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Sample records for e2 levels increased

  1. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01). PMID:27679823

  2. NF-E2 Overexpression Delays Erythroid Maturation and Increases Erythrocyte Production

    PubMed Central

    Mutschler, Manuel; Magin, Angela S.; Buerge, Martina; Roelz, Roland; Schanne, Daniel H.; Will, Britta; Pilz, Ingo H.; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Pahl, Heike L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2 (NF-E2) is overexpressed in the vast majority of patients with polycythaemia vera (PV). In murine models, NF-E2 overexpression increases proliferation and promotes cellular viability in the absence of erythropoietin (EPO). EPO-independent growth is a hallmark of PV. We therefore hypothesized that NF-E2 overexpression contributes to erythrocytosis, the pathognomonic feature of PV. Consequently, we investigated the effect of NF-E2 overexpression in healthy CD34+ cells. NF-E2 overexpression led to a delay in erythroid maturation, manifested by a belated appearance of glycophorin A-positive erythroid precursors. Maturation delay was similarly observed in primary PV patient erythroid cultures compared to healthy controls. Protracted maturation led to a significant increase in the accumulated number of erythroid cells both in PV cultures and in CD34+ cells overexpressing NF-E2. Similarly, NF-E2 overexpression altered erythroid colony formation, leading to an increase in BFU-E formation. These data indicate that NF-E2 overexpression delays the early phase of erythroid maturation, resulting in an expansion of erythroid progenitors, thereby increasing the number of erythrocytes derived from one CD34+ cell. These data propose a role for NF-E2 in mediating the erythrocytosis of PV. PMID:19466964

  3. Increased urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite: A potential therapeutic target of Gitelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lanping; Chen, Chen; Qin, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Ou; Xing, Xiaoping; Li, Xuemei; Nie, Min; Chen, Limeng

    2017-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS), an inherited autosomal recessive salt-losing renal tubulopathy caused by mutations in SLC12A3 gene, has been associated with normal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels since 1995 by a study involving 11 clinically diagnosed patients. However, it is difficult to explain why cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitors, which pharmacologically reduce PGE2 synthesis, are helpful to patients with GS, and few studies performed in the last 20 years have measured PGE2 levels. The relationships between the clinical manifestations and PGE2 levels were never thoroughly analyzed. This study involved 39 GS patients diagnosed by SLC12A3 gene sequencing. Plasma and 24-h urine samples as well as the clinical data were collected at admission. PGE2 and PGEM levels were detected in plasma and urine samples by enzyme immunoassays. The in vivo function of the sodium-chloride co-transporter (NCC) in GS patients was evaluated using a modified thiazide test. The association among PGE2 levels, clinical manifestations and the function of NCC in GS patients were analyzed. Significantly higher levels of urinary and plasma PGEM were observed in GS patients than in the healthy volunteers. Higher urinary PGEM levels indicated more severe clinical manifestations and NCC dysfunction estimated by the increase of Cl- clearance. A higher PGEM level was found in male GS patients, who showed earlier onset age and more severe hypokalemia, hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis than female GS patients. No relationship between renin angiotensin aldosterone system activation and PGEM level was observed. Higher urinary PGEM levels indicated more severe clinical manifestations and NCC dysfunction in GS patients. COX2 inhibition might be a potential therapeutic target in GS patients with elevated PGEM levels.

  4. Levels of the E2 interacting protein TopBP1 modulate papillomavirus maintenance stage replication

    SciT

    Kanginakudru, Sriramana, E-mail: skangina@iu.edu; DeSmet, Marsha, E-mail: mdesmet@iupui.edu; Thomas, Yanique, E-mail: ysthomas@umail.iu.edu

    2015-04-15

    The evolutionarily conserved DNA topoisomerase II beta-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) functions in DNA replication, DNA damage response, and cell survival. We analyzed the role of TopBP1 in human and bovine papillomavirus genome replication. Consistent with prior reports, TopBP1 co-localized in discrete nuclear foci and was in complex with papillomavirus E2 protein. Similar to E2, TopBP1 is recruited to the region of the viral origin of replication during G1/S and early S phase. TopBP1 knockdown increased, while over-expression decreased transient virus replication, without affecting cell cycle. Similarly, using cell lines harboring HPV-16 or HPV-31 genome, TopBP1 knockdown increased while over-expression reducedmore » viral copy number relative to genomic DNA. We propose a model in which TopBP1 serves dual roles in viral replication: it is essential for initiation of replication yet it restricts viral copy number. - Highlights: • Protein interaction study confirmed In-situ interaction between TopBP1 and E2. • TopBP1 present at papillomavirus ori in G1/S and early S phase of cell cycle. • TopBP1 knockdown increased, over-expression reduced virus replication. • TopBP1 protein level change did not influence cell survival or cell cycle. • TopBP1 displaced from papillomavirus ori after initiation of replication.« less

  5. E2F transcription factor-1 deficiency reduces pathophysiology in the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy through increased muscle oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Emilie; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Pradelli, Ludivine A; Hugon, Gérald; Matecki, Stéfan; Mornet, Dominique; Rivier, François; Fajas, Lluis

    2012-09-01

    E2F1 deletion leads to increased mitochondrial number and function, increased body temperature in response to cold and increased resistance to fatigue with exercise. Since E2f1-/- mice show increased muscle performance, we examined the effect of E2f1 genetic inactivation in the mdx background, a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). E2f1-/-;mdx mice demonstrated a strong reduction of physiopathological signs of DMD, including preservation of muscle structure, decreased inflammatory profile, increased utrophin expression, resulting in better endurance and muscle contractile parameters, comparable to normal mdx mice. E2f1 deficiency in the mdx genetic background increased the oxidative metabolic gene program, mitochondrial activity and improved muscle functions. Interestingly, we observed increased E2F1 protein levels in DMD patients, suggesting that E2F1 might represent a promising target for the treatment of DMD.

  6. 16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 increases survival in mice following irradiation

    SciT

    Walden, T.L. Jr.; Patchen, M.; Snyder, S.L.

    1987-03-01

    16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DiPGE2), a stable analog of PGE2, increases the LD50/30 survival in CD2F1 male mice when given prior to ionizing radiation. Subcutaneous administration of 40 micrograms of DiPGE2 30 min prior to /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation extends the LD50/30 from 9.39 Gy in the control animals to 16.14 Gy in DiPGE2 treated, with a dose reduction factor of 1.72 (95% confidence limits: 1.62, 1.82). The degree of protection is dependent on both the time of administration and the dose of the prostaglandin. Ten micrograms administered 5 min prior to receiving a lethal dose of 10 Gy provides 90%more » survival but only 10% survival if administered 30 min prior to irradiation. Experiments to determine the in vivo concentration of DiPGE2 in organs postinjection show increased levels over time, but these are not correlated with protection. At 30 min after injection, as much as 80% of the DiPGE2 present in the spleen and plasma is unmetabolized. These results suggest that the protection results from the physiologic action of DiPGE2 rather than direct in vivo detoxification of radicals.« less

  7. Prostaglandin E2 Increased Rat Cortical Bone Mass When Administered Immediately Following Ovariectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Jee, Webster S.S.; Zeng, Qing Qiang; Li, Mei; Lin, Bai Yun

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effects of ovariectomy and the simultaneous administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on rat tibial shaft cortical bone histomorphometry, thirty-five 3 month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were either ovariectomized (OVX), or sham ovariectomy (sham-OVX). The OVX rats were divided into three groups and treated with 0, 1 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day for 90 days. The double fluorescent labeled undecalcified tibial shaft cross sections (proximal to the tibiofibular junction) of all the subjects were used for histomorphometry analysis. No differences in cross-sectional area and cortical bone area were found between sham-OVX and OVX controls, but OVX increased marrow area, intracortical porosity area and endocortical eroded perimeter. Periosteal and endocortical bone formation rates decreased with aging yet OVX prevented these changes. These OVX-induced increases in marrow area and endocortical eroded perimeter were prevented by 1 mg PGE2/kg/day treatment and added bone to periosteal and endocortical surfaces and to the marrow cavity. At the 6 mg/kg/day dose level, PGE2-treated OVX rats increased total tissue area, cortical bone area, marrow trabmular bone area, minimal cortical width and intracortical porosity area, and decreased marrow area compared to basal, sham-OVX and OVX controls. In addition, periosteal bone formation was elevated in the 6 mg PGE2/kg/day-treated OVX rats compared to OVX controls. Endocortical eroded perimeter increased from basal and sham-OVX control levels, but decreased from OVX control levels in the 6 mg PGE2/kg/day-treated OVX rats. Our study confirmed that ovariectomy does not cause osteopenia in tibial shaft cortical bone in rats, but it does stimulate endocortical bone resorption and enlarges marrow area. The new findings from the present study demonstrate that PGE2 prevents the OVX-induced increases in endocortical bone resorption and marrow area and adds additional bone to periosteal and endocortical surfaces and to marrow

  8. Argon laser irradiation of rabbits' eyes-changes in prostaglandin E2 levels

    SciT

    Naveh, N.; Peer, J.; Bartov, E.

    1991-02-01

    Laser irradiation of the eye is a widely used therapeutic measure in various ocular disorders. We investigated in laser-treated rabbits' eyes the changes in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels of the tissue affected by the laser (the retina/choroid) and of its adjacent vitreous over a two-week period. The parameters studied were; PGE2 in vitro production by the retina/choroid, as well as PGE2 and protein levels in the vitreous, the latter indicative of a break in the blood retinal barrier (BRB). The effect of noncoherent light exposure used for illumination, and that of the mechanical manipulation involved (sham exposure) were also studied.more » Following laser exposure vitreal PGE2 levels were increased two-fold above baseline (days three and 14), whereas light exposure resulted in a single peak. PGE2 in vitro production by the retina/choroid in the laser-exposed group was elevated throughout the observation period, peaking twice (days 3 and 14), in the light-exposed group the enhanced production was evident during a shorter period, whereas in the sham group it remained unchanged from baseline. An elevation in vitreal protein levels to above baseline levels occurred in both the laser- and, to a lesser degree, in the noncoherent light-exposed groups, but not in the sham group. Our study demonstrated an enhanced PGE2 in vitro production by retina/choroid of laser-exposed eyes, which might be attributable to the additive effect of the laser induced trauma, and the noncoherent light photochemical changes; the clinical significance of the recurrent increase in vitreal PGE2 levels in laser-treated eyes might be related to its anti-inflammatory properties.« less

  9. Prostaglandin E2 increases hematopoietic stem cell survival and accelerates hematopoietic recovery after radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Rebecca L.; Georger, Mary; Bromberg, Olga; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Frisch, Benjamin J.; Becker, Michael W.; Calvi, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which continuously maintain all mature blood cells, are regulated within the marrow microenvironment. We previously reported that pharmacologic treatment of naïve mice with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expands HSPCs. However, the cellular mechanisms mediating this expansion remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that PGE2 treatment in naïve mice inhibits apoptosis of HSPCs without changing their proliferation rate. In a murine model of sub-lethal total body irradiation (TBI), in which HSPCs are rapidly lost, treatment with a long-acting PGE2 analogue (dmPGE2) reversed the apoptotic program initiated by TBI. dmPGE2 treatment in vivo decreased the loss of functional HSPCs following radiation injury, as demonstrated both phenotypically and by their increased reconstitution capacity. The antiapoptotic effect of dmPGE2 on HSPCs did not impair their ability to differentiate in vivo, resulting instead in improved hematopoietic recovery after TBI. dmPGE2 also increased microenvironmental cyclooxygenase-2 expression and expanded the α-SMA+ subset of marrow macrophages, thus enhancing the bone marrow microenvironmental response to TBI. Therefore, in vivo treatment with PGE2 analogues may be particularly beneficial to HSPCs in the setting of injury by targeting them both directly and also through their niche. The current data provide rationale for in vivo manipulation of the HSPC pool as a strategy to improve recovery after myelosuppression. PMID:23169593

  10. Overexpression of SerpinE2/protease nexin-1 Contribute to Pathological Cardiac Fibrosis via increasing Collagen Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuelian; Zhao, Dandan; Guo, Zhenfeng; Li, Tianshi; Qili, Muge; Xu, Bozhi; Qian, Ming; Liang, Haihai; E, Xiaoqiang; Chege Gitau, Samuel; Wang, Lu; Huangfu, Longtao; Wu, Qiuxia; Xu, Chaoqian; Shan, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    Although increases in cardiovascular load (pressure overload) are known to elicit ventricular remodeling including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis, the molecular mechanisms of pressure overload or AngII -induced cardiac interstitial fibrosis remain elusive. In this study, serpinE2/protease nexin-1 was over-expressed in a cardiac fibrosis model induced by pressure-overloaded via transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mouse. Knockdown of serpinE2 attenuates cardiac fibrosis in a mouse model of TAC. At meantime, the results showed that serpinE2 significantly were increased with collagen accumulations induced by AngII or TGF-β stimulation in vitro. Intriguingly, extracellular collagen in myocardial fibroblast was reduced by knockdown of serpinE2 compared with the control in vitro. In stark contrast, the addition of exogenous PN-1 up-regulated the content of collagen in myocardial fibroblast. The MEK1/2- ERK1/2 signaling probably promoted the expression of serpinE2 via transcription factors Elk1 in myocardial fibroblast. In conclusion, stress-induced the ERK1/2 signaling pathway activation up-regulated serpinE2 expression, consequently led accumulation of collagen protein, and contributed to cardiac fibrosis. PMID:27876880

  11. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Manoocher; Barone, Sharon; Xu, Jie; Alshahrani, Saeed; Brooks, Marybeth; McCormack, Francis X.; Smith, Roger D.; Zahedi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO) mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2) in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of sodium and

  12. Low physiological levels of prostaglandins E2 and F2α improve human sperm functions.

    PubMed

    Rios, Mariana; Carreño, Daniela V; Oses, Carolina; Barrera, Nelson; Kerr, Bredford; Villalón, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) have been reported to be present in the seminal fluid and cervical mucus, affecting different stages of sperm maturation from spermatogenesis to the acrosome reaction. This study assessed the effects of low physiological PGE2 and PGF2α concentrations on human sperm motility and on the ability of the spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida (ZP). Human spermatozoa were isolated from seminal samples with normal concentration and motility parameters and incubated with 1μM PGE2, 1μM PGF2α or control solution to determine sperm motility and the ability to bind to human ZP. The effects of both PGs on intracellular calcium levels were determined. Incubation for 2 or 18h with PGE2 or PGF2α resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility. In contrast with PGF2α, PGE2 alone induced an increase in sperm intracellular calcium levels; however, the percentage of sperm bound to the human ZP was doubled for both PGs. These results indicate that incubation of human spermatozoa with low physiological levels of PGE2 or PGF2α increases sperm functions and could improve conditions for assisted reproduction protocols.

  13. Evaluation of peri-implant crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 levels in augmented extraction sockets by different biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Eylem Ayhan; Tüter, Gülay; Parlar, Ateş; Yücel, Ayşegül; Kurtiş, Bülent

    2016-10-01

    This study compares peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) levels, clinical parameters and implant stability quotient (ISQ) values around implants placed in augmented extraction sockets. The sockets (24 in total) were randomly augmented using either EMD or Bio-Oss Collagen. Implant placements were performed after three months of healing. ISQ readings were evaluated at three points: at the time of surgery, at the first month and at the third month. PICF was collected for PGE 2 evaluation after the first and the third months of implant surgery. After the first month, a higher level of PICF PGE 2 was observed in the EMD group than in the Bio-Oss Collagen group, and this increase was of statistical significance; however, at the third month there was no statistically significant difference in PICF PGE 2 levels between the two groups. For implants placed in EMD sites, ISQ values were statistically higher at the third month than at the first month, while no significant differences in ISQ value were detected between the first and third months in Bio-Oss Collagen sites. The results of this research suggest that both EMD and Bio-Oss Collagen are effective treatment modalities for stimulating the formation of new bone at extraction sites prior to implant surgery.

  14. The effects of prostaglandin E2 in growing rats - Increased metaphyseal hard tissue and cortico-endosteal bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Ueno, K.; Deng, Y. P.; Woodbury, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The role of in vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in bone formation is investigated. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 223-267 g were injected subcutaneously with 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg of PGE2-kg daily for 21 days. The processing of the tibiae for observation is described. Radiographs and histomorphometric analyses are also utilized to study bone formation. Body weight, weights of soft tissues and bones morphometry are evaluated. It is observed that PGE2 depressed longitudinal bone growth, increased growth cartilage thickness, decreased degenerative cartilage cell size and cartilage cell production, and significantly increased proximal tibial metaphyseal hard tissue mass. The data reveal that periosteal bone formation is slowed down at higher doses of PGE2 and endosteal bone formation is slightly depressed less than 10 days post injection; however, here is a late increase (10 days after post injection) in endosteal bone formation and in the formation of trabecular bone in the marrow cavity of the tibial shaft. It is noted that the effects of PGE2 on bone formation are similar to the responses of weaning rats to PGE2.

  15. Influence of increased mechanical loading by hypergravity on the microtubule cytoskeleton and prostaglandin E2 release in primary osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searby, Nancy D.; Steele, Charles R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2005-01-01

    Cells respond to a wide range of mechanical stimuli such as fluid shear and strain, although the contribution of gravity to cell structure and function is not understood. We hypothesized that bone-forming osteoblasts are sensitive to increased mechanical loading by hypergravity. A centrifuge suitable for cell culture was developed and validated, and then primary cultures of fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts at various stages of differentiation were mechanically loaded using hypergravity. We measured microtubule network morphology as well as release of the paracrine factor prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In immature osteoblasts, a stimulus of 10x gravity (10 g) for 3 h increased PGE2 2.5-fold and decreased microtubule network height 1.12-fold without affecting cell viability. Hypergravity (3 h) caused dose-dependent (5-50 g) increases in PGE2 (5.3-fold at 50 g) and decreases (1.26-fold at 50 g) in microtubule network height. PGE2 release depended on duration but not orientation of the hypergravity load. As osteoblasts differentiated, sensitivity to hypergravity declined. We conclude that primary osteoblasts demonstrate dose- and duration-dependent sensitivity to gravitational loading, which appears to be blunted in mature osteoblasts.

  16. Saliva, Serum Levels of Interleukin-21, -33 and Prostaglandin E2 in Patients with Generalised Aggressive or Chronic Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gümüş, Pınar; Nizam, Nejat; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Özçaka, Özgün; Buduneli, Nurcan

    This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate saliva, serum levels of interleukin-21 (IL-21), IL-33, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with generalised chronic periodontitis or aggressive periodontitis. Before initiation of any periodontal treatment, saliva and serum samples were collected and clinical periodontal measurements were recorded from 94 participants (25 aggressive periodontitis patients, 25 chronic periodontitis patients, 44 periodontally healthy individuals). IL-21, IL-33 and PGE2 levels in serum and saliva samples were determined by ELISA. Data were tested statistically using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U-, and Spearman-rho rank tests. Saliva IL-33 levels were statistically significantly higher in the chronic than the aggressive group (p < 0.05). Serum IL-33, saliva and serum IL-21 and PGE2 levels were similar in the two periodontitis groups. Saliva IL-33 levels correlated with age in the chronic periodontitis group (p < 0.05). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between serum, saliva PGE2 levels and plaque index (p < 0.05). IL-33 and IL-21 levels in serum samples positively correlated in the periodontitis groups (p < 0.05). IL-21 and PGE2 analysis did not exhibit discriminating data between generalised chronic and aggressive periodontitis, but the present findings support the role of these cytokines in periodontitis. Statistically significantly higher saliva IL-33 levels in the chronic periodontitis group warrant further research.

  17. The amino-terminus of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) p7 viroporin and its cleavage from glycoprotein E2-p7 precursor determine specific infectivity and secretion levels of HCV particle types

    PubMed Central

    Denolly, Solène; Bourlet, Thomas; Amirache, Fouzia

    2017-01-01

    Viroporins are small transmembrane proteins with ion channel activities modulating properties of intracellular membranes that have diverse proviral functions. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes a viroporin, p7, acting during assembly, envelopment and secretion of viral particles (VP). HCV p7 is released from the viral polyprotein through cleavage at E2-p7 and p7-NS2 junctions by signal peptidase, but also exists as an E2p7 precursor, of poorly defined properties. Here, we found that ectopic p7 expression in HCVcc-infected cells reduced secretion of particle-associated E2 glycoproteins. Using biochemical assays, we show that p7 dose-dependently slows down the ER-to-Golgi traffic, leading to intracellular retention of E2, which suggested that timely E2p7 cleavage and p7 liberation are critical events to control E2 levels. By studying HCV mutants with accelerated E2p7 processing, we demonstrate that E2p7 cleavage controls E2 intracellular expression and secretion levels of nucleocapsid-free subviral particles and infectious virions. In addition, our imaging data reveal that, following p7 liberation, the amino-terminus of p7 is exposed towards the cytosol and coordinates the encounter between NS5A and NS2-based assembly sites loaded with E1E2 glycoproteins, which subsequently leads to nucleocapsid envelopment. We identify punctual mutants at p7 membrane interface that, by abrogating NS2/NS5A interaction, are defective for transmission of infectivity owing to decreased secretion of core and RNA and to increased secretion of non/partially-enveloped particles. Altogether, our results indicate that the retarded E2p7 precursor cleavage is essential to regulate the intracellular and secreted levels of E2 through p7-mediated modulation of the cell secretory pathway and to unmask critical novel assembly functions located at p7 amino-terminus. PMID:29253880

  18. Sugar maple sap volume increases as vacuum level is increased

    Russell S. Walters; H. Clay Smith

    1975-01-01

    Maple sap yields collected by using plastic tubing with a vacuum pump increased as the vacuum level was increased. Sap volumes collected at the 10- and 15-inch mercury vacuum levels were statistically significantly higher than volumes collected at the 5-inch level. Although the 15-inch vacuum yielded more sap than the 10-inch vacuum, the difference was not...

  19. Depleted nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels are correlated with endothelial dysfunction in β-thalassemia/HbE patients.

    PubMed

    Satitthummanid, Sudarat; Uaprasert, Noppacharn; Songmuang, Smonporn Boonyaratavej; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Sutcharitchan, Pranee; Srimahachota, Suphot

    2017-09-01

    Mechanisms of vascular disorders in β-thalassemia/HbE patients remain poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to determine the presence of endothelial dysfunction and its association with altered vascular mediators in this population. Forty-three β-thalassemia/HbE patients without clinically documented vascular symptoms and 43 age-sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) before and after administration of nitroglycerine (NTG). β-Thalassemia/HbE patients showed a significant endothelial dysfunction using FMD. The percentage change in the brachial artery diameter before NTG was significantly lower in the thalassemia group compared to the control (5.0 ± 5.9 vs. 9.0 ± 4.0%, p < 0.01) while no significant differences after NTG (18.4 ± 8.3 vs. 17.8 ± 6.3%, p = 0.71). Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NO x ) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) levels were significantly decreased in β-thalassemia/HbE (117.2 ± 27.3 vs. 135.8 ± 11.3 µmol/L, p < 0.01) and (701.9 ± 676.0 vs. 1374.7 ± 716.5 pg/mL, p < 0.01), respectively, while a significant elevation in soluble thrombomodulin levels in β-thalassemia/HbE (3587.7 ± 1310.0 vs. 3093.9 ± 583.8 pg/mL, p = 0.028). NO x and PGE 2 levels were significantly correlated with FMD (r = 0.27, p = 0.025) and (r = 0.35, p = 0.003), respectively. These findings suggest roles for endothelial mediators and a new mechanism underlying endothelial dysfunction in β-thalassemia/HbE patients.

  20. Heat Increases the Editing Efficiency of Human Papillomavirus E2 Gene by Inducing Upregulation of APOBEC3A and 3G.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Hexiao; Zhang, Xinrui; Huo, Wei; Qi, Ruiqun; Gao, Yali; Zhang, Gaofeng; Song, Bing; Chen, Hongduo; Gao, Xinghua

    2017-04-01

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide (APOBEC) 3 proteins have been identified as potent viral DNA mutators and have broad antiviral activity. In this study, we demonstrated that apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3A (A3A) and A3G expression levels were significantly upregulated in human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cell lines and tissues. Heat treatment resulted in elevated expression of A3A and A3G in a temperature-dependent manner in HPV-infected cells. Correspondingly, HPV-infected cells heat-treated at 44 °C showed accumulated G-to-A or C-to-T mutation in HPV E2 gene. Knockdown of A3A or A3G could promote cell viability, along with the lower frequency of A/T in HPV E2 gene. In addition, regressing genital viral warts also harbored high G-to-A or C-to-T mutation in HPV E2 gene. Taken together, we demonstrate that apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 expression and editing function was heat sensitive to a certain degree, partly explaining the mechanism of action of local hyperthermia to treat viral warts. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Oligonol supplementation attenuates body temperature and the circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 after heat stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Oh; Lee, Jeong Beom; Song, Young Ju; Min, Young Ki; Yang, Hun Mo

    2013-04-01

    Oligonol, a phenolic production from lychee, has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effect of Oligonol supplementation on circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, as well as body temperature, after heat stress in 17 healthy human male volunteers (age, 21.6±2.1 years). All experiments were performed in an automated climate chamber (26.0°C±0.5°C, relative humidity 60%±3.0%, air velocity less than 1 m/sec) between 2 and 5 p.m. Subjects ingested an Oligonol (100 mg)-containing beverage or placebo beverage before half-body immersion into hot water (42°C±0.5°C for 30 min). Tympanic and skin temperatures were measured and mean body temperatures were calculated. Serum concentrations of PGE2 and COX-2 were analyzed before, immediately after, and 60 min after immersion. Oligonol intake significantly prevented elevation of tympanic (temperature difference: 0.17°C at Post, P<.05; 0.17°C at Re-60, P<.05) and mean body temperatures (temperature difference: 0.18°C at Post, P<.05; 0.15°C at Re-60, P<.05), and lowered concentrations of serum PGE2 (increased by 13.3% vs. 29.6% at Post, P<.05) and COX-2 (increased by 15.6% vs. 21.8% at Post, P<.05), compared to placebo beverage. Our result suggests that Oligonol has the potential to suppress increases in body temperature under heat stress, and this is associated with decreases in serum levels of PGE2 and COX-2.

