Science.gov

Sample records for e2 glycoprotein mutations

  1. A Single Mutation in the E2 Glycoprotein Important for Neurovirulence Influences Binding of Sindbis Virus to Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Peiyu; Knight, Ronald; Smit, Jolanda M.; Wilschut, Jan; Griffin, Diane E.

    2002-01-01

    The amino acid at position 55 of the E2 glycoprotein (E255) of Sindbis virus (SV) is a critical determinant of SV neurovirulence in mice. Recombinant virus strain TE (E255 = histidine) differs only at this position from virus strain 633 (E255= glutamine), yet TE is considerably more neurovirulent than 633. TE replicates better than 633 in a neuroblastoma cell line (N18), but similarly in BHK cells. Immunofluorescence staining showed that most N18 cells were infected by TE at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 50 to 500 and by 633 only at an MOI of 5,000, while both viruses infected essentially 100% of BHK cells at an MOI of 5. When exposed to pH 5, TE and 633 viruses fused to similar extents with liposomes derived from BHK or N18 cell lipids, but fusion with N18-derived liposomes was less extensive (15 to 20%) than fusion with BHK-derived liposomes (∼50%). Binding of TE and 633 to N18, but not BHK, cells was dependent on the medium used for virus binding. Differences between TE and 633 binding to N18 cells were evident in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM), but not in RPMI. In DMEM, the binding efficiency of 633 decreased significantly as the pH was raised from 6.5 to 8.0, while that of TE did not change. The same pattern was observed with RPMI when the ionic strength of RPMI was increased to that of DMEM. TE bound better to heparin-Sepharose than 633, but this difference was not pH dependent. Growth of N18 and BHK cells in sodium chlorate to eliminate all sulfation decreased virus-cell binding, suggesting the involvement of sulfated molecules on the cell surface. Taken together, the presence of glutamine at E255 impairs SV binding to neural cells under conditions characteristic of interstitial fluid. We conclude that mutation to histidine participates in or stabilizes the interaction between the virus and the surface of neural cells, contributing to greater neurovirulence. PMID:12021363

  2. Mutations in the carboxyl terminal region of E2 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus are responsible for viral attenuation in swine.

    PubMed

    Risatti, G R; Holinka, L G; Fernandez Sainz, I; Carrillo, C; Kutish, G F; Lu, Z; Zhu, J; Rock, D L; Borca, M V

    2007-08-01

    We have previously reported [Risatti, G.R., Borca, M.V., Kutish, G.F., Lu, Z., Holinka, L.G., French, R.A., Tulman, E.R., Rock, D.L. 2005a. The E2 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus is a virulence determinant in swine. J. Virol. 79, 3787-3796] that chimeric virus 319.1v containing the E2 glycoprotein gene from Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) vaccine strain CS with the genetic background of highly virulent CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) was markedly attenuated in pigs. To identify the amino acids mediating 319.1v attenuation a series of chimeric viruses containing CS E2 residues in the context of the Brescia strain were constructed. Chimera 357v, containing CS E2 residues 691 to 881 of CSFV polyprotein was virulent, while chimera 358v, containing CS E2 residues 882 to 1064, differing in thirteen amino acids from BICv, was attenuated in swine. Single or double substitutions of those amino acids in BICv E2 to CS E2 residues did not affect virulence. Groups of amino acids were then substituted in BICv E2 to CS E2 residues. Mutant 32v, with six substitutions between residues 975 and 1059, and mutant 33v, with six substitutions between 955 and 994, induced disease indistinguishable from BICv. Mutant 31v, with seven substitutions between residues 882 and 958, induced a delayed onset of lethal disease. Amino acids abrogating BICv virulence were then determined by progressively introducing six CS residues into 31v. Mutant 39v, containing nine residue substitutions, was virulent. Mutant 40v, containing ten residue substitutions, induced mild disease. Mutant 42v, containing twelve substitutions, and mutant 43v, with an amino acid composition identical to 358v, were attenuated in swine indicating that all substitutions were necessary for attenuation of the highly virulent strain Brescia. Importantly, 358v protected swine from challenge with virulent BICv at 3 and 28 days post-infection.

  3. The E2 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus is a virulence determinant in swine.

    PubMed

    Risatti, G R; Borca, M V; Kutish, G F; Lu, Z; Holinka, L G; French, R A; Tulman, E R; Rock, D L

    2005-03-01

    To identify genetic determinants of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) virulence and host range, chimeras of the highly pathogenic Brescia strain and the attenuated vaccine strain CS were constructed and evaluated for viral virulence in swine. Upon initial screening, only chimeras 138.8v and 337.14v, the only chimeras containing the E2 glycoprotein of CS, were attenuated in swine despite exhibiting unaltered growth characteristics in primary porcine macrophage cell cultures. Additional viral chimeras were constructed to confirm the role of E2 in virulence. Chimeric virus 319.1v, which contained only the CS E2 glycoprotein in the Brescia background, was markedly attenuated in pigs, exhibiting significantly decreased virus replication in tonsils, a transient viremia, limited generalization of infection, and decreased virus shedding. Chimeras encoding all Brescia structural proteins in a CS genetic background remained attenuated, indicating that additional mutations outside the structural region are important for CS vaccine virus attenuation. These results demonstrate that CS E2 alone is sufficient for attenuating Brescia, indicating a significant role for the CSFV E2 glycoprotein in swine virulence.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of the codon usage patterns in the envelope glycoprotein E2 gene of the classical swine fever virus

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xiaojuan; Wang, Song; Ma, Yanmei; Chen, Jilong

    2017-01-01

    The classical swine fever virus (CSFV), circulating worldwide, is a highly contagious virus. Since the emergence of CSFV, it has caused great economic loss in swine industry. The envelope glycoprotein E2 gene of the CSFV is an immunoprotective antigen that induces the immune system to produce neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, it is essential to study the codon usage of the E2 gene of the CSFV. In this study, 140 coding sequences of the E2 gene were analyzed. The value of effective number of codons (ENC) showed low codon usage bias in the E2 gene. Our study showed that codon usage could be described mainly by mutation pressure ENC plot analysis combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and translational selection-correlation analysis between the general average hydropathicity (Gravy) and aromaticity (Aroma), and nucleotides at the third position of codons (A3s, T3s, G3s, C3s and GC3s). Furthermore, the neutrality analysis, which explained the relationship between GC12s and GC3s, revealed that natural selection had a key role compared with mutational bias during the evolution of the E2 gene. These results lay a foundation for further research on the molecular evolution of CSFV. PMID:28880881

  5. Comprehensive analysis of the codon usage patterns in the envelope glycoprotein E2 gene of the classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Li, Xinxin; Chi, Xiaojuan; Wang, Song; Ma, Yanmei; Chen, Jilong

    2017-01-01

    The classical swine fever virus (CSFV), circulating worldwide, is a highly contagious virus. Since the emergence of CSFV, it has caused great economic loss in swine industry. The envelope glycoprotein E2 gene of the CSFV is an immunoprotective antigen that induces the immune system to produce neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, it is essential to study the codon usage of the E2 gene of the CSFV. In this study, 140 coding sequences of the E2 gene were analyzed. The value of effective number of codons (ENC) showed low codon usage bias in the E2 gene. Our study showed that codon usage could be described mainly by mutation pressure ENC plot analysis combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and translational selection-correlation analysis between the general average hydropathicity (Gravy) and aromaticity (Aroma), and nucleotides at the third position of codons (A3s, T3s, G3s, C3s and GC3s). Furthermore, the neutrality analysis, which explained the relationship between GC12s and GC3s, revealed that natural selection had a key role compared with mutational bias during the evolution of the E2 gene. These results lay a foundation for further research on the molecular evolution of CSFV.

  6. Recombinant Swinepox Virus Expressing Glycoprotein E2 of Classical Swine Fever Virus Confers Complete Protection in Pigs upon Viral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huixing; Ma, Zhe; Chen, Lei; Fan, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and serious viral disease that affects the pig industry worldwide. The glycoprotein E2 of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) can induce neutralizing antibodies, and it is widely used for novel vaccine development. To explore the development of a vaccine against CSFV infections, the gene of glycoprotein E2 was inserted into the swinepox virus (SPV) genome by homologous recombination. The culture titers of rSPV-E2 remained at about 4.3 × 10 6 TCID 50 for more than 60 passages in PK15 and swine testis cell lines. The rSPV-E2 could not be replicated in Vero, MDBK or other non-porcine cell lines. After two to three passages, the SPV specific gene of rSPV-E2 could not been detected in the non-porcine cell culture. To evaluate the immunogenicity of rSPV-E2, 20 CSFV seronegative minipigs were immunized with rSPV-E2, a commercial C-strain vaccine, wild-type SPV (wtSPV; negative control), or PBS (a no-challenge control). After challenge with CSFV, pigs in the rSPV-E2-immunized group showed significantly shorter fever duration compared with the wtSPV-treated group ( P  < 0.05). E2-specific antibodies in the rSPV-E2-immunized group increased dramatically after vaccination and increased continuously over time. CSFV genomic copies in the serum of rSPV-E2-immunized pigs were significantly less compared with the wtSPV-treated group at all time points after challenge ( P  < 0.01). Significant reduction in gross lung lesion scores, histopathological liver, spleen, lung, and kidney lesion scores were noted in the rSPV-E2-immunized group compared with the wtSPV-treated group ( P  < 0.01). The results suggested that the recombinant rSPV-E2 provided pigs with significant protection from CSFV infections; thus, rSPV-E2 offers proof of principle for the development of a vaccine for the prevention of CSFV infections in pigs.

  7. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells redirected against hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Sautto, Giuseppe A; Wisskirchen, Karin; Clementi, Nicola; Castelli, Matteo; Diotti, Roberta A; Graf, Julia; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto; Protzer, Ulrike; Mancini, Nicasio

    2016-01-01

    Objective The recent availability of novel antiviral drugs has raised new hope for a more effective treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and its severe sequelae. However, in the case of non-responding or relapsing patients, alternative strategies are needed. To this end we have used chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), a very promising approach recently used in several clinical trials to redirect primary human T cells against different tumours. In particular, we designed the first CARs against HCV targeting the HCV/E2 glycoprotein (HCV/E2). Design Anti-HCV/E2 CARs were composed of single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) obtained from a broadly cross-reactive and cross-neutralising human monoclonal antibody (mAb), e137, fused to the intracellular signalling motif of the costimulatory CD28 molecule and the CD3ζ domain. Activity of CAR-grafted T cells was evaluated in vitro against HCV/E2-transfected cells as well as hepatocytes infected with cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc). Results In this proof-of-concept study, retrovirus-transduced human T cells expressing anti-HCV/E2 CARs were endowed with specific antigen recognition accompanied by degranulation and secretion of proinflammatory and antiviral cytokines, such as interferon γ, interleukin 2 and tumour necrosis factor α. Moreover, CAR-grafted T cells were capable of lysing target cells of both hepatic and non-hepatic origin expressing on their surface the HCV/E2 glycoproteins of the most clinically relevant genotypes, including 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 4 and 5. Finally, and more importantly, they were capable of lysing HCVcc-infected hepatocytes. Conclusions Clearance of HCV-infected cells is a major therapeutic goal in chronic HCV infection, and adoptive transfer of anti-HCV/E2 CARs-grafted T cells represents a promising new therapeutic tool. PMID:25661083

  8. Effect of specific amino acid substitutions in the putative fusion peptide of structural glycoprotein E2 on Classical Swine Fever Virus replication

    E2, along with E^rns and E1, is an envelope glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). E2 is involved in several virus functions including cell attachment, host range susceptibility and virulence in natural hosts. In infected cells, E2 forms homodimers as well as heterodimers with E1, media...

  9. Role of N-linked oligosaccharides in processing and intracellular transport of E2 glycoprotein of rubella virus.

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Z; Hobman, T C; McDonald, H L; Seto, N O; Gillam, S

    1992-01-01

    The role of N-linked glycosylation in processing and intracellular transport of rubella virus glycoprotein E2 has been studied by expressing glycosylation mutants of E2 in COS cells. A panel of E2 glycosylation mutants were generated by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. Each of the three potential N-linked glycosylation sites was eliminated separately as well as in combination with the other two sites. Expression of the E2 mutant proteins in COS cells indicated that in rubella virus M33 strain, all three sites are used for the addition of N-linked oligosaccharides. Removal of any of the glycosylation sites resulted in slower glycan processing, lower stability, and aberrant disulfide bonding of the mutant proteins, with the severity of defect depending on the number of deleted carbohydrate sites. The mutant proteins were transported to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex but were not detected on the cell surface. However, the secretion of the anchor-free form of E2 into the medium was not completely blocked by the removal of any one of its glycosylation sites. This effect was dependent on the position of the deleted glycosylation site. Images PMID:1583721

  10. Incorporation of Hepatitis C Virus E1 and E2 Glycoproteins: The Keystones on a Peculiar Virion

    PubMed Central

    Vieyres, Gabrielle; Dubuisson, Jean; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2. Their structure and mode of fusion remain unknown, and so does the virion architecture. The organization of the HCV envelope shell in particular is subject to discussion as it incorporates or associates with host-derived lipoproteins, to an extent that the biophysical properties of the virion resemble more very-low-density lipoproteins than of any virus known so far. The recent development of novel cell culture systems for HCV has provided new insights on the assembly of this atypical viral particle. Hence, the extensive E1E2 characterization accomplished for the last two decades in heterologous expression systems can now be brought into the context of a productive HCV infection. This review describes the biogenesis and maturation of HCV envelope glycoproteins, as well as the interplay between viral and host factors required for their incorporation in the viral envelope, in a way that allows efficient entry into target cells and evasion of the host immune response. PMID:24618856

  11. Alteration of a Second Putative Fusion Peptide of Structural Glycoprotein E2 of Classical Swine Fever Virus Alters Virus Replication and Virulence in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Holinka, L. G.; Largo, E.; Gladue, D. P.; O'Donnell, V.; Risatti, G. R.; Nieva, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT E2, the major envelope glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is involved in several critical virus functions, including cell attachment, host range susceptibility, and virulence in natural hosts. Functional structural analysis of E2 based on a Wimley-White interfacial hydrophobicity distribution predicted the involvement of a loop (residues 864 to 881) stabilized by a disulfide bond (869CKWGGNWTCV878, named FPII) in establishing interactions with the host cell membrane. This loop further contains an 872GG873 dipeptide, as well as two aromatic residues (871W and 875W) accessible to solvent. Reverse genetics utilizing a full-length infectious clone of the highly virulent CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) was used to evaluate how amino acid substitutions within FPII may affect replication of BICv in vitro and virus virulence in swine. Recombinant CSFVs containing mutations in different residues of FPII were constructed. A particular construct, harboring amino acid substitutions W871T, W875D, and V878T (FPII.2), demonstrated a significantly decreased ability to replicate in a swine cell line (SK6) and swine macrophage primary cell cultures. Interestingly, mutated virus FPII.2 was completely attenuated in pigs. Also, animals infected with FPII.2 virus were protected against virulent challenge with Brescia virus at 21 days postvaccination. Supporting a role for the E2 the loop from residues 864 to 881 in membrane fusion, only synthetic peptides that were based on the native E2 functional sequence were competent for insertion into model membranes and perturbation of their integrity, and this functionality was lost in synthetic peptides harboring amino acid substitutions W871T, W875D, and V878T in FPII.2. IMPORTANCE This report describes the identification and characterization of a putative fusion peptide (FP) in the major structural protein E2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The FP identification was performed by functional structural analysis of E2

  12. Computational Prediction of the Heterodimeric and Higher-Order Structure of gpE1/gpE2 Envelope Glycoproteins Encoded by Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Holly; Logan, Michael R; Hockman, Darren; Koehler Leman, Julia; Law, John Lok Man; Houghton, Michael

    2017-04-15

    Despite the recent success of newly developed direct-acting antivirals against hepatitis C, the disease continues to be a global health threat due to the lack of diagnosis of most carriers and the high cost of treatment. The heterodimer formed by glycoproteins E1 and E2 within the hepatitis C virus (HCV) lipid envelope is a potential vaccine candidate and antiviral target. While the structure of E1/E2 has not yet been resolved, partial crystal structures of the E1 and E2 ectodomains have been determined. The unresolved parts of the structure are within the realm of what can be modeled with current computational modeling tools. Furthermore, a variety of additional experimental data is available to support computational predictions of E1/E2 structure, such as data from antibody binding studies, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), mutational analyses, peptide binding analysis, linker-scanning mutagenesis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. In accordance with these rich experimental data, we have built an in silico model of the full-length E1/E2 heterodimer. Our model supports that E1/E2 assembles into a trimer, which was previously suggested from a study by Falson and coworkers (P. Falson, B. Bartosch, K. Alsaleh, B. A. Tews, A. Loquet, Y. Ciczora, L. Riva, C. Montigny, C. Montpellier, G. Duverlie, E. I. Pecheur, M. le Maire, F. L. Cosset, J. Dubuisson, and F. Penin, J. Virol. 89:10333-10346, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00991-15). Size exclusion chromatography and Western blotting data obtained by using purified recombinant E1/E2 support our hypothesis. Our model suggests that during virus assembly, the trimer of E1/E2 may be further assembled into a pentamer, with 12 pentamers comprising a single HCV virion. We anticipate that this new model will provide a useful framework for HCV envelope structure and the development of antiviral strategies. IMPORTANCE One hundred fifty million people have been estimated to be infected with hepatitis C virus, and

  13. Computational Prediction of the Heterodimeric and Higher-Order Structure of gpE1/gpE2 Envelope Glycoproteins Encoded by Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Michael R.; Hockman, Darren; Koehler Leman, Julia; Law, John Lok Man

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the recent success of newly developed direct-acting antivirals against hepatitis C, the disease continues to be a global health threat due to the lack of diagnosis of most carriers and the high cost of treatment. The heterodimer formed by glycoproteins E1 and E2 within the hepatitis C virus (HCV) lipid envelope is a potential vaccine candidate and antiviral target. While the structure of E1/E2 has not yet been resolved, partial crystal structures of the E1 and E2 ectodomains have been determined. The unresolved parts of the structure are within the realm of what can be modeled with current computational modeling tools. Furthermore, a variety of additional experimental data is available to support computational predictions of E1/E2 structure, such as data from antibody binding studies, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), mutational analyses, peptide binding analysis, linker-scanning mutagenesis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. In accordance with these rich experimental data, we have built an in silico model of the full-length E1/E2 heterodimer. Our model supports that E1/E2 assembles into a trimer, which was previously suggested from a study by Falson and coworkers (P. Falson, B. Bartosch, K. Alsaleh, B. A. Tews, A. Loquet, Y. Ciczora, L. Riva, C. Montigny, C. Montpellier, G. Duverlie, E. I. Pecheur, M. le Maire, F. L. Cosset, J. Dubuisson, and F. Penin, J. Virol. 89:10333–10346, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00991-15). Size exclusion chromatography and Western blotting data obtained by using purified recombinant E1/E2 support our hypothesis. Our model suggests that during virus assembly, the trimer of E1/E2 may be further assembled into a pentamer, with 12 pentamers comprising a single HCV virion. We anticipate that this new model will provide a useful framework for HCV envelope structure and the development of antiviral strategies. IMPORTANCE One hundred fifty million people have been estimated to be infected with hepatitis C

  14. Structural flexibility of a conserved antigenic region in hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2 recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Meola, Annalisa; Tarr, Alexander W; England, Patrick; Meredith, Luke W; McClure, C Patrick; Foung, Steven K H; McKeating, Jane A; Ball, Jonathan K; Rey, Felix A; Krey, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) targeting glycoprotein E2 are important for the control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. One conserved antigenic site (amino acids 412 to 423) is disordered in the reported E2 structure, but a synthetic peptide mimicking this site forms a β-hairpin in complex with three independent NAbs. Our structure of the same peptide in complex with NAb 3/11 demonstrates a strikingly different extended conformation. We also show that residues 412 to 423 are essential for virus entry but not for E2 folding. Together with the neutralizing capacity of the 3/11 Fab fragment, this indicates an unexpected structural flexibility within this epitope. NAbs 3/11 and AP33 (recognizing the extended and β-hairpin conformations, respectively) display similar neutralizing activities despite converse binding kinetics. Our results suggest that HCV utilizes conformational flexibility as an immune evasion strategy, contributing to the limited immunogenicity of this epitope in patients, similar to the conformational flexibility described for other enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. Approximately 180 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and neutralizing antibodies play an important role in controlling the replication of this major human pathogen. We show here that one of the most conserved antigenic sites within the major glycoprotein E2 (amino acids 412 to 423), which is disordered in the recently reported crystal structure of an E2 core fragment, can adopt different conformations in the context of the infectious virus particle. Recombinant Fab fragments recognizing different conformations of this antigenic site have similar neutralization activities in spite of converse kinetic binding parameters. Of note, an antibody response targeting this antigenic region is less frequent than those targeting other more immunogenic regions in E2. Our results suggest that the observed conformational flexibility in this conserved antigenic

  15. Alteration of a second putative fusion peptide of structural glycoprotein E2 of Classical Swine Fever Virus alters virus replication and virulence in swine

    E2, the major envelope glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), is involved in several critical virus functions including cell attachment, host range susceptibility, and virulence in natural hosts. Functional structural analysis of E2 based on Wimley-White interfacial hydrophobicity dis...

  16. In vitro neutralization of HCV by goat antibodies against peptides encompassing regions downstream of HVR-1 of E2 glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Tabll, Ashraf A; Atef, Khaled; Bader El Din, Noha G; El Abd, Yasmine S; Salem, Ahmed; Sayed, Ahmed A; Dawood, Reham M; Omran, Moataza H; El-Awady, Mostafa K

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at testing several in vitro systems with various viral sources and cell lines for propagation of HCV to evaluate goat antibodies raised against three E2 epitopes in viral neutralization experiments. Four human cell lines (Huh-7, Huh-7.5, HepG2, and CaCo2) were tested using two different HCV viral sources; Genotype 4 infected sera and J6/JFH HCV cc particles. Neutralization capacity of goat Abs against conserved E2 epitopes; p412 (a.a 412-419), p517 (a.a 517-531), and p430 (a.a 430-447) were examined in the above mentioned in vitro systems. Although infection with patients' sera seems to mimic the in vitro situation, it has limited replication rates as compared with HCV cc particularly in Huh7.5 cells. Non-HCV adapted Huh-7 cells were also found susceptible for transfection with J6/JFH virus but at much slower kinetics. The results of the neutralization assay showed that anti p412 and anti p517 were highly neutralizing to HCVcc. Our data demonstrate that antibodies directed against the viral surface glycoprotein E2 reduced the infectivity of the J6/JFH virus and are promising agents for immunotherapy and HCV vaccine development.

  17. The E2 glycoprotein is necessary but not sufficient for the adaptation of classical swine fever virus lapinized vaccine C-strain to the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfeng; Xie, Libao; Zhang, Lingkai; Wang, Xiao; Li, Chao; Han, Yuying; Hu, Shouping; Sun, Yuan; Li, Su; Luo, Yuzi; Liu, Lihong; Munir, Muhammad; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2018-06-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) C-strain was developed through hundreds of passages of a highly virulent CSFV in rabbits. To investigate the molecular basis for the adaptation of C-strain to the rabbit (ACR), a panel of chimeric viruses with the exchange of glycoproteins E rns , E1, and/or E2 between C-strain and the highly virulent Shimen strain and a number of mutant viruses with different amino acid substitutions in E2 protein were generated and evaluated in rabbits. Our results demonstrate that Shimen-based chimeras expressing E rns -E1-E2, E rns -E2 or E1-E2 but not E rns -E1, E rns , E1, or E2 of C-strain can replicate in rabbits, indicating that E2 in combination with either E rns or E1 confers the ACR. Notably, E2 and the amino acids P108 and T109 in Domain I of E2 are critical in ACR. Collectively, our data indicate that E2 is crucial in mediating the ACR, which requires synergistic contribution of E rns or E1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Substitution of specific cysteine residues in E1 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus strain Brescia affects formation of E1-E2 heterodimers and alters virulence in swine

    E1, along with E^rns and E2, is one of the three envelope glycoproteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). E1 and E2 are anchored to the virus envelope at their carboxyl termini and E^rns loosely associates with the viral envelope. In infected cells, E2 forms homodimers and heterodimers with E1,...

  19. Effect of specific amino acid substitutions in the putative fusion peptide of structural glycoprotein E2 on Classical Swine Fever Virus replication

    SciT

    Fernández-Sainz, I.J.; Largo, E.; Gladue, D.P.

    E2, along with E{sup rns} and E1, is an envelope glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). E2 is involved in several virus functions: cell attachment, host range susceptibility and virulence in natural hosts. Here we evaluate the role of a specific E2 region, {sup 818}CPIGWTGVIEC{sup 828}, containing a putative fusion peptide (FP) sequence. Reverse genetics utilizing a full-length infectious clone of the highly virulent CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) was used to evaluate how individual amino acid substitutions within this region of E2 may affect replication of BICv. A synthetic peptide representing the complete E2 FP amino acid sequence adoptedmore » a β-type extended conformation in membrane mimetics, penetrated into model membranes, and perturbed lipid bilayer integrity in vitro. Similar peptides harboring amino acid substitutions adopted comparable conformations but exhibited different membrane activities. Therefore, a preliminary characterization of the putative FP {sup 818}CPIGWTGVIEC{sup 828} indicates a membrane fusion activity and a critical role in virus replication. - Highlights: • A putative fusion peptide (FP) region in CSFV E2 protein was shown to be critical for virus growth. • Synthetic FPs were shown to efficiently penetrate into lipid membranes using an in vitro model. • Individual residues in the FP affecting virus replication were identified by reverse genetics. • The same FP residues are also responsible for mediating membrane fusion.« less

  20. E2F1 somatic mutation within miRNA target site impairs gene regulation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Ramos, Camila M; Barros, Bruna P; Koyama, Fernanda C; Carpinetti, Paola A; Pezuk, Julia; Doimo, Nayara T S; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Perez, Rodrigo O; Parmigiani, Raphael B

    2017-01-01

    Genetic studies have largely concentrated on the impact of somatic mutations found in coding regions, and have neglected mutations outside of these. However, 3' untranslated regions (3' UTR) mutations can also disrupt or create miRNA target sites, and trigger oncogene activation or tumor suppressor inactivation. We used next-generation sequencing to widely screen for genetic alterations within predicted miRNA target sites of oncogenes associated with colorectal cancer, and evaluated the functional impact of a new somatic mutation. Target sequencing of 47 genes was performed for 29 primary colorectal tumor samples. For 71 independent samples, Sanger methodology was used to screen for E2F1 mutations in miRNA predicted target sites, and the functional impact of these mutations was evaluated by luciferase reporter assays. We identified germline and somatic alterations in E2F1. Of the 100 samples evaluated, 3 had germline alterations at the MIR205-5p target site, while one had a somatic mutation at MIR136-5p target site. E2F1 gene expression was similar between normal and tumor tissues bearing the germline alteration; however, expression was increased 4-fold in tumor tissue that harbored a somatic mutation compared to that in normal tissue. Luciferase reporter assays revealed both germline and somatic alterations increased E2F1 activity relative to wild-type E2F1. We demonstrated that somatic mutation within E2F1:MIR136-5p target site impairs miRNA-mediated regulation and leads to increased gene activity. We conclude that somatic mutations that disrupt miRNA target sites have the potential to impact gene regulation, highlighting an important mechanism of oncogene activation.

  1. HCV RNA Genomic sequences and HCV-E2 glycoprotein in sural nerve biopsies from HCV-infected patients with peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Russi, S; Sansonno, D; Monaco, S; Mariotto, S; Ferrari, S; Pavone, F; Lauletta, G; Dammacco, F

    2018-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN), the major neurological complication of chronic HCV infection, is frequently associated with mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC) and small-vessel systemic vasculitis. While humoral and cell-mediated immune mechanisms are suspected to act together in an aberrant immune response that results in peripheral nerve damage, the role of HCV remains largely speculative. The possible demonstration of HCV in peripheral nerve tissue would obviously assume important pathogenic implications. We studied sural nerve biopsies from 11 HCV-positive patients with neuropathic symptoms: five with and six without MC. In situ hybridization (ISH) and immunofluorescence studies were carried out to detect genomic and antigenomic HCV RNA sequences and HCV-encoded E2-glycoprotein, respectively. Epineurial vascular deposits of E2-glycoprotein were found in four (80%) MC and in two (33.3%) non-MC patients, respectively. These findings were enhanced by the perivascular deposition of positive-, though not negative-strand replicative RNA, as also found in the nerve extracts of all patients. Mild inflammatory cell infiltrates with no deposits of immunoglobulins and/or complement proteins were revealed around small vessels, without distinct vasculitis changes between MC and non-MC patients. These results indicate that nerve vascular HCV RNA/E2 deposits associated to perivascular inflammatory infiltrates were similar in chronically HCV-infected patients, regardless of cryoglobulin occurrence. Given the failure to demonstrate HCV productive infection in the examined sural nerve biopsies, nerve damage is likely to result from virus-triggered immune-mediated mechanisms. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  2. GTF2E2 Mutations Destabilize the General Transcription Factor Complex TFIIE in Individuals with DNA Repair-Proficient Trichothiodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kuschal, Christiane; Botta, Elena; Orioli, Donata; Digiovanna, John J.; Seneca, Sara; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Tamura, Deborah; Heller, Elizabeth; Khan, Sikandar G.; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Lanzafame, Manuela; Nardo, Tiziana; Ricotti, Roberta; Peverali, Fiorenzo A.; Stephens, Robert; Zhao, Yongmei; Lehmann, Alan R.; Baranello, Laura; Levens, David; Kraemer, Kenneth H.; Stefanini, Miria

    2016-01-01

    The general transcription factor IIE (TFIIE) is essential for transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) via direct interaction with the basal transcription/DNA repair factor IIH (TFIIH). TFIIH harbors mutations in two rare genetic disorders, the cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and the cancer-free, multisystem developmental disorder trichothiodystrophy (TTD). The phenotypic complexity resulting from mutations affecting TFIIH has been attributed to the nucleotide excision repair (NER) defect as well as to impaired transcription. Here, we report two unrelated children showing clinical features typical of TTD who harbor different homozygous missense mutations in GTF2E2 (c.448G>C [p.Ala150Pro] and c.559G>T [p.Asp187Tyr]) encoding the beta subunit of transcription factor IIE (TFIIEβ). Repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA damage was normal in the GTF2E2 mutated cells, indicating that TFIIE was not involved in NER. We found decreased protein levels of the two TFIIE subunits (TFIIEα and TFIIEβ) as well as decreased phosphorylation of TFIIEα in cells from both children. Interestingly, decreased phosphorylation of TFIIEα was also seen in TTD cells with mutations in ERCC2, which encodes the XPD subunit of TFIIH, but not in XP cells with ERCC2 mutations. Our findings support the theory that TTD is caused by transcriptional impairments that are distinct from the NER disorder XP. PMID:26996949

  3. Prevalence of human pegivirus-1 and sequence variability of its E2 glycoprotein estimated from screening donors of fetal stem cell-containing material.

    PubMed

    Vitrenko, Yakov; Kostenko, Iryna; Kulebyakina, Kateryna; Sorochynska, Khrystyna

    2017-08-31

    Human pegivirus-1 (HPgV-1) is a member of the Flaviviridae family whose genomic organization and mode of cellular entry is similar to that of hepatitis C virus (HCV). The E2 glycoprotein of HPgV-1 is the principle mediator in the virus-cell interaction and as such harbors most of HPgV-1's antigenic determinants. HPgV-1 persists in blood cell precursors which are increasingly used for cell therapy. We studied HPgV-1 prevalence in a large cohort of females donating fetal tissues for clinical use. PCR was used for screening and estimation of viral load in viremic plasma and fetal samples. Sequence analysis was performed for portions of the 5'-untranslated and E2 regions of HPgV-1 purified from donor plasmas. Sequencing was followed by phylogenetic analysis. HPgV-1 was revealed in 13.7% of plasmas, 5.0% of fetal tissues, 5.4% of chorions, exceeding the prevalence of HCV in these types of samples. Transmission of HPgV-1 occurred in 25.8% of traceable mother-chorion-fetal tissues triads. For HPgV-1-positive donors, a high viral load in plasma appears to be a prerequisite for transmission. However, about one third of fetal samples acquired infection from non-viremic individuals. Sequencing of 5'-untranslated region placed most HPgV-1 samples to genotype 2a. At the same time, a portion of E2 sequence provided a much weaker support for this grouping apparently due to a higher variability. Polymorphisms were detected in important structural and antigenic motifs of E2. HPgV-1 is efficiently transmitted to fetus at early embryonic stages. A high variability in E2 may pose a risk of generation of pathogenic subtypes. Although HPgV-1 is considered benign and no longer tested mandatorily in blood banks, the virus may have adversary effects at target niches if delivered with infected graft upon cell transplantation. This argues for the necessity of HPgV-1 testing of cell samples aimed for clinical use.

  4. Mutation of E1 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus affects viral virulence in swine.

    PubMed

    Risatti, G R; Holinka, L G; Lu, Z; Kutish, G F; Tulman, E R; French, R A; Sur, J H; Rock, D L; Borca, M V

    2005-12-05

    Transposon linker insertion mutagenesis of a full-length infectious clone (IC) (pBIC) of the pathogenic classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Brescia was used to identify genetic determinants of CSFV virulence and host range. Here, we characterize a virus mutant, RB-C22v, possessing a 19-residue insertion at the carboxyl terminus of E1 glycoprotein. Although RB-C22v exhibited normal growth characteristics in primary porcine macrophage cell cultures, the major target cell of CSFV in vivo, it was markedly attenuated in swine. All RB-C22v-infected pigs survived infection remaining clinically normal in contrast to the 100% mortality observed for BICv-infected animals. Comparative pathogenesis studies demonstrated a delay in RB-C22v spread to, and decreased replication in the tonsils, a 10(2) to 10(7) log10 reduction in virus titers in lymphoid tissues and blood, and an overall delay in generalization of infection relative to BICv. Notably, RB-C22v-infected animals were protected from clinical disease when challenged with pathogenic BICv at 3, 5, 7, and 21 days post-RB-C22v inoculation. Viremia, viral replication in tissues, and oronasal shedding were reduced in animals challenged at 7 and 21 DPI. Notably BICv-specific RNA was not detected in tonsils of challenged animals. These results indicate that a carboxyl-terminal domain of E1 glycoprotein affects virulence of CSFV in swine, and they demonstrate that mutation of this domain provides the basis for a rationally designed and efficacious live-attenuated CSF vaccine.

  5. Characterization of a new chimeric marker vaccine candidate with a mutated antigenic E2-epitope.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Ilona; Depner, Klaus; Utke, Katrin; Leifer, Immanuel; Lange, Elke; Beer, Martin

    2010-04-21

    A new chimeric pestivirus "CP7_E1E2alf_TLA", based on the infectious cDNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain CP7, was constructed. The substitution of BVDV E1 and E2 with the respective proteins of classical swine fever (CSF) strain Alfort 187 allows an optimal heterodimerization of E1 and E2 in the chimeric virus, which is beneficial for efficient and authentic virus assembly and growth. In addition, for implementation of E2-based marker diagnostics, the previously described antigenic CSFV-specific TAVSPTTLR epitope was exchanged with the corresponding E2-epitope of BVDV strain CP7. Recombinant virus CP7_E1E2alf_TLA displayed a growth defect, and was not reacting with monoclonal antibodies used in commercial E2 antibody blocking ELISAs. Therefore, efficacy as well as marker properties of CP7_E1E2alf_TLA were investigated in an animal experiment with both a high dose and a low dose vaccine preparation. All CP7_E1E2alf_TLA-vaccinated animals seroconverted until day 28 post-vaccination with neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, at the day of challenge infection CP7_E1E2alf_TLA-immunized animals showed distinct lower ELISA values in a commercial CSFV E2 antibody test in comparison to the C-strain vaccinated controls. However, E2-ELISA reactivity as well as neutralizing titers were directly connected to the dosage used for vaccination, and only the low dose group had E2-ELISA values below threshold until challenge infection. Following challenge infection with highly virulent CSFV strain Koslov, all vaccinees were protected, however, short-term fever episodes and very limited CSFV genome detection with very low copy numbers could be observed. In conclusion, manipulation of the TAVSPTTLR-epitope within the tested chimeric virus resulted in an slightly reduced efficacy, but the E2 marker properties unexpectedly did not allow a clear differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals in some cases. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mutational Analysis of Lassa Virus Glycoprotein Highlights Regions Required for Alpha-Dystroglycan Utilization.

    PubMed

    Acciani, Marissa; Alston, Jacob T; Zhao, Guohui; Reynolds, Hayley; Ali, Afroze M; Xu, Brian; Brindley, Melinda A

    2017-09-15

    Lassa virus (LASV) is an enveloped RNA virus endemic to West Africa and responsible for severe cases of hemorrhagic fever. Virus entry is mediated by the glycoprotein complex consisting of a stable-signal peptide, a receptor-binding subunit, GP1, and a viral-host membrane fusion subunit, GP2. Several cellular receptors can interact with the GP1 subunit and mediate viral entry, including alpha-dystroglycan (αDG) and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1). In order to define the regions within GP1 that interact with the cellular receptors, we implemented insertional mutagenesis, carbohydrate shielding, and alanine scanning mutagenesis. Eighty GP constructs were engineered and evaluated for GP1-GP2 processing, surface expression, and the ability to mediate cell-to-cell fusion after low-pH exposure. To examine virus-to-cell entry, 49 constructs were incorporated onto vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudoparticles and transduction efficiencies were monitored in HAP1 and HAP1-ΔDAG1 cells that differentially produce the αDG cell surface receptor. Seven constructs retained efficient transduction in HAP1-ΔDAG1 cells yet poorly transduced HAP1 cells, suggesting that they are involved in αDG utilization. Residues H141, N146, F147, and Y150 cluster at the predicted central core of the trimeric interface and are important for GP-αDG interaction. Additionally, H92A-H93A, 150HA, 172HA, and 230HA displayed reduced transduction in both HAP1 and HAP1-ΔDAG1 cells, despite efficient cell-to-cell fusion activity. These mutations may interfere with interactions with the endosomal receptor LAMP1 or interfere at another stage in entry that is common to both cell lines. Insight gained from these data can aid in the development of more-effective entry inhibitors by blocking receptor interactions. IMPORTANCE Countries in which Lassa virus is endemic, such as Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia, usually experience a seasonal outbreak of the virus from December to March

  7. The amino-terminus of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) p7 viroporin and its cleavage from glycoprotein E2-p7 precursor determine specific infectivity and secretion levels of HCV particle types

    PubMed Central

    Denolly, Solène; Bourlet, Thomas; Amirache, Fouzia

    2017-01-01

    Viroporins are small transmembrane proteins with ion channel activities modulating properties of intracellular membranes that have diverse proviral functions. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes a viroporin, p7, acting during assembly, envelopment and secretion of viral particles (VP). HCV p7 is released from the viral polyprotein through cleavage at E2-p7 and p7-NS2 junctions by signal peptidase, but also exists as an E2p7 precursor, of poorly defined properties. Here, we found that ectopic p7 expression in HCVcc-infected cells reduced secretion of particle-associated E2 glycoproteins. Using biochemical assays, we show that p7 dose-dependently slows down the ER-to-Golgi traffic, leading to intracellular retention of E2, which suggested that timely E2p7 cleavage and p7 liberation are critical events to control E2 levels. By studying HCV mutants with accelerated E2p7 processing, we demonstrate that E2p7 cleavage controls E2 intracellular expression and secretion levels of nucleocapsid-free subviral particles and infectious virions. In addition, our imaging data reveal that, following p7 liberation, the amino-terminus of p7 is exposed towards the cytosol and coordinates the encounter between NS5A and NS2-based assembly sites loaded with E1E2 glycoproteins, which subsequently leads to nucleocapsid envelopment. We identify punctual mutants at p7 membrane interface that, by abrogating NS2/NS5A interaction, are defective for transmission of infectivity owing to decreased secretion of core and RNA and to increased secretion of non/partially-enveloped particles. Altogether, our results indicate that the retarded E2p7 precursor cleavage is essential to regulate the intracellular and secreted levels of E2 through p7-mediated modulation of the cell secretory pathway and to unmask critical novel assembly functions located at p7 amino-terminus. PMID:29253880

  8. The prostaglandin E2 receptor PTGER2 and prostaglandin F2α receptor PTGFR mediate oviductal glycoprotein 1 expression in bovine oviductal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Mao, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Na; Liu, Bo; Gao, Long; Zhang, Shuangyi; Cao, Jinshan

    2018-04-13

    Oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1), an oviductin, is involved in the maintenance of sperm viability and motility and contributes to sperm capacitation in the oviduct. In this study, the regulatory effects exerted by prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and F 2α (PGF 2α ) on OVGP1 expression via their corresponding receptors in bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOECs) were investigated. BOECs were cultured in vitro, and their expression of receptors of PGE 2 (PTGER1, PTGER2, PTGER3, and PTGER4) and PGF 2α (PTGFR) was measured using RT-qPCR. Ca 2+ concentration was determined with a fluorescence-based method and cAMP was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to verify activation of PTGER2 and PTGFR by their corresponding agonists in these cells. OVGP1 mRNA and protein expression was measured using RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively, following PTGER2 and PTGFR agonist-induced activation. PTGER1, PTGER2, PTGER4, and PTGFR were found to be present in BOECs; however, PTGER3 expression was not detected. OVGP1 expression was significantly promoted by 10 -6 M butaprost (a PTGER2 agonist) and decreased by 10 -6 M fluprostenol (a PTGFR agonist). In addition, 3 μM H-89 (a PKA inhibitor) and 3 μM U0126 (an ERK inhibitor) effectively inhibited PGE 2 -induced upregulation of OVGP1, and 5 μM chelerythrine chloride (a PKC inhibitor) and 3 μM U0126 negated OVGP1 downregulation by PGF 2α . In conclusion, this study demonstrates that OVGP1 expression in BOECs is enhanced by PGE 2 via PTGER2-cAMP-PKA signaling, and reduced by PGF 2α through the PTGFR-Ca 2+ -PKC pathway.

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein G-Negative Clinical Isolates Are Generated by Single Frameshift Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke; Svennerholm, Bo; Bergström, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) codes for several envelope glycoproteins, including glycoprotein G-2 (gG-2) of HSV type 2 (HSV-2), which are dispensable for replication in cell culture. However, clinical isolates which are deficient in such proteins occur rarely. We describe here five clinical HSV-2 isolates which were found to be unreactive to a panel of anti-gG-2 monoclonal antibodies and therefore considered phenotypically gG-2 negative. These isolates were further examined for expression of the secreted amino-terminal and cell-associated carboxy-terminal portions of gG-2 by immunoblotting and radioimmunoprecipitation. The gG-2 gene was completely inactivated in four isolates, with no expression of the two protein products. For one isolate a normally produced secreted portion and a truncated carboxy-terminal portion of gG-2 were detected in virus-infected cell medium. Sequencing of the complete gG-2 gene identified a single insertion or deletion of guanine or cytosine nucleotides in all five strains, resulting in a premature termination codon. The frameshift mutations were localized within runs of five or more guanine or cytosine nucleotides and were dispersed throughout the gene. For the isolate for which a partially inactivated gG-2 gene was detected, the frameshift mutation was localized upstream of but adjacent to the nucleotides coding for the transmembranous region. Thus, this study demonstrates the existence of clinical HSV-2 isolates which do not express an envelope glycoprotein and identifies the underlying molecular mechanism to be a single frameshift mutation. PMID:10559290

  10. Spontaneous Mutation at Amino Acid 544 of the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Potentiates Virus Entry and Selection in Tissue Culture.

    PubMed

    Ruedas, John B; Ladner, Jason T; Ettinger, Chelsea R; Gummuluru, Suryaram; Palacios, Gustavo; Connor, John H

    2017-08-01

    Ebolaviruses have a surface glycoprotein (GP 1,2 ) that is required for virus attachment and entry into cells. Mutations affecting GP 1,2 functions can alter virus growth properties. We generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus encoding Ebola virus Makona variant GP 1,2 (rVSV-MAK-GP) and observed emergence of a T544I mutation in the Makona GP 1,2 gene during tissue culture passage in certain cell lines. The T544I mutation emerged within two passages when VSV-MAK-GP was grown on Vero E6, Vero, and BS-C-1 cells but not when it was passaged on Huh7 and HepG2 cells. The mutation led to a marked increase in virus growth kinetics and conferred a robust growth advantage over wild-type rVSV-MAK-GP on Vero E6 cells. Analysis of complete viral genomes collected from patients in western Africa indicated that this mutation was not found in Ebola virus clinical samples. However, we observed the emergence of T544I during serial passage of various Ebola Makona isolates on Vero E6 cells. Three independent isolates showed emergence of T544I from undetectable levels in nonpassaged virus or virus passaged once to frequencies of greater than 60% within a single passage, consistent with it being a tissue culture adaptation. Intriguingly, T544I is not found in any Sudan, Bundibugyo, or Tai Forest ebolavirus sequences. Furthermore, T544I did not emerge when we serially passaged recombinant VSV encoding GP 1,2 from these ebolaviruses. This report provides experimental evidence that the spontaneous mutation T544I is a tissue culture adaptation in certain cell lines and that it may be unique for the species Zaire ebolavirus IMPORTANCE The Ebola virus (Zaire) species is the most lethal species of all ebolaviruses in terms of mortality rate and number of deaths. Understanding how the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein functions to facilitate entry in cells is an area of intense research. Recently, three groups independently identified a polymorphism in the Ebola glycoprotein (I544

  11. Spontaneous Mutation at Amino Acid 544 of the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Potentiates Virus Entry and Selection in Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ladner, Jason T.; Ettinger, Chelsea R.; Palacios, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ebolaviruses have a surface glycoprotein (GP1,2) that is required for virus attachment and entry into cells. Mutations affecting GP1,2 functions can alter virus growth properties. We generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus encoding Ebola virus Makona variant GP1,2 (rVSV-MAK-GP) and observed emergence of a T544I mutation in the Makona GP1,2 gene during tissue culture passage in certain cell lines. The T544I mutation emerged within two passages when VSV-MAK-GP was grown on Vero E6, Vero, and BS-C-1 cells but not when it was passaged on Huh7 and HepG2 cells. The mutation led to a marked increase in virus growth kinetics and conferred a robust growth advantage over wild-type rVSV-MAK-GP on Vero E6 cells. Analysis of complete viral genomes collected from patients in western Africa indicated that this mutation was not found in Ebola virus clinical samples. However, we observed the emergence of T544I during serial passage of various Ebola Makona isolates on Vero E6 cells. Three independent isolates showed emergence of T544I from undetectable levels in nonpassaged virus or virus passaged once to frequencies of greater than 60% within a single passage, consistent with it being a tissue culture adaptation. Intriguingly, T544I is not found in any Sudan, Bundibugyo, or Tai Forest ebolavirus sequences. Furthermore, T544I did not emerge when we serially passaged recombinant VSV encoding GP1,2 from these ebolaviruses. This report provides experimental evidence that the spontaneous mutation T544I is a tissue culture adaptation in certain cell lines and that it may be unique for the species Zaire ebolavirus. IMPORTANCE The Ebola virus (Zaire) species is the most lethal species of all ebolaviruses in terms of mortality rate and number of deaths. Understanding how the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein functions to facilitate entry in cells is an area of intense research. Recently, three groups independently identified a polymorphism in the Ebola glycoprotein (I544

  12. HBV core promoter mutations promote cellular proliferation through E2F1-mediated upregulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 transcription.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuehua; Tai, Andrew W; Tong, Shuping; Lok, Anna S F

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core promoter (CP) mutations have been associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in clinical studies. We previously reported that a combination of CP mutations seen in HCC patients, expressed in HBx gene, increased SKP2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2) expression, thereby promoting cellular proliferation. Here, we investigate the possible mechanisms by which CP mutations upregulate SKP2. We used immunoblotting and ATPlite assay to validate the effect of CP mutations in full-length HBV genome on cell cycle regulator levels and cell proliferation. Activation of SKP2 mRNA was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and HCC cell lines. Effect of CP mutations on SKP2 promoter activity was determined by luciferase assay. Target regulation of E2F1 on SKP2 was analyzed by siRNAs. CP mutations in full-length HBV genome upregulated SKP2 expression, thereby downregulating cell cycle inhibitors and accelerating cellular proliferation. CP mutations enhanced SKP2 promoter activity but had no effect on SKP2 protein stability. Mapping of the SKP2 promoter identified a region necessary for activation by CP mutations that contains an E2F1 response element. Knocking down E2F1 reduced the effects of CP mutations on SKP2 and cellular proliferation. The effect of CP mutations on E2F1 might be mediated through hyperphosphorylation of RB. HBV CP mutations enhance SKP2 transcription by activating the E2F1 transcription factor and in turn downregulate cell cycle inhibitors, thus providing a potential mechanism for an association between CP mutations and HCC. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chimpanzee GB virus C and GB virus A E2 envelope glycoproteins contain a peptide motif that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in human CD4+ T-cells

    PubMed Central

    McLinden, James H.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Klinzman, Donna; Murthy, Krishna K.; Chang, Qing; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Bhattarai, Nirjal

    2013-01-01

    GB virus type C (GBV-C) is a lymphotropic virus that can cause persistent infection in humans. GBV-C is not associated with any disease, but is associated with reduced mortality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. Related viruses have been isolated from chimpanzees (GBV-Ccpz) and from New World primates (GB virus type A, GBV-A). These viruses are also capable of establishing persistent infection. We determined the nucleotide sequence encoding the envelope glycoprotein (E2) of two GBV-Ccpz isolates obtained from the sera of captive chimpanzees. The deduced GBV-Ccpz E2 protein differed from human GBV-C by 31 % at the amino acid level. Similar to human GBV-C E2, expression of GBV-Ccpz E2 in a tet-off human CD4+ Jurkat T-cell line significantly inhibited the replication of diverse HIV-1 isolates. This anti-HIV-replication effect of GBV-Ccpz E2 protein was reversed by maintaining cells in doxycycline to reduce E2 expression. Previously, we found a 17 aa region within human GBV-C E2 that was sufficient to inhibit HIV-1. Although GBV-Ccpz E2 differed by 3 aa differences in this region, the chimpanzee GBV-C 17mer E2 peptide inhibited HIV-1 replication. Similarly, the GBV-A peptide that aligns with this GBV-C E2 region inhibited HIV-1 replication despite sharing only 5 aa with the human GBV-C E2 sequence. Thus, despite amino acid differences, the peptide region on both the GBV-Ccpz and the GBV-A E2 protein inhibit HIV-1 replication similar to human GBV-C. Consequently, GBV-Ccpz or GBV-A infection of non-human primates may provide an animal model to study GB virus–HIV interactions. PMID:23288422

  14. Identification of a new mutation in platelet glycoprotein IX (GPIX) in a patient with Bernard-Soulier syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rivera, C E; Villagra, J; Riordan, M; Williams, S; Lindstrom, K J; Rick, M E

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new mutation in glycoprotein IX (GPIX) in a patient with Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS). Sequencing of GPIX revealed a homozygous (T-->C) transition at nucleotide 1717 (GenBank/HUMGPIX/M80478), resulting in a Cys(8) (TGT)-->Arg (CGT) replacement in the mature peptide. DNA restriction enzyme analysis using BsaAI revealed that the patient was homozygous and that his parents were heterozygous for the defect. This mutation disrupts a putative disulphide bond between the Cys(8) and Cys(12) that would alter the secondary structure of GPIX and which probably accounts for the absence of the GPIb/IX/V complex from the platelet surface in this patient.

  15. Mutation of zebrafish dihydrolipoamide branched-chain transacylase E2 results in motor dysfunction and models maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Timo; Lambert, Aaron M.; Masino, Mark A.; Downes, Gerald B.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Analysis of zebrafish mutants that demonstrate abnormal locomotive behavior can elucidate the molecular requirements for neural network function and provide new models of human disease. Here, we show that zebrafish quetschkommode (que) mutant larvae exhibit a progressive locomotor defect that culminates in unusual nose-to-tail compressions and an inability to swim. Correspondingly, extracellular peripheral nerve recordings show that que mutants demonstrate abnormal locomotor output to the axial muscles used for swimming. Using positional cloning and candidate gene analysis, we reveal that a point mutation disrupts the gene encoding dihydrolipoamide branched-chain transacylase E2 (Dbt), a component of a mitochondrial enzyme complex, to generate the que phenotype. In humans, mutation of the DBT gene causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism that can result in mental retardation, severe dystonia, profound neurological damage and death. que mutants harbor abnormal amino acid levels, similar to MSUD patients and consistent with an error in branched-chain amino acid metabolism. que mutants also contain markedly reduced levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate within the brain and spinal cord, which probably contributes to their abnormal spinal cord locomotor output and aberrant motility behavior, a trait that probably represents severe dystonia in larval zebrafish. Taken together, these data illustrate how defects in branched-chain amino acid metabolism can disrupt nervous system development and/or function, and establish zebrafish que mutants as a model to better understand MSUD. PMID:22046030

  16. First somatic mutation of E2F1 in a critical DNA binding residue discovered in well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma of the peritoneum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Well differentiated papillary mesothelioma of the peritoneum (WDPMP) is a rare variant of epithelial mesothelioma of low malignancy potential, usually found in women with no history of asbestos exposure. In this study, we perform the first exome sequencing of WDPMP. Results WDPMP exome sequencing reveals the first somatic mutation of E2F1, R166H, to be identified in human cancer. The location is in the evolutionarily conserved DNA binding domain and computationally predicted to be mutated in the critical contact point between E2F1 and its DNA target. We show that the R166H mutation abrogates E2F1's DNA binding ability and is associated with reduced activation of E2F1 downstream target genes. Mutant E2F1 proteins are also observed in higher quantities when compared with wild-type E2F1 protein levels and the mutant protein's resistance to degradation was found to be the cause of its accumulation within mutant over-expressing cells. Cells over-expressing wild-type E2F1 show decreased proliferation compared to mutant over-expressing cells, but cell proliferation rates of mutant over-expressing cells were comparable to cells over-expressing the empty vector. Conclusions The R166H mutation in E2F1 is shown to have a deleterious effect on its DNA binding ability as well as increasing its stability and subsequent accumulation in R166H mutant cells. Based on the results, two compatible theories can be formed: R166H mutation appears to allow for protein over-expression while minimizing the apoptotic consequence and the R166H mutation may behave similarly to SV40 large T antigen, inhibiting tumor suppressive functions of retinoblastoma protein 1. PMID:21955916

  17. Identification of a novel drug lead that inhibits HCV infection and cell-to-cell transmission by targeting the HCV E2 glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Al Olaby, Reem R; Cocquerel, Laurence; Zemla, Adam; Saas, Laure; Dubuisson, Jean; Vielmetter, Jost; Marcotrigiano, Joseph; Khan, Abdul Ghafoor; Vences Catalan, Felipe; Perryman, Alexander L; Freundlich, Joel S; Forli, Stefano; Levy, Shoshana; Balhorn, Rod; Azzazy, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infects 200 million individuals worldwide. Although several FDA approved drugs targeting the HCV serine protease and polymerase have shown promising results, there is a need for better drugs that are effective in treating a broader range of HCV genotypes and subtypes without being used in combination with interferon and/or ribavirin. Recently, two crystal structures of the core of the HCV E2 protein (E2c) have been determined, providing structural information that can now be used to target the E2 protein and develop drugs that disrupt the early stages of HCV infection by blocking E2's interaction with different host factors. Using the E2c structure as a template, we have created a structural model of the E2 protein core (residues 421-645) that contains the three amino acid segments that are not present in either structure. Computational docking of a diverse library of 1,715 small molecules to this model led to the identification of a set of 34 ligands predicted to bind near conserved amino acid residues involved in the HCV E2: CD81 interaction. Surface plasmon resonance detection was used to screen the ligand set for binding to recombinant E2 protein, and the best binders were subsequently tested to identify compounds that inhibit the infection of Huh-7 cells by HCV. One compound, 281816, blocked E2 binding to CD81 and inhibited HCV infection in a genotype-independent manner with IC50's ranging from 2.2 µM to 4.6 µM. 281816 blocked the early and late steps of cell-free HCV entry and also abrogated the cell-to-cell transmission of HCV. Collectively the results obtained with this new structural model of E2c suggest the development of small molecule inhibitors such as 281816 that target E2 and disrupt its interaction with CD81 may provide a new paradigm for HCV treatment.

  18. Can mutational GC-pressure create new linear B-cell epitopes in herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein B?

    PubMed

    Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich

    2009-01-01

    We showed that GC-content of nucleotide sequences coding for linear B-cell epitopes of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) glycoprotein B (gB) is higher than GC-content of sequences coding for epitope-free regions of this glycoprotein (G + C = 73 and 64%, respectively). Linear B-cell epitopes have been predicted in HSV1 gB by BepiPred algorithm ( www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/BepiPred ). Proline is an acrophilic amino acid residue (it is usually situated on the surface of protein globules, and so included in linear B-cell epitopes). Indeed, the level of proline is much higher in predicted epitopes of gB than in epitope-free regions (17.8% versus 1.8%). This amino acid is coded by GC-rich codons (CCX) that can be produced due to nucleotide substitutions caused by mutational GC-pressure. GC-pressure will also lead to disappearance of acrophobic phenylalanine, isoleucine, methionine and tyrosine coded by GC-poor codons. Results of our "in-silico directed mutagenesis" showed that single nonsynonymous substitutions in AT to GC direction in two long epitope-free regions of gB will cause formation of new linear epitopes or elongation of previously existing epitopes flanking these regions in 25% of 539 possible cases. The calculations of GC-content and amino acid content have been performed by CodonChanges algorithm ( www.barkovsky.hotmail.ru ).

  19. An inter-residue network model to identify mutational-constrained regions on the Ebola coat glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Devin S.; Raman, Rahul; Tharakaraman, Kannan; Subramanian, Vidya; del Hierro, Gabriella; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2017-01-01

    Recently, progress has been made in the development of vaccines and monoclonal antibody cocktails that target the Ebola coat glycoprotein (GP). Based on the mutation rates for Ebola virus given its natural sequence evolution, these treatment strategies are likely to impose additional selection pressure to drive acquisition of mutations in GP that escape neutralization. Given the high degree of sequence conservation among GP of Ebola viruses, it would be challenging to determine the propensity of acquiring mutations in response to vaccine or treatment with one or a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies. In this study, we analyzed the mutability of each residue using an approach that captures the structural constraints on mutability based on the extent of its inter-residue interaction network within the three-dimensional structure of the trimeric GP. This analysis showed two distinct clusters of highly networked residues along the GP1-GP2 interface, part of which overlapped with epitope surfaces of known neutralizing antibodies. This network approach also permitted us to identify additional residues in the network of the known hotspot residues of different anti-Ebola antibodies that would impact antibody-epitope interactions. PMID:28397835

  20. Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle

    SciT

    Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A., E-mail: carolyn.wilson@fda.hhs.gov

    Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectorsmore » with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. - Highlights: • Env cleavage signal impacts infectivity of gammaretroviruses. • Non-infectious mutants have hyper-glycosylated envelope that bind target cells. • Non-infectious mutants have defects in the formation of the double-stranded DNA. • Env cleavage motif has functions beyond cleavage of the env precursor.« less

  1. Identification of a Novel Drug Lead That Inhibits HCV Infection and Cell-to-Cell Transmission by Targeting the HCV E2 Glycoprotein

    DOE PAGES

    Al Olaby, Reem R.; Cocquerel, Laurence; Zemla, Adam; ...

    2014-10-30

    We report that Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infects 200 million individuals worldwide. Although several FDA approved drugs targeting the HCV serine protease and polymerase have shown promising results, there is a need for better drugs that are effective in treating a broader range of HCV genotypes and subtypes without being used in combination with interferon and/or ribavirin. Recently, two crystal structures of the core of the HCV E2 protein (E2c) have been determined, providing structural information that can now be used to target the E2 protein and develop drugs that disrupt the early stages of HCV infection by blocking E2’smore » interaction with different host factors. Using the E2c structure as a template, we have created a structural model of the E2 protein core (residues 421–645) that contains the three amino acid segments that are not present in either structure. Computational docking of a diverse library of 1,715 small molecules to this model led to the identification of a set of 34 ligands predicted to bind near conserved amino acid residues involved in the HCV E2: CD81 interaction. We used surface plasmon resonance detection to screen the ligand set for binding to recombinant E2 protein, and the best binders were subsequently tested to identify compounds that inhibit the infection of Huh-7 cells by HCV. One compound, 281816, blocked E2 binding to CD81 and inhibited HCV infection in a genotype-independent manner with IC50’s ranging from 2.2 µM to 4.6 µM. 281816 blocked the early and late steps of cell-free HCV entry and also abrogated the cell-to-cell transmission of HCV. Collectively the results obtained with this new structural model of E2c suggest the development of small molecule inhibitors such as 281816 that target E2 and disrupt its interaction with CD81 may provide a new paradigm for HCV treatment.« less

  2. Identification of a Novel Drug Lead That Inhibits HCV Infection and Cell-to-Cell Transmission by Targeting the HCV E2 Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Al Olaby, Reem R.; Cocquerel, Laurence; Zemla, Adam; Saas, Laure; Dubuisson, Jean; Vielmetter, Jost; Marcotrigiano, Joseph; Khan, Abdul Ghafoor; Catalan, Felipe Vences; Perryman, Alexander L.; Freundlich, Joel S.; Forli, Stefano; Levy, Shoshana; Balhorn, Rod; Azzazy, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infects 200 million individuals worldwide. Although several FDA approved drugs targeting the HCV serine protease and polymerase have shown promising results, there is a need for better drugs that are effective in treating a broader range of HCV genotypes and subtypes without being used in combination with interferon and/or ribavirin. Recently, two crystal structures of the core of the HCV E2 protein (E2c) have been determined, providing structural information that can now be used to target the E2 protein and develop drugs that disrupt the early stages of HCV infection by blocking E2’s interaction with different host factors. Using the E2c structure as a template, we have created a structural model of the E2 protein core (residues 421–645) that contains the three amino acid segments that are not present in either structure. Computational docking of a diverse library of 1,715 small molecules to this model led to the identification of a set of 34 ligands predicted to bind near conserved amino acid residues involved in the HCV E2: CD81 interaction. Surface plasmon resonance detection was used to screen the ligand set for binding to recombinant E2 protein, and the best binders were subsequently tested to identify compounds that inhibit the infection of Huh-7 cells by HCV. One compound, 281816, blocked E2 binding to CD81 and inhibited HCV infection in a genotype-independent manner with IC50’s ranging from 2.2 µM to 4.6 µM. 281816 blocked the early and late steps of cell-free HCV entry and also abrogated the cell-to-cell transmission of HCV. Collectively the results obtained with this new structural model of E2c suggest the development of small molecule inhibitors such as 281816 that target E2 and disrupt its interaction with CD81 may provide a new paradigm for HCV treatment. PMID:25357246

  3. Identification of a Novel Drug Lead That Inhibits HCV Infection and Cell-to-Cell Transmission by Targeting the HCV E2 Glycoprotein

    SciT

    Al Olaby, Reem R.; Cocquerel, Laurence; Zemla, Adam

    We report that Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infects 200 million individuals worldwide. Although several FDA approved drugs targeting the HCV serine protease and polymerase have shown promising results, there is a need for better drugs that are effective in treating a broader range of HCV genotypes and subtypes without being used in combination with interferon and/or ribavirin. Recently, two crystal structures of the core of the HCV E2 protein (E2c) have been determined, providing structural information that can now be used to target the E2 protein and develop drugs that disrupt the early stages of HCV infection by blocking E2’smore » interaction with different host factors. Using the E2c structure as a template, we have created a structural model of the E2 protein core (residues 421–645) that contains the three amino acid segments that are not present in either structure. Computational docking of a diverse library of 1,715 small molecules to this model led to the identification of a set of 34 ligands predicted to bind near conserved amino acid residues involved in the HCV E2: CD81 interaction. We used surface plasmon resonance detection to screen the ligand set for binding to recombinant E2 protein, and the best binders were subsequently tested to identify compounds that inhibit the infection of Huh-7 cells by HCV. One compound, 281816, blocked E2 binding to CD81 and inhibited HCV infection in a genotype-independent manner with IC50’s ranging from 2.2 µM to 4.6 µM. 281816 blocked the early and late steps of cell-free HCV entry and also abrogated the cell-to-cell transmission of HCV. Collectively the results obtained with this new structural model of E2c suggest the development of small molecule inhibitors such as 281816 that target E2 and disrupt its interaction with CD81 may provide a new paradigm for HCV treatment.« less

  4. Different effects of two mutations on the infectivity of Ebola virus glycoprotein in nine mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Yohei; Ueda, Mahoko Takahashi; Nakano, Yusuke; Yasuda, Jiro; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei; Nakagawa, So

    2018-01-04

    Ebola virus (EBOV), which belongs to the genus Ebolavirus, causes a severe and often fatal infection in primates, including humans, whereas Reston virus (RESTV) only causes lethal disease in non-human primates. Two amino acids (aa) at positions 82 and 544 of the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) are involved in determining viral infectivity. However, it remains unclear how these two aa residues affect the infectivity of Ebolavirus species in various hosts. Here we performed viral pseudotyping experiments with EBOV and RESTV GP derivatives in 10 cell lines from 9 mammalian species. We demonstrated that isoleucine at position 544/545 increases viral infectivity in all host species, whereas valine at position 82/83 modulates viral infectivity, depending on the viral and host species. Structural modelling suggested that the former residue affects viral fusion, whereas the latter residue influences the interaction with the viral entry receptor, Niemann-Pick C1.

