehmite layer or other base conversion coating. The conversion coating process involves contacting the substrate, layer or coating with an aqueous alkali metal isomolybdate solution in order to convert the surface of the substrate, layer or coating to a stable conversion coating. The aqueous alkali metal molybdates are selected from sodium molybdate (Na.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), lithium molybdate (Li.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), potassium molybdate (K.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), or combinations thereof, with the most preferred alkali metal molybdate being sodium molybdate. The concentration of alkali metal molybdates in the solution is preferably less than 5% by weight. In addition to the alkali metal molybdates, the conversion coating solution may include alkaline metal passivators selected from lithium nitrate (LiNO.sub.3), sodium nitrate (NaNO.sub.3), ammonia nitrate (NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3), and combinations thereof; lithium chloride, potassium hexafluorozirconate (K.sub.2 ZrF.sub.6) or potassium hexafluorotitanate (K.sub.2 TiF.sub.6).

  5. Consistent transport coefficients in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Rovira, M.; Ferrofontan, C.

    1986-01-01

    A consistent theory for dealing with transport phenomena in stellar atmospheres starting with the kinetic equations and introducing three cases (LTE, partial LTE, and non-LTE) was developed. The consistent hydrodynamical equations were presented for partial-LTE, the transport coefficients defined, and a method shown to calculate them. The method is based on the numerical solution of kinetic equations considering Landau, Boltzmann, and Focker-Planck collision terms. Finally a set of results for the transport coefficients derived for a partially ionized hydrogen gas with radiation was shown, considering ionization and recombination as well as elastic collisions. The results obtained imply major changes is some types of theoretical model calculations and can resolve some important current problems concerning energy and mass balance in the solar atmosphere. It is shown that energy balance in the lower solar transition region can be fully explained by means of radiation losses and conductive flux.

  6. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  7. HPV16 E2 gene disruption and polymorphisms of E2 and LCR: some significant associations with cervical cancer in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Bornali; Sengupta, Sharmila

    2006-02-01

    We evaluated the status of the HPV16 E2 gene (disrupted or intact), nucleotide sequence alterations within intact E2 genes and LCR of HPV16 isolates in a group of CaCx cases (invasive squamous cell carcinomas, n = 81) and population controls (normal cervical scrapes, n = 27) from Indian women. E2 disruption was detected by amplifying the entire E2 gene with single set of primers, while overlapping primers were used to determine if any particular region got selectively disrupted. Nucleotide variations in E2 and LCR were analyzed by PCR amplification followed by bi-directional sequencing. The associations between the viral factors and CaCx were analyzed using Fisher's Exact or Chi-squared test and interpreted as OR (95% CI) and P values. E2 disruption was significantly higher among the cases [3.38 (1.07-10.72); P = 0.02], which was maximum in the region between nucleotides 3650 and 3872 (DNA-binding region). The European (E) variant was found to be the prevalent subgroup (87.76% among cases and 96.30% among the controls), and the remaining samples were Asian-American variants. Among the E subgroup, variation at position 7450 (T > C) within the E2-binding site-IV was found to be significantly higher among the E2 undisrupted cases (21/37; 56.76%), compared to controls (5/18; 27.78%) [3.41 (1.01-11.55); P = 0.03]. Besides HPV16 E2 disruption, LCR 7450T > C variation within undisrupted E2 of E subgroup appears to be a major factor contributing to the risk of CaCx development in Indian women. Furthermore, polymorphisms in the E2 gene of HPV16 may not be significant for disease risk.

  8. Ultrasound coefficient of nonlinearity imaging.

    PubMed

    van Sloun, Ruud; Demi, Libertario; Shan, Caifeng; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Imaging the acoustical coefficient of nonlinearity, β, is of interest in several healthcare interventional applications. It is an important feature that can be used for discriminating tissues. In this paper, we propose a nonlinearity characterization method with the goal of locally estimating the coefficient of nonlinearity. The proposed method is based on a 1-D solution of the nonlinear lossy Westerfelt equation, thereby deriving a local relation between β and the pressure wave field. Based on several assumptions, a β imaging method is then presented that is based on the ratio between the harmonic and fundamental fields, thereby reducing the effect of spatial amplitude variations of the speckle pattern. By testing the method on simulated ultrasound pressure fields and an in vitro B-mode ultrasound acquisition, we show that the designed algorithm is able to estimate the coefficient of nonlinearity, and that the tissue types of interest are well discriminable. The proposed imaging method provides a new approach to β estimation, not requiring a special measurement setup or transducer, that seems particularly promising for in vivo imaging.

  9. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  10. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  11. Frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A frequency conversion system comprises first and second gain sources providing first and second frequency radiation outputs where the second gain source receives as input the output of the first gain source and, further, the second gain source comprises a Raman or Brillouin gain fiber for wave shifting a portion of the radiation of the first frequency output into second frequency radiation output to provided a combined output of first and second frequencies. Powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  12. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massier, Paul F.; Bankston, C. P.; Williams, R.; Underwood, M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Fabris, G.

    1989-01-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal Magnetohydrodynamic Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1989 through December 31, 1989. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (nitinol heat engines); and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  13. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  14. A new fifth parameter for transverse isotropy III: reflection and transmission coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the newly defined fifth parameter, ηκ, of transverse anisotropy to the reflection and transmission coefficients, especially for P-to-S and S-to-P conversion coefficients, is examined. While ηκ systematically affects the P-to-S and S-to-P conversions, in the incidence angle range of the practical interest of receiver function studies, the effect may be asymmetric in a sense that P-wave receiver function is affected more than S-receiver function in terms of amplitude. This asymmetry may help resolving ηκ via extensive receiver function analysis. It is also found that P-wave anisotropy significantly influences P-to-S and S-to-P conversion coefficients that complicates the interpretation of receiver functions, because, for isotropic media, we typically attribute the primary receiver function signals to S-wave velocity changes but not to P-wave changes.

  15. Ability of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) defensive secretions (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal to attract adult bed bugs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate and timely surveillance of bed bug infestations is critical for development of effective control strategies. While the bed bug produced volatiles (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal are considered defensive secretions, through use of EthoVision® video-tracking software we demonstrate that low ...

  16. Inhibition of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in vitro by the bed bug defensive secretions (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The two major aldehydes (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal emitted as defensive secretions by bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), inhibit the in vitro growth of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sokorin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). These chemicals inhibit fungal growth by direct con...

  17. E2F8 as a Novel Therapeutic Target for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sin-Aye; Platt, James; Lee, Jong Woo; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Herbst, Roy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The E2F members have been divided into transcription activators (E2F1-E2F3) and repressors (E2F4-E2F8). E2F8 with E2F7 has been known to play an important physiologic role in embryonic development and cell cycle regulation by repressing E2F1. However, the function of E2F8 in cancer cells is unknown. Methods: E2F8 expression was assessed by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence staining in human lung cancer (LC) cells and tissues from LC patients (n = 45). Cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion analysis were performed to evaluate the role of E2F8 in LC. Microarray analysis was used to determine the target genes of E2F8. The regulation of E2F8 on the expression of ubiquitin-like PHD and RING domain-containing 1 (UHRF1), one of E2F8 target genes, was determined using chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter activity assays. Human LC xenograft models were used to determine the effects of inhibiting E2F8 by siRNAs (n = 7 per group) or antisense morpholino (n = 8 per group) on tumor growth. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and group differences by the Student’s t test. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: LC tumors overexpressed E2F8 compared with normal lung tissues. Depletion of E2F8 inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth. E2F8 knockdown statistically significantly reduced the expression of UHRF1 (~60%-70%, P < .001), and the direct binding of E2F8 on the promoter of UHRF1 was identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis with a public database showed prognostic significance of aberrant E2F8 expression in LC (HR = 1.91 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.01 in chemo-naïve patients, P = .0047). Conclusions: We demonstrated that E2F8 is overexpressed in LC and is required for the growth of LC cells. These findings implicate E2F8 as a novel therapeutic target for LC treatment. PMID:26089541

  18. E2F8 as a Novel Therapeutic Target for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Aye; Platt, James; Lee, Jong Woo; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Herbst, Roy S; Koo, Ja Seok

    2015-09-01

    The E2F members have been divided into transcription activators (E2F1-E2F3) and repressors (E2F4-E2F8). E2F8 with E2F7 has been known to play an important physiologic role in embryonic development and cell cycle regulation by repressing E2F1. However, the function of E2F8 in cancer cells is unknown. E2F8 expression was assessed by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence staining in human lung cancer (LC) cells and tissues from LC patients (n = 45). Cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion analysis were performed to evaluate the role of E2F8 in LC. Microarray analysis was used to determine the target genes of E2F8. The regulation of E2F8 on the expression of ubiquitin-like PHD and RING domain-containing 1 (UHRF1), one of E2F8 target genes, was determined using chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter activity assays. Human LC xenograft models were used to determine the effects of inhibiting E2F8 by siRNAs (n = 7 per group) or antisense morpholino (n = 8 per group) on tumor growth. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and group differences by the Student's t test. All statistical tests were two-sided. LC tumors overexpressed E2F8 compared with normal lung tissues. Depletion of E2F8 inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth. E2F8 knockdown statistically significantly reduced the expression of UHRF1 (~60%-70%, P < .001), and the direct binding of E2F8 on the promoter of UHRF1 was identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis with a public database showed prognostic significance of aberrant E2F8 expression in LC (HR = 1.91 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.01 in chemo-naïve patients, P = .0047). We demonstrated that E2F8 is overexpressed in LC and is required for the growth of LC cells. These findings implicate E2F8 as a novel therapeutic target for LC treatment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E Figure E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Fig. E-2 Figure E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53...

  20. E2fl1 is a meiosis-specific transcription factor in the protist Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Miao; Miao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the E2F family of transcription factors have been reported to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication, and DNA repair in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, E2FL1, a meiosis-specific E2F transcription factor gene, was identified in the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Loss of this gene resulted in meiotic arrest prior to anaphase I. The cytological experiments revealed that the meiotic homologous pairing was not affected in the absence of E2FL1, but the paired homologous chromosomes did not separate and assumed a peculiar tandem arrangement. This is the first time that an E2F family member has been shown to regulate meiotic events. Moreover, BrdU incorporation showed that DSB processing during meiosis was abnormal upon the deletion of E2FL1. Transcriptome sequencing analysis revealed that E2FL1 knockout decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA replication and DNA repair in T. thermophila, suggesting that the function of E2F is highly conserved in eukaryotes. In addition, E2FL1 deletion inhibited the expression of related homologous chromosome segregation genes in T. thermophila. The result may explain the meiotic arrest phenotype at anaphase I. Finally, by searching for E2F DNA-binding motifs in the entire T. thermophila genome, we identified 714 genes containing at least one E2F DNA-binding motif; of these, 235 downregulated represent putative E2FL1 target genes. PMID:27892792

  1. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E Figure E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Fig. E-2 Figure E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53...

  2. E2F Activators Signal and Maintain Centrosome Amplification in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Moreno, Carlos S.

    2014-01-01

    Centrosomes ensure accurate chromosome segregation by directing spindle bipolarity. Loss of centrosome regulation results in centrosome amplification, multipolar mitosis and aneuploidy. Since centrosome amplification is common in premalignant lesions and breast tumors, it is proposed to play a central role in breast tumorigenesis, a hypothesis that remains to be tested. The coordination between the cell and centrosome cycles is of paramount importance to maintain normal centrosome numbers, and the E2Fs may be responsible for regulating these cycles. However, the role of E2F activators in centrosome amplification is unclear. Because E2Fs are deregulated in Her2+ cells displaying centrosome amplification, we addressed whether they signal this abnormal process. Knockdown of E2F1 or E2F3 in Her2+ cells decreased centrosome amplification without significantly affecting cell cycle progression, whereas the overexpression of E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3 increased centrosome amplification in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Our results revealed that E2Fs affect the expression of proteins, including Nek2 and Plk4, known to influence the cell/centrosome cycles and mitosis. Downregulation of E2F3 resulted in cell death and delays/blocks in cytokinesis, which was reversed by Nek2 overexpression. Nek2 overexpression enhanced centrosome amplification in Her2+ breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3, revealing a role for the E2F activators in maintaining centrosome amplification in part through Nek2. PMID:24797070

  3. E2F activators signal and maintain centrosome amplification in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Young; Moreno, Carlos S; Saavedra, Harold I

    2014-07-01

    Centrosomes ensure accurate chromosome segregation by directing spindle bipolarity. Loss of centrosome regulation results in centrosome amplification, multipolar mitosis and aneuploidy. Since centrosome amplification is common in premalignant lesions and breast tumors, it is proposed to play a central role in breast tumorigenesis, a hypothesis that remains to be tested. The coordination between the cell and centrosome cycles is of paramount importance to maintain normal centrosome numbers, and the E2Fs may be responsible for regulating these cycles. However, the role of E2F activators in centrosome amplification is unclear. Because E2Fs are deregulated in Her2(+) cells displaying centrosome amplification, we addressed whether they signal this abnormal process. Knockdown of E2F1 or E2F3 in Her2(+) cells decreased centrosome amplification without significantly affecting cell cycle progression, whereas the overexpression of E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3 increased centrosome amplification in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Our results revealed that E2Fs affect the expression of proteins, including Nek2 and Plk4, known to influence the cell/centrosome cycles and mitosis. Downregulation of E2F3 resulted in cell death and delays/blocks in cytokinesis, which was reversed by Nek2 overexpression. Nek2 overexpression enhanced centrosome amplification in Her2(+) breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3, revealing a role for the E2F activators in maintaining centrosome amplification in part through Nek2.

  4. Leadership is a conversation.

    PubMed

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  5. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  6. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  7. Conversation: The Comprehension Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketch, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Conversation is a basis for critical thinking. It is the thread that ties together cognitive strategies and provides students with the practice that becomes the foundation for reading, writing, and thinking. In recent years, proficient reader research has yielded information about what good readers do as they comprehend text. This article provides…

  8. Teaching Conversation with Trivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a rationale for utilizing trivia to teach conversation. Shows how trivia-based materials fit into communicative language teaching approaches and provides examples of trivia-based activities and explains how to use them in the classroom. (Author/VWL)

  9. Electromechanical Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text on electromechanical energy conversion (motors and generators) was developed under contract with the U.S. Office of Education as Number 12 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended to be used in conjunction with other materials and with other short texts in the series. (DH)

  10. Conversational English Program, 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This second book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  11. Conversational English Program, 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This first book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  12. Stories in Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Roberta Senner

    Although conversational stories within one individual's corpus share the same structure, they have features that set them apart from one another. Based on the stories' general characteristics and the way they function in ongoing talk, they can be identified as: (1) durable personal experience narratives (PENs), which are often repeated during the…

  13. Mechanochemical Energy Conversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the thermodynamics of macromolecular systems, including theories and experiments of cyclic energy conversion with rubber and collagen as working substances. Indicates that an early introduction into the concept of chemical potential and solution thermodynamics is made possible through the study of the cyclic processes. (CC)

  14. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  15. Our Digital Conversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes their digital conversion initiative at Mooresville Graded School District. The project has placed a MacBook Air laptop in the hands of every 3rd through 12th grader and their teachers in the district over the past four years, with over 5,000 computers distributed. But they believe their academic successes have…

  16. A Conversation about Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.; Mao, Minnie Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of the Lindau Meeting, we present a dialogue between a Nobel laureate and a young researcher. This interchange started online, where it continues to unfold. Here is a digest of this conversation, which has developed across time and space.

  17. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.

  18. CpG methylation of HPV 16 LCR at E2 binding site proximal to P97 is associated with cervical cancer in presence of intact E2.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Bornali; Sengupta, Sharmila

    2006-10-25

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E2 protein negatively regulates transcription of the E6 and E7 genes. This study was done to test the hypothesis that methylation of the HPV 16 long control region (LCR) is overrepresented among cervical cancer (CaCx) cases compared to cytologically normal controls harboring intact E2 gene. Methylation of the E2 binding site (E2BS-I), proximal to the P97 promoter, was assessed by HpaII/ MspI restriction digestion while McrBC digestion was used to assess LCR-E6 (7289-540) for 57 CaCx samples and 15 normal controls. E2BS-I methylation was found to be significantly higher (56.14%) in cases compared to (20%) controls [OR(age-adjusted) (95% CI): 4.53 (1.05-19.43) p=0.042]. The difference between cases (54.39%) and controls (40%) with respect to LCR-E6 methylation status [OR(age-adjusted) (95% CI): 1.77(0.5-6.3); p=0.38] was not significant. Sequencing of a randomly selected set of 13 methylated malignant samples revealed absence or rare presence, of methylation at CpGs 7579, 7535, 7683 and 7862 respectively. Methylation was found to be more at CpGs within E2 binding sites proximal to the P97 promoter. These results indicate the involvement of E2 binding site methylation in presence of intact E2, leading to loss of E2 repressor activity in CaCx.

  19. HP-41CV Flight Performance Advisory System (FPAS) for the E-2C, E-2B, and C-2A Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    NPS67-82- 003 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC HP-41CV FLIGHT PERFORMANCE ADVISORY SYSTEM (FPAS) FOR THE E-2C, E-2B, AND C-2A...A’P-𔃻"’f .00 ____________ 4. TITLE9 (and Subtil) SL TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED H1P-41CV FLIGHT PERFORMANCE ADVISORY SYSTEM (FPAS) TECHNICAL REPORT...complement the original design of a Flight Performance Advisory System (FPAS) for the E-2C aircraft. The original design fulfilled the requirements of AE 3001

  20. Regulation of human genome expression and RNA splicing by human papillomavirus 16 E2 protein.

    PubMed

    Gauson, Elaine J; Windle, Brad; Donaldson, Mary M; Caffarel, Maria M; Dornan, Edward S; Coleman, Nicholas; Herzyk, Pawel; Henderson, Scott C; Wang, Xu; Morgan, Iain M

    2014-11-01

    Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is causative in human cancer. The E2 protein regulates transcription from and replication of the viral genome; the role of E2 in regulating the host genome has been less well studied. We have expressed HPV16 E2 (E2) stably in U2OS cells; these cells tolerate E2 expression well and gene expression analysis identified 74 genes showing differential expression specific to E2. Analysis of published gene expression data sets during cervical cancer progression identified 20 of the genes as being altered in a similar direction as the E2 specific genes. In addition, E2 altered the splicing of many genes implicated in cancer and cell motility. The E2 expressing cells showed no alteration in cell growth but were altered in cell motility, consistent with the E2 induced altered splicing predicted to affect this cellular function. The results present a model system for investigating E2 regulation of the host genome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. E2f1–3 Are Critical for Myeloid Development*

    PubMed Central

    Trikha, Prashant; Sharma, Nidhi; Opavsky, Rene; Reyes, Andres; Pena, Clarissa; Ostrowski, Michael C.; Roussel, Martine F.; Leone, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic development involves the coordinated activity of differentiation and cell cycle regulators. In current models of mammalian cell cycle control, E2f activators (E2f1, E2f2, and E2f3) are portrayed as the ultimate transcriptional effectors that commit cells to enter and progress through S phase. Using conditional gene knock-out strategies, we show that E2f1–3 are not required for the proliferation of early myeloid progenitors. Rather, these E2fs are critical for cell survival and proliferation at two distinct steps of myeloid development. First, E2f1–3 are required as transcriptional repressors for the survival of CD11b+ myeloid progenitors, and then they are required as activators for the proliferation of CD11b+ macrophages. In bone marrow macrophages, we show that E2f1–3 respond to CSF1-Myc mitogenic signals and serve to activate E2f target genes and promote their proliferation. Together, these findings expose dual functions for E2f1–3 at distinct stages of myeloid development in vivo, first as repressors in cell survival and then as activators in cell proliferation. In summary, this work places E2f1–3 in a specific signaling cascade that is critical for myeloid development in vivo. PMID:21115501

  2. E2F1 transcription is induced by genotoxic stress through ATM/ATR activation.

    PubMed

    Carcagno, Abel L; Ogara, María F; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Marazita, Mariela C; Sirkin, Pablo F; Ceruti, Julieta M; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2009-05-01

    E2F1, a member of the E2F family of transcription factors, plays a critical role in controlling both cell cycle progression and apoptotic cell death in response to DNA damage and oncogene activation. Following genotoxic stresses, E2F1 protein is stabilized by phosphorylation and acetylation driven to its accumulation. The aim of the present work was to examine whether the increase in E2F1 protein levels observed after DNA damage is only a reflection of an increase in E2F1 protein stability or is also the consequence of enhanced transcription of the E2F1 gene. The data presented here demonstrates that UV light and other genotoxics induce the transcription of E2F1 gene in an ATM/ATR dependent manner, which results in increasing E2F1 mRNA and protein levels. After genotoxic stress, transcription of cyclin E, an E2F1 target gene, was significantly induced. This induction was the result of two well-differentiated effects, one of them dependent on de novo protein synthesis and the other on the protein stabilization. Our results strongly support a transcriptional effect of DNA damaging agents on E2F1 expression. The results presented herein uncover a new mechanism involving E2F1 in response to genotoxic stress.

  3. The banana E2 gene family: Genomic identification, characterization, expression profiling analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Jue, Dengwei; Zhao, Qiufang; Chen, Hongliang; Xie, Jianghui; Jia, Liqiang

    2016-04-01

    The E2 is at the center of a cascade of Ub1 transfers, and it links activation of the Ub1 by E1 to its eventual E3-catalyzed attachment to substrate. Although the genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known about analysis of E2 genes in banana. In this study, 74 E2 genes of banana were identified and phylogenetically clustered into thirteen subgroups. The predicted banana E2 genes were distributed across all 11 chromosomes at different densities. Additionally, the E2 domain, gene structure and motif compositions were analyzed. The expression of all of the banana E2 genes was analyzed in the root, stem, leaf, flower organs, five stages of fruit development and under abiotic stresses. All of the banana E2 genes, with the exception of few genes in each group, were expressed in at least one of the organs and fruit developments, which indicated that the E2 genes might involve in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the banana. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis identified that 45 E2s under drought and 33 E2s under salt were induced. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the banana E2 gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification, cloning and putative functions of this family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Movement Coordination during Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V.; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S.; Munhall, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers’ perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189

  5. Wind energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  6. Implications of metric conversion.

    PubMed

    Laros, R K

    1980-11-01

    The international scientific community is rapidly achieving conversion to the metric system, and the Système International (SI system) has been chosen for use by health scientists. Because the United States remains 1 of only 4 countries not now using part or all of the SI system, there is now a systematic effort toward rapid conversion. Although most of the SI system is not controversial, several SI units are highly so. Examples include joules instead of calories, pascals instead of millimeters of mercury, and moles per liter instead of milligrams per 100 milliliters. Obstetrician-gynecologists need to be familiar with the SI units and to voice their feelings about the various controversial units. There are decisions still to be made, and the time for discussion and advice is now.

  7. Frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Laser diode pumped mid-IR wavelength sources include at least one high power, near-IR wavelength, injection and/or sources wherein one or both of such sources may be tunable providing a pump wave output beam to a quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) device. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Wavelength tuning of at least one of the sources advantageously provides the ability for optimizing pump or injection wavelengths to match the QPM properties of the NFM device enabling a broad range of mid-IR wavelength selectivity. Also, pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  8. A comparison of two indices for the intraclass correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we examined the behavior of two indices for measuring the intraclass correlation in the one-way random effects model: the prevailing ICC(1) (Fisher, 1938) and the corrected eta-squared (Bliese & Halverson, 1998). These two procedures differ both in their methods of estimating the variance components that define the intraclass correlation coefficient and in their performance of bias and mean squared error in the estimation of the intraclass correlation coefficient. In contrast with the natural unbiased principle used to construct ICC(1), in the present study it was analytically shown that the corrected eta-squared estimator is identical to the maximum likelihood estimator and the pairwise estimator under equal group sizes. Moreover, the empirical results obtained from the present Monte Carlo simulation study across various group structures revealed the mutual dominance relationship between their truncated versions for negative values. The corrected eta-squared estimator performs better than the ICC(1) estimator when the underlying population intraclass correlation coefficient is small. Conversely, ICC(1) has a clear advantage over the corrected eta-squared for medium and large magnitudes of population intraclass correlation coefficient. The conceptual description and numerical investigation provide guidelines to help researchers choose between the two indices for more accurate reliability analysis in multilevel research.

  9. Advanced Thermal Conversion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-18

    increase electron emission from the cathode. A two-stage, PETE topping stage followed by a thermoelectric bottoming stage, is projected to have a...illustrated in the by the energy-band diagrams in Fig. 1. In that aspect, PETE converters are similar to photovoltaic (PV) cells, but unlike PV cells, PETE... photovoltaic cells at 3000x concentration (~38%). As shown in Fig. 2(b), the highest conversion efficiencies are obtained by using photo-cathodes

  10. Conversations With Wargamers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    DATES COVERED (From To) 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conversations with Wargamers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N0O014-05-D-05O0 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...you sought to achieve in multi-level games? 3. What interfered with your ability to achieve your goals? 4 . What did you do to overcome the problems...scale. The Pacific Warapproach 4 . Herman, Mark. Gulf Strike. Boardgame. Baltimore: Victory Games. (1983) 5. Herman, Mark. Pacific War. Boardgame

  11. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    PubMed

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  12. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massier, P. F.; Bankston, C. P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L. D.

    1988-01-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown.

  13. TFDP3 was expressed in coordination with E2F1 to inhibit E2F1-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yueyun; Xin, Yijuan; Li, Rui; Wang, Zhe; Yue, Qiaohong; Xiao, Fengjing; Hao, Xiaoke

    2014-03-10

    TFDP3 has been previously identified as an inhibitor of E2F molecules. It has been shown to suppress E2F1-induced apoptosis dependent P53 and to play a potential role in carcinogenesis. However, whether it indeed helps cancer cells tolerate apoptosis stress in cancer tissues remains unknown. TFDP3 expression was assessed by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in normal human tissues, cancer tissues and prostate cancer tissues. The association between TFDP3 and E2F1 in prostate cancer development was analyzed in various stages. Apoptosis was evaluated with annexin-V and propidium iodide staining and flow-cytometry. The results show that, in 96 samples of normal human tissues, TFDP3 could be detected in the cerebrum, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, bronchus, breast, ovary, uterus, and skin, but seldom in the lung, muscles, prostate, and liver. In addition, TFDP3 was highly expressed in numerous cancer tissues, such as brain-keratinous, lung squamous cell carcinoma, testicular seminoma, cervical carcinoma, skin squamous cell carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Moreover, TFDP3 was positive in 23 (62.2%) of 37 prostate cancer samples regardless of stage. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry results show that TFDP3 was always expressed in coordination with E2F1 at equivalent expression levels in prostate cancer tissues, and was highly expressed particularly in samples of high stage. When E2F1 was extrogenously expressed in LNCap cells, TFDP3 could be induced, and the apoptosis induced by E2F1 was significantly decreased. It was demonstrated that TFDP3 was a broadly expressed protein corresponding to E2F1 in human tissues, and suggested that TFDP3 is involved in prostate cancer cell survival by suppressing apoptosis induced by E2F1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. E2F function in muscle growth is necessary and sufficient for viability in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zappia, Maria Paula; Frolov, Maxim V.

    2016-01-01

    The E2F transcription factor is a key cell cycle regulator. However, the inactivation of the entire E2F family in Drosophila is permissive throughout most of animal development until pupation when lethality occurs. Here we show that E2F function in the adult skeletal muscle is essential for animal viability since providing E2F function in muscles rescues the lethality of the whole-body E2F-deficient animals. Muscle-specific loss of E2F results in a significant reduction in muscle mass and thinner myofibrils. We demonstrate that E2F is dispensable for proliferation of muscle progenitor cells, but is required during late myogenesis to directly control the expression of a set of muscle-specific genes. Interestingly, E2f1 provides a major contribution to the regulation of myogenic function, while E2f2 appears to be less important. These findings identify a key function of E2F in skeletal muscle required for animal viability, and illustrate how the cell cycle regulator is repurposed in post-mitotic cells. PMID:26823289

  15. E2F8 is essential for polyploidization in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Shusil K; Westendorp, Bart; Nantasanti, Sathidpak; van Liere, Elsbeth; Tooten, Peter C J; Cornelissen, Peter W A; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; Lamers, Wouter H; de Bruin, Alain

    2012-11-01

    Polyploidization is observed in all mammalian species and is a characteristic feature of hepatocytes, but its molecular mechanism and biological significance are unknown. Hepatocyte polyploidization in rodents occurs through incomplete cytokinesis, starts after weaning and increases with age. Here, we show in mice that atypical E2F8 is induced after weaning and required for hepatocyte binucleation and polyploidization. A deficiency in E2f8 led to an increase in the expression level of E2F target genes promoting cytokinesis and thereby preventing polyploidization. In contrast, loss of E2f1 enhanced polyploidization and suppressed the polyploidization defect of hepatocytes deficient for atypical E2Fs. In addition, E2F8 and E2F1 were found on the same subset of target promoters. Contrary to the long-standing hypothesis that polyploidization indicates terminal differentiation and senescence, we show that prevention of polyploidization through inactivation of atypical E2Fs has, surprisingly, no impact on liver differentiation, zonation, metabolism and regeneration. Together, these results identify E2F8 as a repressor and E2F1 as an activator of a transcriptional network controlling polyploidization in mammalian cells.

  16. [Eukaryotic expression and application of HCV Hebei strain E2 extracellular core region].

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuantao; Bian, Peiyu; Weng, Daihui; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Lei, Yingfeng; Jia, Zhansheng

    2016-06-01

    Objective To express core region of HCV1b (Hebei strain) E2 protein (E2c) by eukaryotic system, and establish the detection method of specific anti-HCV E2 antibody in the sera from hepatitis C patients. Methods Based on the literature, the E2c gene was modified from the HCV1b gene and synthesized via overlapping PCR. Thereafter, the E2c gene including tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) signal peptide was cloned into the pCI-neo eukaryotic expression vector, and the product was named pCI-tpa-1bE2c. After HEK293T cells were transfected with pCI-tpa-1bE2c, the supernatant was collected, condensed and purified. Its specificity was identified by Western blotting. Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-based ELISA was used to detect the antibody against HCVE2 in the sera from hepatitis C patients. Results Modified HCV E2c protein was successfully expressed in HEK293T cells and the GNA-based ELISA was developed for detecting the antibody against HCV E2 in the sera from hepatitis C patients. Conclusion HCV-1bE2c protein can be effectively expressed in HEK293T cells and applied clinically.

  17. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relativemore » risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H

  18. CDH1 regulates E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals in keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Randeep K.; Dagnino, Lina

    2017-01-01

    The E2F1 transcription factor plays key roles in skin homeostasis. In the epidermis, E2F1 expression is essential for normal proliferation of undifferentiated keratinocytes, regeneration after injury and DNA repair following UV radiation-induced photodamage. Abnormal E2F1 expression promotes nonmelanoma skin carcinoma. In addition, E2F1 must be downregulated for proper keratinocyte differentiation, but the relevant mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show that differentiation signals induce a series of post-translational modifications in E2F1 that are jointly required for its downregulation. Analysis of the structural determinants that govern these processes revealed a central role for S403 and T433. In particular, substitution of these two amino acid residues with non-phosphorylatable alanine (E2F1 ST/A) interferes with E2F1 nuclear export, K11- and K48-linked polyubiquitylation and degradation in differentiated keratinocytes. In contrast, replacement of S403 and T433 with phosphomimetic aspartic acid to generate a pseudophosphorylated E2F1 mutant protein (E2F1 ST/D) generates a protein that is regulated in a manner indistinguishable from that of wild type E2F1. Cdh1 is an activating cofactor that interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin E3 ligase, promoting proteasomal degradation of various substrates. We found that Cdh1 associates with E2F1 in keratinocytes. Inhibition or RNAi-mediated silencing of Cdh1 prevents E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals. Our results reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that jointly modulate post-translational modifications and downregulation of E2F1, which are necessary for proper epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:27903963

  19. CDH1 regulates E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Randeep K; Dagnino, Lina

    2017-01-17

    The E2F1 transcription factor plays key roles in skin homeostasis. In the epidermis, E2F1 expression is essential for normal proliferation of undifferentiated keratinocytes, regeneration after injury and DNA repair following UV radiation-induced photodamage. Abnormal E2F1 expression promotes nonmelanoma skin carcinoma. In addition, E2F1 must be downregulated for proper keratinocyte differentiation, but the relevant mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show that differentiation signals induce a series of post-translational modifications in E2F1 that are jointly required for its downregulation. Analysis of the structural determinants that govern these processes revealed a central role for S403 and T433. In particular, substitution of these two amino acid residues with non-phosphorylatable alanine (E2F1 ST/A) interferes with E2F1 nuclear export, K11- and K48-linked polyubiquitylation and degradation in differentiated keratinocytes. In contrast, replacement of S403 and T433 with phosphomimetic aspartic acid to generate a pseudophosphorylated E2F1 mutant protein (E2F1 ST/D) generates a protein that is regulated in a manner indistinguishable from that of wild type E2F1. Cdh1 is an activating cofactor that interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin E3 ligase, promoting proteasomal degradation of various substrates. We found that Cdh1 associates with E2F1 in keratinocytes. Inhibition or RNAi-mediated silencing of Cdh1 prevents E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals. Our results reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that jointly modulate post-translational modifications and downregulation of E2F1, which are necessary for proper epidermal keratinocyte differentiation.