  2. Effects of a cyclic NSAID regimen on levels of gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2and Interleukin-1β: A 6-month randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Oduncuoglu, B F; Kayar, N A; Haliloglu, S; Serpek, B; Ataoglu, T; Alptekin, N O

    2018-05-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for inflammation control and pain relief. However, while the adjunct use of NSAIDs is avoided for periodontal therapy because of related side effects, cyclic administration of NSAIDs may reduce or eliminate these effects. We evaluated the effect of a cyclic diclofenac potassium (DP) regimen on clinical parameters and levels of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of individuals with periodontitis. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee (2000/071). Forty-one individuals with chronic periodontitis (33 men, 8 women) were divided into two groups (test and control) after initial periodontal therapy. During this 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, test (n = 28) and control (n = 13) groups were administered a cyclic regimen of DP (50 mg, twice daily) or placebo. Clinical measurements and GCF sample collections were made at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months. GCF levels of PGE 2 and IL-1β were determined using enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunoassay kits, respectively. At baseline, no significant differences existed between groups for plaque indices, gingival indices, bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), or attachment levels (P > 0.05). Compared with the control group, cyclic regimen in the test group suppressed increased levels of PGE 2 found in GCF at the end of the study (P < 0.05). Significant differences for PD and relative attachment gain were also noted in favor of the test group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that a cyclic regimen of DP may be efficacious in the management of chronic periodontitis in adults.

  3. The mitochondrial antioxidants MitoE(2) and MitoQ(10) increase mitochondrial Ca(2+) load upon cell stimulation by inhibiting Ca(2+) efflux from the organelle.

    PubMed

    Leo, Sara; Szabadkai, György; Rizzuto, Rosario

    2008-12-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is recognized as a major pathogenic event in a number of human diseases, and mitochondrial scavenging of ROS appears a promising therapeutic approach. Recently, two mitochondrial antioxidants have been developed; conjugating alpha-tocopherol and the ubiquinol moiety of coenzyme Q to the lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP+), denominated MitoE(2) and MitoQ(10), respectively. We have investigated the effect of these compounds on mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis, which controls processes as diverse as activation of mitochondrial dehydrogenases and pro-apoptotic morphological changes of the organelle. We demonstrate that treatment of HeLa cells with both MitoE(2) and MitoQ(10) induces (albeit with different efficacy) a major enhancement of the increase in matrix Ca(2+) concentration triggered by cell stimulation with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-generating agonist histamine. The effect is a result of the inhibition of Ca(2+) efflux from the organelle and depends on the TPP+ moiety of these compounds. Overall, the data identify an effect independent of their antioxidant activity, that on the one hand may be useful in addressing disorders in which mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling is impaired (e.g., mitochondrial diseases) and on the other may favor mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and thus increase cell sensitivity to apoptosis (thus possibly counteracting the benefits of the antioxidant activity).

  4. Out-of-plane (e ,2 e ) measurements and calculations on He autoionizing levels as a function of incident-electron energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, N. L. S.; Weaver, C. M.; Kim, B. N.; deHarak, B. A.; Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K.

    2018-05-01

    Out-of-scattering-plane (e ,2 e ) measurements and calculations are reported for the three singlet helium 2 ℓ 2 ℓ' autoionizing levels, with 80, 100, 120, 150, and 488 eV incident-electron energies, and scattering angles 60∘, 50 .8∘ , 45∘, 39 .2∘ , and 20 .5∘ , respectively. The kinematics are the same in all cases: the momentum transfer is K =2.1 a.u., and ejected electrons are detected in a plane that contains the momentum-transfer direction and is perpendicular to the scattering plane. The results are presented as (e ,2 e ) angular distributions energy integrated over each level. They are compared with fully nonperturbative B -spline R -matrix and hybrid second-order distorted-wave + R -matrix calculations.

  5. Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin combined with clomiphene on Serum E2, FSH, LH and PRL levels in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yonggang, Huang; Xiaosheng, Lu; Zhaoxia, Huang; Yilu, Chen; Jiqiang, Lv; Huina, Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin combined with clomiphene on serum E 2 , FSH, LH and PRL levels in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome were analyzed. 90 patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome treated from January 2015 to March 2016 were randomly and evenly divided into control group and observation group. Patients in the control group were only treated with clomiphene. On the basis of the treatment in control group, human chorionic gonadotropin was added in the treatment of observation group. The changes of E 2 , FSH, LH, PRL levels were compared between two groups before and after the treatment. Clinical curative effects of patients in the two groups was evaluated. Adverse reactions during treatment in two groups were observed and recorded. The incidence of adverse reactions was calculated. Serum E 2 , FSH, LH and PRL levels in the two groups decreased significantly after treatment compared with that before treatment. The difference is statistical significant ( P  < 0.05). After the treatment, E 2 , FSH, LH and PRL levels in the observation group were lower than that in the control group and the difference is statistical significant ( P  < 0.05). Total effective rate was 64.44% in the control group and 93.33% in the observation group. There were statistically significant difference in clinical curative effects in the two groups ( P  < 0.05). Different degrees of adverse reactions were found in both groups during treatment, such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, liver dysfunction. There were 2 cases of nausea, 2 cases of vomiting, 3 cases of anorexia and 1 case of liver dysfunction from the 45 patients in control group. The total incidence of adverse reactions was 17.78% (8/45). There were 1 case of nausea, 1 case of vomiting, 1 case of anorexia and no liver dysfunction from the 45 patients in observation group. The total incidence of adverse reactions was 6.67% (3/45). The total incidence of adverse reactions in the observation group was

  6. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Level 3 Ecoregions

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of level 3 ecological landscape regions (ecoregions), as defined by Omernik (1987), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is Level III Ecoregions of the Continental United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2003). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  7. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Level 3 Nutrient Ecoregions, 2002

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the area of each level 3 nutrient ecoregion in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data are from the 2002 version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Aggregations of Level III Ecoregions for National Nutrient Assessment & Management Strategy (USEPA, 2002). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  8. Aromatase expression in a human osteoblastic cell line increases in response to prostaglandin E(2) in a dexamethasone-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Noda, M; Nakajin, S

    2007-09-01

    Recent progress supports the importance of local estrogen secretion in human bone tissue to increase and maintain bone-mineral density. In a previous report, we found that forskolin (FSK) synergistically induces aromatase (CYP19: a rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen synthesis) expression in dexamethasone (Dex) dependent manner in a human osteoblastic cell line, SV-HFO [Watanabe M, Ohno S, Nakajin S. Forskolin and dexamethasone synergistically induce aromatase (CYP19) expression in the human osteoblastic cell line SV-HFO. Eur J Endocrinol 2005;152:619-24]. In this report, we investigated whether prostaglandin (PG) E(2) induces estrogen production, in other words, if PGE(2) exerts the same effect as FSK because PGE(2) is the major prostanoid in the bone and is one of the key molecules in the osteoblast. We found PGE(2) up-regulates aromatase activity synergistically, but this up-regulation depends on Dex. CYP19 gene expression was also increased synergistically by Dex and PGE(2). Promoter I.4 was activated synergistically by PGE(2) and Dex. PGE(2) receptor, EP(1), EP(2) and EP(4) were involved in the up-regulation of aromatase activity in response to PGE(2) in a Dex-dependent manner. The cAMP-PKA pathway and Ca(2+) signaling pathway were involved in the up-regulation of aromatase activity in response to PGE(2). Furthermore, glucocorticoid response element on promoter I.4 sequence was an essential minimum requirement for its activity and synergism of PGE(2) and Dex. These findings are the first report on osteoblastic cell line which uses predominantly promoter I.4 to drive aromatase expression. These findings also suggest that endogenous PGE(2) produced in bone mainly may synergistically support local estrogen production in osteoblastic cells in the presence of glucocorticoid.

  9. Increasing levels of estradiol are deleterious to embryonic implantation because they directly affect the embryo.

    PubMed

    Valbuena, D; Martin, J; de Pablo, J L; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Simón, C

    2001-11-01

    To investigate whether the deleterious effect of E(2) on embryonic implantation is due to a direct effect on the endometrium, on the embryo, or both. Prospective, controlled in vitro study. Tertiary infertility center. Fertile patients in the luteal phase with histologically normal endometrium who were attending the infertility clinic as oocyte donors (n = 14). E(2) dose-response (0, 10(-8), 10(-7), 10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4) M) and time course (day 2 vs. day 5) experiments were performed in an in vitro embryo adhesion assay composed of human polarized endometrial epithelial cells obtained from fertile patients and mouse embryos. Blastocyst formation rate and embryo adhesion rate. Monolayers of polarized endometrial epithelial cells expressed ERalpha at the mRNA level. The E(2) dose response of blastocysts with polarized endometrial epithelial cells (n = 235) demonstrated a progressive reduction in embryonic adhesion that was statistically significant at 10(-6) M. When polarized endometrial epithelial cells were treated alone with increasing doses of E(2) for 3 days and E(2) was then removed and blastocysts added (n = 410), embryonic adhesion was not significantly reduced, except at 10(-4) M. When 2-day mouse embryos (n = 609) were treated with increasing E(2) concentrations until day 5, the rate of blastocyst formation significantly decreased at a concentration >or= 10(-6) M, and embryonic adhesion decreased when blastocysts (n = 400) were obtained at a concentration >or= 10(-7) M. Time course experiments of embryos cultured for 2 days with polarized endometrial epithelial cells (n = 426) showed that the adhesion rate was higher at E(2) levels of 10(-7), 10(-6) and 10(-5) M compared with embryos cultured for 5 days (n = 495). High E(2) levels are deleterious to embryo adhesion in vitro, mainly because they have a direct toxic effect on the embryo that may occur at the cleavage stage.

  10. Irradiation of human skin by short wavelength ultraviolet radiation (100--290 nm) (u.v.C): increased concentrations of arachidonic acid and prostaglandines E2 and F2alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Camp, R D; Greaves, M W; Hensby, C N; Plummer, N A; Warin, A P

    1978-01-01

    1. Human abdominal skin was irradiated with six times the minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet C (100--290 nm) radiation. Erythema appeared at 3 h, was of moderate degree by 6 h and was maximal at 12--24 h. It was reduced at 48 h and by 72 h had disappeared. 2. A suction bulla technique was used for the recovery of exudate from normal and inflamed skin at 6, 18, 24 and 48 h after irradiation. 3. Prostaglandin-like activity, estimated by bioassay, showed maximum increase at 18 h, when erythema was also maximum. PGF 2alpha, measured by both radioimmunoassay and by combined gas-liquid chromatography--gas spectrometry, followed a similar time course then fell to normal, or near normal, levels at 48 h. 4. Prostaglandin E2 and arachidonic acid concentrations, measured by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry, were maximally raised at 18--24 h. At 48 h, when some erythema was still present, though reduced, prostaglandin E2 concentrations were still raised above control values. 5. The results provide direct evidence in support of the view that the erythma following irradiation of human skin by u.v.C involves activation of arachidonic acid metabolism. However, the relationship between the erythema and increased prostaglandin activity is not fully understood. PMID:678391

  11. Prostaglandin E2 Levels of Aqueous and Vitreous Humor in Ketorolac 0.4% and Nepafenac 0.1% Administered Healthy Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Acar, Ugur; Acar, Damla Erginturk; Tanriverdi, Cafer; Acar, Mutlu; Ozdemir, Ozdemir; Erikci, Acelya; Ornek, Firdevs

    2017-06-01

    To compare the lowering effects of ketorolac 0.4% and nepafenac 0.1% on aqueous and vitreous humor prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) levels in rabbits. Ketorolac and nepafenac ophthalmic solutions were administered to the right eyes of 24 healthy rabbits after randomized division into two groups. The left eyes of these rabbits were considered as controls for the two groups. On the 4th day of the experiment, the samples were taken from the aqueous and vitreous humors of the rabbits bilaterally, and PGE 2 levels were measured by an enzyme immune assay kit. Ketorolac and nepafenac achieved a statistically significant decrease (p<0.001, for each) in PGE 2 levels in the aqueous (11.75 ± 6.15 and 14.75 ± 7.60 pg/mL, respectively) and the vitreous humor (6.58 ± 4.62 and 9.83 ± 4.55 pg/mL, respectively). Both ketorolac and nepafenac inhibited PGE 2 levels in both the aqueous and vitreous humors of rabbits. Although PGE 2 -lowering effects were similar in the aqueous humor, nepafenac seemed to be more potent than ketorolac in the vitreous humor.

  12. Energy levels, wavelengths, and transition rates of multipole transitions (E1, E2, M1, M2) in Au{sup 67+} and Au{sup 66+} ions

    SciT

    Hamasha, Safeia, E-mail: safeia@hu.edu.jo

    2013-11-15

    The fully relativistic configuration interaction method of the FAC code is used to calculate atomic data for multipole transitions in Mg-like Au (Au{sup 67+}) and Al-like Au (Au{sup 66+}) ions. Generated atomic data are important in the modeling of M-shell spectra for heavy Au ions and Au plasma diagnostics. Energy levels, oscillator strengths and transition rates are calculated for electric-dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) for transitions between excited and ground states 3l−nl{sup ′}, such that n=4,5,6,7. The local central potential is derived using the Dirac–Fock–Slater method. Correlation effects to all orders are consideredmore » by the configuration interaction expansion. All relativistic effects are included in the calculations. Calculated energy levels are compared against published values that were calculated using the multi-reference many body perturbation theory, which includes higher order QED effects. Favorable agreement was observed, with less than 0.15% difference.« less

  13. Evaluation of the gingival inflammation in pregnancy and postpartum via 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, prostaglandin E2 and TNF-α levels in saliva.

    PubMed

    Gümüş, Pınar; Öztürk, V Özgen; Bozkurt, Emir; Emingil, Gülnur

    2016-03-01

    Physiological changes and immunological modifications occur during pregnancy. The clinical and biological features of periodontal infections are affected by pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate saliva levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and TNF-alpha (TNF-α) in pregnancy, postpartum and non-pregnant controls. Whole saliva samples together with full-mouth clinical periodontal recordings were obtained from 59 pregnant, 47 post partum and 70 systemically healthy non-pregnant women. Groups were also evaluated according to the periodontal health status. 25(OH)D3, PGE2 and TNF-α levels in the saliva samples were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Data were statistically tested by nonparametrical tests. Saliva TNF-α and PGE2 levels were significantly lower and 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly higher in the pregnant group than postpartum group (p<0.0001). Saliva TNF-α and 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly higher and PGE2 levels were significantly lower in the control group than postpartum group (p<0.0001). In the pregnant healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis groups saliva TNF-α levels were significantly lower than postpartum and control counterparts (p<0.0001, p=0.032, p=0.003 and p=0.013; p=0.027; p=0.007, respectively). In control healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis groups saliva 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly higher than the postpartum counterparts (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, p=0.002, respectively). In the control healthy and gingivitis groups saliva 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly higher than pregnant healthy and gingivitis (p<0.0001). In conclusion, within the limits of the present study it seems that pregnancy have an effect on parameters in saliva in relation to the periodontal status of the women. Further studies are required for better understanding of the impact of periodontal diseases on pregnancy or otherwise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Baicalin increases the antioxidant capacity via promoting the nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in N2a/APPswe cells].

    PubMed

    Cao, Huimin; Chen, Beibei; Deng, Yushuang; Lu, Xi; Yu, Gang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the protective effect and related mechanism of baicalin in murine neuroblastoma N2a cells stably expressing human Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) (N2a/APPswe cells), a cellular model of Alzheimer' s disease (AD). MTT assay was performed to observe the effect of baicalin (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20) μmol/L on the viability of N2a/APPswe cells. After N2a/APPswe cells were incubated with (1, 5, 10) μmol/L baicalin for 48 hours, xanthine oxidase assay was used to test superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and thiobarbituric acid method to detect malondialdehyde (MDA) content in each group. Real-time quantitative PCR was applied to determine nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA, and Western blotting to examine protein levels of total Nrf2, nuclear Nrf2 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in N2a/APPswe cells exposed to different doses of baicalin. Immunofluorescence staining was also used to observe the distribution of Nrf2. We found that baicalin pretreatment increased cell viability. Compared with the control group (N2a/wt cells), SOD activity in N2a/APPswe cells significantly decreased, and MDA content significantly increased; but SOD activity was improved and MDA production was inhibited after pretreatment with baicalin, especially with 10 μmol/L bacalin. Both mRNA and total protein expression of Nrf2 were not significantly changed in baicalin treatment group compared with N2a/APPswe group, but the nuclear protein of Nrf2 distinctly increased after treatment with baicalin. In addition, baicalin decreased the level of nuclear NF-κB protein. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining revealed that baicalin promoted the translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus. Baicalin has the protection against oxidative stress via activation of Nrf2 in N2a/APPswe cells.

  15. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) increases the expression of prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP4. The roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta.

    PubMed

    Han, ShouWei; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Wingerd, Byron; Roman, Jesse

    2005-09-30

    The prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP4 has been implicated in the growth and progression of human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, the factors that control its expression have not been entirely elucidated. Our studies show that NSCLC cells express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) protein and that treatment with a selective PPARbeta/delta agonist (GW501516) increases EP4 mRNA and protein levels. GW501516 induced NSCLC cell proliferation, and this effect was prevented by PPARbeta/delta antisense or EP4 short interfering RNA (siRNA). GW501516 increased the phosphorylation of Akt and decreased PTEN expression. The selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), wortmannin, and PPARbeta/delta antisense, abrogated the effect of GW501516 on EP4 expression, whereas that of the inhibitor of Erk did not. GW501516 also increased EP4 promoter activity through effects on the region between -1555 and -992 bp in the EP4 promoter, and mutation of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) site in this region abrogated the effect of GW501516. GW501516 increased not only the binding activity of C/EBP to the NF-IL6 site in the EP4 promoter, which was prevented by the inhibitor of PI3-K, but also increased C/EBPbeta protein in a dose- and PPARbeta/delta-dependent manner. The effect of GW501516 on EP4 protein was eliminated in the presence of C/EBPbeta siRNA. Finally, we showed that pretreatment of NSCLC with GW501516 further increased NSCLC cell proliferation in response to exogenous dimethyl-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that was diminished in the presence of PPARbeta/delta antisense and EP4 siRNA. Taken together, these findings suggest that activation of PPARbeta/delta induces PGE2 receptor subtype EP4 expression through PI3-K signals and increases human lung carcinoma cell proliferation in response to PGE2. The increase in transcription of the EP4 gene by PPARbeta/delta agonist was associated with increased C

  16. Loss of GCN5 leads to increased neuronal apoptosis by upregulating E2F1- and Egr-1-dependent BH3-only protein Bim.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanna; Ma, Shanshan; Xia, Yong; Lu, Yangpeng; Xiao, Shiyin; Cao, Yali; Zhuang, Sidian; Tan, Xiangpeng; Fu, Qiang; Xie, Longchang; Li, Zhiming; Yuan, Zhongmin

    2017-01-26

    Cellular acetylation homeostasis is a kinetic balance precisely controlled by histone acetyl-transferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities. The loss of the counterbalancing function of basal HAT activity alters the precious HAT:HDAC balance towards enhanced histone deacetylation, resulting in a loss of acetylation homeostasis, which is closely associated with neuronal apoptosis. However, the critical HAT member whose activity loss contributes to neuronal apoptosis remains to be identified. In this study, we found that inactivation of GCN5 by either pharmacological inhibitors, such as CPTH2 and MB-3, or by inactivation with siRNAs leads to a typical apoptosis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons. Mechanistically, the BH3-only protein Bim is transcriptionally upregulated by activated Egr-1 and E2F1 and mediates apoptosis following GCN5 inhibition. Furthermore, in the activity withdrawal- or glutamate-evoked neuronal apoptosis models, GCN5 loses its activity, in contrast to Bim induction. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of GCN5 suppresses Bim induction and apoptosis. Interestingly, the loss of GCN5 activity and the induction of Egr-1, E2F1 and Bim are involved in the early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in rats. HDAC inhibition not only significantly rescues Bim expression and apoptosis induced by either potassium deprivation or GCN5 inactivation but also ameliorates these events and EBI in SAH rats. Taken together, our results highlight a new mechanism by which the loss of GCN5 activity promotes neuronal apoptosis through the transcriptional upregulation of Bim, which is probably a critical event in triggering neuronal death when cellular acetylation homeostasis is impaired.

  17. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Eva; Toussaint, Mathilda J. M.; Tooten, Peter C. J.; van Essen, Saskia C.; van Liere, Elsbeth A.; Youssef, Sameh A.; Bongiovanni, Laura; de Bruin, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age. PMID:29329320

  18. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization.

    PubMed

    Matondo, Ramadhan B; Moreno, Eva; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; Tooten, Peter C J; van Essen, Saskia C; van Liere, Elsbeth A; Youssef, Sameh A; Bongiovanni, Laura; de Bruin, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age.

  19. The TERT promoter SNP rs2853669 decreases E2F1 transcription factor binding and increases mortality and recurrence risks in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunkyong; Seo, Hyun-Wook; Jung, Eun Sun; Kim, Baek-hui; Jung, Guhung

    2016-01-05

    A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter, rs2853669 influences patient survival rates and the risk of developing cancer. Recently, several lines of evidence suggest that the rs2853669 suppresses TERT promoter mutation-mediated TERT expression levels and cancer mortality as well as recurrence rates. However, no reports are available on the impact of rs2853669 on TERT expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its association with patient survival. Here, we found that HCC-related overall and recurrence-free survival rates were not associated with TERT promoter mutation individually, but rs2853669 and the TERT promoter mutation in combination were associated with poor survival rates. TERT mRNA expression and telomere fluorescence levels were greater in patients with HCC who had both the combination. The combination caused TERT promoter methylation through regulating the binding of DNA methyltransferase 1 and histone deacetylase 1 to the TERT promoter in HCC cell lines. The TERT expression level was significantly higher in HCC tumor with a methylated promoter than in that with an unmethylated promoter. In conclusion, we demonstrate a substantial role for the rs2853669 in HCC with TERT promoter mutation, which suggests that the combination of the rs2853669 and the mutation indicate poor prognoses in liver cancer.

  20. E2F1 and E2F2 induction in response to DNA damage preserves genomic stability in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniela S; Campalans, Anna; Belluscio, Laura M; Carcagno, Abel L; Radicella, J Pablo; Cánepa, Eduardo T; Pregi, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    E2F transcription factors regulate a wide range of biological processes, including the cellular response to DNA damage. In the present study, we examined whether E2F family members are transcriptionally induced following treatment with several genotoxic agents, and have a role on the cell DNA damage response. We show a novel mechanism, conserved among diverse species, in which E2F1 and E2F2, the latter specifically in neuronal cells, are transcriptionally induced after DNA damage. This upregulation leads to increased E2F1 and E2F2 protein levels as a consequence of de novo protein synthesis. Ectopic expression of these E2Fs in neuronal cells reduces the level of DNA damage following genotoxic treatment, while ablation of E2F1 and E2F2 leads to the accumulation of DNA lesions and increased apoptotic response. Cell viability and DNA repair capability in response to DNA damage induction are also reduced by the E2F1 and E2F2 deficiencies. Finally, E2F1 and E2F2 accumulate at sites of oxidative and UV-induced DNA damage, and interact with γH2AX DNA repair factor. As previously reported for E2F1, E2F2 promotes Rad51 foci formation, interacts with GCN5 acetyltransferase and induces histone acetylation following genotoxic insult. The results presented here unveil a new mechanism involving E2F1 and E2F2 in the maintenance of genomic stability in response to DNA damage in neuronal cells.

  1. E2F1 and E2F2 induction in response to DNA damage preserves genomic stability in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Daniela S; Campalans, Anna; Belluscio, Laura M; Carcagno, Abel L; Radicella, J Pablo; Cánepa, Eduardo T; Pregi, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    E2F transcription factors regulate a wide range of biological processes, including the cellular response to DNA damage. In the present study, we examined whether E2F family members are transcriptionally induced following treatment with several genotoxic agents, and have a role on the cell DNA damage response. We show a novel mechanism, conserved among diverse species, in which E2F1 and E2F2, the latter specifically in neuronal cells, are transcriptionally induced after DNA damage. This upregulation leads to increased E2F1 and E2F2 protein levels as a consequence of de novo protein synthesis. Ectopic expression of these E2Fs in neuronal cells reduces the level of DNA damage following genotoxic treatment, while ablation of E2F1 and E2F2 leads to the accumulation of DNA lesions and increased apoptotic response. Cell viability and DNA repair capability in response to DNA damage induction are also reduced by the E2F1 and E2F2 deficiencies. Finally, E2F1 and E2F2 accumulate at sites of oxidative and UV-induced DNA damage, and interact with γH2AX DNA repair factor. As previously reported for E2F1, E2F2 promotes Rad51 foci formation, interacts with GCN5 acetyltransferase and induces histone acetylation following genotoxic insult. The results presented here unveil a new mechanism involving E2F1 and E2F2 in the maintenance of genomic stability in response to DNA damage in neuronal cells. PMID:25892555

  2. The E(2) particle

    SciT

    Ghosh, Subir; Pal, Probir; Physics Department, Uluberia College, Uluberia, Howrah 711315

    2009-12-15

    Recently it has been advocated [A. G. Cohen and S. L. Glashow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 021601 (2006)] that for describing nature within the minimal symmetry requirement, certain subgroups of the Lorentz group may play a fundamental role. One such group is E(2) which induces a Lie algebraic noncommutative spacetime [M. M. Sheikh-Jabbari and A. Tureanu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 261601 (2008); arXiv:0811.3670] where translation invariance is not fully maintained. We have constructed a consistent structure of noncommutative phase space for this system, and furthermore we have studied an appropriate point particle action on it. Interestingly, the Einstein dispersion relationmore » p{sup 2}=m{sup 2} remains intact. The model is constructed by exploiting a dual canonical phase space following the scheme developed by us earlier [S. Ghosh and P. Pal, Phys. Rev. D 75, 105021 (2007)].« less

  3. Effects of Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Activities of Cyclooxygenases and Levels of Prostaglandins E2 and F2 α Metabolites, in the Offspring of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oriquat, Ghaleb A.; Abu-Samak, Mahmoud; Al Hanbali, Othman A.; Salim, Maher D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the protective effect of lipoic acid (LA) on fetal outcome of diabetic mothers. Methods. Diabetes was induced in female rats using streptozotocin and rats were made pregnant. Pregnant control (group 1; n = 9; and group 2; n = 7) or pregnant diabetic (group 3; n = 10; and group 4; n = 8) rats were treated daily with either LA (groups 2 and 4) or vehicle (groups 1 and 3) between gestational days 0 and 15. On day 15 of gestation, the fetuses, placentas, and membranes were dissected, examined morphologically, and then homogenized, to measure cyclooxygenase (COX) activities and metabolisms of prostaglandin (PG) E2 (PGEM) and PGF2 α (PGFM) levels. The level of total glutathione was measured in the maternal liver and plasma and in all fetuses. Results. Supplementation of diabetic rats with LA was found to significantly (p < 0.05) reduce resorption rates in diabetic rats and led to a significant (p < 0.05) increase in liver, plasma, and fetuses total glutathione from LA-TD rats as compared to those from V-TD. Decreased levels of PGEM and elevated levels of PGFM in the fetuses, placentas, and membranes were characteristic of experimental diabetic gestation associated with malformation. The levels of PGEM in malformed fetuses from LA-TD mothers was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in malformed fetuses from V-TD rats. Conclusions. LA treatment did not completely prevent the occurrence of malformations. Thus, other factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of the diabetes-induced congenital malformations. PMID:28042582

  4. The Papillomavirus E2 proteins

    SciT

    McBride, Alison A., E-mail: amcbride@nih.gov

    2013-10-15

    The papillomavirus E2 proteins are pivotal to the viral life cycle and have well characterized functions in transcriptional regulation, initiation of DNA replication and partitioning the viral genome. The E2 proteins also function in vegetative DNA replication, post-transcriptional processes and possibly packaging. This review describes structural and functional aspects of the E2 proteins and their binding sites on the viral genome. It is intended to be a reference guide to this viral protein. - Highlights: • Overview of E2 protein functions. • Structural domains of the papillomavirus E2 proteins. • Analysis of E2 binding sites in different genera of papillomaviruses.more » • Compilation of E2 associated proteins. • Comparison of key mutations in distinct E2 functions.« less

  5. E2F1 transcription is induced by genotoxic stress through ATM/ATR activation.

    PubMed

    Carcagno, Abel L; Ogara, María F; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Marazita, Mariela C; Sirkin, Pablo F; Ceruti, Julieta M; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2009-05-01

    E2F1, a member of the E2F family of transcription factors, plays a critical role in controlling both cell cycle progression and apoptotic cell death in response to DNA damage and oncogene activation. Following genotoxic stresses, E2F1 protein is stabilized by phosphorylation and acetylation driven to its accumulation. The aim of the present work was to examine whether the increase in E2F1 protein levels observed after DNA damage is only a reflection of an increase in E2F1 protein stability or is also the consequence of enhanced transcription of the E2F1 gene. The data presented here demonstrates that UV light and other genotoxics induce the transcription of E2F1 gene in an ATM/ATR dependent manner, which results in increasing E2F1 mRNA and protein levels. After genotoxic stress, transcription of cyclin E, an E2F1 target gene, was significantly induced. This induction was the result of two well-differentiated effects, one of them dependent on de novo protein synthesis and the other on the protein stabilization. Our results strongly support a transcriptional effect of DNA damaging agents on E2F1 expression. The results presented herein uncover a new mechanism involving E2F1 in response to genotoxic stress.