  5. Different effects of two mutations on the infectivity of Ebola virus glycoprotein in nine mammalian species

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yusuke; Yasuda, Jiro; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei; Nakagawa, So

    2018-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), which belongs to the genus Ebolavirus, causes a severe and often fatal infection in primates, including humans, whereas Reston virus (RESTV) only causes lethal disease in non-human primates. Two amino acids (aa) at positions 82 and 544 of the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) are involved in determining viral infectivity. However, it remains unclear how these two aa residues affect the infectivity of Ebolavirus species in various hosts. Here we performed viral pseudotyping experiments with EBOV and RESTV GP derivatives in 10 cell lines from 9 mammalian species. We demonstrated that isoleucine at position 544/545 increases viral infectivity in all host species, whereas valine at position 82/83 modulates viral infectivity, depending on the viral and host species. Structural modelling suggested that the former residue affects viral fusion, whereas the latter residue influences the interaction with the viral entry receptor, Niemann–Pick C1. PMID:29300152

  6. Amino acid mutations in Ebola virus glycoprotein of the 2014 epidemic.

    PubMed

    Giovanetti, Marta; Grifoni, Alba; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Montesano, Carla; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Colizzi, Vittorio; Amicosante, Massimo; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped non-segmented negative strand RNA virus of 19 kb in length belonging to the family Filoviridae. The virus was isolated and identified in 1976 during the epidemic of hemorrhagic fever in Zaire. The most recent outbreak of EBOV among humans, was that occurred in the forested areas of south eastern Guinea, that began in February 2014 and is still ongoing. The recent Ebola outbreak, is affecting other countries in West Africa, in addiction to Guinea: Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. In this article, a selective pressure analysis and homology modeling based on the G Glycoprotein (GP) sequences retrieved from public databases were used to investigate the genetic diversity and modification of antibody response in the recent outbreak of Ebola Virus. Structural and the evolutionary analysis underline the 2014 epidemic virus being under negative selective pressure does not change with respect to the old epidemic in terms of genome adaptation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mutational Analysis of the Rift Valley Fever Virus Glycoprotein Precursor Proteins for Gn Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Inaia; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Nishiyama, Shoko; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2016-05-24

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) M-segment encodes the 78 kD, NSm, Gn, and Gc proteins. The 1st AUG generates the 78 kD-Gc precursor, the 2nd AUG generates the NSm-Gn-Gc precursor, and the 3rd AUG makes the NSm'-Gn-Gc precursor. To understand biological changes due to abolishment of the precursors, we quantitatively measured Gn secretion using a reporter assay, in which a Gaussia luciferase (gLuc) protein is fused to the RVFV M-segment pre-Gn region. Using the reporter assay, the relative expression of Gn/gLuc fusion proteins was analyzed among various AUG mutants. The reporter assay showed efficient secretion of Gn/gLuc protein from the precursor made from the 2nd AUG, while the removal of the untranslated region upstream of the 2nd AUG (AUG2-M) increased the secretion of the Gn/gLuc protein. Subsequently, recombinant MP-12 strains encoding mutations in the pre-Gn region were rescued, and virological phenotypes were characterized. Recombinant MP-12 encoding the AUG2-M mutation replicated slightly less efficiently than the control, indicating that viral replication is further influenced by the biological processes occurring after Gn expression, rather than the Gn abundance. This study showed that, not only the abolishment of AUG, but also the truncation of viral UTR, affects the expression of Gn protein by the RVFV M-segment.

  8. Mutational Analysis of the Rift Valley Fever Virus Glycoprotein Precursor Proteins for Gn Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Phoenix, Inaia; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Nishiyama, Shoko; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) M-segment encodes the 78 kD, NSm, Gn, and Gc proteins. The 1st AUG generates the 78 kD-Gc precursor, the 2nd AUG generates the NSm-Gn-Gc precursor, and the 3rd AUG makes the NSm’-Gn-Gc precursor. To understand biological changes due to abolishment of the precursors, we quantitatively measured Gn secretion using a reporter assay, in which a Gaussia luciferase (gLuc) protein is fused to the RVFV M-segment pre-Gn region. Using the reporter assay, the relative expression of Gn/gLuc fusion proteins was analyzed among various AUG mutants. The reporter assay showed efficient secretion of Gn/gLuc protein from the precursor made from the 2nd AUG, while the removal of the untranslated region upstream of the 2nd AUG (AUG2-M) increased the secretion of the Gn/gLuc protein. Subsequently, recombinant MP-12 strains encoding mutations in the pre-Gn region were rescued, and virological phenotypes were characterized. Recombinant MP-12 encoding the AUG2-M mutation replicated slightly less efficiently than the control, indicating that viral replication is further influenced by the biological processes occurring after Gn expression, rather than the Gn abundance. This study showed that, not only the abolishment of AUG, but also the truncation of viral UTR, affects the expression of Gn protein by the RVFV M-segment. PMID:27231931

  9. Mutations in the Schmallenberg Virus Gc Glycoprotein Facilitate Cellular Protein Synthesis Shutoff and Restore Pathogenicity of NSs Deletion Mutants in Mice.

    PubMed

    Varela, Mariana; Pinto, Rute Maria; Caporale, Marco; Piras, Ilaria M; Taggart, Aislynn; Seehusen, Frauke; Hahn, Kerstin; Janowicz, Anna; de Souza, William Marciel; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Shi, Xiaohong; Palmarini, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Serial passage of viruses in cell culture has been traditionally used to attenuate virulence and identify determinants of viral pathogenesis. In a previous study, we found that a strain of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) serially passaged in tissue culture (termed SBVp32) unexpectedly displayed increased pathogenicity in suckling mice compared to wild-type SBV. In this study, we mapped the determinants of SBVp32 virulence to the viral genome M segment. SBVp32 virulence is associated with the capacity of this virus to reach high titers in the brains of experimentally infected suckling mice. We also found that the Gc glycoprotein, encoded by the M segment of SBVp32, facilitates host cell protein shutoff in vitro Interestingly, while the M segment of SBVp32 is a virulence factor, we found that the S segment of the same virus confers by itself an attenuated phenotype to wild-type SBV, as it has lost the ability to block the innate immune system of the host. Single mutations present in the Gc glycoprotein of SBVp32 are sufficient to compensate for both the attenuated phenotype of the SBVp32 S segment and the attenuated phenotype of NSs deletion mutants. Our data also indicate that the SBVp32 M segment does not act as an interferon (IFN) antagonist. Therefore, SBV mutants can retain pathogenicity even when they are unable to fully control the production of IFN by infected cells. Overall, this study suggests that the viral glycoprotein of orthobunyaviruses can compensate, at least in part, for the function of NSs. In addition, we also provide evidence that the induction of total cellular protein shutoff by SBV is determined by multiple viral proteins, while the ability to control the production of IFN maps to the NSs protein. The identification of viral determinants of pathogenesis is key to the development of prophylactic and intervention measures. In this study, we found that the bunyavirus Gc glycoprotein is a virulence factor. Importantly, we show that mutations in the Gc

  10. Determination of the Human Antibody Response to the Neutralization Epitopes Encompassing Amino Acids 313–327 and 432–443 of Hepatitis C Virus E1E2 Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruyu; Rao, Huiying; Wang, Jianghua; Xie, Xingwang; Jiang, Dong; Pan, Xiaoben; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Henghui; Wei, Lai

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the E1E2 glycoproteins may have the potential to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The protective epitopes targeted by these MAbs have been mapped to the regionsencompassing amino acids 313–327 and 432–443. In this study, we synthesized these two peptides and tested the reactivity of serum samples from 336 patients, 210 of whichwere from Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) patients infected with diverse HCV genotypes.The remaining 126 samples were isolated from patients who had spontaneously clearedHCV infection.In the chronic HCV-infected group (CHC group), the prevalence of human serum antibodies reactive to epitopes 313–327 and 432–443was 24.29%(51 of 210) and4.76%(10 of 210),respectively. In thespontaneousclearance group (SC group),the prevalence was 0.79%(1 of 126) and 12.70%(16 of 126), respectively.The positive serum samples that contained antibodies reactive to epitope 313–327 neutralizedHCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) bearing the envelope glycoproteins of genotypes 1a or 1b and/or 4, but genotypes 2a, 3a, 5 and 6 were not neutralized. The neutralizing activity of these serum samples could not be inhibited by peptide 313–327. Six samples (SC17, SC38, SC86, SC92, CHC75 and CHC198) containing antibodies reactive to epitope 432–443 had cross-genotype neutralizing activities. Theneutralizing activityof SC38, SC86, SC92 and CHC75waspartiallyinhibited by peptide 432–443. However,the neutralizing activity of sample SC17 for genotype 4HCVpp and sample CHC198 for genotype 1b HCVppwere notinhibited by the peptide.This study identifies the neutralizing ability of endogenous anti-HCV antibodies and warrants the exploration of antibodies reactive to epitope432–443as sources for future antibody therapies. PMID:23826163

  11. A Library of Infectious Hepatitis C Viruses with Engineered Mutations in the E2 Gene Reveals Growth-Adaptive Mutations That Modulate Interactions with Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I.

    PubMed

    Zuiani, Adam; Chen, Kevin; Schwarz, Megan C; White, James P; Luca, Vincent C; Fremont, Daved H; Wang, David; Evans, Matthew J; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    While natural hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in highly diverse quasispecies of related viruses over time, mutations accumulate more slowly in tissue culture, in part because of the inefficiency of replication in cells. To create a highly diverse population of HCV particles in cell culture and identify novel growth-enhancing mutations, we engineered a library of infectious HCV with all codons represented at most positions in the ectodomain of the E2 gene. We identified many putative growth-adaptive mutations and selected nine highly represented E2 mutants for further study: Q412R, T416R, S449P, T563V, A579R, L619T, V626S, K632T, and L644I. We evaluated these mutants for changes in particle-to-infectious-unit ratio, sensitivity to neutralizing antibody or CD81 large extracellular loop (CD81-LEL) inhibition, entry factor usage, and buoyant density profiles. Q412R, T416R, S449P, T563V, and L619T were neutralized more efficiently by anti-E2 antibodies and T416R, T563V, and L619T by CD81-LEL. Remarkably, all nine variants showed reduced dependence on scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) for infection. This shift from SR-BI usage did not correlate with a change in the buoyant density profiles of the variants, suggesting an altered E2-SR-BI interaction rather than changes in the virus-associated lipoprotein-E2 interaction. Our results demonstrate that residues influencing SR-BI usage are distributed across E2 and support the development of large-scale mutagenesis studies to identify viral variants with unique functional properties. Characterizing variant viruses can reveal new information about the life cycle of HCV and the roles played by different viral genes. However, it is difficult to recapitulate high levels of diversity in the laboratory because of limitations in the HCV culture system. To overcome this limitation, we engineered a library of mutations into the E2 gene in the context of an infectious clone of the virus. We used this library of viruses

  12. Syncytial Mutations Do Not Impair the Specificity of Entry and Spread of a Glycoprotein D Receptor-Retargeted Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Yu; Wakata, Aika; Suzuki, Takuma; Shibata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Hitomi; Yamaguchi, Miki; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.; Tagaya, Mitsuo; Hamada, Hirofumi; Tahara, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Membrane fusion, which is the key process for both initial cell entry and subsequent lateral spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV), requires the four envelope glycoproteins gB, gD, gH, and gL. Syncytial mutations, predominantly mapped to the gB and gK genes, confer hyperfusogenicity on HSV and cause multinucleated giant cells, termed syncytia. Here we asked whether interaction of gD with a cognate entry receptor remains indispensable for initiating membrane fusion of syncytial strains. To address this question, we took advantage of mutant viruses whose viral entry into cells relies on the uniquely specific interaction of an engineered gD with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We introduced selected syncytial mutations into gB and/or gK of the EGFR-retargeted HSV and found that these mutations, especially when combined, enabled formation of extensive syncytia by human cancer cell lines that express the target receptor; these syncytia were substantially larger than the plaques formed by the parental retargeted HSV strain. We assessed the EGFR dependence of entry and spread separately by using direct entry and infectious center assays, respectively, and we found that the syncytial mutations did not override the receptor specificity of the retargeted viruses at either stage. We discuss the implications of these results for the development of more effective targeted oncolytic HSV vectors. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is investigated not only as a human pathogen but also as a promising agent for oncolytic virotherapy. We previously showed that both the initial entry and subsequent lateral spread of HSV can be retargeted to cells expressing tumor-associated antigens by single-chain antibodies fused to a receptor-binding-deficient envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Here we introduced syncytial mutations into the gB and/or gK gene of gD-retargeted HSVs to determine whether viral tropism remained dependent on the interaction of gD with the target receptor

  13. Mutations in the conserved carboxy-terminal hydrophobic region of glycoprotein gB affect infectivity of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Wanas, E; Efler, S; Ghosh, K; Ghosh, H P

    1999-12-01

    Glycoprotein gB is the most highly conserved glycoprotein in the herpesvirus family and plays a critical role in virus entry and fusion. Glycoprotein gB of herpes simplex virus type 1 contains a hydrophobic stretch of 69 aa near the carboxy terminus that is essential for its biological activity. To determine the role(s) of specific amino acids in the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic region, a number of amino acids were mutagenized that are highly conserved in this region within the gB homologues of the family HERPESVIRIDAE: Three conserved residues in the membrane anchor domain, namely A786, A790 and A791, as well as amino acids G743, G746, G766, G770 and P774, that are non-variant in Herpesviridae, were mutagenized. The ability of the mutant proteins to rescue the infectivity of the gB-null virus, K082, in trans was measured by a complementation assay. All of the mutant proteins formed dimers and were incorporated in virion particles produced in the complementation assay. Mutants G746N, G766N, F770S and P774L showed negligible complementation of K082, whereas mutant G743R showed a reduced activity. Virion particles containing these four mutant glycoproteins also showed a markedly reduced rate of entry compared to the wild-type. The results suggest that non-variant residues in the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic region of the gB protein may be important in virus infectivity.

  14. An interactive web-tool for molecular analyses links naturally occurring mutation data with three-dimensional structures of the rhodopsin-like glycoprotein hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Kleinau, Gunnar; Kreuchwig, Annika; Worth, Catherine L; Krause, Gerd

    2010-06-01

    The collection, description and molecular analysis of naturally occurring (pathogenic) mutations are important for understanding the functional mechanisms and malfunctions of biological units such as proteins. Numerous databases collate a huge amount of functional data or descriptions of mutations, but tools to analyse the molecular effects of genetic variations are as yet poorly provided. The goal of this work was therefore to develop a translational web-application that facilitates the interactive linkage of functional and structural data and which helps improve our understanding of the molecular basis of naturally occurring gain- or loss- of function mutations. Here we focus on the human glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHRs), for which a huge number of mutations are known to cause diseases. We describe new options for interactive data analyses within three-dimensional structures, which enable the assignment of molecular relationships between structure and function. Strikingly, as the functional data are converted into relational percentage values, the system allows the comparison and classification of data from different GPHR subtypes and different experimental approaches. Our new application has been incorporated into a freely available database and website for the GPHRs (http://www.ssfa-gphr.de), but the principle development would also be applicable to other macromolecules.

  15. CD4 molecules with a diversity of mutations encompassing the CDR3 region efficiently support human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Broder, C C; Berger, E A

    1993-01-01

    The third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) within domain 1 of the human CD4 molecule has been suggested to play a critical role in membrane fusion mediated by the interaction of CD4 with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein. To analyze in detail the role of CDR3 and adjacent regions in the fusion process, we used cassette mutagenesis to construct a panel of 30 site-directed mutations between residues 79 and 96 of the full-length CD4 molecule. The mutant proteins were transiently expressed by using recombinant vaccinia virus vectors and were analyzed for cell surface expression, recombinant gp120-binding activity, and overall structural integrity as assessed by reactivity with a battery of anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies. Cells expressing the CD4 mutants were assayed for their ability to form syncytia when mixed with cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Surprisingly in view of published data from others, most of the mutations had little effect on syncytium-forming activity. Normal fusion was observed in 21 mutants, including substitution of human residues 85 to 95 with the corresponding sequences from either chimpanzee, rhesus, or mouse CD4; a panel of Ser-Arg double insertions after each residue from 86 to 91; and a number of other charge, hydrophobic, and proline substitutions and insertions within this region. The nine mutants that showed impaired fusion all displayed defective gp120 binding and disruption of overall structural integrity. In further contrast with results of other workers, we observed that transformant human cell lines expressing native chimpanzee or rhesus CD4 efficiently formed syncytia when mixed with cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. These data refute the conclusion that certain mutations in the CDR3 region of CD4 abolish cell fusion activity, and they suggest that a wide variety of sequences can be functionally tolerated in this region, including those from highly divergent

  16. CD4 molecules with a diversity of mutations encompassing the CDR3 region efficiently support human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Broder, C C; Berger, E A

    1993-02-01

    The third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) within domain 1 of the human CD4 molecule has been suggested to play a critical role in membrane fusion mediated by the interaction of CD4 with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein. To analyze in detail the role of CDR3 and adjacent regions in the fusion process, we used cassette mutagenesis to construct a panel of 30 site-directed mutations between residues 79 and 96 of the full-length CD4 molecule. The mutant proteins were transiently expressed by using recombinant vaccinia virus vectors and were analyzed for cell surface expression, recombinant gp120-binding activity, and overall structural integrity as assessed by reactivity with a battery of anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies. Cells expressing the CD4 mutants were assayed for their ability to form syncytia when mixed with cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Surprisingly in view of published data from others, most of the mutations had little effect on syncytium-forming activity. Normal fusion was observed in 21 mutants, including substitution of human residues 85 to 95 with the corresponding sequences from either chimpanzee, rhesus, or mouse CD4; a panel of Ser-Arg double insertions after each residue from 86 to 91; and a number of other charge, hydrophobic, and proline substitutions and insertions within this region. The nine mutants that showed impaired fusion all displayed defective gp120 binding and disruption of overall structural integrity. In further contrast with results of other workers, we observed that transformant human cell lines expressing native chimpanzee or rhesus CD4 efficiently formed syncytia when mixed with cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. These data refute the conclusion that certain mutations in the CDR3 region of CD4 abolish cell fusion activity, and they suggest that a wide variety of sequences can be functionally tolerated in this region, including those from highly divergent

  17. Generation of a novel live rabies vaccine strain with a high level of safety by introducing attenuating mutations in the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Kento; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Mitake, Hiromichi; Okada, Kazuma; Yamaoka, Satoko; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Masatani, Tatsunori; Okadera, Kota; Ito, Naoto; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Makoto

    2017-10-09

    The current live rabies vaccine SAG2 is attenuated by only one mutation (Arg-to-Glu) at position 333 in the glycoprotein (G333). This fact generates a potential risk of the emergence of a pathogenic revertant by a back mutation at this position during viral propagation in the body. To circumvent this risk, it is desirable to generate a live vaccine strain highly and stably attenuated by multiple mutations. However, the information on attenuating mutations other than that at G333 is very limited. We previously reported that amino acids at positions 273 and 394 in the nucleoprotein (N273/394) (Leu and His, respectively) of fixed rabies virus Ni-CE are responsible for the attenuated phenotype by enhancing interferon (IFN)/chemokine gene expressions in infected neural cells. In this study, we found that amino acid substitutions at N273/394 (Phe-to-Leu and Tyr-to-His, respectively) attenuated the pathogenicity of the oral live vaccine ERA, which has a virulent-type Arg at G333. Then we generated ERA-N273/394-G333 attenuated by the combination of the above attenuating mutations at G333 and N273/394, and checked its safety. Similar to the ERA-G333, which is attenuated by only the mutation at G333, ERA-N273/394-G333 did not cause any symptoms in adult mice after intracerebral inoculation, indicating a low level of residual pathogenicity of ERA-N273/394-G333. Further examination revealed that infection with ERA-N273/394-G333 induces IFN-β and CXCL10 mRNA expressions more strongly than ERA-G333 infection in a neuroblastoma cell line. Importantly, we found that the ERA-N273/394-G333 stain has a lower risk for emergence of a pathogenic revertant than does the ERA-G333. These results indicate that ERA-N273/394-G333 has a potential to be a promising candidate for a live rabies vaccine strain with a high level of safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mutations increasing exposure of a receptor binding site epitope in the soluble and oligomeric forms of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus envelope glycoprotein

    SciT

    Hoetzel, Isidro; Cheevers, William P.

    2005-09-01

    The caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) and ovine maedi-visna (MVV) viruses are resistant to antibody neutralization, a feature shared with all other lentiviruses. Whether the CAEV gp135 receptor binding site(s) (RBS) in the functional surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) is protected from antibody binding, allowing the virus to resist neutralization, is not known. Two CAEV gp135 regions were identified by extrapolating a gp135 structural model that could affect binding of antibodies to the RBS: the V1 region and a short sequence analogous in position to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 loop B postulated to be located between two major domains ofmore » CAEV gp135. Mutation of isoleucine-166 to alanine in the putative loop B of gp135 increased the affinity of soluble gp135 for the CAEV receptor(s) and goat monoclonal antibody (Mab) F7-299 which recognizes an epitope overlapping the gp135 RBS. The I166A mutation also stabilized or exposed the F7-299 epitope in anionic detergent buffers, indicating that the I166A mutation induces conformational changes and stabilizes the RBS of soluble gp135 and enhances Mab F7-299 binding. In contrast, the affinity of a V1 deletion mutant of gp135 for the receptor and Mab F7-299 and its structural stability did not differ from that of the wild-type gp135. However, both the I166A mutation and the V1 deletion of gp135 increased cell-to-cell fusion activity and binding of Mab F7-299 to the oligomeric Env. Therefore, the CAEV gp135 RBS is protected from antibody binding by mechanisms both dependent and independent of Env oligomerization which are disrupted by the V1 deletion and the I166A mutation, respectively. In addition, we found a correlation between side-chain {beta}-branching at amino acid position 166 and binding of Mab F7-299 to oligomeric Env and cell-to-cell fusion, suggesting local secondary structure constraints in the region around isoleucine-166 as one determinant of gp135 RBS exposure and antibody binding.« less

  19. Mutational analysis of P-glycoprotein: suppression of caspase activation in the absence of ATP-dependent drug efflux.

    PubMed

    Tainton, K M; Smyth, M J; Jackson, J T; Tanner, J E; Cerruti, L; Jane, S M; Darcy, P K; Johnstone, R W

    2004-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can induce multidrug resistance (MDR) through the ATP-dependent efflux of chemotherapeutic agents. We have previously shown that P-gp can inhibit nondrug apoptotic stimuli by suppressing the activation of caspases. To determine if this additional activity is functionally linked to ATP hydrolysis, we expressed wild-type and ATPase-mutant P-gp and showed that cells expressing mutant P-gp could not efflux chemotherapeutic drugs but remained relatively resistant to apoptosis. CEM lymphoma cells expressing mutant P-gp treated with vincristine showed a decrease in the fraction of cells with apoptotic morphology, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and suppression of caspase activation, yet still accumulated in mitosis and showed a loss of clonogenic potential. The loss of clonogenicity in vincristine-treated cells expressing mutant P-gp was associated with accumulation of cells in mitosis and the presence of multinucleated cells consistent with mitotic catastrophe. The antiapoptotic effect of mutant P-gp was not affected by antibodies that inhibit the efflux function of the protein. These data are consistent with a dual activity model for P-gp-induced MDR involving both ATPase-dependent drug efflux and ATPase-independent inhibition of apoptosis. The structure-function analyses described herein provide novel insight into the mechanisms of action of P-gp in mediating MDR.

  20. Induction of Broad CD4+ and CD8+ T-Cell Responses and Cross- Neutralizing Antibodies against Hepatitis C Virus by Vaccination with Th1-Adjuvanted Polypeptides Followed by Defective Alphaviral Particles Expressing Envelope Glycoproteins gpE1 and gpE2 and Nonstructural Proteins 3, 4, and 5▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yinling; Kwon, Taewoo; Polo, John; Zhu, Yi-Fei; Coates, Stephen; Crawford, Kevin; Dong, Christine; Wininger, Mark; Hall, John; Selby, Mark; Coit, Doris; Medina-Selby, Angelica; McCoin, Colin; Ng, Philip; Drane, Debbie; Chien, David; Han, Jang; Vajdy, Michael; Houghton, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Broad, multispecific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), as well as virus-cross-neutralizing antibodies, are associated with recovery from acute infection and may also be associated in chronic HCV patients with a favorable response to antiviral treatment. In order to recapitulate all of these responses in an ideal vaccine regimen, we have explored the use of recombinant HCV polypeptides combined with various Th1-type adjuvants and replication-defective alphaviral particles encoding HCV proteins in various prime/boost modalities in BALB/c mice. Defective chimeric alphaviral particles derived from the Sindbis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses encoding either the HCV envelope glycoprotein gpE1/gpE2 heterodimer (E1E2) or nonstructural proteins 3, 4, and 5 (NS345) elicited strong CD8+ T-cell responses but low CD4+ T helper responses to these HCV gene products. In contrast, recombinant E1E2 glycoproteins adjuvanted with MF59 containing a CpG oligonucleotide elicited strong CD4+ T helper responses but no CD8+ T-cell responses. A recombinant NS345 polyprotein also stimulated strong CD4+ T helper responses but no CD8+ T-cell responses when adjuvanted with Iscomatrix containing CpG. Optimal elicitation of broad CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to E1E2 and NS345 was obtained by first priming with Th1-adjuvanted proteins and then boosting with chimeric, defective alphaviruses expressing these HCV genes. In addition, this prime/boost regimen resulted in the induction of anti-E1E2 antibodies capable of cross-neutralizing heterologous HCV isolates in vitro. This vaccine formulation and regimen may therefore be optimal in humans for protection against this highly heterogeneous global pathogen. PMID:18508900

  1. The Papillomavirus E2 proteins

    SciT

    McBride, Alison A., E-mail: amcbride@nih.gov

    2013-10-15

    The papillomavirus E2 proteins are pivotal to the viral life cycle and have well characterized functions in transcriptional regulation, initiation of DNA replication and partitioning the viral genome. The E2 proteins also function in vegetative DNA replication, post-transcriptional processes and possibly packaging. This review describes structural and functional aspects of the E2 proteins and their binding sites on the viral genome. It is intended to be a reference guide to this viral protein. - Highlights: • Overview of E2 protein functions. • Structural domains of the papillomavirus E2 proteins. • Analysis of E2 binding sites in different genera of papillomaviruses.more » • Compilation of E2 associated proteins. • Comparison of key mutations in distinct E2 functions.« less

  2. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2005-08-09

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  3. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2010-11-16

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  4. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

    2009-07-14

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  5. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2006-10-31

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  6. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2007-08-28

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  7. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2007-07-03

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  8. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2010-11-02

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  9. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2007-05-15

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  10. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2007-02-27

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  11. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Shultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2007-04-03

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  12. Dual Split Protein-Based Fusion Assay Reveals that Mutations to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Glycoprotein gB Alter the Kinetics of Cell-Cell Fusion Induced by HSV Entry Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Atanasiu, Doina; Saw, Wan Ting; Gallagher, John R.; Hannah, Brian P.; Matsuda, Zene; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Cohen, Gary H.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry and cell-cell fusion require glycoproteins gD, gH/gL, and gB. We propose that receptor-activated changes to gD cause it to activate gH/gL, which then triggers gB into an active form. We employed a dual split-protein (DSP) assay to monitor the kinetics of HSV glycoprotein-induced cell-cell fusion. This assay measures content mixing between two cells, i.e., fusion, within the same cell population in real time (minutes to hours). Titration experiments suggest that both gD and gH/gL act in a catalytic fashion to trigger gB. In fact, fusion rates are governed by the amount of gB on the cell surface. We then used the DSP assay to focus on mutants in two functional regions (FRs) of gB, FR1 and FR3. FR1 contains the fusion loops (FL1 and FL2), and FR3 encompasses the crown at the trimer top. All FL mutants initiated fusion very slowly, if at all. However, the fusion rates caused by some FL2 mutants increased over time, so that total fusion by 8 h looked much like that of the WT. Two distinct kinetic patterns, “slow and fast,” emerged for mutants in the crown of gB (FR3), again showing differences in initiation and ongoing fusion. Of note are the fusion kinetics of the gB syn mutant (LL871/872AA). Although this mutant was originally included as an ongoing high-rate-of-fusion control, its initiation of fusion is so rapid that it appears to be on a “hair trigger.” Thus, the DSP assay affords a unique way to examine the dynamics of HSV glycoprotein-induced cell fusion. PMID:23946457

  13. Analyzing 5'HS3 and 5'HS4 LCR core regions and NF-E2 in Iranian thalassemia intermedia patients with normal or carrier status for beta-globin mutations.

    PubMed

    Neishabury, Maryam; Azarkeivan, Azita; Oberkanins, Christian; Abedini, Seyedeh Sedigheh; Zamani, Shahbaz; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2011-03-15

    Our data on 114 Iranian individuals with thalassemia intermedia phenotype revealed homozygous or compound heterozygous beta-globin mutations to be the predominant disease factor in 86.2% of cases. However, 8.2% of these individuals were found to be heterozygous or wild type for beta-globin mutations. In search for determinants outside of the beta-globin gene, which could be responsible for the unexpected thalassemia intermedia phenotype in these subjects, we screened the alpha-globin genes, the 5'HS3 and 5'HS4 regions of the beta-globin LCR, and the NF-E2 transcription factor for sequence variations in selected individuals. The -3.7 deletion was the only alpha-globin mutation detected, and no alterations were found in 5'HS3 and NF-E2. Sequence analysis of the 5'HS4 LCR core region identified three known SNPs in a single patient, who required irregular blood transfusions. The A/G polymorphism in the 5'HS4 palindromic region was also observed to be variable. Family studies were carried out on a female G/G homozygous patient, who received irregular blood transfusions. Her father, who had the same heterozygous IVSII-1 beta-globin mutation but the A/G genotype at the 5'HS4 palindromic site, presented with mild anemia and no requirement for blood transfusions. This suggests an impact of SNPs in the 5'HS4 LCR core region on the thalassemia phenotype and offers an interesting subject for further investigations in the Iranian population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mutations in the E2 and NS5A regions in patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1a and their correlation with response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Yahoo, Neda; Sabahi, Farzaneh; Shahzamani, Kiana; Malboobi, Mohamad Ali; Jabbari, Hossain; Sharifi, Houshang; Mousavi-Fard, Seyed Hossein; Merat, Shahin

    2011-08-01

    Heterogeneity of subgenomic regions of hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be associated with response to interferon (IFN) therapy. The amino acid sequences of the PKR/eIF-2α phosphorylation homology domain (pePHD), IFN sensitivity determining region (ISDR), PKR binding domain (PKRBD), and variable region 3 (V3) were studied in 19 patients before and after 4 weeks of treatment. All patients were infected with HCV genotype 1a and were treated with pegylated-IFN and ribavirin. Thirteen patients achieved sustained viral response (responders) and six failed to clear viral RNA (nonresponders). The amino acid sequences in the pePHD and ISDR were identical in responders and nonresponders. However, amino acid substitution at position 2252 of PKRBD was significantly different between responders and nonresponders (P = 0.044). A larger number of mutations were observed in the V3 region of responders (P < 0.001). In this region, the amino acid in position 2364 differed between responders and nonresponders (responders: aspartic acid and serine, nonresponders: asparagine, P = 0.018). The amino acid sequences in the regions which were studied did not change after 4 weeks of treatment. It is concluded that the presence of specific amino acids in position 2252 of PKRBD and position 2364 of V3 might be associated with clinical response to IFN. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Role of Carbohydrate in Glycoprotein Traffic and Secretion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    synthesized in normal amounts but accumu- lated intracellularly, with transport to the cell surface being greatly de - layed. Glycoprotein E2 isolated from...UNcLA ,F E 2 Role of Carbohydrate in Glycoprotein Traffic and Secretion JAMES B. PARENT I. Introduction I!. Evidence for Intracellular Transport Signals...Ill. Oligosaccharide Biosynthesis IV. Role of Carbohydrate in Protein Solubility. Structure, and Stability V. Evidence for Carbohydrate Transport

  16. Structure of Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E1 antigenic site 314–324 in complex with antibody IGH526

    DOE PAGES

    Kong, Leopold; Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Giang, Erick; ...

    2015-06-30

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-strand RNA virus within the Flaviviridae family. The viral “spike” of HCV is formed by two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, which together mediate viral entry by engaging host receptors and undergoing conformational changes to facilitate membrane fusion. While E2 can be readily produced in the absence of E1, E1 cannot be expressed without E2 and few reagents, including monoclonal antibodies, are available for study of this essential HCV glycoprotein. A human MAb to E1, IGH526, was previously reported to cross-neutralize different HCV isolates and, therefore, we sought to further characterize the IGH526 neutralizingmore » epitope to obtain information for vaccine design. Here, we found that MAb IGH526 bound to a discontinuous epitope, but with a major component corresponding to E1 residues 314-324. The crystal structure of IGH526 Fab with this E1 glycopeptide at 1.75Å resolution revealed that the antibody binds to one face of an α-helical peptide. Single mutations on the helix substantially lowered IGH526 binding but did not affect neutralization, indicating either that multiple mutations are required or that additional regions are recognized by the antibody in the context of the membrane-associated envelope oligomer. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations indicate the free peptide is flexible in solution, suggesting that it requires stabilization for use as a candidate vaccine immunogen.« less

  17. Analysis of Serine Codon Conservation Reveals Diverse Phenotypic Constraints on Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Koutsoudakis, George; Urbanowicz, Richard A.; Mirza, Deeman; Ginkel, Corinne; Riebesehl, Nina; Calland, Noémie; Albecka, Anna; Price, Louisa; Hudson, Natalia; Descamps, Véronique; Backx, Matthijs; McClure, C. Patrick; Duverlie, Gilles; Pecheur, Eve-Isabelle; Dubuisson, Jean; Perez-del-Pulgar, Sofia; Forns, Xavier; Steinmann, Eike; Tarr, Alexander W.; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Serine is encoded by two divergent codon types, UCN and AGY, which are not interchangeable by a single nucleotide substitution. Switching between codon types therefore occurs via intermediates (threonine or cysteine) or via simultaneous tandem substitutions. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronically infects 2 to 3% of the global population. The highly variable glycoproteins E1 and E2 decorate the surface of the viral envelope, facilitate cellular entry, and are targets for host immunity. Comparative sequence analysis of globally sampled E1E2 genes, coupled with phylogenetic analysis, reveals the signatures of multiple archaic codon-switching events at seven highly conserved serine residues. Limited detection of intermediate phenotypes indicates that associated fitness costs restrict their fixation in divergent HCV lineages. Mutational pathways underlying codon switching were probed via reverse genetics, assessing glycoprotein functionality using multiple in vitro systems. These data demonstrate selection against intermediate phenotypes can act at the structural/functional level, with some intermediates displaying impaired virion assembly and/or decreased capacity for target cell entry. These effects act in residue/isolate-specific manner. Selection against intermediates is also provided by humoral targeting, with some intermediates exhibiting increased epitope exposure and enhanced neutralization sensitivity, despite maintaining a capacity for target cell entry. Thus, purifying selection against intermediates limits their frequencies in globally sampled strains, with divergent functional constraints at the protein level restricting the fixation of deleterious mutations. Overall our study provides an experimental framework for identification of barriers limiting viral substitutional evolution and indicates that serine codon-switching represents a genomic “fossil record” of historical purifying selection against E1E2 intermediate phenotypes. PMID:24173227

  18. The E(2) particle

    SciT

    Ghosh, Subir; Pal, Probir; Physics Department, Uluberia College, Uluberia, Howrah 711315

    2009-12-15

    Recently it has been advocated [A. G. Cohen and S. L. Glashow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 021601 (2006)] that for describing nature within the minimal symmetry requirement, certain subgroups of the Lorentz group may play a fundamental role. One such group is E(2) which induces a Lie algebraic noncommutative spacetime [M. M. Sheikh-Jabbari and A. Tureanu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 261601 (2008); arXiv:0811.3670] where translation invariance is not fully maintained. We have constructed a consistent structure of noncommutative phase space for this system, and furthermore we have studied an appropriate point particle action on it. Interestingly, the Einstein dispersion relationmore » p{sup 2}=m{sup 2} remains intact. The model is constructed by exploiting a dual canonical phase space following the scheme developed by us earlier [S. Ghosh and P. Pal, Phys. Rev. D 75, 105021 (2007)].« less

  19. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    DOEpatents

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  20. Interaction of CSFV E2 protein with swine host factors as detected by yeast two-hybrid system

    E2 is one of the envelope glycoproteins of pestiviruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). E2 is involved in several critical functions, including virus entry into target cells, induction of a protective immune response and virulence in swine. Howev...

  1. Arenavirus Stable Signal Peptide Is the Keystone Subunit for Glycoprotein Complex Organization

    PubMed Central

    Bederka, Lydia H.; Bonhomme, Cyrille J.; Ling, Emily L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rodent arenavirus glycoprotein complex encodes a stable signal peptide (SSP) that is an essential structural component of mature virions. The SSP, GP1, and GP2 subunits of the trimeric glycoprotein complex noncovalently interact to stud the surface of virions and initiate arenavirus infectivity. Nascent glycoprotein production undergoes two proteolytic cleavage events: first within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cleave SSP from the remaining precursor GP1/2 (glycoprotein complex [GPC]) glycoprotein and second within the Golgi stacks by the cellular SKI-1/S1P for GP1/2 processing to yield GP1 and GP2 subunits. Cleaved SSP is not degraded but retained as an essential glycoprotein subunit. Here, we defined functions of the 58-amino-acid lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) SSP in regard to glycoprotein complex processing and maturation. Using molecular biology techniques, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry, we detected SSP at the plasma membrane of transfected cells. Further, we identified a sorting signal (FLLL) near the carboxyl terminus of SSP that is required for glycoprotein maturation and trafficking. In the absence of SSP, the glycoprotein accumulated within the ER and was unable to undergo processing by SKI-1/S1P. Mutation of this highly conserved FLLL motif showed impaired glycoprotein processing and secretory pathway trafficking, as well as defective surface expression and pH-dependent membrane fusion. Immunoprecipitation of SSP confirmed an interaction between the signal peptide and the GP2 subunit; however, mutations within this FLLL motif disrupted the association of the GP1 subunit with the remaining glycoprotein complex. PMID:25352624

  2. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    and Homeland Defense. As a part of the E-2D AHE radar modernization effort, the Navy also invested in integrating a full glass cockpit and full...Communication Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management capability. The glass cockpit will also provide the capability for the pilot or co-pilot to...hours at a station distance of 200nm Flat Turn Service Ceiling =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission profile =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission

  3. Biliary excretion of technetium-99m-sestamibi in wild-type dogs and in dogs with intrinsic (ABCB1-1Delta mutation) and extrinsic (ketoconazole treated) P-glycoprotein deficiency.

    PubMed

    Coelho, J C; Tucker, R; Mattoon, J; Roberts, G; Waiting, D K; Mealey, K L

    2009-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of ABCB1 gene, is thought to play a role in the biliary excretion of a variety of drugs, but specific studies in dogs have not been performed. Because a number of endogenous (ABCB1 polymorphisms) and exogenous (pharmacological P-gp inhibition) factors can interfere with normal P-gp function, a better understanding of P-gp's role in biliary drug excretion is crucial in preventing adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions in dogs. The objectives of this study were to compare biliary excretion of technetium-99m-sestamibi ((99m)Tc-MIBI), a radio-labelled P-gp substrate, in wild-type dogs (ABCB1 wild/wild), and dogs with intrinsic and extrinsic deficiencies in P-gp function. Dogs with intrinsic P-gp deficiency included ABCB1 mut/mut dogs, and dogs with presumed intermediate P-gp phenotype (ABCB1 mut/wild). Dogs with extrinsic P-gp deficiency were considered to be ABCB1 wild/wild dogs treated with the P-gp inhibitor ketoconazole (5 mg/kg PO q12h x 9 doses). Results from this study indicate that ABCB1 mut/mut dogs have significantly decreased biliary excretion of (99m)Tc-MIBI compared with ABCB1 wild/wild dogs. Treatment with ketoconazole significantly decreased biliary excretion of (99m)Tc-MIBI in ABCB1 wild/wild dogs. P-gp appears to play an important role in the biliary excretion of (99m)Tc-MIBI in dogs. It is likely that concurrent administration of a P-gp inhibitor such as ketoconazole will decrease P-gp-mediated biliary excretion of other substrate drugs as well.

  4. Gene Knockdown of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus E2 Glycoprotein Using DNA-Directed RNA Interference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Defence Research and Recherche et developpement Development Canada pour la defense Canada DEFENCE r/sYDEFENSE Gene Knockdown of Venezuelan Equine...Further research is required to develop an antiviral against VEE that is both safe and effective. One antiviral strategy that has shown considerable...Novagen, Madison, WI)) on a MJ Research PTC-200 DNA engine (Bio-Rad, formerly MJ Research , Mississauga, ON). Amplification products (5 pL) were

  5. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  6. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Biological Effects of a Truncated Form of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Stk When Activated by Interaction with the Friend Spleen Focus-Forming Virus Envelope Glycoprotein or by Point Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Rulli, Karen; Yugawa, Takashi; Hanson, Charlotte; Thompson, Delores; Ruscetti, Sandra; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The erythroleukemia-inducing Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) encodes a unique envelope protein, gp55, which interacts with the erythropoietin (Epo) receptor complex, causing proliferation and differentiation of erythroid cells in the absence of Epo. Susceptibility to SFFV-induced erythroleukemia is conferred by the Fv-2 gene, which encodes a short form of the receptor tyrosine kinase Stk/Ron (sf-Stk) only in susceptible strains of mice. We recently demonstrated that sf-Stk becomes activated by forming a strong interaction with SFFV gp55. To examine the biological consequences of activated sf-Stk on erythroid cell growth, we prepared retroviral vectors which express sf-Stk, either in conjunction with gp55 or alone in a constitutively activated mutant form, and tested them for their ability to induce Epo-independent erythroid colonies ex vivo and disease in mice. Our data indicate that both gp55-activated sf-Stk and the constitutively activated mutant of sf-Stk induce erythroid cells from Fv-2-susceptible and Fv-2-resistant (sf-Stk null) mice to form Epo-independent colonies. Mutational analysis of sf-Stk indicated that a functional kinase domain and 8 of its 12 tyrosine residues are required for the induction of Epo-independent colonies. Further studies demonstrated that coexpression of SFFV gp55 with sf-Stk significantly extends the half-life of the kinase. When injected into Fv-2-resistant mice, neither the gp55-activated sf-Stk nor the constitutively activated mutant caused erythroleukemia. Surprisingly, both Fv-2-susceptible and -resistant mice injected with the gp55-sf-Stk vector developed clinical signs not previously associated with SFFV-induced disease. We conclude that sf-Stk, activated by either point mutation or interaction with SFFV gp55, is sufficient to induce Epo-independent erythroid colonies from both Fv-2-susceptible and -resistant mice but is unable to cause erythroleukemia in Fv-2-resistant mice. PMID:15078939

  7. Truncation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein cytoplasmic domain blocks virus infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Dubay, J W; Roberts, S J; Hahn, B H; Hunter, E

    1992-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 contains a transmembrane glycoprotein with an unusually long cytoplasmic domain. To determine the role of this domain in virus replication, a series of single nucleotide changes that result in the insertion of premature termination codons throughout the cytoplasmic domain has been constructed. These mutations delete from 6 to 192 amino acids from the carboxy terminus of gp41 and do not affect the amino acid sequence of the regulatory proteins encoded by rev and tat. The effects of these mutations on glycoprotein biosynthesis and function as well as on virus infectivity have been examined in the context of a glycoprotein expression vector and the viral genome. All of the mutant glycoproteins were synthesized, processed, and transported to the cell surface in a manner similar to that of the wild-type glycoprotein. With the exception of mutants that remove the membrane anchor domain, all of the mutant glycoproteins retained the ability to cause fusion of CD4-bearing cells. However, deletion of more than 19 amino acids from the C terminus of gp41 blocked the ability of mutant virions to infect cells. This defect in virus infectivity appeared to be due at least in part to a failure of the virus to efficiently incorporate the truncated glycoprotein. Similar data were obtained for mutations in two different env genes and two different target cell lines. These results indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 plays a critical role during virus assembly and entry in the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Images PMID:1357190

  8. Novel functional hepatitis C virus glycoprotein isolates identified using an optimized viral pseudotype entry assay.

    PubMed

    Urbanowicz, Richard A; McClure, C Patrick; King, Barnabas; Mason, Christopher P; Ball, Jonathan K; Tarr, Alexander W

    2016-09-01

    Retrovirus pseudotypes are a highly tractable model used to study the entry pathways of enveloped viruses. This model has been extensively applied to the study of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry pathway, preclinical screening of antiviral antibodies and for assessing the phenotype of patient-derived viruses using HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) possessing the HCV E1 and E2 glycoproteins. However, not all patient-isolated clones produce particles that are infectious in this model. This study investigated factors that might limit phenotyping of patient-isolated HCV glycoproteins. Genetically related HCV glycoproteins from quasispecies in individual patients were discovered to behave very differently in this entry model. Empirical optimization of the ratio of packaging construct and glycoprotein-encoding plasmid was required for successful HCVpp genesis for different clones. The selection of retroviral packaging construct also influenced the function of HCV pseudoparticles. Some glycoprotein constructs tolerated a wide range of assay parameters, while others were much more sensitive to alterations. Furthermore, glycoproteins previously characterized as unable to mediate entry were found to be functional. These findings were validated using chimeric cell-cultured HCV bearing these glycoproteins. Using the same empirical approach we demonstrated that generation of infectious ebolavirus pseudoviruses (EBOVpv) was also sensitive to the amount and ratio of plasmids used, and that protocols for optimal production of these pseudoviruses are dependent on the exact virus glycoprotein construct. These findings demonstrate that it is crucial for studies utilizing pseudoviruses to conduct empirical optimization of pseudotype production for each specific glycoprotein sequence to achieve optimal titres and facilitate accurate phenotyping.

  9. Glycoprotein interactions in paramyxovirus fusion

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, Ronald M; Melanson, Vanessa R; Mahon, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    The Paramyxoviridae are enveloped, negative-stranded RNA viruses, some of which recognize sialic acid-containing receptors, while others recognize specific proteinaceous receptors. The major cytopathic effect of paramyxovirus infection is membrane fusion-induced syncytium formation. Paramyxoviruses are unusual in that the receptor-binding and fusion-promoting activities reside on two different spike structures, the attachment and fusion glycoproteins, respectively. For most paramyxoviruses, this distribution of functions requires a mechanism by which the two processes can be linked for the promotion of fusion. This is accomplished by a virus-specific interaction between the two proteins. An increasing body of evidence supports the notion that members of this family of viruses utilize this glycoprotein interaction in different ways in order to mediate the regulation of the fusion protein activation, depending on the type of receptor utilized by the virus. PMID:20161127

  10. Structural flexibility at a major conserved antibody target on hepatitis C virus E2 antigen.

    PubMed

    Kong, Leopold; Lee, David E; Kadam, Rameshwar U; Liu, Tong; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Garces, Fernando; Tzarum, Netanel; Woods, Virgil L; Ward, Andrew B; Li, Sheng; Wilson, Ian A; Law, Mansun

    2016-10-24

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease, affecting over 2% of the world's population. The HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate viral entry, with E2 being the main target of neutralizing antibody responses. Structural investigations of E2 have produced templates for vaccine design, including the conserved CD81 receptor-binding site (CD81bs) that is a key target of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Unfortunately, immunization with recombinant E2 and E1E2 rarely elicits sufficient levels of bNAbs for protection. To understand the challenges for eliciting bNAb responses against the CD81bs, we investigated the E2 CD81bs by electron microscopy (EM), hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX), molecular dynamics (MD), and calorimetry. By EM, we observed that HCV1, a bNAb recognizing the N-terminal region of the CD81bs, bound a soluble E2 core construct from multiple angles of approach, suggesting components of the CD81bs are flexible. HDX of multiple E2 constructs consistently indicated the entire CD81bs was flexible relative to the rest of the E2 protein, which was further confirmed by MD simulations. However, E2 has a high melting temperature of 84.8 °C, which is more akin to proteins from thermophilic organisms. Thus, recombinant E2 is a highly stable protein overall, but with an exceptionally flexible CD81bs. Such flexibility may promote induction of nonneutralizing antibodies over bNAbs to E2 CD81bs, underscoring the necessity of rigidifying this antigenic region as a target for rational vaccine design.

  11. Antibodies Targeting Novel Neutralizing Epitopes of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein Preclude Genotype 2 Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Huiying; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Jianghua; Xie, Xingwang; Wei, Lai

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no effective vaccine to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, partly due to our insufficient understanding of the virus glycoprotein immunology. Most neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were identified using glycoprotein immunogens, such as recombinant E1E2, HCV pseudoparticles or cell culture derived HCV. However, the fact that in the HCV acute infection phase, only a small proportion of patients are self-resolved accompanied with the emergence of nAbs, indicates the limited immunogenicity of glycoprotein itself to induce effective antibodies against a highly evolved virus. Secondly, in previous reports, the immunogen sequence was mostly the genotype of the 1a H77 strain. Rarely, other genotypes/subtypes have been studied, although theoretically one genotype/subtype immunogen is able to induce cross-genotype neutralizing antibodies. To overcome these drawbacks and find potential novel neutralizing epitopes, 57 overlapping peptides encompassing the full-length glycoprotein E1E2 of subtype 1b were synthesized to immunize BALB/c mice, and the neutralizing reactive of the induced antisera against HCVpp genotypes 1–6 was determined. We defined a domain comprising amino acids (aa) 192–221, 232–251, 262–281 and 292–331 of E1, and 421–543, 564–583, 594–618 and 634–673 of E2, as the neutralizing regions of HCV glycoprotein. Peptides PUHI26 (aa 444–463) and PUHI45 (aa 604–618)-induced antisera displayed the most potent broad neutralizing reactive. Two monoclonal antibodies recognizing the PUHI26 and PUHI45 epitopes efficiently precluded genotype 2 viral (HCVcc JFH and J6 strains) infection, but they did not neutralize other genotypes. Our study mapped a neutralizing epitope region of HCV glycoprotein using a novel immunization strategy, and identified two monoclonal antibodies effective in preventing genotype 2 virus infection. PMID:26406225

  12. Introduction of translation stop codons into the viral glycoprotein gene in a fish DNA vaccine eliminates induction of protective immunity

    Garver, K.A.; Conway, C.M.; Kurath, G.

    2006-01-01

    A highly efficacious DNA vaccine against a fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), was mutated to introduce two stop codons to prevent glycoprotein translation while maintaining the plasmid DNA integrity and RNA transcription ability. The mutated plasmid vaccine, denoted pIHNw-G2stop, when injected intramuscularly into fish at high doses, lacked detectable glycoprotein expression in the injection site muscle, and did not provide protection against lethal virus challenge 7 days post-vaccination. These results suggest that the G-protein itself is required to stimulate the early protective antiviral response observed after vaccination with the nonmutated parental DNA vaccine. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006.

  13. Introduction of translation stop condons into the viral glycoprotein gene in a fish DNA vaccine eliminates induction of protective immunity

    Garver, Kyle A.; Conway, Carla M.; Kurath, Gael

    2006-01-01

    A highly efficacious DNA vaccine against a fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), was mutated to introduce two stop codons to prevent glycoprotein translation while maintaining the plasmid DNA integrity and RNA transcription ability. The mutated plasmid vaccine, denoted pIHNw-G2stop, when injected intramuscularly into fish at high doses, lacked detectable glycoprotein expression in the injection site muscle, and did not provide protection against lethal virus challenge 7 days post-vaccination. These results suggest that the G-protein itself is required to stimulate the early protective antiviral response observed after vaccination with the nonmutated parental DNA vaccine.

  14. Functional synergy between DP-1 and E2F-1 in the cell cycle-regulating transcription factor DRTF1/E2F.

    PubMed Central

    Bandara, L R; Buck, V M; Zamanian, M; Johnston, L H; La Thangue, N B

    1993-01-01

    It is widely believed that the cellular transcription factor DRTF1/E2F integrates cell cycle events with the transcription apparatus because during cell cycle progression in mammalian cells it interacts with molecules that are important regulators of cellular proliferation, such as the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor gene product (pRb), p107, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. Thus, pRb, which negatively regulates early cell cycle progression and is frequently mutated in tumour cells, and the Rb-related protein p107, bind to and repress the transcriptional activity of DRTF1/E2F. Viral oncoproteins, such as adenovirus E1a and SV40 large T antigen, overcome such repression by sequestering pRb and p107 and in so doing are likely to activate genes regulated by DRTF1/E2F, such as cdc2, c-myc and DHFR. Two sequence-specific DNA binding proteins, E2F-1 and DP-1, which bind to the E2F site, contain a small region of similarity. The functional relationship between them has, however, been unclear. We report here that DP-1 and E2F-1 exist in a DNA binding complex in vivo and that they bind efficiently and preferentially as a heterodimer to the E2F site. Moreover, studies in yeast and Drosophila cells indicate that DP-1 and E2F-1 interact synergistically in E2F site-dependent transcriptional activation. Images PMID:8223441

  15. Gulose as a constituent of a glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Mengele, R; Sumper, M

    1992-02-17

    The aldohexose gulose was identified as a constituent of a hydroxyproline-rich glycopeptide derived from the glycoprotein SSG 185. This glycoprotein is part of the extracellular matrix of the green alga Volvox carteri. The gulose residue occupies a terminal position in the corresponding saccharide.

  16. THE E2/FRB PATHWAY REGULATION OF DNA REPLICATION AND PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The E2F/Rb pathway plays a pivotal role in the control of cell cycle progression and regulates the expression of genes required for Gl/S transition. Our study examines the genomic response in Drosophila embryos after overexpression and mutation of E2F/Rb pathway molecules. Hierar...

  17. The Astro-E2 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    The Astro-E2 observatory is a rebuild of the original Astro-E observatory that was lost during launch in February 2000. It is scheduled for launch into low earth orbit on a Japanese M-V rocket in early 2005. The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, is developing the observatory with major contributions from the US. The three instruments on the observatory are the high-resolution x-ray spectrometer (the XRS) featuring a 30-pixel x-ray microcalorimeter array, a set of four CCD cameras (the XIS) and a combination photo-diode/scintillator detector system (the HXD) that will extend the band pass up to nearly 700 keV. A significant feature of Astro-E2 is that all of the instruments are coaligned and operated simultaneously. With its high spectral resolution and collecting area for spectroscopy above 1 keV, Astro-E2 should enable major discovery space and pioneer new technology for use in space. Prime areas for investigation are supernova remnants, active galaxies and the measurement of black hole properties via relativistically-broadened Fe-K emission galaxies. A number of enhancements have been made for the Astro-E2/XRS, including a higher resolution microcalorimeter array, ii mechanical cooler for longer cryogen life, and an improved in-flight calibration system. The Astro-E2/XIS has also been improved to include two back-side-illuminated CCDs to enhance the low energy response. Improvements have also been made to the x-ray mirrors used for both the XRS and XIS to sharpen the point spread function and reduce the effects of stray light. In this talk we will present the essential features of Astro-E2, paying particular attention to the enhancements, and describe the major scientific strengths of the observatory.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: glycoprotein VI deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... protein called glycoprotein VI (GPVI). This protein is embedded in the outer membrane of blood cell fragments ... erythematosus (SLE). Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own cells and ...

  19. Laboratory diagnosis of von Willebrand disease type 1/2E (2A subtype IIE), type 1 Vicenza and mild type 1 caused by mutations in the D3, D4, B1-B3 and C1-C2 domains of the von Willebrand factor gene. Role of von Willebrand factor multimers and the von Willebrand factor propeptide/antigen ratio.

    PubMed

    Gadisseur, Alain; Berneman, Zwi; Schroyens, Wilfried; Michiels, Jan Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal dominant von Willebrand disease (VWD) type 1/2E is a quantitative/qualitative defect in the von Willebrand factor (VWF) caused by heterozygous cysteine and non-cysteine mutations in the D3 domain of the VWF gene and results in a secretion-multimerization-clearance defect in mutant VWF with the loss of large VWF multimers not due to proteolysis. The multimers of patients with dominant VWD type 1/2E due to mutations in the D3 domain show an aberrant triplet structure with lack of outer bands but with pronounced inner bands of the triplet structure combined with a relative decrease in large multimers reflecting heterozygosity for multimerization defects. There is a good response to desmopressin (DDAVP) followed by rapid clearance of VWF:antigen (Ag), factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) and VWF:ristocetin cofactor activity (RCo) as the main cause of VWD type 1 or 2 with typical 2E multimeric pattern (VWD type 1/2E). Cysteine mutations in the D3 domains (C1130, C1149 and C1190) show pronounced features of VWD 1/2E with the relative loss of large and relative increase in small VWF multimers with abnormal triplet structure in heterozygotes. Such abnormalities are less pronounced in patients with a milder form of VWD type 1 due to non-cysteine mutations W1144G, T1156M and W1120S in the D3 domain. VWD type 1 Vicenza is caused by the R1205H mutation in the D3 domain and characterized by equally low levels of FVIII:C, VWF:Ag and VWF:RCo. The response to DDAVP in VWD Vicenza is good for FVIII:C, VWF:Ag and VWF:RCo, which is followed by a rapid clearance in less than a few hours of FVIII:C and VWF parameters. The ratios for FVIII:C/VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo/Ag and VWF:CB/Ag remain normal before and after DDAVP indicating that VWD Vicenza clearly differs from VWD type 1, 1/2E and 2M. A new set of missense mutations in D4, B1-B3 and C1-C2 domains has been discovered as the cause of a mild VWD type 1 secretion defect with normal VWF multimers or smeary VWF multimeric pattern

  20. E2E: A Summary of the e2e Learning Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Development Agency, London (England).

    This publication is a summary of the E2E (Entry to Employment) Learning Framework that provides guidance on program implementation. (E2E is a new learning program for young people not yet ready or able to enter Modern Apprenticeship programs, a Level 2 program, or employment directly.) Section 2 highlights core values to which all involved should…

  1. Forcible destruction of severely misfolded mammalian glycoproteins by the non-glycoprotein ERAD pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ninagawa, Satoshi; Okada, Tetsuya; Sumitomo, Yoshiki; Horimoto, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Tokiro; Takeda, Shunichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Tadashi; Kamiya, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    Glycoproteins and non-glycoproteins possessing unfolded/misfolded parts in their luminal regions are cleared from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by ER-associated degradation (ERAD)-L with distinct mechanisms. Two-step mannose trimming from Man9GlcNAc2 is crucial in the ERAD-L of glycoproteins. We recently showed that this process is initiated by EDEM2 and completed by EDEM3/EDEM1. Here, we constructed chicken and human cells simultaneously deficient in EDEM1/2/3 and analyzed the fates of four ERAD-L substrates containing three potential N-glycosylation sites. We found that native but unstable or somewhat unfolded glycoproteins, such as ATF6α, ATF6α(C), CD3-δ–ΔTM, and EMC1, were stabilized in EDEM1/2/3 triple knockout cells. In marked contrast, degradation of severely misfolded glycoproteins, such as null Hong Kong (NHK) and deletion or insertion mutants of ATF6α(C), CD3-δ–ΔTM, and EMC1, was delayed only at early chase periods, but they were eventually degraded as in wild-type cells. Thus, higher eukaryotes are able to extract severely misfolded glycoproteins from glycoprotein ERAD and target them to the non-glycoprotein ERAD pathway to maintain the homeostasis of the ER. PMID:26572623

  2. Epitope Dampening Monotypic Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Glycoprotein Results in Resistance to Cocktail of Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Patrycja J.; Tobin, Gregory J.; Bushnell, Ruth; Gutschenritter, Emily; Pham, Linh D.; Nace, Rebecca; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, François-Loïc; Muller, Claude P.; Russell, Stephen J.; Nara, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) is serologically monotypic. Life-long immunity is conferred by a single attack of measles or following vaccination with the MV vaccine. This is contrary to viruses such as influenza, which readily develop resistance to the immune system and recur. A better understanding of factors that restrain MV to one serotype may allow us to predict if MV will remain monotypic in the future and influence the design of novel MV vaccines and therapeutics. MV hemagglutinin (H) glycoprotein, binds to cellular receptors and subsequently triggers the fusion (F) glycoprotein to fuse the virus into the cell. H is also the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To explore if MV remains monotypic due to a lack of plasticity of the H glycoprotein, we used the technology of Immune Dampening to generate viruses with rationally designed N-linked glycosylation sites and mutations in different epitopes and screened for viruses that escaped monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We then combined rationally designed mutations with naturally selected mutations to generate a virus resistant to a cocktail of neutralizing mAbs targeting four different epitopes simultaneously. Two epitopes were protected by engineered N-linked glycosylations and two epitopes acquired escape mutations via two consecutive rounds of artificial selection in the presence of mAbs. Three of these epitopes were targeted by mAbs known to interfere with receptor binding. Results demonstrate that, within the epitopes analyzed, H can tolerate mutations in different residues and additional N-linked glycosylations to escape mAbs. Understanding the degree of change that H can tolerate is important as we follow its evolution in a host whose immunity is vaccine induced by genotype A strains instead of multiple genetically distinct wild-type MVs. PMID:23300970

  3. Defining glycoprotein cancer biomarkers by MS in conjunction with glycoprotein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Song, Ehwang; Mechref, Yehia

    2015-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an important and common post-translational modification. More than 50% of human proteins are believed to be glycosylated to modulate the functionality of proteins. Aberrant glycosylation has been correlated to several diseases, such as inflammatory skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's and prion diseases, and cancer. Many approved cancer biomarkers are glycoproteins which are not highly abundant proteins. Therefore, effective qualitative and quantitative assessment of glycoproteins entails enrichment methods. This chapter summarizes glycoprotein enrichment methods, including lectin affinity, immunoaffinity, hydrazide chemistry, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, and click chemistry. The use of these enrichment approaches in assessing the qualitative and quantitative changes of glycoproteins in different types of cancers are presented and discussed. This chapter highlights the importance of glycoprotein enrichment techniques for the identification and characterization of new reliable cancer biomarkers.

  4. Insights into the mechanism of human papillomavirus E2-induced procaspase-8 activation and cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nitu; Senapati, Sanjib; Bose, Kakoli

    2016-02-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) E2 protein, the master regulator of viral life cycle, induces apoptosis of host cell that is independent of its virus-associated regulatory functions. E2 protein of HR-HPV18 has been found to be involved in novel FADD-independent activation of caspase-8, however, the molecular basis of this unique non-death-fold E2-mediated apoptosis is poorly understood. Here, with an interdisciplinary approach that involves in silico, mutational, biochemical and biophysical probes, we dissected and characterized the E2-procasapse-8 binding interface. Our data demonstrate direct non-homotypic interaction of HPV18 E2 transactivation domain (TAD) with α2/α5 helices of procaspase-8 death effector domain-B (DED-B). The observed interaction mimics the homotypic DED-DED complexes, wherein the conserved hydrophobic motif of procaspase-8 DED-B (F122/L123) occupies a groove between α2/α3 helices of E2 TAD. This interaction possibly drives DED oligomerization leading to caspase-8 activation and subsequent cell death. Furthermore, our data establish a model for E2-induced apoptosis in HR-HPV types and provide important clues for designing E2 analogs that might modulate procaspase-8 activation and hence apoptosis.

  5. Functional interaction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding-protein-α basic region mutants with E2F transcription factors and DNA.

    PubMed

    Kowenz-Leutz, Elisabeth; Schuetz, Anja; Liu, Qingbin; Knoblich, Maria; Heinemann, Udo; Leutz, Achim

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) regulates cell cycle arrest and terminal differentiation of neutrophils and adipocytes. Mutations in the basic leucine zipper domain (bZip) of C/EBPα are associated with acute myeloid leukemia. A widely used murine transforming C/EBPα basic region mutant (BRM2) entails two bZip point mutations (I294A/R297A). BRM2 has been discordantly described as defective for DNA binding or defective for interaction with E2F. We have separated the two BRM2 mutations to shed light on the intertwined reciprocity between C/EBPα-E2F-DNA interactions. Both, C/EBPα I294A and R297A retain transactivation capacity and interaction with E2F-DP. The C/EBPα R297A mutation destabilized DNA binding, whereas the C/EBPα I294A mutation enhanced binding to DNA. The C/EBPα R297A mutant, like BRM2, displayed enhanced interaction with E2F-DP but failed to repress E2F-dependent transactivation although both mutants were readily suppressed by E2F1 for transcription through C/EBP cis-regulatory sites. In contrast, the DNA binding enhanced C/EBPα I294A mutant displayed increased repression of E2F-DP mediated transactivation and resisted E2F-DP mediated repression. Thus, the efficient repression of E2F dependent S-phase genes and the activation of differentiation genes reside in the balanced DNA binding capacity of C/EBPα. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Infectious Hepatitis C Virus Pseudo-particles Containing Functional E1–E2 Envelope Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bartosch, Birke; Dubuisson, Jean; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2003-01-01

    The study of hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of chronic liver disease, has been hampered by the lack of a cell culture system supporting its replication. Here, we have successfully generated infectious pseudo-particles that were assembled by displaying unmodified and functional HCV glycoproteins onto retroviral and lentiviral core particles. The presence of a green fluorescent protein marker gene packaged within these HCV pseudo-particles allowed reliable and fast determination of infectivity mediated by the HCV glycoproteins. Primary hepatocytes as well as hepato-carcinoma cells were found to be the major targets of infection in vitro. High infectivity of the pseudo-particles required both E1 and E2 HCV glycoproteins, and was neutralized by sera from HCV-infected patients and by some anti-E2 monoclonal antibodies. In addition, these pseudo-particles allowed investigation of the role of putative HCV receptors. Although our results tend to confirm their involvement, they provide evidence that neither LDLr nor CD81 is sufficient to mediate HCV cell entry. Altogether, these studies indicate that these pseudo-particles may mimic the early infection steps of parental HCV and will be suitable for the development of much needed new antiviral therapies. PMID:12615904

  7. Paramyxovirus Glycoproteins and the Membrane Fusion Process.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Hector C; Henderson, Bryce A; Zamora, J Lizbeth; Johnston, Gunner P

    2016-09-01

    The family Paramyxoviridae includes many viruses that significantly affect human and animal health. An essential step in the paramyxovirus life cycle is viral entry into host cells, mediated by virus-cell membrane fusion. Upon viral entry, infection results in expression of the paramyxoviral glycoproteins on the infected cell surface. This can lead to cell-cell fusion (syncytia formation), often linked to pathogenesis. Thus membrane fusion is essential for both viral entry and cell-cell fusion and an attractive target for therapeutic development. While there are important differences between viral-cell and cell-cell membrane fusion, many aspects are conserved. The paramyxoviruses generally utilize two envelope glycoproteins to orchestrate membrane fusion. Here, we discuss the roles of these glycoproteins in distinct steps of the membrane fusion process. These findings can offer insights into evolutionary relationships among Paramyxoviridae genera and offer future targets for prophylactic and therapeutic development.

  8. Paramyxovirus Glycoproteins and the Membrane Fusion Process

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Hector C.; Henderson, Bryce A.; Zamora, J. Lizbeth; Johnston, Gunner P.