  20. Tables and conversions for microclimatology.

    Treesearch

    James M. Brown

    1973-01-01

    A series of tables, charts, and conversion factors have been prepared for use in microclimatic and ecological studies. Included are: the solution to various equations of radiant energy exchange; solar radiation diagrams; psychometric and precipitation data; and unit conversion factors.

  1. Equivalent circuit model of converse magnetoelectric effect for the tri-layer magnetoelectric laminates with thermal and stress loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao-Miao; Li, Meng-Han; Liu, Hui; Cui, Xiao-Le

    2015-12-01

    For the converse magnetoelectric coupling effect of the piezoelectric/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric tri-layer symmetric magnetoelectric laminates, based on the nonlinear thermo-magneto-mechanical constitutive equations of the giant magnetostrictive materials and the thermo-electro-mechanical constitutive equations of the piezoelectric materials, according to Newton's second law and the magnetic circuit theorem, an equivalent circuit is established. Then an expression of the converse magnetoelectric coefficient describing nonlinear thermo-magneto-electro-mechanical coupling is established. The curve of the nonlinear converse magnetoelectric coefficient versus the bias magnetic field, is predicted effectively by the expression, and the predictions are in good agreement with the experimental result both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, the model can predict the complex influences of the bias magnetic field, the stress and the ambient temperature on the converse magnetoelectric coefficient. It can be found from these predictions that the converse magnetoelectric coefficient decreases with the increasing temperature and increases with the increasing tensile stress. Under the common effect of the ambient temperature and the stress, it is also found that the converse magnetoelectric coefficient changes sharply with the ambient temperature when the tensile stress is applied on the laminates, but it has a good stability of temperature when a large compressive stress is applied. Therefore, this work contributes to the researches on the giant converse magnetoelectric coefficient and the designs of magnetoelectric devices based on the converse magnetoelectric coupling.

  2. Enhanced converse magnetoelectric effect in cylindrical piezoelectric-magnetostrictive composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gaojian; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Ning

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced converse magnetoelectric (ME) effect has been experimentally observed in cylindrical PZT-Terfenol-D piezoelectric-magnetostrictive bilayered composites, where the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive components are coupled through normal stresses instead of shear stresses that act in most of previous multiferroic composites. A theoretical model based on elastodynamics analysis has been proposed to describe the frequency response of converse ME effect for axial and radial modes in the bilayered cylindrical composites. The theory shows good agreement with the experimental results. The different variation tendency of resonant converse ME coefficient, as well as different variation rate of resonance frequency with bias magnetic field for axial and radial modes is interpreted in terms of demagnetizing effect. This work is of theoretical and technological significance for the application of converse ME effect as magnetic sensor, transducers, coil-free flux switch, etc.

  3. Full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion via photonic nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglei; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-10-12

    Volumetric solar thermal conversion is an emerging technique for a plethora of applications such as solar thermal power generation, desalination, and solar water splitting. However, achieving broadband solar thermal absorption via dilute nanofluids is still a daunting challenge. In this work, full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion is demonstrated over a thin layer of the proposed 'photonic nanofluids'. The underlying mechanism is found to be the photonic superposition of core resonances, shell plasmons, and core-shell resonances at different wavelengths, whose coexistence is enabled by the broken symmetry of specially designed composite nanoparticles, i.e., Janus nanoparticles. The solar thermal conversion efficiency can be improved by 10.8% compared with core-shell nanofluids. The extinction coefficient of Janus dimers with various configurations is also investigated to unveil the effects of particle couplings. This work provides the possibility to achieve full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion, and may have potential applications in efficient solar energy harvesting and utilization.

  4. Microbial Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Merry; Wall, Judy D.

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array ofmore » potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil

  5. Structural flexibility at a major conserved antibody target on hepatitis C virus E2 antigen.

    PubMed

    Kong, Leopold; Lee, David E; Kadam, Rameshwar U; Liu, Tong; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Garces, Fernando; Tzarum, Netanel; Woods, Virgil L; Ward, Andrew B; Li, Sheng; Wilson, Ian A; Law, Mansun

    2016-10-24

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease, affecting over 2% of the world's population. The HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate viral entry, with E2 being the main target of neutralizing antibody responses. Structural investigations of E2 have produced templates for vaccine design, including the conserved CD81 receptor-binding site (CD81bs) that is a key target of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Unfortunately, immunization with recombinant E2 and E1E2 rarely elicits sufficient levels of bNAbs for protection. To understand the challenges for eliciting bNAb responses against the CD81bs, we investigated the E2 CD81bs by electron microscopy (EM), hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX), molecular dynamics (MD), and calorimetry. By EM, we observed that HCV1, a bNAb recognizing the N-terminal region of the CD81bs, bound a soluble E2 core construct from multiple angles of approach, suggesting components of the CD81bs are flexible. HDX of multiple E2 constructs consistently indicated the entire CD81bs was flexible relative to the rest of the E2 protein, which was further confirmed by MD simulations. However, E2 has a high melting temperature of 84.8 °C, which is more akin to proteins from thermophilic organisms. Thus, recombinant E2 is a highly stable protein overall, but with an exceptionally flexible CD81bs. Such flexibility may promote induction of nonneutralizing antibodies over bNAbs to E2 CD81bs, underscoring the necessity of rigidifying this antigenic region as a target for rational vaccine design.

  6. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  7. M-Bonomial Coefficients and Their Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we introduce M-bonomial coefficients or (M-bonacci binomial coefficients). These are similar to the binomial and the Fibonomial (or Fibonacci-binomial) coefficients and can be displayed in a triangle similar to Pascal's triangle from which some identities become obvious.

  8. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  9. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  10. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  11. Arginine methylation-dependent reader-writer interplay governs growth control by E2F-1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shunsheng; Moehlenbrink, Jutta; Lu, Yi-Chien; Zalmas, Lykourgos-Panagiotis; Sagum, Cari A.; Carr, Simon; McGouran, Joanna F.; Alexander, Leila; Fedorov, Oleg; Munro, Shonagh; Kessler, Benedikt; Bedford, Mark T.; Yu, Qiang; La Thangue, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms that underlie and dictate the different biological outcomes of E2F-1 activity have yet to be elucidated. We describe the residue-specific methylation of E2F-1 by the asymmetric dimethylating protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 1 and symmetric dimethylating PRMT5, and relate the marks to different functional consequences of E2F-1 activity. Methylation by PRMT1 hinders methylation by PRMT5, which augments E2F-1-dependent apoptosis, whereas PRMT5-dependent methylation favours proliferation by antagonising methylation by PRMT1. The ability of E2F-1 to prompt apoptosis in DNA damaged cells coincides with enhanced PRMT1 methylation. In contrast, cyclin A binding to E2F-1 impedes PRMT1 methylation and augments PRMT5 methylation, thus ensuring that E2F-1 is locked into its cell cycle progression mode. The Tudor domain protein p100-TSN reads the symmetric methylation mark, and binding of p100-TSN down-regulates E2F-1 apoptotic activity. Our results define an exquisite level of precision in the reader-writer interplay that governs the biological outcome of E2F-1 activity. PMID:24076217

  12. E2F1 transcription factor and its impact on growth factor and cytokine signaling.

    PubMed

    Ertosun, Mustafa Gokhan; Hapil, Fatma Zehra; Osman Nidai, Ozes

    2016-10-01

    E2F1 is a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The transactivation capacity of E2F1 is regulated by pRb. In its hypophosphorylated form, pRb binds and inactivates DNA binding and transactivating functions of E2F1. The growth factor stimulation of cells leads to activation of CDKs (cyclin dependent kinases), which in turn phosphorylate Rb and hyperphosphorylated Rb is released from E2F1 or E2F1/DP complex, and free E2F1 can induce transcription of several genes involved in cell cycle entry, induction or inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, growth factors and cytokines generally utilize E2F1 to direct cells to either fate. Furthermore, E2F1 regulates expressions of various cytokines and growth factor receptors, establishing positive or negative feedback mechanisms. This review focuses on the relationship between E2F1 transcription factor and cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, TGF-beta, G-CSF, LIF), growth factors (EGF, KGF, VEGF, IGF, FGF, PDGF, HGF, NGF), and interferons (IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-γ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. NF-E2 Overexpression Delays Erythroid Maturation and Increases Erythrocyte Production

    PubMed Central

    Mutschler, Manuel; Magin, Angela S.; Buerge, Martina; Roelz, Roland; Schanne, Daniel H.; Will, Britta; Pilz, Ingo H.; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Pahl, Heike L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2 (NF-E2) is overexpressed in the vast majority of patients with polycythaemia vera (PV). In murine models, NF-E2 overexpression increases proliferation and promotes cellular viability in the absence of erythropoietin (EPO). EPO-independent growth is a hallmark of PV. We therefore hypothesized that NF-E2 overexpression contributes to erythrocytosis, the pathognomonic feature of PV. Consequently, we investigated the effect of NF-E2 overexpression in healthy CD34+ cells. NF-E2 overexpression led to a delay in erythroid maturation, manifested by a belated appearance of glycophorin A-positive erythroid precursors. Maturation delay was similarly observed in primary PV patient erythroid cultures compared to healthy controls. Protracted maturation led to a significant increase in the accumulated number of erythroid cells both in PV cultures and in CD34+ cells overexpressing NF-E2. Similarly, NF-E2 overexpression altered erythroid colony formation, leading to an increase in BFU-E formation. These data indicate that NF-E2 overexpression delays the early phase of erythroid maturation, resulting in an expansion of erythroid progenitors, thereby increasing the number of erythrocytes derived from one CD34+ cell. These data propose a role for NF-E2 in mediating the erythrocytosis of PV. PMID:19466964

  14. Conversing Cooperatively: Using "Mini-Conversations" to Develop Conversational Knowledge and Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elizabeth B.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Interpersonal communication, relational communication, language and social interaction, professional communication, interviewing practices. Objectives: This single class activity enables students to understand the theoretical foundations of conversation and to develop their conversational skills by talking in dyads with classmates. Upon…

  15. Density functional theory and RRKM calculations of decompositions of the metastable E-2,4-pentadienal molecular ions.

    PubMed

    Solano Espinoza, Eduardo A; Vallejo Narváez, Wilmer E

    2010-07-01

    The potential energy profiles for the fragmentations that lead to [C(5)H(5)O](+) and [C(4)H(6)](+*) ions from the molecular ions [C(5)H(6)O](+*) of E-2,4-pentadienal were obtained from calculations at the UB3LYP/6-311G + + (3df,3pd)//UB3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. Kinetic barriers and harmonic frequencies obtained by the density functional method were then employed in Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations of individual rate coefficients for a large number of reaction steps. The pre-equilibrium and rate-controlling step approximations were applied to different regions of the complex potential energy surface, allowing the overall rate of decomposition to be calculated and discriminated between three rival pathways: C-H bond cleavage, decarbonylation and cyclization. These processes should have to compete for an equilibrated mixture of four conformers of the E-2,4-pentadienal ions. The direct dissociation, however, can only become important in the high-energy regime. In contrast, loss of CO and cyclization are observable processes in the metastable kinetic window. The former involves a slow 1,2-hydrogen shift from the carbonyl group that is immediately followed by the formation of an ion-neutral complex which, in turn, decomposes rapidly to the s-trans-1,3-butadiene ion [C(4)H(6)](+*). The predominating metastable channel is the second one, that is, a multi-step ring closure which starts with a rate-limiting cis-trans isomerization. This process yields a mixture of interconverting pyran ions that dissociates to the pyrylium ions [C(5)H(5)O](+). These results can be used to rationalize the CID mass spectrum of E-2,4-pentadienal in a low-energy regime. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Using the Monte Carlo technique to calculate dose conversion coefficients for medical professionals in interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, W. S.; Carvalho, A. B., Jr.; Hunt, J. G.; Maia, A. F.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate doses in the physician and the nurse assistant at different positions during interventional radiology procedures. In this study, effective doses obtained for the physician and at points occupied by other workers were normalised by air kerma-area product (KAP). The simulations were performed for two X-ray spectra (70 kVp and 87 kVp) using the radiation transport code MCNPX (version 2.7.0), and a pair of anthropomorphic voxel phantoms (MASH/FASH) used to represent both the patient and the medical professional at positions from 7 cm to 47 cm from the patient. The X-ray tube was represented by a point source positioned in the anterior posterior (AP) and posterior anterior (PA) projections. The CC can be useful to calculate effective doses, which in turn are related to stochastic effects. With the knowledge of the values of CCs and KAP measured in an X-ray equipment, at a similar exposure, medical professionals will be able to know their own effective dose.

  17. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  18. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  19. Spatial language and converseness.

    PubMed

    Burigo, Michele; Coventry, Kenny R; Cangelosi, Angelo; Lynott, Dermot

    2016-12-01

    Typical spatial language sentences consist of describing the location of an object (the located object) in relation to another object (the reference object) as in "The book is above the vase". While it has been suggested that the properties of the located object (the book) are not translated into language because they are irrelevant when exchanging location information, it has been shown that the orientation of the located object affects the production and comprehension of spatial descriptions. In line with the claim that spatial language apprehension involves inferences about relations that hold between objects it has been suggested that during spatial language apprehension people use the orientation of the located object to evaluate whether the logical property of converseness (e.g., if "the book is above the vase" is true, then also "the vase is below the book" must be true) holds across the objects' spatial relation. In three experiments using sentence acceptability rating tasks we tested this hypothesis and demonstrated that when converseness is violated people's acceptability ratings of a scene's description are reduced indicating that people do take into account geometric properties of the located object and use it to infer logical spatial relations.

  20. Efficient activation of transcription in yeast by the BPV1 E2 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Stanway, C A; Sowden, M P; Wilson, L E; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1989-01-01

    The full-length gene product encoded by the E2 open reading frame (ORF) of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) is a transcriptional transactivator. It is believed to mediate its effect on the BPV1 long control region (LCR) by binding to motifs with the consensus sequence ACCN6GGT. The minimal functional cis active site, called the E2 response element (E2RE), in mammalian cells comprises two copies of this motif. Here we have shown that E2 can function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by placing an E2RE upstream of a synthetic yeast assay promoter which consists of a TATA motif and an mRNA initiation site, spaced correctly. This E2RE-minimal promoter is only transcriptionally active in the presence of E2 protein and the resulting mRNA is initiated at the authentic start site. This is the first report of a mammalian viral transactivator functioning in yeast. The level of activation by E2 via the E2RE was the same as observed with the highly efficient authentic PGK promoter where the upstream activation sequence is composed of three distinct elements. Furthermore a single E2 motif which is insufficient in mammalian cells as an activation site was as efficiently utilized in yeast as the E2RE (2 motifs). Previous studies have shown that mammalian cellular activators can function in yeast and our data now extend this to viral-specific activators. Our data indicate however that while the mechanism of transactivation is broadly conserved there may be significant differences at the detailed level. Images PMID:2539584

  1. E2F transcription factors and digestive system malignancies: how much do we know?

    PubMed

    Xanthoulis, Athanasios; Tiniakos, Dina G

    2013-06-07

    E2F family of transcription factors regulates various cellular functions related to cell cycle and apoptosis. Its individual members have traditionally been classified into activators and repressors, based on in vitro studies. However their contribution in human cancer is more complicated and difficult to predict. We review current knowledge on the expression of E2Fs in digestive system malignancies and its clinical implications for patient prognosis and treatment. E2F1, the most extensively studied member and the only one with prognostic value, exhibits a tumor-suppressing activity in esophageal, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma, and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whereas in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma may function as a tumor-promoter. In the latter malignancies, E2F1 immunohistochemical expression has been correlated with higher tumor grade and worse patient survival, whereas in esophageal, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas is a marker of increased patient survival. E2F2 has only been studied in colorectal cancer, where its role is not considered significant. E2F4's role in colorectal, gastric and hepatic carcinogenesis is tumor-promoting. E2F8 is strongly upregulated in human HCC, thus possibly contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Adenoviral transfer of E2F as gene therapy to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells for chemotherapeutic agents has been used in experimental studies. Other therapeutic strategies are yet to be developed, but it appears that targeted approaches using E2F-agonists or antagonists should take into account the tissue-dependent function of each E2F member. Further understanding of E2Fs' contribution in cellular functions in vivo would help clarify their role in carcinogenesis.

  2. Estradiol-17β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the prostaglandin E2 receptor are involved in PGE2 positive feedback loop in the porcine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Waclawik, Agnieszka; Jabbour, Henry N.; Blitek, Agnieszka; Ziecik, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    Before implantation, the porcine endometrium and trophoblast synthesize elevated amounts of luteoprotective prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We hypothesized that embryo signal, estradiol-17β (E2) and PGE2 modulate expression of key enzymes in PG synthesis: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2), PGE synthase (mPGES-1), PGF synthase (PGFS), and prostaglandin 9-ketoreductase (CBR1); as well as PGE2 receptor (PTGER2 and 4) expression and signaling within the endometrium. We determinated the site of action of PGE2 in endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Endometrial tissue explants obtained from gilts (n=6) on days 11-12 of the estrous cycle were treated with vehicle (control), PGE2 (100 nM), E2 (1-100 nM) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (100 nM, positive control). E2 increased PGE2 secretion through elevating expression of mPGES-1 mRNA and PTGS2 and mPGES-1 protein in endometrial explants. By contrast, E2 decreased PGFS and CBR1 protein expression. E2 also stimulated PTGER2 but not PTGER4 protein content. PGE2 enhanced mPGES-1 and PTGER2 mRNA as well as PTGS2, mPGES-1 and PTGER2 protein expression. PGE2 had no effect on PGFS, CBR1 and PTGER4 expression and PGF2α release. Treatment of endometrial tissue with PGE2 increased cAMP production. Co-treatment with PTGER2 antagonist (AH6809) but not PTGER4 antagonist (GW 627368X) inhibited significantly PGE2-mediated cAMP production. PTGER2 protein was localized in luminal and glandular epithelium and blood vessels of endometrium, and was significantly up-regulated on days 11-12 of pregnancy. Our results suggest that E2, prevents luteolysis through enzymatic modification of PG synthesis and that E2, PGE2 and endometrial PTGER2 are involved in PGE2 positive feedback loop in porcine endometrium. PMID:19359378

  3. 17 CFR 270.6e-2 - Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... variable life insurance separate accounts. 270.6e-2 Section 270.6e-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...-2 Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts. (a) A separate account, and the... a life insurance company pursuant to the insurance laws or code of (i) any state or territory of the...

  4. 17 CFR 270.6e-2 - Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... variable life insurance separate accounts. 270.6e-2 Section 270.6e-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...-2 Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts. (a) A separate account, and the... a life insurance company pursuant to the insurance laws or code of (i) any state or territory of the...

  5. 17 CFR 270.6e-2 - Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... variable life insurance separate accounts. 270.6e-2 Section 270.6e-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...-2 Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts. (a) A separate account, and the... a life insurance company pursuant to the insurance laws or code of (i) any state or territory of the...

  6. NRIP enhances HPV gene expression via interaction with either GR or E2

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Szu-Wei; Lu, Pei-Yu; Guo, Jih-Huong

    We previously identified a gene, nuclear receptor-interaction protein (NRIP), which functions as a transcription cofactor in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and human papillomavirus E2 (HPV E2)-driven gene expression. Here, we comprehensively evaluated the role of NRIP in HPV-16 gene expression. NRIP acts as a transcription cofactor to enhance GR-regulated HPV-16 gene expression in the presence of hormone. NRIP also can form complex with E2 that caused NRIP-induced HPV gene expression via E2-binding sites in a hormone-independent manner. Furthermore, NRIP can associate with GR and E2 to form tri-protein complex to activate HPV gene expression via GRE, not the E2-binding site, inmore » a hormone-dependent manner. These results indicate that NRIP and GR are viral E2-binding proteins and that NRIP regulates HPV gene expression via GRE and/or E2 binding site in the HPV promoter in a hormone-dependent or independent manner, respectively.« less

  7. New perspective of Grodzins E × B(E2) ↑ product rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, J. B.; Katoch, Vikas

    In the collective spectra of atomic nuclei, the level energy E(21+) varies with atomic number Z and neutron number N. Also the E2 decay-reduced transition probability B(E2, 01+ → 2 1+) is related to the energy E(21+). The product E(21+) × B(E2) ↑ is constant according to Grodzins product rule, independent of the vibration or rotational status of the nucleus. The product rule is often used for determining B(E2) from the known E(21+). However, the variation of the product with various parameters is also suggested in the literature. Hence, a detailed global study of this rule for (Z = 54‑‑78, 66 < N < 126) region is warranted. We use a novel method of displaying the linear relation of B(E2) ↑ with 1/E(21+) for the isotopes of each element (Xe-Pt), instead of their variation with N,Z or A. Through our work, we firmly establish the global validity of the Grodzins relation of B(E2), being proportional to the moment of inertia, except for the deviation in specific cases. Our B(E2) ↑ versus 1/E plots provide a transparent view of the variation of the low-energy nuclear structure. This gives a new perspective of their nuclear structure. Also the various theoretical interpretations of B(E2)s and the energy E(21+) are reviewed.

  8. Insights into the mechanism of human papillomavirus E2-induced procaspase-8 activation and cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nitu; Senapati, Sanjib; Bose, Kakoli

    2016-02-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) E2 protein, the master regulator of viral life cycle, induces apoptosis of host cell that is independent of its virus-associated regulatory functions. E2 protein of HR-HPV18 has been found to be involved in novel FADD-independent activation of caspase-8, however, the molecular basis of this unique non-death-fold E2-mediated apoptosis is poorly understood. Here, with an interdisciplinary approach that involves in silico, mutational, biochemical and biophysical probes, we dissected and characterized the E2-procasapse-8 binding interface. Our data demonstrate direct non-homotypic interaction of HPV18 E2 transactivation domain (TAD) with α2/α5 helices of procaspase-8 death effector domain-B (DED-B). The observed interaction mimics the homotypic DED-DED complexes, wherein the conserved hydrophobic motif of procaspase-8 DED-B (F122/L123) occupies a groove between α2/α3 helices of E2 TAD. This interaction possibly drives DED oligomerization leading to caspase-8 activation and subsequent cell death. Furthermore, our data establish a model for E2-induced apoptosis in HR-HPV types and provide important clues for designing E2 analogs that might modulate procaspase-8 activation and hence apoptosis.

  9. Characterization of a new chimeric marker vaccine candidate with a mutated antigenic E2-epitope.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Ilona; Depner, Klaus; Utke, Katrin; Leifer, Immanuel; Lange, Elke; Beer, Martin

    2010-04-21

    A new chimeric pestivirus "CP7_E1E2alf_TLA", based on the infectious cDNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain CP7, was constructed. The substitution of BVDV E1 and E2 with the respective proteins of classical swine fever (CSF) strain Alfort 187 allows an optimal heterodimerization of E1 and E2 in the chimeric virus, which is beneficial for efficient and authentic virus assembly and growth. In addition, for implementation of E2-based marker diagnostics, the previously described antigenic CSFV-specific TAVSPTTLR epitope was exchanged with the corresponding E2-epitope of BVDV strain CP7. Recombinant virus CP7_E1E2alf_TLA displayed a growth defect, and was not reacting with monoclonal antibodies used in commercial E2 antibody blocking ELISAs. Therefore, efficacy as well as marker properties of CP7_E1E2alf_TLA were investigated in an animal experiment with both a high dose and a low dose vaccine preparation. All CP7_E1E2alf_TLA-vaccinated animals seroconverted until day 28 post-vaccination with neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, at the day of challenge infection CP7_E1E2alf_TLA-immunized animals showed distinct lower ELISA values in a commercial CSFV E2 antibody test in comparison to the C-strain vaccinated controls. However, E2-ELISA reactivity as well as neutralizing titers were directly connected to the dosage used for vaccination, and only the low dose group had E2-ELISA values below threshold until challenge infection. Following challenge infection with highly virulent CSFV strain Koslov, all vaccinees were protected, however, short-term fever episodes and very limited CSFV genome detection with very low copy numbers could be observed. In conclusion, manipulation of the TAVSPTTLR-epitope within the tested chimeric virus resulted in an slightly reduced efficacy, but the E2 marker properties unexpectedly did not allow a clear differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals in some cases. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Regulation of E2s: A Role for Additional Ubiquitin Binding Sites?

    PubMed

    Middleton, Adam J; Wright, Joshua D; Day, Catherine L

    2017-11-10

    Attachment of ubiquitin to proteins relies on a sophisticated enzyme cascade that is tightly regulated. The machinery of ubiquitylation responds to a range of signals, which remarkably includes ubiquitin itself. Thus, ubiquitin is not only the central player in the ubiquitylation cascade but also a key regulator. The ubiquitin E3 ligases provide specificity to the cascade and often bind the substrate, while the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) have a pivotal role in determining chain linkage and length. Interaction of ubiquitin with the E2 is important for activity, but the weak nature of these contacts has made them hard to identify and study. By reviewing available crystal structures, we identify putative ubiquitin binding sites on E2s, which may enhance E2 processivity and the assembly of chains of a defined linkage. The implications of these new sites are discussed in the context of known E2-ubiquitin interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transformation of arachidonate into 6-oxoprostaglandin F1 alpha, thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 by sheep lung microsomal fraction.

    PubMed Central

    Tai, H H; Yuan, B; Wu, A T

    1978-01-01

    In the presence of haemoglobin and isoproterenol, the microsomal fraction of sheep lung catalysed the conversion of arachidonate predominantly into thromboxane B2 and to a lesser extent into 6-oxoprostaglandin F1alpha. Very little prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2alpha were formed. If reduced glutathione was added in combination with haemoglobin and isoproterenol, the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 was favoured over that of thromboxane B2 and 6-oxoprostaglandin F1alpha. The identities of these products were confirmed by t.l.c. and by combined g.l.c.-mass spectrometry. These results indicate that microsomal fraction of sheep lung possesses active prostaglandin synthase, prostacyclin synthase and thromboxane synthase activities. PMID:637853

  12. Advanced thermionic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Developments towards space and terrestrial applications of thermionic energy conversion are presented. Significant accomplishments for the three month period include: (1) devised a blade-type distributed lead design with many advantages compared to the stud-type distributed lead; (2) completed design of Marchuk tube test apparatus; (3) concluded, based on current understanding, that residual hydrogen should not contribute to a negative space charge barrier at the collector; (4) modified THX design program to include series-coupled designs as well as inductively-coupled designs; (5) initiated work on the heat transfer technology, THX test module, output power transfer system, heat transfer system, and conceptual plant design tasks; and (6) reached 2200 hours of operation in JPL-5 cylindrical converter envelope test.

  13. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, J.L.; LaPointe, M.A.; Ganguly, A.K.

    1999-05-01

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250{endash}350 kV, 20{endash}30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allowsmore » efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  14. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, J. L.; LaPointe, M. A.; Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511

    1999-05-07

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250-350 kV, 20-30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allowsmore » efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself.« less

  15. Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Nimon, Kim F.; Zientek, Linda R.; Thompson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficients. Using data from a Monte Carlo simulation, this study found that squared regression structure coefficients corrected with Pratt's formula produced less biased estimates and might be more accurate and stable estimates of population squared regression structure coefficients than estimates with no such corrections. While our findings are in line with prior literature that identified multicollinearity as a predictor of bias in squared regression structure coefficients but not coefficients of determination, the findings from this study are unique in that the level of predictive power, number of predictors, and sample size were also observed to contribute bias in squared regression structure coefficients. PMID:26217273

  16. Gas-film coefficients for streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for predicting the gas-film coefficient for the volatilization of organic solutes from streams are developed. The film coefficient is a function of windspeed and water temperature. The dependence of the coefficient on windspeed is determined from published information on the evaporation of water from a canal. The dependence of the coefficient on temperature is determined from laboratory studies on the evaporation of water. Procedures for adjusting the coefficients for different organic solutes are based on the molecular diffusion coefficient and the molecular weight. The molecular weight procedure is easiest to use because of the availability of molecular weights. However, the theoretical basis of the procedure is questionable. The diffusion coefficient procedure is supported by considerable data. Questions, however, remain regarding the exact dependence of the film coefficint on the diffusion coefficient. It is suggested that the diffusion coefficient procedure with a 0.68-power dependence be used when precise estimate of the gas-film coefficient are needed and that the molecular weight procedure be used when only approximate estimates are needed.

  17. Competing E2 and SN2 Mechanisms for the F- + CH3CH2I Reaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Jiaxu; Xie, Jing; Ma, Xinyou; Zhang, Linyao; Zhao, Chenyang; Hase, William L

    2017-02-09

    Anti-E2, syn-E2, inv-, and ret-S N 2 reaction channels for the gas-phase reaction of F - + CH 3 CH 2 I were characterized with a variety of electronic structure calculations. Geometrical analysis confirmed synchronous E2-type transition states for the elimination of the current reaction, instead of nonconcerted processes through E1cb-like and E1-like mechanisms. Importantly, the controversy concerning the reactant complex for anti-E2 and inv-S N 2 paths has been clarified in the present work. A positive barrier of +19.2 kcal/mol for ret-S N 2 shows the least feasibility to occur at room temperature. Negative activation energies (-16.9, -16.0, and -4.9 kcal/mol, respectively) for inv-S N 2, anti-E2, and syn-E2 indicate that inv-S N 2 and anti-E2 mechanisms significantly prevail over the eclipsed elimination. Varying the leaving group for a series of reactions F - + CH 3 CH 2 Y (Y = F, Cl, Br, and I) leads to monotonically decreasing barriers, which relates to the gradually looser TS structures following the order F > Cl > Br > I. The reactivity of each channel nearly holds unchanged except for the perturbation between anti-E2 and inv-S N 2. RRKM calculation reveals that the reaction of the fluorine ion with ethyl iodide occurs predominately via anti-E2 elimination, and the inv-S N 2 pathway is suppressed, although it is energetically favored. This phenomenon indicates that, in evaluating the competition between E2 and S N 2 processes, the kinetic or dynamical factors may play a significant role. By comparison with benchmark CCSD(T) energies, MP2, CAM-B3LYP, and M06 methods are recommended to perform dynamics simulations of the title reaction.

  18. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  19. Materials characterization activities for %E2%80%9CTake Our Sons&Daughters to Work Day%E2%80%9D 2013.

    SciTech Connect

    Mowry, Curtis Dale; Pimentel, Adam S.; Sparks, Elizabeth Schares

    We created interactive demonstration activities for Take Our Daughters&Sons to Work Day (TODSTWD) 2013 in order to promote general interest in chemistry and also generate awareness of the type of work our laboratories can perform. %E2%80%9CCurious about Mars Rover Curiosity?%E2%80%9D performed an elemental analysis on rocks brought to our lab using the same technique utilized on the planet Mars by the NASA robotic explorer Curiosity. %E2%80%9CFood is Chemistry?%E2%80%9D utilized a mass spectrometer to measure, in seconds, each participant's breath in order to identify the food item consumed for the activity. A total of over 130 children participated in these activitiesmore » over a 3 hour block, and feedback was positive. This document reports the materials (including handouts), experimental procedures, and lessons learned so that future demonstrations can benefit from the baseline work performed. We also present example results used to prepare the Food activity and example results collected during the Curiosity demo.« less

  20. How alkyl halide structure affects E2 and SN2 reaction barriers: E2 reactions are as sensitive as SN2 reactions.

    PubMed

    Rablen, Paul R; McLarney, Brett D; Karlow, Brandon J; Schneider, Jean E

    2014-02-07

    High-level electronic structure calculations, including a continuum treatment of solvent, are employed to elucidate and quantify the effects of alkyl halide structure on the barriers of SN2 and E2 reactions. In cases where such comparisons are available, the results of these calculations show close agreement with solution experimental data. Structural factors investigated include α- and β-methylation, adjacency to unsaturated functionality (allyl, benzyl, propargyl, α to carbonyl), ring size, and α-halogenation and cyanation. While the influence of these factors on SN2 reactivity is mostly well-known, the present study attempts to provide a broad comparison of both SN2 and E2 reactivity across many cases using a single methodology, so as to quantify relative reactivity trends. Despite the fact that most organic chemistry textbooks say far more about how structure affects SN2 reactions than about how it affects E2 reactions, the latter are just as sensitive to structural variation as are the former. This sensitivity of E2 reactions to structure is often underappreciated.