  6. Hyperglycemia may determine fibrinopeptide A plasma level increase in humans.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Dello Russo, P; Marchi, E; Torella, R

    1989-12-01

    The effects of hyperglycemia on plasma fibrinopeptide A (FPA) levels in normal subjects are reported. An increase of FPA concentration parallel to sustained hyperglycemia was observed; when the glycemia returned to basal values, FPA showed values in normal range. Heparin infusion was able to significantly decrease the hyperglycemia-induced augment of FPA levels. Isovolumic-isotonic NaCl solution infusion produced a slight (NS) increase in FPA levels; however, mild hyperglycemia, achieved by glucagon, was also able to produce a significant increase in FPA concentration. These data demonstrate the direct role of hyperglycemia in conditioning FPA level, and suggest that hyperglycemia, by itself, is a sufficient stimulus to produce thrombin activation in humans.

  7. Increased kinin levels and decreased responsiveness to kinins during aging.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Viviana; Velarde, Victoria; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Gómez, Christian; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Sabaj, Valeria; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2005-08-01

    Kinins are vasoactive peptides released from precursors called kininogens, and serum levels of both T- and K-kininogens increase dramatically as rats age. Kinin release is tightly regulated, and here we show that serum kinin levels also increase with age, from 63 +/- 16 nmol/L in young Fisher 344 rats to 398 +/- 102 nmol/L in old animals. Both K- and T-kininogens contribute sequentially to this increase, with the increase in middle-aged animals being driven primarily by K-kininogen, whereas the further augmentation in older rats occurs by increasing T-kininogen. By measuring ERK activation, we show that aorta endothelial cells from old animals are hyporesponsive to exogenous bradykinin. However, if serum kinin levels are experimentally decreased by lipopolysaccharide treatment, then the endothelial response to bradykinin is re-established. These results indicate that serum levels of kinins increase with age, whereas the responsiveness of target cells to kinins is reduced in these same animals.

  8. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    PubMed

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Increased carboxyhemoglobin level during liver resection with inflow occlusion.

    PubMed

    Godai, Kohei; Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; Kuniyoshi, Tamotsu; Matsunaga, Akira; Kanmura, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Controlling stress responses associated with ischemic changes due to bleeding and ischemia/reperfusion injury is essential for anesthetic management. Endogenous carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) is produced in the oxidative degradation of heme proteins by the stress-response enzyme heme oxygenase. Although the COHb level is elevated in critically ill patients, changes in endogenous COHb during anesthesia have not been well investigated. Therefore, we evaluated changes in endogenous COHb levels in patients undergoing liver resections with inflow occlusion. Levels of COHb were significantly increased after the Pringle maneuver. The inflow occlusion time in patients with increased COHb after the Pringle maneuver (∆COHb > 0.3 %) was significantly longer than in patients without increased COHb (∆COHb < 0.3 %) (P = 0.01). In addition, COHb changes were correlated with inflow occlusion time (P = 0.005, R(2) = 0.21). Neither total blood loss, transfusion volume of packed red blood cells, operation time, nor anesthetic time differed between patients with and without increased COHb. The results indicated that endogenous COHb levels were increased by inflow occlusion in patients undergoing liver resections, which suggests that changes in COHb may correlate with hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by inflow occlusion.

  10. Serum lipocalin-2 levels are increased in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kamata, M; Tada, Y; Tatsuta, A; Kawashima, T; Shibata, S; Mitsui, H; Asano, Y; Sugaya, M; Kadono, T; Kanda, N; Watanabe, S; Sato, S

    2012-04-01

    The protein lipocalin (LCN)-2 is known to be related to insulin resistance, obesity and atherosclerotic diseases. Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease related to metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between serum LCN2 levels and indicators for metabolic syndrome and inflammatory cytokine levels in patients with psoriasis. Serum LCN2 levels were measured in patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (AD) or bullous pemphigoid (BP), and compared with those of healthy controls. Serum LCN2 levels were also compared with several indicators for metabolic syndrome, and with serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, two markers of inflammation. Serum LCN2 levels in patients with psoriasis were significantly higher than those of healthy controls, but there was no significant correlation between serum LCN2 and body mass index. Serum LCN2 levels also correlated with serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with psoriasis. Serum LCN2 levels are a general indicator for increased inflammation in the patients with psoriasis. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Dietary guanidinoacetic acid increases brain creatine levels in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostojic, Jelena; Drid, Patrik; Vranes, Milan; Jovanov, Pavle

    2017-01-01

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is an experimental dietary additive that might act as a creatine source in tissues with high-energy requirements. In this case study, we evaluated brain levels of creatine in white matter, gray matter, cerebellum, and thalamus during 8 wk oral GAA administration in five healthy men and monitored the prevalence and severity of side effects of the intervention. Volunteers were supplemented daily with 36 mg/kg body weight (BW) of GAA for the first 4 wk of the intervention; afterward GAA dosage was titrated ≤60 mg/kg BW of GAA daily. At baseline, 4, and 8 wk, the participants underwent brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy, clinical chemistry studies, and open-ended questionnaire for side-effect prevalence and severity. Brain creatine levels increased in similar fashion in cerebellum, and white and gray matter after GAA supplementation, with an initial increase of 10.7% reported after 4 wk, and additional upsurge (7.7%) from the weeks 4 to 8 follow-up (P < 0.05). Thalamus creatine levels decreased after 4 wk for 6.5% (P = 0.02), and increased nonsignificantly after 8 wk for 8% (P = 0.09). GAA induced an increase in N-acetylaspartate levels at 8-wk follow-up in all brain areas evaluated (P < 0.05). No participants reported any neurologic adverse event (e.g., seizures, tingling, convulsions) during the intervention. Supplemental GAA led to a region-dependent increase of the creatine pool in the human brain. This might be relevant for restoring cellular bioenergetics in disorders characterized by low brain creatine and functional enzymatic machinery for creatine synthesis, including neurodegenerative diseases, brain tumors, or cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ghrelin administered spinally increases the blood glucose level in mice.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of ghrelin located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in ICR mice. We found that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with ghrelin (from 1 to 10 μg) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, i.t. pretreatment with YIL781 (ghrelin receptor antagonist; from 0.1 to 5 μg) markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced hyperglycemic effect. The plasma insulin level was increased by ghrelin. The enhanced plasma insulin level by ghrelin was reduced by i.t. pretreatment with YIL781. However, i.t. pretreatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1; 5 μg) did not affect the ghrelin-induced hyperglycemia. Furthermore, i.t. administration with ghrelin also elevated the blood glucose level, but in an additive manner, in d-glucose-fed model. Our results suggest that the activation of ghrelin receptors located in the spinal cord plays important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. E2E: A Summary of the e2e Learning Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Development Agency, London (England).

    This publication is a summary of the E2E (Entry to Employment) Learning Framework that provides guidance on program implementation. (E2E is a new learning program for young people not yet ready or able to enter Modern Apprenticeship programs, a Level 2 program, or employment directly.) Section 2 highlights core values to which all involved should…

  14. Increased Plasma Levels of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yu-Xue; Fu, Dong-Wei; Gao, Qing-Feng; Ge, Feng-Xia; Liu, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is associated with inflammation and the oxidative stress response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective stress-responsive enzyme that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the role of HO-1 in human brucellosis has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma levels of HO-1 in patients with brucellosis and to evaluate the ability of plasma HO-1 levels as an auxiliary diagnosis, a severity predictor, and a monitor for brucellosis treatments. A total of 75 patients with brucellosis were divided into the acute, subacute, chronic active, and chronic stable groups. An additional 20 volunteers were included as the healthy control group. The plasma HO-1 levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the plasma levels of HO-1 in the acute group were compared before and after treatment. The plasma HO-1 levels were considerably increased in the acute (4.97 ± 3.55), subacute (4.98 ± 3.23), and chronic active groups (4.43 ± 3.00) with brucellosis compared to the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p < 0.01). In the acute group, the plasma HO-1 levels in the post-treatment group (2.33 ± 2.39) were significantly reduced compared to the pre-treatment group (4.97 ± 3.55) (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the plasma HO-1 levels were higher in the chronic active group (4.43 ± 3.00) than the chronic stable group (2.74 ± 2.23) (p < 0.05). However, the plasma HO-1 levels in the chronic stable group (2.74 ± 2.23) remained higher than the levels in the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p < 0.05). The HO-1 levels were positively correlated with the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with brucellosis (r = 0.707, p < 0.01). The plasma HO-1 levels can reflect patients' brucellosis status and may be used as a supplementary plasma marker for diagnosing brucellosis and monitoring its treatment.

  15. Genetic variants influencing elevated myeloperoxidase levels increase risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Phuah, Chia-Ling; Dave, Tushar; Malik, Rainer; Raffeld, Miriam R; Ayres, Alison M; Goldstein, Joshua N; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M; Jagiella, Jeremiasz M; Hansen, Björn M; Norrving, Bo; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Roquer, Jaume; Pichler, Alexander; Enzinger, Christian; Montaner, Joan; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Biffi, Alessandro; Rost, Natalia; Langefeld, Carl D; Markus, Hugh S; Mitchell, Braxton D; Worrall, Brad B; Kittner, Steven J; Woo, Daniel; Dichgans, Martin; Rosand, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher D

    2017-10-01

    Primary intracerebral haemorrhage and lacunar ischaemic stroke are acute manifestations of progressive cerebral microvascular disease. Current paradigms suggest atherosclerosis is a chronic, dynamic, inflammatory condition precipitated in response to endothelial injury from various environmental challenges. Myeloperoxidase plays a central role in initiation and progression of vascular inflammation, but prior studies linking myeloperoxidase with stroke risk have been inconclusive. We hypothesized that genetic determinants of myeloperoxidase levels influence the development of vascular instability, leading to increased primary intracerebral haemorrhage and lacunar stroke risk. We used a discovery cohort of 1409 primary intracerebral haemorrhage cases and 1624 controls from three studies, an extension cohort of 12 577 ischaemic stroke cases and 25 643 controls from NINDS-SiGN, and a validation cohort of 10 307 ischaemic stroke cases and 29 326 controls from METASTROKE Consortium with genome-wide genotyping to test this hypothesis. A genetic risk score reflecting elevated myeloperoxidase levels was constructed from 15 common single nucleotide polymorphisms identified from prior genome-wide studies of circulating myeloperoxidase levels (P < 5 × 10-6). This genetic risk score was used as the independent variable in multivariable regression models for association with primary intracerebral haemorrhage and ischaemic stroke subtypes. We used fixed effects meta-analyses to pool estimates across studies. We also used Cox regression models in a prospective cohort of 174 primary intracerebral haemorrhage survivors for association with intracerebral haemorrhage recurrence. We present effects of myeloperoxidase elevating single nucleotide polymorphisms on stroke risk per risk allele, corresponding to a one allele increase in the myeloperoxidase increasing genetic risk score. Genetic determinants of elevated circulating myeloperoxidase levels were associated with both primary

  16. Increased plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Goktalay, Gokhan; Kayir, Hakan; Eker, Salih S; Sarandol, Asli; Oral, Sema; Buyukuysal, Levent; Ulusoy, Gokhan; Kirli, Selcuk

    2013-08-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous substance, synthesized from l-arginine, and it is proposed to be a new neurotransmitter. Preclinical studies indicated that agmatine may have an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study was organized to investigate plasma agmatine in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy individuals constituted the subjects. Agmatine levels in the plasma were measured using the HPLC method. The S100B protein level, which is a peripheral biomarker for brain damage, was also measured using the ELISA method. While plasma levels of agmatine in patients with schizophrenia were significantly increased (p < 0.0001) compared to those of healthy individuals (control), there were no significant changes in the levels of S100B protein (p = 0.660). An ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analysis revealed that measuring plasma agmatine levels as a clinical diagnostic test would significantly differentiate between patients with schizophrenia and those in the control group (predictive value: 0.969; p < 0.0001). The predictive value of S100B measurements was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). A multiple regression analysis revealed that the age of the patient and the severity of the illness, as indicated by the PANSS score, significantly contributed the plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia. These results support the hypothesis that an excess agmatine release is important in the development of schizophrenia. The findings also imply that the plasma agmatine level may be a potential biomarker of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute ethanol treatment increases level of progesterone in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Budec, Mirela; Koko, Vesna; Milovanović, Tatjana; Balint-Perić, Ljiljana; Petković, Aleksandra

    2002-04-01

    To determine whether an increased level of progesterone in adult female rats after acute ethanol treatment, described previously in our study, is the result of activation of adrenal glands, we analyzed adrenal cortex morphologically and measured serum levels of corticosterone and progesterone in ovariectomized rats. In addition, a possible involvement of the opioid system in an observed phenomenon was tested. Adult female Wistar rats were ovariectomized, and 3 weeks after surgery they were treated intraperitoneally with (a) ethanol (4 g/kg), (b) naltrexone (5 mg/kg), followed by ethanol (4 g/kg) 45 min later, and (c) naltrexone (5 mg/kg), followed by saline 45 min later. Untreated and saline-injected rats were used as controls. The animals were killed 0.5 h after ethanol administration. Morphometric analysis was carried out on paraffin sections of adrenal glands, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and the following parameters were determined: absolute volume of the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis; numerical density, volume, and the mean diameter of adrenocortical cells and of their nuclei; and mean diameter and length of capillaries. The results showed that acute ethanol treatment significantly increased absolute volume of the zona fasciculata and length of its capillaries but did not alter other stereological parameters. Also, serum levels of corticosterone and progesterone were enhanced. Pretreatment with naltrexone had no effect on ethanol-induced changes. These findings are consistent with our previous hypothesis that an ethanol-induced increase of the progesterone level in adult female rats originates from the adrenal cortex.

  18. Serum levels of osteopontin are increased in SIRS and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Rosanna; Nicola, Stefania; Olivieri, Carlo; Boggio, Elena; Piccolella, Fabio; Mesturini, Riccardo; Damnotti, Federica; Colombo, Davide; Navalesi, Paolo; Della Corte, Francesco; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2008-12-01

    In sepsis, dysregulation of the immune response leads to rapid multiorgan failure and death. Accurate and timely diagnosis is lifesaving and should discriminate sepsis from the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by non-infectious agents. Osteopontin acts as an extracellular matrix component or a soluble cytokine in inflamed tissues. Its exact role in immune response and sepsis remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of osteopontin in SIRS and sepsis. Prospective, observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Fifty-six patients with SIRS or sepsis and 56 healthy subjects were enrolled. We analyzed the serum levels of osteopontin and TH1-TH2 cytokines and investigated the role of osteopontin on interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes. Serum osteopontin levels were strikingly higher in patients than in controls and in sepsis than in SIRS, and decreased during the resolution of both the disorders. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that osteopontin levels have discriminative power between SIRS and sepsis with an area under the curve of 0.796. Osteopontin levels directly correlated with those of interleukin 6 and in vitro, recombinant osteopontin increased interleukin 6 secretion by monocytes in both the absence and presence of high doses of lipopolysaccharide. These data suggest that osteopontin might be a mediator involved in the pathogenesis of SIRS and sepsis, possibly by supporting interleukin 6 secretion. 45. SIRS/Sepsis: clinical studies.

  19. Increased endogenous DNA oxidation correlates to increased iron levels in melanocytes relative to keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Pelle, Edward; Huang, Xi; Zhang, Qi; Pernodet, Nadine; Yarosh, Daniel B; Frenkel, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous oxidative state of normal human epidermal melanocytes was investigated and compared to normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) in order to gain new insight into melanocyte biology. Previously, we showed that NHEKs contain higher levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than melanocytes and that it can migrate from NHEKs to melanocytes by passive permeation. Nevertheless, despite lower concentrations of H2O2, we now report higher levels of oxidative DNA in melanocytes as indicated by increased levels of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG): 4.49 (±0.55 SEM) 8-oxo-dG/10(6) dG compared to 1.49 (±0.11 SEM) 8-oxo-dG/10(6) dG for NHEKs. An antioxidant biomarker, glutathione (GSH), was also lower in melanocytes (3.14 nmoles (±0.15 SEM)/cell) in comparison to NHEKs (5.98 nmoles (±0.33 SEM)/cell). Intriguingly, cellular bioavailable iron as measured in ferritin was found to be nearly fourfold higher in melanocytes than in NHEKs. Further, ferritin levels in melanocytes were also higher than in hepatocarcinoma cells, an iron-rich cell, and it indicates that higher relative iron levels may be characteristic of melanocytes. To account for the increased oxidative DNA and lower GSH and H2O2 levels that we observe, we propose that iron may contribute to higher levels of oxidation by reacting with H2O2 through a Fenton reaction leading to the generation of DNA-reactive hydroxyl radicals. In conclusion, our data support the concept of elevated oxidation and high iron levels as normal parameters of melanocytic activity. We present new evidence that may contribute to our understanding of the melanogenic process and lead to the development of new skin care products.

  20. Increased levels of copeptin before clinical diagnosis of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Edwina H; Liu, Aiyi; Mills, James L; Zhang, Cuilin; Männistö, Tuija; Lu, Zhaohui; Tsai, Michael Y; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-12-01

    Copeptin, a surrogate biomarker of vasopressin, has been associated with renal function decline and may serve as a useful early biomarker for preeclampsia. We measured serum copeptin using samples collected longitudinally during pregnancy among unaffected controls (n=136) and cases of preeclampsia (n=169), gestational diabetes mellitus (n=92), gestational hypertension (n=101), and preterm birth (n=86) in the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention trial (1992-1995). Preeclampsia and gestational hypertension were defined as having a diastolic blood pressure≥90 mm Hg on 2 occasions with and without proteinuria, respectively. The risk of pregnancy complications associated with copeptin was estimated by logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, race, body mass index, insurance status, marital status, current smoking, and clinical site. Baseline copeptin levels, at mean 16 weeks of gestation, were associated with increased preeclampsia risk (adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence interval being 1.55 per log unit; 1.03-2.31) when compared with controls (P=0.03). The association was stronger among cases diagnosed before 37 weeks (1.86; 1.08-3.20) than those diagnosed later (1.45; 0.91-2.32). Copeptin levels rose with increasing gestational age in both cases and controls but remained significantly higher among those who were diagnosed with preeclampsia. Differences in levels of copeptin between cases and controls became more apparent closer to time of diagnosis. No significant associations were found for gestational hypertension without proteinuria, gestational diabetes mellitus, or preterm birth without preeclampsia. Copeptin levels are elevated in pregnant women before diagnosis of preeclampsia with elevation specific to this pregnancy complication rather than hypertension alone. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Plasma irisin levels progressively increase in response to increasing exercise workloads in young, healthy, active subjects.

    PubMed

    Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Cooke, Alexandra B; Gomez, Yessica-Haydee; Mutter, Andrew F; Filippaios, Andreas; Mesfum, Ertirea T; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2014-09-01

    Irisin, a recently discovered myokine, has been shown to induce browning of white adipose tissue, enhancing energy expenditure and mediating some of the beneficial effects of exercise. We aimed to estimate the time frame of changes in irisin levels after acute exercise and the effect of different exercise workloads and intensities on circulating irisin levels immediately post-exercise. In a pilot study, four healthy subjects (22.5±1.7 years) underwent maximal workload exercise (maximal oxygen consumption, VO2 max) and blood was drawn at prespecified intervals to define the time frame of pre- and post-exercise irisin changes over a 24-h period. In the main study, 35 healthy, non-smoking (23.0±3.3 years) men and women (n=20/15) underwent three exercise protocols ≥48-h apart, in random order: i) maximal workload (VO2 max); ii) relative workload (70% of VO2 max/10 min); and iii) absolute workload (75 W/10 min). Blood was drawn immediately pre-exercise and 3 min post-exercise. In the pilot study, irisin levels increased by 35% 3 min post-exercise, then dropped and remained relatively constant. In the main study, irisin levels post-exercise were significantly higher than those of pre-exercise after all workloads (all, P<0.001). Post-to-pre-exercise differences in irisin levels were significantly different between workloads (P=0.001), with the greatest increase by 34% following maximal workload (P=0.004 vs relative and absolute). Circulating irisin levels were acutely elevated in response to exercise, with a greater increase after maximal workload. These findings suggest that irisin release could be a function of muscle energy demand. Future studies need to determine the underlying mechanisms of irisin release and explore irisin's therapeutic potential. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  2. Transgenic cells with increased plastoquinone levels and methods of use

    SciT

    Sayre, Richard T.; Subramanian, Sowmya; Cahoon, Edgar

    Disclosed herein are transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a deoxyxylulose phosphate synthase (DXS) protein, or a combination of two or more thereof. In particular examples, the disclosed transgenic cells have increased plastoquinone levels. Also disclosed are methods of increasing cell growth rates or production of biomass by cultivating transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a PDH protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding an HST protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a DXS protein, ormore » a combination of two or more thereof under conditions sufficient to produce cell growth or biomass.« less

  3. E2F8 is essential for polyploidization in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Shusil K; Westendorp, Bart; Nantasanti, Sathidpak; van Liere, Elsbeth; Tooten, Peter C J; Cornelissen, Peter W A; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; Lamers, Wouter H; de Bruin, Alain

    2012-11-01

    Polyploidization is observed in all mammalian species and is a characteristic feature of hepatocytes, but its molecular mechanism and biological significance are unknown. Hepatocyte polyploidization in rodents occurs through incomplete cytokinesis, starts after weaning and increases with age. Here, we show in mice that atypical E2F8 is induced after weaning and required for hepatocyte binucleation and polyploidization. A deficiency in E2f8 led to an increase in the expression level of E2F target genes promoting cytokinesis and thereby preventing polyploidization. In contrast, loss of E2f1 enhanced polyploidization and suppressed the polyploidization defect of hepatocytes deficient for atypical E2Fs. In addition, E2F8 and E2F1 were found on the same subset of target promoters. Contrary to the long-standing hypothesis that polyploidization indicates terminal differentiation and senescence, we show that prevention of polyploidization through inactivation of atypical E2Fs has, surprisingly, no impact on liver differentiation, zonation, metabolism and regeneration. Together, these results identify E2F8 as a repressor and E2F1 as an activator of a transcriptional network controlling polyploidization in mammalian cells.

  4. Acute stress induces increases in salivary IL-10 levels.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Newton, Tamara L; Miller, James J; Lyle, Keith B; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines. Measurable IL-10 levels (above the minimum detectable concentration) were found in 96% of the baseline samples, and 98% of the post-stressor samples. Flow rate-adjusted salivary IL-10 levels as well as IL-1β/IL-10 ratios showed moderate but statistically significant increases in response to stress. Measurement of salivary IL-10 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios may be useful, noninvasive tools, in stress research.

  5. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase plasma irisin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Atici, Emine; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Menevse, Esma

    2017-11-28

    Background A recently discovered hormone, irisin is accepted to be significantly involved in the regulation of body weight. Thyroid functions may be, directly or indirectly, associated with irisin. Aim The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of experimental thyroid dysfunction on irisin levels in rats. Methods The study registered 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were allocated to groups as follows: 1. Control; 2. Hypothyroidism induced by injection of 10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal propylthiouracil (PTU) for 3 weeks; 3. Hypothyroidism (PTU 2 weeks) + L-thyroxin (1.5 mg/kg/day for 1 week); 4. Hyperthyroidism induced in rats by 3-week thyroxin (0.3 mg/kg/day); 5. Hyperthyroidism + PTU. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected to quantify free triiodothyronine (FT3), free triiodothyronine (FT4) and irisin levels. Results FT3 and FT4 levels were reduced in hypothyroidism and were significantly elevated in hyperthyroidism (p < 0.001). Irisin values, on the other hand, were found to be elevated in both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion The results of the study suggest that irisin values increase in thyroid dysfunction, hypo- and hyperthyroidism, and that when hypothyroidism is corrected by thyroxin administration and hyperthyroidism by PTU injection, plasma irisin values go back to normal.