    2016-01-01

    The family Paramyxoviridae includes many viruses that significantly affect human and animal health. An essential step in the paramyxovirus life cycle is viral entry into host cells, mediated by virus-cell membrane fusion. Upon viral entry, infection results in expression of the paramyxoviral glycoproteins on the infected cell surface. This can lead to cell-cell fusion (syncytia formation), often linked to pathogenesis. Thus membrane fusion is essential for both viral entry and cell-cell fusion and an attractive target for therapeutic development. While there are important differences between viral-cell and cell-cell membrane fusion, many aspects are conserved. The paramyxoviruses generally utilize two envelope glycoproteins to orchestrate membrane fusion. Here, we discuss the roles of these glycoproteins in distinct steps of the membrane fusion process. These findings can offer insights into evolutionary relationships among Paramyxoviridae genera and offer future targets for prophylactic and therapeutic development. PMID:28138419

  9. Glycoprotein Enrichment Analytical Techniques: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Zhu, R; Zacharias, L; Wooding, K M; Peng, W; Mechref, Y

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications. Numerous biological functions are related to protein glycosylation. However, analytical challenges remain in the glycoprotein analysis. To overcome the challenges associated with glycoprotein analysis, many analytical techniques were developed in recent years. Enrichment methods were used to improve the sensitivity of detection, while HPLC and mass spectrometry methods were developed to facilitate the separation of glycopeptides/proteins and enhance detection, respectively. Fragmentation techniques applied in modern mass spectrometers allow the structural interpretation of glycopeptides/proteins, while automated software tools started replacing manual processing to improve the reliability and throughput of the analysis. In this chapter, the current methodologies of glycoprotein analysis were discussed. Multiple analytical techniques are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of each technique are highlighted. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interaction of CSFV E2 Protein with Swine Host Factors as Detected by Yeast Two-Hybrid System

    PubMed Central

    Gladue, Douglas P.; Baker-Bransetter, Ryan; Holinka, Lauren G.; Fernandez-Sainz, Ignacio J.; O’Donnell, Vivian; Fletcher, Paige; Lu, Zhiqiang; Borca, Manuel V.

    2014-01-01

    E2 is one of the envelope glycoproteins of pestiviruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). E2 is involved in several critical functions, including virus entry into target cells, induction of a protective immune response and virulence in swine. However, there is no information regarding any host binding partners for the E2 proteins. Here, we utilized the yeast two-hybrid system and identified fifty-seven host proteins as positive binding partners which bound E2 from both CSFV and BVDV with the exception of two proteins that were found to be positive for binding only to CSFV E2. Alanine scanning of CSFV E2 demonstrated that the binding sites for these cellular proteins on E2 are likely non-linear binding sites. The possible roles of the identified host proteins are discussed as the results presented here will be important for future studies to elucidate mechanisms of host protein-virus interactions during pestivirus infection. However, due to the limitations of the yeast two hybrid system, the proteins identified is not exhaustive and each interaction identified needs to be confirmed by independent experimental approaches in the context of virus-infected cells before any definitive conclusion can be drawn on relevance for the virus life cycle. PMID:24416391

  11. GB Virus Type C Envelope Protein E2 Elicits Antibodies That React with a Cellular Antigen on HIV-1 Particles and Neutralize Diverse HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Emma L.; Xiang, Jinhua; McLinden, James H.; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Chang, Qing; Montefiori, David C.; Klinzman, Donna; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing Abs to HIV-1 are well described; however, identification of Ags that elicit these Abs has proven difficult. Persistent infection with GB virus type C (GBV-C) is associated with prolonged survival in HIV-1–infected individuals, and among those without HIV-1 viremia, the presence of Ab to GBV-C glycoprotein E2 is also associated with survival. GBV-C E2 protein inhibits HIV-1 entry, and an antigenic peptide within E2 interferes with gp41-induced membrane perturbations in vitro, suggesting the possibility of structural mimicry between GBV-C E2 protein and HIV-1 particles. Naturally occurring human and experimentally induced GBV-C E2 Abs were examined for their ability to neutralize infectious HIV-1 particles and HIV-1–enveloped pseudovirus particles. All GBV-C E2 Abs neutralized diverse isolates of HIV-1 with the exception of rabbit anti-peptide Abs raised against a synthetic GBV-C E2 peptide. Rabbit anti–GBV-C E2 Abs neutralized HIV-1–pseudotyped retrovirus particles but not HIV-1–pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus particles, and E2 Abs immune-precipitated HIV-1 gag particles containing the vesicular stomatitis virus type G envelope, HIV-1 envelope, GBV-C envelope, or no viral envelope. The Abs did not neutralize or immune-precipitate mumps or yellow fever viruses. Rabbit GBV-C E2 Abs inhibited HIV attachment to cells but did not inhibit entry following attachment. Taken together, these data indicate that the GBV-C E2 protein has a structural motif that elicits Abs that cross-react with a cellular Ag present on retrovirus particles, independent of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. The data provide evidence that a heterologous viral protein can induce HIV-1–neutralizing Abs. PMID:20826757

  12. Repression of transcriptional activity of C/EBPalpha by E2F-dimerization partner complexes.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Katrin; Bégay, Valérie; Schuetz, Anja; Heinemann, Udo; Leutz, Achim

    2010-05-01

    The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) coordinates proliferation arrest and the differentiation of myeloid progenitors, adipocytes, hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and cells of the lung and placenta. C/EBPalpha transactivates lineage-specific differentiation genes and inhibits proliferation by repressing E2F-regulated genes. The myeloproliferative C/EBPalpha BRM2 mutant serves as a paradigm for recurrent human C-terminal bZIP C/EBPalpha mutations that are involved in acute myeloid leukemogenesis. BRM2 fails to repress E2F and to induce adipogenesis and granulopoiesis. The data presented here show that, independently of pocket proteins, C/EBPalpha interacts with the dimerization partner (DP) of E2F and that C/EBPalpha-E2F/DP interaction prevents both binding of C/EBPalpha to its cognate sites on DNA and transactivation of C/EBP target genes. The BRM2 mutant, in addition, exhibits enhanced interaction with E2F-DP and reduced affinity toward DNA and yet retains transactivation potential and differentiation competence that becomes exposed when E2F/DP levels are low. Our data suggest a tripartite balance between C/EBPalpha, E2F/DP, and pocket proteins in the control of proliferation, differentiation, and tumorigenesis.

  13. Biosynthesis and maturation of cellular membrane glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Hunt, L A

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis and the processing of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides of cellular membrane glycoproteins were examined in monolayer cultures of BHK21 cells and human diploid fibroblasts after pulse- and pulse-chase labeling with [2-3H]mannose. After pronase digestion, radiolabeled glycopeptides were characterized by high-resolution gel filtration, with or without additional digestion with various exoglycosidases and endoglycosidases. Pulse-labeled glycoproteins contained a relatively homogenous population of neutral oligosaccharides (major species: Man9GlcNAc2ASN). The vast majority of these asparagine-linked oligosaccharides was smaller than the major fraction of lipid-linked oligosaccharides from the cell and was apparently devoid of terminal glucose. After pulse-chase or long labeling periods, a significant fraction of the large oligomannosyl cores was processed by removal of mannose units and addition of branch sugars (NeuNAc-Gal-GlcNAc), resulting in complex acidic structures containing three and possibly five mannoses. In addition, some of the large oligomannosyl cores were processed by the removal of only several mannoses, resulting in a mixture of neutral structures with 5-9 mannoses. This oligomannosyl core heterogeneity in both neutral and acidic oligosaccharides linked to asparagine in cellular membrane glycoproteins was analogous to the heterogeneity reported for the oligosaccharides of avian RNA tumor virus glycoproteins (Hunt LA, Wright SE, Etchison JR, Summers DF: J Virol 29:336, 1979).

  14. Platelet Glycoprotein lb-1X and Malignancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    supporting the accumulation of more platelets and the elaboration of a fibrin - rich network produced by coagulation factors. This paradigm has been...a platelet - rich thrombus by tethering the platelet to a thrombogenic surface. Several ligands binding to GP Ib-IX have been identified, including...08-1-0576 TITLE: Platelet Glycoprotein lb-1X and Malignancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Jerry Ware

  15. Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    provide a unique microenvironment supporting the accumulation of more platelets and the elaboration of a fibrin - rich network produced by coagulation...process and can initiate the formation of a platelet - rich thrombus by tethering the platelet to a thrombogenic surface. Several ligands binding to GP Ib... Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jerry Ware, Ph.D

  16. Brd4 Is Required for E2-Mediated Transcriptional Activation but Not Genome Partitioning of All Papillomaviruses†

    PubMed Central

    McPhillips, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Spindler, J. E.; Mitra, R.; McBride, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    Bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4) has been identified as the cellular binding target through which the E2 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 1 links the viral genome to mitotic chromosomes. This tethering ensures retention and efficient partitioning of genomes to daughter cells following cell division. E2 is also a regulator of viral gene expression and a replication factor, in association with the viral E1 protein. In this study, we show that E2 proteins from a wide range of papillomaviruses interact with Brd4, albeit with variations in efficiency. Moreover, disruption of the E2-Brd4 interaction abrogates the transactivation function of E2, indicating that Brd4 is required for E2-mediated transactivation of all papillomaviruses. However, the interaction of E2 and Brd4 is not required for genome partitioning of all papillomaviruses since a number of papillomavirus E2 proteins associate with mitotic chromosomes independently of Brd4 binding. Furthermore, mutations in E2 that disrupt the interaction with Brd4 do not affect the ability of these E2s to associate with chromosomes. Thus, while all papillomaviruses attach their genomes to cellular chromosomes to facilitate genome segregation, they target different cellular binding partners. In summary, the E2 proteins from many papillomaviruses, including the clinically important alpha genus human papillomaviruses, interact with Brd4 to mediate transcriptional activation function but not all depend on this interaction to efficiently associate with mitotic chromosomes. PMID:16973557

  17. Analysis of codon usage bias of envelope glycoprotein genes in nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) and its relation to evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongchao; Zheng, Hao; Xu, Anying; Yan, Donghua; Jiang, Zijian; Qi, Qi; Sun, Jingchen

    2016-08-24

    Analysis of codon usage bias is an extremely versatile method using in furthering understanding of the genetic and evolutionary paths of species. Codon usage bias of envelope glycoprotein genes in nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) has remained largely unexplored at present. Hence, the codon usage bias of NPV envelope glycoprotein was analyzed here to reveal the genetic and evolutionary relationships between different viral species in baculovirus genus. A total of 9236 codons from 18 different species of NPV of the baculovirus genera were used to perform this analysis. Glycoprotein of NPV exhibits weaker codon usage bias. Neutrality plot analysis and correlation analysis of effective number of codons (ENC) values indicate that natural selection is the main factor influencing codon usage bias, and that the impact of mutation pressure is relatively smaller. Another cluster analysis shows that the kinship or evolutionary relationships of these viral species can be divided into two broad categories despite all of these 18 species are from the same baculovirus genus. There are many elements that can affect codon bias, such as the composition of amino acids, mutation pressure, natural selection, gene expression level, and etc. In the meantime, cluster analysis also illustrates that codon usage bias of virus envelope glycoprotein can serve as an effective means of evolutionary classification in baculovirus genus.

  18. Regulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein-Induced Cascade of Events Governing Cell-Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Wan Ting; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Receptor-dependent herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced cell-cell fusion requires glycoproteins gD, gH/gL, and gB. Our current model posits that during fusion, receptor-activated conformational changes in gD activate gH/gL, which subsequently triggers the transformation of the prefusion form of gB into a fusogenic state. To examine the role of each glycoprotein in receptor-dependent cell-cell fusion, we took advantage of our discovery that fusion by wild-type herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoproteins occurs twice as fast as that achieved by HSV-1 glycoproteins. By sequentially swapping each glycoprotein between the two serotypes, we established that fusion speed was governed by gH/gL, with gH being the main contributor. While the mutant forms of gB fuse at distinct rates that are dictated by their molecular structure, these restrictions can be overcome by gH/gL of HSV-2 (gH2/gL2), thereby enhancing their activity. We also found that deregulated forms of gD of HSV-1 (gD1) and gH2/gL2 can alter the fusogenic potential of gB, promoting cell fusion in the absence of a cellular receptor, and that deregulated forms of gB can drive the fusion machinery to even higher levels. Low pH enhanced fusion by affecting the structure of both gB and gH/gL mutants. Together, our data highlight the complexity of the fusion machinery, the impact of the activation state of each glycoprotein on the fusion process, and the critical role of gH/gL in regulating HSV-induced fusion. IMPORTANCE Cell-cell fusion mediated by HSV glycoproteins requires gD, gH/gL, gB, and a gD receptor. Here, we show that fusion by wild-type HSV-2 glycoproteins occurs twice as fast as that achieved by HSV-1 glycoproteins. By sequentially swapping each glycoprotein between the two serotypes, we found that the fusion process was controlled by gH/gL. Restrictions imposed on the gB structure by mutations could be overcome by gH2/gL2, enhancing the activity of the mutants. Under low-pH conditions or when

  19. Forward genetic screens identify a role for the mitochondrial HER2 in E-2-hexenal responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Scala, Alessandra; Mirabella, Rossana; Goedhart, Joachim; de Vries, Michel; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2017-11-01

    This work adds a new player, HER2, downstream of the perception of E-2-hexenal, a green leaf volatile, and shows that E-2-hexenal specifically changes the redox status of the mitochondria. It is widely accepted that plants produce and respond to green leaf volatiles (GLVs), but the molecular components involved in transducing their perception are largely unknown. The GLV E-2-hexenal inhibits root elongation in seedlings and, using this phenotype, we isolated E-2-hexenal response (her) Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Using map-based cloning we positioned the her2 mutation to the At5g63620 locus, resulting in a phenylalanine instead of serine on position 223. Knockdown and overexpression lines of HER2 confirmed the role of HER2, which encodes an oxidoreductase, in the responsiveness to E-2-hexenal. Since E-2-hexenal is a reactive electrophile species, which are known to influence the redox status of cells, we utilized redox sensitive GFP2 (roGFP2) to determine the redox status of E-2-hexenal-treated root cells. Since the signal peptide of HER2 directed mCherry to the mitochondria, we targeted the expression of roGFP2 to this organelle besides the cytosol. E-2-hexenal specifically induced a change in the redox status in the mitochondria. We did not see a difference in the redox status in her2 compared to wild-type Arabidopsis. Still, the mitochondrial redox status did not change with Z-3-hexenol, another abundant GLV. These results indicate that HER2 is involved in transducing the perception of E-2-hexenal, which changes the redox status of the mitochondria.

  20. Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Giang, Erick; Dorner, Marcus; Prentoe, Jannick C; Dreux, Marlène; Evans, Matthew J; Bukh, Jens; Rice, Charles M; Ploss, Alexander; Burton, Dennis R; Law, Mansun

    2012-04-17

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects ∼2% of the world's population. It is estimated that there are more than 500,000 new infections annually in Egypt, the country with the highest HCV prevalence. An effective vaccine would help control this expanding global health burden. HCV is highly variable, and an effective vaccine should target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Conserved B-cell epitopes overlapping the CD81 receptor-binding site (CD81bs) on the E2 viral envelope glycoprotein have been reported previously and provide promising vaccine targets. In this study, we isolated 73 human mAbs recognizing five distinct antigenic regions on the virus envelope glycoprotein complex E1E2 from an HCV-immune phage-display antibody library by using an exhaustive-panning strategy. Many of these mAbs were broadly neutralizing. In particular, the mAb AR4A, recognizing a discontinuous epitope outside the CD81bs on the E1E2 complex, has an exceptionally broad neutralizing activity toward diverse HCV genotypes and protects against heterologous HCV challenge in a small animal model. The mAb panel will be useful for the design and development of vaccine candidates to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies to HCV.

  1. Structural modification of P-glycoprotein induced by OH radicals: Insights from atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravian, N.; Kamaraj, B.; Neyts, E. C.; Bogaerts, A.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports on the possible effects of OH radical impact on the transmembrane domain 6 of P-glycoprotein, TM6, which plays a crucial role in drug binding in human cells. For the first time, we employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on the self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method to elucidate the potential sites of fragmentation and mutation in this domain upon impact of OH radicals, and to obtain fundamental information about the underlying reaction mechanisms. Furthermore, we apply non-reactive MD simulations to investigate the long-term effect of this mutation, with possible implications for drug binding. Our simulations indicate that the interaction of OH radicals with TM6 might lead to the breaking of C-C and C-N peptide bonds, which eventually cause fragmentation of TM6. Moreover, according to our simulations, the OH radicals can yield mutation in the aromatic ring of phenylalanine in TM6, which in turn affects its structure. As TM6 plays an important role in the binding of a range of cytotoxic drugs with P-glycoprotein, any changes in its structure are likely to affect the response of the tumor cell in chemotherapy. This is crucial for cancer therapies based on reactive oxygen species, such as plasma treatment.

  2. A Diverse Panel of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoproteins for Use in Vaccine Research Reveals Extremes of Monoclonal Antibody Neutralization Resistance.

    PubMed

    Urbanowicz, Richard A; McClure, C Patrick; Brown, Richard J P; Tsoleridis, Theocharis; Persson, Mats A A; Krey, Thomas; Irving, William L; Ball, Jonathan K; Tarr, Alexander W

    2015-12-23

    Despite significant advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the need to develop preventative vaccines remains. Identification of the best vaccine candidates and evaluation of their performance in preclinical and clinical development will require appropriate neutralization assays utilizing diverse HCV isolates. We aimed to generate and characterize a panel of HCV E1E2 glycoproteins suitable for subsequent use in vaccine and therapeutic antibody testing. Full-length E1E2 clones were PCR amplified from patient-derived serum samples, cloned into an expression vector, and used to generate viral pseudoparticles (HCVpp). In addition, some of these clones were used to generate cell culture infectious (HCVcc) clones. The infectivity and neutralization sensitivity of these viruses were then determined. Bioinformatic and HCVpp infectivity screening of approximately 900 E1E2 clones resulted in the assembly of a panel of 78 functional E1E2 proteins representing distinct HCV genotypes and different stages of infection. These HCV glycoproteins differed markedly in their sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. We used this panel to predict antibody efficacy against circulating HCV strains, highlighting the likely reason why some monoclonal antibodies failed in previous clinical trials. This study provides the first objective categorization of cross-genotype patient-derived HCV E1E2 clones according to their sensitivity to antibody neutralization. It has shown that HCV isolates have clearly distinguishable neutralization-sensitive, -resistant, or -intermediate phenotypes, which are independent of genotype. The panel provides a systematic means for characterization of the neutralizing response elicited by candidate vaccines and for defining the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibodies. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a global burden of more than 170 million people, many of whom cannot attain the new, expensive, direct-acting antiviral therapies. A safe and

  3. Metabolism of Glycoproteins in Turpentine Granuloma*

    PubMed Central

    Prodi, G.; Pane, G.; Romeo, G.

    1970-01-01

    The local synthesis of sialic acid and sialic acid containing glycoproteins in granuloma experimentally produced with turpentine has been investigated by incubating them in vitro with 14C glucosamine. The content and activity of chromatographically isolated sialic acid of water soluble and water insoluble fractions of tissue incubated at different times after injection of turpentine was determined. A local synthesis of sialic acid and its incorporation both in the soluble and insoluble fractions were found, with a time depending slope. Chromatography on DEAE Sephadex of glycoproteins obtained from water soluble fraction showed that radioactivity was present in 2 peaks. After papain digestion of the insoluble fraction, the sialic acid containing material could be separated into 2 groups of radioactive glycopeptides on DEAE Sephadex. The data demonstrates that granuloma can synthestize in vitro a considerable variety of glycoproteic materials. PMID:5491911

  4. A substitution in the transmembrane region of the glycoprotein leads to an unstable attenuation of Machupo virus.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Michael; Koma, Takaaki; Seregin, Alexey; Huang, Cheng; Miller, Milagros; Smith, Jennifer; Yun, Nadezhda; Smith, Jeanon; Paessler, Slobodan

    2014-09-01

    Machupo virus (MACV) is the etiologic agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF). Utilizing a reverse-genetics system recently developed, we report the rescue of a rationally modified recombinant MACV containing a single mutation in the transmembrane region of the glycoprotein. Following challenge of susceptible mice, we identified a significant reduction in virulence in the novel virus. We also identified an instability leading to reversion of the single mutation to a wild-type genotype. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Posttranslational modifications of Sindbis virus glycoproteins: electrophoretic analysis of pulse-chase-labeled infected cells.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, S; Cancedda, F D

    1982-04-01

    Cytoplasmic extracts prepared from Sindbis virus-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts pulse-chase-labeled with [35S]methionine 6 h postinfection were analyzed on a highly resolving sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel either directly or after various treatments. The results we obtained suggest that (i) the proteolytic cleavage which converts PE2 to E2 glycoprotein takes place intracellularly, before or at least during the formation of complex-type oligosaccharide side chains; and (ii) E1 glycoprotein undergoes a complex maturation pattern. Newly synthesized E1 has a molecular weight of 53,000: shortly thereafter, this 53,000 (53K) form was converted to a 50K form. Subsequently, the 50K form decreased its apparent molecular weight progressively and eventually comigrated with E1 glycoprotein present in the extracellular virus, which displays a molecular weight of 51,000 to 52,000. The conversion of the 53K to the 50K form was not the result of a proteolytic processing and did not depend on glycosylation or disulfide bridge formation and exchange. The possible mechanisms of this conversion are discussed. The second conversion step (from the 50K to the 51-52K form) was due to the formation of complex-type oligosaccharide and was reversed by incubating the cellular extracts with neuraminidase before electrophoretic analysis.

  6. The UL24 protein of herpes simplex virus 1 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion

    SciT

    Ben Abdeljelil, Nawel; Rochette, Pierre-Alexandre; Pearson, Angela, E-mail: angela.pearson@iaf.inrs.ca

    2013-09-15

    Mutations in UL24 of herpes simplex virus type 1 can lead to a syncytial phenotype. We hypothesized that UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion. In non-immortalized human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) we detected viral glycoproteins B (gB), gD, gH and gL present in extended blotches throughout the cytoplasm with limited nuclear membrane staining; however, in HFFs infected with a UL24-deficient virus (UL24X), staining for the viral glycoproteins appeared as long, thin streaks running across the cell. Interestingly, there was a decrease in co-localized staining of gB and gD with F-actin at late times in UL24X-infected HFFs.more » Treatment with chemical agents that perturbed the actin cytoskeleton hindered the formation of UL24X-induced syncytia in these cells. These data support a model whereby the UL24 syncytial phenotype results from a mislocalization of viral glycoproteins late in infection. - Highlights: • UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins required for fusion. • Sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins varies in cell-type dependent manner. • Drugs targeting actin microfilaments affect formation of UL24-related syncytia in HFFs.« less

  7. P-glycoprotein expression in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells after in vitro and in vivo selection with daunorubicin.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, D.; Eriksen, J.; Maare, C.; Jakobsen, A. H.; Skovsgaard, T.

    1998-01-01

    Fluctuation analysis experiments were performed to assess whether selection or induction determines expression of P-glycoprotein and resistance in the murine Ehrlich ascites tumour cell line (EHR2) after exposure to daunorubicin. Thirteen expanded populations of EHR2 cells were exposed to daunorubicin 7.5 x 10(-9) M or 10(-8) M for 2 weeks. Surviving clones were scored and propagated. Only clones exposed to daunorubicin 7.5 x 10(-9) M could be expanded for investigation. Drug resistance was assessed by the tetrazolium dye (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. Western blot was used for determination of P-glycoprotein. Compared with EHR2, the variant cells were 2.5- to 5.2-fold resistant to daunorubicin (mean 3.6-fold). P-glycoprotein was significantly increased in 11 of 25 clones (44%). Analysis of variance supported the hypothesis that spontaneous mutations conferred drug resistance in EHR2 cells exposed to daunorubicin 7.5 x 10(-9) M. At this level (5 log cell killing) of drug exposure, the mutation rate was estimated at 4.1 x 10(-6) per cell generation. In contrast, induction seemed to determine resistance in EHR2 cells in vitro exposed to daunorubicin 10(-8) M. The revertant EHR2/0.8/R was treated in vivo with daunorubicin for 24 h. After treatment, P-glycoprotein increased in EHR2/0.8/R (sevenfold) and the cell line developed resistance to daunorubicin (12-fold), suggesting that in EHR2/0.8/R the mdr1 gene was activated by induction. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that P-glycoprotein expression and daunorubicin resistance are primarily acquired by selection of spontaneously arising mutants. However, under certain conditions the mdr1 gene may be activated by induction. PMID:9820176

  8. E2 protein cage as a multifunctional nanoplatform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmau Mallorqui, Merce

    Caged protein systems such as viral capsids, heat shock proteins, and ferritin are spherical structures that occur naturally in living organisms and are a growing class of biomimetic templates used to create new materials in nanotechnology. Such systems have been proposed as general drug carriers since they form highly symmetric nanoscale architectures that offer the potential to be tailored according to the desired application. Within this framework, this dissertation focuses on the design and development of a new drug delivery nanoplatform based on the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase protein from Bacillus stearothermophilus. This scaffold forms a 25-nm nanocapsule structure with a hollow cavity. We produced a variant of this protein consisting only of the structural core, and found the thermostability of this self-assembled scaffold to be unusually high, with an onset unfolding temperature of 81.1 +/- 0.9°C and an apparent midpoint unfolding temperature of 91.4 +/- 1.4°C. To evaluate the potential of this scaffold for encapsulation of guest molecules in the internal cavity, we made variants which altered the physicochemical properties of the hollow internal surface. These mutants, yielding up to 240 mutations within this cavity, assembled into correct architectures and exhibited high thermostability that was also comparable to the wild-type scaffold. To show the applicability of this scaffold we coupled two drug-like small molecules to the internal cavity. We also developed a new strategy for encapsulation of small hydrophobic drug molecules. This method is based on hydrophobic differences between the interior cavity and the external buffer to nucleate drug-like agents inside the protein cage. We demonstrate that internal mutations can introduce non-native functionality and enable molecular encapsulation within the cavity while still retaining the dodecahedral structure. Another surface amenable to modifications is the interface between subunits. Such

  9. Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins: aspects of biosynthesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Gotté, Maxime; Plancot, Barbara; Lerouge, Patrice; Bardor, Muriel; Driouich, Azeddine

    2014-01-01

    Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins are two types of glycomolecules whose glycans are structurally complex. They are both assembled and modified within the endomembrane system, i.e., the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus, before their transport to their final locations within or outside the cell. In contrast to extensins (EXTs), the O-glycan chains of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly heterogeneous consisting mostly of (i) a short oligo-arabinoside chain of three to four residues, and (ii) a larger β-1,3-linked galactan backbone with β-1,6-linked side chains containing galactose, arabinose and, often, fucose, rhamnose, or glucuronic acid. The fine structure of arabinogalactan chains varies between, and within plant species, and is important for the functional activities of the glycoproteins. With regards to N-glycans, ER-synthesizing events are highly conserved in all eukaryotes studied so far since they are essential for efficient protein folding. In contrast, evolutionary adaptation of N-glycan processing in the Golgi apparatus has given rise to a variety of organism-specific complex structures. Therefore, plant complex-type N-glycans contain specific glyco-epitopes such as core β,2-xylose, core α1,3-fucose residues, and Lewisa substitutions on the terminal position of the antenna. Like O-glycans, N-glycans of proteins are essential for their stability and function. Mutants affected in the glycan metabolic pathways have provided valuable information on the role of N-/O-glycoproteins in the control of growth, morphogenesis and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. With regards to O-glycoproteins, only EXTs and AGPs are considered herein. The biosynthesis of these glycoproteins and functional aspects are presented and discussed in this review. PMID:25324850

  10. 26 CFR 1.503(e)-2 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Requirements. 1.503(e)-2 Section 1.503(e)-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(e)-2 Requirements. (a) In general. The requirements... price may not be a valid price for 1,000 bonds and the purchase may therefore not meet the requirements...

  11. 26 CFR 1.503(e)-2 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Requirements. 1.503(e)-2 Section 1.503(e)-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(e)-2 Requirements. (a) In general. The requirements... price may not be a valid price for 1,000 bonds and the purchase may therefore not meet the requirements...

  12. 26 CFR 1.503(e)-2 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements. 1.503(e)-2 Section 1.503(e)-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(e)-2 Requirements. (a) In general. The requirements... price may not be a valid price for 1,000 bonds and the purchase may therefore not meet the requirements...

  13. Silica Vesicle Nanovaccine Formulations Stimulate Long-Term Immune Responses to the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus E2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Karishma T.; Mahony, Donna; Cavallaro, Antonino S.; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bing; Mahony, Timothy J.; Yu, Chengzhong; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is one of the most serious pathogen, which causes tremendous economic loss to the cattle industry worldwide, meriting the development of improved subunit vaccines. Structural glycoprotein E2 is reported to be a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV virion. We have developed a novel hollow silica vesicles (SV) based platform to administer BVDV-1 Escherichia coli-expressed optimised E2 (oE2) antigen as a nanovaccine formulation. The SV-140 vesicles (diameter 50 nm, wall thickness 6 nm, perforated by pores of entrance size 16 nm and total pore volume of 0.934 cm3g-1) have proven to be ideal candidates to load oE2 antigen and generate immune response. The current study for the first time demonstrates the ability of freeze-dried (FD) as well as non-FD oE2/SV140 nanovaccine formulation to induce long-term balanced antibody and cell mediated memory responses for at least 6 months with a shortened dosing regimen of two doses in small animal model. The in vivo ability of oE2 (100 μg)/SV-140 (500 μg) and FD oE2 (100 μg)/SV-140 (500 μg) to induce long-term immunity was compared to immunisation with oE2 (100 μg) together with the conventional adjuvant Quil-A from the Quillaja saponira (10 μg) in mice. The oE2/SV-140 as well as the FD oE2/SV-140 nanovaccine generated oE2-specific antibody and cell mediated responses for up to six months post the final second immunisation. Significantly, the cell-mediated responses were consistently high in mice immunised with oE2/SV-140 (1,500 SFU/million cells) at the six-month time point. Histopathology studies showed no morphological changes at the site of injection or in the different organs harvested from the mice immunised with 500 μg SV-140 nanovaccine compared to the unimmunised control. The platform has the potential for developing single dose vaccines without the requirement of cold chain storage for veterinary and human applications. PMID:26630001

  14. Glycoprotein Disease Markers and Single Protein-omics*

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Kevin; Goldman, Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    Glycoproteins are well represented among biomarkers for inflammatory and cancer diseases. Secreted and membrane-associated glycoproteins make excellent targets for noninvasive detection. In this review, we discuss clinically applicable markers of cancer diseases and methods for their analysis. High throughput discovery continues to supply marker candidates with unusual glycan structures, altered glycoprotein abundance, or distribution of site-specific glycoforms. Improved analytical methods are needed to unlock the potential of these discoveries in validated clinical assays. A new generation of targeted quantitative assays is expected to advance the use of glycoproteins in early detection of diseases, molecular disease classification, and monitoring of therapeutic interventions. PMID:23399550

  15. Generation and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies against a Cyclic Variant of Hepatitis C Virus E2 Epitope 412-422

    PubMed Central

    Sandomenico, Annamaria; Leonardi, Antonio; Berisio, Rita; Sanguigno, Luca; Focà, Giuseppina; Focà, Annalia; Ruggiero, Alessia; Doti, Nunzianna; Muscariello, Livio; Barone, Daniela; Farina, Claudio; Owsianka, Ania; Vitagliano, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 envelope glycoprotein is crucial for virus entry into hepatocytes. A conserved region of E2 encompassing amino acids 412 to 423 (epitope I) and containing Trp420, a residue critical for virus entry, is recognized by several broadly neutralizing antibodies. Peptides embodying this epitope I sequence adopt a β-hairpin conformation when bound to neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) AP33 and HCV1. We therefore generated new mouse MAbs that were able to bind to a cyclic peptide containing E2 residues 412 to 422 (C-epitope I) but not to the linear counterpart. These MAbs bound to purified E2 with affinities of about 50 nM, but they were unable to neutralize virus infection. Structural analysis of the complex between C-epitope I and one of our MAbs (C2) showed that the Trp420 side chain is largely buried in the combining site and that the Asn417 side chain, which is glycosylated in E2 and solvent exposed in other complexes, is slightly buried upon C2 binding. Also, the orientation of the cyclic peptide in the antibody-combining site is rotated by 180° compared to the orientations of the other complexes. All these structural features, however, do not explain the lack of neutralization activity. This is instead ascribed to the high degree of selectivity of the new MAbs for the cyclic epitope and to their inability to interact with the epitope in more flexible and extended conformations, which recent data suggest play a role in the mechanisms of neutralization escape. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a major health care burden, affecting almost 3% of the global population. The conserved epitope comprising residues 412 to 423 of the viral E2 glycoprotein is a valid vaccine candidate because antibodies recognizing this region exhibit potent neutralizing activity. This epitope adopts a β-hairpin conformation when bound to neutralizing MAbs. We explored the potential of cyclic peptides mimicking this structure to elicit

  16. Influenza Virus Assembly and Lipid Raft Microdomains: a Role for the Cytoplasmic Tails of the Spike Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Pekosz, Andrew; Lamb, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Influenza viruses encoding hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins with deletions in one or both cytoplasmic tails (HAt− or NAt−) have a reduced association with detergent-insoluble glycolipids (DIGs). Mutations which eliminated various combinations of the three palmitoylation sites in HA exhibited reduced amounts of DIG-associated HA in virus-infected cells. The influenza virus matrix (M1) protein was also found to be associated with DIGs, but this association was decreased in cells infected with HAt− or NAt− virus. Regardless of the amount of DIG-associated protein, the HA and NA glycoproteins were targeted primarily to the apical surface of virus-infected, polarized cells. The uncoupling of DIG association and apical transport was augmented by the observation that the influenza A virus M2 protein as well as the influenza C virus HA-esterase-fusion glycoprotein were not associated with DIGs but were apically targeted. The reduced DIG association of HAt− and NAt− is an intrinsic property of the glycoproteins, as similar reductions in DIG association were observed when the proteins were expressed from cDNA. Examination of purified virions indicated reduced amounts of DIG-associated lipids in the envelope of HAt− and NAt− viruses. The data indicate that deletion of both the HA and NA cytoplasmic tails results in reduced DIG association and changes in both virus polypeptide and lipid composition. PMID:10775599

  17. Determinant for Endoplasmic Reticulum Retention in the Luminal Domain of the Human Cytomegalovirus US3 Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungwook; Park, Boyoun; Ahn, Kwangseog

    2003-01-01

    US3 of human cytomegalovirus is an endoplasmic reticulum resident transmembrane glycoprotein that binds to major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and prevents their departure. The endoplasmic reticulum retention signal of the US3 protein is contained in the luminal domain of the protein. To define the endoplasmic reticulum retention sequence in more detail, we have generated a series of deletion and point mutants of the US3 protein. By analyzing the rate of intracellular transport and immunolocalization of the mutants, we have identified Ser58, Glu63, and Lys64 as crucial for retention, suggesting that the retention signal of the US3 protein has a complex spatial arrangement and does not comprise a contiguous sequence of amino acids. We also show that a modified US3 protein with a mutation in any of these amino acids maintains its ability to bind class I molecules; however, such mutated proteins are no longer retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and are not able to block the cell surface expression of class I molecules. These findings indicate that the properties that allow the US3 glycoprotein to be localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and bind major histocompatibility complex class I molecules are located in different parts of the molecule and that the ability of US3 to block antigen presentation is due solely to its ability to retain class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:12525649

  18. [Research progress on ebola virus glycoprotein].

    PubMed

    Ding, Guo-Yong; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Gao, Lu; Jiang, Bao-Fa

    2013-03-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes outbreaks of a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and there are no effective therapeutic or prophylactic treatments available. The glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV is a transmembrane envelope protein known to play multiple functions including virus attachment and entry, cell rounding and cytotoxicity, down-regulation of host surface proteins, and enhancement of virus assembly and budding. GP is the primary target of protective immunity and the key target for developing neutralizing antibodies. In this paper, the research progress on genetic structure, pathogenesis and immunogenicity of EBOV GP in the last 5 years is reviewed.

  19. Diabetes and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in E2F1/E2F2 double-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Ainhoa; Murga, Matilde; Laresgoiti, Usua; Skoudy, Anouchka; Bernales, Irantzu; Fullaondo, Asier; Moreno, Bernardino; Lloreta, José; Field, Seth J; Real, Francisco X; Zubiaga, Ana M

    2004-05-01

    E2F transcription factors are thought to be key regulators of cell growth control. Here we use mutant mouse strains to investigate the function of E2F1 and E2F2 in vivo. E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant mice develop nonautoimmune insulin-deficient diabetes and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction characterized by endocrine and exocrine cell dysplasia, a reduction in the number and size of acini and islets, and their replacement by ductal structures and adipose tissue. Mutant pancreatic cells exhibit increased rates of DNA replication but also of apoptosis, resulting in severe pancreatic atrophy. The expression of genes involved in DNA replication and cell cycle control was upregulated in the E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant pancreas, suggesting that their expression is repressed by E2F1/E2F2 activities and that the inappropriate cell cycle found in the mutant pancreas is likely the result of the deregulated expression of these genes. Interestingly, the expression of ductal cell and adipocyte differentiation marker genes was also upregulated, whereas expression of pancreatic cell marker genes were downregulated. These results suggest that E2F1/E2F2 activity negatively controls growth of mature pancreatic cells and is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated pancreatic phenotypes in the adult.

  20. E2F1 and E2F2 prevent replicative stress and subsequent p53-dependent organ involution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Ara, A; Zenarruzabeitia, O; Buelta, L; Merino, J; Zubiaga, A M

    2015-10-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires tight regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. E2F1 and E2F2 transcription factors share a critical role in tissue homeostasis, since their combined inactivation results in overall organ involution, specially affecting the pancreatic gland, which subsequently triggers diabetes. We have examined the mechanism by which these E2Fs regulate tissue homeostasis. We show that pancreas atrophy in E2F1/E2F2 double-knockout (DKO) mice is associated with mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of the p53 pathway in young animals, before the development of diabetes. A deregulated expression of E2F target genes was detected in pancreatic cells of young DKO animals, along with unscheduled DNA replication and activation of a DNA damage response. Importantly, suppression of DNA replication in vivo with aphidicolin led to a significant inhibition of the p53 pathway in DKO pancreas, implying a causal link between DNA replication stress and p53 activation in this model. We further show that activation of the p53 pathway has a key role in the aberrant phenotype of DKO mice, since targeted inactivation of p53 gene abrogated cellular apoptosis and prevented organ involution and insulin-dependent diabetes in mice lacking E2F1/E2F2. Unexpectedly, p53 inactivation unmasked oncogenic features of E2F1/E2F2-depleted cells, as evidenced by an accelerated tumor development in triple-knockout mice compared with p53(-/-) mice. Collectively, our data reveal a role for E2F1 and E2F2 as suppressors of replicative stress in differentiating cells, and uncover the existence of a robust E2F-p53 regulatory axis to enable tissue homeostasis and prevent tumorigenesis. These findings have implications in the design of approaches targeting E2F for cancer therapy.

  1. E2F1 and E2F2 prevent replicative stress and subsequent p53-dependent organ involution

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Ara, A; Zenarruzabeitia, O; Buelta, L; Merino, J; Zubiaga, A M

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires tight regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. E2F1 and E2F2 transcription factors share a critical role in tissue homeostasis, since their combined inactivation results in overall organ involution, specially affecting the pancreatic gland, which subsequently triggers diabetes. We have examined the mechanism by which these E2Fs regulate tissue homeostasis. We show that pancreas atrophy in E2F1/E2F2 double-knockout (DKO) mice is associated with mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of the p53 pathway in young animals, before the development of diabetes. A deregulated expression of E2F target genes was detected in pancreatic cells of young DKO animals, along with unscheduled DNA replication and activation of a DNA damage response. Importantly, suppression of DNA replication in vivo with aphidicolin led to a significant inhibition of the p53 pathway in DKO pancreas, implying a causal link between DNA replication stress and p53 activation in this model. We further show that activation of the p53 pathway has a key role in the aberrant phenotype of DKO mice, since targeted inactivation of p53 gene abrogated cellular apoptosis and prevented organ involution and insulin-dependent diabetes in mice lacking E2F1/E2F2. Unexpectedly, p53 inactivation unmasked oncogenic features of E2F1/E2F2-depleted cells, as evidenced by an accelerated tumor development in triple-knockout mice compared with p53−/− mice. Collectively, our data reveal a role for E2F1 and E2F2 as suppressors of replicative stress in differentiating cells, and uncover the existence of a robust E2F-p53 regulatory axis to enable tissue homeostasis and prevent tumorigenesis. These findings have implications in the design of approaches targeting E2F for cancer therapy. PMID:25656653

  2. Evidence for glycoprotein transport into complex plastids.

    PubMed

    Peschke, Madeleine; Moog, Daniel; Klingl, Andreas; Maier, Uwe G; Hempel, Franziska

    2013-06-25

    Diatoms are microalgae that possess so-called "complex plastids," which evolved by secondary endosymbiosis and are surrounded by four membranes. Thus, in contrast to primary plastids, which are surrounded by only two membranes, nucleus-encoded proteins of complex plastids face additional barriers, i.e., during evolution, mechanisms had to evolve to transport preproteins across all four membranes. This study reveals that there exist glycoproteins not only in primary but also in complex plastids, making transport issues even more complicated, as most translocation machineries are not believed to be able to transport bulky proteins. We show that plastidal reporter proteins with artificial N-glycosylation sites are indeed glycosylated during transport into the complex plastid of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Additionally, we identified five endogenous glycoproteins, which are transported into different compartments of the complex plastid. These proteins get N-glycosylated during transport across the outermost plastid membrane and thereafter are transported across the second, third, and fourth plastid membranes in the case of stromal proteins. The results of this study provide insights into the evolutionary pressure on translocation mechanisms and pose unique questions on the operating mode of well-known transport machineries like the translocons of the outer/inner chloroplast membranes (Toc/Tic).

  3. Ammonia transport in the kidney by Rhesus glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Verlander, Jill W.

    2014-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism is a fundamental element of acid-base homeostasis, comprising a major component of both basal and physiologically altered renal net acid excretion. Over the past several years, a fundamental change in our understanding of the mechanisms of renal epithelial cell ammonia transport has occurred, replacing the previous model which was based upon diffusion equilibrium for NH3 and trapping of NH4+ with a new model in which specific and regulated transport of both NH3 and NH4+ across renal epithelial cell membranes via specific membrane proteins is required for normal ammonia metabolism. A major advance has been the recognition that members of a recently recognized transporter family, the Rhesus glycoprotein family, mediate critical roles in renal and extrarenal ammonia transport. The erythroid-specific Rhesus glycoprotein, Rh A Glycoprotein (Rhag), was the first Rhesus glycoprotein recognized as an ammonia-specific transporter. Subsequently, the nonerythroid Rh glycoproteins, Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), were cloned and identified as ammonia transporters. They are expressed in specific cell populations and membrane domains in distal renal epithelial cells, where they facilitate ammonia secretion. In this review, we discuss the distribution of Rhbg and Rhcg in the kidney, the regulation of their expression and activity in physiological disturbances, the effects of genetic deletion on renal ammonia metabolism, and the molecular mechanisms of Rh glycoprotein-mediated ammonia transport. PMID:24647713

  4. Analgesic effects of glycoproteins from Panax ginseng root in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yinghong; Xu, Hong; Luo, Haoming; Jiang, Ruizhi

    2013-07-30

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey has various beneficial pharmacological effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the analgesic activities of glycoproteins from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey in mice. Glycoproteins were isolated and purified from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. Physicochemical properties and molecular mass were determined by chemical assay and HPLC. Acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests were employed to study the analgesic effect of glycoproteins and compared with that of aspirin or morphine. The locomotor activity was tested in mice by using actophometer. Four glycoproteins were obtained. The glycoproteins which protein content was the highest (73.04%) displayed dose-dependent analgesic effect. In writhing test, the glycoproteins significantly inhibited writhes (P<0.001) at the dose of 20 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection. In hot-plate test, only at the dose of 20 mg/kg prolong the hot-plate latency (P<0.05, at 30 min). In the locomotor activity test, the glycoproteins were significant decrease of motility counts at the dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg. These findings collectively indicate that the glycoproteins from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey exhibited significant analgesic activities and the proteins were the active site, providing evidence for its pharmacal use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    SciT

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.

    1986-11-20

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-..beta..-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis.more » Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines.« less

  6. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Eva; Toussaint, Mathilda J. M.; Tooten, Peter C. J.; van Essen, Saskia C.; van Liere, Elsbeth A.; Youssef, Sameh A.; Bongiovanni, Laura; de Bruin, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age. PMID:29329320

  7. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization.

    PubMed

    Matondo, Ramadhan B; Moreno, Eva; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; Tooten, Peter C J; van Essen, Saskia C; van Liere, Elsbeth A; Youssef, Sameh A; Bongiovanni, Laura; de Bruin, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age.

  8. The E2 Domains of APP and APLP1 Share a Conserved Mode of Dimerization

    SciT

    S Lee; Y Xue; J Hulbert

    2011-12-31

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease. APP is a type I membrane protein, and its oligomeric structure is potentially important because this property may play a role in its function or affect the processing of the precursor by the secretases to generate amyloid {beta}-peptide. Several independent studies have shown that APP can form dimers in the cell, but how it dimerizes remains controversial. At least three regions of the precursor, including a centrally located and conserved domain called E2, have been proposed to contribute to dimerization. Here we report two new crystal structures of E2, onemore » from APP and the other from APLP1, a mammalian APP homologue. Comparison with an earlier APP structure, which was determined in a different space group, shows that the E2 domains share a conserved and antiparallel mode of dimerization. Biophysical measurements in solution show that heparin binding induces E2 dimerization. The 2.1 {angstrom} resolution electron density map also reveals phosphate ions that are bound to the protein surface. Mutational analysis shows that protein residues interacting with the phosphate ions are also involved in heparin binding. The locations of two of these residues, Arg-369 and His-433, at the dimeric interface suggest a mechanism for heparin-induced protein dimerization.« less

  9. Ebola Virus Glycoprotein with Increased Infectivity Dominated the 2013-2016 Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Diehl, William E; Lin, Aaron E; Grubaugh, Nathan D; Carvalho, Luiz Max; Kim, Kyusik; Kyawe, Pyae Phyo; McCauley, Sean M; Donnard, Elisa; Kucukural, Alper; McDonel, Patrick; Schaffner, Stephen F; Garber, Manuel; Rambaut, Andrew; Andersen, Kristian G; Sabeti, Pardis C; Luban, Jeremy

    2016-11-03

    The magnitude of the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic enabled an unprecedented number of viral mutations to occur over successive human-to-human transmission events, increasing the probability that adaptation to the human host occurred during the outbreak. We investigated one nonsynonymous mutation, Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) mutant A82V, for its effect on viral infectivity. This mutation, located at the NPC1-binding site on EBOV GP, occurred early in the 2013-2016 outbreak and rose to high frequency. We found that GP-A82V had heightened ability to infect primate cells, including human dendritic cells. The increased infectivity was restricted to cells that have primate-specific NPC1 sequences at the EBOV interface, suggesting that this mutation was indeed an adaptation to the human host. GP-A82V was associated with increased mortality, consistent with the hypothesis that the heightened intrinsic infectivity of GP-A82V contributed to disease severity during the EVD epidemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. E2 Proteins from High- and Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus Types Differ in Their Ability To Bind p53 and Induce Apoptotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Parish, Joanna L.; Kowalczyk, Anna; Chen, Hsin-Tien; Roeder, Geraldine E.; Sessions, Richard; Buckle, Malcolm; Gaston, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The E2 proteins from oncogenic (high-risk) human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can induce apoptotic cell death in both HPV-transformed and non-HPV-transformed cells. Here we show that the E2 proteins from HPV type 6 (HPV6) and HPV11, two nononcogenic (low-risk) HPV types, fail to induce apoptosis. Unlike the high-risk HPV16 E2 protein, these low-risk E2 proteins fail to bind p53 and fail to induce p53-dependent transcription activation. Interestingly, neither the ability of p53 to activate transcription nor the ability of p53 to bind DNA, are required for HPV16 E2-induced apoptosis in non-HPV-transformed cells. However, mutations that reduce the binding of the HPV16 E2 protein to p53 inhibit E2-induced apoptosis in non-HPV-transformed cells. In contrast, the interaction between HPV16 E2 and p53 is not required for this E2 protein to induce apoptosis in HPV-transformed cells. Thus, our data suggest that this high-risk HPV E2 protein induces apoptosis via two pathways. One pathway involves the binding of E2 to p53 and can operate in both HPV-transformed and non-HPV-transformed cells. The second pathway requires the binding of E2 to the viral genome and can only operate in HPV-transformed cells. PMID:16611918

  11. Identification of O-Linked Glycoproteins Binding to the Lectin Helix pomatia Agglutinin as Markers of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Peiris, Diluka; Ossondo, Marlène; Fry, Simon; Loizidou, Marilena; Smith-Ravin, Juliette; Dwek, Miriam V

    2015-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an important post-translational modification shown to be altered in all tumour types studied to date. Mucin glycoproteins have been established as important carriers of O-linked glycans but other glycoproteins exhibiting altered glycosylation repertoires have yet to be identified but offer potential as biomarkers for metastatic cancer. In this study a glycoproteomic approach was used to identify glycoproteins exhibiting alterations in glycosylation in colorectal cancer and to evaluate the changes in O-linked glycosylation in the context of the p53 and KRAS (codon 12/13) mutation status. Affinity purification with the carbohydrate binding protein from Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) was coupled to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry to enable the identification of low abundance O-linked glycoproteins from human colorectal cancer specimens. Aberrant O-linked glycosylation was observed to be an early event that occurred irrespective of the p53 and KRAS status and correlating with metastatic colorectal cancer. Affinity purification using the lectin HPA followed by proteomic analysis revealed annexin 4, annexin 5 and CLCA1 to be increased in the metastatic colorectal cancer specimens. The results were validated using a further independent set of specimens and this showed a significant association between the staining score for annexin 4 and HPA and the time to metastasis; independently (annexin A4: Chi square 11.45, P = 0.0007; HPA: Chi square 9.065, P = 0.0026) and in combination (annexin 4 and HPA combined: Chi square 13.47; P = 0.0002). Glycoproteins showing changes in O-linked glycosylation in metastatic colorectal cancer have been identified. The glycosylation changes were independent of p53 and KRAS status. These proteins offer potential for further exploration as biomarkers and potential targets for metastatic colorectal cancer.

  12. Identification of O-Linked Glycoproteins Binding to the Lectin Helix pomatia Agglutinin as Markers of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Diluka; Ossondo, Marlène; Fry, Simon; Loizidou, Marilena; Smith-Ravin, Juliette; Dwek, Miriam V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Protein glycosylation is an important post-translational modification shown to be altered in all tumour types studied to date. Mucin glycoproteins have been established as important carriers of O-linked glycans but other glycoproteins exhibiting altered glycosylation repertoires have yet to be identified but offer potential as biomarkers for metastatic cancer. Methodology In this study a glycoproteomic approach was used to identify glycoproteins exhibiting alterations in glycosylation in colorectal cancer and to evaluate the changes in O-linked glycosylation in the context of the p53 and KRAS (codon 12/13) mutation status. Affinity purification with the carbohydrate binding protein from Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) was coupled to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry to enable the identification of low abundance O-linked glycoproteins from human colorectal cancer specimens. Results Aberrant O-linked glycosylation was observed to be an early event that occurred irrespective of the p53 and KRAS status and correlating with metastatic colorectal cancer. Affinity purification using the lectin HPA followed by proteomic analysis revealed annexin 4, annexin 5 and CLCA1 to be increased in the metastatic colorectal cancer specimens. The results were validated using a further independent set of specimens and this showed a significant association between the staining score for annexin 4 and HPA and the time to metastasis; independently (annexin A4: Chi square 11.45, P = 0.0007; HPA: Chi square 9.065, P = 0.0026) and in combination (annexin 4 and HPA combined: Chi square 13.47; P = 0.0002). Conclusion Glycoproteins showing changes in O-linked glycosylation in metastatic colorectal cancer have been identified. The glycosylation changes were independent of p53 and KRAS status. These proteins offer potential for further exploration as biomarkers and potential targets for metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:26495974

  13. Glycoprotein production for structure analysis with stable, glycosylation mutant CHO cell lines established by fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Sonja; Krausze, Joern; Gossen, Manfred; Groebe, Lothar; Jäger, Volker; Gherardi, Ermanno; van den Heuvel, Joop; Büssow, Konrad

    2010-06-01

    Stable mammalian cell lines are excellent tools for the expression of secreted and membrane glycoproteins. However, structural analysis of these molecules is generally hampered by the complexity of N-linked carbohydrate side chains. Cell lines with mutations are available that result in shorter and more homogenous carbohydrate chains. Here, we use preparative fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and site-specific gene excision to establish high-yield glycoprotein expression for structural studies with stable clones derived from the well-established Lec3.2.8.1 glycosylation mutant of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. We exemplify the strategy by describing novel clones expressing single-chain hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF, a secreted glycoprotein) and a domain of lysosome-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3d). In both cases, stable GFP-expressing cell lines were established by transfection with a genetic construct including a GFP marker and two rounds of cell sorting after 1 and 2 weeks. The GFP marker was subsequently removed by heterologous expression of Flp recombinase. Production of HGF/SF and LAMP3d was stable over several months. 1.2 mg HGF/SF and 0.9 mg LAMP3d were purified per litre of culture, respectively. Homogenous glycoprotein preparations were amenable to enzymatic deglycosylation under native conditions. Purified and deglycosylated LAMP3d protein was readily crystallized. The combination of FACS and gene excision described here constitutes a robust and fast procedure for maximizing the yield of glycoproteins for structural analysis from glycosylation mutant cell lines.

  14. Characterisation of the epitope for a herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B-specific monoclonal antibody with high protective capacity.

    PubMed

    Däumer, Martin P; Schneider, Beate; Giesen, Doris M; Aziz, Sheriff; Kaiser, Rolf; Kupfer, Bernd; Schneweis, Karl E; Schneider-Mergener, Jens; Reineke, Ulrich; Matz, Bertfried; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M

    2011-05-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2c, specific for glycoprotein B of herpes simplex virus (HSV), had been shown to mediate clearance of infection from the mucous membranes of mice, thereby completely inhibiting mucocutaneous inflammation and lethality, even in mice depleted of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. Additionally, ganglionic infection was highly restricted. In vitro, MAb 2c exhibits a potent complement-independent neutralising activity against HSV type 1 and 2, completely inhibits the viral cell-to-cell spread as well as the syncytium formation induced by syncytial HSV strains (Eis-Hübinger et al. in Intervirology 32:351-360, 1991; Eis-Hübinger et al. in J Gen Virol 74:379-385, 1993). Here, we describe the mapping of the epitope for MAb 2c. The antibody was found to recognise a discontinuous epitope comprised of the HSV type 1 glycoprotein B residues 299 to 305 and one or more additional discontinuous regions that can be mimicked by the sequence FEDF. Identification of the epitope was confirmed by loss of antibody binding to mutated glycoprotein B with replacement of the epitopic key residues, expressed in COS-1 cells. Similarly, MAb 2c was not able to neutralise HSV mutants with altered key residues, and MAb 2c was ineffective in mice inoculated with such mutants. Interestingly, identification and fine-mapping of the discontinuous epitope was not achieved by binding studies with truncated glycoprotein B variants expressed in COS cells but by peptide scanning with synthetic overlapping peptides and peptide key motif analysis. Reactivity of MAb 2c was immensely increased towards a peptide composed of the glycoprotein B residues 299 to 305, a glycine linker, and a C-terminal FEDF motif. If it could be demonstrated that antibodies of the specificity and bioactivity of MAb 2c can be induced by the epitope or a peptide mimicking the epitope, strategies for active immunisation might be conceivable.

  15. Research resource: Update and extension of a glycoprotein hormone receptors web application.

    PubMed

    Kreuchwig, Annika; Kleinau, Gunnar; Kreuchwig, Franziska; Worth, Catherine L; Krause, Gerd

    2011-04-01

    The SSFA-GPHR (Sequence-Structure-Function-Analysis of Glycoprotein Hormone Receptors) database provides a comprehensive set of mutation data for the glycoprotein hormone receptors (covering the lutropin, the FSH, and the TSH receptors). Moreover, it provides a platform for comparison and investigation of these homologous receptors and helps in understanding protein malfunctions associated with several diseases. Besides extending the data set (> 1100 mutations), the database has been completely redesigned and several novel features and analysis tools have been added to the web site. These tools allow the focused extraction of semiquantitative mutant data from the GPHR subtypes and different experimental approaches. Functional and structural data of the GPHRs are now linked interactively at the web interface, and new tools for data visualization (on three-dimensional protein structures) are provided. The interpretation of functional findings is supported by receptor morphings simulating intramolecular changes during the activation process, which thus help to trace the potential function of each amino acid and provide clues to the local structural environment, including potentially relocated spatial counterpart residues. Furthermore, double and triple mutations are newly included to allow the analysis of their functional effects related to their spatial interrelationship in structures or homology models. A new important feature is the search option and data visualization by interactive and user-defined snake-plots. These new tools allow fast and easy searches for specific functional data and thereby give deeper insights in the mechanisms of hormone binding, signal transduction, and signaling regulation. The web application "Sequence-Structure-Function-Analysis of GPHRs" is accessible on the internet at http://www.ssfa-gphr.de/.

  16. HIV-1 Fusion Is Blocked through Binding of GB Virus C E2D Peptides to the HIV-1 gp41 Disulfide Loop

    PubMed Central

    Eissmann, Kristin; Mueller, Sebastian; Sticht, Heinrich; Jung, Susan; Zou, Peng; Jiang, Shibo; Gross, Andrea; Eichler, Jutta; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Reil, Heide

    2013-01-01

    A strategy for antiviral drug discovery is the elucidation and imitation of viral interference mechanisms. HIV-1 patients benefit from a coinfection with GB Virus C (GBV-C), since HIV-positive individuals with long-term GBV-C viraemia show better survival rates than HIV-1 patients without persisting GBV-C. A direct influence of GBV-C on HIV-1 replication has been shown in coinfection experiments. GBV-C is a human non-pathogenic member of the flaviviridae family that can replicate in T and B cells. Therefore, GBV-C shares partly the same ecological niche with HIV-1. In earlier work we have demonstrated that recombinant glycoprotein E2 of GBV-C and peptides derived from the E2 N-terminus interfere with HIV entry. In this study we investigated the underlying mechanism. Performing a virus-cell fusion assay and temperature-arrested HIV-infection kinetics, we provide evidence that the HIV-inhibitory E2 peptides interfere with late HIV-1 entry steps after the engagement of gp120 with CD4 receptor and coreceptor. Binding and competition experiments revealed that the N-terminal E2 peptides bind to the disulfide loop region of HIV-1 transmembrane protein gp41. In conjunction with computational analyses, we identified sequence similarities between the N-termini of GBV-C E2 and the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120. This similarity appears to enable the GBV-C E2 N-terminus to interact with the HIV-1 gp41 disulfide loop, a crucial domain involved in the gp120-gp41 interface. Furthermore, the results of the present study provide initial proof of concept that peptides targeted to the gp41 disulfide loop are able to inhibit HIV fusion and should inspire the development of this new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors. PMID:23349893

  17. Analysis of E2F factors during epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wing Y; Dagnino, Lina

    2005-01-01

    The multigene E2F family of transcription factors is central in the control of cell cycle progression. The expression and activity of E2F proteins is tightly regulated transcriptionally and posttranslationally as a function of the proliferation and differentiation status of the cell. In this chapter, we review protocols designed to determine E2F mRNA abundance in tissues by in situ hybridization techniques. The ability to culture primary epidermal keratinocytes and maintain them as either undifferentiated or terminally differentiated cells allows the biochemical and molecular characterization of changes in E2F expression and activity. Thus, we also discuss in detail methods to analyze E2F protein abundance by immunoblot and their ability to bind DNA in cultured cells using electrophoretic mobility shift assays.

  18. Expression systems for therapeutic glycoprotein production.

    PubMed

    Durocher, Yves; Butler, Michael

    2009-12-01

    There are slightly over 165 recombinant pharmaceuticals currently approved for human use. Another 500 protein candidates are in preclinical and clinical development, about 70% of these being glycosylated proteins. The need for expression systems allowing the efficient manufacturing of high quality glycoproteins is thus becoming imperative. Recent developments with CHO cells, the predominant mammalian expression system, have focused on either increasing cell specific productivity or prolonging the life span of cells in culture that translates to high integrated viable cell densities. These two factors have allowed volumetric productivities in excess of 5 g/L under conditions of controlled nutrient feeding. In addition to glycoengineering strategies, which are offering considerable advantage in producing proteins with enhanced therapeutic properties, several alternative expression systems are being developed for their manufacture, each with their advantages and limitations.

  19. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) regulates kindling epileptogenesis via GABAergic neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Tokudome, Kentaro; Okumura, Takahiro; Shimizu, Saki; Mashimo, Tomoji; Takizawa, Akiko; Serikawa, Tadao; Terada, Ryo; Ishihara, Shizuka; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Sasa, Masashi; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is a prototype synaptic vesicle protein regulating action potential-dependent neurotransmitters release. SV2A also serves as a specific binding site for certain antiepileptics and is implicated in the treatment of epilepsy. Here, to elucidate the role of SV2A in modulating epileptogenesis, we generated a novel rat model (Sv2aL174Q rat) carrying a Sv2a-targeted missense mutation (L174Q) and analyzed its susceptibilities to kindling development. Although animals homozygous for the Sv2aL174Q mutation exhibited normal appearance and development, they are susceptible to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizures. In addition, development of kindling associated with repeated PTZ treatments or focal stimulation of the amygdala was markedly facilitated by the Sv2aL174Q mutation. Neurochemical studies revealed that the Sv2aL174Q mutation specifically reduced depolarization-induced GABA, but not glutamate, release in the hippocampus without affecting basal release or the SV2A expression level in GABAergic neurons. In addition, the Sv2aL174Q mutation selectively reduced the synaptotagmin1 (Syt1) level among the exocytosis-related proteins examined. The present results demonstrate that dysfunction of SV2A due to the Sv2aL174Q mutation impairs the synaptic GABA release by reducing the Syt1 level and facilitates the kindling development, illustrating the crucial role of SV2A-GABA system in modulating kindling epileptogenesis. PMID:27265781

  20. P-glycoprotein in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    García-Carrasco, M; Mendoza-Pinto, C; Macias Díaz, S; Vera-Recabarren, M; Vázquez de Lara, L; Méndez Martínez, S; Soto-Santillán, P; González-Ramírez, R; Ruiz-Arguelles, A

    2015-07-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a transmembrane protein of 170 kD encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR-1) gene, localized on chromosome 7. More than 50 polymorphisms of the MDR-1 gene have been described; a subset of these has been shown to play a pathophysiological role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease, femoral head osteonecrosis induced by steroids, lung cancer and renal epithelial tumors. Polymorphisms that have a protective effect on the development of conditions such as Parkinson disease have also been identified. P-glycoprotein belongs to the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter superfamily and its structure comprises a chain of approximately 1280 aminoacid residues with an N-C terminal structure, arranged as 2 homologous halves, each of which has 6 transmembrane segments, with a total of 12 segments with 2 cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains. Many cytokines like interleukin 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha increase Pgp expression and activity. Pgp functions as an efflux pump for a variety of toxins in order to protect particular organs and tissues as the central nervous system. Pgp transports a variety of substrates including glucocorticoids while other drugs such as tacrolimus and cyclosporine A act as modulators of this protein. The most widely used method to measure Pgp activity is flow cytometry using naturally fluorescent substrates such as anthracyclines or rhodamine 123. The study of drug resistance and its association to Pgp began with the study of resistance to chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer and antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus; however, the role of Pgp in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis has been a focus of study lately and has emerged as an important mechanism by which treatment failure occurs. The present review analyzes the role of Pgp in these autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Binds to E2F1 and Inhibits E2F1-induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Jennifer L.; Fan, Yunxia; Chang, Xiaoqing; Peng, Li; Knudsen, Erik S.; Xia, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Cellular stress by DNA damage induces checkpoint kinase-2 (CHK2)-mediated phosphorylation and stabilization of the E2F1 transcription factor, leading to induction of apoptosis by activation of a subset of proapoptotic E2F1 target genes, including Apaf1 and p73. This report characterizes an interaction between the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, and E2F1 that results in the attenuation of E2F1-mediated apoptosis. In Ahr−/− fibroblasts stably transfected with a doxycycline-regulated AHR expression vector, inhibition of AHR expression causes a significant elevation of oxidative stress, γH2A.X histone phosphorylation, and E2F1-dependent apoptosis, which can be blocked by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of E2F1 expression. In contrast, ligand-dependent AHR activation protects these cells from etoposide-induced cell death. In cells expressing both proteins, AHR and E2F1 interact independently of the retinoblastoma protein (RB), because AHR and E2F1 coimmunoprecipitate from extracts of RB-negative cells. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicate that AHR and E2F1 bind to the Apaf1 promoter at a region containing a consensus E2F1 binding site but no AHR binding sites. AHR activation represses Apaf1 and TAp73 mRNA induction by a constitutively active CHK2 expression vector. Furthermore, AHR overexpression blocks the transcriptional induction of Apaf1 and p73 and the accumulation of sub-G0/G1 cells resulting from ectopic overexpression of E2F1. These results point to a proproliferative, antiapoptotic function of the Ah receptor that likely plays a role in tumor progression. PMID:18524851

  2. Fine Mapping of Murine Antibody Responses to Immunization with a Novel Soluble Form of Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ruwona, Tinashe B.; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E1E2 complex is a candidate vaccine antigen. Previous immunization studies of E1E2 have yielded various results on its ability to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies in animal models and humans. The murine model has become a vital tool for HCV research owing to the development of humanized mice susceptible to HCV infection. In this study, we investigated the antibody responses of mice immunized with E1E2 and a novel soluble form of E1E2 (sE1E2) by a DNA prime and protein boost strategy. The results showed that sE1E2 elicited higher antibody titers and a greater breadth of reactivity than the wild-type cell-associated E1E2. However, immune sera elicited by either immunogen were only weakly neutralizing. In order to understand the contrasting results of binding and serum neutralizing activities, epitopes targeted by the polyclonal antibody responses were mapped and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated. The results showed that the majority of serum antibodies were directed to the E1 region 211 to 250 and the E2 regions 421 to 469, 512 to 539, 568 to 609, and 638 to 651, instead of the well-known immunodominant E2 hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). Unexpectedly, in MAb analysis, ∼12% of MAbs isolated were specific to the conserved E2 antigenic site 412 to 423, and 85% of them cross-neutralized multiple HCV isolates. The epitopes recognized by these MAbs are similar but distinct from the previously reported HCV1 and AP33 broadly neutralizing epitopes. In conclusion, E1E2 can prime B cells specific to conserved neutralizing epitopes, but the levels of serum neutralizing antibodies elicited are insufficient for effective virus neutralization. The sE1E2 constructs described in this study can be a useful template for rational antigen engineering. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus infects 2 to 3% of the world's population and is a leading cause of liver failures and the need for liver transplantation. The virus

  3. Immunomodulatory Effects of Nontoxic Glycoprotein Fraction Isolated from Rice Bran.

    PubMed

    Park, Ho-Young; Yu, A-Reum; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Ha Hyung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Choi, Hee-Don

    2016-05-01

    Rice bran, a by-product of brown rice milling, is a rich source of dietary fiber and protein, and its usage as a functional food is expected to increase. In this study, immunomodulatory effects of glycoprotein obtained from rice bran were studied in normal mice and mouse models of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. We prepared glycoprotein from rice bran by using ammonium precipitation and anion chromatography techniques. Different doses of glycoprotein from rice bran (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days. On day 21, cyclophosphamide at a dose of 100 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally. Glycoprotein from rice bran showed a significant dose-dependent restoration of the spleen index and white blood cell count in the immunocompromised mice. Glycoprotein from rice bran affected the immunomodulatory function by inducing the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes, which produce potential T and B cells. Moreover, it prevented cyclophosphamide-induced damage of Th1-type immunomodulatory function through enhanced secretion of Th1-type cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-12). These results indicate that glycoprotein from rice bran significantly recovered cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Based on these data, it was concluded that glycoprotein from rice bran is a potent immunomodulator and can be developed to recover the immunity of immunocompromised individuals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Recombinant Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Vaccine Elicits Antibodies Targeting Multiple Epitopes on the Envelope Glycoproteins Associated with Broad Cross-Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jason Alexander Ji-Xhin; Bhat, Rakesh; Hockman, Darren; Logan, Michael; Chen, Chao; Levin, Aviad; Frey, Sharon E.; Belshe, Robert B.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although effective hepatitis C virus (HCV) antivirals are on the horizon, a global prophylactic vaccine for HCV remains elusive. The diversity of the virus is a major concern for vaccine development; there are 7 major genotypes of HCV found globally. Therefore, a successful vaccine will need to protect against HCV infection by all genotypes. Despite the diversity, many monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with broadly cross-neutralizing activity have been described, suggesting the presence of conserved epitopes that can be targeted to prevent infection. Similarly, a vaccine comprising recombinant envelope glycoproteins (rE1E2) derived from the genotype 1a HCV-1 strain has been shown to be capable of eliciting cross-neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs, chimpanzees, and healthy human volunteers. In order to investigate the basis for this cross-neutralization, epitope mapping of anti-E1E2 antibodies present within antisera from goats and humans immunized with HCV-1 rE1E2 was conducted through peptide mapping and competition studies with a panel of cross-neutralizing MAbs targeting various epitopes within E1E2. The immunized-goat antiserum was shown to compete with the binding of all MAbs tested (AP33, HC33.4, HC84.26, 1:7, AR3B, AR4A, AR5A, IGH526, and A4). Antisera showed the best competition against HC84.26 and AR3B and the weakest competition against AR4A. Furthermore, antisera from five immunized human vaccinees were shown to compete with five preselected MAbs (AP33, AR3B, AR4A, AR5A, and IGH526). These data show that immunization with HCV-1 rE1E2 elicits antibodies targeting multiple cross-neutralizing epitopes. Our results further support the use of such a vaccine antigen to induce cross-genotype neutralization. IMPORTANCE An effective prophylactic vaccine for HCV is needed for optimal control of the disease burden. The high diversity of HCV has posed a challenge for developing vaccines that elicit neutralizing antibodies for protection against infection

  5. Mutagenesis of the La Crosse Virus glycoprotein supports a role for Gc (1066-1087) as the fusion peptide

    SciT

    Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Graduate Group Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6058; Soldan, Samantha S.