  1. Effective diffusion coefficient including the Marangoni effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Yoshinaga, Natsuhiko

    2018-04-01

    Surface-active molecules supplied from a particle fixed at the water surface create a spatial gradient of the molecule concentration, resulting in Marangoni convection. Convective flow transports the molecules far from the particle, enhancing diffusion. We analytically derive the effective diffusion coefficient associated with the Marangoni convection rolls. The resulting estimated effective diffusion coefficient is consistent with our numerical results and the apparent diffusion coefficient measured in experiments.

  2. Repression of transcriptional activity of C/EBPalpha by E2F-dimerization partner complexes.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Katrin; Bégay, Valérie; Schuetz, Anja; Heinemann, Udo; Leutz, Achim

    2010-05-01

    The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) coordinates proliferation arrest and the differentiation of myeloid progenitors, adipocytes, hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and cells of the lung and placenta. C/EBPalpha transactivates lineage-specific differentiation genes and inhibits proliferation by repressing E2F-regulated genes. The myeloproliferative C/EBPalpha BRM2 mutant serves as a paradigm for recurrent human C-terminal bZIP C/EBPalpha mutations that are involved in acute myeloid leukemogenesis. BRM2 fails to repress E2F and to induce adipogenesis and granulopoiesis. The data presented here show that, independently of pocket proteins, C/EBPalpha interacts with the dimerization partner (DP) of E2F and that C/EBPalpha-E2F/DP interaction prevents both binding of C/EBPalpha to its cognate sites on DNA and transactivation of C/EBP target genes. The BRM2 mutant, in addition, exhibits enhanced interaction with E2F-DP and reduced affinity toward DNA and yet retains transactivation potential and differentiation competence that becomes exposed when E2F/DP levels are low. Our data suggest a tripartite balance between C/EBPalpha, E2F/DP, and pocket proteins in the control of proliferation, differentiation, and tumorigenesis.

  3. OTUB1 Co-opts Lys48-Linked Ubiquitin Recognition to Suppress E2 Enzyme Function

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, Yu-Chi; Landry, Marie-Claude; Sanches, Mario

    2012-03-26

    Ubiquitylation entails the concerted action of E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. We recently reported that OTUB1, a deubiquitylase, inhibits the DNA damage response independently of its isopeptidase activity. OTUB1 does so by blocking ubiquitin transfer by UBC13, the cognate E2 enzyme for RNF168. OTUB1 also inhibits E2s of the UBE2D and UBE2E families. Here we elucidate the structural mechanism by which OTUB1 binds E2s to inhibit ubiquitin transfer. OTUB1 recognizes ubiquitin-charged E2s through contacts with both donor ubiquitin and the E2 enzyme. Surprisingly, free ubiquitin associates with the canonical distal ubiquitin-binding site on OTUB1 to promote formation of the inhibitedmore » E2 complex. Lys48 of donor ubiquitin lies near the OTUB1 catalytic site and the C terminus of free ubiquitin, a configuration that mimics the products of Lys48-linked ubiquitin chain cleavage. OTUB1 therefore co-opts Lys48-linked ubiquitin chain recognition to suppress ubiquitin conjugation and the DNA damage response.« less

  4. Transfer coefficients in ultracold strongly coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, A. A.; Vorob'ev, V. S.; Zelener, B. V.

    2018-03-01

    We use both analytical and molecular dynamic methods for electron transfer coefficients in an ultracold plasma when its temperature is small and the coupling parameter characterizing the interaction of electrons and ions exceeds unity. For these conditions, we use the approach of nearest neighbor to determine the average electron (ion) diffusion coefficient and to calculate other electron transfer coefficients (viscosity and electrical and thermal conductivities). Molecular dynamics simulations produce electronic and ionic diffusion coefficients, confirming the reliability of these results. The results compare favorably with experimental and numerical data from earlier studies.

  5. Forward genetic screens identify a role for the mitochondrial HER2 in E-2-hexenal responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Scala, Alessandra; Mirabella, Rossana; Goedhart, Joachim; de Vries, Michel; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2017-11-01

    This work adds a new player, HER2, downstream of the perception of E-2-hexenal, a green leaf volatile, and shows that E-2-hexenal specifically changes the redox status of the mitochondria. It is widely accepted that plants produce and respond to green leaf volatiles (GLVs), but the molecular components involved in transducing their perception are largely unknown. The GLV E-2-hexenal inhibits root elongation in seedlings and, using this phenotype, we isolated E-2-hexenal response (her) Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Using map-based cloning we positioned the her2 mutation to the At5g63620 locus, resulting in a phenylalanine instead of serine on position 223. Knockdown and overexpression lines of HER2 confirmed the role of HER2, which encodes an oxidoreductase, in the responsiveness to E-2-hexenal. Since E-2-hexenal is a reactive electrophile species, which are known to influence the redox status of cells, we utilized redox sensitive GFP2 (roGFP2) to determine the redox status of E-2-hexenal-treated root cells. Since the signal peptide of HER2 directed mCherry to the mitochondria, we targeted the expression of roGFP2 to this organelle besides the cytosol. E-2-hexenal specifically induced a change in the redox status in the mitochondria. We did not see a difference in the redox status in her2 compared to wild-type Arabidopsis. Still, the mitochondrial redox status did not change with Z-3-hexenol, another abundant GLV. These results indicate that HER2 is involved in transducing the perception of E-2-hexenal, which changes the redox status of the mitochondria.

  6. E2F transcription factors and digestive system malignancies: how much do we know?

    PubMed

    Evangelou, Konstantinos; Havaki, Sophia; Kotsinas, Athanassios

    2014-08-07

    The E2F proteins comprise a family of 8 members that function as transcription factors. They are key targets of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) and were initially divided into groups of activators and repressors. Accumulating data suggest that there is no specific role for each individual E2F member. Instead, each E2F can exert a variety of cellular effects, some of which represent opposing ones. For instance, specific E2Fs can activate transcription and repression, promote or hamper cell proliferation, augment or inhibit apoptosis, all being dependent on the cellular context. This complexity reflects the importance that these transcription factors have on a cell's fate. Thus, delineating the specific role for each E2F member in specific malignancies, although not easy, is a challenging and continuously pursued task, especially in view of potential E2F targeted therapies. Therefore, several reviews are continuously trying to evaluate available data on E2F status in various malignancies. Such reviews have attempted to reach a consensus, often in the simplistic form of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes for the E2Fs. However they frequently miss spatial and temporal alterations of these factors during tumor development, which should also be considered in conjunction with the status of the regulatory networks that these factors participate in. In the current ''Letter to the Editor'', we comment on the flaws, misinterpretations and omissions in one such review article published recently in the World Journal of Gastroenterology regarding the role of E2Fs in digestive system malignancies.

  7. Rendezvous with Toutatis from the Moon: The Chang'e-2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Tang, X.; Meng, L.

    2014-07-01

    Chang'e-2 probe was the second lunar probe of China, with the main objectives to demonstrate some key features of the new lunar soft landing technology, and its applications to future exploration missions. After completing the planned mission successfully, Chang'e-2 flew away from the Moon and entered into the interplanetary space. Later, at a distance of 7 million km from the Earth, Chang'e-2 encountered asteroid (4179) Toutatis with a very close fly-by distance and obtained colorful images with a 3-m resolution. Given some surplus velocity increment as well as the promotion of autonomous flight ability and improvement of control, propulsion, and thermal systems in the initial design, Chang'e-2 had the capabilities necessary for escaping from the Moon. By taking advantage of the unique features of the Lagrangian point, the first close fly-by of asteroid Toutatis was realized despite the tight constraints of propellant allocation, spacecraft-Earth communication, and coordination of execution sequences. Chang'e-2 realized the Toutatis flyby with a km-level distance at closest approach. In the absence of direct measurement method, based on the principle of relative navigation and through the use of the sequence of target images, we calculated the rendezvous parameters such as relative distance and image resolution. With the help of these parameters, some fine and new scientific discoveries about the asteroid were obtained by techniques of optical measurements and image processing. Starting with an innovative design, followed by high-fidelity testing and demonstration, elaborative implementation, and optimal usage of residual propellant, Chang'e-2 has for the first time successfully explored the Moon, L2 point and an asteroid, while achieving the purpose of 'faster, better, cheaper'. What Chang'e-2 has accomplished was far beyond our expectations. *J. Huang is the chief designer (PI) of Chang'e-2 probe, planned Chang'e-2's multi-objective and multitasking exploration

  8. Copy number variations of E2F1: a new genetic risk factor for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Maria Santa; Di Nisio, Andrea; Marchiori, Arianna; Ghezzi, Marco; Opocher, Giuseppe; Foresta, Carlo; Ferlin, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is one of the most heritable forms of cancer. In last years, many evidence suggested that constitutional genetic factors, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms, can increase its risk. However, the possible contribution of copy number variations (CNVs) in TGCT susceptibility has not been substantially addressed. Indeed, an increasing number of studies have focused on the effect of CNVs on gene expression and on the role of these structural genetic variations as risk factors for different forms of cancer. E2F1 is a transcription factor that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and response to DNA damage. Therefore, deficiency or overexpression of this protein might significantly influence fundamental biological processes involved in cancer development and progression, including TGCT. We analyzed E2F1 CNVs in 261 cases with TGCT and 165 controls. We found no CNVs in controls, but 17/261 (6.5%) cases showed duplications in E2F1 Blot analysis demonstrated higher E2F1 expression in testicular samples of TGCT cases with three copies of the gene. Furthermore, we observed higher phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR in samples with E2F1 duplication. Interestingly, normal, non-tumoral testicular tissue in patient with E2F1 duplication showed lower expression of E2F1 and lower AKT/mTOR phosphorylation with respect to adjacent tumor tissue. Furthermore, increased expression of E2F1 obtained in vitro in NTERA-2 testicular cell line induced increased AKT/mTOR phosphorylation. This study suggests for the first time an involvement of E2F1 CNVs in TGCT susceptibility and supports previous preliminary data on the importance of AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in this cancer. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Microbial conversion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M.

    1989-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to describe in detail the degradation of coals by fungi and microbes, to expand the range of applicability of the process to include new microbes and other coal types, to identify the means by which biosolubilization of coal is accomplished, and to explore means to enhance the rates and extent of coal bioconversion. The project was initiated in a response to the discovery by Dr. Martin Cohen at the University of Hartford, of a fungal strain of Coriolus versicolor that would render a solid coal substance, leonardite, into a liquid product. The project hasmore » identified the principal agent of leonardite solubilization as a powerful metal chelator, most likely a fungal-produced siderophore. Another nonlaccase enzyme has also been identified as a unique biosolubilizing agent produced by C. versicolor. Assays were developed for the quantitative determination of biological coal conversion, and for the determination of potency of biosolubilizing agent. Screening studies uncovered several microbial organisms capable of coal biodegradation, and led to the discovery that prolonged heating in air at the moderate temperature of 150{degree}C allowed the biodegradation of Illinois {number sign}6 coal to material soluble in dilute base. Chemical studies showed that leonardite biosolubilization was accompanied by relatively small change in composition, while solubilization of Illinois {number sign}6 coal involves considerable oxidation of the coal. 24 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.« less

  10. PDB to AMPL Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Anna Johnston, SNL 9215

    2002-09-01

    PDB to AMPL Conversion was written to convert protein data base files to AMPL files. The protein data bases on the internet contain a wealth of information about the structue and makeup of proteins. Each file contains information derived by one or more experiments and contains information on how the experiment waw performed, the amino acid building blocks of each chain, and often the three-dimensional structure of the protein extracted from the experiments. The way a protein folds determines much about its function. Thus, studying the three-dimensional structure of the protein is of great interest. Analysing the contact maps ismore » one way to examine the structure. A contact map is a graph which has a linear back bone of amino acids for nodes (i.e., adjacent amino acids are always connected) and vertices between non-adjacent nodes if they are close enough to be considered in contact. If the graphs are similar then the folds of the protein and their function should also be similar. This software extracts the contact maps from a protein data base file and puts in into AMPL data format. This format is designed for use in AMPL, a programming language for simplifying linear programming formulations.« less

  11. Those conversion blues.

    PubMed

    Forgione, D A

    1999-01-01

    With the ever-increasing market penetration of capitated payment systems throughout health care markets, average payment rates for health services have dropped correspondingly. At the same time, the added competitive pressures from managed care organizations have served to increase the demand for new capital investment in information systems, lower cost facilities, and innovative modes for delivering all types of health care services. As a result, many nonprofit health care organizations have converted, or have attempted to convert, to for-profit status in an effort to gain access to the public equity capital markets. As hospitals, Blue Cross and Blue Shield organizations, and other nonprofit health care organizations across the U.S. seek to convert to for-profit status, they are finding the path is not easy. Access to capital, operating efficiencies, and the need to accelerate movement into new markets are offset by public benefit obligations, potential private inurement, and significant political cost issues. The bottom line is whether the conversion will be structured to both protect the public interest and allow the health care organization the flexibility and access to capital it needs in order to continue as a viable, competitive organization into the next millennium.

  12. GPU color space conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Patrick; Vondran, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Tetrahedral interpolation is commonly used to implement continuous color space conversions from sparse 3D and 4D lookup tables. We investigate the implementation and optimization of tetrahedral interpolation algorithms for GPUs, and compare to the best known CPU implementations as well as to a well known GPU-based trilinear implementation. We show that a 500 NVIDIA GTX-580 GPU is 3x faster than a 1000 Intel Core i7 980X CPU for 3D interpolation, and 9x faster for 4D interpolation. Performance-relevant GPU attributes are explored including thread scheduling, local memory characteristics, global memory hierarchy, and cache behaviors. We consider existing tetrahedral interpolation algorithms and tune based on the structure and branching capabilities of current GPUs. Global memory performance is improved by reordering and expanding the lookup table to ensure optimal access behaviors. Per multiprocessor local memory is exploited to implement optimally coalesced global memory accesses, and local memory addressing is optimized to minimize bank conflicts. We explore the impacts of lookup table density upon computation and memory access costs. Also presented are CPU-based 3D and 4D interpolators, using SSE vector operations that are faster than any previously published solution.

  13. Metallurgical technologies, energy conversion, and magnetohydrodynamic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branover, Herman; Unger, Yeshajahu

    The present volume discusses metallurgical applications of MHD, R&D on MHD devices employing liquid working medium for process applications, electromagnetic (EM) modulation of molten metal flow, EM pump performance of superconducting MHD devices, induction EM alkali-metal pumps, a physical model for EM-driven flow in channel-induction furnaces, grain refinement in Al alloys via EM vibrational method, dendrite growth of solidifying metal in dc magnetic field, MHD for mass and heat transfer in single-crystal melt growth, inverse EM shaping, and liquid-metal MHD development in Israel. Also discussed are the embrittlement of steel by lead, an open cycle MHD disk generator, the acceleration of gas-liquid piston flows for molten-metal MHD generators, MHD flow around a cylinder, new MHD drag coefficients, liquid-metal MHD two-phase flow, and two-phase liquid gas mixers for MHD energy conversion. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  14. Silencing of E2F3 suppresses tumor growth of Her2+ breast cancer cells by restricting mitosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miyoung; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Saavedra, Harold I

    2015-11-10

    The E2F transcriptional activators E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3a regulate many important cellular processes, including DNA replication, apoptosis and centrosome duplication. Previously, we demonstrated that silencing E2F1 or E2F3 suppresses centrosome amplification (CA) and chromosome instability (CIN) in Her2+ breast cancer cells without markedly altering proliferation. However, it is unknown whether and how silencing a single E2F activator, E2F3, affects malignancy of human breast cancer cells. Thus, we injected HCC1954 Her2+ breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3 into mammary fat pads of immunodeficient mice and demonstrated that loss of E2F3 retards tumor growth. Surprisingly, silencing of E2F3 led to significant reductions in mitotic indices relative to vector controls, while the percentage of cells undergoing S phase were not affected. Nek2 is a mitotic kinase commonly upregulated in breast cancers and a critical regulator of Cdk4- or E2F-mediated CA. In this report, we found that Nek2 overexpression rescued back the CA caused by silencing of shE2F3. However, the effects of Nek2 overexpression in affecting tumor growth rates of shE2F3 and shE2F3; GFP cells were inconclusive. Taken together, our results indicate that E2F3 silencing decreases mammary tumor growth by reducing percentage of cells undergoing mitosis.

  15. Enhancement of B(E2) Collectivity in the sdg-Interacting Boson Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, GuiLu; Ji, HuaYing; Zhu, ShengJiang

    1999-12-01

    It is pointed out that the difficulty in boson models in explaining the large B(E2) experimental data is not due to the lack of collectivity in boson model wavefunction. This long standing problem of reduction in collectivity of wavefunction in boson models can be solved by choosing an appropriate E2 transition operator in the SU(3) limit of the sdg-interacting boson model. The ratio B(E2, L + 2 → L) / B(E2, 2 → 0) can be almost any large number. The project supported by The Science Fund of China Nuclear Industry under grant No. J95AY5021, National Natural Science Foundation of China under grant No. 19775026, Excellent Young University Teachers Fund of National Education Committee of China

  16. Novel functions for the transcription factor E2F4 in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Julien

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The E2F family of transcription factors is a key determinant of cell proliferation in response to extra- and intra-cellular signals. Within this family, E2F4 is a transcriptional repressor whose activity is critical to engage and maintain cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 in conjunction with members of the retinoblastoma (RB) family. However, recent observations challenge this paradigm and indicate that E2F4 has a multitude of functions in cells besides this cell cycle regulatory role, including in embryonic and adult stem cells, during regenerative processes, and in cancer. Some of these new functions are independent of the RB family and involve direct activation of target genes. Here we review the canonical functions of E2F4 and discuss recent evidence expanding the role of this transcription factor, with a focus on cell fate decisions in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. PMID:27753528

  17. The mechanism of linkage-specific ubiquitin chain elongation by a single-subunit E2

    PubMed Central

    Wickliffe, Katherine E.; Lorenz, Sonja; Wemmer, David E.; Kuriyan, John; Rape, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin chains of different topologies trigger distinct functional consequences, including protein degradation and reorganization of complexes. The assembly of most ubiquitin chains is promoted by E2s, yet how these enzymes achieve linkage specificity is poorly understood. We have discovered that the K11-specific Ube2S orients the donor ubiquitin through an essential non-covalent interaction that occurs in addition to the thioester bond at the E2 active site. The E2-donor ubiquitin complex transiently recognizes the acceptor ubiquitin, primarily through electrostatic interactions. The recognition of the acceptor ubiquitin surface around Lys11, but not around other lysines, generates a catalytically competent active site, which is composed of residues of both Ube2S and ubiquitin. Our studies suggest that monomeric E2s promote linkage-specific ubiquitin chain formation through substrate-assisted catalysis. PMID:21376237

  18. Effects of Al content and annealing on the phases formation, lattice parameters, and magnetization of A lxF e2B2 (x =1.0 ,1.1 ,1.2 ) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, E. M.; Jensen, B. A.; Barua, R.; Lejeune, B.; Howard, A.; McCallum, R. W.; Kramer, M. J.; Lewis, L. H.

    2018-03-01

    AlF e2B2 is a ferromagnet with the Curie temperature around 300 K and has the potential to be an outstanding rare-earth free candidate for magnetocaloric applications. However, samples prepared from the melt contain additional phases which affect the functional response of the AlF e2B2 phase. We report on the effects of Al content in samples with the initial (nominal) composition of A lxF e2B2 , where x =1.0 , 1.1, and 1.2 prepared by arc-melting followed by suction casting and annealing. The as-cast A lxF e2B2 alloys contain AlF e2B2 as well as additional phases, including the primary solidifying FeB and A l13F e4 compounds, which are ferromagnetic and paramagnetic, respectively, at 300 K. The presence of these phases makes it difficult to extract the intrinsic magnetic properties of AlF e2B2 phase. Annealing of A lxF e2B2 alloys at 1040 °C for 3 days allows for reaction of the FeB with A l13F e4 to form the AlF e2B2 phase, significantly reduces the amount of additional phases, and results in nearly pure AlF e2B2 phase as confirmed with XRD, magnetization, scanning electron microscopy, and electronic transport. The values of the magnetization, effective magnetic moment per Fe atom, specific heat capacity, electrical resistivity, and Seebeck coefficient for the AlF e2B2 compound have been established.

  19. Commentary on Coefficient Alpha: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2009-01-01

    The general use of coefficient alpha to assess reliability should be discouraged on a number of grounds. The assumptions underlying coefficient alpha are unlikely to hold in practice, and violation of these assumptions can result in nontrivial negative or positive bias. Structural equation modeling was discussed as an informative process both to…

  20. Prediction of friction coefficients for gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M. F.

    1969-01-01

    Empirical relations are used for correlating laminar and turbulent friction coefficients for gases, with large variations in the physical properties, flowing through smooth tubes. These relations have been used to correlate friction coefficients for hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and air.

  1. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  2. Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almehrizi, Rashid S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…

  3. Implications of NGA for NEHRP site coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Three proposals are provided to update tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (7-10), by the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) (ASCE/SEI 7-10), with site coefficients implied directly by NGA (Next Generation Attenuation) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Proposals include a recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of ̅vs (average shear velocity). Site coefficients are recommended to ensure consistency with ASCE/SEI 7-10 MCER (Maximum Considered Earthquake) seismic-design maps and simplified site-specific design spectra procedures requiring site classes with associated tabulated site coefficients and a reference site class with unity site coefficients. Recommended site coefficients are confirmed by independent observations of average site amplification coefficients inferred with respect to an average ground condition consistent with that used for the MCER maps. The NGA coefficients recommended for consideration are implied directly by the NGA GMPEs and do not require introduction of additional models.

  4. Weak hamiltonian Wilson Coefficients from Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Mattia

    2018-03-01

    n this work we present a calculation of the Wilson Coefficients C1 and C2 of the Effective Weak Hamiltonian to all-orders in αs, using lattice simulations. Given the current availability of lattice spacings we restrict our calculation to unphysically light W bosons around 2 GeV and we study the systematic uncertainties of the two Wilson Coefficients.

  5. Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…

  6. Faculty Meetings: Hidden Conversational Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    In the everydayness of faculty meetings, collegial conversations mirror distinctive dynamics and practices, which either enhance or undercut organizational effectiveness. A cluster of conversational practices affect how colleagues connect, engage, interact, and influence others during faculty meetings in diverse educational settings. The…

  7. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  8. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Treesearch

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  9. In Conversation with Jim Blair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Jim Blair is the only consultant nurse working with people with learning disabilities in the country. His job helps make people better and saves money. This article shares a conversation with Jim Blair. In the conversation, Blair says he is unhappy Valuing People programme did not do as much as it could have done. Jim is worried all the changes,…

  10. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    PubMed

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  11. Conversion of para and ortho hydrogen in the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, S. T.; Hunten, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed which partially equilibrates the para and ortho rotational levels of molecular hydrogen in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Catalytic reactions between the free-radical surface sites of aerosol particles and hydrogen modecules yield significant equilibration near 1 bar pressure, if the efficiency of conversion per collision is between 10 to the -8th and 10 to the -10th and the effective eddy mixing coefficient is 10,000 sq cm/sec. At lower pressures the ortho-para ratio retains the value at the top of the cloud layer, except for a very small effect from conversion in the thermosphere. The influence of conversion on the specific heat and adiabatic lapse rate is also investigated. The effect is found to be generally small, though is can rise to 10% inside the aerosol layer.

  12. Regression of Human Papillomavirus Intraepithelial Lesions Is Induced by MVA E2 Therapeutic Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    López-Contreras, Mario; Rosales, Carlos; Magallanes-Molina, Jose-Roberto; Gonzalez-Vergara, Roberto; Arroyo-Cazarez, Jose Martin; Ricardez-Arenas, Antonio; del Follo-Valencia, Armando; Padilla-Arriaga, Santiago; Guerrero, Miriam Veronica; Pirez, Miguel Angel; Arellano-Fiore, Claudia; Villarreal, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human papilloma viruses can induce warts, condylomas, and other intraepithelial cervical lesions that can progress to cancer. Cervical cancer is a serious problem in developing countries because early detection is difficult, and thus proper early treatment is many times missing. In this phase III clinical trial, we evaluated the potential use of MVA E2 recombinant vaccinia virus to treat intraepithelial lesions associated with papillomavirus infection. A total of 1176 female and 180 male patients with intraepithelial lesions were studied. They were injected with 107 MVA E2 virus particles directly into their uterus, urethra, vulva, or anus. Patients were monitored by colposcopy and cytology. Immune response was determined by measuring the antibody titer against MVA E2 virus and by analyzing the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells bearing papillomavirus DNA. Papillomavirus was determined by the Hybrid Capture method or by polymerase chain reaction analysis. By histology, 1051 (89.3%) female patients showed complete elimination of lesions after treatment with MVA E2. In 28 (2.4%) female patients, the lesion was reduced to CIN 1. Another 97 (8.3%) female patients presented isolated koilocytes after treatment. In men, all lesions were completely eliminated. All MVA E2–treated patients developed antibodies against the MVA E2 vaccine and generated a specific cytotoxic response against papilloma-transformed cells. Papillomavirus DNA was not detected after treatment in 83% of total patients treated. MVA E2 did not generate any apparent side effects. These data suggest that therapeutic vaccination with MVA E2 vaccine is an excellent candidate to stimulate the immune system and generate regression in intraepithelial lesions when applied locally. PMID:25275724

  13. Estimation of the simple correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates some unfamiliar properties of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for the estimation of simple correlation coefficient. Although Pearson's r is biased, except for limited situations, and the minimum variance unbiased estimator has been proposed in the literature, researchers routinely employ the sample correlation coefficient in their practical applications, because of its simplicity and popularity. In order to support such practice, this study examines the mean squared errors of r and several prominent formulas. The results reveal specific situations in which the sample correlation coefficient performs better than the unbiased and nearly unbiased estimators, facilitating recommendation of r as an effect size index for the strength of linear association between two variables. In addition, related issues of estimating the squared simple correlation coefficient are also considered.

  14. An agreement coefficient for image comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, Lei; Gallo, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Combination of datasets acquired from different sensor systems is necessary to construct a long time-series dataset for remotely sensed land-surface variables. Assessment of the agreement of the data derived from various sources is an important issue in understanding the data continuity through the time-series. Some traditional measures, including correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, and root mean square error, are not always optimal for evaluating the data agreement. For this reason, we developed a new agreement coefficient for comparing two different images. The agreement coefficient has the following properties: non-dimensional, bounded, symmetric, and distinguishable between systematic and unsystematic differences. The paper provides examples of agreement analyses for hypothetical data and actual remotely sensed data. The results demonstrate that the agreement coefficient does include the above properties, and therefore is a useful tool for image comparison.

  15. E2F1-mediated human POMC expression in ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araki, Takako; Liu, Ning-Ai; Tone, Yukiko; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Heltsley, Roy; Tone, Masahide; Melmed, Shlomo

    2016-11-01

    Cushing's syndrome is caused by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion derived from pituitary corticotroph tumors (Cushing disease) or from non-pituitary tumors (ectopic Cushing's syndrome). Hypercortisolemic features of ectopic Cushing's syndrome are severe, and no definitive treatment for paraneoplastic ACTH excess is available. We aimed to identify subcellular therapeutic targets by elucidating transcriptional regulation of the human ACTH precursor POMC (proopiomelanocortin) and ACTH production in non-pituitary tumor cells and in cell lines derived from patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome. We show that ectopic hPOMC transcription proceeds independently of pituitary-specific Tpit/Pitx1 and demonstrate a novel E2F1-mediated transcriptional mechanism regulating hPOMC We identify an E2F1 cluster binding to the proximal hPOMC promoter region (-42 to +68), with DNA-binding activity determined by the phosphorylation at Ser-337. hPOMC mRNA expression in cancer cells was upregulated (up to 40-fold) by the co-expression of E2F1 and its heterodimer partner DP1. Direct and indirect inhibitors of E2F1 activity suppressed hPOMC gene expression and ACTH by modifying E2F1 DNA-binding activity in ectopic Cushing's cell lines and primary tumor cells, and also suppressed paraneoplastic ACTH and cortisol levels in xenografted mice. E2F1-mediated hPOMC transcription is a potential target for suppressing ACTH production in ectopic Cushing's syndrome. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Transcriptional control of stem cell fate by E2Fs and pocket proteins

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Lisa M.; Blais, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    E2F transcription factors and their regulatory partners, the pocket proteins (PPs), have emerged as essential regulators of stem cell fate control in a number of lineages. In mammals, this role extends from both pluripotent stem cells to those encompassing all embryonic germ layers, as well as extra-embryonic lineages. E2F/PP-mediated regulation of stem cell decisions is highly evolutionarily conserved, and is likely a pivotal biological mechanism underlying stem cell homeostasis. This has immense implications for organismal development, tissue maintenance, and regeneration. In this article, we discuss the roles of E2F factors and PPs in stem cell populations, focusing on mammalian systems. We discuss emerging findings that position the E2F and PP families as widespread and dynamic epigenetic regulators of cell fate decisions. Additionally, we focus on the ever expanding landscape of E2F/PP target genes, and explore the possibility that E2Fs are not simply regulators of general ‘multi-purpose’ cell fate genes but can execute tissue- and cell type-specific gene regulatory programs. PMID:25972892

  17. Geraniol suppresses prostate cancer growth through down-regulation of E2F8.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghoon; Park, Yu Rang; Kim, Su-Hwa; Park, Eun-Jung; Kang, Min Ji; So, Insuk; Chun, Jung Nyeo; Jeon, Ju-Hong

    2016-10-01

    Geraniol, an acyclic dietary monoterpene, has been found to suppress cancer survival and growth. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the antitumor action of geraniol has not been investigated at the genome-wide level. In this study, we analyzed the microarray data obtained from geraniol-treated prostate cancer cells. Geraniol potently altered a gene expression profile and primarily down-regulated cell cycle-related gene signatures, compared to linalool, another structurally similar monoterpene that induces no apparent phenotypic changes. Master regulator analysis using the prostate cancer-specific regulatory interactome identified that the transcription factor E2F8 as a specific target molecule regulates geraniol-specific cell cycle signatures. Subsequent experiments confirmed that geraniol down-regulated E2F8 expression and the knockdown of E2F8 was sufficient to suppress cell growth by inducing G 2 /M arrest. Epidemiological analysis showed that E2F8 is up-regulated in metastatic prostate cancer and associated with poor prognosis. These results indicate that E2F8 is a crucial transcription regulator controlling cell cycle and survival in prostate cancer cells. Therefore, our study provides insight into the role of E2F8 in prostate cancer biology and therapeutics. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Positive and negative regulation of V(D)J recombination by the E2A proteins.

    PubMed

    Bain, G; Romanow, W J; Albers, K; Havran, W L; Murre, C

    1999-01-18

    A key feature of B and T lymphocyte development is the generation of antigen receptors through the rearrangement and assembly of the germline variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments. However, the mechanisms responsible for regulating developmentally ordered gene rearrangements are largely unknown. Here we show that the E2A gene products are essential for the proper coordinated temporal regulation of V(D)J rearrangements within the T cell receptor (TCR) gamma and delta loci. Specifically, we show that E2A is required during adult thymocyte development to inhibit rearrangements to the gamma and delta V regions that normally recombine almost exclusively during fetal thymocyte development. The continued rearrangement of the fetal Vgamma3 gene segment in E2A-deficient adult thymocytes correlates with increased levels of Vgamma3 germline transcripts and increased levels of double-stranded DNA breaks at the recombination signal sequence bordering Vgamma3. Additionally, rearrangements to a number of Vgamma and Vdelta gene segments used predominantly during adult development are significantly reduced in E2A-deficient thymocytes. Interestingly, at distinct stages of T lineage development, both the increased and decreased rearrangement of particular Vdelta gene segments is highly sensitive to the dosage of the E2A gene products, suggesting that the concentration of the E2A proteins is rate limiting for the recombination reaction involving these Vdelta regions.

  19. Cell cycle regulator E2F4 is essential for the development of the ventral telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Ruzhynsky, Vladimir A; McClellan, Kelly A; Vanderluit, Jacqueline L; Jeong, Yongsu; Furimsky, Marosh; Park, David S; Epstein, Douglas J; Wallace, Valerie A; Slack, Ruth S

    2007-05-30

    Early forebrain development is characterized by extensive proliferation of neural precursors coupled with complex structural transformations; however, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which these processes are integrated. Here, we show that deficiency of the cell cycle regulatory protein, E2F4, results in the loss of ventral telencephalic structures and impaired self-renewal of neural precursor cells. The mechanism underlying aberrant ventral patterning lies in a dramatic loss of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression specifically in this region. The E2F4-deficient phenotype can be recapitulated by interbreeding mice heterozygous for E2F4 with those lacking one allele of Shh, suggesting a genetic interaction between these pathways. Treatment of E2F4-deficient cells with a Hh agonist rescues stem cell self-renewal and cells expressing the homeodomain proteins that specify the ventral telencephalic structures. Finally, we show that E2F4 deficiency results in impaired activity of Shh forebrain-specific enhancers. In conclusion, these studies establish a novel requirement for the cell cycle regulatory protein, E2F4, in the development of the ventral telencephalon.