  6. Ectopic High Expression of E2-EPF Ubiquitin Carrier Protein Indicates a More Unfavorable Prognosis in Brain Glioma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Fangbo; Zhang, Shujun; Song, Yichun

    2017-04-01

    Ubiquitination of proteins meant for elimination is a primary method of eukaryotic cellular protein degradation. The ubiquitin carrier protein E2-EPF is a key degradation enzyme that is highly expressed in many tumors. However, its expression and prognostic significance in brain glioma are still unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal how the level of E2-EPF relates to prognosis in brain glioma. Thirty low-grade and 30 high-grade brain glioma samples were divided into two tissue microarrays each. Levels of E2-EPF protein were examined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the level of E2-EPF in 60 glioma and 3 normal brain tissue samples. The relationship between E2-EPF levels and prognosis was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves. E2-EPF levels were low in normal brain tissue samples but high in glioma nuclei. E2-EPF levels gradually increased as glioma grade increased (p < 0.05). Ectopic E2-EPF levels in high-grade glioma were significantly higher than in low-grade glioma (p < 0.01). The 5-year survival rate of glioma patients with high E2-EPF levels was shorter than in patients with low expression (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the 5-year survival rate of patients with ectopic E2-EPF was significantly shorter than patients with only nuclear E2-EPF (p < 0.01). These results suggest that higher E2-EPF levels, especially ectopic, are associated with higher grade glioma and shorter survival. E2-EPF levels may play a key role in predicting the prognosis for patients with brain glioma.

  7. Increased leptin levels in preeclampsia: associations with BMI, estrogen and SHBG levels.

    PubMed

    Acromite, Michael; Ziotopoulou, Mary; Orlova, Christine; Mantzoros, Christos

    2004-01-01

    Leptin is secreted mainly by the white adipose tissue but is also synthesized in several non-adipose tissue organs including the placenta. Serum leptin levels are increased in normal pregnancies and are higher in preeclamptic than normal pregnant women. There is, however, a lack of empirical evidence of an independent association of serum leptin levels and preeclamsia. We have studied cross-sectionally 18 3rd trimester preeclamptic women, 28 3rd trimester and 30 2nd trimester control women to confirm the reported increase of serum leptin in preeclampsia and to assess whether elevated leptin levels in preeclampsia increase the variance explained by body mass index (BMI), androgens, estrogens and/or sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Anthropometric, demographic and hormonal data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression models. Leptin is significantly increased in preeclampsia by univariate analysis, but use of multivariate analysis indicates that the elevated leptin levels are not associated with preeclampsia independently from BMI, estrogens and SHBG. This study confirms that leptin levels are higher in women with preeclampsia than in controls and demonstrates that serum leptin levels do not add to the prediction of preeclampsia after accounting for BMI, estrogen and SHBG levels of preeclamptic women.

  8. Increased lead levels in pregnancy among immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Alba, Amanda; Carleton, Lindsay; Dinkel, Laura; Ruppe, Rebekah

    2012-01-01

    Antepartum lead screening typically involves identification of current environmental or occupational risk and pica habits. However, for foreign-born women who have immigrated to the United States, distant exposure years prior may be a more significant factor contributing to elevated lead levels. Because lead can be stored in bone for decades and mobilized to the blood when calcium needs increase in pregnancy, women and their children can be at risk for lead-related complications like anemia, gestational hypertension, preterm labor, low birth weight, and developmental delays without any identifiable current exposure. Midwives and other women's health clinicians must carefully evaluate the history of every woman under their care, individualizing screening and treatment to identify risk and provide timely intervention. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  9. [Severely increased serum lipid levels in diabetic ketoacidosis - case report].

    PubMed

    Stefansson, Hrafnkell; Sigvaldason, Kristinn; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Águsta

    2017-01-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a known, but uncommon complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. We discuss the case of a 23-year-old, previously healthy, woman who initially presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Grossly lipemic serum due to extremely high triglyceride (38.6 mmol/L) and cholesterol (23.2 mmol/L) levels were observed with a high blood glucose (23 mmol/L) and a low pH of 7.06 on a venous blood gas. She was treated successfully with fluids and insulin and had no sequale of pancreatitis or cerebral edema. Her triglycerides and cholesterol was normalized in three days and she was discharged home on insulin therapy after five days. Further history revealed a recent change in diet with no meat, fish or poultry consumption in the last 12 months and concomitantly an increase in carbohydrate intake which might have contributed to her extremely high serum lipid levels. This case demonstrates that clinicians should be mindful of the different presentations of diabetic ketoacidosis. Key words: diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, vegan diet, carbohydrate diet. Correspondence: Hrafnkell Stefansson, hrafnkell.stefans@gmail.com.

  10. Increased plasmatic soluble HLA-G levels in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Ben Yahia, Hamza; Babay, Wafa; Bortolotti, Daria; Boujelbene, Nadia; Laaribi, Ahmed Baligh; Zidi, Nour; Kehila, Mehdi; Chelbi, Hanène; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Mrad, Karima; Mezlini, Amel; Di Luca, Dario; Ouzari, Hadda-Imene; Rizzo, Roberta; Zidi, Inès

    2018-05-03

    Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) is known as an immune suppressive molecule; it interacts with several immune cells and inhibits their functions. HLA-G molecule is highly represented in pathological conditions including malignant transformation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that focuses on the expression of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in endometrial cancer (EC). We aimed at exploring sHLA-G plasma levels and its prognostic value in EC. We examined total sHLA-G expression as well as the sHLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression in plasma samples from 40 patients with EC and 45 healthy controls by a specific sandwich ELISA. Immunoprecipitation and Coomassie blue staining were performed to explore the presence of plasmatic sHLA-G monomers and dimers. sHLA-G plasma level was significantly enhanced in patients with EC compared to healthy controls (p = 0.028). Additionally, HLA-G5 molecules were highly represented than sHLA-G1 molecules in EC, at the borderline of significance (p = 0.061). Interestingly, sHLA-G has been shown to be increased in early stages (Stages I and II) as well as in high grade EC (Grade 3) that is associated with rapid spread of the disease (p = 0.057). sHLA-G positive EC plasma were majorly in monomeric form (75%). Clinically, all the HLA-G dimers were detected in early stages and in high grade of EC. Our data strengthen the implication of HLA-G molecules in EC etiology and especially in progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    and Homeland Defense. As a part of the E-2D AHE radar modernization effort, the Navy also invested in integrating a full glass cockpit and full...Communication Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management capability. The glass cockpit will also provide the capability for the pilot or co-pilot to...hours at a station distance of 200nm Flat Turn Service Ceiling =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission profile =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission

  12. Increased Ghrelin Levels and Unchanged Adipocytokine Levels in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tunçel, Özgür Korhan; Akbaş, Seher; Bilgici, Birşen

    2016-10-01

    One of the hypotheses of the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) proposes that there is a relationship between adipocytokine and ghrelin levels and depression. Patients with major depression with a BMI ≤25 kg/m 2 between the ages of 11 and 18 years (n = 30) were compared with a healthy control group (n = 30). Both groups were evaluated across a pretreatment period (MD-PT) and an improved period (MD-I). We measured serum leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin levels and other parameters related to metabolic syndrome, such as glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TCHOL). Leptin, adiponectin, and resistin levels did not differ across groups; however, ghrelin levels were increased in the MD-I group compared with the control and MD-PT groups (p < 0.05). HOMA levels were also higher in the MD-PT group than in the control group (p < 0.05). After treatment, there was no difference in this measurement. The relationship between adipocytokines and major depression may be dependent on ghrelin levels as a result of antidepressant treatment and subsequent obesity.

  13. FABP4 plasma levels are increased in familial combined hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Cabré, Anna; Lázaro, Iolanda; Cofán, Montserrat; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Plana, Núria; Garcia-Otín, Angel L.; Ascaso, Juan F.; Ferré, Raimón; Civeira, Fernando; Ros, Emilio; Masana, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    The lipid profile of familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) shares some characteristics with atherogenic dyslipidemia seen in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) appears to be a determinant of atherogenic dyslipidemia. We examined relationships between FABP4 plasma concentrations, dyslipidemia, and metabolic variables in patients with FCHL. We studied 273 unrelated FCHL patients and 118 control subjects. FABP4 was higher in FCHL than controls, with mean levels of 21.8 (10.1) μg/l and 19.2 (9.2) μg/l, respectively (adjusted P= 0.012). In FCHL, FABP4 correlated to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (all P< 0.05), but not to lipid levels, whereas in obese patients, FABP4 correlated to triglyceride levels (r = 0.303, P= 0.014) and very low density lipoprotein size (r = 0.502, P = 0.001), as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Associations of FABP4 with BMI and waist circumference, but not with insulin levels, persisted in this subgroup. Plasma FABP4 does not influence the lipid phenotype of FCHL. In a small subgroup of obese FCHL, FABP4 levels were associated with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independent of insulin resistance. These results support a hyperlipidemic mechanism of FCHL different from similar metabolic conditions where fat mass is strongly related to FABP4 and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:20388924

  14. FABP4 plasma levels are increased in familial combined hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Cabré, Anna; Lázaro, Iolanda; Cofán, Montserrat; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Plana, Núria; Garcia-Otín, Angel L; Ascaso, Juan F; Ferré, Raimón; Civeira, Fernando; Ros, Emilio; Masana, Lluís

    2010-05-01

    The lipid profile of familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) shares some characteristics with atherogenic dyslipidemia seen in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) appears to be a determinant of atherogenic dyslipidemia. We examined relationships between FABP4 plasma concentrations, dyslipidemia, and metabolic variables in patients with FCHL. We studied 273 unrelated FCHL patients and 118 control subjects. FABP4 was higher in FCHL than controls, with mean levels of 21.8 (10.1) microg/l and 19.2 (9.2) microg/l, respectively (adjusted P= 0.012). In FCHL, FABP4 correlated to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (all P< 0.05), but not to lipid levels, whereas in obese patients, FABP4 correlated to triglyceride levels (r = 0.303, P= 0.014) and very low density lipoprotein size (r = 0.502, P = 0.001), as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Associations of FABP4 with BMI and waist circumference, but not with insulin levels, persisted in this subgroup. Plasma FABP4 does not influence the lipid phenotype of FCHL. In a small subgroup of obese FCHL, FABP4 levels were associated with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independent of insulin resistance. These results support a hyperlipidemic mechanism of FCHL different from similar metabolic conditions where fat mass is strongly related to FABP4 and hypertriglyceridemia.

  15. Increased serum procalcitonin levels in pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Filiz; Akdemir, Nermin; Ozden, Selcuk; Cevrioglu, A Serhan; Bilir, Cemil

    2013-09-05

    Among the pregnancy urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the most common one. Untreated ASB can progress to pyelonephritis in 30-50% of the patients and can also result in prematurity in 27% of the pregnancy so it needs immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we wanted to evaluate procalcitonin levels, compared to other inflammatory in pregnant women with ASB. The study was designed between the period of January 2012 and February 2013 at Sakarya University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study population included 30 pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria and 39 healthy pregnant controls. Mean age was 28 (SD, 5.5) of the study population; mean maternal weight was 70 (SD, 8) kilogram. There were no statically significant differences between the groups according to the routine biochemical parameters, but gestational age was significantly lower in the ASB group compared to the controls (20.4 vs 28.6, respectively; p < 0.001). Serum procalcitonin levels were negative in all of the controls. In ASB group, 9 (30%) patients had procalcitonin levels greater than >0.05 ng/ml and 21(70%) patients had negative procalcitonin levels (Chi-squrae, p < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin assay for ASB was calculated as 30% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 65%. The most frequent microorganisms in the urine culture were Escherichia coli (26 patients, 87%), Proteus mirabilis (3 patients, 10%) and Klebsiella (1 patient, 3%) in the ASB group. We experienced four (44%) recurrences among nine positive procalcitonin in ASB patients after completion of treatment of the first ASB diagnosis. Procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in ASB group than the control group and serum procalcitonin levels were higher in pregnant women with recurrent ASB. This finding is an important result revealed that high procalcitonin level can

  16. Increased serum procalcitonin levels in pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among the pregnancy urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the most common one. Untreated ASB can progress to pyelonephritis in 30-50% of the patients and can also result in prematurity in 27% of the pregnancy so it needs immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we wanted to evaluate procalcitonin levels, compared to other inflammatory in pregnant women with ASB. Methods The study was designed between the period of January 2012 and February 2013 at Sakarya University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study population included 30 pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria and 39 healthy pregnant controls. Results Mean age was 28 (SD, 5.5) of the study population; mean maternal weight was 70 (SD, 8) kilogram. There were no statically significant differences between the groups according to the routine biochemical parameters, but gestational age was significantly lower in the ASB group compared to the controls (20.4 vs 28.6, respectively; p < 0.001). Serum procalcitonin levels were negative in all of the controls. In ASB group, 9 (30%) patients had procalcitonin levels greater than >0.05 ng/ml and 21(70%) patients had negative procalcitonin levels (Chi-squrae, p < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin assay for ASB was calculated as 30% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 65%. The most frequent microorganisms in the urine culture were Escherichia coli (26 patients, 87%), Proteus mirabilis (3 patients, 10%) and Klebsiella (1 patient, 3%) in the ASB group. We experienced four (44%) recurrences among nine positive procalcitonin in ASB patients after completion of treatment of the first ASB diagnosis. Discussion Procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in ASB group than the control group and serum procalcitonin levels were higher in pregnant women with recurrent ASB. This finding is an important

  17. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Tomie, Arthur; Silberman, Yuval; Williams, Kayon; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-06-01

    Pavlovian autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs) are complex sequences of conditioned stimulus (CS)-directed skeletal-motor responses that are elicited by CS objects predictive of food unconditioned stimulus (US). Autoshaping CRs are observed under conditions known to be conducive to elevations in plasma corticosterone levels, as, for example, in response to the eating of food as well as in response to signals predictive of food. Two experiments investigated the relationships between Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, the performance of Pavlovian autoshaping CRs, and plasma corticosterone levels in male Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, rats in the CS-US paired group (n=30) were given 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian autoshaping training wherein the insertion of a retractable lever CS was followed by the response-independent presentation of the food US. Tail blood samples obtained after the 20th autoshaping session revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group than in the CS-US random control group (n=10). In Experiment 2, rats (n=35) were assessed for basal plasma corticosterone levels 2 weeks prior to autoshaping training. Plasma samples obtained immediately following the first autoshaping session, and prior to the acquisition of lever-press autoshaping CR performance, revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group (n=24) relative to basal levels. This effect was not observed in the CS-US random control group (n=11). Data suggest that corticosterone release is a physiological endocrine Pavlovian CR induced by lever CS-food US pairings during Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, rather than a by-product of autoshaping CR performance. Implications of the link between autoshaping procedures and corticosterone release are discussed.

  19. Breath Methane Levels Are Increased Among Patients with Diverticulosis.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Cemal; Arslan, Deniz Cagil; Abraham, Rana; Cushing, Kelly; Keshavarzian, Ali; Mutlu, Ece A

    2016-09-01

    Diverticulosis and its complications are important healthcare problems in the USA and throughout the Western world. While mechanisms as to how diverticulosis occurs have partially been explored, few studies examined the relationship between colonic gases such as methane and diverticulosis in humans. This study aimed to demonstrate a significant relationship between methanogenic Archaea and development of diverticulosis. Subjects who consecutively underwent hydrogen breath test at Rush University Medical Center between 2003 and 2010 were identified retrospectively through a database. Medical records were reviewed for presence of a colonoscopy report. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects were identified who had both a breath methane level measurement and a colonoscopy result. Additional demographic and clinical data were obtained with chart review. Mean breath methane levels were higher in subjects with diverticulosis compared to those without diverticulosis (7.89 vs. 4.94 ppm, p = 0.04). Methane producers (defined as those with baseline fasting breath methane level >5 ppm) were more frequent among subjects with diverticulosis compared to those without diverticulosis (50.9 vs. 34 %, p = 0.0025). When adjusted for confounders, breath methane levels and age were the two independent predictors of diverticulosis on colonoscopy with logistic regression modeling. Methanogenesis is associated with the presence of diverticulosis. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and prospectively evaluate a possible etiological role of methanogenesis and methanogenic archaea in diverticulosis.

  20. Increasing the technical level of mining haul trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, Yuri; Voronov, Artyom; Grishin, Sergey; Bujankin, Alexey

    2017-11-01

    Theoretical and methodological fundamentals of mining haul trucks optimal design are articulated. Methods based on the systems approach to integrated assessment of truck technical level and methods for optimization of truck parameters depending on performance standards are provided. The results of using these methods are given. The developed method allows not only assessing the truck technical levels but also choosing the most promising models and providing quantitative evaluations of the decisions to be made at the design stage. These areas are closely connected with the problem of improvement in the industrial output quality, which, being a part of the widely spread in Western world "total quality control" ideology, is one of the major issues for the Russian economy.

  1. The Need to Increase or Maintain Enrollment at Current Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, David W.

    1987-01-01

    A serious decline in the optometry schools' applicant pool argues forcefully for increased and aggressive student recruitment, particularly of black, Hispanic, and native Americans, who are underrepresented in the profession. Financial aid and financial management assistance for these groups are also needed. (MSE)

  2. Role of Increased n-acetylaspartate Levels in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Behrouz; Previs, Rebecca A.; Zacharias, Niki M.; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Mitamura, Takashi; Nagaraja, Archana Sidalaghatta; Guindani, Michele; Dalton, Heather J.; Yang, Lifeng; Baddour, Joelle; Achreja, Abhinav; Hu, Wei; Pecot, Chad V.; Ivan, Cristina; Wu, Sherry Y.; McCullough, Christopher R.; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Shoshan, Einav; Pradeep, Sunila; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Wang, Ying; Nick, Alpa M.; Davies, Michael A.; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo; Liu, Jinsong; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Baggerly, Keith A.; Eli, Menashe Bar; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Nagrath, Deepak; Bhattacharya, Pratip K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The clinical and biological effects of metabolic alterations in cancer are not fully understood. Methods: In high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) samples (n = 101), over 170 metabolites were profiled and compared with normal ovarian tissues (n = 15). To determine NAT8L gene expression across different cancer types, we analyzed the RNA expression of cancer types using RNASeqV2 data available from the open access The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) website (http://www.cbioportal.org/public-portal/). Using NAT8L siRNA, molecular techniques and histological analysis, we determined cancer cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor growth in in vitro and in vivo (n = 6–10 mice/group) settings. Data were analyzed with the Student’s t test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Patients with high levels of tumoral NAA and its biosynthetic enzyme, aspartate N-acetyltransferase (NAT8L), had worse overall survival than patients with low levels of NAA and NAT8L. The overall survival duration of patients with higher-than-median NAA levels (3.6 years) was lower than that of patients with lower-than-median NAA levels (5.1 years, P = .03). High NAT8L gene expression in other cancers (melanoma, renal cell, breast, colon, and uterine cancers) was associated with worse overall survival. NAT8L silencing reduced cancer cell viability (HEYA8: control siRNA 90.61%±2.53, NAT8L siRNA 39.43%±3.00, P < .001; A2780: control siRNA 90.59%±2.53, NAT8L siRNA 7.44%±1.71, P < .001) and proliferation (HEYA8: control siRNA 74.83%±0.92, NAT8L siRNA 55.70%±1.54, P < .001; A2780: control siRNA 50.17%±4.13, NAT8L siRNA 26.52%±3.70, P < .001), which was rescued by addition of NAA. In orthotopic mouse models (ovarian cancer and melanoma), NAT8L silencing reduced tumor growth statistically significantly (A2780: control siRNA 0.52 g±0.15, NAT8L siRNA 0.08 g±0.17, P < .001; HEYA8: control siRNA 0.79 g±0.42, NAT8L siRNA 0.24 g±0.18, P = .008, A

  3. Does Morphological Adjustment During Tsunami Inundation Increase Levels of Hazard?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehranirad, B.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Shi, F.; Grilli, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    Previous inundation mapping results for the US East Coast have shown that barrier islands would be among the most impacted areas during a possible tsunami. Many of these barriers are home to large population centers such as Atlantic City, NJ and Ocean City, MD. A tsunami can significantly change coastal morphology. Post-tsunami surveys have shown that large amounts of sediment can be moved in bays and estuaries by tsunami action, especially over coastal dunes. During tsunami inundation, large amounts of sediment have been eroded from sandy coasts and deposited further onshore. In some cases, sand dunes have been completely eroded by a tsunami, with the eroded sediment being deposited either onshore behind the dunes, or offshore during the rundown process. Given the potential for tsunamis to change coastal morphology, it is necessary to consider whether barrier island morphology change during inundation, if accounted for, would increase the assessment of tsunami hazard identified in the development of inundation and evacuation maps. In this presentation, we will show the results of our recent study on the morphological response of barrier islands during possible tsunamis that threaten the US East Coast. For this purpose, we have coupled the Boussinesq model FUNWAVE-TVD with a depth-averaged advection-diffusion sediment transport model and a morphology module to capture bed evolution under tsunami conditions. The model is verified in comparison to laboratory observations and to observed erosion/deposition patterns in Crescent City, CA harbor during the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. We then use the model to study the effect of morphology change on predicted inundation limits for two barrier islands: the undeveloped Assateague Island, and the developed Ocean City, MD, using the tsunami sources utilized in previous hazard analysis. Our results suggest that significant bathymetric changes could be expected on a barrier island during tsunami inundation, leading to large

  4. Diabetes and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in E2F1/E2F2 double-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Ainhoa; Murga, Matilde; Laresgoiti, Usua; Skoudy, Anouchka; Bernales, Irantzu; Fullaondo, Asier; Moreno, Bernardino; Lloreta, José; Field, Seth J; Real, Francisco X; Zubiaga, Ana M

    2004-05-01

    E2F transcription factors are thought to be key regulators of cell growth control. Here we use mutant mouse strains to investigate the function of E2F1 and E2F2 in vivo. E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant mice develop nonautoimmune insulin-deficient diabetes and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction characterized by endocrine and exocrine cell dysplasia, a reduction in the number and size of acini and islets, and their replacement by ductal structures and adipose tissue. Mutant pancreatic cells exhibit increased rates of DNA replication but also of apoptosis, resulting in severe pancreatic atrophy. The expression of genes involved in DNA replication and cell cycle control was upregulated in the E2F1/E2F2 compound-mutant pancreas, suggesting that their expression is repressed by E2F1/E2F2 activities and that the inappropriate cell cycle found in the mutant pancreas is likely the result of the deregulated expression of these genes. Interestingly, the expression of ductal cell and adipocyte differentiation marker genes was also upregulated, whereas expression of pancreatic cell marker genes were downregulated. These results suggest that E2F1/E2F2 activity negatively controls growth of mature pancreatic cells and is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated pancreatic phenotypes in the adult.

  5. Positive and negative regulation of V(D)J recombination by the E2A proteins.

    PubMed

    Bain, G; Romanow, W J; Albers, K; Havran, W L; Murre, C

    1999-01-18

    A key feature of B and T lymphocyte development is the generation of antigen receptors through the rearrangement and assembly of the germline variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments. However, the mechanisms responsible for regulating developmentally ordered gene rearrangements are largely unknown. Here we show that the E2A gene products are essential for the proper coordinated temporal regulation of V(D)J rearrangements within the T cell receptor (TCR) gamma and delta loci. Specifically, we show that E2A is required during adult thymocyte development to inhibit rearrangements to the gamma and delta V regions that normally recombine almost exclusively during fetal thymocyte development. The continued rearrangement of the fetal Vgamma3 gene segment in E2A-deficient adult thymocytes correlates with increased levels of Vgamma3 germline transcripts and increased levels of double-stranded DNA breaks at the recombination signal sequence bordering Vgamma3. Additionally, rearrangements to a number of Vgamma and Vdelta gene segments used predominantly during adult development are significantly reduced in E2A-deficient thymocytes. Interestingly, at distinct stages of T lineage development, both the increased and decreased rearrangement of particular Vdelta gene segments is highly sensitive to the dosage of the E2A gene products, suggesting that the concentration of the E2A proteins is rate limiting for the recombination reaction involving these Vdelta regions.

  6. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-EPF is overexpressed in cervical cancer and associates with tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Nishi, Hirotaka; Bian, Mei-Lu; Higuma, Chinatsu; Sasaki, Toru; Ito, Hiroe; Isaka, Keiichi

    2012-10-01

    We found that the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-EPF mRNA is highly expressed in cervical squamous cancer relative to normal tissues and its expression levels positively correlate with clinical stage. Reduction of E2-EPF protein levels by >80% using shRNA decreases the expression levels of HIF-1α, and the proliferation, invasion and tumorigenicity of SiHa, a cervical squamous cancer cell line. E2-EPF knockdown also increases the chemosensitivity to topoisomerase I inhibitor (topotecan) and II (etoposide and doxorubicin). Our results suggest that E2-EPF is associated with the growth and aggressivity of cervical tumor cells. Targeting the E2-EPF pathway may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  7. The association of GSK3 beta with E2F1 facilitates nerve growth factor-induced neural cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fangfang; Zhang, Long; Wang, Aijun; Song, Bo; Gong, Kai; Zhang, Lihai; Hu, Min; Zhang, Xiufang; Zhao, Nanming; Gong, Yandao

    2008-05-23

    It is widely acknowledged that E2F1 and GSK3beta are both involved in the process of cell differentiation. However, the relationship between E2F1 and GSK3beta in cell differentiation has yet to be discovered. Here, we provide evidence that in the differentiation of PC12 cells induced by nerve growth factor (NGF), GSK3beta was increased at both the mRNA and protein levels, whereas E2F1 at these two levels was decreased. Both wild-type GSK3beta and its kinase-defective mutant GSK3beta KM can inhibit E2F1 by promoting its ubiquitination through physical interaction. In addition, the colocalization of GSK3beta and E2F1 and their subcellular distribution, regulated by NGF, were observed in the process of PC12 differentiation. At the tissue level, GSK3beta colocalized and interacted with E2F1 in mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, GSK3beta facilitated neurite outgrowth by rescuing the promoter activities of Cdk inhibitors p21 and p15 from the inhibition caused by E2F1. To summarize, our findings suggest that GSK3beta can promote the ubiquitination of E2F1 via physical interaction and thus inhibit its transcription activity in a kinase activity independent manner, which plays an important role in the NGF-induced PC12 differentiation.

  8. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  9. The effects of periodontal therapy on intracrevicular prostaglandin E2 concentrations and clinical parameters in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Funda; Basegmez, Cansu; Isik, Gulden; Berber, Lacin; Eskinazi, Esti; Soydinc, Mahtaban; Issever, Halim; Onan, Utku

    2002-02-01

    The increase in circulating levels of progesterone during pregnancy stimulates production of prostaglandins, especially prostaglandin E2, possibly resulting in pregnancy gingivitis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of prostaglandin E2 concentrations on gingival tissues in pregnancy and to assess its relationship to clinical parameters. This study evaluates the effects of periodontal treatment on clinical indices including plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 levels of 22 pregnant women in their first, second, and third trimesters. Initial periodontal therapy consisting of scaling, root planing, and oral hygiene instruction was performed at the beginning of the first trimester and repeated each trimester. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid were determined using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit. The statistical tests used were paired sample test and correlation analysis. The results of the study show that periodontal therapy has resulted in an improvement in clinical parameters (P<0.05). There is also a statistically significant decrease in levels of prostaglandin E2 at the second and third trimesters following periodontal therapy (P <0.001). The correlation between prostaglandin E2 concentrations and clinical parameters is found to be non-significant (P >0.05). Our data indicate that levels of prostaglandin E2 in gingival crevicular fluid may be used as a marker of gingival inflammation in order to determine the effects of periodontal therapy in pregnancy. Periodontal therapy that is performed throughout the entire pregnancy period may help prevent the threat of pregnancy gingivitis.