    The La Crosse Virus (LACV) M segment encodes two glycoproteins (Gn and Gc), and plays a critical role in the neuropathogenesis of LACV infection as the primary determinant of neuroinvasion. A recent study from our group demonstrated that the region comprising the membrane proximal two-thirds of Gc, amino acids 860-1442, is critical in mediating LACV fusion and entry. Furthermore, computational analysis identified structural similarities between a portion of this region, amino acids 970-1350, and the E1 fusion protein of two alphaviruses: Sindbis virus and Semliki Forrest virus (SFV). Within the region 970-1350, a 22-amino-acid hydrophobic segment (1066-1087) is predicted tomore » correlate structurally with the fusion peptides of class II fusion proteins. We performed site-directed mutagenesis of key amino acids in this 22-amino acid segment and determined the functional consequences of these mutations on fusion and entry. Several mutations within this hydrophobic domain affected glycoprotein expression to some extent, but all mutations either shifted the pH threshold of fusion below that of the wild-type protein, reduced fusion efficiency, or abrogated cell-to-cell fusion and pseudotype entry altogether. These results, coupled with the aforementioned computational modeling, suggest that the LACV Gc functions as a class II fusion protein and support a role for the region Gc 1066-1087 as a fusion peptide.« less

  6. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system....5420 Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-glycoproteins... alpha-1-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-1 group when subjected to...

  7. AML1 is overexpressed in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and mediates JAK2V617F-independent overexpression of NF-E2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Schwemmers, Sven; Hexner, Elizabeth O.

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor NF-E2 is overexpressed in the majority of patients with polycythemia vera (PV). Concomitantly, 95% of these patients carry the JAK2V617F mutation. Although NF-E2 levels correlate with JAK2V671F allele burden in some PV cohorts, the molecular mechanism causing aberrant NF-E2 expression has not been described. Here we show that NF-E2 expression is also increased in patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis independent of the presence of the JAK2V617F mutation. Characterization of the NF-E2 promoter revealed multiple functional binding sites for AML1/RUNX-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated AML1 binding to the NF-E2 promoter in vivo. Moreover, AML1 binding to the NF-E2 promoter was significantly increased in granulocytes from PV patients compared with healthy controls. AML1 mRNA expression was elevated in patients with PV, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis both in the presence and absence of JAK2V617F. In addition, AML1 and NF-E2 expression were highly correlated. RNAi-mediated suppression of either AML1 or of its binding partner CBF-β significantly decreased NF-E2 expression. Moreover, expression of the leukemic fusion protein AML/ETO drastically decreased NF-E2 protein levels. Our data identify NF-E2 as a novel AML1 target gene and delineate a role for aberrant AML1 expression in mediating elevated NF-E2 expression in MPN patients. PMID:20339092

  8. Quantitative Characterization of Shear-Induced Platelet Receptor Shedding: Glycoprotein Ibα, Glycoprotein VI, and Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zengsheng; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2017-11-07

    The structural integrity of platelet receptors is essential for platelets to play the normal hemostatic function. The high non-physiologic shear stress (NPSS) commonly exists in blood-contacting medical devices and has been shown to cause platelet receptor shedding. The loss of platelet receptors may impair the normal hemostatic function of platelets. The aim of this study was to quantify NPSS-induced shedding of three key receptors on the platelet surface. Human blood was subjected to the matrix of well-defined shear stresses and exposure times, generated by using a custom-designed blood-shearing device. The expression of three key platelet receptors, glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, GPVI, and GPIIb/IIIa, in sheared blood was quantified using flow cytometry. The quantitative relationship between the loss of each of the three receptors on the platelet surface and shear condition (shear stress level and exposure time) was explored. It was found that these relationships followed well the power law functional form. The coefficients of the power law models for the shear-induced shedding of these platelet receptors were derived with coefficients of determination (R) of 0.77, 0.73, and 0.78, respectively. The power law models with these coefficients may be potentially used to predict the shear-induced platelet receptor shedding of human blood.

  9. Sibling rivalry in the E2F family.

    PubMed

    Trimarchi, Jeffrey M; Lees, Jacqueline A

    2002-01-01

    The E2F transcription factor family determines whether or not a cell will divide by controlling the expression of key cell-cycle regulators. The individual E2Fs can be divided into distinct subgroups that act in direct opposition to one another to promote either cellular proliferation or cell-cycle exit and terminal differentiation. What is the underlying molecular basis of this 'push-me-pull-you' regulation, and what are its biological consequences?

  10. Release of colicin E2 from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, A P; Rosenbusch, J P

    1981-07-01

    Treatment of Escherichia coli K-12(ColE2.P9) with 500 ng of mitomycin C per ml resulted in rapid and almost synchronous colicin E2 production. Colicin accumulated outside the cytoplasmic membrane, most probably in the periplasmic space. Colicin release occurred during a period in which the turbidity of the culture declined markedly. Periplasmic alkaline phosphatase was released during the same period, but cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase release was delayed.

  11. Role of the E2 Hypervariable Region (HVR1) in the Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Hepatitis C Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Current evidence supports a protective role for virus-neutralizing antibodies in immunity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Many cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been identified. These antibodies have been shown to provide protection or to clear infection in animal models. Previous clinical trials have shown that a gpE1/gpE2 vaccine can induce antibodies that neutralize the in vitro infectivity of all the major cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) genotypes around the world. However, cross-neutralization appeared to favor certain genotypes, with significant but lower neutralization against others. HCV may employ epitope masking to avoid antibody-mediated neutralization. Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) at the amino terminus of glycoprotein E2 has been shown to restrict access to many neutralizing antibodies. Consistent with this, other groups have reported that recombinant viruses lacking HVR1 are hypersensitive to neutralization. It has been proposed that gpE1/gpE2 lacking this domain could be a better vaccine antigen to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we examined the immunogenicity of recombinant gpE1/gpE2 lacking HVR1 (ΔHVR1). Our results indicate that wild-type (WT) and ΔHVR1 gpE1/gpE2 antigens induced antibodies targeting many well-characterized cross-genotype-neutralizing epitopes. However, while the WT gpE1/gpE2 vaccine can induce cross-genotype protection against various genotypes of HCVcc and/or HCV-pseudotyped virus (HCVpp), antisera from ΔHVR1 gpE1/gpE2-immunized animals exhibited either reduced homologous neutralization activity compared to that of the WT or heterologous neutralization activity similar to that of the WT. These data suggest that ΔHVR1 gpE1/gpE2 is not a superior vaccine antigen. Based on previously reported chimpanzee protection data using WT gpE1/gpE2 and our current findings, we are preparing a combination vaccine including wild-type recombinant gpE1/gpE2 for clinical testing in the

  12. Restoration of glycoprotein Erns dimerization via pseudoreversion partially restores virulence of classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Tucakov, Anna Katharina; Yavuz, Sabine; Schürmann, Eva-Maria; Mischler, Manjula; Klingebeil, Anne; Meyers, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    The classical swine fever virus (CSFV) represents one of the most important pathogens of swine. The CSFV glycoprotein E rns is an essential structural protein and an important virulence factor. The latter is dependent on the RNase activity of this envelope protein and, most likely, its secretion from the infected cell. A further important feature with regard to its function as a virulence factor is the formation of disulfide-linked E rns homodimers that are found in virus-infected cells and virions. Mutant CSFV lacking cysteine (Cys) 171, the residue responsible for intermolecular disulfide bond formation, were found to be attenuated in pigs (Tews BA, Schürmann EM, Meyers G. J Virol 2009;83:4823-4834). In the course of an animal experiment with such a dimerization-negative CSFV mutant, viruses were reisolated from pigs that contained a mutation of serine (Ser) 209 to Cys. This mutation restored the ability to form disulphide-linked E rns homodimers. In transient expression studies E rns mutants carrying the S209C change were found to form homodimers with about wt efficiency. Also the secretion level of the mutated proteins was equivalent to that of wt E rns . Virus mutants containing the Cys171Ser/Ser209Cys configuration exhibited wt growth rates and increased virulence when compared with the Cys171Ser mutant. These results provide further support for the connection between CSFV virulence and E rns dimerization.

  13. The hydroxyapatite-binding regions of a rat salivary glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Embery, G; Green, D R

    1989-09-01

    The regions of a salivary sulphated glycoprotein which are involved in its attachment to hydroxyapatite (Biogel HTP) have been characterised. The sulphated glycoprotein, a 35S-labelled preparation from mixed palatal and buccal minor gland secretions of the rat was bound onto hydroxyapatite and the resultant glycoprotein-hydroxyapatite complex was sequentially digested with pronase E and alpha-L-fucosidase, a treatment which released 86.8% +/- 1.7% of the radioactivity of the initially bound glycoprotein. The fragments which remained attached to the hydroxyapatite after enzymic digestion were fractionated on Sephadex G-25 and analysed for carbohydrate and amino acid components. A range of amino acids were detected which could reflect both glycosylated and non-glycosylated-binding regions. Sialic acid, although considered to be involved in the attachment process was not detected in any of the fragments remaining after enzymic digestion, a finding which provides indirect evidence that the enzymically liberated products do not subsequently re-attach to the hydroxyapatite surface. The notable feature of the fractions with average Mr estimated at 1000 or less is the high proportion of N-acetylhexosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. It is apparent that the hexosamine residues, which normally bear the ester sulphate moieties of sulphated glycoproteins, play an important role in the attachment of sulphated glycoproteins to hydroxyapatite.

  14. Ross River virus mutant with a deletion in the E2 gene: properties of the virion, virus-specific macromolecule synthesis, and attenuation of virulence for mice.

    PubMed

    Vrati, S; Faragher, S G; Weir, R C; Dalgarno, L

    1986-06-01

    A mutant of RRV T48 the prototype strain of Ross River virus has been isolated with a 21-nucleotide deletion in the gene coding for the envelope glycoprotein E2. Direct sequencing of the 26 S subgenomic RNA, together with HaeIII and TaqI restriction digest analysis of cDNA to RNAs from cells infected with the mutant virus (RRV dE2) and with RRV T48, were consistent with the deletion being the only major alteration in the mutant genome. The E2 protein of RRV dE2 virions had a higher electrophoretic mobility than that of RRV T48 E2 protein. Neither RRV dE2 nor RRV T48 virions contained more than trace amounts of E3, the small envelope glycoprotein found in Semliki Forest virus. RRV dE2 generated small plaques on Vero cell monolayers; plaque formation was not temperature-sensitive between 32 and 41 degrees. By comparison with RRV T48 the infectivity of RRV dE2 virions was thermolabile at 50 degrees. In BHK cells RRV dE2 grew with similar kinetics to RRV T48. Rates of synthesis of 26 S RNA and 49 S RNA were higher in cells infected with RRV dE2 than in cells infected with RRV T48. Virus-specific protein synthesis and shut-down of host protein synthesis occurred 2-3 hr earlier in RRV dE2-infected cells than in cells infected with RRV T48. Minor differences between the two viruses were observed in the profiles of virus-specific proteins generated in infected cells. In day-old mice RRV dE2 induced less severe symptoms of hind leg paralysis than did RRV T48. A small increase in LD50 and average survival time was observed in RRV dE2-infected mice by comparison with RRV T48 infected mice. Peak titers reached by RRV dE2 in the hind leg muscle, brain, and blood of day-old mice were 3-4 log units less than the titers reached during infection with RRV T48. In week-old mice the differences in virulence between the two strains were magnified: RRV dE2 induced no detectable symptoms even when injected at high doses (8 X 10(6) PFU) whereas the LD50 and average survival time for RRV T

  15. Microfibril-associated glycoproteins MAGP-1 and MAGP-2 in disease.

    PubMed

    Craft, Clarissa S; Broekelmann, Thomas J; Mecham, Robert P

    2018-03-07

    Microfibril-associated glycoproteins 1 and 2 (MAGP-1, MAGP-2) are protein components of extracellular matrix microfibrils. These proteins interact with fibrillin, the core component of microfibrils, and impart unique biological properties that influence microfibril function in vertebrates. MAGPs bind active forms of TGFβ and BMPs and are capable of modulating Notch signaling. Mutations in MAGP-1 or MAGP-2 have been linked to thoracic aneurysms and metabolic disease in humans. MAGP-2 has also been shown to be an important biomarker in several human cancers. Mice lacking MAGP-1 or MAGP-2 have defects in multiple organ systems, which reflects the widespread distribution of microfibrils in vertebrate tissues. This review summarizes our current understanding of the function of the MAGPs and their relationship to human disease. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dystroglycan and muscular dystrophies related to the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex.

    PubMed

    Sciandra, Francesca; Bozzi, Manuela; Bianchi, Marzia; Pavoni, Ernesto; Giardina, Bruno; Brancaccio, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Dystroglycan (DG) is an adhesion molecule composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, that are produced by the post-translational cleavage of a single precursor molecule. DG is a pivotal component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), which connects the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle and many other tissues. Some muscular dystrophies are caused by mutations of DGC components, such as dystrophin, sarcoglycan or laminin-2, or also of DGC-associated molecules, such as caveolin-3. DG-null mice died during early embriogenesis and no neuromuscular diseases directly associated to genetic abnormalities of DG were identified so far. However, DG plays a crucial role for muscle integrity since its targeting at the sarcolemma is often perturbed in DGC-related neuromuscular disorders.

  17. Intestinal P-glycoprotein inhibitors, benzoxanthone analogues.

    PubMed

    Chae, Song Wha; Lee, Jaeok; Park, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Youngjoo; Na, Younghwa; Lee, Hwa Jeong

    2018-02-01

    The inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which limits an access of exogenous compounds in the luminal membrane of the intestine have been studied to enhance the intestinal P-gp-mediated absorption of anticancer drugs. Inhibition of the efflux pump by synthesized benzoxanthone derivatives was investigated in vitro and in vivo. MCF-7/ADR cell line was used for cytotoxicity assay and [ 3 H]-daunomycin (DNM) accumulation/efflux study. Eight benzoxanthone analogues were tested for their effects on DNM cytotoxicity. Among them, three analogues were selected for the accumulation/efflux and P-gp ATPase studies. Paclitaxel (PTX), a P-gp substrate anticancer drug, was orally administered to rats with/without compound 1 (8,10-bis(thiiran-2-ylmethoxy)-7H-benzo[c]xanthen-7-one). The pharmacokinetic parameters of PTX in the presence/absence of compound 1 were evaluated from the plasma concentration-time profiles. Compound 1 increased the DNA accumulation to 6.5-fold and decreased the DNM efflux to approximately 1/2 in the overexpressing P-gp cell line. Relative bioavailability (RB) of PTX in rats was significantly increased up to 3.2-fold by compound 1 (0.5 or 2 mg/kg). Benzoxanthone analogue, compound 1 is strongly suggested to be a promising inhibitor of P-gp to improve an oral absorption of compounds for cancer therapy. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. A MUB E2 structure reveals E1 selectivity between cognate ubiquitin E2s in eukaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Malley, Konstantin R.; Brenner, Caitlin C.; Koroleva, Olga; Korolev, Sergey; Downes, Brian P.

    2016-08-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) is a protein modifier that controls processes ranging from protein degradation to endocytosis, but early-acting regulators of the three-enzyme ubiquitylation cascade are unknown. Here we report that the prenylated membrane-anchored ubiquitin-fold protein (MUB) is an early-acting regulator of subfamily-specific E2 activation. An AtMUB3:AtUBC8 co-crystal structure defines how MUBs inhibit E2~Ub formation using a combination of E2 backside binding and a MUB-unique lap-bar loop to block E1 access. Since MUBs tether Arabidopsis group VI E2 enzymes (related to HsUbe2D and ScUbc4/5) to the plasma membrane, and inhibit E2 activation at physiological concentrations, they should function as potent plasma membrane localized regulators of Ub chain synthesis in eukaryotes. Our findings define a biochemical function for MUB, a family of highly conserved Ub-fold proteins, and provide an example of selective activation between cognate Ub E2s, previously thought to be constitutively activated by E1s.

  19. Hepatitis C Patient-Derived Glycoproteins Exhibit Marked Differences in Susceptibility to Serum Neutralizing Antibodies: Genetic Subtype Defines Antigenic but Not Neutralization Serotype▿

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, Alexander W.; Urbanowicz, Richard A.; Hamed, Mohamed R.; Albecka, Anna; McClure, C. Patrick; Brown, Richard J. P.; Irving, William L.; Dubuisson, Jean; Ball, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies have a role in controlling hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A successful vaccine will need to elicit potently neutralizing antibodies that are capable of preventing the infection of genetically diverse viral isolates. However, the specificity of the neutralizing antibody response in natural HCV infection still is poorly understood. To address this, we examined the reactivity of polyclonal antibodies isolated from chronic HCV infection to the diverse patient-isolated HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 (E1E2), and we also examined the potential to neutralize the entry of pseudoparticles bearing these diverse E1E2 proteins. The genetic type of the infection was found to determine the pattern of the antibody recognition of these E1E2 proteins, with the greatest reactivity to homologous E1E2 proteins. This relationship was strongest when the component of the antibody response directed only to linear epitopes was analyzed. In contrast, the neutralization serotype did not correlate with genotype. Instead, serum-derived antibodies displayed a range of neutralization breadth and potency, while different E1E2 glycoproteins displayed different sensitivities to neutralization, such that these could be divided broadly into neutralization-sensitive and -resistant phenotypes. An important additional observation was that entry mediated by some E1E2 proteins was enhanced in the presence of some of the polyclonal antibody fractions isolated during chronic infection. These data highlight the need to use diverse E1E2 isolates, which represent extremes of neutralization sensitivity, when screening antibodies for therapeutic potential and for testing antibodies generated following immunization as part of vaccine development. PMID:21325403

  20. Evolutionary and biophysical relationships among the papillomavirus E2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Blakaj, Dukagjin M; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Chen, Zigui; Hegde, Rashmi; Fiser, Andras; Burk, Robert D; Brenowitz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) may result in clinical conditions ranging from benign warts to invasive cancer. The HPV E2 protein represses oncoprotein transcription and is required for viral replication. HPV E2 binds to palindromic DNA sequences of highly conserved four base pair sequences flanking an identical length variable 'spacer'. E2 proteins directly contact the conserved but not the spacer DNA. Variation in naturally occurring spacer sequences results in differential protein affinity that is dependent on their sensitivity to the spacer DNA's unique conformational and/or dynamic properties. This article explores the biophysical character of this core viral protein with the goal of identifying characteristics that associated with risk of virally caused malignancy. The amino acid sequence, 3d structure and electrostatic features of the E2 protein DNA binding domain are highly conserved; specific interactions with DNA binding sites have also been conserved. In contrast, the E2 protein's transactivation domain does not have extensive surfaces of highly conserved residues. Rather, regions of high conservation are localized to small surface patches. Implications to cancer biology are discussed.

  1. E2F4 is required for early eye patterning.

    PubMed

    Ruzhynsky, Vladimir A; Furimsky, Marosh; Park, David S; Wallace, Valerie A; Slack, Ruth S

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, studies reveal novel functions for cell cycle proteins during development. Here, we investigated the role of E2F4 in eye development. E2F4-deficient mouse embryos exhibit severe early eye patterning defects, which are evident from embryonic day 11.5 and characterized by aberrant shape of the optic cup, coloboma as well as abnormal eye pigmentation. Loss of E2F4 is associated with proximal-distal patterning defects in the optic vesicle. These defects are characterized by the expansion of optic stalk marker gene expression to the optic cup and reduced expression of ventral optic cup markers. These defects are associated with a split of Shh expression domain at the ventral midline of the forebrain and expansion of the Shh activity into the ventral optic cup. Despite these patterning defects, early neuronal differentiation and Shh expression in the retina are not affected by E2F4 deletion. Overall, the results of our studies show a novel role of E2F4 in the early eye development. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Revisiting Grodzins systematics of B(E2) values

    DOE PAGES

    Pritychenko, B.; Birch, M.; Singh, B.

    2017-04-03

    Using Grodzins formalism, we analyze systematics of our latest evaluated B(E2) data for all the even–even nuclei in Z=2–104. The analysis indicates a low predictive power of systematics for a large number of cases, and a strong correlation between B(E2) fit values and nuclear structure effects. These findings provide a strong rationale for introduction of individual or elemental (grouped by Z) fit parameters. The current estimates of quadrupole collectivities for systematics of even–even nuclei yield complementary values for comparison with experimental results and theoretical calculations. Furthermore, the lists of fit parameters and predicted B(E2) values are given and possible implicationsmore » are discussed.« less

  3. B (e 2 ;21+→01+) value in 90Kr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régis, J.-M.; Jolie, J.; Saed-Samii, N.; Warr, N.; Pfeiffer, M.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T.; Simpson, G. S.; Drouet, F.; Vancraeyenest, A.; de France, G.; Clément, E.; Stezowski, O.; Ur, C. A.; Urban, W.; Regan, P. H.; Podolyák, Zs.; Larijani, C.; Townsley, C.; Carroll, R.; Wilson, E.; Fraile, L. M.; Mach, H.; Paziy, V.; Olaizola, B.; Vedia, V.; Bruce, A. M.; Roberts, O. J.; Smith, J. F.; Kröll, T.; Hartig, A.-L.; Ignatov, A.; Ilieva, S.; Thürauf, M.; Lalkovski, S.; Ivanova, D.; Kisyov, S.; Korten, W.; Salsac, M.-D.; Zielińska, M.; Mǎrginean, N.; Ghitǎ, D. G.; Licǎ, R.; Petrache, C. M.; Astier, A.; Leguillon, R.

    2014-12-01

    A smooth onset of collectivity in 88 ,92 ,94 ,96Kr has been determined from reported B (E 2 ;21+→01+) and E (21+) values. This is in contrast to the sudden onset in even-even Zr, Mo, and Sr isotopes. Our objective was to complete the systematics by determining the B (E 2 ;21+→01+) value in 90Kr, which was produced by cold-neutron-induced fission of 235U . The lifetime of the 21+ state in 90Kr was measured via the electronic γ -γ timing technique using the EXILL and FATIMA spectrometers. Based on the measured mean lifetime of τ = 15(10) ps, the B (E 2 ;21+→01+) value of 13 -5+26 W.u. in 90Kr is determined for the first time and the smooth onset of deformation in the even-even Kr isotopes beyond neutron number N =50 is confirmed.

  4. pVHL's kryptonite: E2-EPF UCP.

    PubMed

    Ohh, Michael

    2006-08-01

    E2-EPF ubiquitin carrier protein (UCP) is a member of an E2 family of enzymes that catalyzes the ligation of ubiquitin to proteins targeted for destruction by the proteasome. UCP is overexpressed in common human cancers, suggesting its involvement in oncogenesis, but a physiologic target of UCP has not been identified. In a recent report published in Nature Medicine, Jung et al. identified von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein, which targets the alpha subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) for ubiquitin-mediated destruction, as a bona fide substrate of UCP and demonstrated a potential pVHL-HIF pathway-dependent role for UCP in cancer development.

  5. Chimeric Lyssavirus Glycoproteins with Increased Immunological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Jallet, Corinne; Jacob, Yves; Bahloul, Chokri; Drings, Astrid; Desmezieres, Emmanuel; Tordo, Noël; Perrin, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The rabies virus glycoprotein molecule (G) can be divided into two parts separated by a flexible hinge: the NH2 half (site II part) containing antigenic site II up to the linear region (amino acids [aa] 253 to 275 encompassing epitope VI [aa 264]) and the COOH half (site III part) containing antigenic site III and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The structural and immunological roles of each part were investigated by cell transfection and mouse DNA-based immunization with homogeneous and chimeric G genes formed by fusion of the site II part of one genotype (GT) with the site III part of the same or another GT. Various site II-site III combinations between G genes of PV (Pasteur virus strain) rabies (GT1), Mokola (GT3), and EBL1 (European bat lyssavirus 1 [GT5]) viruses were tested. Plasmids pGPV-PV, pGMok-Mok, pGMok-PV, and pGEBL1-PV induced transient expression of correctly transported and folded antigens in neuroblastoma cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies against parental viruses in mice, whereas, pG-PVIII (site III part only) and pGPV-Mok did not. The site III part of PV (GT1) was a strong inducer of T helper cells and was very effective at presenting the site II part of various GTs. Both parts are required for correct folding and transport of chimeric G proteins which have a strong potential value for immunological studies and development of multivalent vaccines. Chimeric plasmid pGEBL1-PV broadens the spectrum of protection against European lyssavirus genotypes (GT1, GT5, and GT6). PMID:9847325

  6. Kunjin Virus Replicon-Based Vaccines Expressing Ebola Virus Glycoprotein GP Protect the Guinea Pig Against Lethal Ebola Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Reynard, O.; Mokhonov, V.; Mokhonova, E.; Leung, J.; Page, A.; Mateo, M.; Pyankova, O.; Georges-Courbot, M. C.; Raoul, H.; Khromykh, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Pre- or postexposure treatments against the filoviral hemorrhagic fevers are currently not available for human use. We evaluated, in a guinea pig model, the immunogenic potential of Kunjin virus (KUN)–derived replicons as a vaccine candidate against Ebola virus (EBOV). Virus like particles (VLPs) containing KUN replicons expressing EBOV wild-type glycoprotein GP, membrane anchor-truncated GP (GP/Ctr), and mutated GP (D637L) with enhanced shedding capacity were generated and assayed for their protective efficacy. Immunization with KUN VLPs expressing full-length wild-type and D637L-mutated GPs but not membrane anchor–truncated GP induced dose-dependent protection against a challenge of a lethal dose of recombinant guinea pig-adapted EBOV. The surviving animals showed complete clearance of the virus. Our results demonstrate the potential for KUN replicon vectors as vaccine candidates against EBOV infection. PMID:21987742

  7. Random phage mimotopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies against the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2).

    PubMed Central

    Cha, S; Leung, P S; Van de Water, J; Tsuneyama, K; Joplin, R E; Ansari, A A; Nakanuma, Y; Schatz, P J; Cwirla, S; Fabris, L E; Neuberger, J M; Gershwin, M E; Coppel, R L

    1996-01-01

    Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), is the autoantigen most commonly recognized by autoantibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We identified a peptide mimotope(s) of PDC-E2 by screening a phage-epitope library expressing random dodecapeptides in the pIII coat protein of fd phage using C355.1, a murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes a conformation-dependent epitope in the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 and uniquely stains the apical region of bile duct epithelium (BDE) only in patients with PBC. Eight different sequences were identified in 36 phage clones. WMSYPDRTLRTS was present in 29 clones; WESYPFRVGTSL, APKTYVSVSGMV, LTYVSLQGRQGH, LDYVPLKHRHRH, AALWGVKVRHVS, KVLNRIMAGVRH and GNVALVSSRVNA were singly represented. Three common amino acid motifs (W-SYP, TYVS, and VRH) were shared among all peptide sequences. Competitive inhibition of the immunohistochemical staining of PBC BDE was performed by incubating the peptides WMSYPDRTLRTS, WESYPDRTLRTS, APKTYVSVSGMV, and AALWGVKVRHVS with either C355.1 or a second PDC-E2-specific mAb, C150.1. Both mAbs were originally generated to PDC-E2 but map to distinct regions of PDC-E2. Two of the peptides, although selected by reaction with C355.1, strongly inhibited the staining of BDE by C150.1, whereas the peptide APKTYVSVSGMV consistently inhibited the staining of C355.1 on biliary duct epithelium more strongly than the typical mitochondrial staining of hepatocytes. Rabbit sera raised against the peptide WMSYPDRTLRTS stained BDE of livers and isolated bile duct epithelial cells of PBC patients more intensively than controls. The rabbit sera stained all size ducts in normals, but only small/medium-sized ductules in PBC livers. These studies provide evidence that the antigen present in BDE is a molecular mimic of PDC-E2, and not PDC-E2 itself. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855289

  8. Recovery of Recombinant Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Reveals a Function for Non-structural Glycoproteins Cleavage by Furin.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Zivcec, Marko; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Nichol, Stuart T; Albariño, César G; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2015-05-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a negative-strand RNA virus of the family Bunyaviridae (genus: Nairovirus). In humans, CCHFV causes fever, hemorrhage, severe thrombocytopenia, and high fatality. A major impediment in precisely determining the basis of CCHFV's high pathogenicity has been the lack of methodology to produce recombinant CCHFV. We developed a reverse genetics system based on transfecting plasmids into BSR-T7/5 and Huh7 cells. In our system, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase produced complementary RNA copies of the viral S, M, and L segments that were encapsidated with the support, in trans, of CCHFV nucleoprotein and L polymerase. The system was optimized to systematically recover high yields of infectious CCHFV. Additionally, we tested the ability of the system to produce specifically designed CCHFV mutants. The M segment encodes a polyprotein that is processed by host proprotein convertases (PCs), including the site-1 protease (S1P) and furin-like PCs. S1P and furin cleavages are necessary for producing the non-structural glycoprotein GP38, while S1P cleavage yields structural Gn. We studied the role of furin cleavage by rescuing a recombinant CCHFV encoding a virus glycoprotein precursor lacking a functional furin cleavage motif (RSKR mutated to ASKA). The ASKA mutation blocked glycoprotein precursor's maturation to GP38, and Gn precursor's maturation to Gn was slightly diminished. Furin cleavage was not essential for replication, as blocking furin cleavage resulted only in transient reduction of CCHFV titers, suggesting that either GP38 and/or decreased Gn maturation accounted for the reduced virion production. Our data demonstrate that nairoviruses can be produced by reverse genetics, and the utility of our system uncovered a function for furin cleavage. This viral rescue system could be further used to study the CCHFV replication cycle and facilitate the development of efficacious vaccines to counter this biological and public

  9. Recovery of Recombinant Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Reveals a Function for Non-structural Glycoproteins Cleavage by Furin

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Éric; Zivcec, Marko; Chakrabarti, Ayan K.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Albariño, César G.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.

    2015-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a negative-strand RNA virus of the family Bunyaviridae (genus: Nairovirus). In humans, CCHFV causes fever, hemorrhage, severe thrombocytopenia, and high fatality. A major impediment in precisely determining the basis of CCHFV’s high pathogenicity has been the lack of methodology to produce recombinant CCHFV. We developed a reverse genetics system based on transfecting plasmids into BSR-T7/5 and Huh7 cells. In our system, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase produced complementary RNA copies of the viral S, M, and L segments that were encapsidated with the support, in trans, of CCHFV nucleoprotein and L polymerase. The system was optimized to systematically recover high yields of infectious CCHFV. Additionally, we tested the ability of the system to produce specifically designed CCHFV mutants. The M segment encodes a polyprotein that is processed by host proprotein convertases (PCs), including the site-1 protease (S1P) and furin-like PCs. S1P and furin cleavages are necessary for producing the non-structural glycoprotein GP38, while S1P cleavage yields structural Gn. We studied the role of furin cleavage by rescuing a recombinant CCHFV encoding a virus glycoprotein precursor lacking a functional furin cleavage motif (RSKR mutated to ASKA). The ASKA mutation blocked glycoprotein precursor’s maturation to GP38, and Gn precursor’s maturation to Gn was slightly diminished. Furin cleavage was not essential for replication, as blocking furin cleavage resulted only in transient reduction of CCHFV titers, suggesting that either GP38 and/or decreased Gn maturation accounted for the reduced virion production. Our data demonstrate that nairoviruses can be produced by reverse genetics, and the utility of our system uncovered a function for furin cleavage. This viral rescue system could be further used to study the CCHFV replication cycle and facilitate the development of efficacious vaccines to counter this biological and public

  10. Deglycosylated Filovirus Glycoproteins as Effective Vaccine Immunogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    pre-fusion 119 EBOV GP1,2 ΔTM structure ( PDB ID: 3CSY) that lacks the MLD was performed as previously 120 described (22, 23). Briefly, the published... structure lacks four NGS in GP1 due to disordered 121 regions missing from the structure (N204 and N296) or mutations that promoted crystallization...122 (N40 and N228) (20, 21). The EBOV GP sequence was submitted to the PHYRE2 protein fold 123 recognition server (16), which provided a structure

  11. Relationship between SU Subdomains That Regulate the Receptor-Mediated Transition from the Native (Fusion-Inhibited) to the Fusion-Active Conformation of the Murine Leukemia Virus Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Lavillette, Dimitri; Ruggieri, Alessia; Boson, Bertrand; Maurice, Marielle; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2002-01-01

    Envelope glycoproteins (Env) of retroviruses are trimers of SU (surface) and TM (transmembrane) heterodimers and are expressed on virions in fusion-competent forms that are likely to be metastable. Activation of the viral receptor-binding domain (RBD) via its interaction with a cell surface receptor is thought to initiate a cascade of events that lead to refolding of the Env glycoprotein into its stable fusion-active conformation. While the fusion-active conformation of the TM subunit has been described in detail for several retroviruses, little is known about the fusion-competent structure of the retroviral glycoproteins or the molecular events that mediate the transition between the two conformations. By characterizing Env chimeras between the ecotropic and amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) SUs as well as a set of point mutants, we show that alterations of the conformation of the SU glycoprotein strongly elevate Env fusogenicity by disrupting the stability of the Env complex. Compensatory mutations that restored both Env stability and fusion control were also identified, allowing definition of interactions within the Env complex that maintain the stability of the native Env complex. We show that, in the receptor-unbound form, structural interactions between the N terminus of the viral RBD (NTR domain), the proline-rich region (PRR), and the distal part of the C-terminal domain of the SU subunit maintain a conformation of the glycoprotein that is fusion inhibitory. Additionally, we identified mutations that disrupt this fusion-inhibitory conformation and allow fusion activation in the absence of viral receptors, provided that receptor-activated RBD fragments are added in trans during infection. Other mutations were identified that allow fusion activation in the absence of receptors for both the viral glycoprotein and the trans-acting RBD. Finally, we found mutations of the SU that bypass in cis the requirement for the NTR domain in fusion activation. All

  12. Protein and glycoprotein content of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV).

    PubMed

    García-Rosado, Esther; Castro, Dolores; Cano, Irene; Alonso, M Carmen; Pérez-Prieto, Sara I; Borrego, Juan J

    2004-06-01

    The polypeptide and glycoprotein composition of eight strains of the fish-pathogenic lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) isolated from gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata), blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo), and sole (Solea senegalensis) were determined. The protein electrophoretic patterns of all LCDV isolates were quite similar regardless of the host fish, showing two major proteins (79.9 and 55.6 kDa) and a variable number of minor proteins. Three groups of LCDV isolates were distinguished according to the number and molecular masses of the minor proteins. Eight glycoproteins were detected inside viral particles of LCDV 2, LCDV 3 and LCDV 5 isolates, but only seven glycoproteins were found inside viral particles of LCDV 1, LCDV 4, LCDV 6, LCDV 7, and LCDV 11 isolates and the reference virus ATCC VR 342 by using five lectins. LCDV glycoproteins were mainly composed of mannose and sialic acid. These glycoproteins could be part of an external viral envelope probably derived from the host cell membrane.

  13. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For rules...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For rules...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For rules...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DREDGING AND DISPOSAL (E2-D2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Effects of Dredging and Disposal" ("E2-D2") searchable database of published reports and studies about environmental impacts associated with dredging and disposal operations. Many of the reports and studies are ava...

  17. Prostaglandin E2 Regulation of Chondrocyte Proliferation and Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    lipopolysaccharide- and TNF-induced cartilage breakdown in bovine nasal cartilage(121’. The use of medications that modulate PGE2 production may have an adverse...Levine, P. Goldhaber. 1972. Evidence that the bone resorption stimulating factor produced by mouse fibrosarcoma cells is prostaglandin E2. J. Exp. Med

  18. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-2 - Contribution base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contribution base. 31.3231(e)-2 Section 31.3231... Contribution base. The term compensation does not include any remuneration paid during any calendar year by an employer to an employee for services rendered in excess of the applicable contribution base. For rules...

  19. A molecular model for cocaine binding by the immunotherapeutic human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody 2E2.

    PubMed

    Lape, Michael; Paula, Stefan; Ball, William J

    2010-06-01

    Immunotherapy by cocaine-binding monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of cocaine addiction. The human (gamma1 heavy chain)/murine (lambda light chain) chimeric mAb 2E2 has excellent affinity and specificity for cocaine and recent animal studies have demonstrated 2E2's ability in vivo to reduce cocaine levels in the brain as well as alter cocaine self-administration behavior in rats. In this study, we used mAb 2E2 amino acid sequence information to create a homology model for the 3-D structure of its Fv fragment. Subsequent computational docking studies revealed the intermolecular interactions potentially responsible for mAb 2E2's cocaine binding properties. The driving force of cocaine binding was identified as a combination of hydrophobic interactions and a single hydrogen bond between a light chain tyrosine residue and a carbonyl oxygen atom of cocaine. The model also allowed for an in silico evaluation of single/double residue mutations in the heavy and light chain variable regions that might further enhance mAb 2E2's cocaine binding properties. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A Molecular Model for Cocaine Binding by the Immunotherapeutic Human/Mouse Chimeric Monoclonal Antibody 2E2

    PubMed Central

    Lape, Michael; Paula, Stefan; Ball, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Immunotherapy by cocaine-binding monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of cocaine addiction. The human (γ1 heavy chain)/murine (λ light chain) chimeric mAb 2E2 has excellent affinity and specificity for cocaine and recent animal studies have demonstrated 2E2’s ability in vivo to reduce cocaine levels in the brain as well as alter cocaine self-administration behavior in rats. In this study, we used mAb 2E2 amino acid sequence information to create a homology model for the 3-D structure of its Fv fragment. Subsequent computational docking studies revealed the intermolecular interactions potentially responsible for mAb 2E2’s cocaine binding properties. The driving force of cocaine binding was identified as a combination of hydrophobic interactions and a single hydrogen bond between a light chain tyrosine residue and a carbonyl oxygen atom of cocaine. The model also allowed for an in silico evaluation of single/double residue mutations in the heavy and light chain variable regions that might further enhance mAb 2E2’s cocaine binding properties. PMID:20185210

  1. Prediction and identification of potential immunodominant epitopes in glycoproteins B, C, E, G, and I of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mingjie; Wang, Xingsheng; Liao, Jianmin; Yin, Dengke; Li, Suqin; Pan, Ying; Wang, Yao; Xie, Guangyan; Zhang, Shumin; Li, Yuexi

    2012-01-01

    Twenty B candidate epitopes of glycoproteins B (gB2), C (gC2), E (gE2), G (gG2), and I (gI2) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were predicted using DNAstar, Biosun, and Antheprot methods combined with the polynomial method. Subsequently, the biological functions of the peptides were tested via experiments in vitro. Among the 20 epitope peptides, 17 could react with the antisera to the corresponding parent proteins in the EIA tests. In particular, five peptides, namely, gB2(466-473) (EQDRKPRN), gC2(216-223) (GRTDRPSA), gE2(483-491) (DPPERPDSP), gG2(572-579) (EPPDDDDS), and gI2(286-295) (CRRRYRRPRG) had strong reaction with the antisera. All conjugates of the five peptides with the carrier protein BSA could stimulate mice into producing antibodies. The antisera to these peptides reacted strongly with the corresponding parent glycoproteins during the Western Blot tests, and the peptides reacted strongly with the antibodies against the parent glycoproteins during the EIA tests. The antisera against the five peptides could neutralize HSV-2 infection in vitro, which has not been reported until now. These results suggest that the immunodominant epitopes screened using software algorithms may be used for virus diagnosis and vaccine design against HSV-2.

  2. Immunogold detection of glycoprotein antigens in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Benson, N C; Benson, S C; Wilt, F

    1989-01-01

    Four developmental stages of sea urchin embryos were labeled with colloidal gold in an attempt to elucidate the intracellular trafficking patterns within the cells that produce the glycoprotein matrix of the embryonic spicule. The primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) form a syncytium and secrete an organic matrix on which calcium carbonate is laid down to form an endoskeletal spicule. The organic matrix has been isolated and characterized as glycoprotein consisting of four major bands. Polyclonal antibodies to these glycoproteins were used to label embryos from the mesenchyme blastula, early gastrula, late gastrula, and plutei stages of development. The label is concentrated in the Golgi complex and associated vesicles, in secretory vesicles, and in the organic matrix. The density of the labeling increases as development proceeds.

  3. CHAPTER 7: Glycoprotein Enrichment Analytical Techniques: Advantages and Disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rui; Zacharias, Lauren; Wooding, Kerry M.; Peng, Wenjing; Mechref, Yehia

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications. Numerous biological functions are related to protein glycosylation. However, analytical challenges remain in the glycoprotein analysis. To overcome the challenges associated with glycoprotein analysis, many analytical techniques were developed in recent years. Enrichment methods were used to improve the sensitivity of detection while HPLC and mass spectrometry methods were developed to facilitate the separation of glycopeptides/proteins and enhance detection, respectively. Fragmentation techniques applied in modern mass spectrometers allow the structural interpretation of glycopeptides/proteins while automated software tools started replacing manual processing to improve the reliability and throughout of the analysis. In this chapter, the current methodologies of glycoprotein analysis were discussed. Multiple analytical techniques are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of each technique are highlighted. PMID:28109440

  4. Systematic Analysis of Intracellular Trafficking Motifs Located within the Cytoplasmic Domain of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Glycoprotein gp41

    PubMed Central

    Postler, Thomas S.; Bixby, Jacqueline G.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.; Yuste, Eloísa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that truncation of the cytoplasmic-domain sequences of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) just prior to a potential intracellular-trafficking signal of the sequence YIHF can strongly increase Env protein expression on the cell surface, Env incorporation into virions and, at least in some contexts, virion infectivity. Here, all 12 potential intracellular-trafficking motifs (YXXΦ or LL/LI/IL) in the gp41 cytoplasmic domain (gp41CD) of SIVmac239 were analyzed by systematic mutagenesis. One single and 7 sequential combination mutants in this cytoplasmic domain were characterized. Cell-surface levels of Env were not significantly affected by any of the mutations. Most combination mutations resulted in moderate 3- to 8-fold increases in Env incorporation into virions. However, mutation of all 12 potential sites actually decreased Env incorporation into virions. Variant forms with 11 or 12 mutated sites exhibited 3-fold lower levels of inherent infectivity, while none of the other single or combination mutations that were studied significantly affected the inherent infectivity of SIVmac239. These minor effects of mutations in trafficking motifs form a stark contrast to the strong increases in cell-surface expression and Env incorporation which have previously been reported for large truncations of gp41CD. Surprisingly, mutation of potential trafficking motifs in gp41CD of SIVmac316, which differs by only one residue from gp41CD of SIVmac239, effectively recapitulated the increases in Env incorporation into virions observed with gp41CD truncations. Our results indicate that increases in Env surface expression and virion incorporation associated with truncation of SIVmac239 gp41CD are not fully explained by loss of consensus trafficking motifs. PMID:25479017

  5. Square-wave voltammetry assays for glycoproteins on nanoporous gold

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Binod; Bhattarai, Jay K.; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Fujikawa, Kohki; Catania, Rosa; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Stine, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical enzyme-linked lectinsorbent assays (ELLA) were developed using nanoporous gold (NPG) as a solid support for protein immobilization and as an electrode for the electrochemical determination of the product of the reaction between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and p-aminophenyl phosphate (p-APP), which is p-aminophenol (p-AP). Glycoproteins or concanavalin A (Con A) and ALP conjugates were covalently immobilized onto lipoic acid self-assembled monolayers on NPG. The binding of Con A – ALP (or soybean agglutinin – ALP) conjugate to glycoproteins covalently immobilized on NPG and subsequent incubation with p-APP substrate was found to result in square-wave voltammograms whose peak difference current varied with the identity of the glycoprotein. NPG presenting covalently bound glycoproteins was used as the basis for a competitive electrochemical assay for glycoproteins in solution (transferrin and IgG). A kinetic ELLA based on steric hindrance of the enzyme-substrate reaction and hence reduced enzymatic reaction rate after glycoprotein binding is demonstrated using immobilized Con A–ALP conjugates. Using the immobilized Con A-ALP conjugate, the binding affinity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found to be 105 nM, and that for transferrin was found to be 650 nM. Minimal interference was observed in the presence of 5 mg mL−1 BSA as a model serum protein in both the kinetic and competitive ELLA. Inhibition studies were performed with methyl D-mannoside for the binding of TSF and IgG to Con A-ALP; IC50 values were found to be 90 μM and 286 μM, respectively. Surface coverages of proteins were estimated using solution depletion and the BCA protein concentration assay. PMID:24611035

  6. Tuning orb spider glycoprotein glue performance to habitat humidity.

    PubMed

    Opell, Brent D; Jain, Dharamdeep; Dhinojwala, Ali; Blackledge, Todd A

    2018-03-26

    Orb-weaving spiders use adhesive threads to delay the escape of insects from their webs until the spiders can locate and subdue the insects. These viscous threads are spun as paired flagelliform axial fibers coated by a cylinder of solution derived from the aggregate glands. As low molecular mass compounds (LMMCs) in the aggregate solution attract atmospheric moisture, the enlarging cylinder becomes unstable and divides into droplets. Within each droplet an adhesive glycoprotein core condenses. The plasticity and axial line extensibility of the glycoproteins are maintained by hygroscopic LMMCs. These compounds cause droplet volume to track changes in humidity and glycoprotein viscosity to vary approximately 1000-fold over the course of a day. Natural selection has tuned the performance of glycoprotein cores to the humidity of a species' foraging environment by altering the composition of its LMMCs. Thus, species from low-humidity habits have more hygroscopic threads than those from humid forests. However, at their respective foraging humidities, these species' glycoproteins have remarkably similar viscosities, ensuring optimal droplet adhesion by balancing glycoprotein adhesion and cohesion. Optimal viscosity is also essential for integrating the adhesion force of multiple droplets. As force is transferred to a thread's support line, extending droplets draw it into a parabolic configuration, implementing a suspension bridge mechanism that sums the adhesive force generated over the thread span. Thus, viscous capture threads extend an orb spider's phenotype as a highly integrated complex of large proteins and small molecules that function as a self-assembling, highly tuned, environmentally responsive, adhesive biomaterial. Understanding the synergistic role of chemistry and design in spider adhesives, particularly the ability to stick in wet conditions, provides insight in designing synthetic adhesives for biomedical applications. © 2018. Published by The Company of

  7. Hepatitis C Virus E2 Protein Induces Upregulation of IL-8 Pathways and Production of Heat Shock Proteins in Human Thyroid Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammerstad, Sara Salehi; Stefan, Mihaela; Blackard, Jason; Owen, Randall P; Lee, Hanna J; Concepcion, Erlinda; Yi, Zhengzi; Zhang, Weijia; Tomer, Yaron

    2017-02-01

    Thyroiditis is one of the most common extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. By binding to surface cell receptor CD81, HCV envelope glycoprotein E2 mediates entry of HCV into cells. Studies have shown that different viral proteins may individually induce host responses to infection. We hypothesized that HCV E2 protein binding to CD81 expressed on thyroid cells activates a cascade of inflammatory responses that can trigger autoimmune thyroiditis in susceptible individuals. Human thyroid cell lines ML-1 and human thyrocytes in primary cell culture were treated with HCV recombinant E2 protein. The expression of major proinflammatory cytokines was measured at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Next-generation transcriptome analysis was used to identify early changes in gene expression in thyroid cells induced by E2. HCV envelope protein E2 induced strong inflammatory responses in human thyrocytes, resulting in production of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, the E2 protein induced production of several heat shock proteins including HSP60, HSP70p12A, and HSP10, in human primary thyrocytes. In thyroid cell line ML-1, RNA sequencing identified upregulation of molecules involved in innate immune pathways with high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and increased expression of costimulatory molecules, specifically CD40, known to be a major thyroid autoimmunity gene. Our data support a key role for HCV envelope protein E2 in triggering thyroid autoimmunity through activation of cytokine pathways by bystander mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  8. Three-Dimensionally Functionalized Reverse Phase Glycoprotein Array for Cancer Biomarker Discovery and Validation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li; Aguilar, Hillary Andaluz; Wang, Linna; Iliuk, Anton; Tao, W Andy

    2016-11-30

    Glycoproteins have vast structural diversity that plays an important role in many biological processes and have great potential as disease biomarkers. Here, we report a novel functionalized reverse phase protein array (RPPA), termed polymer-based reverse phase glycoprotein array (polyGPA), to capture and profile glycoproteomes specifically, and validate glycoproteins. Nitrocellulose membrane functionalized with globular hydroxyaminodendrimers was used to covalently capture preoxidized glycans on glycoproteins from complex protein samples such as biofluids. The captured glycoproteins were subsequently detected using the same validated antibodies as in RPPA. We demonstrated the outstanding specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capabilities of polyGPA by capturing and detecting purified as well as endogenous α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in human plasma. We further applied quantitative N-glycoproteomics and the strategy to validate a panel of glycoproteins identified as potential biomarkers for bladder cancer by analyzing urine glycoproteins from bladder cancer patients or matched healthy individuals.

  9. Chang'e-2 spacecraft observations of asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianghui; Jiang, Yun; Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Su; Yu, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 completed a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 meters from the asteroid's surface. The observations show that Toutatis has an irregular surface and its shape resembles a ginger-root of a smaller lobe (head) and a larger lobe (body). Such bilobate shape is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis. In addition, the high-resolution images better than 3 meters provide a number of new discoveries about this asteroid, such as an 800-meter depression at the end of the large lobe, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, boulders, indicating that Toutatis is probably a rubble-pile asteroid. Chang'e-2 observations have significantly revealed new insights into the geological features and the formation and evolution of this asteroid. In final, we brief the future Chinese asteroid mission concept.

  10. Recoding structural glycoprotein E2 in classical swine fever virus (CSFV) produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) involves vaccination in endemic regions and preemptive slaughter of infected swine herds during epidemics. Generally, live attenuated vaccines induce solid immunity. Using diverse approaches, reverse genetics has been useful in developing classical swine fever...

  11. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Zachary D.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    Testing has been conducted on Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs)-E2 at NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) project. This testing has been conducted to understand sensitivities of convertor parameters due to environmental and operational changes during operation of the ASRG in missions to space. This paper summarizes test results and explains the operation of the ASRG during space missions

  12. Formulation of Ames 24E2 IR-black coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sheldon M.

    1991-01-01

    The formulation of Ames 24E2 IR-black coating and a rationale for the selection of its components are given. The objective was to make a very rough, very thick, and highly absorbing coating to attenuate the specular reflectance of telescope baffles at far-IR wavelengths. Application and curing instructions are also given. Outgassing measurements are quite low following a 24-hour radiative cure.

  13. Retention of glucose units added by the UDP-GLC:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase delays exit of glycoproteins from the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that the UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase, an endoplasmic reticulum enzyme that only glucosylates improperly folded glycoproteins forming protein-linked Glc1Man7-9-GlcNAc2 from the corresponding unglucosylated species, participates together with lectin- like chaperones that recognize monoglucosylated oligosaccharides in the control mechanism by which cells only allow passage of properly folded glycoproteins to the Golgi apparatus. Trypanosoma cruzi cells were used to test this model as in trypanosomatids addition of glucosidase inhibitors leads to the accumulation of only monoglucosylated oligosaccharides, their formation being catalyzed by the UDP- Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase. In all other eukaryotic cells the inhibitors produce underglycosylation of proteins and/or accumulation of oliogosaccharides containing two or three glucose units. Cruzipain, a lysosomal proteinase having three potential N-glycosylation sites, two at the catalytic domain and one at the COOH-terminal domain, was isolated in a glucosylated form from cells grown in the presence of the glucosidase II inhibitor 1-deoxynojirimycin. The oligosaccharides present at the single glycosylation site of the COOH-terminal domain were glucosylated in some cruzipain molecules but not in others, this result being consistent with an asynchronous folding of glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. In spite of not affecting cell growth rate or the cellular general metabolism in short and long term incubations, 1-deoxynojirimycin caused a marked delay in the arrival of cruzipain to lysosomes. These results are compatible with the model proposed by which monoglucosylated glycoproteins may be transiently retained in the endoplasmic reticulum by lectin-like anchors recognizing monoglucosylated oligosaccharides. PMID:7642696

  14. The chaotrope-soluble glycoprotein GP1 is a constituent of the insoluble glycoprotein framework of the Chlamydomonas cell wall.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Jürgen; Frank, Ronald; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2009-02-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii wild-type cells are surrounded by the insoluble cell wall component, a sac-like framework of cross-linked glycoproteins containing 22% hydroxyproline. The chaotrope-soluble cell wall glycoprotein GP1 is the only polypeptide with an even higher proportion of hydroxyproline (35%) occurring in vegetative C. reinhardtii cells. Mass spectrometric analyses of peptides released from the purified insoluble cell wall fraction by trypsin treatment and epitope analyses of polyclonal antibodies raised against different deglycosylation products of this particular wall fraction using 181 chemically synthesized GP1-derived pentadecapeptides revealed evidence that GP1 is indeed a constituent of the insoluble wall component.

  15. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5440 Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein III... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5430 Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein I... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system...

  17. Apolipoprotein E Likely Contributes to a Maturation Step of Infectious Hepatitis C Virus Particles and Interacts with Viral Envelope Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Young; Acosta, Eliana G.; Stoeck, Ina Karen; Long, Gang; Hiet, Marie-Sophie; Mueller, Birthe; Fackler, Oliver T.; Kallis, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The assembly of infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles is tightly linked to components of the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) pathway. We and others have shown that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays a major role in production of infectious HCV particles. However, the mechanism by which ApoE contributes to virion assembly/release and how it gets associated with the HCV particle is poorly understood. We found that knockdown of ApoE reduces titers of infectious intra- and extracellular HCV but not of the related dengue virus. ApoE depletion also reduced amounts of extracellular HCV core protein without affecting intracellular core amounts. Moreover, we found that ApoE depletion affected neither formation of nucleocapsids nor their envelopment, suggesting that ApoE acts at a late step of assembly, such as particle maturation and infectivity. Importantly, we demonstrate that ApoE interacts with the HCV envelope glycoproteins, most notably E2. This interaction did not require any other viral proteins and depended on the transmembrane domain of E2 that also was required for recruitment of HCV envelope glycoproteins to detergent-resistant membrane fractions. These results suggest that ApoE plays an important role in HCV particle maturation, presumably by direct interaction with viral envelope glycoproteins. IMPORTANCE The HCV replication cycle is tightly linked to host cell lipid pathways and components. This is best illustrated by the dependency of HCV assembly on lipid droplets and the VLDL component ApoE. Although the role of ApoE for production of infectious HCV particles is well established, it is still poorly understood how ApoE contributes to virion formation and how it gets associated with HCV particles. Here, we provide experimental evidence that ApoE likely is required for an intracellular maturation step of HCV particles. Moreover, we demonstrate that ApoE associates with the viral envelope glycoproteins. This interaction appears to be dispensable

  18. Carbohydrate moieties of myelin-associated glycoprotein, major glycoprotein of the peripheral nervous system myelin and other myelin glycoproteins potentially involved in cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Badache, A; Burger, D; Villarroya, H; Robert, Y; Kuchler, S; Steck, A J; Zanetta, J P

    1992-01-01

    The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and the major glycoprotein of the peripheral nervous system myelin (P0) are two members of the family of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). A role in cell adhesion of the carbohydrate moiety of these molecules has been attributed to the presence of N-glycans bearing the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope. On the other hand, it has been suggested that these glycoproteins could be ligands of an endogenous mannose-binding lectin present in myelin, the cerebellar soluble lectin (CSL). In order to further document the heterogeneity of the glycans of these two CAMs, we have used several probes: an anti-carbohydrate antibody of the HNK-1 type, called Elec-39, the plant lectin concanavalin A (ConA), and the endogenous lectin CSL involved in myelin compaction. This study shows that CSL binds to a small proportion of the polypeptide chains of MAG found in adult CNS of rats and man and the polypeptide chains of P0 molecules from adult human and rat sciatic nerve. For MAG from adult rat brain, the binding of CSL is restricted to glycans of polypeptide chains which could be separated from the others according to their solubility properties. These MAG molecular entities react also with the Elec-39 antibody and with ConA. These results confirm that P0 and MAG are heterogeneous in their carbohydrate moieties.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Cooperative role of calnexin and TigA in Aspergillus oryzae glycoprotein folding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Seko, Akira; Takeda, Yoichi; Kikuma, Takashi; Ito, Yukishige

    2015-10-01

    Calnexin (CNX), known as a lectin chaperone located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), specifically recognizes G1M9GN2-proteins and facilitates their proper folding with the assistance of ERp57 in mammalian cells. However, it has been left unidentified how CNX works in Aspergillus oryzae, which is a filamentous fungus widely exploited in biotechnology. In this study, we found that a protein disulfide isomerase homolog TigA can bind with A. oryzae CNX (AoCNX), which was revealed to specifically recognize monoglucosylated glycans, similarly to CNX derived from other species, and accelerate the folding of G1M9GN2-ribonuclease (RNase) in vitro. For refolding experiments, a homogeneous monoglucosylated high-mannose-type glycoprotein G1M9GN2-RNase was chemoenzymatically synthesized from G1M9GN-oxazoline and GN-RNase. Denatured G1M9GN2-RNase was refolded with highest efficiency in the presence of both soluble form of AoCNX and TigA. TigA contains two thioredoxin domains with CGHC motif, mutation analysis of which revealed that the one in N-terminal regions is involved in binding to AoCNX, while the other in catalyzing protein refolding. The results suggested that in glycoprotein folding process of A. oryzae, TigA plays a similar role as ERp57 in mammalian cells, as a partner protein of AoCNX. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Structure of the buffalo secretory signalling glycoprotein at 2.8 Å resolution

    SciT

    Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Srivastava, Devendra B.; Kumar, Janesh

    2007-04-01

    The crystal structure of a signalling glycoprotein isolated from buffalo dry secretions (SPB-40) has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Two unique residues, Tyr120 and Glu269, found in SPB-40 distort the shape of the sugar-binding groove considerably. The water structure in the groove is also different. The conformations of three flexible loops, His188–His197, Phe202–Arg212 and Tyr244–Pro260, also differ from those found in other structurally similar proteins. The crystal structure of a 40 kDa signalling glycoprotein from buffalo (SPB-40) has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution. SPB-40 acts as a protective signalling factor by binding to viable cells during the earlymore » phase of involution, during which extensive tissue remodelling occurs. It was isolated from the dry secretions of Murrah buffalo. It was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 19% ethanol as the precipitant. The protein was also cloned and its complete nucleotide and amino-acid sequences were determined. When compared with the sequences of other members of the family, the sequence of SPB-40 revealed two very important mutations in the sugar-binding region, in which Tyr120 changed to Trp120 and Glu269 changed to Trp269. The structure showed a significant distortion in the shape of the sugar-binding groove. The water structure in the groove is also drastically altered. The folding of the protein chain in the flexible region comprising segments His188–His197, Phe202–Arg212 and Tyr244–Pro260 shows large variations when compared with other proteins of the family.« less

  1. Retrovirus purification: method that conserves envelope glycoprotein and maximizes infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, M; Witte, O; Pincus, T; Weissman, I L

    1978-01-01

    A Sepharose 4B chromatographic method for purification of retroviruses is described which was less time consuming, increased purified virus yields, conserved viral glycoprotein, and increased recovery of biological infectivity in comparison with conventional sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation techniques. Images PMID:205680

  2. Detection of glycoproteins in the Acanthamoeba plasma membrane

    SciT

    Paatero, G.I.L.; Gahmberg, C.G.

    1988-11-01

    In the present study the authors have shown that glycoproteins are present in the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii by utilizing different radioactive labeling techniques. Plasma membrane proteins in the amoeba were iodinated by {sup 125}I-lactoperoxidase labeling and the solubilized radiolabeled glycoproteins were separated by lectin-Sepharose affinity chromatography followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The periodate/NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} and galactose oxidase/NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} labeling techniques were used for labeling of surface carbohydrates in the amoeba. Several surface-labeled glycoproteins were observed in addition to a diffusely labeled region with M{sub r} of 55,000-75,000 seen on electrophoresis, which could represent glycolipids. The presencemore » of glycoproteins in the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii was confirmed by metabolic labeling with ({sup 35}S)methionine followed by lectin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.« less

  3. Interaction of forskolin with the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter

    SciT

    Ming s, D.I.; Seamon, K.B.; Speicher, L.A.

    1991-08-27

    Forskolin and 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, an analogue that does not activate adenylyl cyclase, were tested for their ability to enhance the cytotoxic effects of adriamycin in human ovarian carcinoma cells, SKOV3, which are sensitive to adriamycin and express low levels of P-glycoprotein, and a variant cell line, SKVLB, which overexpresses the P-glycoprotein and has the multidrug reing ance (MDR) phenotype. Forskolin and 1,9-dideoxyforskolin both increased the cytotoxic effects of adriamycin in SKVLB cells, yet had no effect on SKOV3 cells. Two photoactive derivatives of forskolin have been synthesized, 7-O-((2-(3-(4-azido-3-({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)propionamido)ethyl)carbamyl)forskolin, {sup 125}I-6-AIPP-Fsk, and 6-O-((2-(3-(4-azido-3-({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)propionamido)ethyl)carbamyl)forskolin, {sup 125}I-6-AIPP-Fsk, which exhibit specificity for labelingmore » the glucose transporter and aing lyl cyclase, respectively. Both photolabels identified a 140-kDa protein in membranes from SKVLB cells whose labeling was inhibited by forskolin and 1,9-dideoxyforskolin. The data are consistent with forskolin binding to the P-glycoprotein analogous to that of other chemosensitizing drugs that have been shown to partially reverse MDR. The ability of forskolin photolabels to specifically label the transporter, the adenylyl cyclase, and the P-glycoprotein suggests that these proteins may share a common biing g domain for forskolin analogues.« less

  4. Glycoprotein of the wall of sycamore tissue-culture cells.

    PubMed

    Heath, M F; Northcote, D H

    1971-12-01

    1. A glycoprotein containing a large amount of hydroxyproline is present in the cell walls of sycamore callus cells. This protein is insoluble and remained in the alpha-cellulose when a mild separation procedure was used to obtain the polysaccharide fractions of the wall. The glycoprotein contained a high proportion of arabinose and galactose. 2. Soluble glycopeptides were prepared from the alpha-cellulose fraction when peptide bonds were broken by hydrazinolysis. The soluble material was fractionated by gel filtration and one glycopeptide was further purified by electrophoresis; it had a composition of 10% hydroxyproline, 35% arabinose and 55% galactose, and each hydroxyproline residue carried a glycosyl radical so that the oligosaccharides on the glycopeptide had an average degree of polymerization of 9. 3. The extraction of the glycopeptides was achieved without cleavage of glycosyl bonds, so that the glycoprotein cannot act as a covalent cross-link between the major polysaccharides of the wall. 4. The wall protein approximates in conformation to polyhydroxyproline and therefore it probably has similar physicochemical properties to polyhydroxyproline. This is discussed in relation to the function of the glycoprotein and its effect on the physical and chemical nature of the wall.