  20. Dose conversion factors for radon: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Marsh, James W; Harrison, John D; Laurier, Dominique; Blanchardon, Eric; Paquet, François; Tirmarche, Margot

    2010-10-01

    Epidemiological studies of the occupational exposure of miners and domestic exposures of the public have provided strong and complementary evidence of the risks of lung cancer following inhalation of radon progeny. Recent miner epidemiological studies, which include low levels of exposure, long duration of follow-up, and good quality of individual exposure data, suggest higher risks of lung cancer per unit exposure than assumed previously by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Although risks can be managed by controlling exposures, dose estimates are required for the control of occupational exposures and are also useful for comparing sources of public exposure. Currently, ICRP calculates doses from radon and its progeny using dose conversion factors from exposure (WLM) to dose (mSv) based on miner epidemiological studies, referred to as the epidemiological approach. Revision of these dose conversion factors using risk estimates based on the most recent epidemiological data gives values that are in good agreement with the results of calculations using ICRP biokinetic and dosimetric models, the dosimetric approach. ICRP now proposes to treat radon progeny in the same way as other radionuclides and to publish dose coefficients calculated using models, for use within the ICRP system of protection.

  1. Antibodies to P450IID6, SLA, PDH-E2 and BCKD-E2 in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, M; Morshed, S A; Parveen, S; Kono, K; Matsuoka, H; Manns, M P

    1997-12-01

    Auto-antibodies specific to various antigens in chronic hepatitis (CH) have been detected but their specificities and implications were uncertain. The aims of the present study were to investigate the frequency and the significance of seropositivity of antibodies to P450IID6 or liver/kidney microsome 1 (LKM1), soluble liver antigen (SLA), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) in 188 Japanese patients with different forms of CH by western blot or enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Anti-LKM1 was also measured by indirect immunofluorescent test. Anti-P450IID6 was found in 6/188 (3.2%) CH patients including 5/104 (4.8%) with hepatitis C virus (C) infection and 1/12 (8.3%) CH-C patients with antibodies to nuclear and smooth muscle antigens and hypergammaglobulinaemia (> 2.5 g/dL). This patient was the only one diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). All CH patients with hepatitis B (B), hepatitis non-B non-C (NBNC) and AIH were seronegative for anti-LKM1. Antibodies to soluble liver antigen were found in two of 188 (1%) patients, one with AIH and one with CH-B. Anti-BCKD-E2 but not anti-PDH-E2 was found in four patients (2.5%), one with AIH, two with CH-C, and one with NBNC. There was no obvious difference in age, sex ratio and laboratory findings in patients with or without anti-SLA and anti-BCKD-E2. Antibodies to P450IID6, SLA, PDH-E2 and BCKD-E2 are uncommon in adult CH-C, CH-B, CH-NBNC and AIH patients in Japan. Some of these patients positive for auto-antibodies appear to have autoimmune features and might require a careful follow up. The heterogeneity of these antibodies in CH preclude further justification for subtyping of AIH by the presence of the distinct auto-antibodies.

  2. Reflection and transmission coefficients for guided waves reflected by defects in viscoelastic material plates.

    PubMed

    Hosten, Bernard; Moreau, Ludovic; Castaings, Michel

    2007-06-01

    The paper presents a Fourier transform-based signal processing procedure for quantifying the reflection and transmission coefficients and mode conversion of guided waves diffracted by defects in plates made of viscoelastic materials. The case of the S(0) Lamb wave mode incident on a notch in a Perspex plate is considered. The procedure is applied to numerical data produced by a finite element code that simulates the propagation of attenuated guided modes and their diffraction by the notch, including mode conversion. Its validity and precision are checked by the way of the energy balance computation and by comparison with results obtained using an orthogonality relation-based processing method.

  3. Dissecting the Role of E2 Protein Domains in Alphavirus Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Weger-Lucarelli, James; Aliota, Matthew T; Wlodarchak, Nathan; Kamlangdee, Attapon; Swanson, Ryan; Osorio, Jorge E

    2015-12-16

    Alphaviruses represent a diverse set of arboviruses, many of which are important pathogens. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritis-inducing alphavirus, is the cause of a massive ongoing outbreak in the Caribbean and South America. In contrast to CHIKV, other related alphaviruses, such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and Semliki Forest virus (SFV), can cause encephalitic disease. E2, the receptor binding protein, has been implicated as a determinant in cell tropism, host range, pathogenicity, and immunogenicity. Previous reports also have demonstrated that E2 contains residues important for host range expansions and monoclonal antibody binding; however, little is known about what role each protein domain (e.g., A, B, and C) of E2 plays on these factors. Therefore, we constructed chimeric cDNA clones between CHIKV and VEEV or SFV to probe the effect of each domain on pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. CHIKV chimeras containing each of the domains of the E2 (ΔDomA, ΔDomB, and ΔDomC) from SFV, but not VEEV, were successfully rescued. Interestingly, while all chimeric viruses were attenuated compared to CHIKV in mice, ΔDomB virus showed similar rates of infection and dissemination in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, suggesting differing roles for the E2 protein in different hosts. In contrast to CHIKV; ΔDomB, and to a lesser extent ΔDomA, caused neuron degeneration and demyelination in mice infected intracranially, suggesting a shift toward a phenotype similar to SFV. Thus, chimeric CHIKV/SFV provide insights on the role the alphavirus E2 protein plays on pathogenesis. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused large outbreaks of acute and chronic arthritis throughout Africa and Southeast Asia and has now become a massive public health threat in the Americas, causing an estimated 1.2 million human cases in just over a year. No approved vaccines or antivirals exist for human use against CHIKV or any other alphavirus. Despite the threat, little is known about

  4. E2F3a gene expression has prognostic significance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Ling; Mei, Yan-Yan; Cui, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Xi; Li, Wei-Jing; Gao, Chao; Liu, Shu-Guang; Jiao, Ying; Liu, Fei-Fei; Wu, Min-Yuan; Ding, Wei; Li, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    To study E2F3a expression and its clinical significance in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We quantified E2F3a expression at diagnosis in 148 children with ALL by real-time PCR. In the test cohort (n = 48), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to find the best cut-off point to divide the patients into E2F3a low- and high-expression groups. The prognostic significance of E2F3a expression was investigated in the test cohort and confirmed in the validation cohort (n = 100). The correlations of E2F3a expression with the clinical features and treatment outcome of these patients were analyzed. ROC curve analysis indicated that the best cut-off point of E2F3a expression was 0.3780. In the test cohort, leukemia-free survival (LFS) and event-free survival (EFS) of the low-expression group were lower than those of the high-expression group (log rank: P = 0.026 for both). This finding was verified in the validation cohort. LFS, EFS, and overall survival were also lower in the low-expression group than in the high-expression group (log rank, P = 0.015, 0.008, and 0.002 respectively). E2F3a low expression was correlated with the existence of BCR-ABL fusion. An algorithm composed of E2F3a expression and minimal residual disease (MRD) could predict relapse or induction failure more precisely than current risk stratification. These results were still significant in the ALL patients without BCR-ABL fusion. Low expression of E2F3a was associated with inferior prognosis in childhood ALL. An algorithm composed of E2F3a expression and MRD could predict relapse or induction failure more precisely than that of the current risk stratification. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of Dimensionality in the Assessment of Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha and Omega Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2015-01-01

    In the lead article, Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love demonstrate the relationship among homogeneity, internal consistency, and coefficient alpha, and also distinguish among them. These distinctions are important because too often coefficient alpha--a reliability coefficient--is interpreted as an index of homogeneity or internal consistency.…

  6. Inhibition of E2F1 activity and cell cycle progression by arsenic via retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Lynn A

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of cell cycle progression by steroid hormones and growth factors is important for maintaining normal cellular processes including development and cell proliferation. Deregulated progression through the G1/S and G2/M cell cycle transitions can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation and cancer. The transcription factor E2F1, a key cell cycle regulator, targets genes encoding proteins that regulate cell cycle progression through the G1/S transition as well as proteins important in DNA repair and apoptosis. E2F1 expression and activity is inhibited by inorganic arsenic (iAs) that has a dual role as a cancer therapeutic and as a toxin that leads to diseases including cancer. An understanding of what underlies this dichotomy will contribute to understanding how to use iAs as a more effective therapeutic and also how to treat cancers that iAs promotes. Here, we show that quiescent breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells treated with 17-β estradiol (E2) progress through the cell cycle, but few cells treated with E2 + iAs progress from G1 into S-phase due to a block in cell cycle progression. Our data support a model in which iAs inhibits the dissociation of E2F1 from the tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein (pRB) due to changes in pRB phosphorylation which leads to decreased E2F1 transcriptional activity. These findings present an explanation for how iAs can disrupt cell cycle progression through E2F1-pRB and has implications for how iAs acts as a cancer therapeutic as well as how it may promote tumorigenesis through decreased DNA repair.

  7. The effects of periodontal therapy on intracrevicular prostaglandin E2 concentrations and clinical parameters in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Funda; Basegmez, Cansu; Isik, Gulden; Berber, Lacin; Eskinazi, Esti; Soydinc, Mahtaban; Issever, Halim; Onan, Utku

    2002-02-01

    The increase in circulating levels of progesterone during pregnancy stimulates production of prostaglandins, especially prostaglandin E2, possibly resulting in pregnancy gingivitis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of prostaglandin E2 concentrations on gingival tissues in pregnancy and to assess its relationship to clinical parameters. This study evaluates the effects of periodontal treatment on clinical indices including plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 levels of 22 pregnant women in their first, second, and third trimesters. Initial periodontal therapy consisting of scaling, root planing, and oral hygiene instruction was performed at the beginning of the first trimester and repeated each trimester. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid were determined using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit. The statistical tests used were paired sample test and correlation analysis. The results of the study show that periodontal therapy has resulted in an improvement in clinical parameters (P<0.05). There is also a statistically significant decrease in levels of prostaglandin E2 at the second and third trimesters following periodontal therapy (P <0.001). The correlation between prostaglandin E2 concentrations and clinical parameters is found to be non-significant (P >0.05). Our data indicate that levels of prostaglandin E2 in gingival crevicular fluid may be used as a marker of gingival inflammation in order to determine the effects of periodontal therapy in pregnancy. Periodontal therapy that is performed throughout the entire pregnancy period may help prevent the threat of pregnancy gingivitis.

  8. Virial Coefficients for the Liquid Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, Micheal; Kim, Saesun

    2014-03-01

    We begin with a geometric model of hard colliding spheres and calculate probability densities in an iterative sequence of calculations that lead to the pair correlation function. The model is based on a kinetic theory approach developed by Shinomoto, to which we added an interatomic potential for argon based on the model from Aziz. From values of the pair correlation function at various values of density, we were able to find viral coefficients of liquid argon. The low order coefficients are in good agreement with theoretical hard sphere coefficients, but appropriate data for argon to which these results might be compared is difficult to find.

  9. On the emission coefficient of uranium plasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range from 1200 to 6000 A. The results were compared to theoretical calculations and other measurements. Reasonable agreement between theoretical predictions and our measurements was found in the region from 1200 to 2000 A. Although it was difficult to make absolute comparisons among the different reported measurements, considerable disagreement was found for the higher wavelength region. A short discussion regarding the overall comparisons is given, and final suggestions are made as to the most appropriate emission coefficient values to be used in future design calculations. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also reported.

  10. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  11. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; ...

    2016-06-24

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in themore » optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. As a result, it is our

  12. Differentiation-associated microRNAs antagonize the Rb–E2F pathway to restrict proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Matteo J.; Puggioni, Eleonora M. R.; Dall'Olio, Valentina; Bucci, Gabriele; Bernard, Loris; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Crescenzi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The cancer-associated loss of microRNA (miRNA) expression leads to a proliferative advantage and aggressive behavior through largely unknown mechanisms. Here, we exploit a model system that recapitulates physiological terminal differentiation and its reversal upon oncogene expression to analyze coordinated mRNA/miRNA responses. The cell cycle reentry of myotubes, forced by the E1A oncogene, was associated with a pattern of mRNA/miRNA modulation that was largely reciprocal to that induced during the differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. The E1A-induced mRNA response was preponderantly Retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-dependent. Conversely, the miRNA response was mostly Rb-independent and exerted through tissue-specific factors and Myc. A subset of these miRNAs (miR-1, miR-34, miR-22, miR-365, miR-29, miR-145, and Let-7) was shown to coordinately target Rb-dependent cell cycle and DNA replication mRNAs. Thus, a dual level of regulation—transcriptional regulation via Rb–E2F and posttranscriptional regulation via miRNAs—confers robustness to cell cycle control and provides a molecular basis to understand the role of miRNA subversion in cancer. PMID:23027903

  13. Metric Conversion: Remedy or Rip-Off?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck, John P.

    1975-01-01

    Opinions on metric conversion from seven large industrial organizations reflect inadequate evidence predicating conversion, no compelling need for conversion, opposition to hard conversion, lack of information about the financial and social costs of conversion, and feelings that metrics as the sole language of measurement will be regressive.…

  14. Detergent-resistant membrane association of NS2 and E2 during hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Saravanabalaji; Saravanabalaji, Dhanaranjani; Yi, MinKyung

    2015-04-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the efficiency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2-p7 processing regulates p7-dependent NS2 localization to putative virus assembly sites near lipid droplets (LD). In this study, we have employed subcellular fractionations and membrane flotation assays to demonstrate that NS2 associates with detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) in a p7-dependent manner. However, p7 likely plays an indirect role in this process, since only the background level of p7 was detectable in the DRM fractions. Our data also suggest that the p7-NS2 precursor is not involved in NS2 recruitment to the DRM, despite its apparent targeting to this location. Deletion of NS2 specifically inhibited E2 localization to the DRM, indicating that NS2 regulates this process. Treatment of cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) significantly reduced the DRM association of Core, NS2, and E2 and reduced infectious HCV production. Since disruption of the DRM localization of NS2 and E2, either due to p7 and NS2 defects, respectively, or by MβCD treatment, inhibited infectious HCV production, these proteins' associations with the DRM likely play an important role during HCV assembly. Interestingly, we detected the HCV replication-dependent accumulation of ApoE in the DRM fractions. Taking into consideration the facts that ApoE was shown to be a major determinant for infectious HCV particle production at the postenvelopment step and that the HCV Core protein strongly associates with the DRM, recruitment of E2 and ApoE to the DRM may allow the efficient coordination of Core particle envelopment and postenvelopment events at the DRM to generate infectious HCV production. The biochemical nature of HCV assembly sites is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the correlation between NS2 and E2 localization to the detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) and HCV particle assembly. We determined that although NS2's DRM localization is dependent on p7, p7 was not targeted to these

  15. Stochastic E2F activation and reconciliation of phenomenological cell-cycle models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae J; Yao, Guang; Bennett, Dorothy C; Nevins, Joseph R; You, Lingchong

    2010-09-21

    The transition of the mammalian cell from quiescence to proliferation is a highly variable process. Over the last four decades, two lines of apparently contradictory, phenomenological models have been proposed to account for such temporal variability. These include various forms of the transition probability (TP) model and the growth control (GC) model, which lack mechanistic details. The GC model was further proposed as an alternative explanation for the concept of the restriction point, which we recently demonstrated as being controlled by a bistable Rb-E2F switch. Here, through a combination of modeling and experiments, we show that these different lines of models in essence reflect different aspects of stochastic dynamics in cell cycle entry. In particular, we show that the variable activation of E2F can be described by stochastic activation of the bistable Rb-E2F switch, which in turn may account for the temporal variability in cell cycle entry. Moreover, we show that temporal dynamics of E2F activation can be recast into the frameworks of both the TP model and the GC model via parameter mapping. This mapping suggests that the two lines of phenomenological models can be reconciled through the stochastic dynamics of the Rb-E2F switch. It also suggests a potential utility of the TP or GC models in defining concise, quantitative phenotypes of cell physiology. This may have implications in classifying cell types or states.

  16. Aberrant Retinoblastoma (RB)-E2F Transcriptional Regulation Defines Molecular Phenotypes of Osteosarcoma*

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Milcah C.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Tomiyasu, Hirotaka; Cornax, Ingrid; Van Etten, Jamie; Varshney, Jyotika; O'Sullivan, M. Gerard; Subramanian, Subbaya; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified two distinct molecular subtypes of osteosarcoma through gene expression profiling. These subtypes are associated with distinct tumor behavior and clinical outcomes. Here, we describe mechanisms that give rise to these molecular subtypes. Using bioinformatic analyses, we identified a significant association between deregulation of the retinoblastoma (RB)-E2F pathway and the molecular subtype with worse clinical outcomes. Xenotransplantation models recapitulated the corresponding behavior for each osteosarcoma subtype; thus, we used cell lines to validate the role of the RB-E2F pathway in regulating the prognostic gene signature. Ectopic RB resets the patterns of E2F regulated gene expression in cells derived from tumors with worse clinical outcomes (molecular phenotype 2) to those comparable with those observed in cells derived from tumors with less aggressive outcomes (molecular phenotype 1), providing a functional association between RB-E2F dysfunction and altered gene expression in osteosarcoma. DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors similarly reset the transcriptional state of the molecular phenotype 2 cells from a state associated with RB deficiency to one seen with RB sufficiency. Our data indicate that deregulation of RB-E2F pathway alters the epigenetic landscape and biological behavior of osteosarcoma. PMID:26378234

  17. Cytoplasmic E2f4 forms organizing centres for initiation of centriole amplification during multiciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Munemasa; Hazan, Renin; Danielian, Paul S.; Mahoney, John E.; Li, Huijun; Lu, Jining; Miller, Emily S.; Zhu, Xueliang; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Cardoso, Wellington V.

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal development of multiciliated cells is a hallmark of a variety of human conditions associated with chronic airway diseases, hydrocephalus and infertility. Multiciliogenesis requires both activation of a specialized transcriptional program and assembly of cytoplasmic structures for large-scale centriole amplification that generates basal bodies. It remains unclear, however, what mechanism initiates formation of these multiprotein complexes in epithelial progenitors. Here we show that this is triggered by nucleocytoplasmic translocation of the transcription factor E2f4. After inducing a transcriptional program of centriole biogenesis, E2f4 forms apical cytoplasmic organizing centres for assembly and nucleation of deuterosomes. Using genetically altered mice and E2F4 mutant proteins we demonstrate that centriole amplification is crucially dependent on these organizing centres and that, without cytoplasmic E2f4, deuterosomes are not assembled, halting multiciliogenesis. Thus, E2f4 integrates nuclear and previously unsuspected cytoplasmic events of centriole amplification, providing new perspectives for the understanding of normal ciliogenesis, ciliopathies and cancer. PMID:28675157

  18. The E2F3—Oncomir 1 axis is activated in Wilms Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kort, Eric J.; Farber, Leslie; Tretiakova, Maria; Petillo, David; Furge, Kyle A.; Yang, Ximing J.; Cornelius, Albert; Teh, Bin T.

    2008-01-01

    Oncomir-1 is an oncogenic cluster of microRNAs located on chromosome 13. Previous in vitro studies demonstrated that it is transcriptionally regulated by the transcription factor E2F3. In this report we combine expression profiling of both messenger RNA (mRNA) and micro RNAs (miRNA) in Wilms tumor (WT) samples to provide the first evidence that the E2F3—Oncomir 1 axis, previously identified in cell culture, is deregulated in primary human tumors. Analysis of RNA expression signatures demonstrated that an E2F3 gene signature was activated in all Wilms tumor samples analyzed, in contrast to other kidney tumors. This finding was validated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on the protein level. Expression of E2F3 was lowest in early stage tumors, and highest in metastatic tissue. Expression profiling of miRNAs in WT showed that expression of each measured member of the Oncomir-1 family was highest in WT relative to other kidney tumor subtypes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that these microRNAs were overexpressed in Wilms tumor relative to normal kidney tissue. These results suggest that the E2F3—Oncomir-1 axis is activated in Wilms tumor. Our study also demonstrates the utility of integrated genomics combining gene signature analysis with miRNA expression profiling to identify protein-miRNA interactions that are perturbed in disease states. PMID:18519660

  19. The E2 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus is a virulence determinant in swine.

    PubMed

    Risatti, G R; Borca, M V; Kutish, G F; Lu, Z; Holinka, L G; French, R A; Tulman, E R; Rock, D L

    2005-03-01

    To identify genetic determinants of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) virulence and host range, chimeras of the highly pathogenic Brescia strain and the attenuated vaccine strain CS were constructed and evaluated for viral virulence in swine. Upon initial screening, only chimeras 138.8v and 337.14v, the only chimeras containing the E2 glycoprotein of CS, were attenuated in swine despite exhibiting unaltered growth characteristics in primary porcine macrophage cell cultures. Additional viral chimeras were constructed to confirm the role of E2 in virulence. Chimeric virus 319.1v, which contained only the CS E2 glycoprotein in the Brescia background, was markedly attenuated in pigs, exhibiting significantly decreased virus replication in tonsils, a transient viremia, limited generalization of infection, and decreased virus shedding. Chimeras encoding all Brescia structural proteins in a CS genetic background remained attenuated, indicating that additional mutations outside the structural region are important for CS vaccine virus attenuation. These results demonstrate that CS E2 alone is sufficient for attenuating Brescia, indicating a significant role for the CSFV E2 glycoprotein in swine virulence.

  20. Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 contributes to TAp73 transcriptional activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kasim, Vivi, E-mail: vivikasim78@gmail.com; Huang, Can; Zhang, Jing

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • MDM2 is a novel positive regulator of TAp73 transcriptional activity. • MDM2 colocalizes together and physically interacts with E2F1. • Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 is crucial for TAp73 transcription. • MDM2 regulates TAp73 transcriptional activity in a p53-independent manner. - Abstract: TAp73, a structural homologue of p53, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. E2F1 had been reported as a transcriptional regulator of TAp73, however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we reported that MDM2-silencing reduced the activities of the TAp73 promoters and the endogenous TAp73 expression level significantly; while MDM2 overexpression upregulated them. Wemore » further revealed that the regulation of TAp73 transcriptional activity occurs as a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1, most probably through their physical interaction in the nuclei. Furthermore, we also suggested that MDM2 might be involved in DNA damage-induced TAp73 transcriptional activity. Finally, we elucidated that MDM2-silencing reduced the proliferation rate of colon carcinoma cells regardless of the p53 status. Our data show a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1 on TAp73 transcriptional activity, suggesting a novel regulation pathway of TAp73.« less

  1. Active sites prediction and binding analysis E1-E2 protein human papillomavirus with biphenylsulfonacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iryani, I.; Amelia, F.; Iswendi, I.

    2018-04-01

    Cervix cancer triggered by Human papillomavirus infection is the second cause to woman death in worldwide. The binding site of E1-E2 protein of HPV 16 is not known from a 3-D structure yet, so in this study we address this issue to study the structure of E1-E2 protein from Human papillomavirus type 16 and to find its potential binding sites using biphenylsulfonacetic acid as inhibitor. Swiss model was used for 3D structure prediction and PDB: 2V9P (E1 protein) and 2NNU (E2 protein) having 52.32% and 100% identity respectively was selected as a template. The 3D model structure developed of E1 and E2 in the core and allowed regions were 99.2% and 99.5%. The ligand binding sites were predicted using online server meta pocket 2.0 and MOE 2009.10 was used for docking. E1-and E2 protein of HPV-16 has three potential binding site that can interact with the inhibitors. The Docking biphenylsulfonacetic acid using these binding sites shows that ligand interact with the protein through hydrogen bonds on Lys 403, Arg 410, His 551 in the first pocket, on Tyr 32, Leu 99 in the second pocket, and Lys 558m Lys 517 in the third pocket.

  2. E2~Ub conjugates regulate the kinase activity of Shigella effector OspG during pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Smith, F. Donelson; Daurie, Angela

    Pathogenic bacteria introduce effector proteins directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells to promote invasion and colonization. OspG, a Shigella spp. effector kinase, plays a role in this process by helping to suppress the host inflammatory response. OspG has been reported to bind host E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes activated with ubiquitin (E2~Ub), a key enzyme complex in ubiquitin transfer pathways. A cocrystal structure of the OspG/UbcH5c~Ub complex reveals that complex formation has important ramifications for the activity of both OspG and the UbcH5c~Ub conjugate. OspG is a minimal kinase domain containing only essential elements required for catalysis. UbcH5c~Ub binding stabilizes anmore » active conformation of the kinase, greatly enhancing OspG kinase activity. In contrast, interaction with OspG stabilizes an extended, less reactive form of UbcH5c~Ub. Recognizing conserved E2 features, OspG can interact with at least ten distinct human E2s~Ub. Mouse oral infection studies indicate that E2~Ub conjugates act as novel regulators of OspG effector kinase function in eukaryotic host cells.« less

  3. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01). PMID:27679823

  4. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chloe; Limmer, David

    2017-10-01

    We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation function. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which is a scaled cumulant generating function analogous to the free energy. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green-Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  5. String & Sticky Tape Experiments: Coefficient of Restitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Described is an experiment for measuring the coefficient of restitution with a meter stick, balls of different types, and scraps of material for the plates. Provides the experimental procedure and an apparatus diagram. (YP)

  6. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    PubMed

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  7. Network community structure and loop coefficient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vragović, I.; Louis, E.

    2006-07-01

    A modular structure, in which groups of tightly connected nodes could be resolved as separate entities, is a property that can be found in many complex networks. In this paper, we propose a algorithm for identifying communities in networks. It is based on a local measure, so-called loop coefficient that is a generalization of the clustering coefficient. Nodes with a large loop coefficient tend to be core inner community nodes, while other vertices are usually peripheral sites at the borders of communities. Our method gives satisfactory results for both artificial and real-world graphs, if they have a relatively pronounced modular structure. This type of algorithm could open a way of interpreting the role of nodes in communities in terms of the local loop coefficient, and could be used as a complement to other methods.

  8. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    PubMed Central

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

  9. Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Runoff Coefficient C

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the Regional Transportation District (RTD)s light rail tracks were modeled to determine the Rational Method : runoff coefficient, C, values corresponding to ballasted tracks. To accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a : rain...

  10. Transonic Blunt Body Aerodynamic Coefficients Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Jorge; Vargas, M.; Gonzalez, Ezequiel; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2011-05-01

    In the framework of EXPERT (European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed) accurate transonic aerodynamic coefficients are of paramount importance for the correct trajectory assessment and parachute deployment. A combined CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modelling and experimental campaign strategy was selected to obtain accurate coefficients. A preliminary set of coefficients were obtained by CFD Euler inviscid computation. Then experimental campaign was performed at DNW facilities at NLR. A profound review of the CFD modelling was done lighten up by WTT results, aimed to obtain reliable values of the coefficients in the future (specially the pitching moment). Study includes different turbulence modelling and mesh sensitivity analysis. Comparison with the WTT results is explored, and lessons learnt are collected.

  11. Ripening of the cervix with prostaglandin E2-gel. A randomized study with a new ready-to-use compound of triacetin-prostaglandin-E2-gel.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, M; Sande, H A; Sande, O S

    1986-08-01

    A randomized study with a group of patients treated with a new ready-to-use triacetin-prostaglandin E2-gel compared to a non-treated group was conducted. The gel-treated group showed a distinct difference in cervical score after 12 h and ten patients were delivered during this period without further induction attempt compared to none in the control group. There was a significantly lower need for oxytocin stimulation in the treated group (P less than 0.0005), but there was no difference in the cesarean section rate or instrumental delivery rate. No side-effects were seen. This new gel seems effective and safe.

  12. On computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, I. A.; Vinnikov, E. L.

    The algorithm of computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives is proposed with application of recurrent relations. The A.G.M.-method is used for the calculation of values L0(0), L0(1). The FORTRAN-program corresponding to the algorithm is given. The precision control was provided with numerical integrating by Simpsons method. The behavior of Laplace's coefficients and their third derivatives whith varying indices K, n for fixed values of the α-parameter is presented graphically.

  13. An energy-dependent electron backscattering coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, W., Jr.; Antolak, A. J.; Meredith, R. J.

    1987-05-01

    An energy-dependent electron backscattering coefficient is derived based on the continuous slowing down approximation and the Bethe stopping power. Backscattering coefficients are given for 10-50-keV electrons incident on bulk and thin-film aluminum, silver, and gold targets. The results are compared with the Everhart theory and empirical fits to experimental data. The energy-dependent theory agrees better with experimental work.

  14. Energy conversion at dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Divin, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Markidis, S.

    2017-02-01

    We use multispacecraft observations by Cluster in the Earth's magnetotail and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations to investigate conversion of electromagnetic energy at the front of a fast plasma jet. We find that the major energy conversion is happening in the Earth (laboratory) frame, where the electromagnetic energy is being transferred from the electromagnetic field to particles. This process operates in a region with size of the order several ion inertial lengths across the jet front, and the primary contribution to E·j is coming from the motional electric field and the ion current. In the frame of the front we find fluctuating energy conversion with localized loads and generators at sub-ion scales which are primarily related to the lower hybrid drift instability excited at the front; however, these provide relatively small net energy conversion.

  15. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  16. Assessing Students' Understanding through Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderhye, Cecilia M.; Zmijewski Demers, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how teachers can use students' conversations to assess their mathematical understanding. The authors draw on their own classroom experiences to show what they learned about planning for future lessons based on discussions in their own classrooms.

  17. Conversational evidence in therapeutic dialogue.

    PubMed

    Strong, Tom; Busch, Robbie; Couture, Shari

    2008-07-01

    Family therapists' participation in therapeutic dialogue with clients is typically informed by evidence of how such dialogue is developing. In this article, we propose that conversational evidence, the kind that can be empirically analyzed using discourse analyses, be considered a contribution to widening psychotherapy's evidence base. After some preliminaries about what we mean by conversational evidence, we provide a genealogy of evaluative practice in psychotherapy, and examine qualitative evaluation methods for their theoretical compatibilities with social constructionist approaches to family therapy. We then move on to examine the notion of accomplishment in therapeutic dialogue given how such accomplishments can be evaluated using conversation analysis. We conclude by considering a number of research and pedagogical implications we associate with conversational evidence.

  18. DUF6 Conversion Facility EISs

    Science.gov Websites

    DUF6 Guide DU Uses DUF6 Management and Uses DUF6 Conversion EIS Documents News FAQs Internet Resources EISs | Documents News | FAQs | Internet Resources | Glossary Help | Mailing Services | Contact Us

  19. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    DOEpatents

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  20. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    PubMed

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  1. Drag Coefficient Estimation in Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Craig A.; Manee, Steve; Lichtenberg, Travis

    2011-07-01

    Drag modeling is the greatest uncertainty in the dynamics of low Earth satellite orbits where ballistic coefficient and density errors dominate drag errors. This paper examines fitted drag coefficients found as part of a precision orbit determination process for Stella, Starlette, and the GEOSAT Follow-On satellites from 2000 to 2005. The drag coefficients for the spherical Stella and Starlette satellites are assumed to be highly correlated with density model error. The results using MSIS-86, NRLMSISE-00, and NRLMSISE-00 with dynamic calibration of the atmosphere (DCA) density corrections are compared. The DCA corrections were formulated for altitudes of 200-600 km and are found to be inappropriate when applied at 800 km. The yearly mean fitted drag coefficients are calculated for each satellite for each year studied. The yearly mean drag coefficients are higher for Starlette than Stella, where Starlette is at a higher altitude. The yearly mean fitted drag coefficients for all three satellites decrease as solar activity decreases after solar maximum.

  2. Engineering quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals for frequency conversion of lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baoqin; Hong, Lihong; Hu, Chenyang; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Rongjuan; Li, Zhiyuan

    2018-03-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion offers an effective way to extend the laser wavelength range. Quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals (NPCs) are artificial materials composed of domain-inversion structures whose sign of nonlinear coefficients are modulated with desire to implement quasi-phase matching (QPM) required for nonlinear frequency conversion. These structures can offer various reciprocal lattice vectors (RLVs) to compensate the phase-mismatching during the quadratic nonlinear optical processes, including second-harmonic generation (SHG), sum-frequency generation and the cascaded third-harmonic generation (THG). The modulation pattern of the nonlinear coefficients is flexible, which can be one-dimensional or two-dimensional (2D), be periodic, quasi-periodic, aperiodic, chirped, or super-periodic. As a result, these NPCs offer very flexible QPM scheme to satisfy various nonlinear optics and laser frequency conversion problems via design of the modulation patterns and RLV spectra. In particular, we introduce the electric poling technique for fabricating QPM structures, a simple effective nonlinear coefficient model for efficiently and precisely evaluating the performance of QPM structures, the concept of super-QPM and super-periodically poled lithium niobate for finely tuning nonlinear optical interactions, the design of 2D ellipse QPM NPC structures enabling continuous tunability of SHG in a broad bandwidth by simply changing the transport direction of pump light, and chirped QPM structures that exhibit broadband RLVs and allow for simultaneous radiation of broadband SHG, THG, HHG and thus coherent white laser from a single crystal. All these technical, theoretical, and physical studies on QPM NPCs can help to gain a deeper insight on the mechanisms, approaches, and routes for flexibly controlling the interaction of lasers with various QPM NPCs for high-efficiency frequency conversion and creation of novel lasers.