  10. Salivary Prostaglandin E2: Role in Tick-Induced Allergy to Red Meat.

    PubMed

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Chmelař, Jindrǐch; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2017-07-01

    Tick-induced allergy to red meat is associated with anti-α-Gal IgE antibody levels. We propose that tick salivary prostaglandin E2 triggers antibody class switching in mature B cells, increasing the levels of anti-α-Gal IgE antibodies. Immune tolerance to α-Gal in blood type B individuals might reduce the risk to this allergy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 5 CFR 531.504 - Level of performance required for quality step increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... step increase. 531.504 Section 531.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Quality Step Increases § 531.504 Level of performance required for quality step increase. A quality step increase shall not be required but may be granted only...

  12. Elicitation of strong immune responses by a DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 in murine and porcine animal models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Ping; Kang, Hye Na; Babiuk, Lorne A; Liu, Qiang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the immunogenicity of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 DNA vaccine alone or with a protein vaccine boost in murine and porcine animal models. METHODS: A DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of HCV E2 protein was constructed and used to vaccinate mice and piglets with or without boosting with a recombinant E2 protein vaccine formulated with CpG ODN and 10% Emulsigen. The immunogenicity of HCV E2 vaccines was analyzed by ELISA for antibody responses, MTT assay for lymphocyte proliferation, ELISPOT for the number of interferon-γ secreting cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte assays. RESULTS: Intradermal injection of E2 DNA vaccine induced strong Th1-like immune responses in mice. In piglets, E2 DNA vaccine elicited moderate and more balanced immune responses. A DNA vaccine prime and protein boost vaccination strategy induced significantly higher E2-specific antibody levels and shifted the immune response towards Th2-like ones in piglets. CONCLUSION: A DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of HCV E2 protein elicited E2-specific immune responses in mice and piglets. Recombinant E2 protein vaccination following DNA immunization significantly increased the antibody response in piglets. These HCV E2 vaccines may represent promising hepatitis C vaccine candidates for further investigations. PMID:17131474

  13. Modulation of E2F activity in primary mouse B cells following stimulation via surface IgM and CD40 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lam, E W; Glassford, J; van der Sman, J; Banerji, L; Pizzey, A R; Shaun, N; Thomas, B; Klaus, G G

    1999-10-01

    Since signals via CD40 and the B cell receptor are known to synergize to induce B cell activation, we have analyzed the pocket protein/E2F complexes in mouse B lymphocytes following stimulation by anti-IgM, anti-CD40, alone or together. We find that E2F4 and DP1 form the predominant E2F heterodimers in the G0 and G1 phases of the cell cycle, complexed with hypophosphorylated p130. During late G1 and S phase this complex is replaced by at least three different E2F complexes, one of which is an E2F complex containing p107 or pRB as well as two "free" E2F complexes consisting of E2F4/DP1 and E2F1-3/DP1. These effects were mirrored by the levels and phosphorylation status of the three pocket proteins. We also observed an increase in electrophoretic mobility of DP1 and E2F4 as B cells progressed from G0 into early G1, resulting from their dephosphorylation. This is known to correlate with a decrease in DNA binding capacity of these proteins and could also be important for derepression of genes negatively regulated through E2F sites in their promoters. These results therefore indicate that the pRB/E2F pathway integrates proliferative signals emanating from the sIgM and CD40 receptors.

  14. Cold acclimation increases levels of some heat shock protein and sirtuin isoforms in threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Teigen, Laura E; Orczewska, Julieanna I; McLaughlin, Jessica; O'Brien, Kristin M

    2015-10-01

    Molecular chaperones [heat shock proteins (HSPs)] increase in response to rapid changes in temperatures, but long-term acclimation to cold temperature may also warrant elevations in HSPs. In fishes, cold acclimation increases mitochondrial density and oxidative stress in some tissues, which may increase demand for HSPs. We hypothesized that levels of HSPs, as well as sirtuins (SIRTs), NAD-dependent deacetylases that mediate changes in metabolism and responses to oxidative stress (including increases in HSPs), would increase during cold acclimation of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Transcript levels of hsp70, hsc70, hsp60 and hsp90-α, sirts1-4, as well as protein levels of HSP60, HSP90 and HSC70 were quantified in liver and pectoral adductor muscle of stickleback during cold acclimation from 20 °C to 8 °C. In liver, cold acclimation stimulated a transient increase in mRNA levels of hsp60 and hsc70. Transcript levels of sirt1 and sirt2 also increased in response to cold acclimation and remained elevated. In pectoral muscle, mRNA levels of hsp60, hsp90-α, hsc70 and sirt1 all transiently increased in response to cold acclimation, while levels of sirts2-4 remained constant or declined. Similar to transcript levels, protein levels of HSC70 increased in both liver and pectoral muscle. Levels of HSP90 also increased in liver after 4 weeks at 8 °C. HSP60 remained unchanged in both tissues, as did HSP90 in pectoral muscle. Our results indicate that while both HSPs and SIRTs increase in response to cold acclimation in stickleback, the response is tissue and isoform specific, likely reflecting differences in metabolism and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Glycine facilitates gamma-glutamylcysteinylethyl ester-mediated increase in liver glutathione level.

    PubMed

    Nishida, K; Ohta, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1997-08-27

    gamma-Glutamylcysteinylethyl ester (gamma-GCE) increases reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in GSH-depleted rat hepatocytes. Because glycine, a constituent of GSH, exists at 0.3 to 0.4 mM in rat plasma, we examined the influence of glycine added to the medium on the action of gamma-GCE to increase GSH levels in the rat hepatocytes. Glycine (0.2-0.8 mM) dose-dependently enhanced gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels with an increase in intracellular gamma-GCE levels. These results indicate that exogenous glycine facilitates gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels in rat hepatocytes possibly by enhancing the uptake of gamma-GCE into the cells.

  16. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Megumi; Hiramitsu, Shinya; Omori, Akina; Tanaka, Marenao; Moniwa, Norihito; Yoshida, Hideaki; Ishii, Junnichi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2) is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level. Canagliflozin (100 mg/day) was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39) for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment. At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008), though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7%) out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044), HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044) and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041) but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables. Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2. UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151.

  17. Increased Levels of Txa₂ Induced by Dengue Virus Infection in IgM Positive Individuals Is Related to the Mild Symptoms of Dengue.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Eneida S; Colombarolli, Stella G; Nascimento, Camila S; Batista, Izabella C A; Ferreira, Jorge G G; Alvarenga, Daniele L R; de Sousa, Laís O B; Assis, Rafael R; Rocha, Marcele N; Alves, Érica A R; Calzavara-Silva, Carlos E

    2018-02-28

    The inflammatory process plays a major role in the prognosis of dengue. In this context, the eicosanoids may have considerable influence on the regulation of the Dengue virus -induced inflammatory process. To quantify the molecules involved in the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways during Dengue virus infection, plasma levels of thromboxane A2, prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4; mRNA levels of thromboxane A2 synthase, prostaglandin E2 synthase, leukotriene A4 hydrolase, cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase; and the levels of lipid bodies in peripheral blood leukocytes collected from IgM-positive and IgM-negative volunteers with mild dengue, and non-infected volunteers, were evaluated. Dengue virus infection increases the levels of thromboxane A2 in IgM-positive individuals as well as the amount of lipid bodies in monocytes in IgM-negative individuals. We suggest that increased levels of thromboxane A2 in IgM-positive individuals plays a protective role against the development of severe symptoms of dengue, such as vascular leakage.

  18. Increased Levels of Txa2 Induced by Dengue Virus Infection in IgM Positive Individuals Is Related to the Mild Symptoms of Dengue

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Eneida S.; Colombarolli, Stella G.; Nascimento, Camila S.; Batista, Izabella C. A.; Ferreira, Jorge G. G.; Alvarenga, Daniele L. R.; de Sousa, Laís O. B.; Assis, Rafael R.; Rocha, Marcele N.; Alves, Érica A. R.; Calzavara-Silva, Carlos E.

    2018-01-01

    The inflammatory process plays a major role in the prognosis of dengue. In this context, the eicosanoids may have considerable influence on the regulation of the Dengue virus-induced inflammatory process. To quantify the molecules involved in the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways during Dengue virus infection, plasma levels of thromboxane A2, prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4; mRNA levels of thromboxane A2 synthase, prostaglandin E2 synthase, leukotriene A4 hydrolase, cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase; and the levels of lipid bodies in peripheral blood leukocytes collected from IgM-positive and IgM-negative volunteers with mild dengue, and non-infected volunteers, were evaluated. Dengue virus infection increases the levels of thromboxane A2 in IgM-positive individuals as well as the amount of lipid bodies in monocytes in IgM-negative individuals. We suggest that increased levels of thromboxane A2 in IgM-positive individuals plays a protective role against the development of severe symptoms of dengue, such as vascular leakage. PMID:29495587

  19. Multidecadal Weakening of Indian Summer Monsoon Circulation Induces an Increasing Northern Indian Ocean Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swapna, P.; Jyoti, J.; Krishnan, R.; Sandeep, N.; Griffies, S. M.

    2017-10-01

    North Indian Ocean sea level has shown significant increase during last three to four decades. Analyses of long-term climate data sets and ocean model sensitivity experiments identify a mechanism for multidecadal sea level variability relative to global mean. Our results indicate that North Indian Ocean sea level rise is accompanied by a weakening summer monsoon circulation. Given that Indian Ocean meridional heat transport is primarily regulated by the annual cycle of monsoon winds, weakening of summer monsoon circulation has resulted in reduced upwelling off Arabia and Somalia and decreased southward heat transport, and corresponding increase of heat storage in the North Indian Ocean. These changes in turn lead to increased retention of heat and increased thermosteric sea level rise in the North Indian Ocean, especially in the Arabian Sea. These findings imply that rising North Indian Ocean sea level due to weakening of monsoon circulation demands adaptive strategies to enable a resilient South Asian population.

  20. Influence of fatigue time and level on increases in postural sway.

    PubMed

    Pline, Kevin M; Madigan, Michael L; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatigue time and fatigue level on the increases in postural sway during quiet standing. Centre of pressure-based measures of postural sway were collected both before and after fatiguing participants using three different fatigue levels and two different fatigue times. Results showed increasing fatigue time increased sway velocity and sway area, and increasing fatigue level increased sway velocity. Fatigue time effects are important to consider when applying laboratory-based findings to the field given that the fatigue time can differ substantially between the two. Fatigue level effects imply a dose - response relationship between localized muscle fatigue and risk of falling that can have important implications in work/rest cycle scheduling for occupations at risk of injurious falls.

  1. Increased levels of circulating microparticles are associated with increased procoagulant activity in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Laresche, Claire; Pelletier, Fabien; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Lihoreau, Thomas; Biichlé, Sabeha; Mourey, Guillaume; Saas, Philippe; Humbert, Philippe; Seilles, Estelle; Aubin, François

    2014-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are known to be increased in various malignancies and are involved in tumor invasion, angiogenesis, coagulation, and metastasis. We investigated the plasma levels of annexin-V MPs (AV(+)MPs), platelet-derived MPs (PMPs), and endothelial-derived MPs (EMPs) in patients with melanoma (n=129) and in healthy controls (n=49). A functional coagulation test STA Procoag-PPL measuring the clotting time was performed on samples containing MPs to evaluate their procoagulant potential. The plasma levels of PMPs, EMPs, and AV(+)MPs were significantly higher, and the clotting time-PPL was significantly lower in melanoma patients than in healthy controls. The plasma levels of PMPs, EMPs, and AV(+)MPs were higher in stage IV than in the other stages of melanoma, but with no significant difference. In addition, we observed an inverse correlation between PMPs, AV(+)MPs, and clotting times. Our data suggest that MPs are involved in the progression of melanoma and may be associated to melanoma-associated thrombogenesis.

  2. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme E2-EPF Is Overexpressed in Primary Breast Cancer and Modulates Sensitivity to Topoisomerase II Inhibition1

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, Donato; Zhang, Jianhuan; Trinh, Lan; Lalehzadeh, Guita; Meisner, Rene; Yamaguchi, Ken D; Ruderman, Daniel L; Dinter, Harald; Zajchowski, Deborah A

    2007-01-01

    We identified the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-EPF mRNA as differentially expressed in breast tumors relative to normal tissues and performed studies to elucidate its putative role in cancer. We demonstrated that overexpression of E2-EPF protein correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) negativity in breast cancer specimens and that its expression is cell cycle-regulated, suggesting a potential function for E2-EPF in cell cycle progression. However, reduction of E2-EPF protein levels by > 80% using RNAi had no significant effects on the proliferation of HeLa cervical cancer cells or ER- MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. Because E2-EPF protein levels were elevated during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and because E2-EPF mRNA in tumor specimens was frequently coexpressed with genes involved in cell cycle control, spindle assembly, and mitotic surveillance, the possibility that E2-EPF might have a function in the cellular response to agents that induce a G2 checkpoint or an M checkpoint was investigated. E2-EPF knockdown sensitized HeLa cells to the topoisomerase (topo) II inhibitors etoposide and doxorubicin and also increased topo IIα protein levels. These data suggest that combined administration of topo II-directed drugs and E2-EPF inhibitors may enhance their clinical effectiveness. PMID:17710163

  3. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-EPF is overexpressed in primary breast cancer and modulates sensitivity to topoisomerase II inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Donato; Zhang, Jianhuan; Trinh, Lan; Lalehzadeh, Guita; Meisner, Rene; Yamaguchi, Ken D; Ruderman, Daniel L; Dinter, Harald; Zajchowski, Deborah A

    2007-07-01

    We identified the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-EPF mRNA as differentially expressed in breast tumors relative to normal tissues and performed studies to elucidate its putative role in cancer. We demonstrated that overexpression of E2-EPF protein correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) negativity in breast cancer specimens and that its expression is cell cycle-regulated, suggesting a potential function for E2-EPF in cell cycle progression. However, reduction of E2-EPF protein levels by > 80% using RNAi had no significant effects on the proliferation of HeLa cervical cancer cells or ER(-) MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. Because E2-EPF protein levels were elevated during the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle and because E2-EPF mRNA in tumor specimens was frequently coexpressed with genes involved in cell cycle control, spindle assembly, and mitotic surveillance, the possibility that E2-EPF might have a function in the cellular response to agents that induce a G(2) checkpoint or an M checkpoint was investigated. E2-EPF knockdown sensitized HeLa cells to the topoisomerase (topo) II inhibitors etoposide and doxorubicin and also increased topo IIalpha protein levels. These data suggest that combined administration of topo II-directed drugs and E2-EPF inhibitors may enhance their clinical effectiveness.

  4. Aerobic batch degradation of 17-beta estradiol (E2) by activated sludge: effects of spiking E2 concentrations, MLVSS and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Fusheng; Yuasa, Akira; Obara, Aya; Mathews, Alexander P

    2005-05-01

    Aerobic batch degradation of 17beta estradiol (E2) spiked into the activated sludge liquor from a sewage treatment plant was studied; and the likely impacts of E2's initial concentrations (C0), microbial population densities (MLVSS) and temperatures (TEMPT) were examined for a variety of combinations of these three factors: C0 = 10, 30 and 50 microgl(-1); MLVSS = 1750, 875 and 435 mgl(-1); and TEMPT = 5, 20 and 35 degrees C. The results, together with those obtained through two control runs performed using a killed sludge sample, demonstrated clearly that E2 was eliminated from the aqueous phase readily under appropriate MLVSS and temperature levels, with the role of sorption by biomass being less significant. By fitting observed concentration data with a first-order rate expression, the degradation rate constants (k) under all experimental conditions were estimated. The magnitude of k changed markedly in the range of 0.23-4.79 h(-1), following a general order that the higher the MLVSS was, the higher the rate constant, and that the higher the temperature, the higher the rate constant. An obvious increasing trend of the biomass-modified average rate constant (k') with increases in the temperature was also presented: the k' values at 5, 20 and 35 degrees C were 0.79, 1.77 and 3.29l MLVSS g(-1)h(-1), respectively. Furthermore, based upon the estimated k values, the temperature coefficients (theta) over the ranges of 5-20 and 20-35 degrees C were determined. In similarity with the magnitude of theta reported for ordinary BOD-based organic matrices in domestic wastewater, the theta values of E2 varied in the range of 1.026-1.09, suggesting that the temperature impacts on the degradation rates of E2 and BOD constituents are probably similar.

  5. Effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy on laying hens in barn system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hwan Ku; Park, Seong Bok; Jeon, Jin Joo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Ki Tae; Kim, Sang Ho; Hong, Eui Chul; Kim, Chan Ho

    2018-04-12

    This experiment was to investigate the effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) on the laying performance, egg quality, blood parameter, blood biochemistry, intestinal morphology, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in diets fed to laying hens. A total of three-hundred twenty 33-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were evenly assigned to four experimental diets of 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal AMEn/kg in floor with deep litter of rice hulls. There were four replicates of each treatment, each consisting of 20 birds in a pen. AMEn intake was increased (linear, p < 0.05) with inclusion level of AMEn in diets increased. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were improved (linear, p < 0.01), but hen-day egg production tended to be increased as increasing level of AMEn in diets increased. During the experiment, leukocyte concentration and blood biochemistry (total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, calcium, asparate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) were not influenced by increasing level of AMEn in diets. Gross energy and ether extract were increased (linear, p < 0.01) with inclusion level of AMEn in diets increased. Laying hens fed high AMEn diet (i.e., 3,050 kcal/kg in the current experiment) tended to overconsume energy with a positive effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology but not in egg production and egg mass.

  6. Acute UV irradiation increases heparan sulfate proteoglycan levels in human skin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Yong; Oh, Jang-Hee; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Dayae; Chung, Jin Ho

    2012-03-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are important structural components in the skin and exist as various proteoglycan forms, except hyaluronic acid. Heparan sulfate (HS), one of the glycosaminoglycans, is composed of repeated disaccharide units, which are glucuronic acids linked to an N-acetyl-glucosamine or its sulfated forms. To investigate acute ultraviolet (UV)-induced changes of HS and HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), changes in levels of HS and several HSPGs in male human buttock skin were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after 2 minimal erythema doses (MED) of UV irradiation (each n = 4-7). HS staining revealed that 2 MED of UV irradiation increased its expression, and staining for perlecan, syndecan-1, syndecan-4, CD44v3, and CD44 showed that UV irradiation increased their protein levels. However, analysis by real-time qPCR showed that UV irradiation did not change mRNA levels of CD44 and agrin, and decreased perlecan and syndecan-4 mRNA levels, while increased syndecan-1 mRNA level. As HS-synthesizing or -degrading enzymes, exostosin-1 and heparanase mRNA levels were increased, but exostosin-2 was decreased by UV irradiation. UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression was confirmed for proper experimental conditions. Acute UV irradiation increases HS and HSPG levels in human skin, but their increase may not be mediated through their transcriptional regulation.

  7. INCREASED HYPOTHALAMIC ANGIOTENSIN-(1-7) LEVELS IN RATS WITH AORTIC COARCTATION-INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Gironacci, Mariela M.; Brosnihan, K. Bridget; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Gorzalczany, Susana; Lopez Verrilli, María A.; Pascual, Mariano; Taira, Carlos; Peña, Clara

    2007-01-01

    Since angiotensin (Ang) (1-7) injected into the brain blocked Ang II pressor actions in rats made hypertensive by aortic coarctation (CH), we examined systemic and tissue angiotensin peptide levels, specifically concentrating on the hypothalamic Ang-(1-7) levels. Plasma, heart and kidney isolated from CH rats showed increased levels of Ang I, Ang II and Ang-(1-7) compared with the normotensive group, with Ang II being the predominant peptide in heart and kidney. In the hypothalamus, equimolar amounts of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) were found in the sham group, whereas only Ang-(1-7) levels increased in CH rats. We conclude that aortic coarctation activates systemic and tissue renin-angiotensin system. The increased central levels of Ang-(1-7) in the CH rats suggest a potential mitigating role of this peptide in central control of the hypertensive process. PMID:17646033

  8. Both experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase cardiac irisin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Atici, E; Menevse, E; Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R

    2018-01-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered myokine and adipokine that increases total body energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the levels of irisin in heart tissue in rats. The study was performed on the 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental groups were designed as; Control, Hypothyroidism, Hypothyroidism+L-Thyroxine, Hyperthyroidism and Hyperthyroidism + PTU. Following 3 weeks experimental period, irisin levels were determined in heart tissues. Hypothyroidism group values of irisin were higher than in the control group, but lower than in the hyperthyroidism group. The hyperthyroidism group had the highest levels of cardiac irisin. The results of the study showed that the experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increased the heart irisin levels, but the increase in the hyperthyroidism group was much higher than in the hypothyroidism group. However, treatment of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism corrected cardiac irisin levels (Fig. 1, Ref. 28).

  9. Primary laws and fine levels are associated with increases in seat belt use, 1997-2008

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-11-01

    Increasing fine levels is a strategy that has potential to further raise seat belt use, in addition to primary law upgrades and high-visibility enforcement. Although the regression analyses did not find a statistically significant effect associated w...

  10. Increasing seat belt use through state-level demonstration projects : a compendium of initial findings

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes the efforts and results from four of six State-level demonstration projects supported with cooperative agreements from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The projects were intended to increase seat belt use sta...

  11. Practice on improving fattening local cattle production in Vietnam by increasing crude protein level in concentrate and concentrate level.

    PubMed

    Van Dung, Dinh; Ba, Nguyen Xuan; Van, Nguyen Huu; Phung, Le Dinh; Ngoan, Le Duc; Cuong, Vu Chi; Yao, Wen

    2013-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of crude protein (CP) level in concentrate (experiment 1) and concentrate level (experiment 2) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) retention, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentration and average daily gain (ADG) of Vietnamese local fattening cattle. Animals (24 cattle, initial live weight (LW) 150.3 ± 11.8 kg in experiment 1 and 145.1 ± 9.8 kg in experiment 2) were allotted based on LW to one of four treatments in a randomised complete block design. In experiment 1, concentrate with four levels of CP (10, 13, 16 and 19 %) was fed at 1.5 % of LW. In experiment 2, concentrate was fed at 1.0, 1.4, 1.8 and 2.2 % of LW. In both experiments, roughage was 5 kg/day native grass and ad libitum rice straw (fresh basis). Results showed that the CP level in concentrate significantly affected dry matter (DM) intake (P < 0.05), N retention, ADG and ruminal NH3-N concentration (P < 0.01), but it had no significant effect on DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility (P > 0.05), whereas CP digestibility increased (P < 0.001) along with the CP level. DM intake, N retention and ADG increased (P < 0.001) linearly with concentrate intake. DM and CP digestibility were not significantly affected by concentrate intake (P > 0.05). OM digestibility and NH3-N concentration increased linearly (P < 0.05), whereas NDF digestibility and ruminal pH declined linearly with increased concentrate consumption (P < 0.01). These results indicate that 16 % CP in concentrate and feeding concentrate at the rate of 2.2 % of LW are recommendable for fattening local cattle in Vietnam.

  12. Azilsartan is associated with increased circulating angiotensin-(1-7) levels and reduced renovascular 20-HETE levels.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Mairéad A; Kang, YounJung; Chander, Praveen N; Stier, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    Activation of angiotensin (ANG) II type 1 receptors (AT1R) promotes vasoconstriction, inflammation, and renal dysfunction. In this study, we addressed the ability of azilsartan (AZL), a new AT1R antagonist, to modulate levels of plasma ANG-(1-7) and renal epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with ANG II (125 ng/min) or vehicle (VEH). AZL (3 mg/kg/day) or VEH was administered starting 1 day prior to ANG II or VEH infusion. On day 10, plasma was obtained for measurement of ANG-(1-7) and kidneys for isolation of microvessels for EET and 20-HETE determination and histological evaluation. Mean 24-hour blood pressure (BP) was not different between VEH and AZL treatment groups, whereas the BP elevation with ANG II infusion (121 ± 5 mm Hg) was completely normalized with AZL cotreatment (86 ± 3 mm Hg). The ANG II-induced renal damage was attenuated and cardiac hypertrophy prevented with AZL cotreatment. Plasma ANG-(1-7) levels (pg/ml) were increased with AZL treatment (219 ± 22) and AZL + ANG II infusion (264 ± 93) compared to VEH controls (74.62 ± 8). AZL treatment increased the ratio of EETs to their dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHET) metabolites and reduced 20-HETE levels. Treatment with AZL completely antagonized the elevation of BP induced by ANG II, prevented cardiac hypertrophy, attenuated renal damage, and increased ANG-(1-7) and EET/DHET ratio while diminishing 20-HETE levels. Increased ANG-(1-7) and EETs levels may emerge as novel therapeutic mechanisms contributing to the antihypertensive and antihypertrophic actions of AZL treatment and their relative role compared to AT1R blockade may depend on the etiology of the hypertension. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Increased homocysteine levels impair reference memory and reduce cortical levels of acetylcholine in a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Dam, Kevin; Füchtemeier, Martina; Farr, Tracy D; Boehm-Sturm, Philipp; Foddis, Marco; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Malysheva, Olga; Caudill, Marie A; Jadavji, Nafisa M

    2017-03-15

    Folates are B-vitamins that are vital for normal brain function. Deficiencies in folates either genetic (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR) or dietary intake of folic acid result in elevated levels of homocysteine. Clinical studies have shown that elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with the development of dementia, however this link remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased Hcy levels on a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) produced by chronic hypoperfusion. Male and female Mthfr +/+ and Mthfr +/- mice were placed on either control (CD) or folic acid deficient (FADD) diets after which all animals underwent microcoil implantation around each common carotid artery or a sham procedure. Post-operatively animals were tested on the Morris water maze (MWM), y-maze, and rotarod. Animals had no motor impairments on the rotarod, y-maze, and could learn the location of the platform on the MWM. However, on day 8 of testing of MWM testing during the probe trial, Mthfr +/- FADD microcoil mice spent significantly less time in the target quadrant when compared to Mthfr +/- CD sham mice, suggesting impaired reference memory. All FADD mice had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine. MRI analysis revealed arterial remodeling was present in Mthfr +/- microcoil mice not Mthfr +/+ mice. Acetylcholine and related metabolites were reduced in cortical tissue because of microcoil implantation and elevated levels of homocysteine. Deficiencies in folate metabolism resulting in increased Hcy levels yield a metabolic profile that increases susceptibility to neurodegeneration in a mouse model of VCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Increasing Oral Reading Fluency of below Grade-Level Elementary Students through Parent Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Louise I.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of elementary students in a rural school were promoted to a higher grade without having grade-level reading fluency skills, thereby becoming at risk of not reaching or maintaining their academic grade level reading skills. The purpose of this ex post facto quantitative study involving archival data analysis was to investigate…

  15. Net superoxide levels: steeper increase with activity in cooler female and hotter male lizards.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Cissy; Healey, Mo; Wilson, Mark; Tobler, Michael; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats

    2012-03-01

    Ectotherms increase their body temperature in response to ambient heat, thereby elevating their metabolic rate. An often inferred consequence of this is an overall upregulation of gene expression and energetic expenditure, and a concomitant increased production of reactive oxygen species (e.g. superoxide) and, perhaps, a shortened lifespan. However, recent work shows that this may be a superficial interpretation. For example, sometimes a reduced temperature may in fact trigger up-regulation of gene expression. We studied temperature and associated activity effects in male and female Australian painted dragon lizards (Ctenophorus pictus) by allowing the lizards to bask for 4 h versus 12 h, and scoring their associated activity (inactive versus active basking and foraging). As predicted, long-basking lizards (hereafter 'hot') showed heightened activity in both sexes, with a more pronounced effect in females. We then tested for sex-specific effects of basking treatment and activity levels on the increase in net levels of superoxide. In males, short-baskers (hereafter 'cold') had significantly more rapidly decreasing levels of superoxide per unit increasing activity than hot males. In females, however, superoxide levels increased faster with increasing activity in the cold than in the hot basking treatment, and females earlier in the ovarian cycle had lower superoxide levels than females closer to ovulation. In short, males and females differ in how their levels of reactive oxygen species change with temperature-triggered activity.