  5. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of glycoproteins combined with enrichment methods.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. QUANTITATIVE MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF GLYCOPROTEINS COMBINED WITH ENRICHMENT METHODS

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec Rev 34:148–165, 2015. PMID:24889823

  7. Glycoprotein expression by adenomatous polyps of the colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roney, Celeste A.; Xie, Jianwu; Xu, Biying; Jabour, Paul; Griffiths, Gary; Summers, Ronald M.

    2008-03-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Specificity in diagnostic imaging for detecting colorectal adenomas, which have a propensity towards malignancy, is desired. Adenomatous polyp specimens of the colon were obtained from the mouse model of colorectal cancer called adenomatous polyposis coli-multiple intestinal neoplasia (APC Min). Histological evaluation, by the legume protein Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1), determined expression of the glycoprotein α-L-fucose. FITC-labelled UEA-1 confirmed overexpression of the glycoprotein by the polyps on fluorescence microscopy in 17/17 cases, of which 13/17 included paraffin-fixed mouse polyp specimens. In addition, FITC-UEA-1 ex vivo multispectral optical imaging of 4/17 colonic specimens displayed over-expression of the glycoprotein by the polyps, as compared to non-neoplastic mucosa. Here, we report the surface expression of α-L-fucosyl terminal residues by neoplastic mucosal cells of APC specimens of the mouse. Glycoprotein expression was validated by the carbohydrate binding protein UEA-1. Future applications of this method are the development of agents used to diagnose cancers by biomedical imaging modalities, including computed tomographic colonography (CTC). UEA-1 targeting to colonic adenomas may provide a new avenue for the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma by CT imaging.

  8. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Antagonize Tetherin through a Distinctive Mechanism That Requires Virion Incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, Rebekah B.; Marcano, Adriana C.; Saenz, Dyana T.; Fadel, Hind J.; Rogstad, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT BST2/tetherin inhibits the release of enveloped viruses from cells. Primate lentiviruses have evolved specific antagonists (Vpu, Nef, and Env). Here we characterized tetherin proteins of species representing both branches of the order Carnivora. Comparison of tiger and cat (Feliformia) to dog and ferret (Caniformia) genes demonstrated that the tiger and cat share a start codon mutation that truncated most of the tetherin cytoplasmic tail early in the Feliformia lineage (19 of 27 amino acids, including the dual tyrosine motif). Alpha interferon (IFN-α) induced tetherin and blocked feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication in lymphoid and nonlymphoid feline cells. Budding of bald FIV and HIV particles was blocked by carnivore tetherins. However, infectious FIV particles were resistant, and spreading FIV replication was uninhibited. Antagonism mapped to the envelope glycoprotein (Env), which rescued FIV from carnivore tetherin restriction when expressed in trans but, in contrast to known antagonists, did not rescue noncognate particles. Also unlike the primate lentiviral antagonists, but similar to the Ebola virus glycoprotein, FIV Env did not reduce intracellular or cell surface tetherin levels. Furthermore, FIV-enveloped FIV particles actually required tetherin for optimal release from cells. The results show that FIV Envs mediate a distinctive tetherin evasion. Well adapted to a phylogenetically ancient tetherin tail truncation in the Felidae, it requires functional virion incorporation of Env, and it shields the budding particle without downregulating plasma membrane tetherin. Moreover, FIV has evolved dependence on this protein: particles containing FIV Env need tetherin for optimal release from the cell, while Env− particles do not. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 antagonizes the restriction factor tetherin with the accessory protein Vpu, while HIV-2 and the filovirus Ebola use their envelope (Env) glycoproteins for this purpose. It turns out that the FIV

  9. Feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins antagonize tetherin through a distinctive mechanism that requires virion incorporation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, James H; Guevara, Rebekah B; Marcano, Adriana C; Saenz, Dyana T; Fadel, Hind J; Rogstad, Daniel K; Poeschla, Eric M

    2014-03-01

    BST2/tetherin inhibits the release of enveloped viruses from cells. Primate lentiviruses have evolved specific antagonists (Vpu, Nef, and Env). Here we characterized tetherin proteins of species representing both branches of the order Carnivora. Comparison of tiger and cat (Feliformia) to dog and ferret (Caniformia) genes demonstrated that the tiger and cat share a start codon mutation that truncated most of the tetherin cytoplasmic tail early in the Feliformia lineage (19 of 27 amino acids, including the dual tyrosine motif). Alpha interferon (IFN-α) induced tetherin and blocked feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication in lymphoid and nonlymphoid feline cells. Budding of bald FIV and HIV particles was blocked by carnivore tetherins. However, infectious FIV particles were resistant, and spreading FIV replication was uninhibited. Antagonism mapped to the envelope glycoprotein (Env), which rescued FIV from carnivore tetherin restriction when expressed in trans but, in contrast to known antagonists, did not rescue noncognate particles. Also unlike the primate lentiviral antagonists, but similar to the Ebola virus glycoprotein, FIV Env did not reduce intracellular or cell surface tetherin levels. Furthermore, FIV-enveloped FIV particles actually required tetherin for optimal release from cells. The results show that FIV Envs mediate a distinctive tetherin evasion. Well adapted to a phylogenetically ancient tetherin tail truncation in the Felidae, it requires functional virion incorporation of Env, and it shields the budding particle without downregulating plasma membrane tetherin. Moreover, FIV has evolved dependence on this protein: particles containing FIV Env need tetherin for optimal release from the cell, while Env(-) particles do not. HIV-1 antagonizes the restriction factor tetherin with the accessory protein Vpu, while HIV-2 and the filovirus Ebola use their envelope (Env) glycoproteins for this purpose. It turns out that the FIV tetherin antagonist is

  10. Astro-E2 Magnesium Diboride High Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, J. S.; Tuttle, J. G.; Riall, S.; Mustafi, S.; Gray, A.; Edmonds, R.; Marrero, V.

    2003-01-01

    The recent discovery of superconducting properties in MgB_2 and rapid development of small diameter steel-clad wires has opened up the possibility of enhancing the design of the baseline Astro-E2 high current lead assembly. Replacing YBCO filaments with MgB_2 wires and modifying the heat sink location can give much higher margins against quench from temperature oscillations of the 4 K heat sink, although wih some overall thermal penalty. The design and performance of a new lead assembly during flight qualification is discussed, with emphasis on thermal, structural, and electrical test results.

  11. Statins Suppress Ebola Virus Infectivity by Interfering with Glycoprotein Processing.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Flint, Mike; Bergeron, Éric; McElroy, Anita K; Chatterjee, Payel; Albariño, César G; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2018-05-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is a major public health concern due to high fatality rates and limited effective treatments. Statins, widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs, have pleiotropic mechanisms of action and were suggested as potential adjunct therapy for Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the 2013-2016 outbreak in West Africa. Here, we evaluated the antiviral effects of statin (lovastatin) on EBOV infection in vitro Statin treatment decreased infectious EBOV production in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and in the hepatic cell line Huh7. Statin treatment did not interfere with viral entry, but the viral particles released from treated cells showed reduced infectivity due to inhibition of viral glycoprotein processing, as evidenced by decreased ratios of the mature glycoprotein form to precursor form. Statin-induced inhibition of infectious virus production and glycoprotein processing was reversed by exogenous mevalonate, the rate-limiting product of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, but not by low-density lipoprotein. Finally, statin-treated cells produced EBOV particles devoid of the surface glycoproteins required for virus infectivity. Our findings demonstrate that statin treatment inhibits EBOV infection and suggest that the efficacy of statin treatment should be evaluated in appropriate animal models of EVD. IMPORTANCE Treatments targeting Ebola virus disease (EVD) are experimental, expensive, and scarce. Statins are inexpensive generic drugs that have been used for many years for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and have a favorable safety profile. Here, we show the antiviral effects of statins on infectious Ebola virus (EBOV) production. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism in which statin regulates EBOV particle infectivity by preventing glycoprotein processing and incorporation into virus particles. Additionally, statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Since inflammation and dysregulation of the immune

  12. Serodiagnosis of infectious mononucleosis with a bovine erythrocyte glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, M A; Klimas, N G; Latif, Z A; Caldwell, K E

    1983-09-01

    A glycoprotein from bovine erythrocyte membrane was evaluated in two immunoassays as a reagent for the serodiagnosis of infectious mononucleosis (IM). We previously reported that a partially purified preparation of this glycoprotein, when attached to latex beads, agglutinated in the presence of IM heterophile antibody. In the present study, we used a highly purified form of the glycoprotein both as an agglutinating reagent, covalently bound to latex, and in a solid-phase sandwich-type radioimmunoassay (RIA) for IM antibody detection in a larger population of patients. We tested serum samples from college students with symptoms suggestive of IM with the latex reagent (143 samples) and with the RIA (245 samples). Correlation of these two tests, both with each other and with the classical differentially absorbed, agglutination tests for Paul-Bunnell antibody in IM sera, using fresh sheep or horse cells, was excellent (greater than 97% agreement). The new tests also corresponded in most cases with a rapid, unabsorbed preserved horse erythrocyte slide test. However, in this study of 245 samples, both apparent false-positives (5 samples) and apparent false-negatives (3 samples) were observed with this slide test. In conclusion, we found that the bovine glycoprotein as a reagent can facilitate the diagnosis of IM, giving results comparable to those with erythrocyte agglutination tests on differentially absorbed sera. The advantages are ease and speed of performance (latex test), potential for automation (RIA test), stability and uniformity of the glycoprotein reagent (latex and RIA tests), and most importantly, the ability to use unabsorbed sera (latex and RIA tests).

  13. Development of Glycoprotein Capture-Based Label-Free Method for the High-throughput Screening of Differential Glycoproteins in Hepatocellular Carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Tan, Yexiong; Wang, Min; Wang, Fangjun; Yao, Zhenzhen; Dong, Liwei; Ye, Mingliang; Wang, Hongyang; Zou, Hanfa

    2011-01-01

    A robust, reproducible, and high throughput method was developed for the relative quantitative analysis of glycoprotein abundances in human serum. Instead of quantifying glycoproteins by glycopeptides in conventional quantitative glycoproteomics, glycoproteins were quantified by nonglycosylated peptides derived from the glycoprotein digest, which consists of the capture of glycoproteins in serum samples and the release of nonglycopeptides by trypsin digestion of captured glycoproteins followed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem MS analysis of released peptides. Protein quantification was achieved by comparing the spectrum counts of identified nonglycosylated peptides of glycoproteins between different samples. This method was demonstrated to have almost the same specificity and sensitivity in glycoproteins quantification as capture at glycopeptides level. The differential abundance of proteins present at as low as nanogram per milliliter levels was quantified with high confidence. The established method was applied to the analysis of human serum samples from healthy people and patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to screen differential glycoproteins in HCC. Thirty eight glycoproteins were found with substantial concentration changes between normal and HCC serum samples, including α-fetoprotein, the only clinically used marker for HCC diagnosis. The abundance changes of three glycoproteins, i.e. galectin-3 binding protein, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, and thrombospondin 1, which were associated with the development of HCC, were further confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In conclusion, the developed method was an effective approach to quantitatively analyze glycoproteins in human serum and could be further applied in the biomarker discovery for HCC and other cancers. PMID:21474793

  14. Characterization of pH-sensitive molecular switches that trigger the structural transition of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein from the postfusion state toward the prefusion state.

    PubMed

    Ferlin, Anna; Raux, Hélène; Baquero, Eduard; Lepault, Jean; Gaudin, Yves

    2014-11-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; the prototype rhabdovirus) fusion is triggered at low pH and mediated by glycoprotein G, which undergoes a low-pH-induced structural transition. A unique feature of rhabdovirus G is that its conformational change is reversible. This allows G to recover its native prefusion state at the viral surface after its transport through the acidic Golgi compartments. The crystal structures of G pre- and postfusion states have been elucidated, leading to the identification of several acidic amino acid residues, clustered in the postfusion trimer, as potential pH-sensitive switches controlling the transition back toward the prefusion state. We mutated these residues and produced a panel of single and double mutants whose fusion properties, conformational change characteristics, and ability to pseudotype a virus lacking the glycoprotein gene were assayed. Some of these mutations were also introduced in the genome of recombinant viruses which were further characterized. We show that D268, located in the segment consisting of residues 264 to 273, which refolds into postfusion helix F during G structural transition, is the major pH sensor while D274, D395, and D393 have additional contributions. Furthermore, a single passage of recombinant virus bearing the mutation D268L (which was demonstrated to stabilize the G postfusion state) resulted in a pseudorevertant with a compensatory second mutation, L271P. This revealed that the propensity of the segment of residues 264 to 273 to refold into helix F has to be finely tuned since either an increase (mutation D268L alone) or a decrease (mutation L271P alone) of this propensity is detrimental to the virus. Vesicular stomatitis virus enters cells via endocytosis. Endosome acidification induces a structural transition of its unique glycoprotein (G), which mediates fusion between viral and endosomal membranes. G conformational change is reversible upon increases in pH. This allows G to recover its native

  15. Prostaglandin E(2) synthase inhibition as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Jitesh P; Srivastava, Punit K; Dev, Rishabh; Dastidar, Sunanda G; Ray, Abhijit

    2009-07-01

    Most NSAIDs function by inhibiting biosynthesis of PGE(2) by inhibition of COX-1 and/or COX-2. Since COX-1 has a protective function in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), non-selective inhibition of both cycloxy genases leads to moderate to severe gastro-intestinal intolerance. Attempts to identify selective inhibitors of COX-2, led to the identification of celecoxib and rofecoxib. However, long-term use of these drugs has serious adverse effects of sudden myocardial infarction and thrombosis. Drug-mediated imbalance in the levels of prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)) and thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) with a bias towards TXA(2) may be the primary reason for these events. This resulted in the drugs being withdrawn from the market, leaving a need for an effective and safe anti-inflammatory drug. Recently, the focus of research has shifted to enzymes downstream of COX in the prosta glandin biosynthetic pathway such as prostaglandin E(2) synthases. Microsomal prostaglandin E(2) synthase-1 (mPGES-1) specifically isomerizes PGH(2) to PGE(2), under inflammatory conditions. In this review, we examine the biology of mPGES-1 and its role in disease. Progress in designing molecules that can selectively inhibit mPGES-1 is reviewed. mPGES-1 has the potential to be a target for anti-inflammatory therapy, devoid of adverse GIT and cardiac effects and warrants further investigation.

  16. E2F1 and E2F2 induction in response to DNA damage preserves genomic stability in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniela S; Campalans, Anna; Belluscio, Laura M; Carcagno, Abel L; Radicella, J Pablo; Cánepa, Eduardo T; Pregi, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    E2F transcription factors regulate a wide range of biological processes, including the cellular response to DNA damage. In the present study, we examined whether E2F family members are transcriptionally induced following treatment with several genotoxic agents, and have a role on the cell DNA damage response. We show a novel mechanism, conserved among diverse species, in which E2F1 and E2F2, the latter specifically in neuronal cells, are transcriptionally induced after DNA damage. This upregulation leads to increased E2F1 and E2F2 protein levels as a consequence of de novo protein synthesis. Ectopic expression of these E2Fs in neuronal cells reduces the level of DNA damage following genotoxic treatment, while ablation of E2F1 and E2F2 leads to the accumulation of DNA lesions and increased apoptotic response. Cell viability and DNA repair capability in response to DNA damage induction are also reduced by the E2F1 and E2F2 deficiencies. Finally, E2F1 and E2F2 accumulate at sites of oxidative and UV-induced DNA damage, and interact with γH2AX DNA repair factor. As previously reported for E2F1, E2F2 promotes Rad51 foci formation, interacts with GCN5 acetyltransferase and induces histone acetylation following genotoxic insult. The results presented here unveil a new mechanism involving E2F1 and E2F2 in the maintenance of genomic stability in response to DNA damage in neuronal cells.

  17. E2F1 and E2F2 induction in response to DNA damage preserves genomic stability in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Daniela S; Campalans, Anna; Belluscio, Laura M; Carcagno, Abel L; Radicella, J Pablo; Cánepa, Eduardo T; Pregi, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    E2F transcription factors regulate a wide range of biological processes, including the cellular response to DNA damage. In the present study, we examined whether E2F family members are transcriptionally induced following treatment with several genotoxic agents, and have a role on the cell DNA damage response. We show a novel mechanism, conserved among diverse species, in which E2F1 and E2F2, the latter specifically in neuronal cells, are transcriptionally induced after DNA damage. This upregulation leads to increased E2F1 and E2F2 protein levels as a consequence of de novo protein synthesis. Ectopic expression of these E2Fs in neuronal cells reduces the level of DNA damage following genotoxic treatment, while ablation of E2F1 and E2F2 leads to the accumulation of DNA lesions and increased apoptotic response. Cell viability and DNA repair capability in response to DNA damage induction are also reduced by the E2F1 and E2F2 deficiencies. Finally, E2F1 and E2F2 accumulate at sites of oxidative and UV-induced DNA damage, and interact with γH2AX DNA repair factor. As previously reported for E2F1, E2F2 promotes Rad51 foci formation, interacts with GCN5 acetyltransferase and induces histone acetylation following genotoxic insult. The results presented here unveil a new mechanism involving E2F1 and E2F2 in the maintenance of genomic stability in response to DNA damage in neuronal cells. PMID:25892555

  18. Dysfunction of bovine endogenous retrovirus K2 envelope glycoprotein is related to unsuccessful intracellular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Yuki; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2014-06-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the remnants of retroviral infection of ancestral germ cells. Mutations introduced into ERVs halt the production of infectious agents, but their effects on the function of retroviral proteins are not fully understood. Retroviral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) are utilized in membrane fusion during viral entry, and we recently identified intact coding sequences for bovine endogenous retrovirus K1 (BERV-K1) and BERV-K2 Envs. Amino acid sequences of BERV-K1 Env (also called Fematrin-1) and BERV-K2 Env are similar, and both viruses are classified in the genus Betaretrovirus. While Fematrin-1 plays an important role in cell-to-cell fusion in bovine placenta, the BERV-K2 envelope gene is marginally expressed in vivo, and its recombinant Env protein is defective in membrane fusion due to inefficient cleavage of surface (SU) and transmembrane subunits. Here, we conducted chimeric analyses of Fematrin-1 and BERV-K2 Envs and revealed that defective maturation of BERV-K2 Env contributed to failed intracellular trafficking. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis suggested that in contrast to Fematrin-1 Env, BERV-K2 Env could not be transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the trans-Golgi network, where cellular proteases required for processing retroviral Envs are localized. We also identified that one of the responsive regions of this phenomenon resided within a 65-amino-acid region of BERV-K2 SU. This is the first report to identify that retroviral Env SU is involved in the regulation of intracellular trafficking, and it may help to elucidate the maturation process of Fematrin-1 and other related Envs. Retroviruses utilize envelope glycoproteins (Envs) to enter host target cells. Mature retroviral Env is a heterodimer, which consists of surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits that are generated by the cleavage of an Env precursor protein in the trans-Golgi network. SU and TM mediate the recognition of the entry

  19. Dysfunction of Bovine Endogenous Retrovirus K2 Envelope Glycoprotein Is Related to Unsuccessful Intracellular Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the remnants of retroviral infection of ancestral germ cells. Mutations introduced into ERVs halt the production of infectious agents, but their effects on the function of retroviral proteins are not fully understood. Retroviral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) are utilized in membrane fusion during viral entry, and we recently identified intact coding sequences for bovine endogenous retrovirus K1 (BERV-K1) and BERV-K2 Envs. Amino acid sequences of BERV-K1 Env (also called Fematrin-1) and BERV-K2 Env are similar, and both viruses are classified in the genus Betaretrovirus. While Fematrin-1 plays an important role in cell-to-cell fusion in bovine placenta, the BERV-K2 envelope gene is marginally expressed in vivo, and its recombinant Env protein is defective in membrane fusion due to inefficient cleavage of surface (SU) and transmembrane subunits. Here, we conducted chimeric analyses of Fematrin-1 and BERV-K2 Envs and revealed that defective maturation of BERV-K2 Env contributed to failed intracellular trafficking. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis suggested that in contrast to Fematrin-1 Env, BERV-K2 Env could not be transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the trans-Golgi network, where cellular proteases required for processing retroviral Envs are localized. We also identified that one of the responsive regions of this phenomenon resided within a 65-amino-acid region of BERV-K2 SU. This is the first report to identify that retroviral Env SU is involved in the regulation of intracellular trafficking, and it may help to elucidate the maturation process of Fematrin-1 and other related Envs. IMPORTANCE Retroviruses utilize envelope glycoproteins (Envs) to enter host target cells. Mature retroviral Env is a heterodimer, which consists of surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits that are generated by the cleavage of an Env precursor protein in the trans-Golgi network. SU and TM mediate the recognition

  20. Triply differential (e,2e) studies of phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, G. B.; Neves, R. F. C.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Ali, E.; Madison, D. H.; Ning, C. G.; Nixon, K. L.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    We have measured (e,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the electron-impact ionisation of phenol with coplanar asymmetrical kinematics for an incident electron energy of 250 eV. Experimental measurements of the angular distribution of the slow outgoing electrons at 20 eV are obtained when the incident electron scatters through angles of -5°, -10°, and -15°, respectively. The TDCS data are compared with calculations performed within the molecular 3-body distorted wave model. In this case, a mixed level of agreement, that was dependent on the kinematical condition being probed, was observed between the theoretical and experimental results in the binary peak region. The experimental intensity of the recoil features under all kinematical conditions was relatively small, but was still largely underestimated by the theoretical calculations.

  1. Triply differential (e,2e) studies of phenol.

    PubMed

    da Silva, G B; Neves, R F C; Chiari, L; Jones, D B; Ali, E; Madison, D H; Ning, C G; Nixon, K L; Lopes, M C A; Brunger, M J

    2014-09-28

    We have measured (e,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the electron-impact ionisation of phenol with coplanar asymmetrical kinematics for an incident electron energy of 250 eV. Experimental measurements of the angular distribution of the slow outgoing electrons at 20 eV are obtained when the incident electron scatters through angles of -5°, -10°, and -15°, respectively. The TDCS data are compared with calculations performed within the molecular 3-body distorted wave model. In this case, a mixed level of agreement, that was dependent on the kinematical condition being probed, was observed between the theoretical and experimental results in the binary peak region. The experimental intensity of the recoil features under all kinematical conditions was relatively small, but was still largely underestimated by the theoretical calculations.

  2. E2F mediates enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferation.

    PubMed

    Elkon, Ran; Drost, Jarno; van Haaften, Gijs; Jenal, Mathias; Schrier, Mariette; Oude Vrielink, Joachim A F; Agami, Reuven

    2012-07-02

    The majority of mammalian genes contain multiple poly(A) sites in their 3' UTRs. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation are emerging as an important layer of gene regulation as they generate transcript isoforms that differ in their 3' UTRs, thereby modulating genes' response to 3' UTR-mediated regulation. Enhanced cleavage at 3' UTR proximal poly(A) sites resulting in global 3' UTR shortening was recently linked to proliferation and cancer. However, mechanisms that regulate this enhanced alternative polyadenylation are unknown. Here, we explored, on a transcriptome-wide scale, alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation. We applied a deep-sequencing technique for identification and quantification of poly(A) sites to two human cellular models, each examined under proliferative, arrested and transformed states. In both cell systems we observed global 3' UTR shortening associated with proliferation, a link that was markedly stronger than the association with transformation. Furthermore, we found that proliferation is also associated with enhanced cleavage at intronic poly(A) sites. Last, we found that the expression level of the set of genes that encode for 3'-end processing proteins is globally elevated in proliferation, and that E2F transcription factors contribute to this regulation. Our results comprehensively identify alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and transformation, and demonstrate that the enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferative conditions results not only in global 3' UTR shortening but also in enhanced premature cleavage in introns. Our results also indicate that E2F-mediated co-transcriptional regulation of 3'-end processing genes is one of the mechanisms that links enhanced alternative polyadenylation to proliferation.

  3. E2F mediates enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The majority of mammalian genes contain multiple poly(A) sites in their 3' UTRs. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation are emerging as an important layer of gene regulation as they generate transcript isoforms that differ in their 3' UTRs, thereby modulating genes' response to 3' UTR-mediated regulation. Enhanced cleavage at 3' UTR proximal poly(A) sites resulting in global 3' UTR shortening was recently linked to proliferation and cancer. However, mechanisms that regulate this enhanced alternative polyadenylation are unknown. Results Here, we explored, on a transcriptome-wide scale, alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation. We applied a deep-sequencing technique for identification and quantification of poly(A) sites to two human cellular models, each examined under proliferative, arrested and transformed states. In both cell systems we observed global 3' UTR shortening associated with proliferation, a link that was markedly stronger than the association with transformation. Furthermore, we found that proliferation is also associated with enhanced cleavage at intronic poly(A) sites. Last, we found that the expression level of the set of genes that encode for 3'-end processing proteins is globally elevated in proliferation, and that E2F transcription factors contribute to this regulation. Conclusions Our results comprehensively identify alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and transformation, and demonstrate that the enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferative conditions results not only in global 3' UTR shortening but also in enhanced premature cleavage in introns. Our results also indicate that E2F-mediated co-transcriptional regulation of 3'-end processing genes is one of the mechanisms that links enhanced alternative polyadenylation to proliferation. PMID:22747694

  4. Is MPP a good prognostic factor in stage III lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR exon 19 mutation?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian; Wang, Jing; Su, Yanjun; Chen, Xi; Yan, Qingna; Li, Qi; Sun, Leina; Wang, Yuwen; Er, Puchun; Pang, Qingsong; Wang, Ping

    2017-06-20

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by a gene located in the short arm of chromosome 7. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of classic EGFR exon mutation in Chinese patients with TMN stage III lung adenocarcinoma who received radical surgery. A total of 1,801 lung adenocarcinomas were analyzed for mutations in EGFR; 35% exhibited mutation of classic EGFR exons. Clinical and pathologic characteristics of patients with EGFR exon 19 mutation were compared with those who harbored EGFR exon 21 mutation. Patients with EGFR exon 19 mutation had a higher overall survival (OS, p=0.023) than those harboring EGFR exon 21 mutation. Our results demonstrated that patients with a micropapillary pattern (MPP) pathologic type in EGFR exon 19 mutation had a higher OS (p=0.022), and patients with exon 19 mutation were more sensitive to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (p=0.032). The results of the current study can be used in decision-making regarding the treatment of patients with classic EGFR exon mutations.

  5. Detection and initial characterization of protein entities consisting of the HIV glycoprotein cytoplasmic C-terminal domain alone.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Tanya; Ruppert, Thomas; Schaal, Heiner; Bosch, Valerie

    2013-06-20

    Employing antibodies against the cytoplasmic tail of the HIV-1 glycoprotein (Env-CT), in addition to gp160/gp41, we have identified several novel small Env proteins (<25kD) in HIV-1 transfected and infected cells. Mass spectrometric and mutational analyses show that two mechanisms contribute to their generation. Thus the protein, designated Tr-Env-CT (for truncated Env-CT), consists of the C-terminal 139 amino acids (aa) of Env (aa 718-856) with the N-terminal Q718 modified to pyroglutamic acid. It is likely derived from full-length Env protein by proteolytic processing. A further heterogeneous set of slightly larger proteins, termed Env-CT* species, are rather derived from spliced mRNAs containing only those Env C-terminal residues (aa 719-856) which overlap with the second tat and rev coding exons. They are N-terminally extended in the same reading frame. It is conceivable that essential Env-CT functions may be fulfilled by these novel species rather than by the full-length glycoprotein itself. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Marine Natural Products with P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its role in drug metabolism and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in several human pathogens and diseases. P-gp is a major cause of drug resistance in cancer, parasitic diseases, epilepsy and other disorders. This review article aims to summarize the research findings on the marine natural products with P-glycoprotein inhibitor properties. Natural compounds that modulate P-gp offer great possibilities for semi-synthetic modification to create new drugs and are valuable research tools to understand the function of complex ABC transporters. PMID:24451193

  7. Methylation of Notch3 modulates chemoresistance via P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaoting; Lu, Yangfan; He, Dongxu; Lu, Chunxiao; Jin, Jian; Lu, Xiaojie; Ma, Xin

    2016-12-05

    The global gene expression and DNA methylation of genes in adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADM cells) are similar to those in paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/PTX) and are significantly different from those in wild-type MCF-7 cells. DNA methylation is associated with chemoresistance in breast cancer and changes the characteristics of chemoresistant and chemosensitive cells. Here, we showed that the tumor-suppressor gene Notch3 was inactivated due to epigenetic silencing DNA hypermethylation in MCF-7/ADM cells. In addition, the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein was negatively regulated by Notch3 and highly expressed in MCF-7/ADM cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that hypermethylation of Notch3 causes activation of P-glycoprotein in adriamycin-resistant cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategies to induce broadly protective antibody responses to viral glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Krammer, F

    2017-05-01

    Currently, several universal/broadly protective influenza virus vaccine candidates are under development. Many of these vaccines are based on strategies to induce protective antibody responses against the surface glycoproteins of antigenically and genetically diverse influenza viruses. These strategies might also be applicable to surface glycoproteins of a broad range of other important viral pathogens. Areas covered: Common strategies include sequential vaccination with divergent antigens, multivalent approaches, vaccination with glycan-modified antigens, vaccination with minimal antigens and vaccination with antigens that have centralized/optimized sequences. Here we review these strategies and the underlying concepts. Furthermore, challenges, feasibility and applicability to other viral pathogens are discussed. Expert commentary: Several broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccine strategies will be tested in humans in the coming years. If successful in terms of safety and immunological readouts, they will move forward into efficacy trials. In the meantime, successful vaccine strategies might also be applied to other antigenically diverse viruses of concern.

  9. Mutant tamm-horsfall glycoprotein accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum induces apoptosis reversed by colchicine and sodium 4-phenylbutyrate.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Won; Ryu, Ok Hee; Choi, Sun Jin; Song, In Sun; Bleyer, Anthony J; Hart, Thomas C

    2005-10-01

    As a consequence of uromodulin gene mutations, individuals develop precocious hyperuricemia, gout, and progressive renal failure. In vitro studies suggest that pathologic accumulation of uromodulin/Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THP) occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but the pathophysiology of renal damage is unclear. It was hypothesized that programmed cell death triggered by accumulation of misfolded THP in the ER causes progressive renal disease. Stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells and immortalized thick ascending limb of Henle's loop cells with wild-type and mutated uromodulin cDNA were evaluated to test this hypothesis. Immunocytochemistry, ELISA, and deglycosylation studies indicated that accumulation of mutant THP occurred in the ER. FACS analyses showed a significant increase in early apoptosis signal in human embryonic kidney 293 and thick ascending limb of Henle's loop cells that were transfected with mutant uromodulin constructs. Colchicine and sodium 4-phenylbutyrate treatment increased secretion of THP from the ER to the cell membrane and into the culture media and significantly improved cell viability. These findings indicate that intracellular accumulation of THP facilitates apoptosis and that this may provide the pathologic mechanism responsible for the progressive renal damage associated with uromodulin gene mutations. Colchicine and sodium 4-phenylbutyrate reverse these processes and could potentially be beneficial in ameliorating the progressive renal damage in uromodulin-associated kidney diseases.

  10. Antigiardial activity of glycoproteins and glycopeptides from Ziziphus honey.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Seif Eldin A; Kabashi, Ahmed S; Koko, Waleed S; Azim, M Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Natural honey contains an array of glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycopeptides. Size-exclusion chromatography fractionated Ziziphus honey proteins into five peaks with molecular masses in the range from 10 to >200 kDa. The fractionated proteins exhibited in vitro activities against Giardia lamblia with IC50 values ≤ 25 μg/mL. Results indicated that honey proteins were more active as antiprotozoal agents than metronidazole. This study indicated the potential of honey proteins and peptides as novel antigiardial agents.

  11. High efficiency labeling of glycoproteins on living cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ying; Ramya, T. N. C.; Dirksen, Anouk; Dawson, Philip E.; Paulson, James C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a simple method for efficiently labeling cell surface glycans on virtually any living animal cell. The method employs mild Periodate oxidation to generate an aldehyde on sialic acids, followed by Aniline-catalyzed oxime Ligation with a suitable tag (PAL). Aniline catalysis dramatically accelerates oxime ligation, allowing use of low concentrations of aminooxy-biotin at neutral pH to label the majority of cell surface glycoproteins while maintaining high cell viability. PMID:19234450

  12. Platelet glycoproteins associated with aspirin-treatment upon platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Punit; Yang, Weiming; Sun, Shisheng; Pasay, Jered; Faraday, Nauder; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Platelet glycoproteins are known to play central roles in hemostasis and vascular integrity and have pathologic roles in vascular occlusive diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Characterizing glycoproteins within and secreted by platelets can provide insight into the mechanisms that underlie vascular pathologies and the therapeutic benefits or failure of anti-platelet agents. To study the impact of aspirin, which is commonly prescribed for primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention, on the platelet glycoproteome, we evaluated washed platelets from ten donors. The platelet glycoproteome, was studied using an iTRAQ in resting and stimulated states and with and without aspirin treatment. Using solid phase extraction of glycosite-containing peptides (SPEG), we were able to identify 799 unique N-linked glycosylation sites (glycosites) in platelets, representing the largest and the most comprehensive analysis to date. We were able to identity a number of glycoproteins impacted by aspirin treatment, which we validated using global proteomics analysis of platelets and their secreted proteins. In our analyses, metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1) was the single most significantly affected glycoprotein by aspirin treatment. ELISA assays confirmed proteomic results and validated our strategy. Functional analysis demonstrated that TIMP1 levels were highly correlated with platelet reactivity in vitro, with a correlation coefficient of −0.5. The release of TIMP1 from platelets, which was previously unknown to be affected by aspirin treatment, may play important roles in hemostasis and/or vascular integrity. If validated, our findings may be useful for developing assays that assess platelet response to aspirin or other anti-platelet therapies. PMID:27452734

  13. Prediction of conserved sites and domains in glycoproteins B, C and D of herpes viruses.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Muhammad Asif; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Ihsan, Awais; Navid, Muhammad Tariq; Ur-Rehman, Shahid; Raza, Sohail

    2018-03-01

    Glycoprotein B (gB), C (gC) and D (gD) of herpes simplex virus are implicated in virus adsorption and penetration. The gB, gC and gD are glycoproteins for different processes of virus binding and attachment to the host cells. Moreover, their expression is necessary and sufficient to induce cell fusion in the absence of other glycoproteins. Egress of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other herpes viruses from cells involves extensive modification of cellular membranes and sequential envelopment, de-envelopment and re-envelopment steps. Viral glycoproteins are important in these processes, and frequently two or more glycoproteins can largely suffice in any step. Hence, we target the 3 important glycoproteins (B, C and D) of eight different herpes viruses of different species. These species include human (HSV1 and 2), bovine (BHV1), equine (EHV1 and 4), chicken (ILT1 and MDV2) and pig (PRV1). By applying different bioinformatics tools, we highlighted the conserved sites in these glycoproteins which might be most significant regarding attachment and infection of the viruses. Moreover the conserved domains in these glycoproteins are also highlighted. From this study, we will able to analyze the role of different viral glycoproteins of different species during herpes virus adsorption and penetration. Moreover, this study will help to construct the antivirals that target the glycoproteins of different herpes viruses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The haemagglutination activity of equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein C.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Kiyohiko; Hattori, Shiho; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Takasugi, Maaya; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Matsumura, Tomio; Kondo, Takashi; Kirisawa, Rikio; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken

    2015-01-02

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) has haemagglutination (HA) activity toward equine red blood cells (RBCs), but the identity of its haemagglutinin is unknown. To identify the haemagglutinin of EHV-1, the major glycoproteins of EHV-1 were expressed in 293T cells, and the cells or cell lysates were mixed with equine RBCs. The results showed that only EHV-1 glycoprotein C (gC)-producing cells adsorbed equine RBCs, and that the lysate of EHV-1 gC-expressing cells agglutinated equine RBCs. EHV-1 lacking gC did not show HA activity. HA activity was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for gC, but not by antibodies directed against other glycoproteins. In addition, HA activity was not inhibited by the addition of heparin. These results indicate that EHV-1 gC can bind equine RBCs irrespective of heparin, in contrast to other herpesvirus gC proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A double responsive smart upconversion fluorescence sensing material for glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Yun, Yaguang; Hu, Yongjin; Wang, Shuo

    2016-11-15

    A novel strategy was developed to prepare double responsive smart upconversion fluorescence material for highly specific enrichment and sensing of glycoprotein. The novel double responsive smart sensing material was synthesized by choosing Horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as modal protein, the grapheme oxide (GO) as support material, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as fluorescence signal reporter, N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAM) and 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) as functional monomers. The structure and component of smart sensing material was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), respectively. These results illustrated the smart sensing material was prepared successfully. The recognition characterizations of smart sensing material were evaluated, and results showed that the fluorescence intensity of smart sensing material was reduced gradually, as the concentration of protein increased, and the smart sensing material showed selective recognition for HRP among other proteins. Furthermore, the recognition ability of the smart sensing material for glycoprotein was regulated by controlling the pH value and temperature. Therefore, this strategy opens up new way to construct smart material for detection of glycoprotein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic imaging of antiferromagnetic and superconducting phases in R bxF e2 -yS e2 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazi, J.; Mousavi, T.; Dudin, P.; van der Laan, G.; Maccherozzi, F.; Krzton-Maziopa, A.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.; Speller, S. C.

    2018-02-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cuprate materials, with the ability to carry large electrical currents with no resistance at easily reachable temperatures, have stimulated enormous scientific and industrial interest since their discovery in the 1980's. However, technological applications of these promising compounds have been limited by their chemical and microstructural complexity and the challenging processing strategies required for the exploitation of their extraordinary properties. The lack of theoretical understanding of the mechanism for superconductivity in these HTS materials has also hindered the search for new superconducting systems with enhanced performance. The unexpected discovery in 2008 of HTS iron-based compounds has provided an entirely new family of materials for studying the crucial interplay between superconductivity and magnetism in unconventional superconductors. Alkali-metal-doped iron selenide (AxF e2 -yS e2 , A =alkali metal ) compounds are of particular interest owing to the coexistence of superconductivity at relatively high temperatures with antiferromagnetism. Intrinsic phase separation on the mesoscopic scale is also known to occur in what were intended to be single crystals of these compounds, making it difficult to interpret bulk property measurements. Here, we use a combination of two advanced microscopy techniques to provide direct evidence of the magnetic properties of the individual phases. First, x-ray linear dichroism studies in a photoelectron emission microscope, and supporting multiplet calculations, indicate that the matrix (majority) phase is antiferromagnetic whereas the minority phase is nonmagnetic at room temperature. Second, cryogenic magnetic force microscopy demonstrates unambiguously that superconductivity occurs only in the minority phase. The correlation of these findings with previous microstructural studies and bulk measurements paves the way for understanding the intriguing electronic and magnetic

  17. P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 regulates pokemon gene transcription through p53 expression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    He, Shengnan; Liu, Feng; Xie, Zhenhua; Zu, Xuyu; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yuyang

    2010-08-27

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, is an efflux transporter and plays an important role in pharmacokinetics. In this study, we demonstrated that the pokemon promoter activity, the pokemon mRNA and protein expression can be significantly inhibited by Pgp. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Pgp can bind the pokemon prompter to repress pokemon transcription activity. Furthermore, Pgp regulated pokemon transcription activity through expression of p53 as seen by use of p53 siRNA transfected MCF-7 cells or p53 mutated MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, p53 was detected to bind with Pgp in vivo using immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, we conclude that Pgp can regulate the expression of pokemon through the presence of p53, suggesting that Pgp is a potent regulator and may offer an effective novel target for cancer therapy.

  18. P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 Regulates Pokemon Gene Transcription Through p53 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Shengnan; Liu, Feng; Xie, Zhenhua; Zu, Xuyu; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yuyang

    2010-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, is an efflux transporter and plays an important role in pharmacokinetics. In this study, we demonstrated that the pokemon promoter activity, the pokemon mRNA and protein expression can be significantly inhibited by Pgp. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Pgp can bind the pokemon prompter to repress pokemon transcription activity. Furthermore, Pgp regulated pokemon transcription activity through expression of p53 as seen by use of p53 siRNA transfected MCF-7 cells or p53 mutated MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, p53 was detected to bind with Pgp in vivo using immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, we conclude that Pgp can regulate the expression of pokemon through the presence of p53, suggesting that Pgp is a potent regulator and may offer an effective novel target for cancer therapy. PMID:20957096

  19. Mechanisms of viral mutation.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Rafael; Domingo-Calap, Pilar

    2016-12-01

    The remarkable capacity of some viruses to adapt to new hosts and environments is highly dependent on their ability to generate de novo diversity in a short period of time. Rates of spontaneous mutation vary amply among viruses. RNA viruses mutate faster than DNA viruses, single-stranded viruses mutate faster than double-strand virus, and genome size appears to correlate negatively with mutation rate. Viral mutation rates are modulated at different levels, including polymerase fidelity, sequence context, template secondary structure, cellular microenvironment, replication mechanisms, proofreading, and access to post-replicative repair. Additionally, massive numbers of mutations can be introduced by some virus-encoded diversity-generating elements, as well as by host-encoded cytidine/adenine deaminases. Our current knowledge of viral mutation rates indicates that viral genetic diversity is determined by multiple virus- and host-dependent processes, and that viral mutation rates can evolve in response to specific selective pressures.

  20. Roles of prostaglandin E2 in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Takayuki

    2011-06-01

    Prostaglandins are one of the major groups of chemical mediators in the mammalian body. Among prostaglandins, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most abundant prostanoid in humans and involved in regulating many different fundamental biological functions. PGE2 signaling is mediated by four distinct E-prostanoid receptors (EPs) namely EP1-4. Recently, accumulating evidence indicates critical, but complex roles of EP signaling in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases depending on the context of neuronal injury. Four distinct EPs are expressed in the stria vascularis, spiral ligament, spiral ganglion and organ of Corti, indicating an involvement of EP signaling in the cochlear function. Activation of EP4 in cochleae significantly attenuates noise-induced damage in cochleae, and activation of EP2 or EP4 induces the formation of vascular endothelial growth factor in cochleae. These findings strongly suggest that individual EP signaling may be involved in the maintenance of the cochlear sensory system similarly to the central nervous system. This review highlights recent findings on EP signaling in the central nervous system, and presents its possible roles in regulation of blood flow, protection of sensory cells and immune responses in cochleae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of prostaglandin E2 on parturition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hirsbrunner, G; Zanolari, P; Althaus, H; Hüsler, J; Steiner, A

    2007-09-22

    A double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled field study of the influence of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on cattle at parturition was carried out. The extent of cervical opening and the intensity of labour were scored before administration of the compound and 10 minutes later; routine birth assistance was then continued by the veterinarian. Successful birth occurred more quickly in the cows treated with PGE2. The extent of cervical opening before the administration of the drug had a significant effect on the time to delivery, but the intensity of labour and a concomitant infusion of calcium did not have significant effects on this period. The less open the cervix before administration of the drug, the more the duration of parturition differed between the two groups, with the placebo group taking longer. A telephone follow-up inquiry found no significant differences between the cows postpartum; there were cases of mastitis and hypocalcaemia in both groups. The incidence of retained fetal membranes and the mortality of the calves were higher in the placebo group, but in neither case was the difference significant.

  2. Prevotella intermedia induces prostaglandin E2 via multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Guan, S-M; Fu, S-M; He, J-J; Zhang, M

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays important roles in the bone resorption of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis via specific prostaglandin receptors (i.e., EP1-EP4). In this study, the authors examined whether Prevotella intermedia regulates PGE(2) production and EP expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLs); they also explored the potential signaling pathways involved in PGE(2) production. P. intermedia induced PGE(2) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indomethacin and NS-398 completely abrogated the P. intermedia-induced PGE(2) production without modulating COX-2 expression. Specific inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and protein kinase C--but not c-AMP and protein kinase A--significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced COX-2 and PGE(2) expression. P. intermedia reduced EP1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicate that the COX-2-dependent induction of PGE(2) by P. intermedia in hPDLs is mediated by multiple signaling pathways.

  3. A Mechanistic Understanding of Allosteric Immune Escape Pathways in the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Anurag; Tian, Jianhui; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Korber, Bette; Gnanakaran, S.

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope (Env) spike, which consists of a compact, heterodimeric trimer of the glycoproteins gp120 and gp41, is the target of neutralizing antibodies. However, the high mutation rate of HIV-1 and plasticity of Env facilitates viral evasion from neutralizing antibodies through various mechanisms. Mutations that are distant from the antibody binding site can lead to escape, probably by changing the conformation or dynamics of Env; however, these changes are difficult to identify and define mechanistically. Here we describe a network analysis-based approach to identify potential allosteric immune evasion mechanisms using three known HIV-1 Env gp120 protein structures from two different clades, B and C. First, correlation and principal component analyses of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations identified a high degree of long-distance coupled motions that exist between functionally distant regions within the intrinsic dynamics of the gp120 core, supporting the presence of long-distance communication in the protein. Then, by integrating MD simulations with network theory, we identified the optimal and suboptimal communication pathways and modules within the gp120 core. The results unveil both strain-dependent and -independent characteristics of the communication pathways in gp120. We show that within the context of three structurally homologous gp120 cores, the optimal pathway for communication is sequence sensitive, i.e. a suboptimal pathway in one strain becomes the optimal pathway in another strain. Yet the identification of conserved elements within these communication pathways, termed inter-modular hotspots, could present a new opportunity for immunogen design, as this could be an additional mechanism that HIV-1 uses to shield vulnerable antibody targets in Env that induce neutralizing antibody breadth. PMID:23696718

  4. Mutational landscape of yeast mutator strains.

    PubMed

    Serero, Alexandre; Jubin, Claire; Loeillet, Sophie; Legoix-Né, Patricia; Nicolas, Alain G

    2014-02-04

    The acquisition of mutations is relevant to every aspect of genetics, including cancer and evolution of species on Darwinian selection. Genome variations arise from rare stochastic imperfections of cellular metabolism and deficiencies in maintenance genes. Here, we established the genome-wide spectrum of mutations that accumulate in a WT and in nine Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutator strains deficient for distinct genome maintenance processes: pol32Δ and rad27Δ (replication), msh2Δ (mismatch repair), tsa1Δ (oxidative stress), mre11Δ (recombination), mec1Δ tel1Δ (DNA damage/S-phase checkpoints), pif1Δ (maintenance of mitochondrial genome and telomere length), cac1Δ cac3Δ (nucleosome deposition), and clb5Δ (cell cycle progression). This study reveals the diversity, complexity, and ultimate unique nature of each mutational spectrum, composed of punctual mutations, chromosomal structural variations, and/or aneuploidies. The mutations produced in clb5Δ/CCNB1, mec1Δ/ATR, tel1Δ/ATM, and rad27Δ/FEN1 strains extensively reshape the genome, following a trajectory dependent on previous events. It comprises the transmission of unstable genomes that lead to colony mosaicisms. This comprehensive analytical approach of mutator defects provides a model to understand how genome variations might accumulate during clonal evolution of somatic cell populations, including tumor cells.

  5. Heat Increases the Editing Efficiency of Human Papillomavirus E2 Gene by Inducing Upregulation of APOBEC3A and 3G.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Hexiao; Zhang, Xinrui; Huo, Wei; Qi, Ruiqun; Gao, Yali; Zhang, Gaofeng; Song, Bing; Chen, Hongduo; Gao, Xinghua

    2017-04-01

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide (APOBEC) 3 proteins have been identified as potent viral DNA mutators and have broad antiviral activity. In this study, we demonstrated that apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3A (A3A) and A3G expression levels were significantly upregulated in human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cell lines and tissues. Heat treatment resulted in elevated expression of A3A and A3G in a temperature-dependent manner in HPV-infected cells. Correspondingly, HPV-infected cells heat-treated at 44 °C showed accumulated G-to-A or C-to-T mutation in HPV E2 gene. Knockdown of A3A or A3G could promote cell viability, along with the lower frequency of A/T in HPV E2 gene. In addition, regressing genital viral warts also harbored high G-to-A or C-to-T mutation in HPV E2 gene. Taken together, we demonstrate that apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 expression and editing function was heat sensitive to a certain degree, partly explaining the mechanism of action of local hyperthermia to treat viral warts. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In depth analysis of the mechanism of action of metal-dependent sigma factors: characterization of CorE2 from Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Marcos-Torres, Francisco Javier; Pérez, Juana; Gómez-Santos, Nuria; Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; Muñoz-Dorado, José

    2016-01-01

    Extracytoplasmic function sigma factors represent the third pillar of signal-transduction mechanisms in bacteria. The variety of stimuli they recognize and mechanisms of action they use have allowed their classification into more than 50 groups. We have characterized CorE2 from Myxococcus xanthus, which belongs to group ECF44 and upregulates the expression of two genes when it is activated by cadmium and zinc. Sigma factors of this group contain a Cys-rich domain (CRD) at the C terminus which is essential for detecting metals. Point mutations at the six Cys residues of the CRD have revealed the contribution of each residue to CorE2 activity. Some of them are essential, while others are either dispensable or their mutations only slightly affect the activity of the protein. However, importantly, mutation of Cys174 completely shifts the specificity of CorE2 from cadmium to copper, indicating that the Cys arrangement of the CRD determines the metal specificity. Moreover, the conserved CxC motif located between the σ2 domain and the σ4.2 region has also been found to be essential for activity. The results presented here contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of action of metal-dependent sigma factors and help to define new common features of the members of this group of regulators. PMID:26951374

  7. RUNX1 and NF-E2 upregulation is not specific for MPNs, but is seen in polycythemic disorders with augmented HIF signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kapralova, Katarina; Lanikova, Lucie; Lorenzo, Felipe; Song, Jihyun; Horvathova, Monika; Divoky, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of transcription factors runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) and nuclear factor, erythroid-derived 2 (NF-E2) was reported in granulocytes of patients with polycythemia vera and other myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Further, a transgenic mouse overexpressing the NF-E2 transgene was reported to be a model of MPN. We hypothesized that increased transcripts of RUNX1 and NF-E2 might characterize other polycythemic states with primary polycythemic features, that is, those with exaggerated erythropoiesis due to augmented erythropoietin (EPO) sensitivity. We tested the expression of RUNX1 and NF-E2 in polycythemic patients of diverse phenotypes and molecular causes. We report that RUNX1 and NF-E2 overexpression is not specific for MPN; these transcripts were also significantly elevated in polycythemias with augmented hypoxia-inducible factor activity whose erythroid progenitors were hypersensitive to EPO. RUNX1 and NF-E2 overexpression was not detected in patients with EPO receptor (EPOR) gain-of-function, suggesting distinct mechanisms by which erythroid progenitors in polycythemias with defects of hypoxia sensing and EPOR mutations exert their EPO hypersensitivity. PMID:24297870

  8. A view of the E2-CD81 interface at the binding site of a neutralizing antibody against hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Harman, Christine; Zhong, Lilin; Ma, Li; Liu, Peter; Deng, Lu; Zhao, Zhong; Yan, Hailing; Struble, Evi; Virata-Theimer, Maria Luisa; Zhang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoprotein E2 is considered a major target for generating neutralizing antibodies against HCV, primarily due to its role of engaging host entry factors, such as CD81, a key cell surface protein associated with HCV entry. Based on a series of biochemical analyses in combination with molecular docking, we present a description of a potential binding interface formed between the E2 protein and CD81. The virus side of this interface includes a hydrophobic helix motif comprised of residues W(437)LAGLF(442), which encompasses the binding site of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody, mAb41. The helical conformation of this motif provides a structural framework for the positioning of residues F442 and Y443, serving as contact points for the interaction with CD81. The cell side of this interface likewise involves a surface-exposed hydrophobic helix, namely, the D-helix of CD81, which coincides with the binding site of 1D6, a monoclonal anti-CD81 antibody known to block HCV entry. Our illustration of this virus-host interface suggests an important role played by the W(437)LAGLF(442) helix of the E2 protein in the hydrophobic interaction with the D-helix of CD81, thereby facilitating our understanding of the mechanism for antibody-mediated neutralization of HCV. Characterization of the interface established between a virus and host cells can provide important information that may be used for the control of virus infections. The interface that enables hepatitis C virus (HCV) to infect human liver cells has not been well understood because of the number of cell surface proteins, factors, and conditions found to be associated with the infection process. Based on a series of biochemical analyses in combination with molecular docking, we present such an interface, consisting of two hydrophobic helical structures, from the HCV E2 surface glycoprotein and the CD81 protein, a major host cell receptor recognized by all HCV strains. Our study reveals the

  9. Effect of human alpha 2HS glycoprotein on mouse macrophage function.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, J G; André, C M

    1980-01-01

    alpha 2HS glycoprotein was isolated from normal adult serum. The ability of alpha 2HS glycoprotein to promote the endocytosis of radiolabelled DNA and radiolabelled latex particles by mouse macrophages was investigated. The results using both radiolabelled latex particles and radiolabelled DNA show that alpha 2HS glycoprotein enhances the ability of mouse macrophages to take up these radiolabelled substrates as compared to control cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7439929

  10. RNF8 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Stimulates Ubc13 E2 Conjugating Activity That Is Essential for DNA Double Strand Break Signaling and BRCA1 Tumor Suppressor Recruitment

    DOE PAGES

    Hodge, Curtis D.; Ismail, Ismail H.; Edwards, Ross A.; ...

    2016-02-22

    DNA double strand break (DSB) responses depend on the sequential actions of the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168 plus E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13 to specifically generate histone Lys-63-linked ubiquitin chains in DSB signaling. In this paper, we defined the activated RNF8-Ubc13~ubiquitin complex by x-ray crystallography and its functional solution conformations by x-ray scattering, as tested by separation-of-function mutations imaged in cells by immunofluorescence. The collective results show that the RING E3 RNF8 targets E2 Ubc13 to DSB sites and plays a critical role in damage signaling by stimulating polyubiquitination through modulating conformations of ubiquitin covalently linked to the Ubc13more » active site. Structure-guided separation-of-function mutations show that the RNF8 E2 stimulating activity is essential for DSB signaling in mammalian cells and is necessary for downstream recruitment of 53BP1 and BRCA1. Chromatin-targeted RNF168 rescues 53BP1 recruitment involved in non-homologous end joining but not BRCA1 recruitment for homologous recombination. Finally, these findings suggest an allosteric approach to targeting the ubiquitin-docking cleft at the E2-E3 interface for possible interventions in cancer and chronic inflammation, and moreover, they establish an independent RNF8 role in BRCA1 recruitment.« less

  11. Selective control of oligosaccharide transfer efficiency for the N-glycosylation sequon by a point mutation in oligosaccharyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Igura, Mayumi; Kohda, Daisuke

    2011-04-15

    Asn-linked glycosylation is the most ubiquitous posttranslational protein modification in eukaryotes and archaea, and in some eubacteria. Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) catalyzes the transfer of preassembled oligosaccharides on lipid carriers onto asparagine residues in polypeptide chains. Inefficient oligosaccharide transfer results in glycoprotein heterogeneity, which is particularly bothersome in pharmaceutical glycoprotein production. Amino acid variation at the X position of the Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon is known to modulate the glycosylation efficiency. The best amino acid at X is valine, for an archaeal Pyrococcus furiosus OST. We performed a systematic alanine mutagenesis study of the archaeal OST to identify the essential and dispensable amino acid residues in the three catalytic motifs. We then investigated the effects of the dispensable mutations on the amino acid preference in the N-glycosylation sequon. One residue position was found to selectively affect the amino acid preference at the X position. This residue is located within the recently identified DXXKXXX(M/I) motif, suggesting the involvement of this motif in N-glycosylation sequon recognition. In applications, mutations at this position may facilitate the design of OST variants adapted to particular N-glycosylation sites to reduce the heterogeneity of glycan occupancy. In fact, a mutation at this position led to 9-fold higher activity relative to the wild-type enzyme, toward a peptide containing arginine at X in place of valine. This mutational approach is potentially applicable to eukaryotic and eubacterial OSTs for the production of homogenous glycoproteins in engineered mammalian and Escherichia coli cells.

  12. Cleavage of a Neuroinvasive Human Respiratory Virus Spike Glycoprotein by Proprotein Convertases Modulates Neurovirulence and Virus Spread within the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Meessen-Pinard, Mathieu; Dubé, Mathieu; Day, Robert; Seidah, Nabil G.; Talbot, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are respiratory pathogens that may be associated with the development of neurological diseases, in view of their neuroinvasive and neurotropic properties. The viral spike (S) glycoprotein is a major virulence factor for several coronavirus species, including the OC43 strain of HCoV (HCoV-OC43). In an attempt to study the role of this protein in virus spread within the central nervous system (CNS) and neurovirulence, as well as to identify amino acid residues important for such functions, we compared the sequence of the S gene found in the laboratory reference strain HCoV-OC43 ATCC VR-759 to S sequences of viruses detected in clinical isolates from the human respiratory tract. We identified one predominant mutation at amino acid 758 (from RRSR↓ G 758 to RRSR↓R 758), which introduces a putative furin-like cleavage (↓) site. Using a molecular cDNA infectious clone to generate a corresponding recombinant virus, we show for the first time that such point mutation in the HCoV-OC43 S glycoprotein creates a functional cleavage site between the S1 and S2 portions of the S protein. While the corresponding recombinant virus retained its neuroinvasive properties, this mutation led to decreased neurovirulence while potentially modifying the mode of virus spread, likely leading to a limited dissemination within the CNS. Taken together, these results are consistent with the adaptation of HCoV-OC43 to the CNS environment, resulting from the selection of quasi-species harboring mutations that lead to amino acid changes in viral genes, like the S gene in HCoV-OC43, which may contribute to a more efficient establishment of a less pathogenic but persistent CNS infection. This adaptative mechanism could potentially be associated with human encephalitis or other neurological degenerative pathologies. PMID:26545254

  13. Functional Characterization of Adaptive Mutations during the West African Ebola Virus Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Dietzel, Erik; Schudt, Gordian; Krähling, Verena; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Becker, Stephan

    2017-01-15

    The Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa started in December 2013, claimed more than 11,000 lives, threatened to destabilize a whole region, and showed how easily health crises can turn into humanitarian disasters. EBOV genomic sequences of the West African outbreak revealed nonsynonymous mutations, which induced considerable public attention, but their role in virus spread and disease remains obscure. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of three nonsynonymous mutations that emerged early during the West African EBOV outbreak. Almost 90% of more than 1,000 EBOV genomes sequenced during the outbreak carried the signature of three mutations: a D759G substitution in the active center of the L polymerase, an A82V substitution in the receptor binding domain of surface glycoprotein GP, and an R111C substitution in the self-assembly domain of RNA-encapsidating nucleoprotein NP. Using a newly developed virus-like particle system and reverse genetics, we found that the mutations have an impact on the functions of the respective viral proteins and on the growth of recombinant EBOVs. The mutation in L increased viral transcription and replication, whereas the mutation in NP decreased viral transcription and replication. The mutation in the receptor binding domain of the glycoprotein GP improved the efficiency of GP-mediated viral entry into target cells. Recombinant EBOVs with combinations of the three mutations showed a growth advantage over the prototype isolate Makona C7 lacking the mutations. This study showed that virus variants with improved fitness emerged early during the West African EBOV outbreak. The dimension of the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented. Amino acid substitutions in the viral L polymerase, surface glycoprotein GP, and nucleocapsid protein NP emerged, were fixed early in the outbreak, and were found in almost 90% of the sequences. Here we showed that these mutations affected the functional activity of

  14. Human Monoclonal Antibodies to a Novel Cluster of Conformational Epitopes on HCV E2 with Resistance to Neutralization Escape in a Genotype 2a Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Zhen-yong; Xia, Jinming; Wang, Yong; Wang, Wenyan; Krey, Thomas; Prentoe, Jannick; Carlsen, Thomas; Li, Angela Ying-Jian; Patel, Arvind H.; Lemon, Stanley M.; Bukh, Jens; Rey, Felix A.; Foung, Steven K. H.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of broadly neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) are against conformational epitopes on the E2 glycoprotein. Many of them recognize overlapping epitopes in a cluster, designated as antigenic domain B, that contains residues G530 and D535. To gain information on other regions that will be relevant for vaccine design, we employed yeast surface display of antibodies that bound to genotype 1a H77C E2 mutant proteins containing a substitution either at Y632A (to avoid selecting non-neutralizing antibodies) or D535A. A panel of nine human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) was isolated and designated as HC-84-related antibodies. Each HMAb neutralized cell culture infectious HCV (HCVcc) with genotypes 1–6 envelope proteins with varying profiles, and each inhibited E2 binding to the viral receptor CD81. Five of these antibodies neutralized representative genotypes 1–6 HCVcc. Epitope mapping identified a cluster of overlapping epitopes that included nine contact residues in two E2 regions encompassing aa418–446 and aa611–616. Effect on virus entry was measured using H77C HCV retroviral pseudoparticles, HCVpp, bearing an alanine substitution at each of the contact residues. Seven of ten mutant HCVpp showed over 90% reduction compared to wild-type HCVpp and two others showed approximately 80% reduction. Interestingly, four of these antibodies bound to a linear E2 synthetic peptide encompassing aa434–446. This region on E2 has been proposed to elicit non-neutralizing antibodies in humans that interfere with neutralizing antibodies directed at an adjacent E2 region from aa410–425. The isolation of four HC-84 HMAbs binding to the peptide, aa434–446, proves that some antibodies to this region are to highly conserved epitopes mediating broad virus neutralization. Indeed, when HCVcc were passaged in the presence of each of these antibodies, virus escape was not observed. Thus, the cluster of HC-84 epitopes, designated as antigenic domain D, is

  15. Mannostatin A, a new glycoprotein-processing inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tropea, J E; Kaushal, G P; Pastuszak, I; Mitchell, M; Aoyagi, T; Molyneux, R J; Elbein, A D

    1990-10-30

    Mannostatin A is a metabolite produced by the microorganism Streptoverticillium verticillus and reported to be a potent competitive inhibitor of rat epididymal alpha-mannosidase. When tested against a number of other arylglycosidases, mannostatin A was inactive toward alpha- and beta-glucosidase and galactosidase as well as beta-mannosidase, but it was a potent inhibitor of jack bean, mung bean, and rat liver lysosomal alpha-mannosidases, with estimated IC50's of 70 nM, 450 nM, and 160 nM, respectively. The type of inhibition was competitive in nature. This compound also proved to be an effective competitive inhibitor of the glycoprotein-processing enzyme mannosidase II (IC50 of about 10-15 nM with p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside as substrate, and about 90 nM with [3H]mannose-labeled GlcNAc-Man5GlcNAc as substrate). However, it was virtually inactive toward mannosidase I. The N-acetylated derivative of mannostatin A had no inhibitory activity. In cell culture studies, mannostatin A also proved to be a potent inhibitor of glycoprotein processing. Thus, in influenza virus infected Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, mannostatin A blocked the normal formation of complex types of oligosaccharides on the viral glycoproteins and caused the accumulation of hybrid types of oligosaccharides. This observation is in keeping with other data which indicate that the site of action of mannostatin A is mannosidase II. Thus, mannostatin A represents the first nonalkaloidal processing inhibitor and adds to the growing list of chemical structures that can have important biological activity.

  16. An Inducible Endothelial Cell Surface Glycoprotein Mediates Melanoma Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, G. Edgar; Bevilacqua, Michael P.

    1989-12-01

    Hematogenous metastasis requires the arrest and extravasation of blood-borne tumor cells, possibly involving direct adhesive interactions with vascular endothelium. Cytokine activation of cultured human endothelium increases adhesion of melanoma and carcinoma cell lines. An inducible 110-kD endothelial cell surface glycoprotein, designated INCAM-110, appears to mediate adhesion of melanoma cells. In addition, an inducible endothelial receptor for neutrophils, ELAM-1, supports the adhesion of a human colon carcinoma cell line. Thus, activation of vascular endothelium in vivo that results in increased expression of INCAM-110 and ELAM-1 may promote tumor cell adhesion and affect the incidence and distribution of metastases.

  17. High-performance liquid chromatography of human glycoprotein hormones.

    PubMed

    Chlenov, M A; Kandyba, E I; Nagornaya, L V; Orlova, I L; Volgin, Y V

    1993-02-12

    The chromatographic behavior of the glycoprotein hormones from human pituitary glands and of placental origin [thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin (CG)] was studied. It was shown that hydrophobic interaction chromatography on a microparticulate packing and anion-exchange HPLC can be applied for the purification of these hormones. Reversed-phase HPLC on wide-pore C4-bonded silica at neutral pH can be applied for the determination of the above hormones and for the isolation of pure CG and its subunits.

  18. (Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins of the plant cell wall)

    SciT

    Varner, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    We are studying the chemistry and architecture of plant cells walls, the extracellular matrices that taken together shape the plant and provide mechanical support for the plant. Cell walls are dynamic structures that regulate, or are the site of, many physiological processes, in addition to being the cells' first line of defense against invading pathogens. In the past year we have examined the role of the cell wall enzyme ascorbic acid oxidase as related to the structure of the wall and its possible interactions with hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins of the wall.

  19. Glycoprotein import: a common feature of complex plastids?

    PubMed

    Peschke, Madeleine; Hempel, Franziska

    2013-10-01

    Complex plastids evolved by secondary endosymbiosis and are, in contrast to primary plastids, surrounded by 3 or 4 envelope membranes. Recently, we provided evidence that in diatoms proteins exist that get N-glycosylated during transport across the outermost membrane of the complex plastid. This gives rise to unique questions on the transport mechanisms of these bulky proteins, which get transported across up to 3 further membranes into the plastid stroma. Here we discuss our results in an evolutionary context and speculate about the existence of plastidal glycoproteins in other organisms with complex plastids.