  3. On the equivalence of experimental B(E2) values determined by various techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Birch, M.; Pritychenko, B.; Singh, B.

    2016-06-30

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence of the various techniques for measuring B(E2) values using a statistical analysis. Data used in this work come from the recent compilation by B. Pritychenko et al. (2016). We consider only those nuclei for which the B(E2) values were measured by at least two different methods, with each method being independently performed at least twice. Our results indicate that most prevalent methods of measuring B(E2) values are equivalent, with some weak evidence that Doppler-shift attenuation method (DSAM) measurements may differ from Coulomb excitation (CE) and nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements. However, such anmore » evidence appears to arise from discrepant DSAM measurements of the lifetimes for 60Ni and some Sn nuclei rather than a systematic deviation in the method itself.« less

  4. Release of deuterated (E)-2-nonenal during beer aging from labeled precursors synthesized before boiling.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, Catherine; Meurens, Nicolas; Badot, Camille; Collin, Sonia

    2002-12-18

    Although lipid autoxidation in the boiling kettle is a key determinant of the cardboard flavor of aged beers, recent results show that mashing is another significant source of wort nonenal potential, the well-known indicator of how a beer will release (E)-2-nonenal during storage. Although unstable, deuterated (E)-2-nonenal nitrogen adducts created during mashing can in some cases partially persist in the pitching wort, to release deuterated (E)-2-nonenal during beer aging. In the experiment described here, the relative contributions of mashing and boiling were estimated at 30 and 70%, respectively. The presence of oxygen during mashing and, to a lesser extent, high lipoxygenase activity can intensify the stale cardboard flavor.

  5. Reduced probabilities for E2 transitions between excited collective states of triaxial even–even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nadyrbekov, M. S., E-mail: nodirbekov@inp.uz; Bozarov, O. A.

    Reduced probabilities for intra- and interband E2 transitions in excited collective states of even–even lanthanide and actinide nuclei are analyzed on the basis of a model that admits an arbitrary triaxiality. They are studied in detail in the energy spectra of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 156}Gd, {sup 158}Dy, {sup 162,164}Er, {sup 230,232}Th, and {sup 232,234,236,238}U even–even nuclei. Theoretical and experimental values of the reduced probabilities for the respective E2 transitions are compared. This comparison shows good agreement for all states, including high-spin ones. The ratios of the reduced probabilities for the E2 transitions in question are compared with results following frommore » the Alaga rules. These comparisons make it possible to assess the sensitivity of the probabilities being considered to the presence of quadrupole deformations.« less

  6. e2v CMOS and CCD sensors and systems for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorden, P. R.; Jerram, P. A.; Fryer, M.; Stefanov, K. D.

    2017-07-01

    e2v designs and manufactures a wide range of sensors for space and astronomy applications. This includes high performance CCDs for X-ray, visible and near-IR wavelengths. In this paper we illustrate the maturity of CMOS capability for these applications; examples are presented together with performance data. The majority of e2v sensors for these applications are back-thinned for highest spectral response and designed for very low read-out noise; the combination delivers high signal to noise ratio in association with a variety of formats and package designs. The growing e2v capability in delivery of sub-systems and cryogenic cameras is illustrated—including the 1.2 Giga-pixel J-PAS camera system.

  7. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    PubMed

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  8. The challenges of classical swine fever control: modified live and E2 subunit vaccines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Liang; Deng, Ming-Chung; Wang, Fun-In; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Yi

    2014-01-22

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically important, highly contagious disease of swine worldwide. CSF is caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and domestic pigs and wild boars are its only natural hosts. The two main strategies used to control CSF epidemic are systematic prophylactic vaccination and a non-vaccination stamping-out policy. This review compares the protective efficacy of the routinely used modified live vaccine (MLV) and E2 subunit vaccines and summarizes the factors that influence the efficacy of the vaccines and the challenges that both vaccines face to CSF control. Although MLV provide earlier and more complete protection than E2 subunit vaccines, it has the drawback of not allowing differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). The marker vaccine of E2 protein with companion discriminatory test to detect antibodies against E(rns) allows DIVA and is a promising strategy for future control and eradication of CSF. Maternal derived antibody (MDA) is the critical factor in impairing the efficacy of both MLV and E2 subunit vaccines, so the well-designed vaccination programs of sows and piglets should be considered together. Because of the antigen variation among various genotypes of CSFV, antibodies raised by either MLV or subunit vaccine neutralize genotypically homologous strains better than heterologous ones. However, although this is not a major concern for MLV as the induced immune responses can protect pigs against the challenge of various genotypes of CSFVs, it is critical for E2 subunit vaccines. It is thus necessary to evaluate whether the E2 subunit vaccine can completely protect against the current prevalent strains in the field. An ideal new generation of vaccine should be able to maintain the high protective efficiency of MLV and overcome the problem of antigenic variations while allowing for DIVA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Structures of (2E,5E)-2-(4-cyanobenzylidene)-5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)cyclopentanone and (2E,5E)-2-benzylidene-5-cinnamylidenecyclopentanone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoto, Christopher A.; MacDonald, John C.

    2017-10-01

    The X-ray crystal structures of (2E,5E)-2-(4-cyanobenzylidene)-5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)cyclopentanone (I) and (2E,5E)-2-benzylidene-5-cinnamylidenecyclopentanone (II) are presented, compared to the gas phase structures calculated using density functional theory, and discussed in the context of the photophysical behavior exhibited by I and II. Compound I crystallizes in the triclinic space group P 1 bar with a = 6.8743(2) Å, b = 8.8115(2) Å, c = 14.9664(4) Å, α = 77.135(2)°, β = 81.351(2)°, γ = 80.975(2)°, and Z = 2, and exhibits a planar structure. Compound II crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with a = 33.4281(10) Å, b = 11.9668(4) Å, c = 7.8031(2) Å, β = 92.785(2)°, and Z = 8, and adopts a nonplanar structure in the solid state and calculated structure.

  10. Fatigue Investigation of the E-2B/C Nose Landing Gear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-31

    Specimen - Outer Cylinder and Caster Barrel 9 3 E-2B NLG Test Specimen - Drag Brace 10 4 E-2B NLG Drag Brace Attachment Lugs Modification . . 11 5...Attachment Lug Fracture Surface . . 23 ■■■■ ? 16 Tow Link Modification 30 17 Tow Link #2 Failur 31 18 Tow Link #2 Fracture Face 32 19...34-" ’’- .-.„.,.,„...^ ,.., M1| lf^^~i*>-^^-^^ "u- II li ’ 7«™.™»«*" ■ NADC-75369-30 Bach «hock «true assembly consist« of the «xle- caster barrel, outer cylinder

  11. Discovery and Classification of the z=1.86 SLSNe: DES15E2mlf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Galbany, L.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Forster, F.; Hamuy, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of DES15E2mlf as a superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). DES15E2mlf was discovered on 7 November 2015 at R.A. = 00:41:33.40, Decl = -43:27:17.2 with r = 24.1 mag. We obtained spectra using GMOS on Gemini-South (520-990nm) on 06 December 2015 which indicated a redshift of z = 1.86 from Mg II 2800 absorption.

  12. US NDC Modernization Iteration E2 Prototyping Report: User Interface Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Jennifer E.; Palmer, Melanie A.; Vickers, James Wallace

    2014-12-01

    During the second iteration of the US NDC Modernization Elaboration phase (E2), the SNL US NDC Modernization project team completed follow-on Rich Client Platform (RCP) exploratory prototyping related to the User Interface Framework (UIF). The team also developed a survey of browser-based User Interface solutions and completed exploratory prototyping for selected solutions. This report presents the results of the browser-based UI survey, summarizes the E2 browser-based UI and RCP prototyping work, and outlines a path forward for the third iteration of the Elaboration phase (E3).

  13. YB-1, the E2F Pathway, and Regulation of Tumor Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Weini; Cao, Helen; Patel, Rachna; Mehta, Reena; Stern, J. Lewis; Reid, Glen; Woolley, Adele G.; Miller, Lance D.; Black, Michael A; Shelling, Andrew N.; Print, Cristin G.; Braithwaite, Antony W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Y-box binding factor 1 (YB-1) has been associated with prognosis in many tumor types. Reduced YB-1 expression inhibits tumor cell growth, but the mechanism is unclear. Methods YB-1 mRNA levels were compared with tumor grade and histology using microarray data from 771 breast cancer patients and with disease-free survival and distant metastasis–free survival using data from 375 of those patients who did not receive adjuvant therapy. Microarrays were further searched for genes that had correlated expression with YB-1 mRNA. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to study the effects of reduced YB-1 expression on growth of three tumor cell lines (MCF-7 breast, HCT116 colon, and A549 lung cancer cells), on tumorigenesis by A549 cells in nude mice, and on global transcription in the three cancer cell lines. Reporter gene assays were used to determine whether YB-1 siRNAs affected the expression of E2F1, and chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to determine whether YB-1 bound to various E2F promoters as well as E2F1-regulated promoters. All P values were from two-sided tests. Results YB-1 levels were elevated in more aggressive tumors and were strongly associated with poor disease-free survival and distant metastasis–free survival. YB-1 expression was often associated with the expression of genes with E2F sites in their promoters. Cells expressing YB-1 siRNA grew substantially more slowly than control cells and formed tumors less readily in nude mice. Transcripts that were altered in cancer cell lines with YB-1 siRNA included 32 genes that are components of prognostic gene expression signatures. YB-1 regulated expression of an E2F1 promoter–reporter construct in A549 cells (eg, relative E2F1 promoter activity with control siRNA = 4.04; with YB-1 siRNA = 1.40, difference= −2.64, 95% confidence interval = −3.57 to −1.71, P < .001) and bound to the promoters of several well-defined E2F1 target genes. Conclusion YB-1 expression is associated with the

  14. E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report and E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report--Questions and Answers; International Council for Harmonisation; Guidances for Industry; Availability. Notice.

    PubMed

    2016-07-19

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is announcing the availability of guidances for industry entitled ``E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation'' (E2C(R2) guidance) and ``E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report--Questions and Answers'' (E2C(R2) Q&A guidance). These guidances were prepared under the auspices of the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH), formerly the International Conference on Harmonisation. The E2C(R2) draft guidance, issued April 11, 2012, updated and combined two ICH guidances, ``E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs'' (E2C guidance) and ``Addendum to E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs'' (addendum to the E2C guidance). The E2C(R2) guidance is intended to describe the format, content, and timing of a Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report (PBRER) for an approved drug or biologic, and it finalizes the draft guidance. The E2C(R2) Q&A guidance is a supplementary guidance that is intended to clarify key issues in the E2C(R2) guidance.

  15. Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging Using Acoustic Backscatter Coefficients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boote, Evan Jeffery

    Current clinical ultrasound scanners render images which have brightness levels related to the degree of backscattered energy from the tissue being imaged. These images offer the interpreter a qualitative impression of the scattering characteristics of the tissue being examined, but due to the complex factors which affect the amplitude and character of the echoed acoustic energy, it is difficult to make quantitative assessments of scattering nature of the tissue, and thus, difficult to make precise diagnosis when subtle disease effects are present. In this dissertation, a method of data reduction for determining acoustic backscatter coefficients is adapted for use in forming quantitative ultrasound images of this parameter. In these images, the brightness level of an individual pixel corresponds to the backscatter coefficient determined for the spatial position represented by that pixel. The data reduction method utilized rigorously accounts for extraneous factors which affect the scattered echo waveform and has been demonstrated to accurately determine backscatter coefficients under a wide range of conditions. The algorithms and procedures used to form backscatter coefficient images are described. These were tested using tissue-mimicking phantoms which have regions of varying scattering levels. Another phantom has a fat-mimicking layer for testing these techniques under more clinically relevant conditions. Backscatter coefficient images were also formed of in vitro human liver tissue. A clinical ultrasound scanner has been adapted for use as a backscatter coefficient imaging platform. The digital interface between the scanner and the computer used for data reduction are described. Initial tests, using phantoms are presented. A study of backscatter coefficient imaging of in vivo liver was performed using several normal, healthy human subjects.

  16. Information for Consumers about Alternative Fuel Conversions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Here are some factors to be aware of if you are considering fuel conversion, including background information on fuel conversion, instructions for demonstrating compliance, and other related information.

  17. Serious Illness Conversations in ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Bernacki, Rachelle E.; Block, Susan D.

    2017-01-01

    Dialysis-dependent ESRD is a serious illness with high disease burden, morbidity, and mortality. Mortality in the first year on dialysis for individuals over age 75 years old approaches 40%, and even those with better prognoses face multiple hospitalizations and declining functional status. In the last month of life, patients on dialysis over age 65 years old experience higher rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, procedures, and death in hospital than patients with cancer or heart failure, while using hospice services less. This high intensity of care is often inconsistent with the wishes of patients on dialysis but persists due to failure to explore or discuss patient goals, values, and preferences in the context of their serious illness. Fewer than 10% of patients on dialysis report having had a conversation about goals, values, and preferences with their nephrologist, although nearly 90% report wanting this conversation. Many nephrologists shy away from these conversations, because they do not wish to upset their patients, feel that there is too much uncertainty in their ability to predict prognosis, are insecure in their skills at broaching the topic, or have difficulty incorporating the conversations into their clinical workflow. In multiple studies, timely discussions about serious illness care goals, however, have been associated with enhanced goal-consistent care, improved quality of life, and positive family outcomes without an increase in patient distress or anxiety. In this special feature article, we will (1) identify the barriers to serious illness conversations in the dialysis population, (2) review best practices in and specific approaches to conducting serious illness conversations, and (3) offer solutions to overcome barriers as well as practical advice, including specific language and tools, to implement serious illness conversations in the dialysis population. PMID:28031417

  18. Drag coefficients for loose reactor parts

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, L.; Doster, J.M.; Mayo, C.W.

    1997-12-01

    Loose-part monitoring systems are capable of providing estimates of loose-part mass and energy as well as impact location. Additional information regarding potentially damaging loose parts can be obtained by estimating loose-part velocity on the basis of free motion dynamics within the flow. To estimate the loose-part velocity, the drag coefficient of the part must be known. Traditionally, drag coefficients of three-dimensional bodies are measured in wind tunnels, by towing in free air or liquids, and with drop tests. These methods have disadvantages with respect to measuring drag coefficients for loose parts in that they require a fixed orientation, or themore » flow field is inconsistent with the turbulent flow conditions found in reactor systems. Though drag coefficients for some regularly shaped objects can be found in the literature, many shapes representative of typical loose parts have not been investigated. In this work, drag coefficients are measured for typical loose-part shapes, including bolts, nuts, pins, and hand tools within the flow conditions expected in reactor coolant systems.« less

  19. Drag Coefficient and Foam in Hurricane Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golbraikh, E.; Shtemler, Y.

    2016-12-01

    he present study is motivated by recent findings of saturation and even decrease in the drag coefficient (capping) in hurricane conditions, which is accompanied by the production of a foam layer on the ocean surface. As it is difficult to expect at present a comprehensive numerical modeling of the drag coefficient saturation that is followed by wave breaking and foam production, there is no complete confidence and understanding of the saturation phenomenon. Our semi-empirical model is proposed for the estimation of the foam impact on the variation of the effective drag coefficient, Cd , with the reference wind speed U10 in stormy and hurricane conditions. The proposed model treats the efficient air-sea aerodynamic roughness length as a sum of two weighted aerodynamic roughness lengths for the foam-free and foam-covered conditions. On the available optical and radiometric measurements of the fractional foam coverage,αf, combined with direct wind speed measurements in hurricane conditions, which provide the minimum of the effective drag coefficient, Cd for the sea covered with foam. The present model yields Cd10 versus U10 in fair agreement with that evaluated from both open-ocean and laboratory measurements of the vertical variation of mean wind speed in the range of U10 from low to hurricane speeds. The present approach opens opportunities for drag coefficient modeling in hurricane conditions and hurricane intensity estimation by the foam-coverage value using optical and radiometric measurements.

  20. Temporal correlation coefficient for directed networks.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies dealing with network theory focused mainly on the static aggregation of edges over specific time window lengths. Thus, most of the dynamic information gets lost. To assess the quality of such a static aggregation the temporal correlation coefficient can be calculated. It measures the overall possibility for an edge to persist between two consecutive snapshots. Up to now, this measure is only defined for undirected networks. Therefore, we introduce the adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient to directed networks. This new methodology enables the distinction between ingoing and outgoing edges. Besides a small example network presenting the single calculation steps, we also calculated the proposed measurements for a real pig trade network to emphasize the importance of considering the edge direction. The farm types at the beginning of the pork supply chain showed clearly higher values for the outgoing temporal correlation coefficient compared to the farm types at the end of the pork supply chain. These farm types showed higher values for the ingoing temporal correlation coefficient. The temporal correlation coefficient is a valuable tool to understand the structural dynamics of these systems, as it assesses the consistency of the edge configuration. The adaption of this measure for directed networks may help to preserve meaningful additional information about the investigated network that might get lost if the edge directions are ignored.

  1. DOE Challenge Home Case Study: e2 Homes – Winter Park, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Challenge Home case study describes the first certified DOE Challenge Home as constructed by e2 Homes. Completed in May 2012, the “Wilson Residence” in Winter Park, Florida, is a 4,305-ft2 custom home that scores a HERS 57 without solar and a better than zero net-energy HERS -7 with solar.

  2. Stages of Change – Continuous Measure (URICA-E2): psychometrics of a Norwegian version

    PubMed Central

    Lerdal, Anners; Moe, Britt; Digre, Elin; Harding, Thomas; Kristensen, Frode; Grov, Ellen K; Bakken, Linda N; Eklund, Marthe L; Ruud, Ireen; Rossi, Joseph S

    2009-01-01

    Title Stages of Change – Continuous Measure (URICA-E2): psychometrics of a Norwegian version. Aim This paper is a report of research to translate the English version of the Stages of Change continuous measure questionnaire (URICA-E2) into Norwegian and to test the validity of the questionnaire and its usefulness in predicting behavioural change. Background While the psychometric properties of the Stages of Change categorical measure have been tested extensively, evaluation of the psychometric properties of the continuous questionnaire has not been described elsewhere in the literature. Method Cross-sectional data were collected with a convenience sample of 198 undergraduate nursing students in 2005 and 2006. The English version of URICA-E2 was translated into Norwegian according to standardized procedures. Findings Principal components analysis clearly confirmed five of the dimensions of readiness to change (Precontemplation Non-Believers, Precontemplation Believers, Contemplation, Preparation and Maintenance), while the sixth dimension, Action, showed the lowest Eigenvalue (0·93). Findings from the cluster analysis indicate distinct profiles among the respondents in terms of readiness to change their exercise behaviour. Conclusion The URICA-E2 was for the most part replicated from Reed’s original work. The result of the cluster analysis of the items associated with the factor ‘Action’ suggests that these do not adequately measure the factor. PMID:19032513

  3. 26 CFR 301.6231(e)-2 - Judicial decision not a bar to certain adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judicial decision not a bar to certain....6231(e)-2 Judicial decision not a bar to certain adjustments. (a) In general. A court decision with respect to a partner's income tax liability attributable to nonpartnership items shall not be a bar to...

  4. Studying fission neutrons with 2E-2v and 2E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Adili, Ali; Jansson, Kaj; Tarrío, Diego; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Göök, Alf; Oberstedt, Stephan; Olivier Frégeau, Marc; Gustavsson, Cecilia; Lantz, Mattias; Mattera, Andrea; Prokofiev, Alexander V.; Rakopoulos, Vasileios; Solders, Andreas; Vidali, Marzio; Österlund, Michael; Pomp, Stephan

    2018-03-01

    This work aims at measuring prompt-fission neutrons at different excitation energies of the nucleus. Two independent techniques, the 2E-2v and the 2E techniques, are used to map the characteristics of the mass-dependent prompt fission neutron multiplicity, v(A), when the excitation energy is increased. The VERDI 2E-2v spectrometer is being developed at JRC-GEEL. The Fission Fragment (FF) energies are measured using two arrays of 16 silicon (Si) detectors each. The FFs velocities are obtained by time-of-flight, measured between micro-channel plates (MCP) and Si detectors. With MCPs placed on both sides of the fission source, VERDI allows for independent timing measurements for both fragments. 252Cf(sf) was measured and the present results revealed particular features of the 2E-2v technique. Dedicated simulations were also performed using the GEF code to study important aspects of the 2E-2v technique. Our simulations show that prompt neutron emission has a non-negligible impact on the deduced fragment data and affects also the shape of v(A). Geometrical constraints lead to a total-kinetic energy-dependent detection efficiency. The 2E technique utilizes an ionization chamber together with two liquid scintillator detectors. Two measurements have been performed, one of 252Cf(sf) and another one of thermal-neutron induced fission in 235U(n,f). Results from 252Cf(sf) are reported here.

  5. "Expectations to Change" ((E2C): A Participatory Method for Facilitating Stakeholder Engagement with Evaluation Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Adrienne E.; Nnawulezi, Nkiru A.; Vandenberg, Lela

    2015-01-01

    From a utilization-focused evaluation perspective, the success of an evaluation is rooted in the extent to which the evaluation was used by stakeholders. This paper details the "Expectations to Change" (E2C) process, an interactive, workshop-based method designed to engage primary users with their evaluation findings as a means of…

  6. The E2 Domains of APP and APLP1 Share a Conserved Mode of Dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    S Lee; Y Xue; J Hulbert

    2011-12-31

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease. APP is a type I membrane protein, and its oligomeric structure is potentially important because this property may play a role in its function or affect the processing of the precursor by the secretases to generate amyloid {beta}-peptide. Several independent studies have shown that APP can form dimers in the cell, but how it dimerizes remains controversial. At least three regions of the precursor, including a centrally located and conserved domain called E2, have been proposed to contribute to dimerization. Here we report two new crystal structures of E2, onemore » from APP and the other from APLP1, a mammalian APP homologue. Comparison with an earlier APP structure, which was determined in a different space group, shows that the E2 domains share a conserved and antiparallel mode of dimerization. Biophysical measurements in solution show that heparin binding induces E2 dimerization. The 2.1 {angstrom} resolution electron density map also reveals phosphate ions that are bound to the protein surface. Mutational analysis shows that protein residues interacting with the phosphate ions are also involved in heparin binding. The locations of two of these residues, Arg-369 and His-433, at the dimeric interface suggest a mechanism for heparin-induced protein dimerization.« less

  7. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-2 - Limitation on aggregate of exclusions and price readjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation on aggregate of exclusions and price... Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(e)-2 Limitation on aggregate of exclusions and price readjustments. (a) In general. The sum of the amount excluded from taxable price in respect of charges for local...

  8. Deregulation of E2-EPF ubiquitin carrier protein in papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roos, Frederik C; Evans, Andrew J; Brenner, Walburgis; Wondergem, Bill; Klomp, Jeffery; Heir, Pardeep; Roche, Olga; Thomas, Christian; Schimmel, Heiko; Furge, Kyle A; Teh, Bin T; Thüroff, Joachim W; Hampel, Christian; Ohh, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Molecular pathways associated with pathogenesis of sporadic papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC), the second most common form of kidney cancer, are poorly understood. We analyzed primary tumor specimens from 35 PRCC patients treated by nephrectomy via gene expression analysis and tissue microarrays constructed from an additional 57 paraffin-embedded PRCC samples via immunohistochemistry. Gene products were validated and further studied by Western blot analyses using primary PRCC tumor samples and established renal cell carcinoma cell lines, and potential associations with pathologic variables and survival in 27 patients with follow-up information were determined. We show that the expression of E2-EPF ubiquitin carrier protein, which targets the principal negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), von Hippel-Lindau protein, for proteasome-dependent degradation, is markedly elevated in the majority of PRCC tumors exhibiting increased HIF1α expression, and is associated with poor prognosis. In addition, we identified multiple hypoxia-responsive elements within the E2-EPF promoter, and for the first time we demonstrated that E2-EPF is a hypoxia-inducible gene directly regulated via HIF1. These findings reveal deregulation of the oxygen-sensing pathway impinging on the positive feedback mechanism of HIF1-mediated regulation of E2-EPF in PRCC. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Deregulation of E2-EPF Ubiquitin Carrier Protein in Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Frederik C.; Evans, Andrew J.; Brenner, Walburgis; Wondergem, Bill; Klomp, Jeffery; Heir, Pardeep; Roche, Olga; Thomas, Christian; Schimmel, Heiko; Furge, Kyle A.; Teh, Bin T.; Thüroff, Joachim W.; Hampel, Christian; Ohh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Molecular pathways associated with pathogenesis of sporadic papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC), the second most common form of kidney cancer, are poorly understood. We analyzed primary tumor specimens from 35 PRCC patients treated by nephrectomy via gene expression analysis and tissue microarrays constructed from an additional 57 paraffin-embedded PRCC samples via immunohistochemistry. Gene products were validated and further studied by Western blot analyses using primary PRCC tumor samples and established renal cell carcinoma cell lines, and potential associations with pathologic variables and survival in 27 patients with follow-up information were determined. We show that the expression of E2-EPF ubiquitin carrier protein, which targets the principal negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), von Hippel-Lindau protein, for proteasome-dependent degradation, is markedly elevated in the majority of PRCC tumors exhibiting increased HIF1α expression, and is associated with poor prognosis. In addition, we identified multiple hypoxia-responsive elements within the E2-EPF promoter, and for the first time we demonstrated that E2-EPF is a hypoxia-inducible gene directly regulated via HIF1. These findings reveal deregulation of the oxygen-sensing pathway impinging on the positive feedback mechanism of HIF1-mediated regulation of E2-EPF in PRCC. PMID:21281817

  10. The nuclear factor κB inhibitor (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene inhibits firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Braeuning, Albert; Vetter, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    Photinus pyralis (firefly) luciferase is widely used as a reporter system to monitor alterations in gene promoter and/or signalling pathway activities in vitro. The enzyme catalyses the formation of oxyluciferin from D-luciferin in an ATP-consuming reaction involving photon emission. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the luciferase-inhibiting potential of (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene, which is known as a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling pathway that is used to modulate the NF-κB signalling pathway in vitro. Results show that (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene effectively inhibits firefly luciferase activity in cell lysates and living cells in a non-competitive manner with respect to the luciferase substrates D-luciferin and ATP. By contrast, the compound has no effect on Renilla and Gaussia luciferases. The mechanism of firefly luciferase inhibition by (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene, as well as its potency is comparable to its structure analogue resveratrol. The in vitro use of trans-stilbenes such as (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene or resveratrol compromises firefly luciferase reporter assays as well as ATP/luciferase-based cell viability assays.

  11. 17 CFR 270.22e-2 - Pricing of redemption requests in accordance with Rule 22c-1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pricing of redemption requests in accordance with Rule 22c-1. 270.22e-2 Section 270.22e-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges....22e-2 Pricing of redemption requests in accordance with Rule 22c-1. An investment company shall not be...

  12. [Conversation analysis for improving nursing communication].

    PubMed

    Yi, Myungsun

    2007-08-01

    Nursing communication has become more important than ever before because quality of nursing services largely depends on the quality of communication in a very competitive health care environment. This article was to introduce ways to improve nursing communication using conversation analysis. This was a review study on conversation analysis, critically examining previous studies in nursing communication and interpersonal relationships. This study provided theoretical backgrounds and basic assumptions of conversation analysis which was influenced by ethnomethodology, phenomenology, and sociolinguistic. In addition, the characteristics and analysis methods of conversation analysis were illustrated in detail. Lastly, how conversation analysis could help improve communication was shown, by examining researches using conversation analysis not only for ordinary conversations but also for extraordinary or difficult conversations such as conversations between patients with dementia and their professional nurses. Conversation analysis can help in improving nursing communication by providing various structures and patterns as well as prototypes of conversation, and by suggesting specific problems and problem-solving strategies in communication.

  13. An Integrated Bioinformatics Approach Identifies Elevated Cyclin E2 Expression and E2F Activity as Distinct Features of Tamoxifen Resistant Breast Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Zhao, Shuangping; Frasor, Jonna M.; Dai, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Approximately half of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast tumors will fail to respond to endocrine therapy. Here we used an integrative bioinformatics approach to analyze three gene expression profiling data sets from breast tumors in an attempt to uncover underlying mechanisms contributing to the development of resistance and potential therapeutic strategies to counteract these mechanisms. Genes that are differentially expressed in tamoxifen resistant vs. sensitive breast tumors were identified from three different publically available microarray datasets. These differentially expressed (DE) genes were analyzed using gene function and gene set enrichment and examined in intrinsic subtypes of breast tumors. The Connectivity Map analysis was utilized to link gene expression profiles of tamoxifen resistant tumors to small molecules and validation studies were carried out in a tamoxifen resistant cell line. Despite little overlap in genes that are differentially expressed in tamoxifen resistant vs. sensitive tumors, a high degree of functional similarity was observed among the three datasets. Tamoxifen resistant tumors displayed enriched expression of genes related to cell cycle and proliferation, as well as elevated activity of E2F transcription factors, and were highly correlated with a Luminal intrinsic subtype. A number of small molecules, including phenothiazines, were found that induced a gene signature in breast cancer cell lines opposite to that found in tamoxifen resistant vs. sensitive tumors and the ability of phenothiazines to down-regulate cyclin E2 and inhibit proliferation of tamoxifen resistant breast cancer cells was validated. Our findings demonstrate that an integrated bioinformatics approach to analyze gene expression profiles from multiple breast tumor datasets can identify important biological pathways and potentially novel therapeutic options for tamoxifen-resistant breast cancers. PMID:21789246

  14. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, E. J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  15. Single Cell Analysis to locate the Restriction Point with respect to E2F Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimienta, R.; Johnson, A.

    2011-12-01

    The restriction point is a G1-phase checkpoint that regulates passage through the cell cycle and is misregulated in all known types of cancer. The Rb-E2F switch is thought to be one of the most relevant molecular mechanisms which regulate the restriction point in mammalian cells. However, recent experiments have brought the timing of the restriction point into question. In previous studies, cells were analyzed as populations and this prevented an accurate determination of the restriction point. By creating and analyzing an E2F-GFP reporter in single cells, we can pinpoint the timing of E2F activation and determine whether it coincides with the restriction point. Using calcium phosphate and Fugene,we transfected human embryonic kidney (293T) cells with a CMV-GFP plasmid and an E2F-GFP reporter. Based on our results, it appears that calcium phosphate is more effective than Fugene at transfecting mammalian cells. The calcium phosphate transfection had 9.59% more fluorescent cells than Fugene. However, this result only occurred with the CMV-GFP plasmid and not the E2F-GFP reporter, which was not properly expressed in human embryonic kidney (293T) cells. We will continue troubleshooting to fix this reporter as we proceed with our research. Once the reporter is properly cloned, we will transfect it into retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE1-hTERT) cells using the calcium phosphate method. RPE1-hTERT cells are an immortalized with telomerase and are more close to normal cells than tumor-derived cell lines. Through this research we will better comprehend commitment to the mammalian cell cycle.

  16. Defining the Ecological Coefficient of Performance for an Aircraft Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şöhret, Yasin

    2018-05-01

    The aircraft industry, along with other industries, is considered responsible these days regarding environmental issues. Therefore, the performance evaluation of aircraft propulsion systems should be conducted with respect to environmental and ecological considerations. The current paper aims to present the ecological coefficient of performance calculation methodology for aircraft propulsion systems. The ecological coefficient performance is a widely-preferred performance indicator of numerous energy conversion systems. On the basis of thermodynamic laws, the methodology used to determine the ecological coefficient of performance for an aircraft propulsion system is parametrically explained and illustrated in this paper for the first time. For a better understanding, to begin with, the exergy analysis of a turbojet engine is described in detail. Following this, the outputs of the analysis are employed to define the ecological coefficient of performance for a turbojet engine. At the end of the study, the ecological coefficient of performance is evaluated parametrically and discussed depending on selected engine design parameters and performance measures. The author asserts the ecological coefficient of performance to be a beneficial indicator for researchers interested in aircraft propulsion system design and related topics.

  17. Investigation of heat and mass transfer under the influence of variable diffusion coefficient and thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohyud Din, S. T.; Zubair, T.; Usman, M.; Hamid, M.; Rafiq, M.; Mohsin, S.