  16. The Astro-E2 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    The Astro-E2 observatory is a rebuild of the original Astro-E observatory that was lost during launch in February 2000. It is scheduled for launch into low earth orbit on a Japanese M-V rocket in early 2005. The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, is developing the observatory with major contributions from the US. The three instruments on the observatory are the high-resolution x-ray spectrometer (the XRS) featuring a 30-pixel x-ray microcalorimeter array, a set of four CCD cameras (the XIS) and a combination photo-diode/scintillator detector system (the HXD) that will extend the band pass up to nearly 700 keV. A significant feature of Astro-E2 is that all of the instruments are coaligned and operated simultaneously. With its high spectral resolution and collecting area for spectroscopy above 1 keV, Astro-E2 should enable major discovery space and pioneer new technology for use in space. Prime areas for investigation are supernova remnants, active galaxies and the measurement of black hole properties via relativistically-broadened Fe-K emission galaxies. A number of enhancements have been made for the Astro-E2/XRS, including a higher resolution microcalorimeter array, ii mechanical cooler for longer cryogen life, and an improved in-flight calibration system. The Astro-E2/XIS has also been improved to include two back-side-illuminated CCDs to enhance the low energy response. Improvements have also been made to the x-ray mirrors used for both the XRS and XIS to sharpen the point spread function and reduce the effects of stray light. In this talk we will present the essential features of Astro-E2, paying particular attention to the enhancements, and describe the major scientific strengths of the observatory.

  17. B Lymphocyte Stimulator Levels in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Higher Circulating Levels in African American Patients and Increased Production after Influenza Vaccination in Patients with Low Baseline Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ritterhouse, Lauren L.; Crowe, Sherry R.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Merrill, Joan T.; Roberts, Virginia C.; Dedeke, Amy B.; Neas, Barbara R.; Thompson, Linda F.; Guthridge, Joel M.; James, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Examine the relationship between circulating B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) levels and humoral responses to influenza vaccination in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, as well as the effect of vaccination on BLyS levels. Clinical and serologic features of SLE that are associated with elevated BLyS levels will also be investigated. Methods Clinical history, disease activity measurements and blood specimens were collected from sixty SLE patients at baseline and after influenza vaccination. Sera were tested for BLyS levels, lupus-associated autoantibodies, serum IFN-α activity, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and humoral responses to influenza vaccination. Results Thirty percent of SLE patients had elevated BLyS levels, with African American patients having higher BLyS levels than European American patients (p=0.006). Baseline BLyS levels in patients were not correlated with humoral responses to influenza vaccination (p=0.863), and BLyS levels increased post-vaccination only in the subset of patients in the lowest quartile of BLyS levels (p=0.0003). Elevated BLyS levels were associated with increased disease activity as measured by SLEDAI, PGA, and SLAM in European Americans (p=0.035, p=0.016, p=0.018, respectively), but not in African Americans. Elevated BLyS levels were also associated with anti-nRNP (p=0.0003) and decreased 25(OH)D (p=0.018). Serum IFN-α activity was a significant predictor of elevated BLyS in a multivariate analysis (p=0.002). Conclusion African American SLE patients have higher BLyS levels regardless of disease activity. Humoral response to influenza vaccination is not correlated with baseline BLyS levels in SLE patients and only those patients with low baseline BLyS levels demonstrate an increased BLyS response after vaccination. PMID:22127709

  18. AML1 is overexpressed in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and mediates JAK2V617F-independent overexpression of NF-E2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Schwemmers, Sven; Hexner, Elizabeth O.

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor NF-E2 is overexpressed in the majority of patients with polycythemia vera (PV). Concomitantly, 95% of these patients carry the JAK2V617F mutation. Although NF-E2 levels correlate with JAK2V671F allele burden in some PV cohorts, the molecular mechanism causing aberrant NF-E2 expression has not been described. Here we show that NF-E2 expression is also increased in patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis independent of the presence of the JAK2V617F mutation. Characterization of the NF-E2 promoter revealed multiple functional binding sites for AML1/RUNX-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated AML1 binding to the NF-E2 promoter in vivo. Moreover, AML1 binding to the NF-E2 promoter was significantly increased in granulocytes from PV patients compared with healthy controls. AML1 mRNA expression was elevated in patients with PV, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis both in the presence and absence of JAK2V617F. In addition, AML1 and NF-E2 expression were highly correlated. RNAi-mediated suppression of either AML1 or of its binding partner CBF-β significantly decreased NF-E2 expression. Moreover, expression of the leukemic fusion protein AML/ETO drastically decreased NF-E2 protein levels. Our data identify NF-E2 as a novel AML1 target gene and delineate a role for aberrant AML1 expression in mediating elevated NF-E2 expression in MPN patients. PMID:20339092

  19. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity.

  20. Increased Levels of Markers of Microbial Exposure in Homes with Indoor Storage of Organic Household Waste

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Inge M.; Douwes, Jeroen; Doekes, Gert; Thorne, Peter S.; Brunekreef, Bert; Heederik, Dick J. J.

    2000-01-01

    As part of environmental management policies in Europe, separate collection of organic household waste and nonorganic household waste has become increasingly common. As waste is often stored indoors, this policy might increase microbial exposure in the home environment. In this study we evaluated the association between indoor storage of organic waste and levels of microbial agents in house dust. The levels of bacterial endotoxins, mold β(1→3)-glucans, and fungal extracullar polysaccharides (EPS) of Aspergillus and Penicillium species were determined in house dust extracts as markers of microbial exposure. House dust samples were collected in 99 homes in The Netherlands selected on the basis of whether separated organic waste was present in the house. In homes in which separated organic waste was stored indoors for 1 week or more the levels of endotoxin, EPS, and glucan were 3.2-, 7.6-, and 4.6-fold higher, respectively (all P < 0.05), on both living room and kitchen floors than the levels in homes in which only nonorganic residual waste was stored indoors. Increased levels of endotoxin and EPS were observed, 2.6- and 2.1-fold (P < 0.1), respectively, when separated organic waste was stored indoors for 1 week or less, whereas storage of nonseparated waste indoors had no effect on microbial agent levels (P > 0.2). The presence of textile floor covering was another major determinant of microbial levels (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that increased microbial contaminant levels in homes are associated with indoor storage of separated organic waste. These increased levels might increase the risk of bioaerosol-related respiratory symptoms in susceptible people. PMID:10653727

  1. EBP1 is a novel E2F target gene regulated by transforming growth factor-β.

    PubMed

    Judah, David; Chang, Wing Y; Dagnino, Lina

    2010-11-10

    Regulation of gene expression requires transcription factor binding to specific DNA elements, and a large body of work has focused on the identification of such sequences. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that eukaryotic transcription factors can exhibit widespread, nonfunctional binding to genomic DNA sites. Conversely, some of these proteins, such as E2F, can also modulate gene expression by binding to non-consensus elements. E2F comprises a family of transcription factors that play key roles in a wide variety of cellular functions, including survival, differentiation, activation during tissue regeneration, metabolism, and proliferation. E2F factors bind to the Erb3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) promoter in live cells. We now show that E2F binding to the EBP1 promoter occurs through two tandem DNA elements that do not conform to typical consensus E2F motifs. Exogenously expressed E2F1 activates EBP1 reporters lacking one, but not both sites, suggesting a degree of redundancy under certain conditions. E2F1 increases the levels of endogenous EBP1 mRNA in breast carcinoma and other transformed cell lines. In contrast, in non-transformed primary epidermal keratinocytes, E2F, together with the retinoblastoma family of proteins, appears to be involved in decreasing EBP1 mRNA abundance in response to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor-β1. Thus, E2F is likely a central coordinator of multiple responses that culminate in regulation of EBP1 gene expression, and which may vary depending on cell type and context.

  2. Agomelatine Increases BDNF Serum Levels in Depressed Patients in Correlation with the Improvement of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Pettorruso, Mauro; De Berardis, Domenico; Varasano, Paola Annunziata; Lucidi Pressanti, Gabriella; De Remigis, Valeria; Valchera, Alessandro; Ricci, Valerio; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi; Biggio, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Agomelatine modulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression via its interaction with melatonergic and serotonergic receptors and has shown promising results in terms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor increase in animal models. Methods: Twenty-seven patients were started on agomelatine (25mg/d). Venous blood was collected and brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels were measured at baseline and after 2 and 8 weeks along with a clinical assessment, including Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale. Results: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentration increased after agomelatine treatment. Responders showed a significant increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels after 2 weeks of agomelatine treatment; no difference was observed in nonresponders. Linear regression analysis showed that more prominent brain-derived neurotrophic factor level variation was associated with lower baseline BDNF levels and greater anhedonic features at baseline. Conclusions: Patients affected by depressive disorders showed an increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentration after a 2-week treatment with agomelatine. The increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels was found to be greater in patients with lower brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and marked anhedonia at baseline. PMID:26775293

  3. Increase in serum magnesium level in haemodialysis patients receiving sevelamer hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Mitsopoulos, Efstathios; Griveas, Ioannis; Zanos, Stavros; Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakou, Anastasia; Pavlitou, Aikaterini; Sakellariou, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that sevelamer hydrochloride improves lipid profiles and attenuates the progression of the cardiovascular calcifications in haemodialysis patients. It is known that both of these properties are associated with increased magnesium levels. The effect of sevelamer on serum magnesium level is not well documented. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sevelamer treatment on serum magnesium in haemodialysis patients and to assess the association of magnesium levels with lipid profiles and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). Phosphate binders were discontinued during a two week washout period. Forty-seven patients, whose serum phosphate was greater than 6.0 mg/dl at the end of washout, received sevelamer hydrochloride for eight weeks. The patients were then washed off sevelamer for another two weeks. Mean serum phosphorus concentration declined from 7.5 +/- 1.3 to 6.4 +/- 1.2 mg/dl (P < 0.001), mean serum magnesium levels increased from 2.75 +/- 0.35 to 2.90 +/- 0.41 mg/dl (P < 0.001) and median serum iPTH levels decreased from 297 to 213 pg/ml (P=0.001) during the eight weeks of sevelamer treatment. After the two week post-treatment washout phosphorus levels increased to 7.3 +/- 1.3 mg/dl (P < 0.001), magnesium levels were reduced to 2.77 +/- 0.39 mg/dl (P < 0.001) and iPTH levels increased to 240 pg/ml (P=0.012). No change was observed in serum calcium levels during the sevelamer treatment period and the subsequent washout period. The mean decline in total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol during sevelamer treatment was 16.3 and 28.3 (P < 0.001), respectively. The mean increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and in apolipoprotein A1 was 2.9 +/- 5.8 mg/dl (P=0.004) and 6.8 +/- 11.1 mg/dl (P=0.001), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the rise in serum magnesium concentration significantly correlated with reductions in iPTH levels (r=-0.40, P=0.016), but did not have any significant

  4. E2 potentializes benzo(a)pyrene-induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme activities in Nile tilapia at high concentrations.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Aline Cristina Ferreira; Moneró, Tatiana de Oliveira; Frighetto, Rosa Toyoko Shiraishi; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2015-11-01

    In the aquatic environment, biotransformation enzymes are established biomarkers for assessing PAH exposure in fish, but little is known about the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) on these enzymes during exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). In this study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed for 3, 5, and 10 days to BaP (300 μg L(-1)) and E2 (5 μg L(-1)). These substances were applied isolated or mixed. In the mixture experiment, fish were analyzed pre- and postexposure in order to better understand whether preexposure to the hormone masks the responses activated by PAH or vice versa. Phase I enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin-O-depenthylase (PROD), and benzyloxyresorufin-O-debenzylase (BROD) activities as well as the phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) were analyzed. Isolated E2 treatment decreased EROD activity after 3 days, but this enzyme activity returned to control values after 5 and 10 days of exposure. Isolated BaP treatment significantly induced EROD activity after 3 and 5 days, and the activity returned to control levels after ten exposure days. Combined treatment (E2 + Bap) significantly increased EROD activity, both in the pre- and postexposure. This increase was even higher than in the isolated BaP treatment, suggesting a synergism between these two compounds. When E2 and BaP were used singly, they did not change BROD and PROD activities. However, combined treatment (E2 + Bap) significantly increased PROD activity. Isolated BaP treatment increased GST activity after 10 days. However, this response was not observed in the mixture treatment, suggesting that E2 suppressed the GST induction modulated by BaP. The results put together indicated that E2 altered the biotransformation pathway regarding enzymes activated by BaP in Nile tilapia.

  5. Nicotinamide megadosing increases hepatic poly(ADP-ribose) levels in choline-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    ApSimon, M M; Rawling, J M; Kirkland, J B

    1995-07-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that dietary megadoses of nicotinamide, used in the prevention of diabetes, cause increases in hepatic poly(ADP-ribose). Poly(ADP-ribose) is synthesized from NAD+ by a nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, which is activated by DNA strand breaks. The nicotinamide-induced increase in poly(ADP-ribose) could result from an increase in substrate, NAD+, or the induction of strand breaks in DNA. Strand breaks may result from the depletion of single carbon groups, through the excretion of methylated derivatives of nicotinamide. To differentiate between these mechanisms, a 3 x 3 factorial experiment was conducted in which rats were fed diets containing various supplements of choline bitartrate (0, 2, 20 g/kg diet) and nicotinamide (0, 1, 2 g/kg diet). At the conclusion of treatments, blood NAD+ and liver lipid, NAD+ and poly(ADP-ribose) levels were determined. Choline deficiency caused the characteristic accumulation of fat in the liver at all levels of nicotinamide. In choline deficient rats, nicotinamide supplements further increased liver lipid concentration. Blood and liver NAD+ concentrations were increased by nicotinamide supplementation, irrespective of choline status. In contrast, liver poly(ADP-ribose) levels were increased by nicotinamide supplementation only in choline deficient rats. These results show that nicotinamide-induced increases in poly(ADP-ribose) levels appear to be dependent on decreased methyl donor status and suggest that adequate choline status is important for preventing some deleterious effects of nicotinamide treatment.

  6. INCREASED TISSUE TRANSGLUTAMINASE LEVELS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY IN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AMONG PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Işikay, Sedat; Hizli, Şamil; Çoşkun, Serkan; Yilmaz, Kutluhan

    2015-12-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune systemic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals precipitated by gluten ingestion. In this study, we aimed to determine asymptomatic spike-and-wave findings on electroencephalography in children with celiac disease. A total of 175 children with the diagnosis of celiac disease (study group) and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy children as controls (control group) were included in the study. In order to determine the effects of gluten free diet on laboratory and electroencephalography findings, the celiac group is further subdivided into two as newly-diagnosed and formerly-diagnosed patients. Medical histories of all children and laboratory findings were all recorded and neurologic statuses were evaluated. All patients underwent a sleep and awake electroencephalography. Among 175 celiac disease patients included in the study, 43 were newly diagnosed while 132 were formerly-diagnosed patients. In electroencephalography evaluation of patients the epileptiform activity was determined in 4 (9.3%) of newly diagnosed and in 2 (1.5%) of formerly diagnosed patients; on the other hand the epileptiform activity was present in only 1 (1.0%) of control cases. There was a statistically significant difference between groups in regards to the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that epileptiform activity in both sleep and awake electroencephalography were positively correlated with tissue transglutaminase levels (P=0.014 and P=0.019, respectively). We have determined an increased epileptiform activity frequency among newly-diagnosed celiac disease patients compared with formerly-diagnosed celiac disease patients and control cases. Moreover the tissue transglutaminase levels were also correlated with the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Among newly diagnosed celiac disease patients, clinicians should be aware of this association and be alert about any

  7. E2F4 is required for early eye patterning.

    PubMed

    Ruzhynsky, Vladimir A; Furimsky, Marosh; Park, David S; Wallace, Valerie A; Slack, Ruth S

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, studies reveal novel functions for cell cycle proteins during development. Here, we investigated the role of E2F4 in eye development. E2F4-deficient mouse embryos exhibit severe early eye patterning defects, which are evident from embryonic day 11.5 and characterized by aberrant shape of the optic cup, coloboma as well as abnormal eye pigmentation. Loss of E2F4 is associated with proximal-distal patterning defects in the optic vesicle. These defects are characterized by the expansion of optic stalk marker gene expression to the optic cup and reduced expression of ventral optic cup markers. These defects are associated with a split of Shh expression domain at the ventral midline of the forebrain and expansion of the Shh activity into the ventral optic cup. Despite these patterning defects, early neuronal differentiation and Shh expression in the retina are not affected by E2F4 deletion. Overall, the results of our studies show a novel role of E2F4 in the early eye development. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Estrogen increases latencies to seizures and levels of 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one in hippocampus of wild-type, but not 5α-reductase knockout, mice

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Danielle M.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex steroids can influence seizures. Estrogen (E2), progesterone (P4), and its metabolite, 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α,5α-THP), in particular, have received much attention for exerting these effects. Typically, it is thought that E2 precipitates seizures, and progestogens, such as P4 and 3α,5α-THP, attenuate seizures. However, E2 may also have antiseizure effects, perhaps in part through its enhancement of the formation of 3α,5α-THP, which has GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor agonist-like actions. To test this hypothesis, male and female, castrated or ovariectomized, wild-type and 5α-reductase knockout mice were implanted with Silastic capsules of E2 or vehicle and then administered pentylenetetrazol (85 mg/kg, ip). Wild-type, but not 5α-reductase knockout, mice administered E2 had significantly longer latencies to myoclonus and increased levels of 3α,5α-THP in the hippocampus. Thus, some of the anticonvulsive effects of E2 may involve formation of 3α,5α-THP in the hippocampus. PMID:19782646

  9. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    PubMed

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  10. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest

    PubMed Central

    Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Kobe, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008–2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  11. MicroRNA-424/E2F6 feedback loop modulates cell invasion, migration and EMT in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zheng; Nian, Zhou; Jingjing, Zhang; Tao, Luo; Quan, Li

    2017-01-01

    Our previous study explored the roles of microRNA-424 (miR-424) in the development of endometrial carcinoma (EC) and analyzed the miR-424/E2F7 axis in EC cell growth. In this study, we investigated the status of miR-424 in human endometrial cancer tissues, which were collected from a cohort of Zunyi patients. We found that the expression level of miR-424 was associated with clinical tumor stage, cell differentiation, lymph node metastasis and cell migration ability. Cell function experiments demonstrated that miR-424 overexpression suppressed the invasion and migration abilities of endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro. Bioinformatic predictions and dual-luciferase reporter assays suggested E2F6 as a possible target of miR-424. RT-PCR and western blot assays demonstrated that miR-424 transfection reduced the expression level of E2F6, while inhibiting miR-424 with ASO-miR-424 (antisense oligonucleotides of miR-424) increased the expression level of E2F6. Cell function experiments indicated that E2F6 transfection rescued the EC cell phenotype induced by miR-424. In addition, we also found that E2F6 negatively regulated miR-424 expression in EC cells. In summary, our results demonstrated that the miR-424/E2F6 feedback loop modulates cell invasion, migration and EMT in EC and that the miR-424/E2Fs regulation network may serve as a new and potentially important therapeutic target in EC. PMID:29371986

  12. Increased abdominal fat levels measured by bioelectrical impedance are associated with histological lesions of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Margariti, Aikaterini; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Tileli, Nafsika; Georgoulis, Michael; Deutsch, Melanie; Zafeiropoulou, Rodessa; Tiniakos, Dina; Manios, Yannis; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Papatheodoridis, George V

    2015-08-01

    Abdominal fat is considered to play an important role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although it is not adequately studied because abdominal fat levels cannot be estimated easily. In this study, associations between abdominal obesity, as assessed by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and the characteristics of patients with NAFLD were explored. Seventy-four consecutive NAFLD patients who underwent measurement of abdominal fat levels by BIA were included. Levels of abdominal fat 12.5 or less and more than 12.5 were considered to be average and increased, respectively. The mean±SD BMI was 30±4 kg/m and the mean abdominal fat levels were 16±5, whereas 26% of patients had average abdominal fat levels. Patients with average compared with those with increased abdominal fat levels were more frequently women (50 vs. 12%, P=0.001), had lower BMI (27±3 vs. 31±4 kg/m, P<0.001), lower Homeostasis Model Assessment index (2.6±1.4 vs. 3.9±2.7, P=0.045), and lower median liver stiffness on transient elastography (5.3 vs. 6.8 kPa, P=0.025). In patients with available liver biopsy, steatohepatitis was present more frequently in patients with increased compared with average abdominal fat levels (78 vs. 38%, P=0.030) and in patients with BMI 30 or more compared with less than 30 kg/m (87 vs. 48%, P=0.033), but similar in patients with increased or normal waist circumference (67 vs. 56%, P=0.693). Average levels of abdominal fat, as assessed by abdominal BIA, are mainly present in female patients with NAFLD and are associated with a lower degree of insulin resistance. Increased abdominal fat as assessed by BIA and obesity seem to represent strong risk factors for histological steatohepatitis.

  13. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  14. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively. PMID:23369617

  15. Increased levels of arginine vasotocin and neurophysin during nesting in sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Figler, R A; MacKenzie, D S; Owens, D W; Licht, P; Amoss, M S

    1989-02-01

    Arginine vasotocin (AVT) and neurophysin (NP) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in two species of sea turtle, the olive ridley, Lepidochelys olivacea, and the loggerhead, Caretta caretta, during the brief period of nesting and oviposition. In both species, AVT was low in animals which were not reproductively active. AVT was also low at the time animals emerged from the surf to nest, but increased significantly during oviposition and then declined as the animals returned to the water. NP increased in concert with AVT, also reaching highest levels during oviposition. In both species, however, NP levels remained elevated over prenesting levels at the time of return to the water. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that an AVT-neurophysin complex is released from the neurohypophysis during nesting, and that AVT is a physiological regulator of oviducal contractions in sea turtles.

  16. IGF-1 levels may increase paradoxically with dopamine agonist treatment for prolactinomas.

    PubMed

    Akirov, Amit; Greenman, Yona; Glaser, Benjamin; S'chigol, Irena; Mansiterski, Yossi; Eizenberg, Yoav; Shraga-Slutzky, Ilana; Shimon, Ilan

    2018-05-04

    Hyperprolactinemia is common in acromegaly and in these patients, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 level may decrease with dopamine agonist. We report a series of patients with prolactinoma and a paradoxical increase of IGF-1 levels during cabergoline treatment. Clinical characteristics and response to treatment of patients with prolactinomas, in whom normal or slightly elevated baseline IGF-1 levels increased with cabergoline. The cohort consisted of ten prolactinoma patients (nine males, mean age 48 ± 14 years). Mean adenoma size was 23.8 ± 16.2 mm, with cavernous sinus invasion in eight. In five patients baseline IGF-1 levels were normal and in four levels were 1.2-1.5-fold the upper limit of the normal (ULN). One patient had IGF-1 measured shortly after initiating cabergoline and it was 1.4 × ULN. During cabergoline treatment (dose range 0.5-2 mg/week) PRL normalization was achieved in all and tumor shrinkage occurred in seven patients. The mean IGF-1 increase on cabergoline was 1.7 ± 0.4 × ULN. Cabergoline dose reduction or interruption was attempted in five patients and resulted in decreased IGF-1 levels in all, including normalization in two patients. Three patients were eventually diagnosed with acromegaly, one was referred for pituitary surgery followed by complete remission, another patient was switched to somatostatin analogue, and the third was treated by combination of somatostatin analogues with pegvisomant, with reduction of IGF-1 in all these patients. IGF-1 levels may increase to clinically significant levels during cabergoline treatment for PRL-adenoma. We suggest IGF-1 monitoring in all patients treated with dopamine agonists and not only in those presenting symptoms of acromegaly.

  17. Increasing maternal obesity is associated with alterations in both maternal and neonatal thyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Kahr, Maike K; Antony, Kathleen M; DelBeccaro, Melanie; Hu, Min; Aagaard, Kjersti M; Suter, Melissa A

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is associated with alterations in thyroid hormone (TH) levels in obese, pregnant individuals. The maintenance of TH levels throughout gestation is important for proper foetal development. The aim of this study was to measure levels of fT3, fT4 and TSH in maternal and matched cord blood serum from normal weight, overweight and obese gravidae to determine alterations in maternal and neonatal TH levels by virtue of maternal obesity. ELISA was utilized to measure fT3, fT4 and TSH levels from banked, matched maternal and neonatal (cord blood) serum (N = 205 matched pairs). Data were stratified according to prepregnancy or first trimester BMI. Both maternal and neonatal fT3 levels consistently increased with increasing maternal obesity, and maternal and neonatal fT3 were significantly correlated (r = 0·422, P < 0·001). Maternal and neonatal fT3 were also significantly associated with birthweight (β = 0·155, P = 0·027 and β = 0·171, P = 0·018, respectively). Both the maternal and neonatal fT3 to fT4 ratio significantly increased with increasing maternal obesity. We further found that excess gestational weight gain was associated with a decrease in maternal fT4 compared with gravidae who had insufficient gestational weight gain (0·86 ± 0·17 vs 0·95 ± 0·22, P < 0·01). Maternal obesity is not only associated with maternal alterations in TH, but with accompanying neonatal changes. Because both maternal obesity and alterations in TH levels are associated with childhood obesity, based on these findings and our prior analyses in a nonhuman primate model, we propose that changes in fT3 levels in the offspring of obese mothers may be a potential molecular mediator of foetal overgrowth and childhood obesity. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Endocrinology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain.