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein B Associates with Target Membranes via Its Fusion Loops▿

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Brian P.; Cairns, Tina M.; Bender, Florent C.; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Lou, Huan; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins gB, gD, and gH/gL are necessary and sufficient for virus entry into cells. Structural features of gB are similar to those of vesicular stomatitis virus G and baculovirus gp64, and together they define the new class III group of fusion proteins. Previously, we used mutagenesis to show that three hydrophobic residues (W174, Y179, and A261) within the putative gB fusion loops are integral to gB function. Here we expanded our analysis, using site-directed mutagenesis of each residue in both gB fusion loops. Mutation of most of the nonpolar or hydrophobic amino acids (W174, F175, G176, Y179, and A261) had severe effects on gB function in cell-cell fusion and null virus complementation assays. Of the six charged amino acids, mutation of H263 or R264 also negatively affected gB function. To further analyze the mutants, we cloned the ectodomains of the W174R, Y179S, H263A, and R264A mutants into a baculovirus expression system and compared them with the wild-type (WT) form, gB730t. As shown previously, gB730t blocks virus entry into cells, suggesting that gB730t competes with virion gB for a cell receptor. All four mutant proteins retained this function, implying that fusion loop activity is separate from gB-receptor binding. However, unlike WT gB730t, the mutant proteins displayed reduced binding to cells and were either impaired or unable to bind naked, cholesterol-enriched liposomes, suggesting that it may be gB-lipid binding that is disrupted by the mutations. Furthermore, monoclonal antibodies with epitopes proximal to the fusion loops abrogated gB-liposome binding. Taken together, our data suggest that gB associates with lipid membranes via a fusion domain of key hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues and that this domain associates with lipid membranes during fusion. PMID:19369321

  1. HPV16 E2 gene disruption and polymorphisms of E2 and LCR: some significant associations with cervical cancer in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Bornali; Sengupta, Sharmila

    2006-02-01

    We evaluated the status of the HPV16 E2 gene (disrupted or intact), nucleotide sequence alterations within intact E2 genes and LCR of HPV16 isolates in a group of CaCx cases (invasive squamous cell carcinomas, n = 81) and population controls (normal cervical scrapes, n = 27) from Indian women. E2 disruption was detected by amplifying the entire E2 gene with single set of primers, while overlapping primers were used to determine if any particular region got selectively disrupted. Nucleotide variations in E2 and LCR were analyzed by PCR amplification followed by bi-directional sequencing. The associations between the viral factors and CaCx were analyzed using Fisher's Exact or Chi-squared test and interpreted as OR (95% CI) and P values. E2 disruption was significantly higher among the cases [3.38 (1.07-10.72); P = 0.02], which was maximum in the region between nucleotides 3650 and 3872 (DNA-binding region). The European (E) variant was found to be the prevalent subgroup (87.76% among cases and 96.30% among the controls), and the remaining samples were Asian-American variants. Among the E subgroup, variation at position 7450 (T > C) within the E2-binding site-IV was found to be significantly higher among the E2 undisrupted cases (21/37; 56.76%), compared to controls (5/18; 27.78%) [3.41 (1.01-11.55); P = 0.03]. Besides HPV16 E2 disruption, LCR 7450T > C variation within undisrupted E2 of E subgroup appears to be a major factor contributing to the risk of CaCx development in Indian women. Furthermore, polymorphisms in the E2 gene of HPV16 may not be significant for disease risk.

  2. Ability of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) defensive secretions (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal to attract adult bed bugs

    Accurate and timely surveillance of bed bug infestations is critical for development of effective control strategies. While the bed bug produced volatiles (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal are considered defensive secretions, through use of EthoVision® video-tracking software we demonstrate that low ...

  3. Inhibition of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in vitro by the bed bug defensive secretions (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal

    The two major aldehydes (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal emitted as defensive secretions by bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), inhibit the in vitro growth of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sokorin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). These chemicals inhibit fungal growth by direct con...

  4. Analysis of gene mutations among South Indian patients with maple syrup urine disease: identification of four novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, M P; Menon, Krishnakumar N; Vasudevan, D M

    2013-10-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is predominantly caused by mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes, which encode for the E1alpha, E1beta and E2 subunits of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, respectively. Because disease causing mutations play a major role in the development of the disease, prenatal diagnosis at gestational level may have significance in making decisions by parents. Thus, this study was aimed to screen South Indian MSUD patients for mutations and assess the genotype-phenotype correlation. Thirteen patients diagnosed with MSUD by conventional biochemical screening such as urine analysis by DNPH test, thin layer chromatography for amino acids and blood amino acid quantification by HPLC were selected for mutation analysis. The entire coding regions of the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes were analyzed for mutations by PCR-based direct DNA sequencing. BCKDHA and BCKDHB mutations were seen in 43% of the total ten patients, while disease-causing DBT gene mutation was observed only in 14%. Three patients displayed no mutations. Novel mutations were c.130C>T in BCKDHA gene, c. 599C>T and c.121_122delAC in BCKDHB gene and c.190G>A in DBT gene. Notably, patients harbouring these mutations were non-responsive to thiamine supplementation and other treatment regimens and might have a worse prognosis as compared to the patients not having such mutations. Thus, identification of these mutations may have a crucial role in the treatment as well as understanding the molecular mechanisms in MSUD.

  5. E2F8 as a Novel Therapeutic Target for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sin-Aye; Platt, James; Lee, Jong Woo; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Herbst, Roy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The E2F members have been divided into transcription activators (E2F1-E2F3) and repressors (E2F4-E2F8). E2F8 with E2F7 has been known to play an important physiologic role in embryonic development and cell cycle regulation by repressing E2F1. However, the function of E2F8 in cancer cells is unknown. Methods: E2F8 expression was assessed by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence staining in human lung cancer (LC) cells and tissues from LC patients (n = 45). Cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion analysis were performed to evaluate the role of E2F8 in LC. Microarray analysis was used to determine the target genes of E2F8. The regulation of E2F8 on the expression of ubiquitin-like PHD and RING domain-containing 1 (UHRF1), one of E2F8 target genes, was determined using chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter activity assays. Human LC xenograft models were used to determine the effects of inhibiting E2F8 by siRNAs (n = 7 per group) or antisense morpholino (n = 8 per group) on tumor growth. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and group differences by the Student’s t test. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: LC tumors overexpressed E2F8 compared with normal lung tissues. Depletion of E2F8 inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth. E2F8 knockdown statistically significantly reduced the expression of UHRF1 (~60%-70%, P < .001), and the direct binding of E2F8 on the promoter of UHRF1 was identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis with a public database showed prognostic significance of aberrant E2F8 expression in LC (HR = 1.91 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.01 in chemo-naïve patients, P = .0047). Conclusions: We demonstrated that E2F8 is overexpressed in LC and is required for the growth of LC cells. These findings implicate E2F8 as a novel therapeutic target for LC treatment. PMID:26089541

  6. E2F8 as a Novel Therapeutic Target for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Aye; Platt, James; Lee, Jong Woo; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Herbst, Roy S; Koo, Ja Seok

    2015-09-01

    The E2F members have been divided into transcription activators (E2F1-E2F3) and repressors (E2F4-E2F8). E2F8 with E2F7 has been known to play an important physiologic role in embryonic development and cell cycle regulation by repressing E2F1. However, the function of E2F8 in cancer cells is unknown. E2F8 expression was assessed by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence staining in human lung cancer (LC) cells and tissues from LC patients (n = 45). Cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion analysis were performed to evaluate the role of E2F8 in LC. Microarray analysis was used to determine the target genes of E2F8. The regulation of E2F8 on the expression of ubiquitin-like PHD and RING domain-containing 1 (UHRF1), one of E2F8 target genes, was determined using chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter activity assays. Human LC xenograft models were used to determine the effects of inhibiting E2F8 by siRNAs (n = 7 per group) or antisense morpholino (n = 8 per group) on tumor growth. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and group differences by the Student's t test. All statistical tests were two-sided. LC tumors overexpressed E2F8 compared with normal lung tissues. Depletion of E2F8 inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth. E2F8 knockdown statistically significantly reduced the expression of UHRF1 (~60%-70%, P < .001), and the direct binding of E2F8 on the promoter of UHRF1 was identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis with a public database showed prognostic significance of aberrant E2F8 expression in LC (HR = 1.91 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.01 in chemo-naïve patients, P = .0047). We demonstrated that E2F8 is overexpressed in LC and is required for the growth of LC cells. These findings implicate E2F8 as a novel therapeutic target for LC treatment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Internalization and Axonal Transport of the HIV Glycoprotein gp120

    PubMed Central

    Berth, Sarah; Caicedo, Hector Hugo; Sarma, Tulika; Morfini, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    The HIV glycoprotein gp120, a neurotoxic HIV glycoprotein that is overproduced and shed by HIV-infected macrophages, is associated with neurological complications of HIV such as distal sensory polyneuropathy, but interactions of gp120 in the peripheral nervous system remain to be characterized. Here, we demonstrate internalization of extracellular gp120 in a manner partially independent of binding to its coreceptor CXCR4 by F11 neuroblastoma cells and cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. Immunocytochemical and pharmacological experiments indicate that gp120 does not undergo trafficking through the endolysosomal pathway. Instead, gp120 is mainly internalized through lipid rafts in a cholesterol-dependent manner, with a minor fraction being internalized by fluid phase pinocytosis. Experiments using compartmentalized microfluidic chambers further indicate that, after internalization, endocytosed gp120 selectively undergoes retrograde but not anterograde axonal transport from axons to neuronal cell bodies. Collectively, these studies illuminate mechanisms of gp120 internalization and axonal transport in peripheral nervous system neurons, providing a novel framework for mechanisms for gp120 neurotoxicity. PMID:25636314

  8. Biologically active peptides of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, R; Wade, M

    1985-01-01

    A peptide corresponding to the amino-terminal 25 amino acids of the mature vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein has recently been shown to be a pH-dependent hemolysin. In the present study, we analyzed smaller constituent peptides and found that the hemolytic domain resides within the six amino-terminal amino acids. Synthesis of variant peptides indicates that the amino-terminal lysine can be replaced by another positively charged amino acid (arginine) but that substitution with glutamic acid results in the total loss of the hemolytic function. Peptide-induced hemolysis was dependent upon buffer conditions and was inhibited when isotonicity was maintained with mannitol, sucrose, or raffinose. In sucrose, all hemolytic peptides were also observed to mediate hemagglutination. The large 25-amino acid peptide is also a pH-dependent cytotoxin for mammalian cells and appears to effect gross changes in cell permeability. Conservation of the amino terminus of vesicular stomatitis virus and rabies virus suggests that the membrane-destabilizing properties of this domain may be important for glycoprotein function. Images PMID:2981356

  9. The Lyssavirus glycoprotein: A key to cross-immunity.

    PubMed

    Buthelezi, Sindisiwe G; Dirr, Heini W; Chakauya, Ereck; Chikwamba, Rachel; Martens, Lennart; Tsekoa, Tsepo L; Stoychev, Stoyan H; Vandermarliere, Elien

    2016-11-01

    Rabies is an acute viral encephalomyelitis in warm-blooded vertebrates, caused by viruses belonging to Rhabdovirus family and genus Lyssavirus. Although rabies is categorised as a neglected disease, the rabies virus (RABV) is the most studied amongst Lyssaviruses which show nearly identical infection patterns. In efforts to improving post-exposure prophylaxis, several anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the glycoprotein (G protein) sites I, II, III and G5 have been characterized. To explore cross-neutralization capacity of available mAbs and discover new possible B-cell epitopes, we have analyzed all available glycoprotein sequences from Lyssaviruses with a focus on sequence variation and conservation. This information was mapped on the structure of a representative G protein. We proposed several possible cross-neutralizing B-cell epitopes (GUVTTTF, WLRTV, REECLD and EHLVVEEL) in complement to the already well-characterized antigenic sites. The research could facilitate development of novel cross-reactive mAbs against RABV and even more broad, against possibly all Lyssavirus members. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of a mouse synaptic glycoprotein gene in cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Albert Cheung-Hoi; Sun, Chun Xiao; Li, Qiang; Liu, Hua Dong; Wang, Chen Ran; Zhao, Guo Ping; Jin, Meilei; Lau, Lok Ting; Fung, Yin-Wan Wendy; Liu, Shuang

    2005-10-01

    Neuronal differentiation and aging are known to involve many genes, which may also be differentially expressed during these developmental processes. From primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons, we have previously identified various differentially expressed gene transcripts from cultured cortical neurons using the technique of arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR). Among these transcripts, clone 0-2 was found to have high homology to rat and human synaptic glycoprotein. By in silico analysis using an EST database and the FACTURA software, the full-length sequence of 0-2 was assembled and the clone was named as mouse synaptic glycoprotein homolog 2 (mSC2). DNA sequencing revealed transcript size of mSC2 being smaller than the human and rat homologs. RT-PCR indicated that mSC2 was expressed differentially at various culture days. The mSC2 gene was located in various tissues with higher expression in brain, lung, and liver. Functions of mSC2 in neurons and other tissues remain elusive and will require more investigation.

  11. Modeling of Oligosaccharides within Glycoproteins from Free-Energy Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the abundance of glycoproteins in biological processes, relatively little three-dimensional structural data is available for glycan structures. Here, we study the structure and flexibility of the vast majority of mammalian oligosaccharides appearing in N- and O-glycosylated proteins using a bottom up approach. We report the conformational free-energy landscapes of all relevant glycosidic linkages as obtained from local elevation simulations and subsequent umbrella sampling. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first complete conformational library for the construction of N- and O-glycan structures. Next, we systematically study the effect of neighboring residues, by extensively simulating all relevant trisaccharides and one tetrasaccharide. This allows for an unprecedented comparison of disaccharide linkages in large oligosaccharides. With a small number of exceptions, the conformational preferences in the larger structures are very similar as in the disaccharides. This, finally, allows us to suggest several efficient approaches to construct complete N- and O-glycans on glycoproteins, as exemplified on two relevant examples. PMID:28816453

  12. Adhesive properties of the isolated amino-terminal domain of platelet glycoprotein Ibα in a flow field

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Patrizia; Saldívar, Enrique; Ware, Jerry; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.

    1999-01-01

    We have examined the interaction between the amino-terminal domain of platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ibα and immobilized von Willebrand Factor (vWF) under flow conditions in the absence of other components of the GP Ib–IX–V complex. Latex beads were coated with a recombinant fragment containing GP Ibα residues 1–302, either with normal sequence or with the single G233V substitution that causes enhanced affinity for plasma vWF in platelet-type pseudo-von-Willebrand disease. Beads coated with native fragment adhered to vWF in a manner comparable to platelets, showing surface translocation that reflected the transient nature of the bonds formed. Thus, the GP Ibα extracellular domain is necessary and sufficient for interacting with vWF under high shear stress. Beads coated with the mutated fragment became tethered to vWF in greater number and had lower velocity of translocation than beads coated with the normal counterpart, suggesting that the G233V mutation lowers the rate of bond dissociation. Our findings define an approach for studying the biomechanical properties of the GP Ibα–vWF bond and suggest that this interaction is tightly regulated to allow rapid binding at sites of vascular injury, while permitting the concurrent presence of receptor and ligand in the circulation. PMID:10393908

  13. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  5. Glycoproteins Enrichment and LC-MS/MS Glycoproteomics in Central Nervous System Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rui; Song, Ehwang; Hussein, Ahmed; Kobeissy, Firas H; Mechref, Yehia

    2017-01-01

    Proteins and glycoproteins play important biological roles in central nervous systems (CNS). Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of proteins and glycoproteins expression in CNS is critical to reveal the inherent biomolecular mechanism of CNS diseases. This chapter describes proteomic and glycoproteomic approaches based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS or LC-MS/MS) for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of proteins and glycoproteins expressed in CNS. Proteins and glycoproteins, extracted by a mass spectrometry friendly surfactant from CNS samples, were subjected to enzymatic (tryptic) digestion and three down-stream analyses: (1) a nano LC system coupled with a high-resolution MS instrument to achieve qualitative proteomic profile, (2) a nano LC system combined with a triple quadrupole MS to quantify identified proteins, and (3) glycoprotein enrichment prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Enrichment techniques can be applied to improve coverage of low abundant glycopeptides/glycoproteins. An example described in this chapter is hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) enrichment to capture glycopeptides, allowing efficient removal of peptides. The combination of three LC-MS/MS-based approaches is capable of the investigation of large-scale proteins and glycoproteins from CNS with an in-depth coverage, thus offering a full view of proteins and glycoproteins changes in CNS.

  6. Prostate Cancer Progression and Serum SIBLING (Small Integrin Binding N-Linked Glycoprotein)Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    termed SIBLINGs (for small integrin binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins) whose members include bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), dentin...enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for quantitatively determining the levels of bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), dentin...synthesized as a chimeric protein, composed of three parts: dentin sialoprotein (DSP), dentin glycoprotein (DGP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP, also

  7. Demonstration that endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of glycoproteins can occur downstream of processing by endomannosidase.

    PubMed

    Kukushkin, Nikolay V; Alonzi, Dominic S; Dwek, Raymond A; Butters, Terry D

    2011-08-15

    During quality control in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), nascent glycoproteins are deglucosylated by ER glucosidases I and II. In the post-ER compartments, glycoprotein endo-α-mannosidase provides an alternative route for deglucosylation. Previous evidence suggests that endomannosidase non-selectively deglucosylates glycoproteins that escape quality control in the ER, facilitating secretion of aberrantly folded as well as normal glycoproteins. In the present study, we employed FOS (free oligosaccharides) released from degrading glycoproteins as biomarkers of ERAD (ER-associated degradation), allowing us to gain a global rather than single protein-centred view of ERAD. Glucosidase inhibition was used to discriminate between glucosidase- and endomannosidase-mediated ERAD pathways. Endomannosidase expression was manipulated in CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary)-K1 cells, naturally lacking a functional version of the enzyme, and HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293T cells. Endomannosidase was shown to decrease the levels of total FOS, suggesting decreased rates of ERAD. However, following pharmacological inhibition of ER glucosidases I and II, endomannosidase expression resulted in a partial switch between glucosylated FOS, released from ER-confined glycoproteins, to deglucosylated FOS, released from endomannosidase-processed glycoproteins transported from the Golgi/ERGIC (ER/Golgi intermediate compartment) to the ER. Using this approach, we have identified a previously unknown pathway of glycoprotein flow, undetectable by the commonly employed methods, in which secretory cargo is targeted back to the ER after being processed by endomannosidase. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  8. Glycoprotein Biochemistry--Some Clinical Aspects of Interest to Biochemistry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Authors describe some clinical features of glycoprotein biochemistry, including recognition, selected blood glycoproteins, glycated proteins, histochemistry, and cancer. The material presented has largely been taught to medical laboratory students; however, it can be used to teach premedical students and pure biochemistry students. Includes two…

  9. Establishment of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate endocytosis of desialylated glycoproteins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cheng; Chen, Song; Xu, Na; Sai, Wen Bo; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ying Chun; Hu, Xiao Jing; Tian, Hong; Gao, Xiang Dong; Yao, Wen Bing

    2017-04-01

    Insufficient sialylation can result in rapid clearance of therapeutic glycoproteins by intracellular degradation, which is mainly mediated by asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs) on hepatic cells. In contrast, for glycoproteins, a long half-life is often related to high level of terminal sialic acid. These could be extremely important for insufficient sialylated biomedicines in clinic, and development of therapeutic glycoproteins in laboratory. However, how the desialylated glycoproteins are removed and how to evaluate the ASGPRs mediated endocytosis in vitro needs further investigate. Herein we described an integrative characterization of ASGPRs in vitro to elucidate its endocytosis properties. The endocytosis was determined by a fluorescence-based quantization method. The results showed that the ASGPRs could bind to poorly sialylated glycoproteins including asialofetuin and low sialylated recombinant Factor VIIa with a relatively higher ASGPRs binding affinity, and induce a more rapid endocytosis in vitro. Moreover, the mechanism under the internalization of ASGPRs was also investigated, which was found to depend on clathrin and caveolin. Utilizing the relative fluorescence quantification can be suitable for measurement of insufficient sialylated glycoprotein endocytosis and quality control of therapeutic glycoproteins, which could be useful for the understanding of the development of therapeutic glycoproteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A GXXXA motif in the transmembrane domain of the Ebola virus glycoprotein is required for tetherin antagonism.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, Mariana; Hoffmann, Markus; Brinkmann, Constantin; Nehls, Julia; Winkler, Michael; Schindler, Michael; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2018-04-18

    The interferon-induced antiviral host cell protein tetherin can inhibit the release of several enveloped viruses from infected cells. The Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) antagonizes tetherin but the domains and amino acids in GP that are required for tetherin antagonism have not been fully defined. A GXXXA motif within the transmembrane domain (TMD) of EBOV-GP was previously shown to be important for GP-mediated cellular detachment. Here, we investigated whether this motif also contributes to tetherin antagonism. Mutation of the GXXXA motif did not impact GP expression or particle incorporation and only modestly reduced EBOV-GP-driven entry. In contrast, the GXXXA motif was required for tetherin antagonism in transfected cells. Moreover, alteration of the GXXXA motif increased tetherin-sensitivity of a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) chimera encoding EBOV-GP. Although these results await confirmation with authentic EBOV, they indicate that a GXXXA motif in the TMD of EBOV-GP is important for tetherin antagonism. Moreover, they provide the first evidence that GP can antagonize tetherin in the context of an infectious EBOV surrogate. IMPORTANCE The glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus (EBOV) inhibits the antiviral host cell protein tetherin and may promote viral spread in tetherin-positive cells. However, tetherin antagonism by GP has so far only been demonstrated using virus-like particles and it is unknown whether GP can block tetherin in infected cells. Moreover, a mutation in GP that selectively abrogates tetherin antagonism is unknown. Here, we show that a GXXXA motif in the transmembrane domain of EBOV-GP, which was previously reported to be required for GP-mediated cell rounding, is also important for tetherin counteraction. Moreover, analysis of this mutation in the context of vesicular stomatitis virus chimeras encoding EBOV-GP revealed that GP-mediated tetherin counteraction is operative in infected cells. To our knowledge, these

  11. Increased urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite: A potential therapeutic target of Gitelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lanping; Chen, Chen; Qin, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Ou; Xing, Xiaoping; Li, Xuemei; Nie, Min; Chen, Limeng

    2017-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS), an inherited autosomal recessive salt-losing renal tubulopathy caused by mutations in SLC12A3 gene, has been associated with normal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels since 1995 by a study involving 11 clinically diagnosed patients. However, it is difficult to explain why cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitors, which pharmacologically reduce PGE2 synthesis, are helpful to patients with GS, and few studies performed in the last 20 years have measured PGE2 levels. The relationships between the clinical manifestations and PGE2 levels were never thoroughly analyzed. This study involved 39 GS patients diagnosed by SLC12A3 gene sequencing. Plasma and 24-h urine samples as well as the clinical data were collected at admission. PGE2 and PGEM levels were detected in plasma and urine samples by enzyme immunoassays. The in vivo function of the sodium-chloride co-transporter (NCC) in GS patients was evaluated using a modified thiazide test. The association among PGE2 levels, clinical manifestations and the function of NCC in GS patients were analyzed. Significantly higher levels of urinary and plasma PGEM were observed in GS patients than in the healthy volunteers. Higher urinary PGEM levels indicated more severe clinical manifestations and NCC dysfunction estimated by the increase of Cl- clearance. A higher PGEM level was found in male GS patients, who showed earlier onset age and more severe hypokalemia, hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis than female GS patients. No relationship between renin angiotensin aldosterone system activation and PGEM level was observed. Higher urinary PGEM levels indicated more severe clinical manifestations and NCC dysfunction in GS patients. COX2 inhibition might be a potential therapeutic target in GS patients with elevated PGEM levels.

  12. Targeted Entry via Somatostatin Receptors Using a Novel Modified Retrovirus Glycoprotein That Delivers Genes at Levels Comparable to Those of Wild-Type Viral Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Ryu, Byoung Y.; Krueger, Robin L.; Heldt, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report a novel viral glycoprotein created by replacing a natural receptor-binding sequence of the ecotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein with the peptide ligand somatostatin. This new chimeric glycoprotein, which has been named the Sst receptor binding site (Sst-RBS), gives targeted transduction based on three criteria: (i) a gain of the use of a new entry receptor not used by any known virus; (ii) targeted entry at levels comparable to gene delivery by wild-type ecotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G glycoproteins; and (iii) a loss of the use of the natural ecotropic virus receptor. Retroviral vectors coated with Sst-RBS gained the ability to bind and transduce human 293 cells expressing somatostatin receptors. Their infection was specific to target somatostatin receptors, since a synthetic somatostatin peptide inhibited infection in a dose-dependent manner and the ability to transduce mouse cells bearing the natural ecotropic receptor was effectively lost. Importantly, vectors coated with the Sst-RBS glycoprotein gave targeted entry of up to 1 × 106 transducing U/ml, a level comparable to that seen with infection of vectors coated with the parental wild-type ecotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus glycoprotein through the ecotropic receptor and approaching that of infection of VSV G-coated vectors through the VSV receptor. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a glycoprotein that gives targeted entry of retroviral vectors at levels comparable to the natural capacity of viral envelope glycoproteins. PMID:22013043

  13. Structure of a Glomulin-RBX1-CUL1 Complex: Inhibition of a RING E3 Ligase through Masking of Its E2-Binding Surface

    SciT

    Duda, David M.; Olszewski, Jennifer L.; Tron, Adriana E.

    2012-11-01

    The approximately 300 human cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are multisubunit E3s in which a RING protein, either RBX1 or RBX2, recruits an E2 to catalyze ubiquitination. RBX1-containing CRLs also can bind Glomulin (GLMN), which binds RBX1's RING domain, regulates the RBX1-CUL1-containing SCF{sup FBW7} complex, and is disrupted in the disease Glomuvenous Malformation. Here we report the crystal structure of a complex between GLMN, RBX1, and a fragment of CUL1. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that GLMN adopts a HEAT-like repeat fold that tightly binds the E2-interacting surface of RBX1, inhibiting CRL-mediated chain formation by the E2 CDC34. The structure explains themore » basis for GLMN's selectivity toward RBX1 over RBX2, and how disease-associated mutations disrupt GLMN-RBX1 interactions. Our study reveals a mechanism for RING E3 ligase regulation, whereby an inhibitor blocks E2 access, and raises the possibility that other E3s are likewise controlled by cellular proteins that mask E2-binding surfaces to mediate inhibition.« less

  14. Structure of a Glomulin-RBX1-CUL1 complex: inhibition of a RING E3 ligase through masking of its E2-binding surface

    PubMed Central

    Duda, David M.; Olszewski, Jennifer L.; Tron, Adriana E.; Hammel, Michal; Lambert, Lester J.; Waddell, M. Brett; Mittag, Tanja; DeCaprio, James A.; Schulman, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The ~300 human Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are multisubunit E3s in which a RING protein, either RBX1 or RBX2, recruits an E2 to catalyze ubiquitination. RBX1-containing CRLs also can bind Glomulin (GLMN), which binds RBX1’s RING domain, regulates the RBX1-CUL1-containing SCFFBW7 complex, and is disrupted in the disease Glomuvenous Malformation. Here we report the crystal structure of a complex between GLMN, RBX1, and a fragment of CUL1. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that GLMN adopts a HEAT-like repeat fold that tightly binds the E2-interacting surface of RBX1, inhibiting CRL-mediated chain formation by the E2 CDC34. The structure explains the basis for GLMN’s selectivity toward RBX1 over RBX2, and how disease-associated mutations disrupt GLMN-RBX1 interactions. Our study reveals a mechanism for RING E3 ligase regulation whereby an inhibitor blocks E2 access, and raises the possibility that other E3s are likewise controlled by cellular proteins that mask E2-binding surfaces to mediate inhibition. PMID:22748924

  15. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E Figure E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Fig. E-2 Figure E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53...

  16. E2fl1 is a meiosis-specific transcription factor in the protist Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Miao; Miao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the E2F family of transcription factors have been reported to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication, and DNA repair in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, E2FL1, a meiosis-specific E2F transcription factor gene, was identified in the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Loss of this gene resulted in meiotic arrest prior to anaphase I. The cytological experiments revealed that the meiotic homologous pairing was not affected in the absence of E2FL1, but the paired homologous chromosomes did not separate and assumed a peculiar tandem arrangement. This is the first time that an E2F family member has been shown to regulate meiotic events. Moreover, BrdU incorporation showed that DSB processing during meiosis was abnormal upon the deletion of E2FL1. Transcriptome sequencing analysis revealed that E2FL1 knockout decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA replication and DNA repair in T. thermophila, suggesting that the function of E2F is highly conserved in eukaryotes. In addition, E2FL1 deletion inhibited the expression of related homologous chromosome segregation genes in T. thermophila. The result may explain the meiotic arrest phenotype at anaphase I. Finally, by searching for E2F DNA-binding motifs in the entire T. thermophila genome, we identified 714 genes containing at least one E2F DNA-binding motif; of these, 235 downregulated represent putative E2FL1 target genes. PMID:27892792

  17. 40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Product Manufacturing Checklist E Figure E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Fig. E-2 Figure E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53...

  18. E2F Activators Signal and Maintain Centrosome Amplification in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Moreno, Carlos S.

    2014-01-01

    Centrosomes ensure accurate chromosome segregation by directing spindle bipolarity. Loss of centrosome regulation results in centrosome amplification, multipolar mitosis and aneuploidy. Since centrosome amplification is common in premalignant lesions and breast tumors, it is proposed to play a central role in breast tumorigenesis, a hypothesis that remains to be tested. The coordination between the cell and centrosome cycles is of paramount importance to maintain normal centrosome numbers, and the E2Fs may be responsible for regulating these cycles. However, the role of E2F activators in centrosome amplification is unclear. Because E2Fs are deregulated in Her2+ cells displaying centrosome amplification, we addressed whether they signal this abnormal process. Knockdown of E2F1 or E2F3 in Her2+ cells decreased centrosome amplification without significantly affecting cell cycle progression, whereas the overexpression of E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3 increased centrosome amplification in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Our results revealed that E2Fs affect the expression of proteins, including Nek2 and Plk4, known to influence the cell/centrosome cycles and mitosis. Downregulation of E2F3 resulted in cell death and delays/blocks in cytokinesis, which was reversed by Nek2 overexpression. Nek2 overexpression enhanced centrosome amplification in Her2+ breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3, revealing a role for the E2F activators in maintaining centrosome amplification in part through Nek2. PMID:24797070

  19. E2F activators signal and maintain centrosome amplification in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Young; Moreno, Carlos S; Saavedra, Harold I

    2014-07-01

    Centrosomes ensure accurate chromosome segregation by directing spindle bipolarity. Loss of centrosome regulation results in centrosome amplification, multipolar mitosis and aneuploidy. Since centrosome amplification is common in premalignant lesions and breast tumors, it is proposed to play a central role in breast tumorigenesis, a hypothesis that remains to be tested. The coordination between the cell and centrosome cycles is of paramount importance to maintain normal centrosome numbers, and the E2Fs may be responsible for regulating these cycles. However, the role of E2F activators in centrosome amplification is unclear. Because E2Fs are deregulated in Her2(+) cells displaying centrosome amplification, we addressed whether they signal this abnormal process. Knockdown of E2F1 or E2F3 in Her2(+) cells decreased centrosome amplification without significantly affecting cell cycle progression, whereas the overexpression of E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3 increased centrosome amplification in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Our results revealed that E2Fs affect the expression of proteins, including Nek2 and Plk4, known to influence the cell/centrosome cycles and mitosis. Downregulation of E2F3 resulted in cell death and delays/blocks in cytokinesis, which was reversed by Nek2 overexpression. Nek2 overexpression enhanced centrosome amplification in Her2(+) breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3, revealing a role for the E2F activators in maintaining centrosome amplification in part through Nek2.

  20. Development of a competitive ELISA using a truncated E2 recombinant protein as antigen for detection of antibodies to classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, A; Lin, M; Riva, J; Mallory, M; Lin, F; Zhou, E M

    2001-02-01

    The sequence encoding a truncated E2 glycoprotein of the Alfort/187 strain of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) was expressed in Escherichia coli using the pET expression system and the recombinant product purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The antigenicity of this recombinant protein was demonstrated by immunoblot using anti- CSFV-specific antibodies. A monoclonal antibody was produced against the truncated E2 protein and used as competitor in an ELISA for the detection of antibodies to CSFV. Specific antibodies were demonstrated by competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) as early as 21 days post-infection (dpi) in experimentally infected pigs. Seroconversion was demonstrated by C-ELISA and neutralising peroxidase-linked assay (NPLA) in all infected animals by 4 weeks. No cross-reaction with antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was seen in the C-ELISA using sera from experimentally infected pigs. The C-ELISA is not intended as a substitute for the NPLA. However, it is expected it will be useful for monitoring and prevalence studies. It will also assist in testing a large number of samples in the event of an outbreak. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  1. Purification and characterization of a soluble glycoprotein from garlic (Allium sativum) and its in vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zou, Tingting; Xiang, Minghui; Jin, Chenzhong; Zhang, Xuejiao; Chen, Yong; Jiang, Qiuqing; Hu, Yihong

    2016-10-02

    A soluble glycoprotein was purified to homogeneity from ripe garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs using ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, and diethylaminoethyl-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography. A native mass of 55.7 kDa estimated on gel permeation chromatography and a molecular weight of 13.2 kDa observed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis supported that the glycoprotein is a homotetramer. β-Elimination reaction result suggested that the glycoprotein is an N-linked type. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy proved that it contains sugar. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis showed that its sugar component was galactose. The glycoprotein has 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil free radical scavenging activity and the peroxidation inhibition ability to polyunsaturated fatty acid. These results indicated that the glycoprotein has potential for food additives, functional foods, and even biotechnological and medical applications.

  2. Tandem E2F Binding Sites in the Promoter of the p107 Cell Cycle Regulator Control p107 Expression and Its Cellular Functions

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Deborah L.; Wirt, Stacey E.; Zmoos, Anne-Flore; Kareta, Michael S.; Sage, Julien

    2010-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) is a potent and ubiquitously expressed cell cycle regulator, but patients with a germline Rb mutation develop a very specific tumor spectrum. This surprising observation raises the possibility that mechanisms that compensate for loss of Rb function are present or activated in many cell types. In particular, p107, a protein related to Rb, has been shown to functionally overlap for loss of Rb in several cellular contexts. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this functional redundancy between Rb and p107 in vivo, we used gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to engineer point mutations in two consensus E2F binding sites in the endogenous p107 promoter. Analysis of normal and mutant cells by gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that members of the Rb and E2F families directly bound these two sites. Furthermore, we found that these two E2F sites controlled both the repression of p107 in quiescent cells and also its activation in cycling cells, as well as in Rb mutant cells. Cell cycle assays further indicated that activation of p107 transcription during S phase through the two E2F binding sites was critical for controlled cell cycle progression, uncovering a specific role for p107 to slow proliferation in mammalian cells. Direct transcriptional repression of p107 by Rb and E2F family members provides a molecular mechanism for a critical negative feedback loop during cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. These experiments also suggest novel therapeutic strategies to increase the p107 levels in tumor cells. PMID:20585628

  3. Adipokine zinc-α2-glycoprotein regulated by growth hormone and linked to insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Balaz, Miroslav; Ukropcova, Barbara; Kurdiova, Timea; Gajdosechova, Lucia; Vlcek, Miroslav; Janakova, Zuzana; Fedeles, Jozef; Pura, Mikulas; Gasperikova, Daniela; Smith, Steven R; Tkacova, Ruzena; Klimes, Iwar; Payer, Juraj; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropec, Jozef

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic obesity is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and lipid-mobilizing activity of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Adipose tissue (AT) of growth hormone (GH) -deficient patients is characterized by extreme adipocyte hypertrophy due to defects in AT lipid metabolism. It was hypothesized that zinc-α2-glycoprotein is regulated by GH and mediates some of its beneficial effects in AT. AT from patients with GH deficiency and individuals with obesity-related GH deficit was obtained before and after 5-year and 24-month GH supplementation therapy. GH action was tested in primary human adipocytes. Relationships of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein with adipocyte size and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in nondiabetic patients with noncancerous cachexia and hypertrophic obesity. AT in GH-deficient adults displayed a substantial reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. GH therapy normalized AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Obesity-related relative GH deficit was associated with almost 80% reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in AT. GH increased zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in both AT of obese men and primary human adipocytes. Interdependence of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in regulating AT morphology and metabolic phenotype was evident from their relationship with adipocyte size and AT-specific and whole-body insulin sensitivity. The results demonstrate that GH is involved in regulation of AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein; however, the molecular mechanism linking GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in AT is yet unknown. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  4. A membrane glycoprotein that accumulates intracellularly: cellular processing of the large glycoprotein of LaCrosse virus.

    PubMed

    Madoff, D H; Lenard, J

    1982-04-01

    The intracellular transport and certain posttranslational modifications of the large glycoprotein (G1) of LaCrosse virus (LAC) in BHK cells have been studied. G1 from released LAC virus was characterized by complex oligosaccharides (endo H-resistant) and covalently attached fatty acid. Only a small fraction of total cellular G1 was present on the baby hamster kidney cell surface. Cell-surface G1 contained complex oligosaccharides, while total G1 in infected cells contained largely unprocessed (endo H-sensitive) oligosaccharides. In addition, cell G1 contained significantly less fatty acid than virion-associated G1. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the oligosaccharides of G1 were processed to the complex from much more slowly than the oligosaccharides of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein (G). In addition, transit of LAC G1 to the cell surface and into extracellular virions was two to three fold slower than the transit of VSV G. Thus LAC G1 accumulates intracellularly and is only slowly processed by intracellular processing enzymes. Treatment with monensin caused accumulation in the cell of a form of G1 with partial sensitivity toward endo H, suggesting that monensin may act to inhibit the glycosylation process directly.

  5. Mutations in Lettuce Improvement.

    Mutations can make profound impact on the evolution and improvement of a self-pollinated crop such as lettuce. Since it is nontransgenic, mutation breeding is more acceptable to consumers. Combined with genomic advances in new technologies like TILLING, mutagenesis is becoming an even more powerfu...

  6. Distinctive expression patterns of glycoprotein non-metastatic B and folliculin in renal tumors in patients with Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Mitsuko; Hong, Seung-Beom; Tanaka, Reiko; Kuroda, Naoto; Nagashima, Yoji; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Suyama, Takahito; Yao, Masahiro; Nakatani, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an inherited disorder associated with a germline mutation of the folliculin gene (FLCN). The affected families have a high risk for developing multiple renal cell carcinomas (RCC). Diagnostic markers that distinguish between FLCN-related RCC and sporadic RCC have not been investigated, and many patients with undiagnosed BHD fail to receive proper medical care. We investigated the histopathology of 27 RCCs obtained from 18 BHD patients who were diagnosed by genetic testing. Possible somatic mutations of RCC lesions were investigated by DNA sequencing. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used to compare the expression levels of FLCN and glycoprotein non-metastatic B (GPNMB) between FLCN-related RCCs and sporadic renal tumors (n = 62). The expression of GPNMB was also evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. Histopathological analysis revealed that the most frequent histological type was chromophobe RCC (n = 12), followed by hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (n = 6). Somatic mutation analysis revealed small intragenic mutations in six cases and loss of heterozygosity in two cases. Western blot and immunostaining analyses revealed that FLCN-related RCCs showed overexpression of GPNMB and underexpression of FLCN, whereas sporadic tumors showed inverted patterns. GPNMB mRNA in FLCN-related RCCs was 23-fold more abundant than in sporadic tumors. The distinctive expression patterns of GPNMB and FLCN might identify patients with RCCs who need further work-up for BHD. PMID:25594584

  7. CpG methylation of HPV 16 LCR at E2 binding site proximal to P97 is associated with cervical cancer in presence of intact E2.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Bornali; Sengupta, Sharmila

    2006-10-25

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E2 protein negatively regulates transcription of the E6 and E7 genes. This study was done to test the hypothesis that methylation of the HPV 16 long control region (LCR) is overrepresented among cervical cancer (CaCx) cases compared to cytologically normal controls harboring intact E2 gene. Methylation of the E2 binding site (E2BS-I), proximal to the P97 promoter, was assessed by HpaII/ MspI restriction digestion while McrBC digestion was used to assess LCR-E6 (7289-540) for 57 CaCx samples and 15 normal controls. E2BS-I methylation was found to be significantly higher (56.14%) in cases compared to (20%) controls [OR(age-adjusted) (95% CI): 4.53 (1.05-19.43) p=0.042]. The difference between cases (54.39%) and controls (40%) with respect to LCR-E6 methylation status [OR(age-adjusted) (95% CI): 1.77(0.5-6.3); p=0.38] was not significant. Sequencing of a randomly selected set of 13 methylated malignant samples revealed absence or rare presence, of methylation at CpGs 7579, 7535, 7683 and 7862 respectively. Methylation was found to be more at CpGs within E2 binding sites proximal to the P97 promoter. These results indicate the involvement of E2 binding site methylation in presence of intact E2, leading to loss of E2 repressor activity in CaCx.

  8. The NS1 Glycoprotein Can Generate Dramatic Antibody-Enhanced Dengue Viral Replication in Normal Out-Bred Mice Resulting in Lethal Multi-Organ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Falconar, Andrew K. I.; Martinez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    , particularly against DENV strains that contain multiple mutations or genetic recombination within or between their DENV E and NS1 glycoprotein-encoding genes. The model provides potential for assessing DENV strain pathogenicity and anti-DENV therapies in normal mice. PMID:21731643

  9. Genomic mutation consequence calculator.

    PubMed

    Major, John E

    2007-11-15

    The genomic mutation consequence calculator (GMCC) is a tool that will reliably and quickly calculate the consequence of arbitrary genomic mutations. GMCC also reports supporting annotations for the specified genomic region. The particular strength of the GMCC is it works in genomic space, not simply in spliced transcript space as some similar tools do. Within gene features, GMCC can report on the effects on splice site, UTR and coding regions in all isoforms affected by the mutation. A considerable number of genomic annotations are also reported, including: genomic conservation score, known SNPs, COSMIC mutations, disease associations and others. The manual interface also offers link outs to various external databases and resources. In batch mode, GMCC returns a csv file which can easily be parsed by the end user. GMCC is intended to support the many tumor resequencing efforts, but can be useful to any study investigating genomic mutations.

  10. Mutation and premating isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  11. HP-41CV Flight Performance Advisory System (FPAS) for the E-2C, E-2B, and C-2A Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    NPS67-82- 003 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC HP-41CV FLIGHT PERFORMANCE ADVISORY SYSTEM (FPAS) FOR THE E-2C, E-2B, AND C-2A...A’P-𔃻"’f .00 ____________ 4. TITLE9 (and Subtil) SL TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED H1P-41CV FLIGHT PERFORMANCE ADVISORY SYSTEM (FPAS) TECHNICAL REPORT...complement the original design of a Flight Performance Advisory System (FPAS) for the E-2C aircraft. The original design fulfilled the requirements of AE 3001

  12. Regulation of human genome expression and RNA splicing by human papillomavirus 16 E2 protein.

    PubMed

    Gauson, Elaine J; Windle, Brad; Donaldson, Mary M; Caffarel, Maria M; Dornan, Edward S; Coleman, Nicholas; Herzyk, Pawel; Henderson, Scott C; Wang, Xu; Morgan, Iain M

    2014-11-01

    Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is causative in human cancer. The E2 protein regulates transcription from and replication of the viral genome; the role of E2 in regulating the host genome has been less well studied. We have expressed HPV16 E2 (E2) stably in U2OS cells; these cells tolerate E2 expression well and gene expression analysis identified 74 genes showing differential expression specific to E2. Analysis of published gene expression data sets during cervical cancer progression identified 20 of the genes as being altered in a similar direction as the E2 specific genes. In addition, E2 altered the splicing of many genes implicated in cancer and cell motility. The E2 expressing cells showed no alteration in cell growth but were altered in cell motility, consistent with the E2 induced altered splicing predicted to affect this cellular function. The results present a model system for investigating E2 regulation of the host genome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. E2f1–3 Are Critical for Myeloid Development*

    PubMed Central

    Trikha, Prashant; Sharma, Nidhi; Opavsky, Rene; Reyes, Andres; Pena, Clarissa; Ostrowski, Michael C.; Roussel, Martine F.; Leone, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic development involves the coordinated activity of differentiation and cell cycle regulators. In current models of mammalian cell cycle control, E2f activators (E2f1, E2f2, and E2f3) are portrayed as the ultimate transcriptional effectors that commit cells to enter and progress through S phase. Using conditional gene knock-out strategies, we show that E2f1–3 are not required for the proliferation of early myeloid progenitors. Rather, these E2fs are critical for cell survival and proliferation at two distinct steps of myeloid development. First, E2f1–3 are required as transcriptional repressors for the survival of CD11b+ myeloid progenitors, and then they are required as activators for the proliferation of CD11b+ macrophages. In bone marrow macrophages, we show that E2f1–3 respond to CSF1-Myc mitogenic signals and serve to activate E2f target genes and promote their proliferation. Together, these findings expose dual functions for E2f1–3 at distinct stages of myeloid development in vivo, first as repressors in cell survival and then as activators in cell proliferation. In summary, this work places E2f1–3 in a specific signaling cascade that is critical for myeloid development in vivo. PMID:21115501

  14. E2F1 transcription is induced by genotoxic stress through ATM/ATR activation.

    PubMed

    Carcagno, Abel L; Ogara, María F; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Marazita, Mariela C; Sirkin, Pablo F; Ceruti, Julieta M; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2009-05-01

    E2F1, a member of the E2F family of transcription factors, plays a critical role in controlling both cell cycle progression and apoptotic cell death in response to DNA damage and oncogene activation. Following genotoxic stresses, E2F1 protein is stabilized by phosphorylation and acetylation driven to its accumulation. The aim of the present work was to examine whether the increase in E2F1 protein levels observed after DNA damage is only a reflection of an increase in E2F1 protein stability or is also the consequence of enhanced transcription of the E2F1 gene. The data presented here demonstrates that UV light and other genotoxics induce the transcription of E2F1 gene in an ATM/ATR dependent manner, which results in increasing E2F1 mRNA and protein levels. After genotoxic stress, transcription of cyclin E, an E2F1 target gene, was significantly induced. This induction was the result of two well-differentiated effects, one of them dependent on de novo protein synthesis and the other on the protein stabilization. Our results strongly support a transcriptional effect of DNA damaging agents on E2F1 expression. The results presented herein uncover a new mechanism involving E2F1 in response to genotoxic stress.

  15. The banana E2 gene family: Genomic identification, characterization, expression profiling analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Jue, Dengwei; Zhao, Qiufang; Chen, Hongliang; Xie, Jianghui; Jia, Liqiang

    2016-04-01

    The E2 is at the center of a cascade of Ub1 transfers, and it links activation of the Ub1 by E1 to its eventual E3-catalyzed attachment to substrate. Although the genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known about analysis of E2 genes in banana. In this study, 74 E2 genes of banana were identified and phylogenetically clustered into thirteen subgroups. The predicted banana E2 genes were distributed across all 11 chromosomes at different densities. Additionally, the E2 domain, gene structure and motif compositions were analyzed. The expression of all of the banana E2 genes was analyzed in the root, stem, leaf, flower organs, five stages of fruit development and under abiotic stresses. All of the banana E2 genes, with the exception of few genes in each group, were expressed in at least one of the organs and fruit developments, which indicated that the E2 genes might involve in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the banana. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis identified that 45 E2s under drought and 33 E2s under salt were induced. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the banana E2 gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification, cloning and putative functions of this family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation.

    PubMed

    Neill, John D; Dubovi, Edward J; Ridpath, Julia F

    2015-09-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV are often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected. The complete nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of eleven alpaca-adapted BVDV isolates and the region encoding the envelope glycoproteins of an additional three isolates were determined. With the exception of one, all alpaca isolates were >99.2% similar at the nucleotide level. The Hercules isolate was more divergent, with 95.7% sequence identity to the other viruses. Sequence similarity of the 14 viruses indicated they were isolates of a single BVDV strain that had adapted to and were circulating through alpaca herds. Hercules was a more distantly related strain that has been isolated only once in Canada and represented a separate adaptation event that possessed the same adaptive changes. Comparison of amino acid sequences of alpaca and bovine-derived BVDV strains revealed three regions with amino acid sequences unique to all alpaca isolates. The first contained two small in-frame deletions near the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein. The second was found near the C-terminus of the E2 protein where four altered amino acids were located within a 30 amino acid domain that participates in E2 homodimerization. The third region contained three variable amino acids in the C-terminus of the E(rns) within the amphipathic helix membrane anchor. These changes were found in the polar side of the amphipathic helix and resulted in an increased charge within the polar face. Titration of bovine and alpaca viruses in both bovine and alpaca cells indicated that with increased charge in the amphipathic helix, the ability to infect alpaca cells also increased. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Dynamic electrophoretic fingerprinting of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interactions between the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and its primary receptor CD4 are influenced by the physiological setting in which these events take place. In this study, we explored the surface chemistry of HIV-1 Env constructs at a range of pH and salinities relevant to mucosal and systemic compartments through electrophoretic mobility (EM) measurements. Sexual transmission events provide a more acidic environment for HIV-1 compared to dissemination and spread of infection occurring in blood or lymph node. We hypothesize functional, trimeric Env behaves differently than monomeric forms. Results The dynamic electrophoretic fingerprint of trimeric gp140 revealed a change in EM from strongly negative to strongly positive as pH increased from that of the lower female genital tract (pHx) to that of the blood (pHy). Similar findings were observed using a trimeric influenza Haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, indicating that this may be a general attribute of trimeric viral envelope glycoproteins. These findings were supported by computationally modeling the surface charge of various gp120 and HA crystal structures. To identify the behavior of the infectious agent and its target cells, EM measurements were made on purified whole HIV-1 virions and primary T-lymphocytes. Viral particles had a largely negative surface charge, and lacked the regions of positivity near neutral pH that were observed with trimeric Env. T cells changed their surface chemistry as a function of activation state, becoming more negative over a wider range of pH after activation. Soluble recombinant CD4 (sCD4) was found to be positively charged under a wide range of conditions. Binding studies between sCD4 and gp140 show that the affinity of CD4-gp140 interactions depends on pH. Conclusions Taken together, these findings allow a more complete model of the electrochemical forces involved in HIV-1 Env functionality. These results indicate that the influence of the localized

  18. Unraveling the function of Arabidopsis thaliana OS9 in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Hüttner, Silvia; Veit, Christiane; Schoberer, Jennifer; Grass, Josephine; Strasser, Richard

    2012-05-01

    In the endoplasmic reticulum, immature polypeptides coincide with terminally misfolded proteins. Consequently, cells need a well-balanced quality control system, which decides about the fate of individual proteins and maintains protein homeostasis. Misfolded and unassembled proteins are sent for destruction via the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery to prevent the accumulation of potentially toxic protein aggregates. Here, we report the identification of Arabidopsis thaliana OS9 as a component of the plant ERAD pathway. OS9 is an ER-resident glycoprotein containing a mannose-6-phosphate receptor homology domain, which is also found in yeast and mammalian lectins involved in ERAD. OS9 fused to the C-terminal domain of YOS9 can complement the ERAD defect of the corresponding yeast Δyos9 mutant. An A. thaliana OS9 loss-of-function line suppresses the severe growth phenotype of the bri1-5 and bri1-9 mutant plants, which harbour mutated forms of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that OS9 associates with Arabidopsis SEL1L/HRD3, which is part of the plant ERAD complex and with the ERAD substrates BRI1-5 and BRI1-9, but only the binding to BRI1-5 occurs in a glycan-dependent way. OS9-deficiency results in activation of the unfolded protein response and reduces salt tolerance, highlighting the role of OS9 during ER stress. We propose that OS9 is a component of the plant ERAD machinery and may act specifically in the glycoprotein degradation pathway.

  19. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Craig R; Johnson, Erin L; Burke, Aran Z; Martin, Kyle P; Miura, Tanya A; Wichman, Holly A; Brown, Celeste J; Ytreberg, F Marty

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans) at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens.

  20. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erin L.; Burke, Aran Z.; Martin, Kyle P.; Miura, Tanya A.; Wichman, Holly A.; Brown, Celeste J.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans) at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens. PMID:26925318

  1. A C2HC zinc finger is essential for the RING-E2 interaction of the ubiquitin ligase RNF125

    PubMed Central

    Bijlmakers, Marie-José; Teixeira, João M. C.; Boer, Roeland; Mayzel, Maxim; Puig-Sàrries, Pilar; Karlsson, Göran; Coll, Miquel; Pons, Miquel; Crosas, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    The activity of RING ubiquitin ligases (E3s) depends on an interaction between the RING domain and ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2), but posttranslational events or additional structural elements, yet largely undefined, are frequently required to enhance or regulate activity. Here, we show for the ubiquitin ligase RNF125 that, in addition to the RING domain, a C2HC Zn finger (ZnF) is crucial for activity, and a short linker sequence (Li2120-128) enhances activity. The contribution of these regions was first shown with truncated proteins, and the essential role of the ZnF was confirmed with mutations at the Zn chelating Cys residues. Using NMR, we established that the C2HC ZnF/Li2120-128 region is crucial for binding of the RING domain to the E2 UbcH5a. The partial X-ray structure of RNF125 revealed the presence of extensive intramolecular interactions between the RING and C2HC ZnF. A mutation at one of the contact residues in the C2HC ZnF, a highly conserved M112, resulted in the loss of ubiquitin ligase activity. Thus, we identified the structural basis for an essential role of the C2HC ZnF and conclude that this domain stabilizes the RING domain, and is therefore required for binding of RNF125 to an E2. PMID:27411375

  2. Elimination of both E1 and E2 from adenovirus vectors further improves prospects for in vivo human gene therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Gorziglia, M I; Kadan, M J; Yei, S; Lim, J; Lee, G M; Luthra, R; Trapnell, B C

    1996-01-01

    A novel recombinant adenovirus vector, Av3nBg, was constructed with deletions in adenovirus E1, E2a, and E3 regions and expressing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. Av3nBg can be propagated at a high titer in a corresponding A549-derived cell line, AE1-2a, which contains the adenovirus E1 and E2a region genes inducibly expressed from separate glucocorticoid-responsive promoters. Av3nBg demonstrated gene transfer and expression comparable to that of Av1nBg, a first-generation adenovirus vector with deletions in E1 and E3. Several lines of evidence suggest that this vector is significantly more attenuated than E1 and E3 deletion vectors. Metabolic DNA labeling studies showed no detectable de novo vector DNA synthesis or accumulation, and metabolic protein labeling demonstrated no detectable de novo hexon protein synthesis for Av3nBg in naive A549 cells even at a multiplicity of infection of up to 3,000 PFU per cell. Additionally, naive A549 cells infected by Av3nBg did not accumulate infectious virions. In contrast, both Av1nBg and Av2Lu vectors showed DNA replication and hexon protein synthesis at multiplicities of infection of 500 PFU per cell. Av2Lu has a deletion in E1 and also carries a temperature-sensitive mutation in E2a. Thus, molecular characterization has demonstrated that the Av3nBg vector is improved with respect to the potential for vector DNA replication and hexon protein expression compared with both first-generation (Av1nBg) and second-generation (Av2Lu) adenoviral vectors. These observations may have important implications for potential use of adenovirus vectors in human gene therapy. PMID:8648763

  3. Structure-function analysis of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B with fusion-from-without activity

    SciT

    Roller, Devin G.; Dollery, Stephen J.; Doyle, James L.

    2008-12-20

    Fusion-from-without (FFWO) is the rapid induction of cell fusion by virions in the absence of viral protein synthesis. The combination of two amino acid mutations in envelope glycoprotein B (gB), one in the ectodomain and one in the cytoplasmic tail, can confer FFWO activity to wild type herpes simplex virus (HSV). In this report, we analyzed the entry and cell fusion phenotypes of HSV that contains FFWO gB, with emphasis on the cellular receptors for HSV, nectin-1, nectin-2 and HVEM. The ability of an HSV strain with FFWO gB to efficiently mediate FFWO via a specific gD-receptor correlated with itsmore » ability to mediate viral entry by that receptor. A FFWO form of gB was not sufficient to switch the entry of HSV from a pH-dependent, endocytic pathway to a direct fusion, pH-independent pathway. The conformation of gB with FFWO activity was not globally altered relative to wild type. However, distinct monoclonal antibodies had reduced reactivity with FFWO gB, suggesting an altered antigenic structure relative to wild type. FFWO was blocked by preincubation of virions with neutralizing antibodies to gB or gD. Together with previous studies, the results indicate that the roles of gB in FFWO and in virus-cell fusion during entry are related but not identical. This study also suggests that the FFWO function of gB is not a specific determinant for the selection of HSV entry pathway and that antigenic differences in FFWO gB may reflect its enhanced fusion activity.« less

  4. Myristoylation of the Arenavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Stable Signal Peptide Is Critical for Membrane Fusion but Dispensable for Virion Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    York, Joanne; Nunberg, Jack H

    2016-09-15

    Arenaviruses are responsible for severe and often fatal hemorrhagic disease. In the absence of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines, these viruses pose serious threats to public health and biodefense. Arenaviruses enter the host cell by fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes, a process mediated by the virus envelope glycoprotein GPC. Unlike other class I viral fusion proteins, GPC retains its stable signal peptide (SSP) as an essential third subunit in the mature complex. SSP spans the membrane twice and is myristoylated at its cytoplasmic N terminus. Mutations that abolish SSP myristoylation have been shown to reduce pH-induced cell-cell fusion activity of ectopically expressed GPC to ∼20% of wild-type levels. In order to examine the role of SSP myristoylation in the context of the intact virus, we used reverse genetics to generate Junín viruses (Candid #1 isolate) in which the critical glycine-2 residue in SSP was either replaced by alanine (G2A) or deleted (ΔG2). These mutant viruses produced smaller foci of infection in Vero cells and showed an ∼5-fold reduction in specific infectivity, commensurate with the defect in cell-cell fusion. However, virus assembly and GPC incorporation into budded virions were unaffected. Our findings suggest that the myristate moiety is cryptically disposed in the prefusion GPC complex and may function late in the fusion process to promote merging of the viral and cellular membranes. Hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses pose significant threats to public health and biodefense. Arenavirus entry into the host cell is promoted by the virus envelope glycoprotein GPC. Unlike other viral envelope glycoproteins, GPC contains a myristoylated stable signal peptide (SSP) as an essential third subunit. Myristoylation has been shown to be important for the membrane fusion activity of recombinantly expressed GPC. Here, we use reverse genetics to study the role of SSP myristoylation in the context of the intact virion. We find that

  5. A Single Amino Acid Change in the Marburg Virus Glycoprotein Arises during Serial Cell Culture Passages and Attenuates the Virus in a Macaque Model of Disease.

    PubMed

    Alfson, Kendra J; Avena, Laura E; Delgado, Jenny; Beadles, Michael W; Patterson, Jean L; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) causes disease with high case fatality rates, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Licensing of MARV countermeasures will likely require approval via the FDA's Animal Efficacy Rule, which requires well-characterized animal models that recapitulate human disease. This includes selection of the virus used for exposure and ensuring that it retains the properties of the original isolate. The consequences of amplification of MARV for challenge studies are unknown. Here, we serially passaged and characterized MARV through 13 passes from the original isolate. Surprisingly, the viral genome was very stable, except for a single nucleotide change that resulted in an amino acid substitution in the hydrophobic region of the signal peptide of the glycoprotein (GP). The particle/PFU ratio also decreased following passages, suggesting a role for the amino acid in viral infectivity. To determine if amplification introduces a phenotype in an animal model, cynomolgus macaques were exposed to either 100 or 0.01 PFU of low- and high-passage-number MARV. All animals succumbed when exposed to 100 PFU of either passage 3 or 13 viruses, although animals exposed to the high-passage-number virus survived longer. However, none of the passage 13 MARV-exposed animals succumbed to 0.01-PFU exposure compared to 75% of passage 3-exposed animals. This is consistent with other filovirus studies that show some particles that are unable to yield a plaque in cell culture can cause lethal disease in vivo . These results have important consequences for the design of experiments that investigate MARV pathogenesis and that test the efficacy of MARV countermeasures. IMPORTANCE Marburg virus (MARV) causes disease with a high case fatality rate, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Serial amplification of viruses in cell culture often results in accumulation of mutations, but the effect of such cell culture passage on MARV is unclear. Serial passages of MARV

  6. Alanine scanning of the rabies virus glycoprotein antigenic site III using recombinant rabies virus: implication for post-exposure treatment.

    PubMed

    Papaneri, Amy B; Wirblich, Christoph; Marissen, Wilfred E; Schnell, Matthias J

    2013-12-02

    The safety and availability of the human polyclonal sera that is currently utilized for post-exposure treatment (PET) of rabies virus (RABV) infection remain a concern. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies have been postulated as suitable alternatives by WHO. To this extent, CL184, the RABV human antibody combination comprising monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) CR57 and CR4098, has been developed and has delivered promising clinical data to support its use for RABV PET. For this fully human IgG1 cocktail, mAbs CR57 and CR4098 are produced in the PER.C6 human cell line and combined in equal amounts in the final product. During preclinical evaluation, CR57 was shown to bind to antigenic site I whereas CR4098 neutralization was influenced by a mutation of position 336 (N336) located within antigenic site III. Here, alanine scanning was used to analyze the influence of mutations within the potential binding site for CR4098, antigenic site III, in order to evaluate the possibility of mutated rabies viruses escaping neutralization. For this approach, twenty flanking amino acids (10 upstream and 10 downstream) of the RABV glycoprotein (G) asparagine (N336) were exchanged to alanine (or serine, if already alanine) by site-directed mutagenesis. Analysis of G expression revealed four of the twenty mutant Gs to be non-functional, as shown by their lack of cell surface expression, which is a requirement for the production of infectious RABV. Therefore, these mutants were excluded from further study. The remaining sixteen mutants were introduced in an infectious clone of RABV, and recombinant RABVs (rRABVs) were recovered and utilized for in vitro neutralization assays. All of the viruses were effectively neutralized by CR4098 as well as by CR57, indicating that single amino acid exchanges in this region does not affect the broad neutralizing capability of the CL184 mAb combination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human Milk Glycoproteins Protect Infants Against Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Breastfeeding protects the neonate against pathogen infection. Major mechanisms of protection include human milk glycoconjugates functioning as soluble receptor mimetics that inhibit pathogen binding to the mucosal cell surface, prebiotic stimulation of gut colonization by favorable microbiota, immunomodulation, and as a substrate for bacterial fermentation products in the gut. Human milk proteins are predominantly glycosylated, and some biological functions of these human milk glycoproteins (HMGPs) have been reported. HMGPs range in size from 14 kDa to 2,000 kDa and include mucins, secretory immunoglobulin A, bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin, butyrophilin, lactadherin, leptin, and adiponectin. This review summarizes known biological roles of HMGPs that may contribute to the ability of human milk to protect neonates from disease. PMID:23697737

  8. Macrophage activation by glycoprotein isolated from Dioscorea batatas

    PubMed Central

    Huong, Pham Thi Thu

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that glycoprotein isolated from Dioscorea batatas (GDB) activates macrophage function. Analysis of the infiltration of macrophages into peritoneal cavity showed GDB treatment significantly increased the recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneal cavity. In order to further confirm and investigate the mechanism of GDB on macrophage activation, we analyzed the effects of GDB on the cytokine expression including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in mouse peritoneal macrophages. GDB increased the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. Cytokine induction by GDB was further confirmed by RT-PCR and ELISA in mouse macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with GDB produced strong induction of NF-κB DNA binding and MAPK phosphorylation, markers for macrophage activation and important factors for cytokine gene expression. Collectively, this series of experiments indicates that GDB stimulates macrophage activation. PMID:24278568

  9. Neuronal plasticity depending on a glycoprotein synthesized in goldfish leptomeninx.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R; Rother, S; Schlingensiepen, K H; Brysch, W

    1992-01-01

    Transcription of a calcium and zinc binding, nervous system-specific cell adhesion glycoprotein, ependymin, in goldfish leptomeninx was significantly enhanced after active avoidance conditioning, followed by enhanced translation and secretion. Inactivation of secreted ependymin by injected antisera interfered with behavioral adaptations. In addition to the site of synthesis in reticular cells of the leptomeninx electronmicroscopic immunochemistry localized the protein to tectal neurons of the superficial plexiform and the periventricular cell layers. Detection of ependymin in cells where it is not synthesized, namely in neurons, suggests a re-uptake during functional activity of the CNS and assigns a pivotal role to the cerebrospinal and interstitial brain fluids for the distribution of protein factors that support axonal growth and neuronal plasticity.

  10. TFDP3 was expressed in coordination with E2F1 to inhibit E2F1-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yueyun; Xin, Yijuan; Li, Rui; Wang, Zhe; Yue, Qiaohong; Xiao, Fengjing; Hao, Xiaoke

    2014-03-10

    TFDP3 has been previously identified as an inhibitor of E2F molecules. It has been shown to suppress E2F1-induced apoptosis dependent P53 and to play a potential role in carcinogenesis. However, whether it indeed helps cancer cells tolerate apoptosis stress in cancer tissues remains unknown. TFDP3 expression was assessed by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in normal human tissues, cancer tissues and prostate cancer tissues. The association between TFDP3 and E2F1 in prostate cancer development was analyzed in various stages. Apoptosis was evaluated with annexin-V and propidium iodide staining and flow-cytometry. The results show that, in 96 samples of normal human tissues, TFDP3 could be detected in the cerebrum, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, bronchus, breast, ovary, uterus, and skin, but seldom in the lung, muscles, prostate, and liver. In addition, TFDP3 was highly expressed in numerous cancer tissues, such as brain-keratinous, lung squamous cell carcinoma, testicular seminoma, cervical carcinoma, skin squamous cell carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Moreover, TFDP3 was positive in 23 (62.2%) of 37 prostate cancer samples regardless of stage. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry results show that TFDP3 was always expressed in coordination with E2F1 at equivalent expression levels in prostate cancer tissues, and was highly expressed particularly in samples of high stage. When E2F1 was extrogenously expressed in LNCap cells, TFDP3 could be induced, and the apoptosis induced by E2F1 was significantly decreased. It was demonstrated that TFDP3 was a broadly expressed protein corresponding to E2F1 in human tissues, and suggested that TFDP3 is involved in prostate cancer cell survival by suppressing apoptosis induced by E2F1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trafficking through the Endosomal Recycling Compartment Is Required for Particle Incorporation.