    2018-04-01

    This study is devoted to analyze the influence of variable diffusion coefficient and variable thermal conductivity on heat and mass transfer in Casson fluid flow. The behavior of concentration and temperature profiles in the presence of Joule heating and viscous dissipation is also studied. The dimensionless conversation laws with suitable BCs are solved via Modified Gegenbauer Wavelets Method (MGWM). It has been observed that increase in Casson fluid parameter (β ) and parameter ɛ enhances the Nusselt number. Moreover, Nusselt number of Newtonian fluid is less than that of the Casson fluid. The phenomenon of mass transport can be increased by solute of variable diffusion coefficient rather than solute of constant diffusion coefficient. A detailed analysis of results is appropriately highlighted. The obtained results, error estimates, and convergence analysis reconfirm the credibility of proposed algorithm. It is concluded that MGWM is an appropriate tool to tackle nonlinear physical models and hence may be extended to some other nonlinear problems of diversified physical nature also.

  18. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, H. P., E-mail: patel.harshal2@gmail.com; Thakor, P. B., E-mail: pbthakore@rediffmail.com; Prajapati, A. V., E-mail: anand0prajapati@gmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  19. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, H. P.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.; Prajapati, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  20. Polynomials with Restricted Coefficients and Their Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    sums of exponentials of quadratics, he reduced such ýzums to exponentials of linears (geometric sums!) by simplg multiplying by their conjugates...n, the same algebraic manipulations as before lead to rn V`-~ v ie ? --8-- el4V’ .fk ts with 𔄃 = a+(2r+l)t, A = a+(2r+2m+l)t. To estimate the right...coefficients. These random polynomials represent the deviation in frequency response of a linear , equispaced antenna array cauised by coefficient

  1. Genomic structure, expression pattern, and functional characterization of transcription factor E2F-2 from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chao; Qiu, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factor E2F-2 is a regulator of cell cycle. Researchers identified E2F-2 genes from yeasts to humans, but few reports investigated E2F-2 gene from black tiger shrimp. In the present study, we cloned E2F-2 gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Full-length PmE2F-2 complementary DNA sequence measures 3,189 bp with an open reading frame of 1,371 bp. Complete PmE2F-2 genomic sequence (17,305 bp) of P. monodon contains nine exons, which are separated by eight introns. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that PmE2F-2 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas and ovaries of P. monodon. Highest PmE2F-2 expression levels were observed in stage III ovarian development of P. monodon. PmE2F-2 expression levels were significantly augmented in ovaries of P. monodon after 5-hydroxytryptamine injection and eyestalk ablation. RNA interference experiments were conducted to examine PmE2F-2, PmCDK2, and PmCyclin E expression profiles. PmE2F-2 was successfully knocked down in ovaries and hepatopancreas via double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)–E2F-2 injection. In the same organs, PmE2F-2 expression localization and level were investigated through in situ hybridization, which revealed consistent results with those of qRT-PCR. After dsRNA—E2F-2 injection, gonadosomatic index of shrimp was significantly lower than those following dsRNA—GFP and phosphate-buffered solution injections. Therefore, PmE2F-2 may be involved in ovarian maturation in P. monodon. PMID:28558060

  2. Handling Density Conversion in TPS.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomonori; Mori, Yutaro; Takei, Hideyuki; Sato, Eisuke; Tadano, Kiichi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tomita, Tetsuya; Sakae, Takeji

    2016-01-01

    Conversion from CT value to density is essential to a radiation treatment planning system. Generally CT value is converted to the electron density in photon therapy. In the energy range of therapeutic photon, interactions between photons and materials are dominated with Compton scattering which the cross-section depends on the electron density. The dose distribution is obtained by calculating TERMA and kernel using electron density where TERMA is the energy transferred from primary photons and kernel is a volume considering spread electrons. Recently, a new method was introduced which uses the physical density. This method is expected to be faster and more accurate than that using the electron density. As for particle therapy, dose can be calculated with CT-to-stopping power conversion since the stopping power depends on the electron density. CT-to-stopping power conversion table is also called as CT-to-water-equivalent range and is an essential concept for the particle therapy.

  3. Review of betavoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Larry C.

    1993-05-01

    Betavoltaic energy conversion refers to the generation of power by coupling a beta source to a semiconductor junction device. The theory of betavoltaic energy conversion and some past studies of the subject are briefly reviewed. Calculations of limiting efficiencies for semiconductor cells versus bandgap are presented along with specific studies for Pm-147 and Ni-63 fueled devices. The approach used for fabricating Pm-147 fueled batteries by the author in the early 1970's is reviewed. Finally, the potential performance of advanced betavoltaic power sources is considered.

  4. Review of betavoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Larry C.

    1993-01-01

    Betavoltaic energy conversion refers to the generation of power by coupling a beta source to a semiconductor junction device. The theory of betavoltaic energy conversion and some past studies of the subject are briefly reviewed. Calculations of limiting efficiencies for semiconductor cells versus bandgap are presented along with specific studies for Pm-147 and Ni-63 fueled devices. The approach used for fabricating Pm-147 fueled batteries by the author in the early 1970's is reviewed. Finally, the potential performance of advanced betavoltaic power sources is considered.

  5. [Hydroxylamine conversion by anammox enrichment].

    PubMed

    Hu, Anhui; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Huifeng; Ding, Shuang; Wang, Caihua

    2010-04-01

    Hydroxylamine is an important intermediate product of anammox. This study was focused on the characteristics of hydroxylamine and nitrite conversions by anammox enrichment. The changes of nitrogenous substrates and related products with time were measured using batch tests with anammox enrichment as inoculum. Since hydroxylamine didn't react with nitrite in uninoculated control culture, these two compounds were chemically stable. Both of them decreased with time in anammox enrichment inoculated cultures, in which ammonia as intermediate product would be produced and converted with the maximum concentration being 0.338 mg/L. The total nitrogen concentration decreased from 4.694 mmol/L to 0.812 mmol/L with conversion rate 82.7% in the end. When hydroxylamine and nitrite concentrations were about 2.5 mmol/L respectively, the maximum specific sludge conversion rates of hydroxylamine was 0.535 mmol/(gVSS.h), which was 1.81 times bigger than that of ammonia in ammonia reaction system; the maximum specific sludge rate of total nitrogen was slightly higher than that in ammonia reaction system. When hydroxylamine concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 26.7% and 120.7% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 1.810 mmol/L. When nitrite concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 6.9% and 9.0% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 0.795 mmol/L. Anammox enrichment was capable of converting hydroxylamine and nitrite simultaneously and had the higher conversion rate of hydroxylamine than ammonia conversion rate. Hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates were less affected by increase in nitrite concentration, but more significantly influenced by increase in hydroxylamine. The maximum ammonia concentration accumulated would rise as the result of increasing both hydroxylamine and nitrite. The result of experiment was consistent with pathway

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions

    Science.gov Websites

    Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions

    Science.gov Websites

    : Vehicle Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle

  8. 24 CFR 884.123 - Conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conversions. 884.123 Section 884... RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.123 Conversions. (a) Conversion of... and an appropriate PHA to agree, if they are willing, to a conversion of any such project to a Private...

  9. 5 CFR 317.302 - Conversion procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion procedures. 317.302 Section... IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.302 Conversion... pursuant to § 317.305(b)(4) or § 317.306(b)(4); If the employee is offered conversion, the notice shall...

  10. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303 Section... PAY RETENTION Pay Retention § 536.303 Geographic conversion. (a) Geographic conversion at time of... basic pay resulting from this geographic conversion is not a basis for entitlement to pay retention. The...

  11. 5 CFR 317.302 - Conversion procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion procedures. 317.302 Section... IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.302 Conversion... pursuant to § 317.305(b)(4) or § 317.306(b)(4); If the employee is offered conversion, the notice shall...

  12. 24 CFR 884.123 - Conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversions. 884.123 Section 884... RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.123 Conversions. (a) Conversion of... and an appropriate PHA to agree, if they are willing, to a conversion of any such project to a Private...

  13. 5 CFR 317.301 - Conversion coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion coverage. 317.301 Section 317... THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.301 Conversion coverage. (a) When applicable. These conversion provisions apply in the following circumstances. (1) The...

  14. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303 Section... PAY RETENTION Pay Retention § 536.303 Geographic conversion. (a) Geographic conversion at time of... basic pay resulting from this geographic conversion is not a basis for entitlement to pay retention. The...

  15. 5 CFR 317.301 - Conversion coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion coverage. 317.301 Section 317... THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.301 Conversion coverage. (a) When applicable. These conversion provisions apply in the following circumstances. (1) The...

  16. 16 CFR 1012.7 - Telephone conversations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Telephone conversations. 1012.7 Section 1012... AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.7 Telephone conversations. (a) Telephone conversations... meet with Agency employees. However, because telephone conversations, by their very nature, are not...

  17. Calculation Methods and Conversions for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of conversion tables and formulas for determining concentration and rate of application of pesticides. Contents include: (1) Area and volume conversions; (2) Important conversion formulae; (3) Conversions for rates of application; (4) Quantities of pesticide…

  18. Using Conversation MOPs in Natural Language Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Elise H.; Cullingford, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    Explores a method of combining convention and intention by representing conversation structure with conversation MOPs (schematic structures that store conversation rules as generalized episodes associated with goals the episodes achieved). Discusses how conversation MOPs process the opening portion of a dialogue in an interactive advice-giving…

  19. Nationwide conversion to generic tacrolimus in pediatric kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Naicker, Derisha; Reed, Peter W; Ronaldson, Jane; Kara, Tonya; Wong, William; Prestidge, Chanel

    2017-11-01

    Bioequivalence between Tacrolimus Prograf® and generic tacrolimus formulations has been demonstrated in adult populations, however clinical experience and safety data regarding generic tacrolimus in pediatric transplant recipients is limited. This study aimed to evaluate conversion from Tacrolimus Prograf® to Sandoz® in pediatric renal transplant recipients nationwide. The primary outcome was a change in mean trough tacrolimus concentration. Additionally, changes in tacrolimus intra-patient coefficient of variation (CoV), allograft function, requirement for dose adjustments, and episodes of biopsy-proven rejection were evaluated. Retrospective cohort study in 37 pediatric renal transplant recipients who switched to Tacrolimus Sandoz®. Each patient had three pre-conversion tacrolimus trough and creatinine concentrations within the 4 months prior and three post-conversion concentrations on day 3, 10, and the next subsequent level. Mean pre- and post-conversion tacrolimus trough concentrations and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated. Tacrolimus concentration, CoV, and creatinine differences were compared by paired t test. Thirty-seven patients (41% females, age 3-18 years) were included. Average intra-patient difference in trough tacrolimus concentration was 0.05μg/l (95% CI -0.37 to 0.47). Average intra-patient difference in eGFR was -1.20 ml/min/1.73 2 (95% CI -3.53 to 1.13). Three patients had acute rejection during 12 months post-conversion compared to none during 12 months pre-conversion. Pediatric renal transplant recipients can be converted from Tacrolimus Prograf® to Sandoz® with negligible change in trough concentration, dose adjustments, or immediate allograft function. Of concern was the number of acute rejection episodes, however non-adherence contributed to at least one episode and this difference was determined clinically and statistically not significant.

  20. Brd4 Is Required for E2-Mediated Transcriptional Activation but Not Genome Partitioning of All Papillomaviruses†

    PubMed Central

    McPhillips, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Spindler, J. E.; Mitra, R.; McBride, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    Bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4) has been identified as the cellular binding target through which the E2 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 1 links the viral genome to mitotic chromosomes. This tethering ensures retention and efficient partitioning of genomes to daughter cells following cell division. E2 is also a regulator of viral gene expression and a replication factor, in association with the viral E1 protein. In this study, we show that E2 proteins from a wide range of papillomaviruses interact with Brd4, albeit with variations in efficiency. Moreover, disruption of the E2-Brd4 interaction abrogates the transactivation function of E2, indicating that Brd4 is required for E2-mediated transactivation of all papillomaviruses. However, the interaction of E2 and Brd4 is not required for genome partitioning of all papillomaviruses since a number of papillomavirus E2 proteins associate with mitotic chromosomes independently of Brd4 binding. Furthermore, mutations in E2 that disrupt the interaction with Brd4 do not affect the ability of these E2s to associate with chromosomes. Thus, while all papillomaviruses attach their genomes to cellular chromosomes to facilitate genome segregation, they target different cellular binding partners. In summary, the E2 proteins from many papillomaviruses, including the clinically important alpha genus human papillomaviruses, interact with Brd4 to mediate transcriptional activation function but not all depend on this interaction to efficiently associate with mitotic chromosomes. PMID:16973557

  1. Thymoquinone suppresses migration of LoVo human colon cancer cells by reducing prostaglandin E2 induced COX-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Lin, Yueh-Min; Li, Shin-Yi; Tu, Chuan-Chou; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Shih, Hui-Nung; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-02-21

    To identify potential anti-cancer constituents in natural extracts that inhibit cancer cell growth and migration. Our experiments used high dose thymoquinone (TQ) as an inhibitor to arrest LoVo (a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line) cancer cell growth, which was detected by cell proliferation assay and immunoblotting assay. Low dose TQ did not significantly reduce LoVo cancer cell growth. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an enzyme that is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in humans. PGE2 can promote COX-2 protein expression and tumor cell proliferation and was used as a control. Our results showed that 20 μmol/L TQ significantly reduced human LoVo colon cancer cell proliferation. TQ treatment reduced the levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-GSK3β, and β-catenin and thereby inhibited the downstream COX-2 expression. Results also showed that the reduction in COX-2 expression resulted in a reduction in PGE2 levels and the suppression of EP2 and EP4 activation. Further analysis showed that TG treatment inhibited the nuclear translocation of β-catenin in LoVo cancer cells. The levels of the cofactors LEF-1 and TCF-4 were also decreased in the nucleus following TQ treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with low dose TQ inhibited the COX-2 expression at the transcriptional level and the regulation of COX-2 expression efficiently reduced LoVo cell migration. The results were further verified in vivo by confirming the effects of TQ and/or PGE2 using tumor xenografts in nude mice. TQ inhibits LoVo cancer cell growth and migration, and this result highlights the therapeutic advantage of using TQ in combination therapy against colorectal cancer.

  2. Orientation and rotational parameters of asteroid 4179 Toutatis: new insights from Chang'e-2's close flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuhui; Ji, Jianghui; Huang, Jiangchuan; Hu, Shoucun; Hou, Xiyun; Li, Yuan; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the rotational dynamics of the ginger-shaped near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis, which was closely observed by Chang'e-2 at a distance of 770 ± 120 m from the asteroid's surface during the outbound flyby on 2012 December 13. A sequence of high-resolution images was acquired during the flyby mission. In combination with ground-based radar observations collected over the last two decades, we analyse these flyby images and determine the orientation of the asteroid at the flyby epoch. The 3-1-3 Euler angles of the conversion matrix from the J2000 ecliptic coordinate system to the body-fixed frame are evaluated to be -20.1° ± 1°, 27.6° ± 1° and 42.2° ± 1°, respectively. The least-squares method is utilized to determine the rotational parameters and spin state of Toutatis. The characteristics of the spin-state parameters and angular momentum variations are extensively studied using numerical simulations, which confirm those reported by Takahashi, Busch & Scheeres (2013, AJ, 146, 95). The large amplitude of the precession of Toutatis is assumed to be responsible for its tumbling attitude as observed from Earth. The angular momentum orientation of Toutatis is determined to be described by λ _H = 180.2°+0.2°-0.3° and β _H = -54.75°+0.15°-0.10°, implying that it has remained nearly unchanged for two decades. Furthermore, using Fourier analysis to explore the change in the orientation of the axes of Toutatis, we reveal that the two rotational periods are 5.38 and 7.40 d, respectively, consistent with the results of the earlier investigation. Hence, our investigation provides a clear understanding of the state of the rotational dynamics of Toutatis.

  3. Structure of the Human FANCL RING-Ube2T Complex Reveals Determinants of Cognate E3-E2 Selection

    PubMed Central

    Hodson, Charlotte; Purkiss, Andrew; Miles, Jennifer Anne; Walden, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The combination of an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme with an E3 ubiquitin-ligase is essential for ubiquitin modification of a substrate. Moreover, the pairing dictates both the substrate choice and the modification type. The molecular details of generic E3-E2 interactions are well established. Nevertheless, the determinants of selective, specific E3-E2 recognition are not understood. There are ∼40 E2s and ∼600 E3s giving rise to a possible ∼24,000 E3-E2 pairs. Using the Fanconi Anemia pathway exclusive E3-E2 pair, FANCL-Ube2T, we report the atomic structure of the FANCL RING-Ube2T complex, revealing a specific and extensive network of additional electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, we show that these specific interactions are required for selection of Ube2T over other E2s by FANCL. PMID:24389026

  4. Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...

  5. Skidding Coefficients on an Alluvial Soil

    Treesearch

    W. N. Darwin

    1965-01-01

    The Southern Hardwoods Laboratory is studying the influence of ground conditions and load characteristics on the performance of skidding vehicles in southern bottom lands. The exploratory test was aimed at evaluating the effects of bark on skidding coefficients, but it also yielded information on other log characteristics and on effects of soil moisture.

  6. Uses and Misuses of the Correlation Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Daniel, Larry G.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth critical analysis of the use and misuse of correlation coefficients. Various analytical and interpretational misconceptions are reviewed, beginning with the egregious assumption that correlational statistics may be useful in inferring causality. Additional misconceptions, stemming from…

  7. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  8. Correlation Coefficients: Appropriate Use and Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Schober, Patrick; Boer, Christa; Schwarte, Lothar A

    2018-05-01

    Correlation in the broadest sense is a measure of an association between variables. In correlated data, the change in the magnitude of 1 variable is associated with a change in the magnitude of another variable, either in the same (positive correlation) or in the opposite (negative correlation) direction. Most often, the term correlation is used in the context of a linear relationship between 2 continuous variables and expressed as Pearson product-moment correlation. The Pearson correlation coefficient is typically used for jointly normally distributed data (data that follow a bivariate normal distribution). For nonnormally distributed continuous data, for ordinal data, or for data with relevant outliers, a Spearman rank correlation can be used as a measure of a monotonic association. Both correlation coefficients are scaled such that they range from -1 to +1, where 0 indicates that there is no linear or monotonic association, and the relationship gets stronger and ultimately approaches a straight line (Pearson correlation) or a constantly increasing or decreasing curve (Spearman correlation) as the coefficient approaches an absolute value of 1. Hypothesis tests and confidence intervals can be used to address the statistical significance of the results and to estimate the strength of the relationship in the population from which the data were sampled. The aim of this tutorial is to guide researchers and clinicians in the appropriate use and interpretation of correlation coefficients.

  9. Absorption coefficients of silicon: A theoretical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chin-Yi

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical model with explicit formulas for calculating the optical absorption and gain coefficients of silicon is presented. It incorporates direct and indirect interband transitions and considers the effects of occupied/unoccupied carrier states. The indirect interband transition is calculated from the second-order time-independent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics by incorporating all eight possible routes of absorption or emission of photons and phonons. Absorption coefficients of silicon are calculated from these formulas. The agreements and discrepancies among the calculated results, the Rajkanan-Singh-Shewchun (RSS) formula, and Green's data are investigated and discussed. For example, the RSS formula tends to overestimate the contributions of indirect transitions for cases with high photon energy. The results show that the state occupied/unoccupied effect is almost negligible for silicon absorption coefficients up to the onset of the optical gain condition where the energy separation of Quasi-Femi levels between electrons and holes is larger than the band-gap energy. The usefulness of using the physics-based formulas, rather than semi-empirical fitting ones, for absorption coefficients in theoretical studies of photovoltaic devices is also discussed.

  10. Determination of sedimentation coefficients for small peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, P; MacPhee, C E; Howlett, G J

    1998-01-01

    Direct fitting of sedimentation velocity data with numerical solutions of the Lamm equations has been exploited to obtain sedimentation coefficients for single solutes under conditions where solvent and solution plateaus are either not available or are transient. The calculated evolution was initialized with the first experimental scan and nonlinear regression was employed to obtain best-fit values for the sedimentation and diffusion coefficients. General properties of the Lamm equations as data analysis tools were examined. This method was applied to study a set of small peptides containing amphipathic heptad repeats with the general structure Ac-YS-(AKEAAKE)nGAR-NH2, n = 2, 3, or 4. Sedimentation velocity analysis indicated single sedimenting species with sedimentation coefficients (s(20,w) values) of 0.37, 0.45, and 0.52 S, respectively, in good agreement with sedimentation coefficients predicted by hydrodynamic theory. The described approach can be applied to synthetic boundary and conventional loading experiments, and can be extended to analyze sedimentation data for both large and small macromolecules in order to define shape, heterogeneity, and state of association. PMID:9449347

  11. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  12. The Seebeck coefficient of superionic conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2015-01-28

    We present a theory of the anomalous Seebeck coefficient found in the superionic conductor Cu{sub 2}Se. It has a phase transition at T = 400 K where the cations disorder but the anions do not. This disorder gives a temperature-dependent width to the electronic states in the conduction band. This width provides the anomalous Seebeck contribution.

  13. Friction Coefficient Determination by Electrical Resistance Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunyagi, A.; Kandrai, K.; Fülöp, Z.; Kapusi, Z.; Simon, A.

    2018-01-01

    A simple and low-cost, DIY-type, Arduino-driven experiment is presented for the study of friction and measurement of the friction coefficient, using a conductive rubber cord as a force sensor. It is proposed for high-school or college/university-level students. We strongly believe that it is worthwhile planning, designing and performing Arduino…

  14. Molecular Diffusion Coefficients: Experimental Determination and Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are laboratory methods which allow the demonstration and determination of the diffusion coefficients of compounds ranging in size from water to small proteins. Included are the procedures involving the use of a spectrometer, UV cell, triterated agar, and oxygen diffusion. Results including quantification are described. (CW)

  15. Experimental Influence Coefficients and Vibration Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Kordes, Eldon E.

    1959-01-01

    Test results are presented for both symmetrical and antisymmetrical static loading of a wing model mounted on a three-point support system. The first six free-free vibration modes were determined experimentally. A comparison is made of the symmetrical nodal patterns and frequencies with the symmetrical nodal patterns and frequencies calculated from the experimental influence coefficients.

  16. The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The…

  17. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  18. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  19. Drag coefficient Variability and Thermospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Kenneth

    Satellite drag coefficients depend upon a variety of factors: The shape of the satellite, its altitude, the eccentricity of its orbit, the temperature and mean molecular mass of the ambient atmosphere, and the time in the sunspot cycle. At altitudes where the mean free path of the atmospheric molecules is large compared to the dimensions of the satellite, the drag coefficients can be determined from the theory of free-molecule flow. The dependence on altitude is caused by the concentration of atomic oxygen which plays an important role by its ability to adsorb on the satellite surface and thereby affect the energy loss of molecules striking the surface. The eccentricity of the orbit determines the satellite velocity at perigee, and therefore the energy of the incident molecules relative to the energy of adsorption of atomic oxygen atoms on the surface. The temperature of the ambient atmosphere determines the extent to which the random thermal motion of the molecules influences the momentum transfer to the satellite. The time in the sunspot cycle affects the ambient temperature as well as the concentration of atomic oxygen at a particular altitude. Tables and graphs will be used to illustrate the variability of drag coefficients. Before there were any measurements of gas-surface interactions in orbit, Izakov and Cook independently made an excellent estimate that the drag coefficient of satellites of compact shape would be 2.2. That numerical value, independent of altitude, was used by Jacchia to construct his model from the early measurements of satellite drag. Consequently, there is an altitude dependent bias in the model. From the sparce orbital experiments that have been done, we know that the molecules which strike satellite surfaces rebound in a diffuse angular distribution with an energy loss given by the energy accommodation coefficient. As more evidence accumulates on the energy loss, more realistic drag coefficients are being calculated. These improved drag

  20. Anisotropy of the Seebeck and Nernst coefficients in parent compounds of the iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiak, Marcin; Babij, Michał; Wolf, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    In-plane longitudinal and transverse thermoelectric phenomena in two parent compounds of iron-based superconductors are studied. Namely, the Seebeck (S ) and Nernst (ν) coefficients were measured in the temperature range 10-300 K for BaF e2A s2 and CaF e2A s2 single crystals that were detwinned in situ. The thermoelectric response shows sizable anisotropy in the spin density wave (SDW) state for both compounds, while some dissimilarities in the vicinity of the SDW transition can be attributed to the different nature of the phase change in BaF e2A s2 and CaF e2A s2 . Temperature dependences of S and ν can be described within a two-band model that contains a contribution from highly mobile, probably Dirac, electrons. The Dirac band seems to be rather isotropic, whereas most of the anisotropy in the transport phenomena could be attributed to "regular" holelike charge carriers. We also observe that the off-diagonal element of the Peltier tensor αx y is not the same for the a and b orthorhombic axes, which indicates that the widely used Mott formula is not applicable to the SDW state of iron-based superconductors.

  1. Layer coefficients for NHDOT pavement materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janoo, Vincent C.

    1994-09-01

    In 1992, the New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) experimented with the use of reclaimed asphalt concrete as a base course material, identified by NHDOT as reclaimed stabilized base (RSB). The RSB and a control test section were placed on Interstate 93 between exits 18 and 19. The RSB test section was designed to the same structural number (SN) as the control. To evaluate the structural capacity of these test sections, the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) conducted deflection tests using a Dynatest 8000 falling weight deflectometer (FWD). Preliminary analysis of the results by NHDOT personnel showed higher deflection in the reclaimed asphalt concrete test sections. The explanation was that the layer coefficient used for the RSB layer in the design was probably incorrect. A total of 10 test sections constituting the base course materials used by NHDOT were built near Bow, New Hampshire. CRREL evaluated and estimated the layer coefficients of the base course materials. The test program was developed to characterize the material in more than one way. Tests were conducted with the heavy weight deflectometer (HWD), dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) and the Clegg hammer. In situ California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were also conducted. The deflection from the HWD were used with the WESDEF back calculation program to determine the layer moduli. The moduli were than used with the AASHTO Design Guide to calculate the layer coefficients. The layer coefficients were also determined with the method proposed by Rohde. The CBR values from the Clegg hammer, in situ CBR and DCP tests were also used in the relationships in the HDM model to determine the layer coefficients.

  2. Towards spontaneous parametric down-conversion at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akatiev, Dmitrii; Boldyrev, Kirill; Kuzmin, Nikolai; Latypov, Ilnur; Popova, Marina; Shkalikov, Andrey; Kalachev, Alexey

    2017-10-01

    The possibility of observing spontaneous parametric down-conversion in doped nonlinear crystals at low temperatures, which would be useful for combining heralded single-photon sources and quantum memories, is studied theoretically. The ordinary refractive index of a lithium niobate crystal doped with magnesium oxide LiNbO3:MgO is measured at liquid nitrogen and helium temperatures. On the basis of the experimental data, the coefficients of the Sellmeier equation are determined for the temperatures from 5 to 300 K. In addition, a poling period of the nonlinear crystal has been calculated for observing type-0 spontaneous parametric down-conversion (ooo-synchronism) at the liquid helium temperature under pumping at the wavelength of λp = 532 nm and emission of the signal field at the wavelength of λs = 794 nm, which corresponds to the resonant absorption line of Tm3+ doped ions.

  3. Second-order Born calculation of coplanar symmetric (e, 2e) process on Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Zhi; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Ya-Jun

    2014-06-01

    The second-order distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) method is employed to investigate the triple differential cross sections (TDCS) of coplanar doubly symmetric (e, 2e) collisions for magnesium at excess energies of 6 eV-20 eV. Comparing with the standard first-order DWBA calculations, the inclusion of the second-order Born term in the scattering amplitude improves the degree of agreement with experiments, especially for backward scattering region of TDCS. This indicates that the present second-order Born term is capable to give a reasonable correction to DWBA model in studying coplanar symmetric (e, 2e) problems of two-valence-electron target in low energy range.

  4. RANTES release by human airway smooth muscle: effects of prostaglandin E(2) and fenoterol.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, N; Belvisi, M G; Patel, H J; Chung, K F; Yacoub, M H; Mitchell, J A

    2001-12-21

    In human airway smooth muscle cells, the levels of RANTES were increased upon stimulation with interleukin-1beta together with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (10 ng ml(-1) for each). In this study, we have assessed the effects of prostaglandin E(2) and the beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, fenoterol on RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) release by these cells. The levels of RANTES released by human airway smooth muscle cells were measured after 24 h of treatment. Prostaglandin E(2) and fenoterol, only in presence of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10(-6) M), provoked a concentration-dependent reduction in RANTES release. These data suggest that, in settings where cyclo-oxygenase activity is low, both drugs may relieve the symptoms of airway diseases by reducing RANTES production.

  5. E2 enzyme inhibition by stabilization of a low affinity interface with ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    St-Cyr, Daniel J.; Ziemba, Amy; Garg, Pankaj; Plamondon, Serge; Auer, Manfred; Sidhu, Sachdev; Marinier, Anne; Kleiger, Gary; Tyers, Mike; Sicheri, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Weak protein interactions between ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) enzymes that mediate its covalent attachment to substrates serve to position ubiquitin for optimal catalytic transfer. We show that a small molecule inhibitor of the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Cdc34A, called CC0651, acts by trapping a weak interaction between ubiquitin and the E2 donor ubiquitin binding site. A structure of the ternary CC0651-Cdc34A-ubiquitin complex reveals that the inhibitor engages a composite binding pocket formed from Cdc34A and ubiquitin. CC0651 also suppresses the spontaneous hydrolysis rate of the Cdc34A-ubiquitin thioester, without overtly affecting the interaction between Cdc34A and the RING domain subunit of the E3 enzyme. Stabilization of the numerous other weak interactions between ubiquitin and UPS enzymes by small molecules may be a feasible strategy to selectively inhibit different UPS activities. PMID:24316736

  6. Spectroscopic ellipsometry study on E2 peak splitting of Si-Ge short period superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. D.; Klein, M. V.; Baribeau, J.-M.; Hwang, S. H.; Whang, K. W.; Yoon, E.

    1997-06-01

    We report spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) studies on (Si)2(Ge)12, (Si)6(Ge)2, and (Si)12(Ge)2 short period superlattices (SLs) whose optical response has not been reported yet. Multilayer calculations enabled us to determine the dielectric response of the superlattice layers. We report the clear observation of splitting of the E2 peak in (Si)m(Ge)n superlattices contrary to the previous SE report that the separation was observed only in larger period SLs.

  7. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Performance Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore; Wilson, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) since 2006. A key element of the ASRG Project is providing life, reliability, and performance testing of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). For this purpose, four pairs of ASCs capable of operating to 850 C and designated with the model number ASC-E2, were delivered by Sunpower of Athens, OH, to GRC in 2010. The ASC-E2s underwent a series of tests that included workmanship vibration testing, performance mapping, and extended operation. Workmanship vibration testing was performed following fabrication of each convertor to verify proper hardware build. Performance mapping consisted of operating each convertor at various conditions representing the range expected during a mission. Included were conditions representing beginning-of-mission (BOM), end-of-mission (EOM), and fueling. This same series of tests was performed by Sunpower prior to ASC-E2 delivery. The data generated during the GRC test were compared to performance before delivery. Extended operation consisted of a 500-hour period of operation with conditions maintained at the BOM point. This was performed to demonstrate steady convertor performance following performance mapping. Following this initial 500-hour period, the ASC-E2s will continue extended operation, controller development and special durability testing, during which the goal is to accumulate tens of thousands of hours of operation. Data collected during extended operation will support reliability analysis. Performance data from these tests is summarized in this paper.

  8. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Performance Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore; Wilson, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) since 2006. A key element of the ASRG Project is providing life, reliability, and performance testing of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). For this purpose, four pairs of ASCs capable of operating to 850 C and designated with the model number ASC-E2, were delivered by Sunpower of Athens, Ohio, to GRC in 2010. The ASC-E2s underwent a series of tests that included workmanship vibration testing, performance mapping, and extended operation. Workmanship vibration testing was performed following fabrication of each convertor to verify proper hardware build. Performance mapping consisted of operating each convertor at various conditions representing the range expected during a mission. Included were conditions representing beginning-of-mission (BOM), end-of-mission (EOM), and fueling. This same series of tests was performed by Sunpower prior to ASC-E2 delivery. The data generated during the GRC test were compared to performance before delivery. Extended operation consisted of a 500-hr period of operation with conditions maintained at the BOM point. This was performed to demonstrate steady convertor performance following performance mapping. Following this initial 500-hr period, the ASC-E2s will continue extended operation, controller development and special durability testing, during which the goal is to accumulate tens of thousands of hours of operation. Data collected during extended operation will support reliability analysis. Performance data from these tests is summarized in this paper.