  19. Cannabis use is associated with increased CCL11 plasma levels in young healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Scoriels, Linda; Theegala, Swathi; Giro, Maria; Ozanne, Susan E; Burling, Keith; Jones, Peter B

    2013-10-01

    Cannabis is a widely used recreational drug. Its effect on human health and psychosis remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility that cannabis use influenced CCL11 plasma levels. Increased CCL11 chemokine has been reported in schizophrenia and cannabis is a known trigger of schizophrenia. Additionally, plasma levels of the chemokine CCL11 have recently been shown to increase with age and with cognitive deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis. For this study, a total of 87 healthy volunteers (68% men, age range 18-35 years) completed the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire that included information on sociodemographic and morphometric data and provided a blood sample for CCL11 measurement. 'Current users' of cannabis (n=18) had significantly higher CCL11 plasma levels compared to 'past users' (n=33) and 'never users' (n=36) [F(3,84)=3.649; p=0.030]. The latter two groups had similar CCL11 levels. Higher CCL11 plasma levels could not be attributed to gender, age, body mass index, physical activity or use of other legal/illegal drugs. These results suggest that cannabis use increases CCL11 plasma levels and the effects are reversible when cannabis use ceases. © 2013.

  20. RANTES release by human airway smooth muscle: effects of prostaglandin E(2) and fenoterol.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, N; Belvisi, M G; Patel, H J; Chung, K F; Yacoub, M H; Mitchell, J A

    2001-12-21

    In human airway smooth muscle cells, the levels of RANTES were increased upon stimulation with interleukin-1beta together with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (10 ng ml(-1) for each). In this study, we have assessed the effects of prostaglandin E(2) and the beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, fenoterol on RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) release by these cells. The levels of RANTES released by human airway smooth muscle cells were measured after 24 h of treatment. Prostaglandin E(2) and fenoterol, only in presence of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10(-6) M), provoked a concentration-dependent reduction in RANTES release. These data suggest that, in settings where cyclo-oxygenase activity is low, both drugs may relieve the symptoms of airway diseases by reducing RANTES production.

  1. Acute psychological stress increases plasma levels of cortisol, prolactin and TSH.

    PubMed

    Schedlowski, M; Wiechert, D; Wagner, T O; Tewes, U

    1992-01-01

    The effects of acute stress during a parachute jump on hormonal responses were studied in 12 experienced and 11 inexperienced military parachutists. Each subject performed two jumps. Prior to and immediately after each jump blood samples were drawn and analysed for plasma levels of cortisol, prolactin, thyrotropin (TSH), somatotropin (STH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). While there was a significant increase in cortisol, prolactin and TSH levels after both jumps, no alterations could be observed in STH and LH levels. Stress-induced hormonal responses were not affected by jump experience. There was also no association between the endocrine variables and anxiety scores.

  2. The comparison of microdose flare-up and multiple dose antagonist protocols based on hCG day estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and P/E2 ratio among poor responder patients in ICSI-ET cycles.

    PubMed

    Cicek, M N; Kahyaoglu, I; Kahyaoglu, S

    2015-02-01

    Elevated progesterone levels surpassing exact treshold values impede endometrial receptivity and decrease clinical pregnancy rates in different responder patients during assisted reproductive techniques. A progesterone (P): estradiol (E2) ratio of > 1 on the day of hCG administration has also been suggested to be a manifestation of low ovarian reserve. The clinical significance of P/E2 ratio on the day of hCG administration was investigated among poor responder patients. Based on the ESHRE Bologna consensus criteria related to poor ovarian response diagnosis, 48 poor responder patients were treated with the microdose flare-up regimen and 34 patients were treated with the multiple-dose GnRH antagonist protocol. All patients were destined to perform a ICSI-ET procedure at the end of the stimulation protocols. Progesterone levels and P/E2 ratios have been detected during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. In the microdose flare-up group; the duration of stimulation, total gonadotropin dose used and hCG day E2 levels were significantly higher than the multiple dose antagonist group. However, the mean hCG day P/E2 rate in the microdose flare-up group was less than that in the multiple-dose antagonist group. The clinical pregnancy rates were non significantly higher in the multiple dose antagonist protocol group than in microdose flare-up group. Impaired endometrial receptivity caused by elevated P levels results with lower pregnancy rates. Regardless of the selected stimulation protocol, poor responder patients are not prone to exhibit high P and E2 secretion. Increased P/E2 ratio of > 1 on hCG day has limited value to predict cycle outcomes in poor responder patients because of ovarian follicle depletion.

  3. Plasma Chemerin Levels Are Increased in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients with High Thrombus Burden.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Ahmet Hakan; Arslan, Uğur; Aksakal, Aytekin; Yanık, Ahmet; Özdemir, Metin; Kul, Selim

    2018-01-01

    To investigate plasma chemerin levels in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients and find out possible relationships between plasma chemerin levels and angiographic characteristics. Ninety-seven consecutive patients who presented with STEMI and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with coronary stents were enrolled, and 30 age- and sex-matched patients with stable angina pectoris who underwent coronary angiography formed the control group. Angiographic characteristics of the patients including thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) thrombus and Gensini scores were noted. Blood samples were taken to detect several biochemical markers including plasma chemerin levels at the admission to hospital. Serum chemerin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly increased in patients with STEMI. Among STEMI patients, serum chemerin levels were significantly higher in patients with high thrombus burden (581.5 ± 173.7 versus 451.3 ± 101.2 mg/dL, p < 0.001). CRP levels and peak creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels were higher, and left ventricular ejection fraction and post-PCI TIMI flow were lower in patients with high thrombus burden. After multivariate analysis, serum chemerin levels were also higher in patients with high thrombus grade (odds ratio: 1.009 (1.005-1.014), p < 0.001). Besides, serum chemerin levels were also found to be significantly correlated with CRP ( r =0.47, p < 0.001) and peak CK-MB ( r =0.376, p < 0.001) levels. Results from our study have demonstrated for the first time that chemerin levels were higher in STEMI patients with greater thrombus burden and higher level of inflammation.

  4. Volatile organic compounds in runners near a roadway: increased blood levels after short-duration exercise.

    PubMed

    Blair, C; Walls, J; Davies, N W; Jacobson, G A

    2010-08-01

    To determine if non-elite athletes undertaking short duration running exercise adjacent to a busy roadway experience increased blood levels of common pollutant volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX)). The study was observational in design. Participants (nine males/one female non-elite athletes) ran for 20 min, near a busy roadway along a 100 m defined course at their own pace. Blood levels of BTEX were determined both pre- and post-exercise by SPME-GC-MS. Environmental BTEX levels were determined by passive adsorption samplers. Subjects completed a mean (range) distance of 4.4 (3.4 to 5.2) km over 20 min (4.5 (3.8 to 5.9) min/km pace), with a mean (SD) exercise intensity of 93 (2.3)% HR(max), and mean (SD) ventilation significantly elevated compared with resting levels (86.2 (2.3) vs 8.7 (0.9) l/min; p<0.001). The mean (SD) environmental levels (time weighted average) were determined as 53.1 (4.2), 428 (83), and 80.0 (3.7) microg/m(3) for toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, respectively, while benzene was below the detectable limit due to the short exposure period. Significant increases in blood BTEX levels were observed in runners between pre- and postexercise for toluene (mean increase of 1.4 ng/ml; p=0.002), ethylbenzene (0.7 ng/ml; p=0.0003), m/p-xylene (2.0 ng/ml; p=0.004) and o-xylene (1.1 ng/ml; p=0.002), but no change was observed for benzene. Blood BTEX levels are increased during high-intensity exercise such as running undertaken in areas with BTEX pollution, even with a short duration of exercise. This may have health implications for runners who regularly exercise near roadways.

  5. Effects of increased levels of atmospheric CO2 and high temperatures on rice growth and quality

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad Ahmed; Wang, Song-he; Xiong, Xiang-yang; Wan, Yun-fan

    2017-01-01

    The increased atmospheric temperatures resulting from the increased concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have had a profound influence on global rice production. China serves as an important area for producing and consuming rice. Therefore, exploring the effects of the simultaneously rising levels of atmospheric CO2 and temperatures on rice growth and quality in the future is very important. The present study was designed to measure the most important aspects of variation for rice-related physiological, ecological and quality indices in different growing periods under a simultaneous increase of CO2 and temperature, through simulation experiments in climate-controlled growth chambers, with southern rice as the study object. The results indicated that the ecological indices, rice phenology, and leaf area would decrease under a simultaneous increase of CO2 and temperature. For the physiological indices, Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased significantly in the seedling period. However, it showed the trend of increase and subsequent decrease in the heading and filling periods. In addition, the decomposition of soluble protein (SP) and soluble sugar (SS) accelerated in filling period. The rice quality index of the Head Rice Rate showed the decreasing trend and subsequent increase, but the Chalky Rice Rate and Protein Content indices gradually decreased while the Gel Consistency gradually increased. PMID:29145420

  6. Increased Serum Al Levels in Hemodialysis Patients Kept Enhanced during a 2-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Reina de la Torre, Maria L; Lopez García de la Serrana, Herminia; Martí Del Moral, Loreto; Palomares Bayo, Magdalena; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    The regulation of mineral homeostasis is altered in hemodialysis patients with renal insufficiency, producing increased risk for secondary diseases like cardiovascular ones. We hypothesized that risen serum aluminum (Al) concentration in hemodialysis patients kept enhanced during a 2-year longitudinal study is associated with enhanced cardiovascular risk and influenced by medical treatments. This study reports the prospective monitoring of serum Al levels in six-monthly samplings over 2 years in 116 hemodialysis patients and a control group of 50 healthy adults. The influence of other factors like sex, age, kidney transplant, disease etiology, and drug consumption was also considered. At each sampling, serum Al levels were significantly higher in the patients than in the healthy controls (P < 0.05). Levels in the patient group were statistically significantly lower at the third and fourth versus first and second samplings, which may be related to Al accumulation in tissues. Increased Al levels in patients were positively and significantly related to serum calcium (Ca) and uric acid levels. Serum Al concentrations were significantly lower in patients receiving vasodilators and diuretics. Higher serum Al levels in hemodialyzed patients administered with phosphate binders or anti-hyperkalemics are attributable to their usual Al salt content. The consumption of antianemic drugs increases Al absorption by forming more bioavailable complexes with the compounds in these drugs. In conclusion, this is the first study to indicate that cardiovascular problems associated with elevated serum Al levels in hemodialysis patients may be in part mitigated by administrating vasodilators and diuretics, which reduce these levels.

  7. Increased Levels of Rictor Prevent Mutant Huntingtin-Induced Neuronal Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Creus-Muncunill, Jordi; Rué, Laura; Alcalá-Vida, Rafael; Badillos-Rodríguez, Raquel; Romaní-Aumedes, Joan; Marco, Sonia; Alberch, Jordi; Perez-Otaño, Isabel; Malagelada, Cristina; Pérez-Navarro, Esther

    2018-02-19

    Rictor associates with mTOR to form the mTORC2 complex, which activity regulates neuronal function and survival. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the presence of neuronal dysfunction and cell death in specific brain regions such as for example Huntington's disease (HD), which is characterized by the loss of striatal projection neurons leading to motor dysfunction. Although HD is caused by the expression of mutant huntingtin, cell death occurs gradually suggesting that neurons have the capability to activate compensatory mechanisms to deal with neuronal dysfunction and later cell death. Here, we analyzed whether mTORC2 activity could be altered by the presence of mutant huntingtin. We observed that Rictor levels are specifically increased in the striatum of HD mouse models and in the putamen of HD patients. Rictor-mTOR interaction and the phosphorylation levels of Akt, one of the targets of the mTORC2 complex, were increased in the striatum of the R6/1 mouse model of HD suggesting increased mTORC2 signaling. Interestingly, acute downregulation of Rictor in striatal cells in vitro reduced mTORC2 activity, as shown by reduced levels of phospho-Akt, and increased mutant huntingtin-induced cell death. Accordingly, overexpression of Rictor increased mTORC2 activity counteracting cell death. Furthermore, normalization of endogenous Rictor levels in the striatum of R6/1 mouse worsened motor symptoms suggesting an induction of neuronal dysfunction. In conclusion, our results suggest that increased Rictor striatal levels could counteract neuronal dysfunction induced by mutant huntingtin.

  8. Testosterone-induced increase of insulin-like growth factor I levels depends upon normal levels of growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Saggese, G; Cesaretti, G; Franchi, G; Startari, L

    1996-08-01

    Pubertal development is associated with a rise in plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels that is related both to the increase in sex steroids and/or to the sex steroid-induced augmentation in endogenous growth hormone (GH) secretion. In order to investigate the relationship between IGF-I, GH and testosterone, we examined 42 male subjects with various clinical conditions (classical GH deficiency (CGHD, N = 5), non-classical GH deficiency (NCGHD, N = 7), short idiopathic stature (N = 6), nutritional obesity (N = 8), GH-treated CGHD (N = 4), GH-treated NCGHD (N = 5) and normal stature (N = 7)) in which , for evaluation of hypogonadism (i.e. the absence of one or both testes from the scrotal sac), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) tests were performed. We measured IGF-I, total and free testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) by radioimmunoassays before and 48 and 96 h after the start of the test. The values of IGF-I were lower (0.001 < p < 0.005) in CGHD and NCGHD than in the other groups. In comparison to basal levels, IGF-I values increased (0.005 < p < 0.05) both 48 and 96 h after the start of the hCG test in short idiopathic and normal stature children and in GH-treated subjects with NCGHD, but only 96 h in subjects with untreated NCGHD and GH-treated CGHD. No difference was demonstrated in basal values of total testosterone among any of the groups, while basal free testosterone levels were higher (0.001 < p < 0.05) in GH-treated subjects with NCGHD than in all the other groups except nutritional obesity; furthermore, free testosterone was higher (p < 0.05) in nutritional obesity than in CGHD. The values of total and free testosterone obtained both 48 and 96 h after the start of the hCG test were higher (0.001 < p < 0.05) than basal values in all groups. The DHEAS values did not show any significant change during the hCG test. Basal values were higher (0.01 < p < 0.05) in nutritional obesity than in the other groups. Considering all

  9. Short-term cooling increases serum triglycerides and small high-density lipoprotein levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Hoeke, Geerte; Nahon, Kimberly J; Bakker, Leontine E H; Norkauer, Sabine S C; Dinnes, Donna L M; Kockx, Maaike; Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Drettwan, Diana; Reifel-Miller, Anne; Coskun, Tamer; Pagel, Philipp; Romijn, Fred P H T M; Cobbaert, Christa M; Jazet, Ingrid M; Martinez, Laurent O; Kritharides, Leonard; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N

    Cold exposure and β3-adrenergic receptor agonism, which both activate brown adipose tissue, markedly influence lipoprotein metabolism by enhancing lipoprotein lipase-mediated catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and functionality in mice. However, the effect of short-term cooling on human lipid and lipoprotein metabolism remained largely elusive. The objective was to assess the effect of short-term cooling on the serum lipoprotein profile and HDL functionality in men. Body mass index-matched young, lean men were exposed to a personalized cooling protocol for 2 hours. Before and after cooling, serum samples were collected for analysis of lipids and lipoprotein composition by 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1)-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL was measured using [ 3 H]cholesterol-loaded ABCA1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Short-term cooling increased serum levels of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Cooling increased the concentration of large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles accompanied by increased mean size of VLDL particles. In addition, cooling enhanced the concentration of small LDL and small HDL particles as well as the cholesterol levels within these particles. The increase in small HDL was accompanied by increased ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in vitro. Our data show that short-term cooling increases the concentration of large VLDL particles and increases the generation of small LDL and HDL particles. We interpret that cooling increases VLDL production and turnover, which results in formation of surface remnants that form small HDL particles that attract cellular cholesterol. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Cholesterol Metabolism, Adipokines and PPARγ Levels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinfeng; Dong, Huansheng; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Mingjun; Song, Lili; Pan, Qingjie; Bulmer, Andrew; Adams, David B.; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moderate elevations in bilirubin levels have anti-diabetic effects. This study is aimed at determining the mechanisms by which bilirubin treatment reduces obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. DIO mice were treated with bilirubin or vehicle for 14 days. Body weights, plasma glucose, and insulin tolerance tests were performed prior to, immediately, and 7 weeks post-treatment. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, total and direct bilirubin levels were measured. Expression of factors involved in adipose metabolism including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), insulin receptor (IR), and PPARγ in liver were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared to controls, bilirubin-treated mice exhibited reductions in body weight, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), leptin, total and direct bilirubin, and increases in adiponectin and expression of SREBP-1, IR, and PPARγ mRNA. The improved metabolic control achieved by bilirubin-treated mice was persistent: at two months after treatment termination, bilirubin-treated DIO mice remained insulin sensitive with lower leptin and higher adiponectin levels, together with increased PPARγ expression. These results indicate that bilirubin regulates cholesterol metabolism, adipokines and PPARγ levels, which likely contribute to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice. PMID:26017184

  11. Legumes increase growth and alter foliar nutrient levels of black walnut saplings

    J.W. Van Sambeek; Felix Jr. Ponder; W.J. Rietveld

    1986-01-01

    Differences in herbaceous competition, growth, soil, and foliar nutrient levels were compared for black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) saplings growing on an upland and a bottomland site in southern Illinois, with covers of five different herbaceous legumes or naturally occurring forbs. Hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa Roth. ) increased...

  12. Do Increased Levels of Parental Involvement Account for Social Class Differences in Track Placement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean

    This paper attempts to determine whether increased levels of involvement among socially advantaged parents accounts for children's track placements. Research has shown that students of higher social classes have a greater advantage in attaining placement in elite math sequences. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (1988) was…

  13. Increased cancer cell proliferation in prostate cancer patients with high levels of serum folate

    Introduction: A recent clinical trial revealed that folic acid supplementation is associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer (1). The present study evaluates serum and prostate tissue folate levels in men with prostate cancer, compared to histologically normal prostate glands from can...

  14. Rapid increase in atmospheric iodine levels in the North Atlantic since the mid-20th century.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Carlos A; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Corella, Juan Pablo; Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Kjær, Helle A; Simonsen, Marius; Winstrup, Mai; Vinther, Bo; Horvat, Christopher; Fernandez, Rafael P; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-François; Barbante, Carlo; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2018-04-13

    Atmospheric iodine causes tropospheric ozone depletion and aerosol formation, both of which have significant climate impacts, and is an essential dietary element for humans. However, the evolution of atmospheric iodine levels at decadal and centennial scales is unknown. Here, we report iodine concentrations in the RECAP ice-core (coastal East Greenland) to investigate how atmospheric iodine levels in the North Atlantic have evolved over the past 260 years (1750-2011), this being the longest record of atmospheric iodine in the Northern Hemisphere. The levels of iodine tripled from 1950 to 2010. Our results suggest that this increase is driven by anthropogenic ozone pollution and enhanced sub-ice phytoplankton production associated with the recent thinning of Arctic sea ice. Increasing atmospheric iodine has accelerated ozone loss and has considerably enhanced iodine transport and deposition to the Northern Hemisphere continents. Future climate and anthropogenic forcing may continue to amplify oceanic iodine emissions with potentially significant health and environmental impacts at global scale.

  15. Subliminal gaze cues increase preference levels for items in the gaze direction.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Takashi; Masaki, Syuta

    2017-08-29

    Another individual's gaze automatically shifts an observer's attention to a location. This reflexive response occurs even when the gaze is presented subliminally over a short period. Another's gaze also increases the preference level for items in the gaze direction; however, it was previously unclear if this effect occurs when the gaze is presented subliminally. This study showed that the preference levels for nonsense figures looked at by a subliminal gaze were significantly greater than those for items that were subliminally looked away from (Task 1). Targets that were looked at by a subliminal gaze were detected faster (Task 2); however, the participants were unable to detect the gaze direction (Task 3). These results indicate that another individual's gaze automatically increases the preference levels for items in the gaze direction without conscious awareness.

  16. Global increasing of mean sea level and erroneous treatment of a role of thermal factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite methods of studies of the ocean surface - methods of altimetry - have been obtained intensive development in the last decades (since 1993). However, altimetry studies with the help of special satellites such as TOPEX-Poseidon not only have not cleared up understanding of the phenomenon of increase of sea level (SLR), but have even more confused and without that a complex question on the reasons of increase of sea level. Appeared, that classical determinations of average velocity of increase of sea level on coastal observations (1.4-1.7 mm / yr) approximately for 0.8-1.0 mm / yr it is less, rather than by modern satellite determinations of satellites TOPEX - Poseidon etc. (2.5 - 2.8 mm / yr). On the basis of the data of altimetry observations of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason for the period 1993-2003 for geocentric velocity of increase of sea level (of global ocean) the value 2.8+/-0.4 mm / yr [1] has been obtained. In the given report the full answer is actually is given to a question put by leading experts on research of the sea level: "The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeter missions provided a 12 year record of sea level change, which show increase of global mean sea level of 2.8+/-0.4 mm/yr, with considerable geographic variation. An important question for climate studies is to determine the cause of this change - specifically how much of the change is due to steric (heating) versus eustatic (runoff, melting ice, etc.) contribution?" [1]. There is, a big value of average velocity of increase of the sea level on the satellite data, it is possible to explain only by kinematical effect in data of observations. The motion of the satellite "is concerned" to the centre of mass of our planet, and its position is determined by a geocentric radius - vector. Therefore northern drift of the centre of mass in the Earth body [2] as though results in reduction of distances from the satellite up to the sea surface in the southern hemisphere and to their reduction

  17. INCREASES IN CYTOSOLIC CALCIUM ION LEVELS IN HUMAN NATURAL KILLER CELLS IN RESPONSE TO BUTYLTIN EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Rhonda; Ghazi, Sabah O.; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether exposures to butyltins (BTs), tributylin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) were able to alter cytosolic calcium levels in human natural killer (NK) cells. Additionally, the effects of cytosolic calcium ion increases on the activation state of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in NK cells were also investigated. NK cells are an intital immune defense against the development of tumors or viral infections. TBT and DBT are widespread environmental contaminants, due to their various industrial applications. Both TBT and DBT have been shown to decrease the ability of NK cells to lyse tumor cells (lytic function). TBT has also been shown to activate MAPKs in NK cells. The results of this study indicated that TBT increased cytosolic calcium levels by as much as 100% after a 60 min exposure to 500 nM TBT while DBT increased cytosolic calcium levels to a much smaller extent (and required higher concentrations). The results also indicated that increases in cytosolic calcium could activate MAPKs but only for a short period of time (5 min), while previous studies showed that activation of MAPKs by TBT last for at least 6 hours. Thus, it appears that TBT stimulated increases in cytosolic calcium may contribute to, but are not fully responsible for, TBT-induced activation of MAPKs. PMID:19365649

  18. Increased levels of ambient fungal spores in Taiwan are associated with dust events from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pei-Chih; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Li, Fang-Chun; Lung, Shih-Chun; Su, Huey-Jen

    2004-09-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in nature and their spores are often dispersed into the atmosphere through turbulent airstreams. As yellow sandstorm blown from deserts in China had affected the ambient air quality with increasing levels of ambient particulates, often including significant amounts of biologically active particles has therefore become imperative for concerns of their health implications. Our study was aimed to examine the effects of yellow sandstorm events on the fungal composition and concentrations in ambient air. Atmospheric fungal spores were continuously collected using Burkard Volumetric Spore Trap. Samples collected between December 2000 and April 2001 were selected for priority analysis from days when the yellow sandstorms were reported to affect Taiwan according to the Central Weather Bureau in Taiwan. The composition of dominant spores such as Basidiospore, Penicillium/Aspergillus, Nigrospora, Arthrinium, Curvularia, Rusts, Stemphylium, Cercospora, Pithomyces, and unidentified fungi were significantly higher than those of background days. The increase of Basidiospore, Penicillium/Aspergillus, Nigrospora, and those unidentified fungi seems to be significantly associated with the increase of ambient particulate levels with regression coefficients ranging from 0.887 to 31.98. Our study has identified increasing ambient concentrations during sandstorm episodes are observed for some major fungi, Basidiospore, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and those unidentified fungi and the trends of the increase seems to associate with ambient particulate levels. Further efforts to clarify the relationship between those high fungal spore exposures and clinical adverse health effects are suggested in the future. In addition, effects of climatic factors and other particulate levels on the variation of ambient fungal spore levels are also desired in further study. Additional monitoring of ambient fungal spores in the first line of west coastline is hoped to assist in

  19. Oral uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) increases brain CDP-choline levels in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Cansev, Mehmet; Watkins, Carol J; van der Beek, Eline M; Wurtman, Richard J

    2005-10-05

    We examined the biochemical pathways whereby oral uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) increases membrane phosphatide synthesis in brains of gerbils. We previously showed that supplementing PC12 cells with uridine caused concentration-related increases in CDP-choline levels, and that this effect was mediated by elevations in intracellular uridine triphosphate (UTP) and cytidine triphosphate (CTP). In the present study, adult gerbils received UMP (1 mmol/kg), a constituent of human breast milk and infant formulas, by gavage, and plasma samples and brains were collected for assay between 5 min and 8 h thereafter. Thirty minutes after gavage, plasma uridine levels were increased from 6.6 +/- 0.58 to 32.7 +/- 1.85 microM (P < 0.001), and brain uridine from 22.6 +/- 2.9 to 89.1 +/- 8.82 pmol/mg tissue (P < 0.001). UMP also significantly increased plasma and brain cytidine levels; however, both basally and following UMP, these levels were much lower than those of uridine. Brain UTP, CTP, and CDP-choline were all elevated 15 min after UMP (from 254 +/- 31.9 to 417 +/- 50.2, [P < 0.05]; 56.8 +/- 1.8 to 71.7 +/- 1.8, [P < 0.001]; and 11.3 +/- 0.5 to 16.4 +/- 1, [P < 0.001] pmol/mg tissue, respectively), returning to basal levels after 20 and 30 min. The smallest UMP dose that significantly increased brain CDP-choline was 0.05 mmol/kg. These results show that oral UMP, a uridine source, enhances the synthesis of CDP-choline, the immediate precursor of PC, in gerbil brain.