    PubMed

    Kirschman, Junghwa; Qi, Mingli; Ding, Lingmei; Hammonds, Jason; Dienger-Stambaugh, Krista; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Lapierre, Lynne A; Goldenring, James R; Spearman, Paul

    2018-03-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) encodes specific trafficking signals within its long cytoplasmic tail (CT) that regulate incorporation into HIV-1 particles. Rab11-family interacting protein 1C (FIP1C) and Rab14 are host trafficking factors required for Env particle incorporation, suggesting that Env undergoes sorting from the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) to the site of particle assembly on the plasma membrane. We disrupted outward sorting from the ERC by expressing a C-terminal fragment of FIP1C (FIP1C 560-649 ) and examined the consequences on Env trafficking and incorporation into particles. FIP1C 560-649 reduced cell surface levels of Env and prevented its incorporation into HIV-1 particles. Remarkably, Env was trapped in an exaggerated perinuclear ERC in a CT-dependent manner. Mutation of either the Yxxϕ endocytic motif or the YW 795 motif in the CT prevented Env trapping in the ERC and restored incorporation into particles. In contrast, simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 Env was not retained in the ERC, while substitution of the HIV-1 CT for the SIV CT resulted in SIV Env retention in this compartment. These results provide the first direct evidence that Env traffics through the ERC and support a model whereby HIV-1 Env is specifically targeted to the ERC prior to FIP1C- and CT-dependent outward sorting to the particle assembly site on the plasma membrane. IMPORTANCE The HIV envelope protein is an essential component of the viral particle. While many aspects of envelope protein structure and function have been established, the pathway it follows in the cell prior to reaching the site of particle assembly is not well understood. The envelope protein has a very long cytoplasmic tail that interacts with the host cell trafficking machinery. Here, we utilized a truncated form of the trafficking adaptor FIP1C protein to arrest the intracellular transport of the envelope protein, demonstrating that it becomes

  12. E2F function in muscle growth is necessary and sufficient for viability in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zappia, Maria Paula; Frolov, Maxim V.

    2016-01-01

    The E2F transcription factor is a key cell cycle regulator. However, the inactivation of the entire E2F family in Drosophila is permissive throughout most of animal development until pupation when lethality occurs. Here we show that E2F function in the adult skeletal muscle is essential for animal viability since providing E2F function in muscles rescues the lethality of the whole-body E2F-deficient animals. Muscle-specific loss of E2F results in a significant reduction in muscle mass and thinner myofibrils. We demonstrate that E2F is dispensable for proliferation of muscle progenitor cells, but is required during late myogenesis to directly control the expression of a set of muscle-specific genes. Interestingly, E2f1 provides a major contribution to the regulation of myogenic function, while E2f2 appears to be less important. These findings identify a key function of E2F in skeletal muscle required for animal viability, and illustrate how the cell cycle regulator is repurposed in post-mitotic cells. PMID:26823289

  13. E2F8 is essential for polyploidization in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Shusil K; Westendorp, Bart; Nantasanti, Sathidpak; van Liere, Elsbeth; Tooten, Peter C J; Cornelissen, Peter W A; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; Lamers, Wouter H; de Bruin, Alain

    2012-11-01

    Polyploidization is observed in all mammalian species and is a characteristic feature of hepatocytes, but its molecular mechanism and biological significance are unknown. Hepatocyte polyploidization in rodents occurs through incomplete cytokinesis, starts after weaning and increases with age. Here, we show in mice that atypical E2F8 is induced after weaning and required for hepatocyte binucleation and polyploidization. A deficiency in E2f8 led to an increase in the expression level of E2F target genes promoting cytokinesis and thereby preventing polyploidization. In contrast, loss of E2f1 enhanced polyploidization and suppressed the polyploidization defect of hepatocytes deficient for atypical E2Fs. In addition, E2F8 and E2F1 were found on the same subset of target promoters. Contrary to the long-standing hypothesis that polyploidization indicates terminal differentiation and senescence, we show that prevention of polyploidization through inactivation of atypical E2Fs has, surprisingly, no impact on liver differentiation, zonation, metabolism and regeneration. Together, these results identify E2F8 as a repressor and E2F1 as an activator of a transcriptional network controlling polyploidization in mammalian cells.

  14. [Eukaryotic expression and application of HCV Hebei strain E2 extracellular core region].

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuantao; Bian, Peiyu; Weng, Daihui; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Lei, Yingfeng; Jia, Zhansheng

    2016-06-01

    Objective To express core region of HCV1b (Hebei strain) E2 protein (E2c) by eukaryotic system, and establish the detection method of specific anti-HCV E2 antibody in the sera from hepatitis C patients. Methods Based on the literature, the E2c gene was modified from the HCV1b gene and synthesized via overlapping PCR. Thereafter, the E2c gene including tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) signal peptide was cloned into the pCI-neo eukaryotic expression vector, and the product was named pCI-tpa-1bE2c. After HEK293T cells were transfected with pCI-tpa-1bE2c, the supernatant was collected, condensed and purified. Its specificity was identified by Western blotting. Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-based ELISA was used to detect the antibody against HCVE2 in the sera from hepatitis C patients. Results Modified HCV E2c protein was successfully expressed in HEK293T cells and the GNA-based ELISA was developed for detecting the antibody against HCV E2 in the sera from hepatitis C patients. Conclusion HCV-1bE2c protein can be effectively expressed in HEK293T cells and applied clinically.

  15. CDH1 regulates E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals in keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Randeep K.; Dagnino, Lina

    2017-01-01

    The E2F1 transcription factor plays key roles in skin homeostasis. In the epidermis, E2F1 expression is essential for normal proliferation of undifferentiated keratinocytes, regeneration after injury and DNA repair following UV radiation-induced photodamage. Abnormal E2F1 expression promotes nonmelanoma skin carcinoma. In addition, E2F1 must be downregulated for proper keratinocyte differentiation, but the relevant mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show that differentiation signals induce a series of post-translational modifications in E2F1 that are jointly required for its downregulation. Analysis of the structural determinants that govern these processes revealed a central role for S403 and T433. In particular, substitution of these two amino acid residues with non-phosphorylatable alanine (E2F1 ST/A) interferes with E2F1 nuclear export, K11- and K48-linked polyubiquitylation and degradation in differentiated keratinocytes. In contrast, replacement of S403 and T433 with phosphomimetic aspartic acid to generate a pseudophosphorylated E2F1 mutant protein (E2F1 ST/D) generates a protein that is regulated in a manner indistinguishable from that of wild type E2F1. Cdh1 is an activating cofactor that interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin E3 ligase, promoting proteasomal degradation of various substrates. We found that Cdh1 associates with E2F1 in keratinocytes. Inhibition or RNAi-mediated silencing of Cdh1 prevents E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals. Our results reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that jointly modulate post-translational modifications and downregulation of E2F1, which are necessary for proper epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:27903963

  16. CDH1 regulates E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Randeep K; Dagnino, Lina

    2017-01-17

    The E2F1 transcription factor plays key roles in skin homeostasis. In the epidermis, E2F1 expression is essential for normal proliferation of undifferentiated keratinocytes, regeneration after injury and DNA repair following UV radiation-induced photodamage. Abnormal E2F1 expression promotes nonmelanoma skin carcinoma. In addition, E2F1 must be downregulated for proper keratinocyte differentiation, but the relevant mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show that differentiation signals induce a series of post-translational modifications in E2F1 that are jointly required for its downregulation. Analysis of the structural determinants that govern these processes revealed a central role for S403 and T433. In particular, substitution of these two amino acid residues with non-phosphorylatable alanine (E2F1 ST/A) interferes with E2F1 nuclear export, K11- and K48-linked polyubiquitylation and degradation in differentiated keratinocytes. In contrast, replacement of S403 and T433 with phosphomimetic aspartic acid to generate a pseudophosphorylated E2F1 mutant protein (E2F1 ST/D) generates a protein that is regulated in a manner indistinguishable from that of wild type E2F1. Cdh1 is an activating cofactor that interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin E3 ligase, promoting proteasomal degradation of various substrates. We found that Cdh1 associates with E2F1 in keratinocytes. Inhibition or RNAi-mediated silencing of Cdh1 prevents E2F1 degradation in response to differentiation signals. Our results reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that jointly modulate post-translational modifications and downregulation of E2F1, which are necessary for proper epidermal keratinocyte differentiation.

  17. Recurrent and functional regulatory mutations in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rheinbay, Esther; Parasuraman, Prasanna; Grimsby, Jonna; Tiao, Grace; Engreitz, Jesse M; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Rodriguez-Cuevas, Sergio; Rosenberg, Mara; Hess, Julian; Stewart, Chip; Maruvka, Yosef E; Stojanov, Petar; Cortes, Maria L; Seepo, Sara; Cibulskis, Carrie; Tracy, Adam; Pugh, Trevor J; Lee, Jesse; Zheng, Zongli; Ellisen, Leif W; Iafrate, A John; Boehm, Jesse S; Gabriel, Stacey B; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R; Baselga, Jose; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Shioda, Toshi; Bernards, Andre; Lander, Eric S; Getz, Gad

    2017-07-06

    Genomic analysis of tumours has led to the identification of hundreds of cancer genes on the basis of the presence of mutations in protein-coding regions. By contrast, much less is known about cancer-causing mutations in non-coding regions. Here we perform deep sequencing in 360 primary breast cancers and develop computational methods to identify significantly mutated promoters. Clear signals are found in the promoters of three genes. FOXA1, a known driver of hormone-receptor positive breast cancer, harbours a mutational hotspot in its promoter leading to overexpression through increased E2F binding. RMRP and NEAT1, two non-coding RNA genes, carry mutations that affect protein binding to their promoters and alter expression levels. Our study shows that promoter regions harbour recurrent mutations in cancer with functional consequences and that the mutations occur at similar frequencies as in coding regions. Power analyses indicate that more such regions remain to be discovered through deep sequencing of adequately sized cohorts of patients.

  18. Plasmin-Cleaved β-2-Glycoprotein 1 Is an Inhibitor of Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Taro; Balasubramanian, Krishnakumar; Maiti, Sourindra; Halder, Jyotsna B.; Schroit, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    β-2-Glycoprotein 1, an abundant plasma glycoprotein, binds anionic cell surfaces and functions as a regulator of thrombosis. Here, we show that cleavage of the kringle domain at Lys317/Thr318 switches its function to a regulator of angiogenesis. In vitro, the cleaved protein specifically inhibited the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. The protein was without effect on preformed endothelial cell tubes. In vivo, the cleaved protein inhibited neovascularization into subcutaneously implanted Matrigel and Gelfoam sponge implants and the growth of orthotopically injected tumors. Collectively, these data indicate that plasmin-cleaved β-2-glycoprotein 1 is a potent antiangiogenic and antitumor molecule of potential therapeutic significance. PMID:17872974

  19. Homologous and heterologous antibody responses of mice immunized with purified feline herpesvirus type 1 and canine herpesvirus glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Limcumpao, J A; Horimoto, T; Xuan, X N; Tohya, Y; Azetaka, M; Takahashi, E; Mikami, T

    1991-06-01

    The three glycoproteins each of feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) and canine herpesvirus (CHV) were purified by affinity chromatography using glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and used individually or in combination in immunizing mice to determine their relative immunogenicity. All the glycoproteins induced detectable virus neutralizing antibodies to the homologous virus but FHV-1 gp143/108 and its cross-reacting counterpart, CHV gp145/112, elicited the highest titers not only to the homologous virus but to the heterologous virus as well. The production of ELISA antibodies after glycoprotein immunization was variable, while hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies were produced by only 1 out of 10 FHV-1 gp60-inoculated mice. In general, the antibody titers induced by CHV glycoproteins were lower than those by FHV-1 glycoproteins. These results indicate that these glycoproteins may be useful as subunit vaccines against FHV-1 and CHV infections.

  20. Mechanical circulatory support is associated with loss of platelet receptors glycoprotein Ibα and glycoprotein VI.

    PubMed

    Lukito, P; Wong, A; Jing, J; Arthur, J F; Marasco, S F; Murphy, D A; Bergin, P J; Shaw, J A; Collecutt, M; Andrews, R K; Gardiner, E E; Davis, A K

    2016-11-01

    Essentials Relationship of acquired von Willebrand disease (VWD) and platelet dysfunction is explored. Patients with ventricular assist devices and on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are investigated. Acquired VWD and platelet receptor shedding is demonstrated in the majority of patients. Loss of platelet adhesion receptors glycoprotein (GP) Ibα and GPVI may increase bleeding risk. Background Ventricular assist devices (VADs) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are associated with bleeding that is not fully explained by anticoagulant or antiplatelet use. Exposure of platelets to elevated shear in vitro leads to increased shedding. Objectives To investigate whether loss of platelet receptors occurs in vivo, and the relationship with acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). Methods Platelet counts, coagulation tests and von Willebrand factor (VWF) analyses were performed on samples from 21 continuous flow VAD (CF-VAD), 20 ECMO, 12 heart failure and seven aortic stenosis patients. Levels of platelet receptors were measured by flow cytometry or ELISA. Results The loss of high molecular weight VWF multimers was observed in 18 of 19 CF-VAD and 14 of 20 ECMO patients, consistent with AVWS. Platelet receptor shedding was demonstrated by elevated soluble glycoprotein (GP) VI levels in plasma and significantly reduced surface GPIbα and GPVI levels in CF-VAD and ECMO patients as compared with healthy donors. Platelet receptor levels were also significantly reduced in heart failure patients. Conclusions These data link AVWS and increased platelet receptor shedding in patients with CF-VADs or ECMO for the first time. Loss of the platelet surface receptors GPIbα and GPVI in heart failure, CF-VAD and ECMO patients may contribute to ablated platelet adhesion/activation, and limit thrombus formation under high/pathologic shear conditions. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  1. Optimization of Unnicked β2-Glycoprotein I and High Avidity Anti-β2-Glycoprotein I Antibodies Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Artenjak, Andrej; Leonardi, Adrijana; Križaj, Igor; Ambrožič, Aleš; Sodin-Semrl, Snezna; Božič, Borut; Čučnik, Saša

    2014-01-01

    Patient biological material for isolation of β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and high avidity IgG anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (HAv anti-β2GPI) dictates its full utilization. The aim of our study was to evaluate/improve procedures for isolation of unnicked β2GPI and HAv aβ2GPI to gain unmodified proteins in higher yields/purity. Isolation of β2GPI from plasma was a stepwise procedure combining nonspecific and specific methods. For isolation of polyclonal HAv aβ2GPI affinity chromatographies with immobilized protein G and human β2GPI were used. The unknown protein found during isolation was identified by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and the nonredundant National Center for Biotechnology Information database. The average mass of the isolated unnicked purified β2GPI increased from 6.56 mg to 9.94 mg. In the optimized isolation procedure the high molecular weight protein (proteoglycan 4) was successfully separated from β2GPI in the 1st peaks with size exclusion chromatography. The average efficiency of the isolation procedure for polyclonal HAv anti-β2GPI from different matrixes was 13.8%, as determined by our in-house anti-β2GPI ELISA. We modified the in-house isolation and purification procedures of unnicked β2GPI and HAv anti-β2GPI, improving the purity of antigen and antibodies as well as increasing the number of tests routinely performed with the in-house ELISA by ~50%. PMID:24741579

  2. Genetic Mutations in Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Many different types of genetic mutations are found in cancer cells. This infographic outlines certain types of alterations that are present in cancer, such as missense, nonsense, frameshift, and chromosome rearrangements.

  3. AIP mutations and gigantism.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Potorac, Iulia; Beckers, Pablo; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2017-06-01

    AIP mutations are rare in sporadic acromegaly but they are seen at a higher frequency among certain specific populations of pituitary adenoma patients (pituitary gigantism cases, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindreds, and patients with macroadenomas who are diagnosed ≤30 years). AIP mutations are most prevalent in patients with pituitary gigantism (29% of this group were found to have mutations in AIP gene). These data support targeted genetic screening for AIP mutations/deletions in these groups of pituitary adenoma patients. Earlier diagnosis of AIP-related acromegaly-gigantism cases enables timely clinical evaluation and treatment, thereby improving outcomes in terms of excessive linear growth and acromegaly comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Antigenic relatedness between glycoproteins of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroups A and B: evaluation of the contributions of F and G glycoproteins to immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, P R; Olmsted, R A; Prince, G A; Murphy, B R; Alling, D W; Walsh, E E; Collins, P L

    1987-01-01

    The degree of antigenic relatedness between human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subgroups A and B was estimated from antibody responses induced in cotton rats by respiratory tract infection with RSV. Glycoprotein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of antibody responses induced by RSV infection demonstrated that the F glycoproteins of subgroups A and B were antigenically closely related (relatedness, R approximately 50%), whereas the G glycoproteins were only distantly related (R approximately 5%). Intermediate levels of antigenic relatedness (R approximately 25%) were seen in neutralizing antibodies from cotton rats infected with RSV of the two subgroups. Immunity against the F glycoprotein of subgroup A, induced by vaccinia-A2-F, conferred a high level of protection which was of comparable magnitude against challenge by RSV of either subgroup. In comparison, immunity against the G glycoprotein of subgroup A, induced by vaccinia-A2-G, conferred less complete, but significant, protection. Importantly, in vaccinia-A2-G-immunized animals, suppression of homologous challenge virus replication was significantly greater (13-fold) than that observed for the heterologous virus. PMID:3305988

  5. Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Expressing Ebola Virus Glycoprotein GP Administered Intranasally Is Immunogenic in African Green Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lingemann, Matthias; Liu, Xueqiao; Surman, Sonja; Liang, Bo; Herbert, Richard; Hackenberg, Ashley D; Buchholz, Ursula J; Collins, Peter L; Munir, Shirin

    2017-05-15

    The recent 2014-2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak prompted increased efforts to develop vaccines against EBOV disease. We describe the development and preclinical evaluation of an attenuated recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) expressing the membrane-anchored form of EBOV glycoprotein GP, as an intranasal (i.n.) EBOV vaccine. GP was codon optimized and expressed either as a full-length protein or as an engineered chimeric form in which its transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail (TMCT) domains were replaced with those of the HPIV1 F protein in an effort to enhance packaging into the vector particle and immunogenicity. GP was inserted either preceding the N gene (pre-N) or between the N and P genes (N-P) of rHPIV1 bearing a stabilized attenuating mutation in the P/C gene (C Δ170 ). The constructs grew to high titers and efficiently and stably expressed GP. Viruses were attenuated, replicating at low titers over several days, in the respiratory tract of African green monkeys (AGMs). Two doses of candidates expressing GP from the pre-N position elicited higher GP neutralizing serum antibody titers than the N-P viruses, and unmodified GP induced higher levels than its TMCT counterpart. Unmodified EBOV GP was packaged into the HPIV1 particle, and the TMCT modification did not increase packaging or immunogenicity but rather reduced the stability of GP expression during in vivo replication. In conclusion, we identified an attenuated and immunogenic i.n. vaccine candidate expressing GP from the pre-N position. It is expected to be well tolerated in humans and is available for clinical evaluation. IMPORTANCE EBOV hemorrhagic fever is one of the most lethal viral infections and lacks a licensed vaccine. Contact of fluids from infected individuals, including droplets or aerosols, with mucosal surfaces is an important route of EBOV spread during a natural outbreak, and aerosols also might be exploited for intentional virus spread. Therefore, vaccines that protect

  6. Arginine methylation-dependent reader-writer interplay governs growth control by E2F-1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shunsheng; Moehlenbrink, Jutta; Lu, Yi-Chien; Zalmas, Lykourgos-Panagiotis; Sagum, Cari A.; Carr, Simon; McGouran, Joanna F.; Alexander, Leila; Fedorov, Oleg; Munro, Shonagh; Kessler, Benedikt; Bedford, Mark T.; Yu, Qiang; La Thangue, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms that underlie and dictate the different biological outcomes of E2F-1 activity have yet to be elucidated. We describe the residue-specific methylation of E2F-1 by the asymmetric dimethylating protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 1 and symmetric dimethylating PRMT5, and relate the marks to different functional consequences of E2F-1 activity. Methylation by PRMT1 hinders methylation by PRMT5, which augments E2F-1-dependent apoptosis, whereas PRMT5-dependent methylation favours proliferation by antagonising methylation by PRMT1. The ability of E2F-1 to prompt apoptosis in DNA damaged cells coincides with enhanced PRMT1 methylation. In contrast, cyclin A binding to E2F-1 impedes PRMT1 methylation and augments PRMT5 methylation, thus ensuring that E2F-1 is locked into its cell cycle progression mode. The Tudor domain protein p100-TSN reads the symmetric methylation mark, and binding of p100-TSN down-regulates E2F-1 apoptotic activity. Our results define an exquisite level of precision in the reader-writer interplay that governs the biological outcome of E2F-1 activity. PMID:24076217

  7. E2F1 transcription factor and its impact on growth factor and cytokine signaling.

    PubMed

    Ertosun, Mustafa Gokhan; Hapil, Fatma Zehra; Osman Nidai, Ozes

    2016-10-01

    E2F1 is a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The transactivation capacity of E2F1 is regulated by pRb. In its hypophosphorylated form, pRb binds and inactivates DNA binding and transactivating functions of E2F1. The growth factor stimulation of cells leads to activation of CDKs (cyclin dependent kinases), which in turn phosphorylate Rb and hyperphosphorylated Rb is released from E2F1 or E2F1/DP complex, and free E2F1 can induce transcription of several genes involved in cell cycle entry, induction or inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, growth factors and cytokines generally utilize E2F1 to direct cells to either fate. Furthermore, E2F1 regulates expressions of various cytokines and growth factor receptors, establishing positive or negative feedback mechanisms. This review focuses on the relationship between E2F1 transcription factor and cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, TGF-beta, G-CSF, LIF), growth factors (EGF, KGF, VEGF, IGF, FGF, PDGF, HGF, NGF), and interferons (IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-γ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. NF-E2 Overexpression Delays Erythroid Maturation and Increases Erythrocyte Production

    PubMed Central

    Mutschler, Manuel; Magin, Angela S.; Buerge, Martina; Roelz, Roland; Schanne, Daniel H.; Will, Britta; Pilz, Ingo H.; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Pahl, Heike L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2 (NF-E2) is overexpressed in the vast majority of patients with polycythaemia vera (PV). In murine models, NF-E2 overexpression increases proliferation and promotes cellular viability in the absence of erythropoietin (EPO). EPO-independent growth is a hallmark of PV. We therefore hypothesized that NF-E2 overexpression contributes to erythrocytosis, the pathognomonic feature of PV. Consequently, we investigated the effect of NF-E2 overexpression in healthy CD34+ cells. NF-E2 overexpression led to a delay in erythroid maturation, manifested by a belated appearance of glycophorin A-positive erythroid precursors. Maturation delay was similarly observed in primary PV patient erythroid cultures compared to healthy controls. Protracted maturation led to a significant increase in the accumulated number of erythroid cells both in PV cultures and in CD34+ cells overexpressing NF-E2. Similarly, NF-E2 overexpression altered erythroid colony formation, leading to an increase in BFU-E formation. These data indicate that NF-E2 overexpression delays the early phase of erythroid maturation, resulting in an expansion of erythroid progenitors, thereby increasing the number of erythrocytes derived from one CD34+ cell. These data propose a role for NF-E2 in mediating the erythrocytosis of PV. PMID:19466964

  9. Recently Identified Mutations in the Ebola Virus-Makona Genome Do Not Alter Pathogenicity in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Andrea; Chadinah, Spencer; Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Friederike; Arndt, Nicolette; Martellaro, Cynthia; Scott, Dana P; Hanley, Patrick W; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Sow, Samba; Massaquoi, Moses; Feldmann, Heinz

    2018-05-08

    Ebola virus (EBOV), isolate Makona, the causative agent of the West African EBOV epidemic, has been the subject of numerous investigations to determine the genetic diversity and its potential implication for virus biology, pathogenicity, and transmissibility. Despite various mutations that have emerged over time through multiple human-to-human transmission chains, their biological relevance remains questionable. Recently, mutations in the glycoprotein GP and polymerase L, which emerged and stabilized early during the outbreak, have been associated with improved viral fitness in cell culture. Here, we infected mice and rhesus macaques with EBOV-Makona isolates carrying or lacking those mutations. Surprisingly, all isolates behaved very similarly independent of the genotype, causing severe or lethal disease in mice and macaques, respectively. Likewise, we could not detect any evidence for differences in virus shedding. Thus, no specific biological phenotype could be associated with these EBOV-Makona mutations in two animal models. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Bim, a Proapoptotic Protein, Up-regulated via Transcription Factor E2F1-dependent Mechanism, Functions as a Prosurvival Molecule in Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Gogada, Raghu; Yadav, Neelu; Liu, Junwei; Tang, Shaohua; Zhang, Dianmu; Schneider, Andrea; Seshadri, Athul; Sun, Leimin; Aldaz, C. Marcelo; Tang, Dean G.; Chandra, Dhyan

    2013-01-01

    Proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein Bim plays an important role in Bax/Bak-mediated cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Here, we provide evidence for a novel prosurvival function of Bim in cancer cells. Bim was constitutively overexpressed in multiple prostate and breast cancer cells as well as in primary tumor cells. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed that Bim was transcriptionally up-regulated. We have identified eight endogenous E2F1-binding sites on the Bim promoter using in silico analysis. Luciferase assay demonstrated that Bim expression was E2F1-dependent as mutation of the E2F1-binding sites on the Bim promoter inhibited luciferase activities. In support, E2F1 silencing led to the loss of Bim expression in cancer cells. Bim primarily localized to mitochondrial and cytoskeleton-associated fractions. Bim silencing or microinjection of anti-Bim antibodies into the cell cytoplasm resulted in cell rounding, detachment, and subsequent apoptosis. We observed up-regulation of prosurvival proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, which sequester Bim in cancer cells. In addition, a phosphorylated form of Bim was also elevated in cancer cells. These findings suggest that the constitutively overexpressed Bim may function as a prosurvival molecule in epithelial cancer cells, and phosphorylation and association with Bcl-xL/Mcl-1 block its proapoptotic functions. PMID:23152504

  11. Rates of spontaneous mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Drake, J W; Charlesworth, B; Charlesworth, D; Crow, J F

    1998-01-01

    Rates of spontaneous mutation per genome as measured in the laboratory are remarkably similar within broad groups of organisms but differ strikingly among groups. Mutation rates in RNA viruses, whose genomes contain ca. 10(4) bases, are roughly 1 per genome per replication for lytic viruses and roughly 0.1 per genome per replication for retroviruses and a retrotransposon. Mutation rates in microbes with DNA-based chromosomes are close to 1/300 per genome per replication; in this group, therefore, rates per base pair vary inversely and hugely as genome sizes vary from 6 x 10(3) to 4 x 10(7) bases or base pairs. Mutation rates in higher eukaryotes are roughly 0.1-100 per genome per sexual generation but are currently indistinguishable from 1/300 per cell division per effective genome (which excludes the fraction of the genome in which most mutations are neutral). It is now possible to specify some of the evolutionary forces that shape these diverse mutation rates. PMID:9560386

  12. Co-expression of Erns and E2 genes of classical swine fever virus by replication-defective recombinant adenovirus completely protects pigs against virulent challenge with classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongke; Yang, Yuai; Zheng, Huanli; Xi, Dongmei; Lin, Mingxing; Zhang, Xiaomin; Yang, Linfu; Yan, Yulin; Chu, Xiaohui; Bi, Baoliang

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to construct a recombinant adenovirus for future CSFV vaccines used in the pig industry for the reduction of losses involved in CSF outbreaks. The Erns and E2 genes of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which encode the two main protective glycoproteins from the "Shimen" strain of CSFV, were combined and inserted into the replication-defective human adenovirus type-5 and named the rAd-Erns-E2. Nine pigs were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (three pigs in each group) including the rAd-Erns-E2, hAd-CMV control and DMEM control. Intramuscular vaccination with 2×10(6) TCID(50) of the rAd-Erns-E2 was administered two times with an interval of 21 days. At 42 days post inoculation, pigs in all groups were challenged with a lethal dose of 1×10(3) TCID(50) CSFV "Shimen" strain. Observation of clinical signs was made and the existence of CSFV RNA was detected. Animals in the hAd-CMV and DMEM groups showed severe clinical CSF symptoms and were euthanized from 7 to 10 days after the challenge. However, no adverse clinical CSF signs were observed in vaccinated pigs after the administration of rAd-Erns-E2 and even after CSFV challenge. Neither CSFV RNA nor pathological changes were detected in the tissues of interest of the above vaccinated pigs. These results implied that the recombination adenovirus carrying the Erns-E2 genes could be used to prevent swine from classical swine fever. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DPL-1 DP, LIN-35 Rb and EFL-1 E2F act with the MCD-1 zinc-finger protein to promote programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Reddien, Peter W; Andersen, Erik C; Huang, Michael C; Horvitz, H Robert

    2007-04-01

    The genes egl-1, ced-9, ced-4, and ced-3 play major roles in programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify genes that have more subtle activities, we sought mutations that confer strong cell-death defects in a genetically sensitized mutant background. Specifically, we screened for mutations that enhance the cell-death defects caused by a partial loss-of-function allele of the ced-3 caspase gene. We identified mutations in two genes not previously known to affect cell death, dpl-1 and mcd-1 (modifier of cell death). dpl-1 encodes the C. elegans homolog of DP, the human E2F-heterodimerization partner. By testing genes known to interact with dpl-1, we identified roles in cell death for four additional genes: efl-1 E2F, lin-35 Rb, lin-37 Mip40, and lin-52 dLin52. mcd-1 encodes a novel protein that contains one zinc finger and that is synthetically required with lin-35 Rb for animal viability. dpl-1 and mcd-1 act with efl-1 E2F and lin-35 Rb to promote programmed cell death and do so by regulating the killing process rather than by affecting the decision between survival and death. We propose that the DPL-1 DP, MCD-1 zinc finger, EFL-1 E2F, LIN-35 Rb, LIN-37 Mip40, and LIN-52 dLin52 proteins act together in transcriptional regulation to promote programmed cell death.

  14. Efficient activation of transcription in yeast by the BPV1 E2 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Stanway, C A; Sowden, M P; Wilson, L E; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1989-01-01

    The full-length gene product encoded by the E2 open reading frame (ORF) of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) is a transcriptional transactivator. It is believed to mediate its effect on the BPV1 long control region (LCR) by binding to motifs with the consensus sequence ACCN6GGT. The minimal functional cis active site, called the E2 response element (E2RE), in mammalian cells comprises two copies of this motif. Here we have shown that E2 can function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by placing an E2RE upstream of a synthetic yeast assay promoter which consists of a TATA motif and an mRNA initiation site, spaced correctly. This E2RE-minimal promoter is only transcriptionally active in the presence of E2 protein and the resulting mRNA is initiated at the authentic start site. This is the first report of a mammalian viral transactivator functioning in yeast. The level of activation by E2 via the E2RE was the same as observed with the highly efficient authentic PGK promoter where the upstream activation sequence is composed of three distinct elements. Furthermore a single E2 motif which is insufficient in mammalian cells as an activation site was as efficiently utilized in yeast as the E2RE (2 motifs). Previous studies have shown that mammalian cellular activators can function in yeast and our data now extend this to viral-specific activators. Our data indicate however that while the mechanism of transactivation is broadly conserved there may be significant differences at the detailed level. Images PMID:2539584

  15. E2F transcription factors and digestive system malignancies: how much do we know?

    PubMed

    Xanthoulis, Athanasios; Tiniakos, Dina G

    2013-06-07

    E2F family of transcription factors regulates various cellular functions related to cell cycle and apoptosis. Its individual members have traditionally been classified into activators and repressors, based on in vitro studies. However their contribution in human cancer is more complicated and difficult to predict. We review current knowledge on the expression of E2Fs in digestive system malignancies and its clinical implications for patient prognosis and treatment. E2F1, the most extensively studied member and the only one with prognostic value, exhibits a tumor-suppressing activity in esophageal, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma, and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whereas in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma may function as a tumor-promoter. In the latter malignancies, E2F1 immunohistochemical expression has been correlated with higher tumor grade and worse patient survival, whereas in esophageal, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas is a marker of increased patient survival. E2F2 has only been studied in colorectal cancer, where its role is not considered significant. E2F4's role in colorectal, gastric and hepatic carcinogenesis is tumor-promoting. E2F8 is strongly upregulated in human HCC, thus possibly contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Adenoviral transfer of E2F as gene therapy to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells for chemotherapeutic agents has been used in experimental studies. Other therapeutic strategies are yet to be developed, but it appears that targeted approaches using E2F-agonists or antagonists should take into account the tissue-dependent function of each E2F member. Further understanding of E2Fs' contribution in cellular functions in vivo would help clarify their role in carcinogenesis.

  16. Characterization of Influenza Virus Pseudotyped with Ebolavirus Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Julie Huiyuan; Rijal, Pramila; Schimanski, Lisa; Tharkeshwar, Arun Kumar; Wright, Edward; Annaert, Wim; Townsend, Alain

    2018-02-15

    We have produced a new Ebola virus pseudotype, E-S-FLU, that can be handled in biosafety level 1/2 containment for laboratory analysis. The E-S-FLU virus is a single-cycle influenza virus coated with Ebolavirus glycoprotein, and it encodes enhanced green fluorescence protein as a reporter that replaces the influenza virus hemagglutinin. MDCK-SIAT1 cells were transduced to express Ebolavirus glycoprotein as a stable transmembrane protein for E-S-FLU virus production. Infection of cells with the E-S-FLU virus was dependent on the Niemann-Pick C1 protein, which is the well-characterized receptor for Ebola virus entry at the late endosome/lysosome membrane. The E-S-FLU virus was neutralized specifically by an anti-Ebolavirus glycoprotein antibody and a variety of small drug molecules that are known to inhibit the entry of wild-type Ebola virus. To demonstrate the application of this new Ebola virus pseudotype, we show that a single laboratory batch was sufficient to screen a library (LOPAC 1280 ; Sigma) of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds for inhibition of virus entry. A total of 215 compounds inhibited E-S-FLU virus infection, while only 22 inhibited the control H5-S-FLU virus coated in H5 hemagglutinin. These inhibitory compounds have very dispersed targets and mechanisms of action, e.g., calcium channel blockers, estrogen receptor antagonists, antihistamines, serotonin uptake inhibitors, etc., and this correlates with inhibitor screening results obtained with other pseudotypes or wild-type Ebola virus in the literature. The E-S-FLU virus is a new tool for Ebola virus cell entry studies and is easily applied to high-throughput screening assays for small-molecule inhibitors or antibodies. IMPORTANCE Ebola virus is in the Filoviridae family and is a biosafety level 4 pathogen. There are no FDA-approved therapeutics for Ebola virus. These characteristics warrant the development of surrogates for Ebola virus that can be handled in more convenient laboratory

  17. Characterization of Influenza Virus Pseudotyped with Ebolavirus Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Julie Huiyuan; Rijal, Pramila; Schimanski, Lisa; Tharkeshwar, Arun Kumar; Wright, Edward; Annaert, Wim

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have produced a new Ebola virus pseudotype, E-S-FLU, that can be handled in biosafety level 1/2 containment for laboratory analysis. The E-S-FLU virus is a single-cycle influenza virus coated with Ebolavirus glycoprotein, and it encodes enhanced green fluorescence protein as a reporter that replaces the influenza virus hemagglutinin. MDCK-SIAT1 cells were transduced to express Ebolavirus glycoprotein as a stable transmembrane protein for E-S-FLU virus production. Infection of cells with the E-S-FLU virus was dependent on the Niemann-Pick C1 protein, which is the well-characterized receptor for Ebola virus entry at the late endosome/lysosome membrane. The E-S-FLU virus was neutralized specifically by an anti-Ebolavirus glycoprotein antibody and a variety of small drug molecules that are known to inhibit the entry of wild-type Ebola virus. To demonstrate the application of this new Ebola virus pseudotype, we show that a single laboratory batch was sufficient to screen a library (LOPAC1280; Sigma) of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds for inhibition of virus entry. A total of 215 compounds inhibited E-S-FLU virus infection, while only 22 inhibited the control H5-S-FLU virus coated in H5 hemagglutinin. These inhibitory compounds have very dispersed targets and mechanisms of action, e.g., calcium channel blockers, estrogen receptor antagonists, antihistamines, serotonin uptake inhibitors, etc., and this correlates with inhibitor screening results obtained with other pseudotypes or wild-type Ebola virus in the literature. The E-S-FLU virus is a new tool for Ebola virus cell entry studies and is easily applied to high-throughput screening assays for small-molecule inhibitors or antibodies. IMPORTANCE Ebola virus is in the Filoviridae family and is a biosafety level 4 pathogen. There are no FDA-approved therapeutics for Ebola virus. These characteristics warrant the development of surrogates for Ebola virus that can be handled in more convenient

  18. [Pregnancy-specific beta-glycoprotein in the serum of women with a complicated early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Radikov, N

    1989-01-01

    The author determined pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein in 109 women with threatened early pregnancy as 32 of the women suffered from abortus imminens with several unsuccessful pregnancies in the past as well as 67 women with abortus incipiens with bleeding ex utero. The author established that 87% of women with abortus imminens and preserved pregnancies had values of beta 1-glycoprotein close to those of normal pregnancy for the respective gestational week. 93% of women with abortus incipiens preserved pregnancies till term, but the specific glycoprotein was with in normal ranges. Spontaneous abortion occurred in 7% of women with low values under the 10th percentile. The present study show that examination of pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein in women with threatened early pregnancy is of prognostic significance for the outcome of pregnancy.

  19. Presynaptic neurones may contribute a unique glycoprotein to the extracellular matrix at the synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroni, Pico; Carlson, Steven S.; Schweitzer, Erik; Kelly, Regis B.

    1985-04-01

    As the extracellular matrix at the original site of a neuromuscular junction seems to play a major part in the specificity of synaptic regeneration1-5, considerable attention has been paid to unique molecules localized to this region6-11. Here we describe an extracellular matrix glycoprotein of the elasmobranch electric organ that is localized near the nerve endings. By immunological criteria, it is synthesized in the cell bodies, transported down the axons and is related to a glycoprotein in the synaptic vesicles of the neurones that innervate the electric organ. It is apparently specific for these neurones, as it cannot be detected elsewhere in the nervous system of the fish. Therefore, neurones seem to contribute unique extracellular matrix glycoproteins to the synaptic region. Synaptic vesicles could be involved in transporting these glycoproteins to or from the nerve terminal surface.

  20. Strategies to overcome or circumvent P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongyu; Li, Xun; Wu, Jifeng; Li, Jinpei; Qu, Xianjun; Xu, Wenfang; Tang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Cancer patients who receive chemotherapy often experience intrinsic or acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic agents. The phenomenon, termed multidrug resistance (MDR), is often associated with the over-expression of P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane protein pump, which can enhance efflux of a various chemicals structurally unrelated at the expense of ATP depletion, resulting in decrease of the intracellular cytotoxic drug accumulation. The MDR has been a big threaten to the human health and the war fight for it continues. Although several other mechanisms for MDR are elucidated in recent years, considerable efforts attempting to inverse MDR are involved in exploring P-glycoprotein modulators and suppressing P-glycoprotein expression. In this review, we will report on the recent advances in various strategies for overcoming or circumventing MDR mediated by P-glycoprotein.

  1. 21 CFR 866.5425 - Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the alpha-2-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-2 group when subjected to... some cancers and genetically inherited deficiencies of these plasma proteins. (b) Classification. Class...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5425 - Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the alpha-2-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-2 group when subjected to... some cancers and genetically inherited deficiencies of these plasma proteins. (b) Classification. Class...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5425 - Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the alpha-2-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-2 group when subjected to... some cancers and genetically inherited deficiencies of these plasma proteins. (b) Classification. Class...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5425 - Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the alpha-2-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-2 group when subjected to... some cancers and genetically inherited deficiencies of these plasma proteins. (b) Classification. Class...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5425 - Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the alpha-2-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-2 group when subjected to... some cancers and genetically inherited deficiencies of these plasma proteins. (b) Classification. Class...

  6. Glycoproteins functionalized natural and synthetic polymers for prospective biomedical applications: A review.

    PubMed

    Tabasum, Shazia; Noreen, Aqdas; Kanwal, Arooj; Zuber, Mohammad; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed; Zia, Khalid Mahmood

    2017-05-01

    Glycoproteins have multidimensional properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, antimicrobial and adsorption properties; therefore, they have wide range of applications. They are blended with different polymers such as chitosan, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polycaprolactone (PCL), heparin, polystyrene fluorescent nanoparticles (PS-NPs) and carboxyl pullulan (PC) to improve their properties like thermal stability, mechanical properties, resistance to pH, chemical stability and toughness. Considering the versatile charateristics of glycoprotein based polymers, this review sheds light on synthesis and characterization of blends and composites of glycoproteins, with natural and synthetic polymers and their potential applications in biomedical field such as drug delivery system, insulin delivery, antimicrobial wound dressing uses, targeting of cancer cells, development of anticancer vaccines, development of new biopolymers, glycoproteome research, food product and detection of dengue glycoproteins. All the technical scientific issues have been addressed; highlighting the recent advancement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunoinformatic Analysis of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Glycoproteins and Epitope Prediction for Synthetic Peptide Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tipu, Hamid Nawaz

    2016-02-01

    To determine the Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus M segement glycoprotein's immunoinformatic parameters, and identify Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I binders as candidates for synthetic peptide vaccines. Cross-sectional study. Combined Military Hospital, Khuzdar Cantt, in May 2015. Data acquisition, antigenicity prediction, secondary and tertiary structure prediction, residue analysis were done using immunoinformatics tools. HLAclass I binders in glycoprotein's sequence were identified at nanomer length using NetMHC 3.4 and mapped onto tertiary structure. Docking was done for strongest binder against its corresponding allele with CABS-dock. HLAA*0101, 0201, 0301, 2402, 2601 and B*0702, 0801, 2705, 3901, 4001, 5801, 1501 were analyzed against two glycoprotein components of the virus. Atotal of 35 nanomers from GP1, and 3 from GP2 were identified. HLAB*0702 bound maximum number of peptides (6), while HLAB*4001 showed strongest binding affinity. HLAspecific glycoproteins epitope prediction can help identify synthetic peptide vaccine candidates.

  8. Vaccinia virus-free rescue of fluorescent replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus and pseudotyping with Puumala virus glycoproteins for use in neutralization tests.

    PubMed

    Paneth Iheozor-Ejiofor, Rommel; Levanov, Lev; Hepojoki, Jussi; Strandin, Tomas; Lundkvist, Åke; Plyusnin, Alexander; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-05-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) grows slowly in cell culture. To study antigenic properties of PUUV, an amenable method for their expression would be beneficial. To achieve this, a replication-defective recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus, rVSVΔG*EGFP, was rescued using BSRT7/5 and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-enabled rescue plasmids. Using these particles, pseudotypes bearing PUUV Sotkamo strain glycoproteins were produced, with titres in the range 105-108, and were used in pseudotype focus reduction neutralization tests (pFRNTs) with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and patient sera. The results were compared with those from orthodox focus reduction neutralization tests (oFRNTs) using native PUUV with the same samples and showed a strong positive correlation (rs = 0.82) between the methods. While developing the system we identified three amino acids which were mutated in the Vero E6 cell culture adapted PUUV prototype Sotkamo strain sequence, and changing these residues was critical for expression and neutralizing antibody binding of PUUV glycoproteins.

  9. Importance of the short cytoplasmic domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus transmembrane glycoprotein for fusion activity and envelope glycoprotein incorporation into virions

    SciT

    Celma, Cristina C.P.; Paladino, Monica G.; Gonzalez, Silvia A.

    2007-09-30

    The mature form of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein of lentiviruses is a heterodimer composed of the surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) possesses a TM glycoprotein with a cytoplasmic tail of approximately 53 amino acids which is unusually short compared with that of the other lentiviral glycoproteins (more than 100 residues). To investigate the relevance of the FIV TM cytoplasmic domain to Env-mediated viral functions, we characterized the biological properties of a series of Env glycoproteins progressively shortened from the carboxyl terminus. All the mutant Env proteins were efficiently expressed in feline cells and processed intomore » the SU and TM subunits. Deletion of 5 or 11 amino acids from the TM C-terminus did not significantly affect Env surface expression, fusogenic activity or Env incorporation into virions, whereas removal of 17 or 23 residues impaired Env-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. Further truncation of the FIV TM by 29 residues resulted in an Env glycoprotein that was poorly expressed at the cell surface, exhibited only 20% of the wild-type Env fusogenic capacity and was inefficiently incorporated into virions. Remarkably, deletion of the TM C-terminal 35 or 41 amino acids restored or even enhanced Env biological functions. Indeed, these mutant Env glycoproteins bearing cytoplasmic domains of 18 or 12 amino acids were found to be significantly more fusogenic than the wild-type Env and were efficiently incorporated into virions. Interestingly, truncation of the TM cytoplasmic domain to only 6 amino acids did not affect Env incorporation into virions but abrogated Env fusogenicity. Finally, removal of the entire TM cytoplasmic tail or deletion of as many as 6 amino acids into the membrane-spanning domain led to a complete loss of Env functions. Our results demonstrate that despite its relatively short length, the FIV TM cytoplasmic domain plays an important role in modulating Env-mediated viral

  10. Estradiol-17β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the prostaglandin E2 receptor are involved in PGE2 positive feedback loop in the porcine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Waclawik, Agnieszka; Jabbour, Henry N.; Blitek, Agnieszka; Ziecik, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    Before implantation, the porcine endometrium and trophoblast synthesize elevated amounts of luteoprotective prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We hypothesized that embryo signal, estradiol-17β (E2) and PGE2 modulate expression of key enzymes in PG synthesis: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2), PGE synthase (mPGES-1), PGF synthase (PGFS), and prostaglandin 9-ketoreductase (CBR1); as well as PGE2 receptor (PTGER2 and 4) expression and signaling within the endometrium. We determinated the site of action of PGE2 in endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Endometrial tissue explants obtained from gilts (n=6) on days 11-12 of the estrous cycle were treated with vehicle (control), PGE2 (100 nM), E2 (1-100 nM) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (100 nM, positive control). E2 increased PGE2 secretion through elevating expression of mPGES-1 mRNA and PTGS2 and mPGES-1 protein in endometrial explants. By contrast, E2 decreased PGFS and CBR1 protein expression. E2 also stimulated PTGER2 but not PTGER4 protein content. PGE2 enhanced mPGES-1 and PTGER2 mRNA as well as PTGS2, mPGES-1 and PTGER2 protein expression. PGE2 had no effect on PGFS, CBR1 and PTGER4 expression and PGF2α release. Treatment of endometrial tissue with PGE2 increased cAMP production. Co-treatment with PTGER2 antagonist (AH6809) but not PTGER4 antagonist (GW 627368X) inhibited significantly PGE2-mediated cAMP production. PTGER2 protein was localized in luminal and glandular epithelium and blood vessels of endometrium, and was significantly up-regulated on days 11-12 of pregnancy. Our results suggest that E2, prevents luteolysis through enzymatic modification of PG synthesis and that E2, PGE2 and endometrial PTGER2 are involved in PGE2 positive feedback loop in porcine endometrium. PMID:19359378

  11. 17 CFR 270.6e-2 - Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... variable life insurance separate accounts. 270.6e-2 Section 270.6e-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...-2 Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts. (a) A separate account, and the... a life insurance company pursuant to the insurance laws or code of (i) any state or territory of the...

  12. 17 CFR 270.6e-2 - Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... variable life insurance separate accounts. 270.6e-2 Section 270.6e-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...-2 Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts. (a) A separate account, and the... a life insurance company pursuant to the insurance laws or code of (i) any state or territory of the...

  13. 17 CFR 270.6e-2 - Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... variable life insurance separate accounts. 270.6e-2 Section 270.6e-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...-2 Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts. (a) A separate account, and the... a life insurance company pursuant to the insurance laws or code of (i) any state or territory of the...

  14. NRIP enhances HPV gene expression via interaction with either GR or E2

    SciT

    Chang, Szu-Wei; Lu, Pei-Yu; Guo, Jih-Huong

    We previously identified a gene, nuclear receptor-interaction protein (NRIP), which functions as a transcription cofactor in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and human papillomavirus E2 (HPV E2)-driven gene expression. Here, we comprehensively evaluated the role of NRIP in HPV-16 gene expression. NRIP acts as a transcription cofactor to enhance GR-regulated HPV-16 gene expression in the presence of hormone. NRIP also can form complex with E2 that caused NRIP-induced HPV gene expression via E2-binding sites in a hormone-independent manner. Furthermore, NRIP can associate with GR and E2 to form tri-protein complex to activate HPV gene expression via GRE, not the E2-binding site, inmore » a hormone-dependent manner. These results indicate that NRIP and GR are viral E2-binding proteins and that NRIP regulates HPV gene expression via GRE and/or E2 binding site in the HPV promoter in a hormone-dependent or independent manner, respectively.« less

  15. New perspective of Grodzins E × B(E2) ↑ product rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, J. B.; Katoch, Vikas

    In the collective spectra of atomic nuclei, the level energy E(21+) varies with atomic number Z and neutron number N. Also the E2 decay-reduced transition probability B(E2, 01+ → 2 1+) is related to the energy E(21+). The product E(21+) × B(E2) ↑ is constant according to Grodzins product rule, independent of the vibration or rotational status of the nucleus. The product rule is often used for determining B(E2) from the known E(21+). However, the variation of the product with various parameters is also suggested in the literature. Hence, a detailed global study of this rule for (Z = 54‑‑78, 66 < N < 126) region is warranted. We use a novel method of displaying the linear relation of B(E2) ↑ with 1/E(21+) for the isotopes of each element (Xe-Pt), instead of their variation with N,Z or A. Through our work, we firmly establish the global validity of the Grodzins relation of B(E2), being proportional to the moment of inertia, except for the deviation in specific cases. Our B(E2) ↑ versus 1/E plots provide a transparent view of the variation of the low-energy nuclear structure. This gives a new perspective of their nuclear structure. Also the various theoretical interpretations of B(E2)s and the energy E(21+) are reviewed.

  16. Determining P-glycoprotein-drug interactions: evaluation of reconstituted P-glycoprotein in a liposomal system and LLC-MDR1 polarized cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Donald L; Sharom, Frances J; Evers, Raymond; Wright, George E; Chu, Joseph W K; Wright, Stephen E; Chu, Xiaoyan; Yabut, Jocelyn

    2012-03-01

    P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) is a multidrug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Many drugs in common clinical use are either substrates or inhibitors of this transporter. Quantitative details of P-glycoprotein inhibition by pharmaceutical agents are essential for assessment of their pharmacokinetic behavior and prevention of negative patient reactions. Cell-based systems have been widely used for determination of drug interactions with P-glycoprotein, but they suffer from several disadvantages, and results are often widely variable between laboratories. We aimed to demonstrate that a novel liposomal system employing contemporary biochemical methodologies could measure the ability of clinically used drugs to inhibit the P-glycoprotein pump. To accomplish this we compared results with those of cell-based approaches. Purified transport-competent hamster Abcb1a P-glycoprotein was reconstituted into a unilamellar liposomal system, Fluorosome-trans-pgp, whose aqueous interior contains fluorescent drug sensors. This provides a well-defined system for measuring P-glycoprotein transport inhibition by test drugs in real time using rapid fluorescence-based technology. Inhibition of ATP-driven transport by Fluorosome-trans-pgp employed a panel of 46 representative drugs. Resulting IC50 values correlated well (r2=0.80) with Kd values for drug binding to purified P-glycoprotein. They also showed a similar trend to transport inhibition data obtained using LLC-MDR1 cell monolayers. Fluorosome-trans-pgp IC50 values were in agreement with published results of digoxin drug-drug interaction studies in humans. This novel approach using a liposomal system and fluorescence-based technology is shown to be suitable to study whether marketed drugs and drug candidates are P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The assay is rapid, allowing a 7-point IC50 determination in <6 min, and requires minimal quantities of test drug. The method is amenable to robotics and

  17. Determining P-glycoprotein-drug interactions: evaluation of reconstituted P-glycoprotein in a liposomal system and LLC-MDR1 polarized cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, Donald L.; Sharom, Frances J.; Evers, Raymond; Wright, George E.; Chu, Joseph W.K.; Wright, Stephen E.; Chu, Xiaoyan; Yabut, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Introduction P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) is a multidrug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Many drugs in common clinical use are either substrates or inhibitors of this transporter. Quantitative details of P-glycoprotein inhibition by pharmaceutical agents are essential for assessment of their pharmacokinetic behavior and prevention of negative patient reactions. Cell-based systems have been widely used for determination of drug interactions with P-glycoprotein, but they suffer from several disadvantages, and results are often widely variable between laboratories. We aimed to demonstrate that a novel liposomal system employing contemporary biochemical methodologies could measure the ability of clinically used drugs to inhibit the P-glycoprotein pump. To accomplish this we compared results with those of cell-based approaches. Methods Purified transport-competent hamster Abcb1a P-glycoprotein was reconstituted into a unilamellar liposomal system, Fluorosome-trans-pgp, whose aqueous interior contains fluorescent drug sensors. This provides a well-defined system for measuring P-glycoprotein transport inhibition by test drugs in real time using rapid fluorescence-based technology. Results Inhibition of ATP-driven transport by Fluorosome-trans-pgp employed a panel of 46 representative drugs. Resulting IC50 values correlated well (r2 = 0.80) with Kd values for drug binding to purified P-glycoprotein. They also showed a similar trend to transport inhibition data obtained using LLC-MDR1 cell monolayers. Fluorosome-trans-pgp IC50 values were in agreement with published results of digoxin drug-drug interaction studies in humans. Discussion This novel approach using a liposomal system and fluorescence-based technology is shown to be suitable to study whether marketed drugs and drug candidates are P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The assay is rapid, allowing a 7-point IC50 determination in <6 minutes, and requires minimal quantities of test

  18. Nucleotide sequences of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) affecting virus entry, cell fusion, and production of glycoprotein gB (VP7)

    SciT

    DeLuca, N.; Bzik, D.J.; Bond, V.C.

    1982-10-30

    The tsB5 strain of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) contains at least two mutations; one mutation specifies the syncytial phenotype and the other confers temperature sensitivity for virus growth. These functions are known to be located between the prototypic map coordinates 0.30 and 0.42. In this study it was demonstrated that tsB5 enters human embryonic lung (HEL) cells more rapidly than KOS, another strain of HSV-1. The EcoRI restriction fragment F from the KOS strain (map coordinates 0.315 to 0.421) was mapped with eight restriction endonucleases, and 16 recombinant plasmids were constructed which contained varying portions of the KOSmore » genome. Recombinant viruses were generated by marker-rescue and marker-transfer cotransfection procedures, using intact DNA from one strain and a recombinant plasmid containing DNA from the other strain. The region of the crossover between the two nonisogenic strains was inferred by the identification of restriction sites in the recombinants that were characteristic of the parental strains. The recombinants were subjected to phenotypic analysis. Syncytium formation, rate of virus entry, and the production of gB were all separable by the crossovers that produced the recombinants. The KOS sequences which rescue the syncytial phenotype of tsB5 were localized to 1.5 kb (map coordinates 0.345 to 0.355), and the temperature-sensitive mutation was localized to 1.2 kb (0.360 to 0.368), giving an average separation between the mutations of 2.5 kb on the 150-kb genome. DNA sequences that specify a functional domain for virus entry were localized to the nucleotide sequences between the two mutations. All three functions could be encoded by the virus gene specifying the gB glycoprotein.« less

  19. Changes in intestinal absorption of nutrients and brush border glycoproteins after total parenteral nutrition in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Miura, S; Tanaka, S; Yoshioka, M; Serizawa, H; Tashiro, H; Shiozaki, H; Imaeda, H; Tsuchiya, M

    1992-01-01

    The effect of total parenteral nutrition on nutrients absorption and glycoprotein changes of brush border membrane was examined in rat small intestine. In total parenteral nutrition rats, a marked decrease in activity of brush border enzymes was observed mainly in the proximal and middle segments of the intestine. Galactose perfusion of jejunal segment showed that hexose absorption was significantly inhibited, while intestinal absorption of glycine or dipeptide, glycylglycine was not significantly affected by total parenteral nutrition treatment. When brush border membrane glycoprotein profile was examined by [3H]-glucosamine or [3H]-fucose incorporation into jejunal loops, significant changes were observed in the glycoprotein pattern of brush border membrane especially in the high molecular weight range over 120 kDa after total parenteral nutrition treatment, suggesting strong dependency of glycoprotein synthesis on luminal substances. Molecular weight of sucrase isomaltase in brush border membrane detected by specific antibody showed no significant difference, however, in total parenteral nutrition and control rats. Also, molecular weight of specific sodium glucose cotransporter of intestinal brush border membrane detected by selective photoaffinity labelling was not altered in total parenteral nutrition rats. It may be that prolonged absence of oral food intake may produce significant biochemical changes in brush border membrane glycoprotein and absorptive capacity of small intestine, but these changes were not observed in all brush border membrane glycoproteins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1582592

  20. The glycoproteins of Marburg and Ebola virus and their potential roles in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, H; Volchkov, V E; Volchkova, V A; Klenk, H D

    1999-01-01

    Filoviruses cause systemic infections that can lead to severe hemorrhagic fever in human and non-human primates. The primary target of the virus appears to be the mononuclear phagocytic system. As the virus spreads through the organism, the spectrum of target cells increases to include endothelial cells, fibroblasts, hepatocytes, and many other cells. There is evidence that the filovirus glycoprotein plays an important role in cell tropism, spread of infection, and pathogenicity. Biosynthesis of the glycoprotein forming the spikes on the virion surface involves cleavage by the host cell protease furin into two disulfide linked subunits GP1 and GP2. GP1 is also shed in soluble form from infected cells. Different strains of Ebola virus show variations in the cleavability of the glycoprotein, that may account for differences in pathogenicity, as has been observed with influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses. Expression of the spike glycoprotein of Ebola virus, but not of Marburg virus, requires transcriptional editing. Unedited GP mRNA yields the nonstructural glycoprotein sGP, which is secreted extensively from infected cells. Whether the soluble glycoproteins GP1 and sGP interfere with the humoral immune response and other defense mechanisms remains to be determined.

  1. Structure of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein in the Postfusion Conformation Reveals Preservation of Neutralizing Epitopes

    SciT

    McLellan, Jason S.; Yang, Yongping; Graham, Barney S.

    2011-09-16

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) invades host cells via a type I fusion (F) glycoprotein that undergoes dramatic structural rearrangements during the fusion process. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, such as 101F, palivizumab, and motavizumab, target two major antigenic sites on the RSV F glycoprotein. The structures of these sites as peptide complexes with motavizumab and 101F have been previously determined, but a structure for the trimeric RSV F glycoprotein ectodomain has remained elusive. To address this issue, we undertook structural and biophysical studies on stable ectodomain constructs. Here, we present the 2.8-{angstrom} crystal structure of the trimeric RSV F ectodomain in itsmore » postfusion conformation. The structure revealed that the 101F and motavizumab epitopes are present in the postfusion state and that their conformations are similar to those observed in the antibody-bound peptide structures. Both antibodies bound the postfusion F glycoprotein with high affinity in surface plasmon resonance experiments. Modeling of the antibodies bound to the F glycoprotein predicts that the 101F epitope is larger than the linear peptide and restricted to a single protomer in the trimer, whereas motavizumab likely contacts residues on two protomers, indicating a quaternary epitope. Mechanistically, these results suggest that 101F and motavizumab can bind to multiple conformations of the fusion glycoprotein and can neutralize late in the entry process. The structural preservation of neutralizing epitopes in the postfusion state suggests that this conformation can elicit neutralizing antibodies and serve as a useful vaccine antigen.« less

  2. [C-terminal lysosome targeting domain of CD63 modifies cellular localization of rabies virus glycoprotein].

    PubMed

    Starodubova, E S; Kuzmenko, Y V; Latanova, A A; Preobrazhenskaya, O V; Karpov, V L

    2017-01-01

    The glycoprotein of rabies virus is the central antigen elicited the immune response to infection; therefore, the majority of developing anti-rabies vaccines are based on this protein. In order to increase the efficacy of DNA immunogen encoding rabies virus glycoprotein, the construction of chimeric protein with the CD63 domain has been proposed. The CD63 is a transmembrane protein localized on the cell surface and in lysosomes. The lysosome targeting motif GYEVM is located at its C-terminus. We used the domain that bears this motif (c-CD63) to generate chimeric glycoprotein in order to relocalize it into lysosomes. Here, it was shown that, in cells transfected with plasmid that encodes glycoprotein with c-CD63 motif at the C-terminus, the chimeric protein was predominantly observed in lysosomes and at the cell membrane where the unmodified glycoprotein is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and at the cell surface. We suppose that current modification of the glycoprotein may improve the immunogenicity of anti-rabies DNA vaccines due to more efficient antibody production.

  3. Bypassing P-Glycoprotein Drug Efflux Mechanisms: Possible Applications in Pharmacoresistant Schizophrenia Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hoosain, Famida G.; Choonara, Yahya E.; Tomar, Lomas K.; Tyagi, Charu; du Toit, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The efficient noninvasive treatment of neurodegenerative disorders is often constrained by reduced permeation of therapeutic agents into the central nervous system (CNS). A vast majority of bioactive agents do not readily permeate into the brain tissue due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the associated P-glycoprotein efflux transporter. The overexpression of the MDR1 P-glycoprotein has been related to the occurrence of multidrug resistance in CNS diseases. Various research outputs have focused on overcoming the P-glycoprotein drug efflux transporter, which mainly involve its inhibition or bypassing mechanisms. Studies into neurodegenerative disorders have shown that the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter plays a vital role in the progression of schizophrenia, with a noted increase in P-glycoprotein function among schizophrenic patients, thereby reducing therapeutic outcomes. In this review, we address the hypothesis that methods employed in overcoming P-glycoprotein in cancer and other disease states at the level of the BBB and intestine may be applied to schizophrenia drug delivery system design to improve clinical efficiency of drug therapies. In addition, the current review explores polymers and drug delivery systems capable of P-gp inhibition and modulation. PMID:26491671

  4. Sweating the small stuff: Glycoproteins in human sweat and their unexplored potential for microbial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robyn A; Gueniche, Audrey; Adam de Beaumais, Ségolène; Breton, Lionel; Dalko-Csiba, Maria; Packer, Nicolle H

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that secretory fluids such as tears, saliva and milk play an important role in protecting the human body from infection via a washing mechanism involving glycan-mediated adhesion of potential pathogens to secretory glycoproteins. Interaction of sweat with bacteria is well established as the cause of sweat-associated malodor. However, the role of sweat glycoproteins in microbial attachment has received little, if any, research interest in the past. In this review, we demonstrate how recent published studies involving high-throughput proteomic analysis have inadvertently, and fortuitously, exposed an abundance of glycoproteins in sweat, many of which have also been identified in other secretory fluids. We bring together research demonstrating microbial adhesion to these secretory glycoproteins in tears, saliva and milk and suggest a similar role of the sweat glycoproteins in mediating microbial attachment to sweat and/or skin. The contribution of glycan-mediated microbial adhesion to sweat glycoproteins, and the associated impact on sweat derived malodor and pathogenic skin infections are unchartered new research areas that we are beginning to explore. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT1) promotes substrate solubility in the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Sean P.; Jaber, Nikita S.; Molinari, Maurizio; Arvan, Peter; Kaufman, Randal J.

    2013-01-01

    Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is error prone, and ER quality control (ERQC) processes ensure that only correctly folded proteins are exported from the ER. Glycoproteins can be retained in the ER by ERQC, and this retention contributes to multiple human diseases, termed ER storage diseases. UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT1) acts as a central component of glycoprotein ERQC, monoglucosylating deglucosylated N-glycans of incompletely folded glycoproteins and promoting subsequent reassociation with the lectin-like chaperones calreticulin and calnexin. The extent to which UGGT1 influences glycoprotein folding, however, has only been investigated for a few selected substrates. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking UGGT1 or those with UGGT1 complementation, we investigated the effect of monoglucosylation on the soluble/insoluble distribution of two misfolded α1-antitrypsin (AAT) variants responsible for AAT deficiency disease: null Hong Kong (NHK) and Z allele. Whereas substrate solubility increases directly with the number of N-linked glycosylation sites, our results indicate that additional solubility is conferred by UGGT1 enzymatic activity. Monoglucosylation-dependent solubility decreases both BiP association with NHK and unfolded protein response activation, and the solubility increase is blocked in cells deficient for calreticulin. These results suggest that UGGT1-dependent monoglucosylation of N-linked glycoproteins promotes substrate solubility in the ER. PMID:23864712

  6. Regulation of E2s: A Role for Additional Ubiquitin Binding Sites?

    PubMed

    Middleton, Adam J; Wright, Joshua D; Day, Catherine L

    2017-11-10

    Attachment of ubiquitin to proteins relies on a sophisticated enzyme cascade that is tightly regulated. The machinery of ubiquitylation responds to a range of signals, which remarkably includes ubiquitin itself. Thus, ubiquitin is not only the central player in the ubiquitylation cascade but also a key regulator. The ubiquitin E3 ligases provide specificity to the cascade and often bind the substrate, while the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) have a pivotal role in determining chain linkage and length. Interaction of ubiquitin with the E2 is important for activity, but the weak nature of these contacts has made them hard to identify and study. By reviewing available crystal structures, we identify putative ubiquitin binding sites on E2s, which may enhance E2 processivity and the assembly of chains of a defined linkage. The implications of these new sites are discussed in the context of known E2-ubiquitin interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Only Five of 10 Strictly Conserved Disulfide Bonds Are Essential for Folding and Eight for Function of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    van Anken, Eelco; Sanders, Rogier W.; Liscaljet, I. Marije; Land, Aafke; Bontjer, Ilja; Tillemans, Sonja; Nabatov, Alexey A.; Paxton, William A.; Berkhout, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum goes hand in hand with disulfide bond formation, and disulfide bonds are considered key structural elements for a protein's folding and function. We used the HIV-1 Envelope glycoprotein to examine in detail the importance of its 10 completely conserved disulfide bonds. We systematically mutated the cysteines in its ectodomain, assayed the mutants for oxidative folding, transport, and incorporation into the virus, and tested fitness of mutant viruses. We found that the protein was remarkably tolerant toward manipulation of its disulfide-bonded structure. Five of 10 disulfide bonds were dispensable for folding. Two of these were even expendable for viral replication in cell culture, indicating that the relevance of these disulfide bonds becomes manifest only during natural infection. Our findings refine old paradigms on the importance of disulfide bonds for proteins. PMID:18653472

  8. Competing E2 and SN2 Mechanisms for the F- + CH3CH2I Reaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Jiaxu; Xie, Jing; Ma, Xinyou; Zhang, Linyao; Zhao, Chenyang; Hase, William L

    2017-02-09

    Anti-E2, syn-E2, inv-, and ret-S N 2 reaction channels for the gas-phase reaction of F - + CH 3 CH 2 I were characterized with a variety of electronic structure calculations. Geometrical analysis confirmed synchronous E2-type transition states for the elimination of the current reaction, instead of nonconcerted processes through E1cb-like and E1-like mechanisms. Importantly, the controversy concerning the reactant complex for anti-E2 and inv-S N 2 paths has been clarified in the present work. A positive barrier of +19.2 kcal/mol for ret-S N 2 shows the least feasibility to occur at room temperature. Negative activation energies (-16.9, -16.0, and -4.9 kcal/mol, respectively) for inv-S N 2, anti-E2, and syn-E2 indicate that inv-S N 2 and anti-E2 mechanisms significantly prevail over the eclipsed elimination. Varying the leaving group for a series of reactions F - + CH 3 CH 2 Y (Y = F, Cl, Br, and I) leads to monotonically decreasing barriers, which relates to the gradually looser TS structures following the order F > Cl > Br > I. The reactivity of each channel nearly holds unchanged except for the perturbation between anti-E2 and inv-S N 2. RRKM calculation reveals that the reaction of the fluorine ion with ethyl iodide occurs predominately via anti-E2 elimination, and the inv-S N 2 pathway is suppressed, although it is energetically favored. This phenomenon indicates that, in evaluating the competition between E2 and S N 2 processes, the kinetic or dynamical factors may play a significant role. By comparison with benchmark CCSD(T) energies, MP2, CAM-B3LYP, and M06 methods are recommended to perform dynamics simulations of the title reaction.