  9. Probing the E2 properties of the scissors mode with real photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Tobias; Pietralla, Norbert; Beller, Jacob; Derya, Vera; Löher, Bastian; Savran, Deniz; Tornow, Werner; Werner, Volker; Zilges, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    The E2/M1 multipole mixing ratio δ1→2 of the 1+ sc → 2+ 1 γ-ray transition of 156Gd and 164Dy has been measured using the linearly polarized photon beams of the HIγS facility. The employed method of photonscattering experiments in combination with polarized, quasi-monochromatic beams and a dedicated detector setup is highly sensitive to the electric quadrupole-decay properties of the scissors mode.

  10. Electrophile-modified lipoic derivatives of PDC-E2 elicits anti-mitochondrial antibody reactivity.

    PubMed

    Naiyanetr, Phornnop; Butler, Jeffrey D; Meng, Liping; Pfeiff, Janice; Kenny, Thomas P; Guggenheim, Kathryn G; Reiger, Roman; Lam, Kit; Kurth, Mark J; Ansari, Aftab A; Coppel, Ross L; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Gershwin, M Eric; Leung, Patrick S C

    2011-11-01

    Our laboratory has hypothesized that xenobiotic modification of the native lipoyl moiety of the major mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), may lead to loss of self-tolerance in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). This thesis is based on the finding of readily detectable levels of immunoreactivity of PBC sera against extensive panels of protein microarrays containing mimics of the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 and subsequent quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Importantly, we have demonstrated that murine immunization with one such mimic, 2-octynoic acid coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA), induces anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and cholangitis. Based upon these data, we have focused on covalent modifications of the lipoic acid disulfide ring and subsequent analysis of such xenobiotics coupled to a 15mer of PDC-E2 for immunoreactivity against a broad panel of sera from patients with PBC and controls. Our results demonstrate that AMA-positive PBC sera demonstrate marked reactivity against 6,8-bis(acetylthio)octanoic acid, implying that chemical modification of the lipoyl ring, i.e. disruption of the S-S disulfide, renders lipoic acid to its reduced form that will promote xenobiotic modification. This observation is particularly significant in light of the function of the lipoyl moiety in electron transport of which the catalytic disulfide constantly opens and closes and, thus, raises the intriguing thesis that common electrophilic agents, i.e. acetaminophen or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may lead to xenobiotic modification in genetically susceptible individuals that results in the generation of AMAs and ultimately clinical PBC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Higher Order Solvation and Temperature on SN2 and E2 Reactivity (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-05

    effects in microsolvated gas-phase E2 reactions, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 18 (6) (2007) 1046–1051. [16] J.V. Seeley , R.A. Morris, A.A. Viggiano...17] J.V. Seeley , et al., Temperature dependence of the rate constants and branching ratios for the reactions of Cl(D2O)1–3 with CH3Br and thermal

  12. Salivary Prostaglandin E2: Role in Tick-Induced Allergy to Red Meat.

    PubMed

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Chmelař, Jindrǐch; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2017-07-01

    Tick-induced allergy to red meat is associated with anti-α-Gal IgE antibody levels. We propose that tick salivary prostaglandin E2 triggers antibody class switching in mature B cells, increasing the levels of anti-α-Gal IgE antibodies. Immune tolerance to α-Gal in blood type B individuals might reduce the risk to this allergy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production and actions of the anandamide metabolite prostamide E2 in the renal medulla.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Joseph K; Li, Cao; Xia, Min; Poklis, Justin L; Lichtman, Aron H; Abdullah, Rehab A; Dewey, William L; Li, Pin-Lan

    2012-09-01

    Medullipin has been proposed to be an antihypertensive lipid hormone released from the renal medulla in response to increased arterial pressure and renal medullary blood flow. Because anandamide (AEA) possesses characteristics of this purported hormone, the present study tested the hypothesis that AEA or one of its metabolites represents medullipin. AEA was demonstrated to be enriched in the kidney medulla compared with cortex. Western blotting and enzymatic analyses of renal cortical and medullary microsomes revealed opposite patterns of enrichment of two AEA-metabolizing enzymes, with fatty acid amide hydrolase higher in the renal cortex and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) higher in the renal medulla. In COX-2 reactions with renal medullary microsomes, prostamide E2, the ethanolamide of prostaglandin E₂, was the major product detected. Intramedullarily infused AEA dose-dependently increased urine volume and sodium and potassium excretion (15-60 nmol/kg/min) but had little effect on mean arterial pressure (MAP). The renal excretory effects of AEA were blocked by intravenous infusion of celecoxib (0.1 μg/kg/min), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of a prostamide intermediate. Plasma kinetic analysis revealed longer elimination half-lives for AEA and prostamide E2 compared with prostaglandin E₂. Intravenous prostamide E2 reduced MAP and increased renal blood flow (RBF), actions opposite to those of angiotensin II. Coinfusion of prostamide E2 inhibited angiotensin II effects on MAP and RBF. These results suggest that AEA and/or its prostamide metabolites in the renal medulla may represent medullipin and function as a regulator of body fluid and MAP.

  14. Genetic variation in the prostaglandin E2 pathway is associated with primary graft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Joshua M; Akimova, Tatiana; Kazi, Altaf; Shah, Rupal J; Cantu, Edward; Feng, Rui; Levine, Matthew H; Kawut, Steven M; Meyer, Nuala J; Lee, James C; Hancock, Wayne W; Aplenc, Richard; Ware, Lorraine B; Palmer, Scott M; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Lama, Vibha N; Weinacker, Ann; Orens, Jonathan; Wille, Keith; Crespo, Maria; Lederer, David J; Arcasoy, Selim; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Christie, Jason D

    2014-03-01

    Biologic pathways with significant genetic conservation across human populations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary graft dysfunction (PGD). The evaluation of the role of recipient genetic variation in PGD has thus far been limited to single, candidate gene analyses. We sought to identify genetic variants in lung transplant recipients that are responsible for increased risk of PGD using a two-phase large-scale genotyping approach. Phase 1 was a large-scale candidate gene association study of the multicenter, prospective Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. Phase 2 included functional evaluation of selected variants and a bioinformatics screening of variants identified in phase 1. After genetic data quality control, 680 lung transplant recipients were included in the analysis. In phase 1, a total of 17 variants were significantly associated with PGD, four of which were in the prostaglandin E2 family of genes. Among these were a coding variant in the gene encoding prostaglandin E2 synthase (PTGES2; P = 9.3 × 10(-5)) resulting in an arginine to histidine substitution at amino acid position 298, and three variants in a block containing the 5' promoter and first intron of the PTGER4 gene (encoding prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype 4; all P < 5 × 10(-5)). Functional evaluation in regulatory T cells identified that rs4434423A in the PTGER4 gene was associated with differential suppressive function of regulatory T cells. Further research aimed at replication and additional functional insight into the role played by genetic variation in prostaglandin E2 synthetic and signaling pathways in PGD is warranted.

  15. Genetic Variation in the Prostaglandin E2 Pathway Is Associated with Primary Graft Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Akimova, Tatiana; Kazi, Altaf; Shah, Rupal J.; Cantu, Edward; Feng, Rui; Levine, Matthew H.; Kawut, Steven M.; Meyer, Nuala J.; Lee, James C.; Hancock, Wayne W.; Aplenc, Richard; Ware, Lorraine B.; Palmer, Scott M.; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Lama, Vibha N.; Weinacker, Ann; Orens, Jonathan; Wille, Keith; Crespo, Maria; Lederer, David J.; Arcasoy, Selim; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Christie, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Biologic pathways with significant genetic conservation across human populations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary graft dysfunction (PGD). The evaluation of the role of recipient genetic variation in PGD has thus far been limited to single, candidate gene analyses. Objectives: We sought to identify genetic variants in lung transplant recipients that are responsible for increased risk of PGD using a two-phase large-scale genotyping approach. Methods: Phase 1 was a large-scale candidate gene association study of the multicenter, prospective Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. Phase 2 included functional evaluation of selected variants and a bioinformatics screening of variants identified in phase 1. Measurements and Main Results: After genetic data quality control, 680 lung transplant recipients were included in the analysis. In phase 1, a total of 17 variants were significantly associated with PGD, four of which were in the prostaglandin E2 family of genes. Among these were a coding variant in the gene encoding prostaglandin E2 synthase (PTGES2; P = 9.3 × 10−5) resulting in an arginine to histidine substitution at amino acid position 298, and three variants in a block containing the 5′ promoter and first intron of the PTGER4 gene (encoding prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype 4; all P < 5 × 10−5). Functional evaluation in regulatory T cells identified that rs4434423A in the PTGER4 gene was associated with differential suppressive function of regulatory T cells. Conclusions: Further research aimed at replication and additional functional insight into the role played by genetic variation in prostaglandin E2 synthetic and signaling pathways in PGD is warranted. PMID:24467603

  16. INDOOR EMISSIONS FROM CONVERSION VARNISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conversion varnishes are two-component, acid-catalyzed varnishes that are commonly used to finish cabinets. They are valued for their water- and stain-resistance, as well as their appearance. They have been found, however, to contribute to indoor emissions of organic compounds. F...

  17. Technology for satellite power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. P.; Gouker, M. A.; Summers, C.; Gallagher, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for satellite electromagnetic energy transfer and power conversion at millimeter and infrared wavelengths are discussed. The design requirements for rectenna receiving elements are reviewed for both coherent radiation sources and Earth thermal infrared emission. Potential power transmitters including gyrotrons, free electron lasers, and CO2 lasers are assessed along with the rectification properties of metal-oxide metal diode power converters.

  18. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  19. A Conversation with Edwin Shneidman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestian, John

    2010-01-01

    This article is a transcript of a conversation that took place with Edwin Shneidman, PhD, on August 19, 2008. Recent advances in machine learning, particularly neurocognitive computing, have provided a fresh approach to the idea of using computers to analyze the language of the suicidal person. Here this notion and many others are discussed.

  20. Sex Differences in Children's Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Anita

    1979-01-01

    The recorded conversations of 40 preschool children in small groups were analyzed for interruptions, overlaps, lapses, and gaps. Significant differences were found between heterogeneous and homogeneous groups for interruptions, with boys interrupting girls at a two to one ratio. (Author/RL)

  1. Conversation with Marcia Baxter Magolda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Gideon L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the reconstruction of conversations and e-mail correspondences with Dr. Marcia Baxter Magolda regarding students'"ways of knowing." Dr. Baxter Magolda reveals various ways in which students beginning college learn, offers examples of effective teaching, and exemplifies principles for promoting learning. (VWC)

  2. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavi, A.

    1977-01-01

    Energy Research and Development Administration research progress in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is outlined. The development program is being focused on cost effective heat exchangers; ammonia is generally used as the heat exchange fluid. Projected costs for energy production by OTEC vary between $1000 to $1700 per kW.

  3. Catholic identity: realized in conversation.

    PubMed

    Neale, A

    1997-01-01

    Catholic literature leaders must constantly engage the Catholic tradition, because it provides the framework for everything we do. The way they can do this is through conversation--discussion about the profound values and philosophical and theological assumptions that are at the heart of our ministry. Yet many healthcare boards and senior managers do not engage in such conversations. This is a serious omission, with potentially serious consequences. Too often mission and pastoral care values are regarded as separate from the business aspects of a healthcare organization. If we are to understand and integrate our mission into our healthcare work, this must change. The entire organization must make a commitment to foster an understanding of Catholic identity through conversation. As important as the dialogue is, some Catholic healthcare leaders let obstacles prevent them from delving into Catholic identity. They may not understand it, or they may be deterred by our cultural tendency to regard religion as personal, not part of the business realm. Some may be embarrassed, uncomfortable with abstraction, or reluctant to spend the time required. To encourage the conversation among Catholic healthcare leaders, we may take a lesson from our counterparts in Catholic education, who struggle with the same questions. A model Catholic university, where Catholic values are incorporated at all levels, may be a model for Catholic healthcare.

  4. Energy conversion and storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, E. J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: (1) production of new synthetic fuels; (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (4) characterization of complex chemical processes; and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  5. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  6. Conversations to Transform Geometry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szydlik, Jennifer Earles; Parrott, Amy; Belnap, Jason Knight

    2016-01-01

    Classroom culture is negotiated and established through both conversations and practices. Traditionally, teachers and researchers have focused primarily on the individual and social construction of mathematical content--that is, students' conceptual understanding and procedural skills--through mathematical actions and practices. This article…

  7. Welcome to the Great Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    No matter how hard teachers and administrators work, they cannot fulfill society's enormous list of demands for schools without addressing the four basics of public sentiment: community understanding, trust, permission, and support. They can do this through the Great Conversation, a positive, ongoing discussion between educators and the public…

  8. Conversion events in gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene clusters containing multiple similar genomic regions in close proximity are of great interest for biomedical studies because of their associations with inherited diseases. However, such regions are difficult to analyze due to their structural complexity and their complicated evolutionary histories, reflecting a variety of large-scale mutational events. In particular, conversion events can mislead inferences about the relationships among these regions, as traced by traditional methods such as construction of phylogenetic trees or multi-species alignments. Results To correct the distorted information generated by such methods, we have developed an automated pipeline called CHAP (Cluster History Analysis Package) for detecting conversion events. We used this pipeline to analyze the conversion events that affected two well-studied gene clusters (α-globin and β-globin) and three gene clusters for which comparative sequence data were generated from seven primate species: CCL (chemokine ligand), IFN (interferon), and CYP2abf (part of cytochrome P450 family 2). CHAP is freely available at http://www.bx.psu.edu/miller_lab. Conclusions These studies reveal the value of characterizing conversion events in the context of studying gene clusters in complex genomes. PMID:21798034

  9. Direct digital conversion detector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

    1995-06-01

    Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

  10. Restarts in Conversation and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Raymond F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes restarts, a common feature of conversation, in literary discourse. The term "restart" refers to the repetition of a word or words within an utterance by the same speaker. Restarts in literary discourse are of two types: (1) those produced by the characters in their "real" narrative world and (2) those produced by the narrators themselves.…

  11. Spiritual Conversation as Religiously Educative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Díaz, Luz Marina

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes spiritual conversation as a religiously educative activity. Revelation as the relational activity of speaking-listening between the human and the divine in daily life, and education as an activity to show someone how to live and die, are key concepts for this study. This work includes a study of narrative at the heart of…

  12. Levels of the E2 interacting protein TopBP1 modulate papillomavirus maintenance stage replication

    SciTech Connect

    Kanginakudru, Sriramana, E-mail: skangina@iu.edu; DeSmet, Marsha, E-mail: mdesmet@iupui.edu; Thomas, Yanique, E-mail: ysthomas@umail.iu.edu

    2015-04-15

    The evolutionarily conserved DNA topoisomerase II beta-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) functions in DNA replication, DNA damage response, and cell survival. We analyzed the role of TopBP1 in human and bovine papillomavirus genome replication. Consistent with prior reports, TopBP1 co-localized in discrete nuclear foci and was in complex with papillomavirus E2 protein. Similar to E2, TopBP1 is recruited to the region of the viral origin of replication during G1/S and early S phase. TopBP1 knockdown increased, while over-expression decreased transient virus replication, without affecting cell cycle. Similarly, using cell lines harboring HPV-16 or HPV-31 genome, TopBP1 knockdown increased while over-expression reducedmore » viral copy number relative to genomic DNA. We propose a model in which TopBP1 serves dual roles in viral replication: it is essential for initiation of replication yet it restricts viral copy number. - Highlights: • Protein interaction study confirmed In-situ interaction between TopBP1 and E2. • TopBP1 present at papillomavirus ori in G1/S and early S phase of cell cycle. • TopBP1 knockdown increased, over-expression reduced virus replication. • TopBP1 protein level change did not influence cell survival or cell cycle. • TopBP1 displaced from papillomavirus ori after initiation of replication.« less

  13. E2FM: an encrypted and compressed full-text index for collections of genomic sequences.

    PubMed

    Montecuollo, Ferdinando; Schmid, Giovannni; Tagliaferri, Roberto

    2017-09-15

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms and, more generally, high-throughput technologies are giving rise to an exponential growth in the size of nucleotide sequence databases. Moreover, many emerging applications of nucleotide datasets-as those related to personalized medicine-require the compliance with regulations about the storage and processing of sensitive data. We have designed and carefully engineered E 2 FM -index, a new full-text index in minute space which was optimized for compressing and encrypting nucleotide sequence collections in FASTA format and for performing fast pattern-search queries. E 2 FM -index allows to build self-indexes which occupy till to 1/20 of the storage required by the input FASTA file, thus permitting to save about 95% of storage when indexing collections of highly similar sequences; moreover, it can exactly search the built indexes for patterns in times ranging from few milliseconds to a few hundreds milliseconds, depending on pattern length. Source code is available at https://github.com/montecuollo/E2FM . ferdinando.montecuollo@unicampania.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Multiple E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes regulate human cytomegalovirus US2-mediated immunoreceptor downregulation.

    PubMed

    van de Weijer, Michael L; Schuren, Anouk B C; van den Boomen, Dick J H; Mulder, Arend; Claas, Frans H J; Lehner, Paul J; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J

    2017-09-01

    Misfolded endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are dislocated towards the cytosol and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in a process called ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). During infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), the viral US2 protein targets HLA class I molecules (HLA-I) for degradation via ERAD to avoid elimination by the immune system. US2-mediated degradation of HLA-I serves as a paradigm of ERAD and has facilitated the identification of TRC8 (also known as RNF139) as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. No specific E2 enzymes had previously been described for cooperation with TRC8. In this study, we used a lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 library targeting all known human E2 enzymes to assess their involvement in US2-mediated HLA-I downregulation. We identified multiple E2 enzymes involved in this process, of which UBE2G2 was crucial for the degradation of various immunoreceptors. UBE2J2, on the other hand, counteracted US2-induced ERAD by downregulating TRC8 expression. These findings indicate the complexity of cellular quality control mechanisms, which are elegantly exploited by HCMV to elude the immune system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. E2F4 Promotes Neuronal Regeneration and Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, Shota; Nishimura, Yuhei; Hayakawa, Yuka; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Okabe, Shiko; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Mammals exhibit poor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), whereas non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit significant spontaneous recovery after SCI. The mechanisms underlying this difference have not been fully elucidated; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate these mechanisms. Using comparative transcriptome analysis, we demonstrated that genes related to cell cycle were significantly enriched in the genes specifically dysregulated in zebrafish SCI. Most of the cell cycle-related genes dysregulated in zebrafish SCI were down-regulated, possibly through activation of e2f4. Using a larval zebrafish model of SCI, we demonstrated that the recovery of locomotive function and neuronal regeneration after SCI were significantly inhibited in zebrafish treated with an E2F4 inhibitor. These results suggest that activation of e2f4 after SCI may be responsible, at least in part, for the significant recovery in zebrafish. This provides novel insight into the lack of recovery after SCI in mammals and informs potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27242526

  16. A novel E2 box-GATA element modulates Cdc6 transcription during human cells polyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Vilaboa, Nuria; Bermejo, Rodrigo; Martinez, Pilar; Bornstein, Rafael; Calés, Carmela

    2004-01-01

    Cdc6 is a key regulator of the strict alternation of S and M phases during the mitotic cell cycle. In mammalian and plant cells that physiologically become polyploid, cdc6 is transcriptionally and post-translationally regulated. We have recently reported that Cdc6 levels are maintained in megakaryoblastic HEL cells, but severely downregulated by ectopic expression of transcriptional repressor Drosophila melanogaster escargot. Here, we show that cdc6 promoter activity is upregulated during megakaryocytic differentiation of HEL endoreplicating cells, and that Escargot interferes with such activation. Transactivation experiments showed that a 1.7 kb region located at 2800 upstream cdc6 transcription initiation site behaved as a potent enhancer in endoreplicating cells only. This activity was mainly dependent on a novel cis-regulatory element composed by an E2 box overlapping a GATA motif. Ectopic Escargot could bind this regulatory element in vitro and endogenous GATA-1 and E2A formed specific complexes in megakaryoblastic cells as well as in primary megakaryocytes. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that both transcription factors were occupying the E2 box/GATA site in vivo. Altogether, these data suggest that cdc6 expression could be actively maintained during megakaryocytic differentiation through transcriptional mechanisms involving specific cis- and trans-regulatory elements. PMID:15590906

  17. CMIP5 Historical Simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ronald Lindsay; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.; Tausnev, Nick; Bauer, Susanne E.; DelGenio, Anthony D.; Kelley, Max; Lo, Ken K.; Ruedy, Reto; Shindell, Drew T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Observations of climate change during the CMIP5 extended historical period (1850-2012) are compared to trends simulated by six versions of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE2 Earth System Model. The six models are constructed from three versions of the ModelE2 atmospheric general circulation model, distinguished by their treatment of atmospheric composition and the aerosol indirect effect, combined with two ocean general circulation models, HYCOM and Russell. Forcings that perturb the model climate during the historical period are described. Five-member ensemble averages from each of the six versions of ModelE2 simulate trends of surface air temperature, atmospheric temperature, sea ice and ocean heat content that are in general agreement with observed trends, although simulated warming is slightly excessive within the past decade. Only simulations that include increasing concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases match the warming observed during the twentieth century. Differences in twentieth-century warming among the six model versions can be attributed to differences in climate sensitivity, aerosol and ozone forcing, and heat uptake by the deep ocean. Coupled models with HYCOM export less heat to the deep ocean, associated with reduced surface warming in regions of deepwater formation, but greater warming elsewhere at high latitudes along with reduced sea ice. All ensembles show twentieth-century annular trends toward reduced surface pressure at southern high latitudes and a poleward shift of the midlatitude westerlies, consistent with observations.

  18. Conservation of direct dynamics in sterically hindered SN2/E2 reactions.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Eduardo; Meyer, Jennifer; Michaelsen, Tim; Stei, Martin; Wester, Roland

    2018-01-21

    Nucleophilic substitution (S N 2) and base-induced elimination (E2), two indispensable reactions in organic synthesis, are commonly assumed to proceed under stereospecific conditions. Understanding the way in which the reactants pre-orient in these reactions, that is its stereodynamics, is essential in order to achieve a detailed atomistic picture and control over such processes. Using crossed beam velocity map imaging, we study the effect of steric hindrance in reactions of Cl - and CN - with increasingly methylated alkyl iodides by monitoring the product ion energy and scattering angle. For both attacking anions the rebound mechanism, indicative of a direct S N 2 pathway, is found to contribute to the reaction at high relative collision energies despite being increasingly hindered. An additional forward scattering mechanism, ascribed to a direct E2 reaction, also contributes at these energies. Inspection of the product energy distributions confirms the direct and fast character of both mechanisms as opposed to an indirect reaction mechanism which leads to statistical energy redistribution in the reaction complex. This work demonstrates that nonstatistical dynamics and energetics govern S N 2 and E2 pathways even in sterically hindered exchange reaction systems.

  19. Conservation of direct dynamics in sterically hindered SN2/E2 reactions

    PubMed Central

    Carrascosa, Eduardo; Meyer, Jennifer; Michaelsen, Tim; Stei, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Nucleophilic substitution (SN2) and base-induced elimination (E2), two indispensable reactions in organic synthesis, are commonly assumed to proceed under stereospecific conditions. Understanding the way in which the reactants pre-orient in these reactions, that is its stereodynamics, is essential in order to achieve a detailed atomistic picture and control over such processes. Using crossed beam velocity map imaging, we study the effect of steric hindrance in reactions of Cl– and CN– with increasingly methylated alkyl iodides by monitoring the product ion energy and scattering angle. For both attacking anions the rebound mechanism, indicative of a direct SN2 pathway, is found to contribute to the reaction at high relative collision energies despite being increasingly hindered. An additional forward scattering mechanism, ascribed to a direct E2 reaction, also contributes at these energies. Inspection of the product energy distributions confirms the direct and fast character of both mechanisms as opposed to an indirect reaction mechanism which leads to statistical energy redistribution in the reaction complex. This work demonstrates that nonstatistical dynamics and energetics govern SN2 and E2 pathways even in sterically hindered exchange reaction systems. PMID:29629138

  20. Studies on orientation and rotation parameters of 4179 Toutatis from Chang'e-2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuhui; Ji, Jianghui; Hu, Shoucun

    The ginger-shaped near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis is close to a 4:1 orbital resonance with the Earth and has made close Earth flybys approximately every four years in the recent 20 years. China’s lunar probe Chang’e-2 achieved a successful flyby the Toutatis on 13th Dec 2012 during its most recent flyby of Earth. During the mission, a series of image with high resolution has been obtained. Combined with the radar model of Toutatis, these figures show the attitude of the asteroid from the camera’s point of view and the orientation of it is then deduced based on the attitude of the camera and the relative position between 4179 Toutatis and Chang'e-2 in our works. According to the previous ground-based observations and works on the rotation parameters of Toutatis, this paper studies the rotating rate of the asteroid in accordance with the imaging result of Toutatis by Chang’e-2 and puts forward a correction to the spin rate parameters.

  1. Thermally driven electrokinetic energy conversion with liquid water microjets

    DOE PAGES

    Lam, Royce K.; Gamlieli, Zach; Harris, Stephen J.; ...

    2015-11-01

    One goal of current energy research is to design systems and devices that can efficiently exploit waste heat and utilize solar or geothermal heat energy for electrical power generation. We demonstrate a novel technique exploiting water's large coefficient of thermal expansion, wherein modest thermal gradients produce the requisite high pressure for driving fast-flowing liquid water microjets, which can effect the direct conversion of the kinetic energy into electricity and gaseous hydrogen. Waste heat in thermoelectric generating plants and combustion engines, as well as solar and geothermal energy could be used to drive these systems.

  2. Thermally driven electrokinetic energy conversion with liquid water microjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Royce K.; Gamlieli, Zach; Harris, Stephen J.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2015-11-01

    A goal of current energy research is to design systems and devices that can efficiently exploit waste heat and utilize solar or geothermal heat energy for electrical power generation. We demonstrate a novel technique exploiting water's large coefficient of thermal expansion, wherein modest thermal gradients produce the requisite high pressure for driving fast-flowing liquid water microjets, which can effect the direct conversion of the kinetic energy into electricity and gaseous hydrogen. Waste heat in thermoelectric generating plants and combustion engines, as well as solar and geothermal energy could be used to drive these systems.

  3. E2F1 promote the aggressiveness of human colorectal cancer by activating the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zejun; Gong, Chaoju; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-21

    As the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, the high expression of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 (RRM2) induces cancer and contributes to tumor growth and invasion. In several colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, we found that the expression levels of RRM2 were closely related to the transcription factor E2F1. Mechanistic studies were conducted to determine the molecular basis. Ectopic overexpression of E2F1 promoted RRM2 transactivation while knockdown of E2F1 reduced the levels of RRM2 mRNA and protein. To further investigate the roles of RRM2 which was activated by E2F1 in CRC, CCK-8 assay and EdU incorporation assay were performed. Overexpression ofmore » E2F1 promoted cell proliferation in CRC cells, which was blocked by RRM2 knockdown attenuation. In the migration and invasion tests, overexpression of E2F1 enhanced the migration and invasion of CRC cells which was abrogated by silencing RRM2. Besides, overexpression of RRM2 reversed the effects of E2F1 knockdown partially in CRC cells. Examination of clinical CRC specimens demonstrated that both RRM2 and E2F1 were elevated in most cancer tissues compared to the paired normal tissues. Further analysis showed that the protein expression levels of E2F1 and RRM2 were parallel with each other and positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM), TNM stage and distant metastasis. Consistently, the patients with low E2F1 and RRM2 levels have a better prognosis than those with high levels. Therefore, we suggest that E2F1 can promote CRC proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis by regulating RRM2 transactivation. Understanding the role of E2F1 in activating RRM2 transcription will help to explain the relationship between E2F1 and RRM2 in CRC and provide a novel predictive marker for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. - Highlights: • E2F1 promotes RRM2 transactivation in CRC cells. • E2F1 promotes the proliferation of CRC cells by activating RRM2. • E2F1 promotes the migration

  4. Nondestructive hall coefficient measurements using ACPD techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicheti, Dheeraj; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled

    2018-04-01

    Hall coefficient measurements offer great opportunities as well as major challenges for nondestructive materials characterization. The Hall effect is produced by the magnetic Lorentz force acting on moving charge carriers in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The magnetic perturbation gives rise to a Hall current that is normal to the conduction current but does not directly perturb the electric potential distribution. Therefore, Hall coefficient measurements usually exploit the so-called transverse galvanomagnetic potential drop effect that arises when the Hall current is intercepted by the boundaries of the specimen and thereby produce a measurable potential drop. In contrast, no Hall potential is produced in a large plate in the presence of a uniform normal field at quasi-static low frequencies. In other words, conventional Hall coefficient measurements are inherently destructive since they require cutting the material under tests. This study investigated the feasibility of using alternating current potential drop (ACPD) techniques for nondestructive Hall coefficient measurements in plates. Specifically, the directional four-point square-electrode configuration is investigated with superimposed external magnetic field. Two methods are suggested to make Hall coefficient measurements in large plates without destructive machining. At low frequencies, constraining the bias magnetic field can replace constraining the dimensions of the specimen, which is inherently destructive. For example, when a cylindrical permanent magnet is used to provide the bias magnetic field, the peak Hall voltage is produced when the diameter of the magnet is equal to the diagonal of the square ACPD probe. Although this method is less effective than cutting the specimen to a finite size, the loss of sensitivity is less than one order of magnitude even at very low frequencies. In contrast, at sufficiently high inspection frequencies the magnetic field of the Hall current induces a

  5. A Statistical Analysis of YORP Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Jay W.; Scheeres, D.

    2013-10-01

    The YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack) effect is theorized to be a major factor in the evolution of small asteroids (<10 km) in the near-Earth and main belt populations. YORP torques, which originate from absorbed sunlight and subsequent thermal radiation, causes secular changes in an asteroid's spin rate and spin vector orientation (e.g. Rubincam, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1995). This in turn controls the magnitude and direction of the Yarkovsky effect, which causes a drift in an asteroid's heliocentric semi-major axis (Vokrouhlicky and Farinella, Nature, 2000). YORP is also thought to be responsible for the creation of multiple asteroid systems and asteroid pairs through the process of rotational fission (Pravec et al, Nature, 2010). Despite the fact that the YORP effect has been measured on several asteroids (e.g. Taylor et al, Science, 2007 and Kaasalainen et al, Nature, 2007), it has proven very difficult to predict the effect accurately from a shape model due to the sensitivity of the YORP coefficients to shape changes (Statler, Icarus, 2009). This has been especially troublesome for Itokawa, for which a very detailed shape model is available (Scheeres et al, Icarus 2007; Breiter et al, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2009). In this study, we compute the YORP coefficients for a number asteroids with detailed shape models available on the PDS-SBN. We then statistically perturb the asteroid shapes at the same resolution, creating a family of YORP coefficients for each shape. Next, we analyze the change in YORP coefficients between a shape model of accuracy obtainable from radar with one including small-scale topography on the surface as was observed on Itokawa. The combination of these families of coefficients will effectively give error bars on our knowledge of the YORP coefficients given a shape model of some accuracy. Finally, we discuss the statistical effect of boulder and craters, and the modification of these results due to recent studies on

  6. E2 superfamily of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes: constitutively active or activated through phosphorylation in the catalytic cleft.

    PubMed

    Valimberti, Ilaria; Tiberti, Matteo; Lambrughi, Matteo; Sarcevic, Boris; Papaleo, Elena

    2015-10-14

    Protein phosphorylation is a modification that offers a dynamic and reversible mechanism to regulate the majority of cellular processes. Numerous diseases are associated with aberrant regulation of phosphorylation-induced switches. Phosphorylation is emerging as a mechanism to modulate ubiquitination by regulating key enzymes in this pathway. The molecular mechanisms underpinning how phosphorylation regulates ubiquitinating enzymes, however, are elusive. Here, we show the high conservation of a functional site in E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. In catalytically active E2s, this site contains aspartate or a phosphorylatable serine and we refer to it as the conserved E2 serine/aspartate (CES/D) site. Molecular simulations of substrate-bound and -unbound forms of wild type, mutant and phosphorylated E2s, provide atomistic insight into the role of the CES/D residue for optimal E2 activity. Both the size and charge of the side group at the site play a central role in aligning the substrate lysine toward E2 catalytic cysteine to control ubiquitination efficiency. The CES/D site contributes to the fingerprint of the E2 superfamily. We propose that E2 enzymes can be divided into constitutively active or regulated families. E2s characterized by an aspartate at the CES/D site signify constitutively active E2s, whereas those containing a serine can be regulated by phosphorylation.

  7. SerpinE2, a poor biomarker of endometrial cancer, promotes the proliferation and mobility of EC cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianping; Lu, Lin

    2017-07-04

    The SerpinE2 pathway is evolutionarily conserved and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. SerpinE2 (a small ubiquitin-related modifier), like ubiquitin, conjugates SerpinE2 proteins onto lysine residues of target proteins. SerpinE2 over-expression has been found in several tumors. Here, we detected the level of SerpinE2 in 72 samples of EC tissue using immunohistochemistry to assess the role of SerpinE2 in EC prognosis. Meanwhile, we knocked down SerpinE2 by siRNA in the HTB-111 and Ishikawa EC cell lines and analyzed the viability and mobility change using an MTT assay, an annexin V/PI apoptosis assay, a wound scratch test and a transwell assay. A Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated a negative correlation between the level of SerpinE2 and the EC prognosis. Silencing SerpinE2 induced cell apoptosis and reduced the migration ability. Our data suggest SerpinE2 works as an oncogene in EC.

  8. How Does (E)-2-(Acetamidomethylene)succinate Bind to Its Hydrolase? From the Binding Process to the Final Result

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-Long; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Li, Zheng-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Xing

    2013-01-01

    The binding of (E)-2-(acetamidomethylene)succinate (E-2AMS) to E-2AMS hydrolase is crucial for biological function of the enzyme and the last step reaction of vitamin B6 biological degradation. In the present study, several molecular simulation methods, including molecular docking, conventional molecular dynamics (MD), steered MD (SMD), and free energy calculation methods, were properly integrated to investigate the detailed binding process of E-2AMS to its hydrolase and to assign the optimal enzyme-substrate complex conformation. It was demonstrated that the substrate binding conformation with trans-form amide bond is energetically preferred conformation, in which E-2AMS's pose not only ensures hydrogen bond formation of its amide oxygen atom with the vicinal oxyanion hole but also provides probability of the hydrophobic interaction between its methyl moiety and the related enzyme's hydrophobic cavity. Several key residues, Arg146, Arg167, Tyr168, Arg179, and Tyr259, orientate the E-2AMS's pose and stabilize its conformation in the active site via the hydrogen bond interaction with E-2AMS. Sequentially, the binding process of E-2AMS to E-2AMS hydrolase was studied by SMD simulation, which shows the surprising conformational reversal of E-2AMS. Several important intermediate structures and some significant residues were identified in the simulation. It is stressed that Arg146 and Arg167 are two pivotal residues responsible for the conformational reversal of E-2AMS in the binding or unbinding. Our research has shed light onto the full binding process of the substrate to E-2AMS hydrolase, which could provide more penetrating insight into the interaction of E-2AMS with the enzyme and would help in the further exploration on the catalysis mechanism. PMID:23308285

  9. Ectopic High Expression of E2-EPF Ubiquitin Carrier Protein Indicates a More Unfavorable Prognosis in Brain Glioma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Fangbo; Zhang, Shujun; Song, Yichun

    2017-04-01

    Ubiquitination of proteins meant for elimination is a primary method of eukaryotic cellular protein degradation. The ubiquitin carrier protein E2-EPF is a key degradation enzyme that is highly expressed in many tumors. However, its expression and prognostic significance in brain glioma are still unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal how the level of E2-EPF relates to prognosis in brain glioma. Thirty low-grade and 30 high-grade brain glioma samples were divided into two tissue microarrays each. Levels of E2-EPF protein were examined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the level of E2-EPF in 60 glioma and 3 normal brain tissue samples. The relationship between E2-EPF levels and prognosis was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves. E2-EPF levels were low in normal brain tissue samples but high in glioma nuclei. E2-EPF levels gradually increased as glioma grade increased (p < 0.05). Ectopic E2-EPF levels in high-grade glioma were significantly higher than in low-grade glioma (p < 0.01). The 5-year survival rate of glioma patients with high E2-EPF levels was shorter than in patients with low expression (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the 5-year survival rate of patients with ectopic E2-EPF was significantly shorter than patients with only nuclear E2-EPF (p < 0.01). These results suggest that higher E2-EPF levels, especially ectopic, are associated with higher grade glioma and shorter survival. E2-EPF levels may play a key role in predicting the prognosis for patients with brain glioma.

  10. A parameterization scheme for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and energy absorption coefficient.

    PubMed

    Midgley, S M

    2004-01-21

    A novel parameterization of x-ray interaction cross-sections is developed, and employed to describe the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient for both elements and mixtures. The new parameterization scheme addresses the Z-dependence of elemental cross-sections (per electron) using a simple function of atomic number, Z. This obviates the need for a complicated mathematical formalism. Energy dependent coefficients describe the Z-direction curvature of the cross-sections. The composition dependent quantities are the electron density and statistical moments describing the elemental distribution. We show that it is possible to describe elemental cross-sections for the entire periodic table and at energies above the K-edge (from 6 keV to 125 MeV), with an accuracy of better than 2% using a parameterization containing not more than five coefficients. For the biologically important elements 1 < or = Z < or = 20, and the energy range 30-150 keV, the parameterization utilizes four coefficients. At higher energies, the parameterization uses fewer coefficients with only two coefficients needed at megavoltage energies.

  11. The coefficient of friction, particularly of ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Allan

    2008-07-01

    The static and dynamic coefficients of friction are defined, and values from 0.3 to 0.6 are quoted for common materials. These drop to about 0.15 when oil is added as a lubricant. Water ice at temperatures not far below 0 °C is remarkable for low coefficients of around 0.05 for static friction and 0.04-0.02 for dynamic friction, but these figures increase as the temperature diminishes. Reasons for the slipperiness of ice are summarized, but they are still not entirely clear. One hypothesis suggests that it is related to the transient formation of a lubricating film of liquid water produced by frictional heating. If this is the case, some composition melting a little above ambient temperatures might provide a skating rink that did not require expensive refrigeration. Various compositions have been tested, but an entirely satisfactory material has yet to be found.

  12. Supersymmetric contributions to weak decay correlation coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Profumo, S.; Ramsey-Musolf, M. J.; Tulin, S.

    2007-04-01

    We study supersymmetric contributions to correlation coefficients that characterize the spectral shape and angular distribution for polarized {mu}- and {beta}-decays. In the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), one-loop box graphs containing superpartners can give rise to non-(V-Ax(V-A) four-fermion operators in the presence of left-right or flavor mixing between sfermions. We analyze the present phenomenological constraints on such mixing and determine the range of allowed contributions to the weak decay correlation coefficients. We discuss the prospective implications for future {mu}- and {beta}-decay experiments, and argue that they may provide unique probes of left-right mixing in the first generation scalar fermion sector.

  13. Atomic rate coefficients in a degenerate plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanyan, Valentin; Tallents, Greg

    2015-11-01

    The electrons in a dense, degenerate plasma follow Fermi-Dirac statistics, which deviate significantly in this regime from the usual Maxwell-Boltzmann approach used by many models. We present methods to calculate the atomic rate coefficients for the Fermi-Dirac distribution and present a comparison of the ionization fraction of carbon calculated using both models. We have found that for densities close to solid, although the discrepancy is small for LTE conditions, there is a large divergence from the ionization fraction by using classical rate coefficients in the presence of strong photoionizing radiation. We have found that using these modified rates and the degenerate heat capacity may affect the time evolution of a plasma subject to extreme ultraviolet and x-ray radiation such as produced in free electron laser irradiation of solid targets.

  14. Invariants of electromechanical coupling coefficients in piezoceramics.

    PubMed

    Mezheritsky, Alex V

    2003-12-01

    The relationships between coefficients of electromechanical coupling (CEMC) of various types of piezoceramic resonator (PR) vibrations are considered. Being constant for a given piezoceramic state, the range of variation of piezoceramics dielectric permittivity from a mechanically "free" condition at relatively low frequencies up to an "overall clamped" condition at high frequencies is determined by a consecutive "clamping", caused by a complex of CEMCs of various particular vibrational modes peculiar to the resonator. As the difference between "free" and "overall clamped" permittivities is always determined by the maximal piezomaterial ki3 coupling coefficient, the difference does not depend on the path that was gone through the low-high frequency range, which includes all the vibrational modes possible for a particular PR. The influence of the piezoelectric and elastic anisotropy of lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoceramic materials on relative CEMC variations was experimentally investigated.

  15. Transport coefficients in ultrarelativistic kinetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambruş, Victor E.

    2018-02-01

    A spatially periodic longitudinal wave is considered in relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics. At sufficiently small wave amplitudes, an analytic solution is obtained in the linearized limit of the macroscopic conservation equations within the first- and second-order relativistic hydrodynamics formulations. A kinetic solver is used to obtain the numerical solution of the relativistic Boltzmann equation for massless particles in the Anderson-Witting approximation for the collision term. It is found that, at small values of the Anderson-Witting relaxation time τ , the transport coefficients emerging from the relativistic Boltzmann equation agree with those predicted through the Chapman-Enskog procedure, while the relaxation times of the heat flux and shear pressure are equal to τ . These claims are further strengthened by considering a moment-type approximation based on orthogonal polynomials under which the Chapman-Enskog results for the transport coefficients are exactly recovered.

  16. Dynamics analysis of SIR epidemic model with correlation coefficients and clustering coefficient in networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juping; Yang, Chan; Jin, Zhen; Li, Jia

    2018-07-14

    In this paper, the correlation coefficients between nodes in states are used as dynamic variables, and we construct SIR epidemic dynamic models with correlation coefficients by using the pair approximation method in static networks and dynamic networks, respectively. Considering the clustering coefficient of the network, we analytically investigate the existence and the local asymptotic stability of each equilibrium of these models and derive threshold values for the prevalence of diseases. Additionally, we obtain two equivalent epidemic thresholds in dynamic networks, which are compared with the results of the mean field equations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. NUMERICAL INTEGRAL OF RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS IN DIFFUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q. S., E-mail: zqs@ynao.ac.cn

    2017-01-10

    The resistance coefficients in the screened Coulomb potential of stellar plasma are evaluated to high accuracy. I have analyzed the possible singularities in the integral of scattering angle. There are possible singularities in the case of an attractive potential. This may result in a problem for the numerical integral. In order to avoid the problem, I have used a proper scheme, e.g., splitting into many subintervals where the width of each subinterval is determined by the variation of the integrand, to calculate the scattering angle. The collision integrals are calculated by using Romberg’s method, therefore the accuracy is high (i.e.,more » ∼10{sup −12}). The results of collision integrals and their derivatives for −7 ≤ ψ ≤ 5 are listed. By using Hermite polynomial interpolation from those data, the collision integrals can be obtained with an accuracy of 10{sup −10}. For very weakly coupled plasma ( ψ ≥ 4.5), analytical fittings for collision integrals are available with an accuracy of 10{sup −11}. I have compared the final results of resistance coefficients with other works and found that, for a repulsive potential, the results are basically the same as others’; for an attractive potential, the results in cases of intermediate and strong coupling show significant differences. The resulting resistance coefficients are tested in the solar model. Comparing with the widely used models of Cox et al. and Thoul et al., the resistance coefficients in the screened Coulomb potential lead to a slightly weaker effect in the solar model, which is contrary to the expectation of attempts to solve the solar abundance problem.« less

  18. Absorption Coefficient of Alkaline Earth Halides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    not observed at low energy level , are developed at high power levels . No matter how low the absorption is. the effect is objectionable at high-energy... levels . As a natural consequence, the magnitude of the absorption coefficient is the key parameter in selecting laser window materials. Over the past...Presence of impurities can complicate the exponential tail. particularly at low absorption levels . The impurities may enter 12 the lattice singly or

  19. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  20. Analytic posteriors for Pearson's correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Ly, Alexander; Marsman, Maarten; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2018-02-01

    Pearson's correlation is one of the most common measures of linear dependence. Recently, Bernardo (11th International Workshop on Objective Bayes Methodology, 2015) introduced a flexible class of priors to study this measure in a Bayesian setting. For this large class of priors, we show that the (marginal) posterior for Pearson's correlation coefficient and all of the posterior moments are analytic. Our results are available in the open-source software package JASP.

  1. The electron diffusion coefficient in Jupiter's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T.; Northrop, T.; Baxter, R.; Hess, W.; Lojko, M.

    1974-01-01

    A steady-state model of Jupiter's electron radiation belt is developed. The model includes injection from the solar wind, radial diffusion, energy degradation by synchrotron radiation, and absorption at Jupiter's surface. A diffusion coefficient of the form D sub RR/R sub J squared = k times R to the m-th power is assumed, and then observed data on synchrotron radiation are used to fit the model. The free parameters determined from this fit are m = 1.95 plus or minus 0.5, k = 1.7 plus or minus 0.5 x 10 to the 9th power per sec, and the magnetic moment of injected particles equals 770 plus or minus 300 MeV/G. The value of m shows quite clearly that the diffusion is not caused by magnetic pumping by a variable solar wind or by a fluctuating convection electric field. The process might be field line exchange driven by atmospheric-ionospheric winds; our diffusion coefficient has roughly the same radial dependence but is considerably smaller in magnitude than the upper bound diffusion coefficients recently suggested for this process by Brice and McDonough (1973) and Jacques and Davis (1972).

  2. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

           n in which V = mean cross-sectional velocity of flow, in feet per second; R = hydraulic radius at a cross section, which is the cross-sectional area divided by the wetter perimeter, in feet; Se = energy slope; and n = coefficient of roughness. Many research studies have been made to determine "n" values for open-channel flow (Carter and others, 1963). Guidelines for selecting coefficient of roughness for stream channels are given in most of the literature of stream-channel hydraulics, but few of the data relate directly to streams of Arizona, The U.S> Geological Survey, at the request of the Arizona Highway Department, assembled the color photographs and tables of the Manning "n" values in this report to aid highway engineers in the selection of roughness coefficients for Arizona streams. Most of the photographs show channel reaches for which values of "n" have been assigned by experienced Survey personnel; a few photographs are included for reaches where "n" values have been verified. Verified "n" values are computed from a known discharge and measured channel geometry. Selected photographs of stream channels for which "n" values have been verified are included in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1849 (Barnes, 1967); stereoscopic slides of Barnes' (1967) photographs and additional photographs can be inspected at U.S> Geological Survey offices in: 2555 E. First Street, Tucson; and 5017 Federal Building, 230 N. First Avenue, Phoenix.

  3. Edge Diffraction Coefficients around Critical Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradkin, L.; Harmer, M.; Darmon, M.

    2014-04-01

    The classical GTD (Geometrical Theory of Diffraction) gives a recipe, based on high-frequency asymptotics, for calculating edge diffraction coefficients in the geometrical regions where only diffracted waves propagate. The Uniform GTD extends this recipe to transition zones between irradiated and silent regions, known as penumbra. For many industrial materials, e.g. steels, and frequencies utlized in industrial ultrasonic transducers, that is, around 5 MHz, asymptotics suggested for description of geometrical regions supporting the head waves or transition regions surrounding their boundaries, known as critical rays, prove unsatisfactory. We present a numerical extension of GTD, which is based on a regularized, variable step Simpson's method for evaluating the edge diffraction coefficients in the regions of interference between head waves, diffracted waves and/or reflected waves. In mathematical terms, these are the regions of coalescence of three critical points - a branch point, stationary point and/or pole, respectively. We show that away from the shadow boundaries, near the critical rays the GTD still produces correct values of the edge diffraction coefficients.

  4. Seismic Rheological Model and Reflection Coefficients of the Brittle-Ductile Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcione, José M.; Poletto, Flavio

    2013-12-01

    It is well established that the upper—cooler—part of the crust is brittle, while deeper zones present ductile behaviour. In some cases, this brittle-ductile transition is a single seismic reflector with an associated reflection coefficient. We first develop a stress-strain relation including the effects of crust anisotropy, seismic attenuation and ductility in which deformation takes place by shear plastic flow. Viscoelastic anisotropy is based on the eigenstrain model and the Zener and Burgers mechanical models are used to model the effects of seismic attenuation, velocity dispersion, and steady-state creep flow, respectively. The stiffness components of the brittle and ductile media depend on stress and temperature through the shear viscosity, which is obtained by the Arrhenius equation and the octahedral stress criterion. The P- and S-wave velocities decrease as depth and temperature increase due to the geothermal gradient, an effect which is more pronounced for shear waves. We then obtain the reflection and transmission coefficients of a single brittle-ductile interface and of a ductile thin layer. The PP scattering coefficient has a Brewster angle (a sign change) in both cases, and there is substantial PS conversion at intermediate angles. The PP coefficient is sensitive to the layer thickness, unlike the SS coefficient. Thick layers have a well-defined Brewster angle and show higher reflection amplitudes. Finally, we compute synthetic seismograms in a homogeneous medium as a function of temperature.

  5. Involvement of atypical transcription factor E2F8 in the polyploidization during mouse and human decidualization.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qian-Rong; Zhao, Xu-Yu; Zuo, Ru-Juan; Wang, Tong-Song; Gu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Ji-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid decidual cells are specifically differentiated cells during mouse uterine decidualization. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism and physiological significance of polyploidization in pregnancy. Here we report a novel role of E2F8 in the polyploidization of decidual cells in mice. E2F8 is highly expressed in decidual cells and regulated by progesterone through HB-EGF/EGFR/ERK/STAT3 signaling pathway. E2F8 transcriptionally suppresses CDK1, thus triggering the polyploidization of decidual cells. E2F8-mediated polyploidization is a response to stresses which are accompanied by decidualization. Interestingly, polyploidization is not detected during human decidualization with the down-regulation of E2F8, indicating differential expression of E2F8 may lead to the difference of decidual cell polyploidization between mice and humans.

  6. Involvement of atypical transcription factor E2F8 in the polyploidization during mouse and human decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qian-Rong; Zhao, Xu-Yu; Zuo, Ru-Juan; Wang, Tong-Song; Gu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Ji-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid decidual cells are specifically differentiated cells during mouse uterine decidualization. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism and physiological significance of polyploidization in pregnancy. Here we report a novel role of E2F8 in the polyploidization of decidual cells in mice. E2F8 is highly expressed in decidual cells and regulated by progesterone through HB-EGF/EGFR/ERK/STAT3 signaling pathway. E2F8 transcriptionally suppresses CDK1, thus triggering the polyploidization of decidual cells. E2F8-mediated polyploidization is a response to stresses which are accompanied by decidualization. Interestingly, polyploidization is not detected during human decidualization with the down-regulation of E2F8, indicating differential expression of E2F8 may lead to the difference of decidual cell polyploidization between mice and humans. PMID:25892397

  7. Clustering of change patterns using Fourier coefficients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehee; Kim, Haseong

    2008-01-15

    To understand the behavior of genes, it is important to explore how the patterns of gene expression change over a time period because biologically related gene groups can share the same change patterns. Many clustering algorithms have been proposed to group observation data. However, because of the complexity of the underlying functions there have not been many studies on grouping data based on change patterns. In this study, the problem of finding similar change patterns is induced to clustering with the derivative Fourier coefficients. The sample Fourier coefficients not only provide information about the underlying functions, but also reduce the dimension. In addition, as their limiting distribution is a multivariate normal, a model-based clustering method incorporating statistical properties would be appropriate. This work is aimed at discovering gene groups with similar change patterns that share similar biological properties. We developed a statistical model using derivative Fourier coefficients to identify similar change patterns of gene expression. We used a model-based method to cluster the Fourier series estimation of derivatives. The model-based method is advantageous over other methods in our proposed model because the sample Fourier coefficients asymptotically follow the multivariate normal distribution. Change patterns are automatically estimated with the Fourier representation in our model. Our model was tested in simulations and on real gene data sets. The simulation results showed that the model-based clustering method with the sample Fourier coefficients has a lower clustering error rate than K-means clustering. Even when the number of repeated time points was small, the same results were obtained. We also applied our model to cluster change patterns of yeast cell cycle microarray expression data with alpha-factor synchronization. It showed that, as the method clusters with the probability-neighboring data, the model-based clustering with our

  8. Complexity matching in dyadic conversation.

    PubMed

    Abney, Drew H; Paxton, Alexandra; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies of dyadic interaction have examined phenomena of synchronization, entrainment, alignment, and convergence. All these forms of behavioral matching have been hypothesized to play a supportive role in establishing coordination and common ground between interlocutors. In the present study, evidence is found for a new kind of coordination termed complexity matching. Temporal dynamics in conversational speech signals were analyzed through time series of acoustic onset events. Timing in periods of acoustic energy was found to exhibit behavioral matching that reflects complementary timing in turn-taking. In addition, acoustic onset times were found to exhibit power law clustering across a range of timescales, and these power law functions were found to exhibit complexity matching that is distinct from behavioral matching. Complexity matching is discussed in terms of interactive alignment and other theoretical principles that lead to new hypotheses about information exchange in dyadic conversation and interaction in general. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  10. Progress in understanding conversion disorder

    PubMed Central

    Allin, Matthew; Streeruwitz, Anna; Curtis, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    Conversion disorder has a history that may reach back into antiquity, and it continues to present a clinical challenge to both psychiatrists and neurologists. This article reviews the current state of knowledge surrounding the prevalence, etiology, and neurobiology of conversion disorder. There have been improvements in the accuracy of diagnosis that are possibly related to improved technologies such as neuroimaging. Once the diagnosis is made, it is important to develop a therapeutic alliance between the patient and the medical team, and where comorbid psychiatric diagnoses have been made, these need to be adequately treated. While there have been no formal trials of medication or psychoanalytic treatments in this disorder, case reports suggest that a combination of antidepressants, psychotherapy, and a multidisciplinary approach to rehabilitation may be beneficial. PMID:18568070

  11. Coal conversion products Industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, D.; Dunkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The synfuels economic evaluation model was utilized to analyze cost and product economics of the TVA coal conversion facilities. It is concluded that; (1) moderate yearly future escalations ( 6%) in current natural gas prices will result in medium-Btu gas becoming competitive with natural gas at the plant boundary; (2) utilizing DRI price projections, the alternate synfuel products, except for electricity, will be competitive with their counterparts; (3) central site fuel cell generation of electricity, utilizing MBG, is economically less attractive than the other synthetic fuels, given projected price rises in electricity produced by other means; and (4) because of estimated northern Alabama synfuels market demands, existing conventional fuels, infrastructure and industrial synfuels retrofit problems, a diversity of transportable synfuels products should be produced by the conversion facility.

  12. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests E Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Table E-2 Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53—Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for...

  13. Light harvesting for quantum solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markvart, Tomas

    2000-05-01

    Despite wide structural and functional differences, the laws that govern quantum solar energy conversion to chemical energy or electricity share many similarities. In the photosynthetic membrane, in common with semiconductor solar cells, the conversion process proceeds from the creation of electron-hole pairs by a photon of light, followed by charge separation to produce the required high-energy product. In many cases, however, mechanisms are needed to enhance the optical absorption cross-section and extend the spectral range of operation. A common way of achieving this is by light harvesting: light absorption by a specialised unit which transfers the energy to the conversion apparatus. This paper considers two examples of light harvesting - semiconductor solar cells and the photosynthetic apparatus - to illustrate the basic operation and principles that apply. The existence of a light harvesting unit in photosynthesis has been known since the early 1930's but details of the process - relating, in particular, to the relationship between the structure and spectral properties - are still being unravelled. The excitation energy carriers are excitons but the precise nature of the transport - via the solid state Frenkel-Peierls variety or by Förster's resonant energy transfer - is still subject to debate. In semiconductor solar cells, the energy of the absorbed photon is collected by minority carriers but the broad principles remain the same. In both cases it is shown that the rate of energy conversion is described by a law which parallels the Shockley's solar cell equation, and the light harvesting energy collection is subject to reciprocity relations which resemble Onsager's reciprocity relations between coefficients which couple appropriate forces and flows in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Differences in the basic atomic make-up in the two systems lead to different energy transport equations. In both cases, however, similar mathematical techniques based on Green

  14. E2f1 mediates high glucose-induced neuronal death in cultured mouse retinal explants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujiao; Zhou, Yi; Xiao, Lirong; Zheng, Shijie; Yan, Naihong; Chen, Danian

    2017-10-02

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes and remains one of the major causes of blindness in the world; infants born to diabetic mothers have higher risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). While hyperglycemia is a major risk factor, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying DR and diabetic ROP are poorly understood. To explore the consequences of retinal cells under high glucose, we cultured wild type or E2f1 -/- mouse retinal explants from postnatal day 8 with normal glucose, high osmotic or high glucose media. Explants were also incubated with cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) to mimic the hypoxic condition. We showed that, at 7 days post exposure to high glucose, retinal explants displayed elevated cell death, ectopic cell division and intact retinal vascular plexus. Cell death mainly occurred in excitatory neurons, such as ganglion and bipolar cells, which were also ectopically dividing. Many Müller glial cells reentered the cell cycle; some had irregular morphology or migrated to other layers. High glucose inhibited the hyperoxia-induced blood vessel regression of retinal explants. Moreover, inactivation of E2f1 rescued high glucose-induced ectopic division and cell death of retinal neurons, but not ectopic cell division of Müller glial cells and vascular phenotypes. This suggests that high glucose has direct but distinct effects on retinal neurons, glial cells and blood vessels, and that E2f1 mediates its effects on retinal neurons. These findings shed new light onto mechanisms of DR and the fetal retinal abnormalities associated with maternal diabetes, and suggest possible new therapeutic strategies.

  15. Ubiquitination independent of E1 and E2 enzymes by bacterial effectors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Sheedlo, Michael J.; Yu, Kaiwen

    Signaling by ubiquitination regulates virtually every cellular process in eukaryotes. Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate is catalyzed by the E1, E2 and E3 three-enzyme cascade 1, which links the C terminus of ubiquitin via an isopeptide bond mostly to the ε-amino group of a lysine of the substrate. Given the essential roles of ubiquitination in the regulation of the immune system, it is not surprising that the ubiquitination network is a common target for diverse infectious agents 2. For example, many bacterial pathogens exploit ubiquitin signaling using virulence factors that function as E3 ligases, deubiquitinases 3 or asmore » enzymes that directly attack ubiquitin 4. The bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila utilizes approximately 300 effectors that modulate diverse host processes to create a niche permissive for its replication in phagocytes 5. Here we demonstrate that members of the SidE effector family (SidEs) of L. pneumophila ubiquitinate multiple Rab small GTPases associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, we show that these proteins are capable of catalyzing ubiquitination without the need for the E1 and E2 enzymes. The E1/E2-independent ubiquitination catalyzed by these enzymes requires NAD but not ATP and Mg2+. A putative mono ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) motif critical for the ubiquitination activity is also essential for the role of SidEs in intracellular bacterial replication in a protozoan host. These results establish that ubiquitination can be catalyzed by a single enzyme.« less

  16. [Induced abortion using prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha gel].

    PubMed

    Lippert, T H; Modly, T

    1974-01-01

    In this study of 20 patients in the 13th-17th week of pregnancy abortion was induced with intrauterine, extraamniotic application of prostaglandins (PG) E2 or F2 in gel form. The gel composition was as follows: 4% tylose MH 300, 2% glycerine, 1% chlorhexidine digluconate, 83% sterile distilled water and 10% PG stock solution. Both PGE2 and PGF2 gels were used. Final concentration was 2.5 mg E2 or 2.5 mg F2 per g of gel. Gel was applied via transcervical, extraamniotic polyethylene catheter every 2-3 hours. Results: PGE2-gel was used in 14 cases. After 3-4 applications both fetus and placenta were expelled. Average dose used was 4.6 mg E2/patient. First contractions started in 30 minutes; induction to expulsion time was 11 hours 35 minutes. F2-gel given to 6 patients resulted in expulsion of the fetus in all cases but placenta needed removal by curettage in 4 patients. Average dose per patient was 17.7 mg of F2; first contractions in 30 minutes, average expulsion time 17 hours 38 minutes. With both PGs there were painful contractions which were controlled with a combination of pentazocine and Valium. PGE2 caused vomiting in 5 patients. No increased bleeding or postabortion infection occurred. Follow-up curettage was done in all patients to ensure removal of all tissues. Overall evaluation of the PG-gels was considered good. PG stability in gel form is good; during 8 months of preservation in sterile aluminum tubes at -25 degrees Celsius no decline in clinical effectiveness was noted. The gel application is less expensive than the slow-injection pump method.

  17. Irradiation enhancement of biomass conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. S.; Kiesling, H. E.; Galyean, M. L.; Bader, J. R.

    The vast supply of cellulosic agricultural residues and industrial by-products that is produced each year is a prospective resource of biomass suitable for conversion to useful products such as feedstock for the chemicals industry and feedstuffs for the livestock industry. Conversions of such biomass is poor at present, and utilization is inefficient, because of physio-chemical barriers to biological degradation and (or) anti-quality components such as toxicants that restrict biological usages. Improvements in biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic materials have been accomplished by gamma-ray and electron-beam irradiation at intermediate dosage (˜ 50 Mrad; .5 MGy); but applications of the technology have been hampered by questionable interpretations of results. Recent research with organic wastes such as sewage sludge and straw suggests opportunity for important applications of irradiation technology in enhancement of biomass conversion. Data from experiments using irradiated straw as feed for ruminants are presented and discussed in relation to research on prospective usage of sewage products as feed for ruminants. Findings are discussed in regard to prospective applications in industrial fermentation processes. Possible usage of irradiation technology for destruction of toxicants in exotic plants is considered in regard to prospective new feedstuffs.

  18. Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Christopher, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The digestibility of an aquatic biomass (water hyacinth), a land-based biomass (Coastal Bermuda grass), and a biomass-waste blend (a mixture of hyacinth, grass, MSW, and sludge) under various digestion conditions was studied. Anaerobic digestion of hemicellulose consists of the steps of enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose to glucans, mannans, galactans, xylans, and arabans, and then to simple hexose and pentose sugars; production of C/sub 2/ and higher fatty acids from the simple sugars; conversion of higher fatty acids to acetate; and finally, production of methane and CO/sub 2/ from acetate, and CO/sub 2/ and hydrogen. The conversion of hemicellulose was highermore » under mesophilic conditions than those of cellulose or protein for all biomass test feeds, probably because the hemicellulose structure was more vulnerable to enzymatic attack than that of the lignocellulosic component. Cellulose conversion efficiencies at the mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures were about the same. However, hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficiency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion - a situation that was the reverse of that observed at the mesophilic temperature. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic digestion of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the presence of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose requires the least investment of enzymes and energy.« less

  19. S. pombe Uba1-Ubc15 Structure Reveals a Novel Regulatory Mechanism of Ubiquitin E2 Activity.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zongyang; Rickman, Kimberly A; Yuan, Lingmin; Williams, Katelyn; Selvam, Shanmugam Panneer; Woosley, Alec N; Howe, Philip H; Ogretmen, Besim; Smogorzewska, Agata; Olsen, Shaun K

    2017-02-16

    Ubiquitin (Ub) E1 initiates the Ub conjugation cascade by activating and transferring Ub to tens of different E2s. How Ub E1 cooperates with E2s that differ substantially in their predicted E1-interacting residues is unknown. Here, we report the structure of S. pombe Uba1 in complex with Ubc15, a Ub E2 with intrinsically low E1-E2 Ub thioester transfer activity. The structure reveals a distinct Ubc15 binding mode that substantially alters the network of interactions at the E1-E2 interface compared to the only other available Ub E1-E2 structure. Structure-function analysis reveals that the intrinsically low activity of Ubc15 largely results from the presence of an acidic residue at its N-terminal region. Notably, Ub E2 N termini are serine/threonine rich in many other Ub E2s, leading us to hypothesize that phosphorylation of these sites may serve as a novel negative regulatory mechanism of Ub E2 activity, which we demonstrate biochemically and in cell-based assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2

    DOE PAGES

    Nazarenko, L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Miller, R. L.; ...

    2015-02-24

    We examine the anthropogenically forced climate response for the 21st century representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios and their extensions for the period 2101–2500. The experiments were performed with ModelE2, a new version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences (GISS) coupled general circulation model that includes three different versions for the atmospheric composition components: a noninteractive version (NINT) with prescribed composition and a tuned aerosol indirect effect (AIE), the TCAD version with fully interactive aerosols, whole-atmosphere chemistry, and the tuned AIE, and the TCADI version which further includes a parameterized first indirect aerosol effect on clouds. Each atmosphericmore » version is coupled to two different ocean general circulation models: the Russell ocean model (GISS-E2-R) and HYCOM (GISS-E2-H). By 2100, global mean warming in the RCP scenarios ranges from 1.0 to 4.5° C relative to 1850–1860 mean temperature in the historical simulations. In the RCP2.6 scenario, the surface warming in all simulations stays below a 2 °C threshold at the end of the 21st century. For RCP8.5, the range is 3.5–4.5° C at 2100. Decadally averaged sea ice area changes are highly correlated to global mean surface air temperature anomalies and show steep declines in both hemispheres, with a larger sensitivity during winter months. By the year 2500, there are complete recoveries of the globally averaged surface air temperature for all versions of the GISS climate model in the low-forcing scenario RCP2.6. TCADI simulations show enhanced warming due to greater sensitivity to CO₂, aerosol effects, and greater methane feedbacks, and recovery is much slower in RCP2.6 than with the NINT and TCAD versions. All coupled models have decreases in the Atlantic overturning stream function by 2100. In RCP2.6, there is a complete recovery of the Atlantic overturning stream function by the year 2500 while with scenario RCP8.5, the