  9. Both Epistasis and Diversifying Selection Drive the Structural Evolution of the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Mucin-Like Domain.

    PubMed

    Ibeh, Neke; Nshogozabahizi, Jean Claude; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    Throughout the last 3 decades, Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreaks have been confined to isolated areas within Central Africa; however, the 2014 variant reached unprecedented transmission and mortality rates. While the outbreak was still under way, it was reported that the variant leading up to this outbreak evolved faster than previous EBOV variants, but evidence for diversifying selection was undetermined. Here, we test this selection hypothesis and show that while previous EBOV outbreaks were preceded by bursts of diversification, evidence for site-specific diversifying selection during the emergence of the 2014 EBOV clade is weak. However, we show strong evidence supporting an interplay between selection and correlated evolution (epistasis), particularly in the mucin-like domain (MLD) of the EBOV glycoprotein. By reconstructing ancestral structures of the MLD, we further propose a structural mechanism explaining how the substitutions that accumulated between 1918 and 1969 distorted the MLD, while more recent epistatic substitutions restored part of the structure, with the most recent substitution being adaptive. We suggest that it is this complex interplay between weak selection, epistasis, and structural constraints that has shaped the evolution of the 2014 EBOV variant. The role that selection plays in the emergence of viral epidemics remains debated, particularly in the context of the 2014 EBOV outbreak. Most critically, should such evidence exist, it is generally unclear how this relates to function and increased virulence. Here, we show that the viral lineage leading up to the 2014 outbreak underwent a complex interplay between selection and correlated evolution (epistasis) in a protein region that is critical for immune evasion. We then reconstructed the three-dimensional structure of this domain and showed that the initial mutations in this lineage deformed the structure, while subsequent mutations restored part of the structure. Along this mutational path, the

  10. Lactoferrin: A Natural Glycoprotein Involved in Iron and Inflammatory Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cutone, Antimo; Lepanto, Maria Stefania; Paesano, Rosalba; Valenti, Piera

    2017-01-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLf), an iron-binding multifunctional cationic glycoprotein secreted by exocrine glands and by neutrophils, is a key element of host defenses. HLf and bovine Lf (bLf), possessing high sequence homology and identical functions, inhibit bacterial growth and biofilm dependently from iron binding ability while, independently, bacterial adhesion to and the entry into cells. In infected/inflamed host cells, bLf exerts an anti-inflammatory activity against interleukin-6 (IL-6), thus up-regulating ferroportin (Fpn) and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and down-regulating ferritin (Ftn), pivotal actors of iron and inflammatory homeostasis (IIH). Consequently, bLf inhibits intracellular iron overload, an unsafe condition enhancing in vivo susceptibility to infections, as well as anemia of inflammation (AI), re-establishing IIH. In pregnant women, affected by AI, bLf oral administration decreases IL-6 and increases hematological parameters. This surprising effect is unrelated to iron supplementation by bLf (80 μg instead of 1–2 mg/day), but to its role on IIH. AI is unrelated to the lack of iron, but to iron delocalization: cellular/tissue overload and blood deficiency. BLf cures AI by restoring iron from cells to blood through Fpn up-expression. Indeed, anti-inflammatory activity of oral and intravaginal bLf prevents preterm delivery. Promising bLf treatments can prevent/cure transitory inflammation/anemia/oral pathologies in athletes. PMID:28914813

  11. Effect of P-glycoprotein on flavopiridol sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, S A; Tourne, M E; Kaufmann, S H; Bible, K C

    2001-01-01

    Flavopiridol is the first potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to enter clinical trials. Little is known about mechanisms of resistance to this agent. In order to determine whether P-glycoprotein (Pgp) might play a role in flavopiridol resistance, we examined flavopiridol sensitivity in a pair of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines differing with respect to level of Pgp expression. The IC 50 s of flavopiridol in parental AuxB1 (lower Pgp) and colchicine-selected CHRC5 (higher Pgp) cells were 90.2 ± 6.6 nM and 117 ± 2.3 nM, respectively (P< 0.01), suggesting that Pgp might have a modest effect on flavopiridol action. Consistent with this hypothesis, pretreatment with either quinidine or verapamil (inhibitors of Pgp-mediated transport) sensitized CHRC5 cells to the antiproliferative effects of flavopiridol. Because of concern that colony forming assays might not accurately reflect cytotoxicity, we also examined flavopiridol-treated cells by trypan blue staining and flow cytometry. These assays confirmed that flavopiridol was less toxic to cells expressing higher levels of Pgp. Further experiments revealed that flavopiridol inhibited the binding of [3H]-azidopine to Pgp in isolated membrane vesicles, but only at high concentrations. Collectively, these results identify flavopiridol as a weak substrate for Pgp. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign www.bjcancer.com PMID:11355953

  12. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    SciT

    Schmidt, A. E., E-mail: schmidt@omrb.pnpi.spb.ru; Shvetsov, A. V.; Kuklin, A. I.

    2016-01-15

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantialmore » contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å.« less

  13. Expression of the rabies virus glycoprotein in transgenic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, P B; Hammond, J; Dienelt, M M; Hooper, D C; Fu, Z F; Dietzschold, B; Koprowski, H; Michaels, F H

    1995-12-01

    We have engineered tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill var. UC82b) to express a gene for the glycoprotein (G-protein), which coats the outer surface of the rabies virus. The recombinant constructs contained the G-protein gene from the ERA strain of rabies virus, including the signal peptide, under the control of the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus. Plants were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of cotyledons and tissue culture on selective media. PCR confirmed the presence of the G-protein gene in plants surviving selection. Northern blot analysis indicated that RNA of the appropriate molecular weight was produced in both leaves and fruit of the transgenic plants. The recombinant G-protein was immunoprecipitated and detected by Western blot from leaves and fruit using different antisera. The G-protein expressed in tomato appeared as two distinct bands with apparent molecular mass of 62 and 60 kDa as compared to the 66 kDa observed for G-protein from virus grown in BHK cells. Electron microscopy of leaf tissue using immunogold-labeling and antisera specific for rabies G-protein showed localization of the G-protein to the Golgi bodies, vesicles, plasmalemma and cell walls of vascular parenchyma cells. In light of our previous demonstration that orally administered rabies G-protein from the same ERA strain elicits protective immunity in animals, these transgenic plants should provide a valuable tool for the development of edible oral vaccines.

  14. Host cell tropism mediated by Australian bat lyssavirus envelope glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Weir, Dawn L; Smith, Ina L; Bossart, Katharine N; Wang, Lin-Fa; Broder, Christopher C

    2013-09-01

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a rhabdovirus of the lyssavirus genus capable of causing fatal rabies-like encephalitis in humans. There are two variants of ABLV, one circulating in pteropid fruit bats and another in insectivorous bats. Three fatal human cases of ABLV infection have been reported with the third case in 2013. Importantly, two equine cases also arose in 2013; the first occurrence of ABLV in a species other than bats or humans. We examined the host cell entry of ABLV, characterizing its tropism and exploring its cross-species transmission potential using maxGFP-encoding recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses that express ABLV G glycoproteins. Results indicate that the ABLV receptor(s) is conserved but not ubiquitous among mammalian cell lines and that the two ABLV variants can utilize alternate receptors for entry. Proposed rabies virus receptors were not sufficient to permit ABLV entry into resistant cells, suggesting that ABLV utilizes an unknown alternative receptor(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The sweet and sour of serological glycoprotein tumor biomarker quantification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant and dysregulated protein glycosylation is a well-established event in the process of oncogenesis and cancer progression. Years of study on the glycobiology of cancer have been focused on the development of clinically viable diagnostic applications of this knowledge. However, for a number of reasons, there has been only sparse and varied success. The causes of this range from technical to biological issues that arise when studying protein glycosylation and attempting to apply it to practical applications. This review focuses on the pitfalls, advances, and future directions to be taken in the development of clinically applicable quantitative assays using glycan moieties from serum-based proteins as analytes. Topics covered include the development and progress of applications of lectins, mass spectrometry, and other technologies towards this purpose. Slowly but surely, novel applications of established and development of new technologies will eventually provide us with the tools to reach the ultimate goal of quantification of the full scope of heterogeneity associated with the glycosylation of biomarker candidate glycoproteins in a clinically applicable fashion. PMID:23390961

  16. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Rajshekher, G; Prabhakar, Subhashini

    2008-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator, the only approved treatment for AIS, is received by less than 2% of patients. Moreover, there is a slight increase in hemorrhagic complications with thrombolysis. Therefore, there is a need for newer therapeutic modalities in AIS, which could be used in window periods beyond 3-6 h after stroke onset with fewer hemorrhagic complications. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI), after their initial success in patients with acute coronary syndromes, promised much in patients with AIS over the past decade or so. However, their exact role in patients with AIS, including the window periods and type of strokes, and the risk of symptomatic or asymptomatic hemorrhage are unclear at the moment. The current review focuses on the literature concerning the use of GPI in AIS and looks at the available evidence regarding their use. Abciximab thought to be safe and effective in initial case series and early trials, has not been shown to improve outcomes in AIS, and is associated with higher rates of hemorrhage. Tirofiban appears to be safe and effective in initial trials and there is a need to conduct further trials to establish its role in AIS.

  17. Rabies virus glycoprotein as a carrier for anthrax protective antigen

    SciT

    Smith, Mary Ellen; Koser, Martin; Xiao Sa

    2006-09-30

    Live viral vectors expressing foreign antigens have shown great promise as vaccines against viral diseases. However, safety concerns remain a major problem regarding the use of even highly attenuated viral vectors. Using the rabies virus (RV) envelope protein as a carrier molecule, we show here that inactivated RV particles can be utilized to present Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) domain-4 in the viral membrane. In addition to the RV glycoprotein (G) transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, a portion of the RV G ectodomain was required to express the chimeric RV G anthrax PA on the cell surface. The novel antigen wasmore » also efficiently incorporated into RV virions. Mice immunized with the inactivated recombinant RV virions exhibited seroconversion against both RV G and anthrax PA, and a second inoculation greatly increased these responses. These data demonstrate that a viral envelope protein can carry a bacterial protein and that a viral carrier can display whole polypeptides compared to the limited epitope presentation of previous viral systems.« less

  18. The roles of ebolavirus glycoproteins in viral pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yun-Jia; Deng, Fei; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin

    2017-02-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly dangerous pathogens exhibiting extreme virulence in humans and nonhuman primates. The majority of ebolavirus species, most notably Zaire ebolavirus, can cause Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, in humans. EVD is associated with case-fatality rates as high as 90%, and there is currently no specific treatment or licensed vaccine available against EVD. Understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of ebolaviruses is important for the development of antiviral therapeutics. Ebolavirus encodes several forms of glycoproteins (GPs), which have some interesting characteristics, including the transcriptional editing coding strategy and extensive O-glycosylation modification, clustered in the mucin-like domain of GP1, full-length GP (GP 1,2 ), and shed GP. In addition to the canonical role of the spike protein, GP 1,2 , in viral entry, ebolavirus GPs appear to have multiple additional functions, likely contributing to the complex pathogenesis of the virus. Here, we review the roles of ebolavirus GPs in viral pathogenesis.

  19. Evolution of specificity in cartilaginous fish glycoprotein hormones and receptors.

    PubMed

    Buechi, Hanna B; Bridgham, Jamie T

    2017-05-15

    Glycoprotein hormones (GpH) interact very specifically with their receptors to mediate hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral gland endocrine signaling. Vertebrates typically have three functionally distinct GpH endocrine signaling complexes: follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone, and their receptors. Each hormone consists of a common α subunit bound to one of three different β subunits. Individual hormone subunits and receptors are present in genomes of early metazoans, and a subset of hormone subunits and receptors has been recently characterized in sea lamprey. However, it remains unclear when the full complement of hormone and receptor protein families first appeared, and when specificity of interactions between GpH hormones and receptors first evolved. Here we present phylogenetic analyses showing that the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) genome contains sequences representing the current diversity of all hormone subunits and receptors in these co-evolving protein families. We examined specificity of hormone and receptor interactions using functional assays testing reporter gene activation by elephant shark follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors. We show highly specific, dose-responsive hormone interactions for all three complexes. Our results suggest that co-evolution of specificity between proteins in these endocrine signaling complexes occurred prior to the divergence of Chondrichthyes from the chordate lineage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of Pneumocystis jirovecii Major Surface Glycoprotein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kutty, Geetha; England, Katherine J.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The major surface glycoprotein (Msg), which is the most abundant protein expressed on the cell surface of Pneumocystis organisms, plays an important role in the attachment of this organism to epithelial cells and macrophages. In the present study, we expressed Pneumocystis jirovecii Msg in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a phylogenetically related organism. Full-length P. jirovecii Msg was expressed with a DNA construct that used codons optimized for expression in yeast. Unlike in Pneumocystis organisms, recombinant Msg localized to the plasma membrane of yeast rather than to the cell wall. Msg expression was targeted to the yeast cell wall by replacing its signal peptide, serine-threonine–rich region, and glycophosphatidylinositol anchor signal region with the signal peptide of cell wall protein α-agglutinin of S. cerevisiae, the serine-threonine–rich region of epithelial adhesin (Epa1) of Candida glabrata, and the carboxyl region of the cell wall protein (Cwp2) of S. cerevisiae, respectively. Immunofluorescence analysis and treatment with β-1,3 glucanase demonstrated that the expressed Msg fusion protein localized to the yeast cell wall. Surface expression of Msg protein resulted in increased adherence of yeast to A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Heterologous expression of Msg in yeast will facilitate studies of the biologic properties of Pneumocystis Msg. PMID:23532098

  1. Activation of Membrane Fusion by Murine Leukemia Viruses Is Controlled in cis or in trans by Interactions between the Receptor-Binding Domain and a Conserved Disulfide Loop of the Carboxy Terminus of the Surface Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Lavillette, Dimitri; Boson, Bertrand; Russell, Stephen J.; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2001-01-01

    Cell entry of retroviruses is initiated by the recognition of cellular receptors and the subsequent membrane fusion between viral and cellular membranes. These two steps are mediated by the surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits of the retroviral envelope glycoprotein (Env), respectively. Determinants regulating membrane fusion have been described throughout SU and TM, but the processes coupling receptor recognition to fusion are still elusive. Here we establish that a critical interaction is formed between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the major disulfide loop of the carboxy-terminal domain (C domain) of the murine leukemia virus SU. Receptor binding causes an alteration of this interaction and, in turn, promotes further events of Env fusion activation. We characterize mutations which, by lowering this interaction and reducing the compatibility between the RBD and C domains of Env glycoprotein chimeras, affect both Env fusogenicity and sensitivity to receptor interference. Additionally, we demonstrate that suboptimal interactions in such mutant Env proteins can be compensated in trans by soluble RBDs in a manner that depends on their compatibility with the C domain. Our results therefore indicate that RBD/C domain interactions may occur in cis, via the proper RBD of the viral Env itself, or in trans, via a distinct RBD expressed by virion-free Env glycoproteins expressed endogenously by the infected cells or provided by neighboring Env trimers. PMID:11264358

  2. Evaluation of Cu(i) binding to the E2 domain of the amyloid precursor protein - a lesson in quantification of metal binding to proteins via ligand competition.

    PubMed

    Young, Tessa R; Wedd, Anthony G; Xiao, Zhiguang

    2018-01-24

    The extracellular domain E2 of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) features a His-rich metal-binding site (denoted as the M1 site). In conjunction with surrounding basic residues, the site participates in interactions with components of the extracellular matrix including heparins, a class of negatively charged polysaccharide molecules of varying length. This work studied the chemistry of Cu(i) binding to APP E2 with the probe ligands Bcs, Bca, Fz and Fs. APP E2 forms a stable Cu(i)-mediated ternary complex with each of these anionic ligands. The complex with Bca was selected for isolation and characterization and was demonstrated, by native ESI-MS analysis, to have the stoichiometry E2 : Cu(i) : Bca = 1 : 1 : 1. Formation of these ternary complexes is specific for the APP E2 domain and requires Cu(i) coordination to the M1 site. Mutation of the M1 site was consistent with the His ligands being part of the E2 ligand set. It is likely that interactions between the negatively charged probe ligands and a positively charged patch on the surface of APP E2 are one aspect of the generation of the stable ternary complexes. Their formation prevented meaningful quantification of the affinity of Cu(i) binding to the M1 site with these probe ligands. However, the ternary complexes are disrupted by heparin, allowing reliable determination of a picomolar Cu(i) affinity for the E2/heparin complex with the Fz or Bca probe ligands. This is the first documented example of the formation of stable ternary complexes between a Cu(i) binding protein and a probe ligand. The ready disruption of the complexes by heparin identified clear 'tell-tale' signs for diagnosis of ternary complex formation and allowed a systematic review of conditions and criteria for reliable determination of affinities for metal binding via ligand competition. This study also provides new insights into a potential correlation of APP functions regulated by copper binding and heparin interaction.

  3. Materials characterization activities for %E2%80%9CTake Our Sons&Daughters to Work Day%E2%80%9D 2013.

    SciT

    Mowry, Curtis Dale; Pimentel, Adam S.; Sparks, Elizabeth Schares

    We created interactive demonstration activities for Take Our Daughters&Sons to Work Day (TODSTWD) 2013 in order to promote general interest in chemistry and also generate awareness of the type of work our laboratories can perform. %E2%80%9CCurious about Mars Rover Curiosity?%E2%80%9D performed an elemental analysis on rocks brought to our lab using the same technique utilized on the planet Mars by the NASA robotic explorer Curiosity. %E2%80%9CFood is Chemistry?%E2%80%9D utilized a mass spectrometer to measure, in seconds, each participant's breath in order to identify the food item consumed for the activity. A total of over 130 children participated in these activitiesmore » over a 3 hour block, and feedback was positive. This document reports the materials (including handouts), experimental procedures, and lessons learned so that future demonstrations can benefit from the baseline work performed. We also present example results used to prepare the Food activity and example results collected during the Curiosity demo.« less

  4. How alkyl halide structure affects E2 and SN2 reaction barriers: E2 reactions are as sensitive as SN2 reactions.

    PubMed

    Rablen, Paul R; McLarney, Brett D; Karlow, Brandon J; Schneider, Jean E

    2014-02-07

    High-level electronic structure calculations, including a continuum treatment of solvent, are employed to elucidate and quantify the effects of alkyl halide structure on the barriers of SN2 and E2 reactions. In cases where such comparisons are available, the results of these calculations show close agreement with solution experimental data. Structural factors investigated include α- and β-methylation, adjacency to unsaturated functionality (allyl, benzyl, propargyl, α to carbonyl), ring size, and α-halogenation and cyanation. While the influence of these factors on SN2 reactivity is mostly well-known, the present study attempts to provide a broad comparison of both SN2 and E2 reactivity across many cases using a single methodology, so as to quantify relative reactivity trends. Despite the fact that most organic chemistry textbooks say far more about how structure affects SN2 reactions than about how it affects E2 reactions, the latter are just as sensitive to structural variation as are the former. This sensitivity of E2 reactions to structure is often underappreciated.

  5. A trivalent subunit antigen glycoprotein vaccine as immunotherapy for genital herpes in the guinea pig genital infection model

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Sita; Hook, Lauren M.; Shaw, Carolyn E.; Friedman, Harvey M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT An estimated 417 million people worldwide ages 15 to 49 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the most common cause of genital ulcer disease. Some individuals experience frequent recurrences of genital lesions, while others only have subclinical infection, yet all risk transmitting infection to their intimate partners. A vaccine was developed that prevents shingles, which is a recurrent infection caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a closely related member of the Herpesviridae family. The success of the VZV vaccine has stimulated renewed interest in a therapeutic vaccine for genital herpes. We have been evaluating a trivalent subunit antigen vaccine for prevention of genital herpes. Here, we assess the trivalent vaccine as immunotherapy in guinea pigs that were previously infected intravaginally with HSV-2. The trivalent vaccine contains HSV-2 glycoproteins C, D, and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) subunit antigens administered with CpG and alum as adjuvants. We previously demonstrated that antibodies to gD2 neutralize the virus while antibodies to gC2 and gE2 block their immune evasion activities, including evading complement attack and inhibiting activities mediated by the IgG Fc domain, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the trivalent vaccine significantly boosts ELISA titers and neutralizing antibody titers. The trivalent vaccine reduces the frequency of recurrent genital lesions and vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA by approximately 50% and almost totally eliminates vaginal shedding of replication-competent virus, suggesting that the trivalent vaccine is a worthy candidate for immunotherapy of genital herpes. PMID:28481687

  6. A trivalent subunit antigen glycoprotein vaccine as immunotherapy for genital herpes in the guinea pig genital infection model.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Hook, Lauren M; Shaw, Carolyn E; Friedman, Harvey M

    2017-12-02

    An estimated 417 million people worldwide ages 15 to 49 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the most common cause of genital ulcer disease. Some individuals experience frequent recurrences of genital lesions, while others only have subclinical infection, yet all risk transmitting infection to their intimate partners. A vaccine was developed that prevents shingles, which is a recurrent infection caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a closely related member of the Herpesviridae family. The success of the VZV vaccine has stimulated renewed interest in a therapeutic vaccine for genital herpes. We have been evaluating a trivalent subunit antigen vaccine for prevention of genital herpes. Here, we assess the trivalent vaccine as immunotherapy in guinea pigs that were previously infected intravaginally with HSV-2. The trivalent vaccine contains HSV-2 glycoproteins C, D, and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) subunit antigens administered with CpG and alum as adjuvants. We previously demonstrated that antibodies to gD2 neutralize the virus while antibodies to gC2 and gE2 block their immune evasion activities, including evading complement attack and inhibiting activities mediated by the IgG Fc domain, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the trivalent vaccine significantly boosts ELISA titers and neutralizing antibody titers. The trivalent vaccine reduces the frequency of recurrent genital lesions and vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA by approximately 50% and almost totally eliminates vaginal shedding of replication-competent virus, suggesting that the trivalent vaccine is a worthy candidate for immunotherapy of genital herpes.

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein G Is Targeted by the Sulfated Oligo- and Polysaccharide Inhibitors of Virus Attachment to Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Adamiak, Beata; Ekblad, Maria; Bergström, Tomas; Ferro, Vito; Trybala, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Variants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) generated by virus passage in GMK-AH1 cells in the presence of the sulfated oligosaccharide PI-88 were analyzed. Many of these variants were substantially resistant to PI-88 in their initial infection of cells and/or their cell-to-cell spread. The major alteration detected in all variants resistant to PI-88 in the initial infection of cells was a frameshift mutation(s) in the glycoprotein G (gG) gene that resulted in the lack of protein expression. Molecular transfer of the altered gG gene into the wild-type background confirmed that the gG-deficient recombinants were resistant to PI-88. In addition to PI-88, all gG-deficient variants of HSV-2 were resistant to the sulfated polysaccharide heparin. The gG-deficient virions were capable of attaching to cells, and this activity was relatively resistant to PI-88. In addition to having a drug-resistant phenotype, the gG-deficient variants were inefficiently released from infected cells. Purified gG bound to heparin and showed the cell-binding activity which was inhibited by PI-88. Many PI-88 variants produced syncytia in cultured cells and contained alterations in gB, including the syncytium-inducing L792P amino acid substitution. Although this phenotype can enhance the lateral spread of HSV in cells, it conferred no virus resistance to PI-88. Some PI-88 variants also contained occasional alterations in gC, gD, gE, gK, and UL24. In conclusion, we found that glycoprotein gG, a mucin-like component of the HSV-2 envelope, was targeted by sulfated oligo- and polysaccharides. This is a novel finding that suggests the involvement of HSV-2 gG in interactions with sulfated polysaccharides, including cell surface glycosaminoglycans. PMID:17928351

  8. Mutations in Lettuce Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Beiquan

    2011-01-01

    Lettuce is a major vegetable in western countries. Mutations generated genetic variations and played an important role in the domestication of the crop. Many traits derived from natural and induced mutations, such as dwarfing, early flowering, male sterility, and chlorophyll deficiency, are useful in physiological and genetic studies. Mutants were also used to develop new lettuce products including miniature and herbicide-tolerant cultivars. Mutant analysis was critical in lettuce genomic studies including identification and cloning of disease-resistance genes. Mutagenesis combined with genomic technology may provide powerful tools for the discovery of novel gene alleles. In addition to radiation and chemical mutagens, unconventional approaches such as tissue or protoplast culture, transposable elements, and space flights have been utilized to generate mutants in lettuce. Since mutation breeding is considered nontransgenic, it is more acceptable to consumers and will be explored more in the future for lettuce improvement. PMID:22287955

  9. Drug-protein hydrogen bonds govern the inhibition of the ATP hydrolysis of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chufan, Eduardo E; Kapoor, Khyati; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2016-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily. This multidrug transporter utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis for the efflux of a variety of hydrophobic and amphipathic compounds including anticancer drugs. Most of the substrates and modulators of P-gp stimulate its basal ATPase activity, although some inhibit it. The molecular mechanisms that are in play in either case are unknown. In this report, mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies of P-gp led to the identification of a pair of phenylalanine-tyrosine structural motifs in the transmembrane region that mediate the inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by certain drugs (zosuquidar, elacridar and tariquidar), with high affinity (IC50's ranging from 10 to 30nM). Upon mutation of any of these residues, drugs that inhibit the ATPase activity of P-gp switch to stimulation of the activity. Molecular modeling revealed that the phenylalanine residues F978 and F728 interact with tyrosine residues Y953 and Y310, respectively, in an edge-to-face conformation, which orients the tyrosines in such a way that they establish hydrogen-bond contacts with the inhibitor. Biochemical investigations along with transport studies in intact cells showed that the inhibitors bind at a high affinity site to produce inhibition of ATP hydrolysis and transport function. Upon mutation, they bind at lower affinity sites, stimulating ATP hydrolysis and only poorly inhibiting transport. These results also reveal that screening chemical compounds for their ability to inhibit the basal ATP hydrolysis can be a reliable tool to identify modulators with high affinity for P-gp. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Aerobic batch degradation of 17-beta estradiol (E2) by activated sludge: effects of spiking E2 concentrations, MLVSS and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Fusheng; Yuasa, Akira; Obara, Aya; Mathews, Alexander P

    2005-05-01

    Aerobic batch degradation of 17beta estradiol (E2) spiked into the activated sludge liquor from a sewage treatment plant was studied; and the likely impacts of E2's initial concentrations (C0), microbial population densities (MLVSS) and temperatures (TEMPT) were examined for a variety of combinations of these three factors: C0 = 10, 30 and 50 microgl(-1); MLVSS = 1750, 875 and 435 mgl(-1); and TEMPT = 5, 20 and 35 degrees C. The results, together with those obtained through two control runs performed using a killed sludge sample, demonstrated clearly that E2 was eliminated from the aqueous phase readily under appropriate MLVSS and temperature levels, with the role of sorption by biomass being less significant. By fitting observed concentration data with a first-order rate expression, the degradation rate constants (k) under all experimental conditions were estimated. The magnitude of k changed markedly in the range of 0.23-4.79 h(-1), following a general order that the higher the MLVSS was, the higher the rate constant, and that the higher the temperature, the higher the rate constant. An obvious increasing trend of the biomass-modified average rate constant (k') with increases in the temperature was also presented: the k' values at 5, 20 and 35 degrees C were 0.79, 1.77 and 3.29l MLVSS g(-1)h(-1), respectively. Furthermore, based upon the estimated k values, the temperature coefficients (theta) over the ranges of 5-20 and 20-35 degrees C were determined. In similarity with the magnitude of theta reported for ordinary BOD-based organic matrices in domestic wastewater, the theta values of E2 varied in the range of 1.026-1.09, suggesting that the temperature impacts on the degradation rates of E2 and BOD constituents are probably similar.

  11. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2C (SV2C) modulates dopamine release and is disrupted in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Amy R; Stout, Kristen A; Ozawa, Minagi; Lohr, Kelly M; Hoffman, Carlie A; Bernstein, Alison I; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Minzheng; Sgobio, Carmelo; Sastry, Namratha; Cai, Huaibin; Caudle, W Michael; Miller, Gary W

    2017-03-14

    Members of the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2) family of proteins are involved in synaptic function throughout the brain. The ubiquitously expressed SV2A has been widely implicated in epilepsy, although SV2C with its restricted basal ganglia distribution is poorly characterized. SV2C is emerging as a potentially relevant protein in Parkinson disease (PD), because it is a genetic modifier of sensitivity to l-DOPA and of nicotine neuroprotection in PD. Here we identify SV2C as a mediator of dopamine homeostasis and report that disrupted expression of SV2C within the basal ganglia is a pathological feature of PD. Genetic deletion of SV2C leads to reduced dopamine release in the dorsal striatum as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, reduced striatal dopamine content, disrupted α-synuclein expression, deficits in motor function, and alterations in neurochemical effects of nicotine. Furthermore, SV2C expression is dramatically altered in postmortem brain tissue from PD cases but not in Alzheimer disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, or multiple system atrophy. This disruption was paralleled in mice overexpressing mutated α-synuclein. These data establish SV2C as a mediator of dopamine neuron function and suggest that SV2C disruption is a unique feature of PD that likely contributes to dopaminergic dysfunction.

  12. Equine herpesvirus 1 entry via endocytosis is facilitated by alphaV integrins and an RSD motif in glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Peters, Sarah T; VanderVen, Brian C; O'Callaghan, Dennis J; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2008-12-01

    Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae, and its broad tissue tropism suggests that EHV-1 may use multiple receptors to initiate virus entry. EHV-1 entry was thought to occur exclusively through fusion at the plasma membrane, but recently entry via the endocytic/phagocytic pathway was reported for Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells). Here we show that cellular integrins, and more specifically those recognizing RGD motifs such as alphaVbeta5, are important during the early steps of EHV-1 entry via endocytosis in CHO-K1 cells. Moreover, mutational analysis revealed that an RSD motif in the EHV-1 envelope glycoprotein D (gD) is critical for entry via endocytosis. In addition, we show that EHV-1 enters peripheral blood mononuclear cells predominantly via the endocytic pathway, whereas in equine endothelial cells entry occurs mainly via fusion at the plasma membrane. Taken together, the data in this study provide evidence that EHV-1 entry via endocytosis is triggered by the interaction between cellular integrins and the RSD motif present in gD and, moreover, that EHV-1 uses different cellular entry pathways to infect important target cell populations of its natural host.

  13. Dimerization of P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 (PSGL-1) Required for Optimal Recognition of P-Selectin

    PubMed Central

    Snapp, Karen R.; Craig, Ron; Herron, Michael; Nelson, Robert D.; Stoolman, Lloyd M.; Kansas, Geoffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Interactions between P-selectin, expressed on endothelial cells and activated platelets, and its leukocyte ligand, a homodimer termed P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), mediate the earliest adhesive events during an inflammatory response. To investigate whether dimerization of PSGL-1 is essential for functional interactions with P-selectin, a mutant form of PSGL-1 was generated in which the conserved membrane proximal cysteine was mutated to alanine (designated C320A). Western blotting under both denaturing and native conditions of the C320A PSGL-1 mutant isolated from stably transfected cells revealed expression of only a monomeric form of PSGL-1. In contrast to cells cotransfected with α1-3 fucosyltransferase-VII (FucT-VII) plus PSGL-1, K562 cells expressing FucT-VII plus C320A failed to bind COS cells transfected with P-selectin in a low shear adhesion assay, or to roll on CHO cells transfected with P-selectin under conditions of physiologic flow. In addition, C320A transfectants failed to bind chimeric P-selectin fusion proteins. Both PSGL-1 and C320A were uniformly distributed on the surface of transfected K562 cells. Thus, dimerization of PSGL-1 through the single, conserved, extracellular cysteine is essential for functional recognition of P-selectin. PMID:9660879

  14. Distinct requirements for signal peptidase processing and function in the stable signal peptide subunit of the Junin virus envelope glycoprotein

    SciT

    York, Joanne; Nunberg, Jack H.

    2007-03-01

    The arenavirus envelope glycoprotein (GP-C) retains a cleaved and stable signal peptide (SSP) as an essential subunit of the mature complex. This 58-amino-acid residue peptide serves as a signal sequence and is additionally required to enable transit of the assembled GP-C complex to the Golgi, and for pH-dependent membrane fusion activity. We have investigated the C-terminal region of the Junin virus SSP to study the role of the cellular signal peptidase (SPase) in generating SSP. Site-directed mutagenesis at the cleavage site (positions - 1 and - 3) reveals a pattern of side-chain preferences consistent with those of SPase. Although positionmore » - 2 is degenerate for SPase cleavage, this residue in the arenavirus SSP is invariably a cysteine. In the Junin virus, this cysteine is not involved in disulfide bonding. We show that replacement with alanine or serine is tolerated for SPase cleavage but prevents the mutant SSP from associating with GP-C and enabling transport to the cell surface. Conversely, an arginine mutation at position - 1 that prevents SPase cleavage is fully compatible with GP-C-mediated membrane fusion activity when the mutant SSP is provided in trans. These results point to distinct roles of SSP sequences in SPase cleavage and GP-C biogenesis. Further studies of the unique structural organization of the GP-C complex will be important in identifying novel opportunities for antiviral intervention against arenaviral hemorrhagic disease.« less

  15. OTUB1 Co-opts Lys48-Linked Ubiquitin Recognition to Suppress E2 Enzyme Function

    SciT

    Juang, Yu-Chi; Landry, Marie-Claude; Sanches, Mario

    2012-03-26

    Ubiquitylation entails the concerted action of E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. We recently reported that OTUB1, a deubiquitylase, inhibits the DNA damage response independently of its isopeptidase activity. OTUB1 does so by blocking ubiquitin transfer by UBC13, the cognate E2 enzyme for RNF168. OTUB1 also inhibits E2s of the UBE2D and UBE2E families. Here we elucidate the structural mechanism by which OTUB1 binds E2s to inhibit ubiquitin transfer. OTUB1 recognizes ubiquitin-charged E2s through contacts with both donor ubiquitin and the E2 enzyme. Surprisingly, free ubiquitin associates with the canonical distal ubiquitin-binding site on OTUB1 to promote formation of the inhibitedmore » E2 complex. Lys48 of donor ubiquitin lies near the OTUB1 catalytic site and the C terminus of free ubiquitin, a configuration that mimics the products of Lys48-linked ubiquitin chain cleavage. OTUB1 therefore co-opts Lys48-linked ubiquitin chain recognition to suppress ubiquitin conjugation and the DNA damage response.« less

  16. Prostaglandin E2 induces expression of P-selectin (CD62P) on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and enhances endothelial binding of CD4-T-cells.

    PubMed

    Hailer, N P; Oppermann, E; Leckel, K; Cinatl, J; Markus, B H; Blaheta, R A

    2000-07-15

    Interaction of endothelial P-selectin with sialyl Lewis(x)-glycoprotein or P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL)-1 on leukocytes represents an early step in leukocyte recruitment. Redistribution of P-selectin to the endothelial cell surface occurs rapidly after challenge with several proinflammatory agents, for example, histamine, leucopterins, or lipopolysaccharide. We present evidence that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an efficient inductor of surface P-selectin on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The increase in P-selectin-immunoreactivity coincided with redistribution of cytoplasmic P-selectin-reactive granulae to the endothelial cell surface, as visualized by confocal laser microscopic examination. CD4-T-cell adhesion to PGE2-stimulated HUVEC was also enhanced by a factor of 4, and blocking mAb directed against the binding site of P-selectin almost completely abrogated this increase in CD4-T-cell adhesion. In summary, our findings show that liberation of PGE2 is an important inductor of P-selectin surface expression on endothelial cells, resulting in enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells.

  17. E2F transcription factors and digestive system malignancies: how much do we know?

    PubMed

    Evangelou, Konstantinos; Havaki, Sophia; Kotsinas, Athanassios

    2014-08-07

    The E2F proteins comprise a family of 8 members that function as transcription factors. They are key targets of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) and were initially divided into groups of activators and repressors. Accumulating data suggest that there is no specific role for each individual E2F member. Instead, each E2F can exert a variety of cellular effects, some of which represent opposing ones. For instance, specific E2Fs can activate transcription and repression, promote or hamper cell proliferation, augment or inhibit apoptosis, all being dependent on the cellular context. This complexity reflects the importance that these transcription factors have on a cell's fate. Thus, delineating the specific role for each E2F member in specific malignancies, although not easy, is a challenging and continuously pursued task, especially in view of potential E2F targeted therapies. Therefore, several reviews are continuously trying to evaluate available data on E2F status in various malignancies. Such reviews have attempted to reach a consensus, often in the simplistic form of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes for the E2Fs. However they frequently miss spatial and temporal alterations of these factors during tumor development, which should also be considered in conjunction with the status of the regulatory networks that these factors participate in. In the current ''Letter to the Editor'', we comment on the flaws, misinterpretations and omissions in one such review article published recently in the World Journal of Gastroenterology regarding the role of E2Fs in digestive system malignancies.

  18. Rendezvous with Toutatis from the Moon: The Chang'e-2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Tang, X.; Meng, L.

    2014-07-01

    Chang'e-2 probe was the second lunar probe of China, with the main objectives to demonstrate some key features of the new lunar soft landing technology, and its applications to future exploration missions. After completing the planned mission successfully, Chang'e-2 flew away from the Moon and entered into the interplanetary space. Later, at a distance of 7 million km from the Earth, Chang'e-2 encountered asteroid (4179) Toutatis with a very close fly-by distance and obtained colorful images with a 3-m resolution. Given some surplus velocity increment as well as the promotion of autonomous flight ability and improvement of control, propulsion, and thermal systems in the initial design, Chang'e-2 had the capabilities necessary for escaping from the Moon. By taking advantage of the unique features of the Lagrangian point, the first close fly-by of asteroid Toutatis was realized despite the tight constraints of propellant allocation, spacecraft-Earth communication, and coordination of execution sequences. Chang'e-2 realized the Toutatis flyby with a km-level distance at closest approach. In the absence of direct measurement method, based on the principle of relative navigation and through the use of the sequence of target images, we calculated the rendezvous parameters such as relative distance and image resolution. With the help of these parameters, some fine and new scientific discoveries about the asteroid were obtained by techniques of optical measurements and image processing. Starting with an innovative design, followed by high-fidelity testing and demonstration, elaborative implementation, and optimal usage of residual propellant, Chang'e-2 has for the first time successfully explored the Moon, L2 point and an asteroid, while achieving the purpose of 'faster, better, cheaper'. What Chang'e-2 has accomplished was far beyond our expectations. *J. Huang is the chief designer (PI) of Chang'e-2 probe, planned Chang'e-2's multi-objective and multitasking exploration

  19. Copy number variations of E2F1: a new genetic risk factor for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Maria Santa; Di Nisio, Andrea; Marchiori, Arianna; Ghezzi, Marco; Opocher, Giuseppe; Foresta, Carlo; Ferlin, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is one of the most heritable forms of cancer. In last years, many evidence suggested that constitutional genetic factors, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms, can increase its risk. However, the possible contribution of copy number variations (CNVs) in TGCT susceptibility has not been substantially addressed. Indeed, an increasing number of studies have focused on the effect of CNVs on gene expression and on the role of these structural genetic variations as risk factors for different forms of cancer. E2F1 is a transcription factor that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and response to DNA damage. Therefore, deficiency or overexpression of this protein might significantly influence fundamental biological processes involved in cancer development and progression, including TGCT. We analyzed E2F1 CNVs in 261 cases with TGCT and 165 controls. We found no CNVs in controls, but 17/261 (6.5%) cases showed duplications in E2F1 Blot analysis demonstrated higher E2F1 expression in testicular samples of TGCT cases with three copies of the gene. Furthermore, we observed higher phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR in samples with E2F1 duplication. Interestingly, normal, non-tumoral testicular tissue in patient with E2F1 duplication showed lower expression of E2F1 and lower AKT/mTOR phosphorylation with respect to adjacent tumor tissue. Furthermore, increased expression of E2F1 obtained in vitro in NTERA-2 testicular cell line induced increased AKT/mTOR phosphorylation. This study suggests for the first time an involvement of E2F1 CNVs in TGCT susceptibility and supports previous preliminary data on the importance of AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in this cancer. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Analytical Pipeline for Discovery and Verification of Glycoproteins from Plasma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Breast Cancer Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Hsuan; Aguilar, Hillary Andaluz; Paez Paez, J Sebastian; Wu, Xiaofeng; Pan, Li; Wendt, Michael K; Iliuk, Anton B; Zhang, Ying; Tao, W Andy

    2018-05-15

    Glycoproteins comprise more than half of current FDA-approved protein cancer markers, but the development of new glycoproteins as disease biomarkers has been stagnant. Here we present a pipeline to develop glycoproteins from extracellular vesicles (EVs) through integrating quantitative glycoproteomics with a novel reverse phase glycoprotein array and then apply it to identify novel biomarkers for breast cancer. EV glycoproteomics show promise in circumventing the problems plaguing current serum/plasma glycoproteomics and allowed us to identify hundreds of glycoproteins that have not been identified in blood. We identified 1,453 unique glycopeptides representing 556 glycoproteins in EVs, among which 20 were verified significantly higher in individual breast cancer patients. We further applied a novel glyco-specific reverse phase protein array to quantify a subset of the candidates. Together, this study demonstrates the great potential of this integrated pipeline for biomarker discovery.

  1. Role of the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi Complex in the Abnormalities of Glycoprotein Processing in Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0243 TITLE: Role of the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi Complex in the Abnormalities of Glycoprotein Processing in Breast...Glycoprotein Processing in Breast Cancer 5b.GRANTNUMBER Cells DAAD17-03-1-0243 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Sergey N... processing of glycoproteins, exocytosis, protein delivery systems, gene expression, western and northern blot analysis, immunotiuorescence, gradient

  2. The G glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus depresses respiratory rates through the CX3C motif and substance P.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Ralph A; Dakhama, Azzeddine; Jones, Les P; Barskey, Albert; Gelfand, Erwin W; Anderson, Larry J

    2003-06-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the neonate can alter respiratory rates, i.e., lead to episodes of apnea. We show that RSV G glycoprotein reduces respiratory rates associated with the induction of substance P (SP) and G glycoprotein-CX3CR1 interaction, an effect that is inhibited by treatment with anti-G glycoprotein, anti-SP, or anti-CX3CR1 monoclonal antibodies. These data suggest new approaches for treating some aspects of RSV disease.

  3. Structure-function analysis of soluble forms of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.

    PubMed Central

    Nicola, A V; Willis, S H; Naidoo, N N; Eisenberg, R J; Cohen, G H

    1996-01-01

    Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is essential for virus entry. Truncated forms of gD lacking the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail regions have been shown to bind to cells and block plaque formation. Using complementation analysis and a panel of gD mutants, we previously identified four regions of gD (regions I to IV) which are important for virus entry. Here, we used baculovirus vectors to overexpress truncated forms of wild-type gD from HSV type 1 (HSV-1) [gD-1(306t)] and HSV-2 [gD-2(306t)] and four mutants, gD-1(inverted delta 34t), gD-1(inverted delta 126t), gD-1(inverted delta 243t), and gD-1(delta 290-299t), each having a mutation in one of the four functional regions. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and circular dichroism to analyze the structure of these proteins, and we used functional assays to study the role of gD in binding, penetration, and cell-to-cell spread. gD-1 and gD-2 are similar in antigenic structure and thermal stability but vary in secondary structure. Mutant proteins with insertions in region I or II were most altered in structure and stability, while mutants with insertions in region III or IV were less altered. gD-1(306t) and gD-2(306t) inhibited both plaque formation and cell-to-cell transmission of HSV-1. In spite of obvious structural differences, all of the mutant proteins bound to cells, confirming that binding is not the only function of gD. The region I mutant did not inhibit HSV plaque formation or cell-to-cell spread, suggesting that this region is necessary for the function of gD in these processes. Surprisingly, the other three mutant proteins functioned in all of the in vitro assays, indicating that the ability of gD to bind to cells and inhibit infection does not correlate with its ability to initiate infection as measured by the complementation assay. The region IV mutant, gD-1(delta 290-299t), had an unexpected enhanced inhibitory effect on HSV infection. Taken together, the results argue

  4. Tromantadine inhibits HSV-1 induced syncytia formation and viral glycoprotein processing

    SciT

    Ickes, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Tromantadine inhibits a late event in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) replication, visualized by the inhibition of both the size and number of syncytia. Tromantadine can be added at any time between 1 and 9 h post infection with complete inhibition of syncytia formation. Glycan synthesis of the viral glycoproteins, important for syncytia formation, is incomplete due to tromantadine treatment. Tromantadine does not inhibit the initiation of glycosylation, since viral glycoproteins, gX{sub t}, synthesized in the presence of tromantadine still incorporate {sup 3}H-glucosamine. Tromantadine does not inhibit the transport of t e viral glycoproteins to the cell surface, sincemore » glycoproteins B, C, and D are expressed, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Tromantadine inhibition of HSV-1 glycoprotein processing is demonstrated by an increase in mobility of the radioimmunoprecipitated gX{sub t}, on SDS-PAGE. The gX{sub t} of KOS, a non-syncytial strain of HSV-1, had a similar increase in mobility, suggesting that the block in glycoprotein processing is a general effect of tromantadine treatment. Fucose, which is incorporated into oligosaccharides in the medial Golgi, is incorporated into gX{sub t}, indicating that the tromantadine block in glycoprotein processing occurs after this step. Lectin binding studies and SDS-PAGE analysis of gC processed in the presence of tromantadine, gC{sub t}, indicates that it has terminal galactose residues in both N- and O-linked glycans (binds Peanut and Ricin Agglutinins, respectively). The inhibition of sialylation of N-linked glycans by tromantadine was indicated by the extent of the increase in SDS-PAGE mobility of the G protein from Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. O-glycanase digestion and SDS-PAGE analysis of gC{sub t} indicate that the O-linked disaccharide NAcGal-Galactose is present.« less

  5. Requirements for cell rounding and surface protein down-regulation by Ebola virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Francica, Joseph R; Matukonis, Meghan K; Bates, Paul

    2009-01-20

    Ebola virus causes an acute hemorrhagic fever that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The viral glycoprotein is thought to contribute to pathogenesis, though precise mechanisms are unknown. Cellular pathogenesis can be modeled in vitro by expression of the Ebola viral glycoprotein (GP) in cells, which causes dramatic morphological changes, including cell rounding and surface protein down-regulation. These effects are known to be dependent on the presence of a highly glycosylated region of the glycoprotein, the mucin domain. Here we show that the mucin domain from the highly pathogenic Zaire subtype of Ebola virus is sufficient to cause characteristic cytopathology when expressed in the context of a foreign glycoprotein. Similarly to full length Ebola GP, expression of the mucin domain causes rounding, detachment from the extracellular matrix, and the down-regulation of cell surface levels of beta1 integrin and major histocompatibility complex class 1. These effects were not seen when the mucin domain was expressed in the context of a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored isoform of the foreign glycoprotein. In contrast to earlier analysis of full length Ebola glycoproteins, chimeras carrying the mucin domains from the Zaire and Reston strains appear to cause similar levels of down-modulation and cell detachment. Cytopathology associated with Ebola glycoprotein expression does not occur when GP expression is restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum. In contrast to a previously published report, our results demonstrate that GP-induced surface protein down-regulation is not mediated through a dynamin-dependent pathway. Overall, these results support a model in which the mucin domain of Ebola GP acts at the cell surface to induce protein down modulation and cytopathic effects.

  6. Zinc alpha-2 glycoprotein is overproduced in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Escoté, Xavier; Aranda, Gloria B; Mora, Mireia; Casals, Gregori; Enseñat, Joaquim; Vidal, Oscar; Esteban, Yaiza; Halperin, Irene; Hanzu, Felicia A

    2017-01-01

    Cushing syndrome (CS), an endogenous hypercortisolemic condition with increased cardiometabolic morbidity, leads to development of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and proatherogenic dyslipidemia. Zinc alpha-2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is a recently characterized lipolytic adipokine implicated in regulation of adipose tissue metabolism and fat distribution. In vitro and animal studies suggest that glucocorticoids interact with ZAG secretion and action. To assess the relationship between ZAG and glucocorticoids in a human model of hypercortisolism, circulating ZAG levels were tested in patients with CS and its counterpart controls. An observational, cross-sectional study on 39 women, 13 with active CS and 26 controls matched by age and body mass index. Plasma ZAG levels (μg/ml) were measured by ELISA and correlated with hypercortisolism, metabolic, and phenotypic parameters. Plasma ZAG levels were significantly higher in patients with CS compared to controls (64.3±16.6 vs. 44.0±16.1, p=0.002). In a univariate analysis, ZAG levels positively correlated to 24-h urinary free cortisol (p=0.001), body mass index (p=0.02), non-esterified fatty acids (p=0.05), glucose (p=0.003), LDL-C (p=0.028), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (p=0.016), and were inversely related to total adiponectin levels (p=0.035). In a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for CS, ZAG levels only correlated with body mass index (p=0.012), type 2 diabetes mellitus (p=0.004), and glucose (p<0.001). This study provides initial evidence that plasma ZAG levels are higher in patients with CS as compared to controls. The close relationship of ZAG with metabolic and phenotypic changes in CS suggests that ZAG may play a significant role in adipose tissue changes in hypercortisolism. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple Drug Transport Pathways through Human P-Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    McCormick, James W; Vogel, Pia D; Wise, John G

    2015-07-21

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is a plasma membrane efflux pump that is commonly associated with therapy resistances in cancers and infectious diseases. P-gp can lower the intracellular concentrations of many drugs to subtherapeutic levels by translocating them out of the cell. Because of the broad range of substrates transported by P-gp, overexpression of P-gp causes multidrug resistance. We reported previously on dynamic transitions of P-gp as it moved through conformations based on crystal structures of homologous ABCB1 proteins using in silico targeted molecular dynamics techniques. We expanded these studies here by docking transport substrates to drug binding sites of P-gp in conformations open to the cytoplasm, followed by cycling the pump through conformations that opened to the extracellular space. We observed reproducible transport of two substrates, daunorubicin and verapamil, by an average of 11-12 Å through the plane of the membrane as P-gp progressed through a catalytic cycle. Methylpyrophosphate, a ligand that should not be transported by P-gp, did not show this movement through P-gp. Drug binding to either of two subsites on P-gp appeared to determine the initial pathway used for drug movement through the membrane. The specific side-chain interactions with drugs within each pathway seemed to be, at least in part, stochastic. The docking and transport properties of a P-gp inhibitor, tariquidar, were also studied. A mechanism of inhibition by tariquidar that involves stabilization of an outward open conformation with tariquidar bound in intracellular loops or at the drug binding domain of P-gp is presented.

  8. Genuine functions of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1).

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Takaharu; Masuda, Masatoshi; Nakai, Emi; Furumiya, Kenji; Togawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yutaka; Kawai, Yuko; Nakahira, Keiko; Shinkai, Shigeko; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1, MDR1) was recognized as a drug-exporting protein from cancer cells three decade ago. Apart from the multidrug transporter side effects of P-gp, normal physiological functions of P-gp have been reported. P-gp could be responsible for translocating platelet-activating factor (PAF) across the plasma membrane and PAF inhibited drug transport mediated by P-gp in cancer cells. P-gp regulated the translocation of sphingomyelin (SM) and GlcCer, and short chain C(6)-NBD-GlcCer was found in the apical medium of P-gp cells exclusively and not in the basolateral membrane. SM plays an important role in the esterification of cholesterol. High expression of P-gp prevents stem-cell differentiation, leading to the proliferation and amplification of this cell repertoire, and functional P-gp plays a fundamental role in regulating programmed cell death, apoptosis. The transporter function of P-gp is therefore necessary to protect cells from death. P-gp can translocate both C(6)-NBD-PC and C(6)-NBD-PE across the apical membrane. This PC translocation was also confirmed with [(3)H]choline radioactivity. Progesterone is not transported by P-gp, but blocks P-gp-mediated efflux of other drugs and P-gp can mediate the transport of a variety of steroids. Cells transfected with human P-gp esterified more cholesterol. P-gp might also be involved in the transport of cytokines, particularly IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4 and IFNgamma, out of activated normal lymphocytes into the surrounding medium. P-gp expression is also associated with a volume-activated chloride channel, thus P-gp is bifunctional with both transport and channel regulators. We also present information about P-gp polymorphism and new structural concepts, "gate" and "twist", of the P-gp structure.

  9. Synthesis and P-glycoprotein induction activity of colupulone analogs.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Jaideep B; Batarseh, Yazan S; Wani, Abubakar; Sharma, Sadhana; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Kaddoumi, Amal; Kumar, Ajay; Bharate, Sandip B

    2015-05-21

    Brain amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques are one of the primary hallmarks associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Efflux pump proteins located at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been reported to play an important role in the clearance of brain Aβ, among which the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter pump has been shown to play a crucial role. Thus, P-gp has been considered as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of AD. Colupulone, a prenylated phloroglucinol isolated from Humulus lupulus, is known to activate pregnane-X-receptor (PXR), which is a nuclear receptor controlling P-gp expression. In the present work, we aimed to synthesize and identify analogs of colupulone that are potent P-gp inducer(s) with an ability to enhance Aβ transport across the BBB. A series of colupulone analogs were synthesized by modifications at both prenyl as well as acyl domains. All compounds were screened for P-gp induction activity using a rhodamine 123 based efflux assay in the P-gp overexpressing human adenocarcinoma LS-180 cells, wherein all compounds showed significant P-gp induction activity at 5 μM. In the western blot studies in LS-180 cells, compounds 3k and 5f were able to induce P-gp as well as LRP1 at 1 μM. The effect of compounds on the Aβ uptake and transport was then evaluated. Among all tested compounds, diprenylated acyl phloroglucinol displayed a significant increase (29%) in Aβ transport across bEnd3 cells grown on inserts as a BBB model. The results presented here suggest the potential of this scaffold to enhance clearance of brain Aβ across the BBB and thus its promise for development as a potential anti-Alzheimer agent.

  10. Toremifene interacts with and destabilizes the Ebola virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuguang; Ren, Jingshan; Harlos, Karl; Jones, Daniel M; Zeltina, Antra; Bowden, Thomas A; Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Fry, Elizabeth E; Stuart, David I

    2016-07-07

    Ebola viruses (EBOVs) are responsible for repeated outbreaks of fatal infections, including the recent deadly epidemic in West Africa. There are currently no approved therapeutic drugs or vaccines for the disease. EBOV has a membrane envelope decorated by trimers of a glycoprotein (GP, cleaved by furin to form GP1 and GP2 subunits), which is solely responsible for host cell attachment, endosomal entry and membrane fusion. GP is thus a primary target for the development of antiviral drugs. Here we report the first, to our knowledge, unliganded structure of EBOV GP, and high-resolution complexes of GP with the anticancer drug toremifene and the painkiller ibuprofen. The high-resolution apo structure gives a more complete and accurate picture of the molecule, and allows conformational changes introduced by antibody and receptor binding to be deciphered. Unexpectedly, both toremifene and ibuprofen bind in a cavity between the attachment (GP1) and fusion (GP2) subunits at the entrance to a large tunnel that links with equivalent tunnels from the other monomers of the trimer at the three-fold axis. Protein–drug interactions with both GP1 and GP2 are predominately hydrophobic. Residues lining the binding site are highly conserved among filoviruses except Marburg virus (MARV), suggesting that MARV may not bind these drugs. Thermal shift assays show up to a 14 °C decrease in the protein melting temperature after toremifene binding, while ibuprofen has only a marginal effect and is a less potent inhibitor. These results suggest that inhibitor binding destabilizes GP and triggers premature release of GP2, thereby preventing fusion between the viral and endosome membranes. Thus, these complex structures reveal the mechanism of inhibition and may guide the development of more powerful anti-EBOV drugs.

  11. Multiple Drug Transport Pathways through human P-Glycoprotein(†)

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, James W.; Vogel, Pia D.; Wise, John G.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a plasma membrane efflux pump that is commonly associated with therapy resistances in cancers and infectious diseases. P-gp can lower the intracellular concentrations of many drugs to subtherapeutic levels by translocating them out of the cell. Because of the broad range of substrates transported by P-gp, overexpression of P-gp causes multidrug resistance. We reported previously on dynamic transitions of P-gp as it moved through conformations based on crystal structures of homologous ABCB1 proteins using in silico targeted molecular dynamics techniques. We expanded these studies here by docking transport substrates to drug binding sites of P-gp in conformations open to the cytoplasm, followed by cycling the pump through conformations that opened to the extracellular space. We observed reproducible transport of two substrates, daunorubicin and verapamil, by an average of 11 to 12 Å through the plane of the membrane as P-gp progressed through a catalytic cycle. Methyl-pyrophosphate, a ligand that should not be transported by P-gp, did not show this movement through P-gp. Drug binding to either of two subsites on P-gp appeared to determine the initial pathway used for drug movement through the membrane. The specific side-chain interactions with drugs within each pathway seemed to be, at least in part, stochastic. The docking and transport properties of a P-gp inhibitor, tariquidar, were also studied. A mechanism of inhibition by tariquidar is presented that involves stabilization of an outward open conformation with tariquidar bound in intracellular loops or at the drug binding domain of P-gp. PMID:26125482

  12. Glycoprotein G is a virulence factor in infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Devlin, J M; Browning, G F; Hartley, C A; Kirkpatrick, N C; Mahmoudian, A; Noormohammadi, A H; Gilkerson, J R

    2006-10-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; Gallid herpesvirus 1) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes acute respiratory disease in chickens. The role of glycoprotein G (gG) in vitro has been investigated in a number of alphaherpesviruses, but the relevance of gG in vivo in the pathogenicity of ILTV or in other alphaherpesviruses is unknown. In this study, gG-deficient mutants of ILTV were generated and inoculated into specific-pathogen-free chickens to assess the role of gG in pathogenicity. In chickens, gG-deficient ILTV reached a similar titre to wild-type (wt) ILTV but was significantly attenuated with respect to induction of clinical signs, effect on weight gain and bird mortality. In addition, an increased tracheal mucosal thickness, reflecting increased inflammatory cell infiltration at the site of infection, was detected in birds inoculated with gG-deficient ILTV compared with birds inoculated with wt ILTV. The reinsertion of gG into gG-deficient ILTV restored the in vivo phenotype of the mutant to that of wt ILTV. Quantitative PCR analysis of the expression of the genes adjacent to gG demonstrated that they were not affected by the deletion of gG and investigations in vitro confirmed that the phenotype of gG-deficient ILTV was consistent with unaltered expression of these adjacent genes. This is the first reported study to demonstrate definitively that gG is a virulence factor in ILTV and that deletion of gG from this alphaherpesvirus genome causes marked attenuation of the virus in its natural host.

  13. Interaction of the P-Glycoprotein Multidrug Transporter with Sterols.

    PubMed

    Clay, Adam T; Lu, Peihua; Sharom, Frances J

    2015-11-03

    The ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) actively exports structurally diverse substrates from within the lipid bilayer, leading to multidrug resistance. Many aspects of Pgp function are altered by the phospholipid environment, but its interactions with sterols remain enigmatic. In this work, the functional interaction between purified Pgp and various sterols was investigated in detergent solution and proteoliposomes. Fluorescence studies showed that dehydroergosterol, cholestatrienol, and NBD-cholesterol interact intimately with Pgp, resulting in both quenching of protein Trp fluorescence and enhancement of sterol fluorescence. Kd values indicated binding affinities in the range of 3-9 μM. Collisional quenching experiments showed that Pgp-bound NBD-cholesterol was protected from the external milieu, resonance energy transfer was observed between Pgp Trp residues and the sterol, and the fluorescence emission of bound sterol was enhanced. These observations suggested an intimate interaction of bound sterols with the transporter at a protected nonpolar site. Cholesterol hemisuccinate altered the thermal unfolding of Pgp and greatly stabilized its basal ATPase activity in both a detergent solution and reconstituted proteoliposomes of certain phospholipids. Other sterols, including dehydroergosterol, did not stabilize the basal ATPase activity of detergent-solubilized Pgp, which suggests that this is not a generalized sterol effect. The phospholipid composition and cholesterol hemisuccinate content of Pgp proteoliposomes altered the basal ATPase and drug transport cycles differently. Sterols may interact with Pgp and modulate its structure and function by occupying part of the drug-binding pocket or by binding to putative consensus cholesterol-binding (CRAC/CARC) motifs located within the transmembrane domains.

  14. Increasing nerve agent treatment efficacy by P-glycoprotein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Marloes J A; Vester, Stefanie M; Hamelink, Jouk; Klaassen, Steven D; van den Berg, Roland M

    2016-11-25

    One of the shortcomings of current treatment of nerve agent poisoning is that not all drugs effectively penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB), whereas most nerve agents easily do. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux transporters at the BBB may contribute to this aspect. It was previously shown that Pgp inhibition by tariquidar enhanced the efficacy of nerve agent treatment when administered as a pretreatment. In the present study soman-induced seizures were also substantially prevented when the animals were intravenously treated with tariquidar post-poisoning, in addition to HI-6 and atropine. In these animals, approximately twice as much AChE activity was present in their brain as compared to control rats. The finding that tariquidar did not affect distribution of soman to the brain indicates that the potentiating effects were a result of interactions of Pgp inhibition with drug distribution. In line with this, atropine appeared to be a substrate for Pgp in in vitro studies in a MDR1/MDCK cell model. This indicates that tariquidar might induce brain region specific effects on atropine distribution, which could contribute to the therapeutic efficacy increase found. Furthermore, the therapeutic enhancement by tariquidar was compared to that of the less specific and less potent Pgp inhibitor cyclosporine A. This compound appeared to induce a protective effect similar to tariquidar. In conclusion, treatment with a Pgp inhibitor resulted in enhanced therapeutic efficacy of HI-6 and atropine in a soman-induced seizure model in the rat. The mechanism underlying these effects should be further investigated. To that end, the potentiating effect of nerve agent treatment should be addressed against a broader range of nerve agents, for oximes and atropine separately, and for those at lower doses. In particular when efficacy against more nerve agents is shown, a Pgp inhibitor such as tariquidar might be a valid addition to nerve agent antidotes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland

  15. Silencing of E2F3 suppresses tumor growth of Her2+ breast cancer cells by restricting mitosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miyoung; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Saavedra, Harold I

    2015-11-10

    The E2F transcriptional activators E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3a regulate many important cellular processes, including DNA replication, apoptosis and centrosome duplication. Previously, we demonstrated that silencing E2F1 or E2F3 suppresses centrosome amplification (CA) and chromosome instability (CIN) in Her2+ breast cancer cells without markedly altering proliferation. However, it is unknown whether and how silencing a single E2F activator, E2F3, affects malignancy of human breast cancer cells. Thus, we injected HCC1954 Her2+ breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3 into mammary fat pads of immunodeficient mice and demonstrated that loss of E2F3 retards tumor growth. Surprisingly, silencing of E2F3 led to significant reductions in mitotic indices relative to vector controls, while the percentage of cells undergoing S phase were not affected. Nek2 is a mitotic kinase commonly upregulated in breast cancers and a critical regulator of Cdk4- or E2F-mediated CA. In this report, we found that Nek2 overexpression rescued back the CA caused by silencing of shE2F3. However, the effects of Nek2 overexpression in affecting tumor growth rates of shE2F3 and shE2F3; GFP cells were inconclusive. Taken together, our results indicate that E2F3 silencing decreases mammary tumor growth by reducing percentage of cells undergoing mitosis.

  16. Thrombomodulin Mutations in Atypical Hemolytic–Uremic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Delvaeye, Mieke; Noris, Marina; De Vriese, Astrid; Esmon, Charles T.; Esmon, Naomi L.; Ferrell, Gary; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Plaisance, Stephane; Claes, Bart; Lambrechts, Diether; Zoja, Carla; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Conway, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The hemolytic–uremic syndrome consists of the triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. The common form of the syndrome is triggered by infection with Shiga toxin–producing bacteria and has a favorable outcome. The less common form of the syndrome, called atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome, accounts for about 10% of cases, and patients with this form of the syndrome have a poor prognosis. Approximately half of the patients with atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome have mutations in genes that regulate the complement system. Genetic factors in the remaining cases are unknown. We studied the role of thrombomodulin, an endothelial glycoprotein with anticoagulant, antiinflammatory, and cytoprotective properties, in atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome. METHODS We sequenced the entire thrombomodulin gene (THBD) in 152 patients with atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome and in 380 controls. Using purified proteins and cell-expression systems, we investigated whether thrombomodulin regulates the complement system, and we characterized the mechanisms. We evaluated the effects of thrombomodulin missense mutations associated with atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome on complement activation by expressing thrombomodulin variants in cultured cells. RESULTS Of 152 patients with atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome, 7 unrelated patients had six different heterozygous missense THBD mutations. In vitro, thrombomodulin binds to C3b and factor H (CFH) and negatively regulates complement by accelerating factor I–mediated inactivation of C3b in the presence of cofactors, CFH or C4b binding protein. By promoting activation of the plasma procarboxypeptidase B, thrombomodulin also accelerates the inactivation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Cultured cells expressing thrombomodulin variants associated with atypical hemolytic–uremic syndrome had diminished capaci