  20. Increased Prolactin Levels Are Associated with Impaired Processing Speed in Subjects with Early Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with <3 years of illness, 23 high-risk subjects). Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery, and prolactin levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines) recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population. PMID:24586772

  1. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with <3 years of illness, 23 high-risk subjects). Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery, and prolactin levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines) recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  2. Effect of increasing dietary fiber on plasma levels of colon-derived solutes in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sirich, Tammy L; Plummer, Natalie S; Gardner, Christopher D; Hostetter, Thomas H; Meyer, Timothy W

    2014-09-05

    Numerous uremic solutes are derived from the action of colon microbes. Two such solutes, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate, have been associated with adverse outcomes in renal failure. This study tested whether increasing dietary fiber in the form of resistant starch would lower the plasma levels of these solutes in patients on hemodialysis. Fifty-six patients on maintenance hemodialysis were randomly assigned to receive supplements containing resistant starch (n=28) or control starch (n=28) daily for 6 weeks in a study conducted between October 2010 and May 2013. Of these, 40 patients (20 in each group) completed the study and were included in the final analysis. Plasma indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate levels were measured at baseline and week 6. Increasing dietary fiber for 6 weeks significantly reduced the unbound, free plasma level of indoxyl sulfate (median -29% [25th percentile, 75th percentile, -56, -12] for fiber versus -0.4% [-20, 34] for control, P=0.02). The reduction in free plasma levels of indoxyl sulfate was accompanied by a reduction in free plasma levels of p-cresol sulfate (r=0.81, P<0.001). However, the reduction of p-cresol sulfate levels was of lesser magnitude and did not achieve significance (median -28% [-46, 5] for fiber versus 4% [-28, 36] for control, P=0.05). Increasing dietary fiber in hemodialysis patients may reduce the plasma levels of the colon-derived solutes indoxyl sulfate and possibly p-cresol sulfate without the need to intensify dialysis treatments. Further studies are required to determine whether such reduction provides clinical benefits. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Tetrodotoxin levels of the rough-skin newt, Taricha granulosa, increase in long-term captivity.

    PubMed

    Hanifin, Charles T; Brodie, Edmund D; Brodie, Edmund D

    2002-08-01

    We investigated the persistence of the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) in individual captive newts (Taricha granulosa) from the Willamette Valley of Oregon using a non-lethal sampling technique. We found that the TTX levels of newts held in the laboratory for 1 yr increased. TTX stereoisomer-analog profiles were not affected by captive husbandry. Levels of TTX were high in newts from our study population and we observed substantial within population variation in quantitative levels of TTX. Females possessed more TTX than males, but the response of TTX levels to captivity did not differ between females and males. The stability of TTX toxicity in newts is consistent with other amphibian species where TTX is present and may indicate that exogenous factors play a less important role in TTX toxicity of newts than previously thought.

  4. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-09-08

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0-10) was reduced to zero, but the elevated insulin requirements continued for 4 weeks after the injection. This finding suggests that steroid injections for shoulder pain in diabetics may not always be as safe as previously thought. We propose that medical practitioners advise their patients to monitor their glucose levels more carefully after such injections and that caution is exercised when considering administrating these injections to those who have poorly controlled blood glucose levels preinjection to avoid ketoacidosis. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Cyclic AMP agonist inhibition increases at low levels of histamine release from human basophils

    SciT

    Tung, R.S.; Lichtenstein, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    The relationship between the intensity of the signal for antigen-induced immunoglobulin E-mediated histamine release from human basophils and the concentration of agonist needed to inhibit release has been determined. The agonists, prostaglandin E1, dimaprit, fenoterol, isobutylmethylxanthine and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, all act by increasing the cyclic AMP level. Each agonist was 10- to 1000-fold more potent (relative ID50) at low levels of histamine release (5-10% of total histamine) than at high levels (50-80%). Thus, the inhibitory potential of a drug is a function of the concentration of antigen used to initiate the response. Our results are now more in accordmore » with the inhibitory profile of these drugs in human lung tissue. It is suggested that in vivo release is likely to be low and that this is the level at which to evaluate drugs in vitro.« less

  6. Increased cerebrospinal fluid complement C5 levels in major depressive disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takashi; Hattori, Kotaro; Miyakawa, Tomoko; Watanabe, Kentaro; Hidese, Shinsuke; Sasayama, Daimei; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Sumiko; Nunomura, Akihiko; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-03-04

    Inflammation has been implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders. We aimed to determine whether levels of complement C5 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which may reflect activation of the complement system in the brain, are altered in patients with major psychiatric disorders. Additionally, we examined possible associations of CSF C5 levels with clinical variables. Subjects comprised 89 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 66 patients with bipolar disorder (BPD), 96 patients with schizophrenia, and 117 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and ethnicity (Japanese). Diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, criteria. CSF C5 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CSF C5 levels were significantly increased in the patients with MDD (p < 0.001) and in the patients with schizophrenia (p = 0.001), compared with the healthy controls. The rate of individuals with an "abnormally high C5 level" (i.e., above the 95th percentile value of the control subjects) was significantly increased in all psychiatric groups, relative to the control group (all p < 0.01). Older age, male sex, and greater body mass index tended to associate with higher C5 levels. There was a significantly positive correlation between C5 levels and chlorpromazine-equivalent dose in the patients with schizophrenia. Thus, we found, for the first time, elevated C5 levels in the CSF of patients with major psychiatric disorders. Our results suggest that the activated complement system may contribute to neurological pathogenesis in a portion of patients with major psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased levels of serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 in haemodialysis patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Toshihide; Sugimura, Kazunobu; Uchida, Junji; Tashiro, Koichiro; Yoshimura, Rikio; Takemoto, Yoshiaki; Nakatani, Tatsuya

    2008-04-01

    It is recognized that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is abundantly expressed in active rheumatoid synovium, and that serum level of MMP-3 is a useful marker for diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and for evaluation of prognosis in joint destruction. Little is known about serum MMP-3 levels in haemodialysis (HD) patients, and thus, the association between serum MMP-3 and dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA) has yet to be elucidated. Serum levels of MMP-3 were measured by enzyme immunoassay in 150 HD patients, 90 without DRA and 60 with DRA, before HD. Simple regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between serum level of MMP-3 and clinical parameters, including age, HD duration, C-reactive protein and beta2 microglobulin (BMG). Serum levels of MMP-3 were significantly higher in HD patients with DRA than in HD patients without DRA (258.2 +/- 118.1 vs 201.5 +/- 98.4 pg/mL, P = 0.0017), and both levels were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (45.6 +/- 13.4 pg/mL, P < 0.0001). Serum MMP-3 levels significantly correlated with serum levels of BMG (r = 0.197, P = 0.0164) and HD duration (r = 0.168, P = 0.0427). Moreover, serum MMP-3 levels significantly correlated with serum BMG levels in HD patients without DRA (r = 0.341, P = 0.0012), but not in HD patients with DRA. Our results suggest that matrix metalloproteinase activity increases in HD patients, which may be associated with BMG and DRA.

  8. Low oxygen level increases proliferation and metabolic changes in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Shiratsuki, Shogo; Hara, Tomotaka; Munakata, Yasuhisa; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-12-05

    The present study addresses molecular backgrounds underlying low oxygen induced metabolic changes and 1.2-fold change in bovine granulosa cell (GCs) proliferation. RNA-seq revealed that low oxygen (5%) upregulated genes associated with HIF-1 and glycolysis and downregulated genes associated with mitochondrial respiration than that in high oxygen level (21%). Low oxygen level induced high glycolytic activity and low mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Low oxygen level enhanced GC proliferation with high expression levels of HIF-1, VEGF, AKT, mTOR, and S6RP, whereas addition of anti-VEGF antibody decreased cellular proliferation with low phosphorylated AKT and mTOR expression levels. Low oxygen level reduced SIRT1, whereas activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol increased mitochondrial replication and decreased cellular proliferation with reduction of phosphorylated mTOR. These results suggest that low oxygen level stimulates the HIF1-VEGF-AKT-mTOR pathway and up-regulates glycolysis, which contributes to GC proliferation, and downregulation of SIRT1 contributes to hypoxia-associated reduction of mitochondria and cellular proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Methodology for Prototyping Increased Levels of Automation for Spacecraft Rendezvous Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy J.; Valasek, John

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle necessitates higher levels of automation than previous NASA vehicles, due to program requirements for automation, including Automated Rendezvous and Docking. Studies of spacecraft development often point to the locus of decision-making authority between humans and computers (i.e. automation) as a prime driver for cost, safety, and mission success. Therefore, a critical component in the Crew Exploration Vehicle development is the determination of the correct level of automation. To identify the appropriate levels of automation and autonomy to design into a human space flight vehicle, NASA has created the Function-specific Level of Autonomy and Automation Tool. This paper develops a methodology for prototyping increased levels of automation for spacecraft rendezvous functions. This methodology is used to evaluate the accuracy of the Function-specific Level of Autonomy and Automation Tool specified levels of automation, via prototyping. Spacecraft rendezvous planning tasks are selected and then prototyped in Matlab using Fuzzy Logic techniques and existing Space Shuttle rendezvous trajectory algorithms.

  10. Increased serum level of prolactin is related to autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Li, Q; Yang, X; Li, M

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is known to aid effector B cells and augment autoimmunity, but the role of PRL in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the serum levels of PRL and autoantibody production in SLE. Blood levels of PRL, anti-double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in samples from 30 adult patients with SLE and 25 healthy controls. The relationships between the serum level of PRL and SLE disease activity, as well as the titres of the ds-DNA antibody, IgM and IgG were determined. The serum level of PRL was higher in the SLE patients than in the healthy controls. PRL concentration increased during SLE flares-ups and decreased following disease remission. There was a positive correlation between the PRL concentration and serum levels of IgM, IgG and ds-DNA antibody titre. These data suggest that the serum level of PRL was closely related to the antibody production and disease activity of SLE patients. PRL concentration was dramatically reduced upon the remission of disease activity, indicating that PRL levels might be a promising predictor of SLE disease severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. A cost for high levels of sperm competition in rodents: increased sperm DNA fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition, a prevalent evolutionary process in which the spermatozoa of two or more males compete for the fertilization of the same ovum, leads to morphological and physiological adaptations, including increases in energetic metabolism that may serve to propel sperm faster but that may have negative effects on DNA integrity. Sperm DNA damage is associated with reduced rates of fertilization, embryo and fetal loss, offspring mortality, and mutations leading to genetic disease. We tested whether high levels of sperm competition affect sperm DNA integrity. We evaluated sperm DNA integrity in 18 species of rodents that differ in their levels of sperm competition using the sperm chromatin structure assay. DNA integrity was assessed upon sperm collection, in response to incubation under capacitating or non-capacitating conditions, and after exposure to physical and chemical stressors. Sperm DNA was very resistant to physical and chemical stressors, whereas incubation in non-capacitating and capacitating conditions resulted in only a small increase in sperm DNA damage. Importantly, levels of sperm competition were positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation across rodent species. This is the first evidence showing that high levels of sperm competition lead to an important cost in the form of increased sperm DNA damage. PMID:26936246

  12. Increased Cord Blood Betatrophin Levels in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shimin; Zhao, Yue; Du, Caiqi; Yuan, Guandou; Ning, Qin; McCormick, Kenneth; Luo, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Aim Exposing a fetus to hyperglycemia can increase the risk for later-life metabolic disorders. Betatrophin has been proposed as a key regulator of pancreatic beta cell proliferation and lipid regulation. Highly responsive to nutritional signals, serum betatrophin concentrations have been found to be altered by various physiological and pathological conditions. We hypothesized that betatrophin levels are increased in the cord blood in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including 54 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Cesarean delivery in a university hospital. Maternal gestational glucose concentration was determined at 24–48 weeks gestation after a 75-g OGTT. Cord blood and placental tissue was collected immediately post delivery. Metabolic parameters were determined in the Clinical Laboratory. Cord blood betatrophin levels were assayed using a commercially available ELISA kit. Placental mitochondrial content was determined by real-time PCR. Results Cord blood betatrophin levels were increased in the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) group compared with the normoglycemic group. Furthermore, betatrophin levels were positively correlated with maternal gestational 2h post-OGTT glucose, cord blood insulin, HOMA-IR, and inversely correlated with placental mitochondrial content. Conclusions Cord blood betatrophin may function as a potential biomarker of maternal intrauterine hyperglycemia and fetal insulin resistance, which may presage for long-term metabolic impact of GDM on offspring. PMID:27196053

  13. Atherosclerotic Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Is Associated With an Increase in Sclerostin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Santana, Sonia; García-Fontana, Beatriz; García-Martín, Antonia; Rozas-Moreno, Pedro; García-Salcedo, José Antonio; Reyes-García, Rebeca; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Wnt/β-catenin signaling is related to the pathogenesis of several diseases. Sclerostin is an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However, there are few data regarding the sclerostin levels and vascular disease. Our aim was to examine the relationship between serum sclerostin and atherosclerotic disease (AD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a cross-sectional study including 78 T2DM patients (45.3% females, mean age 59 ± 5.7 years; 54.7% males, 57.4 ± 6.7 years). RESULTS Serum sclerostin concentrations of T2DM patients in the AD group were significantly higher than in the non-AD group (P = 0.006). For each increase of 1 pmol/L in sclerostin level, there was a 4% increase of the risk of AD in T2DM patients. A concentration of ≥42.3 pmol/L showed a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 54.8% to detect an increased risk of AD. In males, sclerostin levels were higher in those with AD (P = 0.04), abnormal intima-media thickness (IMT) (P = 0.004), carotid plaques (P < 0.001), and aortic calcification (P < 0.001). In females, higher levels of sclerostin were related to abnormal IMT (P = 0.03) and aortic calcifications (P = 0.004). Homocysteine (β = 0.319 [95% CI 0.561–2.586], P = 0.003) and IMT (β = 0.330 [14.237–67.693], P = 0.003) were positively correlated with sclerostin. CONCLUSIONS Circulating sclerostin is increased in T2DM patients with atherosclerotic lesions. Although the sample size of our study was small, these data suggest that sclerostin levels could be a major modulator of Wnt signaling in AD with implications in T2DM patients. PMID:23288857

  14. Increased serum level of homocysteine correlates with retinal nerve fiber layer thinning in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Srivastav, Khushboo; Mahdi, Abbas A.; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Meyer, Carsten H.; Akduman, Levent; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the correlation between serum levels of vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine and the severity of diabetic retinopathy and the correlation with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods In a tertiary care center–based prospective cross-sectional study, 60 consecutive cases and 20 healthy controls in the age group of 40–65 years were included. The eyes of the cases were divided into three groups according to Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) classification: diabetes mellitus without retinopathy (n = 20), non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema (n = 20), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema (n = 20). The serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using a standard protocol. The serum homocysteine assay was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Average RNFL thickness was measured using SD-OCT. Statistical analysis was used to assess the correlations between the study variables. Results Increased severity of diabetic retinopathy was found to correlate with an increase in the serum levels of homocysteine (F = 53.79; p<0.001). The mean serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were found to be within the normal reference range. A positive correlation was found between retinal nerve fiber layer thinning and serum levels of homocysteine (p<0.001). Conclusions This study, for the first time, demonstrated a correlation between increased homocysteine with a decrease in RNFL thickness and increased severity of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27994434

  15. Leptin Aggravates Reflux Esophagitis by Increasing Tissue Levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Rats.

    PubMed

    Murata, Tsugihiro; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Ara, Nobuyuki; Iijima, Katsunori; Hatta, Waku; Hamada, Shin; Asano, Naoki; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2018-05-01

    Leptin, produced primarily by the adipose tissue, acts as a pro-inflammatory modulator, thereby contributing to the development of obesity-related disease. Although high levels of leptin in the obese are closely related to gastroesophageal reflux disease, the mechanism by which leptin influences esophageal inflammation remains unknown. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is produced by immune cells, such as T lymphocytes and macrophages, and MIF is known to induce the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). We therefore investigated the mechanism whereby leptin aggravates reflux esophagitis, by focusing on esophageal tissue levels of MIF and CD3+ T lymphocytes, both of which are crucial for the reflux-induced epithelial damage. Esophageal inflammation was surgically induced in male Wistar rats by ligating the forestomach and narrowing the duodenum to facilitate gastroesophageal reflux, followed by administration of leptin or vehicle with an osmotic pump system for 1 week. We demonstrated that the administration of leptin exacerbated the reflux esophagitis with the apparent infiltration of CD3+ T lymphocytes and caused the significant increase in the esophageal tissue levels of MIF. Moreover, the leptin caused increases in the esophageal tissue levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, downstream targets of MIF. Importantly, the increases in these pro-inflammatory cytokines were accompanied by increased protein levels of phospho-STAT3 and phospho-AKT, pivotal molecules of leptin signaling pathways. In conclusion, through enhancing the MIF-induced inflammatory signaling, leptin could contribute to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  16. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    SciT

    Mazière, Cécile, E-mail: maziere.cecile@chu-amiens.fr; Salle, Valéry; INSERM U1088

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level inmore » a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.« less

  17. Diffuse radiation increases global ecosystem-level water-use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, A. M.; Reichstein, M.; Cescatti, A.; Knohl, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Current environmental changes lead not only to rising atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperature but also to changes in air pollution and thus the light quality of the solar radiation reaching the land-surface. While rising CO2 levels are thought to enhance photosynthesis and closure of stomata, thus leading to relative water savings, the effect of diffuse radiation on transpiration by plants is less clear. It has been speculated that the stimulation of photosynthesis by increased levels of diffuse light may be counteracted by higher transpiration and consequently water depletion and drought stress. Ultimately, in water co-limited systems, the overall effect of diffuse radiation will depend on the sensitivity of canopy transpiration versus photosynthesis to diffuse light, i.e. whether water-use efficiency changes with relative levels of diffuse light. Our study shows that water-use efficiency increases significantly with higher fractions of diffuse light. It uses the ecosystem-atmosphere gas-exchange observations obtained with the eddy covariance method at 29 flux tower sites. In contrast to previous global studies, the analysis is based directly on measurements of diffuse radiation. Its effect on water-use efficiency was derived by analyzing the multivariate response of carbon and water fluxes to radiation and air humidity using a purely empirical approach based on artificial neural networks. We infer that per unit change of diffuse fraction the water-use efficiency increases up to 40% depending on diffuse fraction levels and ecosystem type. Hence, in regions with increasing diffuse radiation positive effects on primary production are expected even under conditions where water is co-limiting productivity.

  18. Increased levels of cerebrospinal fluid JNK3 associated with amyloid pathology: links to cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Gourmaud, Sarah; Paquet, Claire; Dumurgier, Julien; Pace, Clarisse; Bouras, Constantin; Gray, Françoise; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Meurs, Eliane F.; Mouton-Liger, François; Hugon, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Alzheimer disease is characterized by cognitive decline, senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated τ proteins and neuronal loss. Aβ and τ are useful markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases activated by phosphorylation and involved in neuronal death. Methods In this study, Western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and histological approaches were used to assess the concentrations of Aβ, τ and JNK isoforms in postmortem brain tissue samples (10 Alzheimer disease and 10 control) and in CSF samples from 30 living patients with Alzheimer disease and 27 controls with neurologic disease excluding Alzheimer disease. Patients with Alzheimer disease were followed for 1–3 years and assessed using Mini–Mental State Examination scores. Results The biochemical and morphological results showed a significant increase of JNK3 and phosphorylated JNK levels in patients with Alzheimer disease, and JNK3 levels correlated with Aβ42 levels. Confocal microscopy revealed that JNK3 was associated with Aβ in senile plaques. The JNK3 levels in the CSF were significantly elevated in patients with Alzheimer disease and correlated statistically with the rate of cognitive decline in a mixed linear model. Limitations The study involved different samples grouped into 3 small cohorts. Evaluation of JNK3 in CSF was possible only with immunoblot analysis. Conclusion We found that JNK3 levels are increased in brain tissue and CSF from patients with Alzheimer disease. The finding that increased JNK3 levels in CSF could reflect the rate of cognitive decline is new and merits further investigation. PMID:25455349

  19. Increased sorbitol levels in the hypertrophic ligamentum flavum of diabetic patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiaquan; Huang, Lu; Chen, Zhuo; Zeng, Zhaoxun; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Zhongzu; Pan, Zhimin; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hikata, Tomohiro; Iwanami, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi; Ishii, Ken; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Cao, Kai

    2017-05-01

    The pathomechanism of the ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy in diabetic patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) remains unclear. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism of LF hypertrophy in these patients. Twenty-four diabetic and 20 normoglycemic patients with LSCS were enrolled in the study. The structure of the LF in the study subjects was evaluated using histological and immunohistochemical methods, and the levels of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the fibrogenic factor, TGF-β1, in the LF were analyzed. In vitro experiments were performed using NIH3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate the effect of high-glucose conditions and an aldose reductase inhibitor on the cellular production of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory factors, and TGF-β1. We found that the LF of diabetic patients exhibited significantly higher levels of sorbitol and pro-inflammatory cytokines, TGF-β1 and of CD68-positive staining than that of the normoglycemic subjects. The diabetic LF was significantly thicker than that of the controls, and showed evidence of degeneration. The high glucose-cultured fibroblasts exhibited significantly higher levels of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory factors, and TGF-β1 compared to the low glucose-cultured cells, and these levels were dose-dependently reduced by treatment with the aldose reductase inhibitor. Taken together, our data suggests that increased sorbitol levels in the LF of diabetic patients results in increased production of pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic factor, which contribute to LF hypertrophy, and could increase the susceptibility of diabetic patients to LSCS. Furthermore, aldose reductase inhibition effectively reduced the levels of sorbitol and sorbitol-induced pro-inflammatory factor expression in high glucose-cultured fibroblasts. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1058-1066, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Suramin Inhibits Osteoarthritic Cartilage Degradation by Increasing Extracellular Levels of Chondroprotective Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 3.

    PubMed

    Chanalaris, Anastasios; Doherty, Christine; Marsden, Brian D; Bambridge, Gabriel; Wren, Stephen P; Nagase, Hideaki; Troeberg, Linda

    2017-10-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative joint disease for which no disease-modifying drugs are currently available. Attempts to treat the disease with small molecule inhibitors of the metalloproteinases that degrade the cartilage matrix have been hampered by a lack of specificity. We aimed to inhibit cartilage degradation by augmenting levels of the endogenous metalloproteinase inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3, through blocking its interaction with the endocytic scavenger receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). We discovered that suramin (C 51 H 40 N 6 O 23 S 6 ) bound to TIMP-3 with a K D value of 1.9 ± 0.2 nM and inhibited its endocytosis via LRP1, thus increasing extracellular levels of TIMP-3 and inhibiting cartilage degradation by the TIMP-3 target enzyme, adamalysin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5. NF279 (8,8'-[carbonyl bis (imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)] bis -1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid hexasodium salt), a structural analog of suramin, has an increased affinity for TIMP-3 and increased ability to inhibit TIMP-3 endocytosis and protect cartilage. Suramin is thus a promising scaffold for the development of novel therapeutics to increase TIMP-3 levels and inhibit cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  1. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  2. HDAC Inhibition Induces Increased Choline Uptake and Elevated Phosphocholine Levels in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Christopher S.; Eriksson, Pia; Izquierdo-Garcia, Jose L.; Brandes, Alissa H.; Ronen, Sabrina M.

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as effective antineoplastic agents in the clinic. Studies from our lab and others have reported that magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-detectable phosphocholine (PC) is elevated following SAHA treatment, providing a potential noninvasive biomarker of response. Typically, elevated PC is associated with cancer while a decrease in PC accompanies response to antineoplastic treatment. The goal of this study was therefore to elucidate the underlying biochemical mechanism by which HDAC inhibition leads to elevated PC. We investigated the effect of SAHA on MCF-7 breast cancer cells using 13C MRS to monitor [1,2-13C] choline uptake and phosphorylation to PC. We found that PC synthesis was significantly higher in treated cells, representing 154±19% of control. This was within standard deviation of the increase in total PC levels detected by 31P MRS (129±7% of control). Furthermore, cellular choline kinase activity was elevated (177±31%), while cytidylyltransferase activity was unchanged. Expression of the intermediate-affinity choline transporter SLC44A1 and choline kinase α increased (144% and 161%, respectively) relative to control, as determined by mRNA microarray analysis with protein-level confirmation by Western blotting. Taken together, our findings indicate that the increase in PC levels following SAHA treatment results from its elevated synthesis. Additionally, the concentration of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) increased significantly with treatment to 210±45%. This is likely due to the upregulated expression of several phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms, resulting in increased PLA2 activity (162±18%) in SAHA-treated cells. Importantly, the levels of total choline (tCho)-containing metabolites, comprised of choline, PC and GPC, are readily detectable clinically using 1H MRS. Our findings thus provide an important step in validating clinically translatable non-invasive imaging methods for follow-up diagnostics

  3. Enteral nutrition increases interstitial brain glucose levels in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois J; Beer, Ronny; Gaasch, Maxime; Rhomberg, Paul; Stover, John; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2018-03-01

    Low brain tissue glucose levels after acute brain injury are associated with poor outcome. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) reliably increases cerebral glucose levels remains unclear. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data, we investigate the effect of EN on brain metabolism in 17 poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients undergoing cerebral microdialysis (CMD) monitoring. CMD-values were obtained hourly. A nutritional intervention was defined as the clinical routine administration of EN without supplemental parenteral nutrition. Sixty-three interventions were analyzed. The mean amount of EN per intervention was 472.4 ± 10.7 kcal. CMD-glucose levels significantly increased from 1.59 ± 0.13 mmol/l at baseline to a maximum of 2.03 ± 0.2 mmol/l after 5 h (p < 0.001), independently of insulin-treatment, baseline serum glucose, baseline brain metabolic distress (CMD-lactate-to-pyruvate-ratio (LPR) > 40) and the microdialysis probe location. The increase in CMD-glucose was directly dependent on the magnitude of increase of serum glucose levels (p = 0.007). No change in CMD-lactate, CMD-pyruvate, CMD-LPR, or CMD-glutamate (p > 0.4) was observed. Routine EN also increased CMD-glucose even if baseline concentrations were critically low ( < 0.7 mmol/l, neuroglucopenia; p < 0.001). These results may have treatment implications regarding glucose management of poor-grade aneurysmal SAH patients.

  4. Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression☆

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E.; Bravo-San Pedro, José M.; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M.; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H.V.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24 h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3 h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection. PMID:24184327

  5. Histone deacetylases 6 increases the cyclic adenosine monophosphate level and promotes renal cyst growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Mei, Changlin

    2016-07-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by abnormal enhanced cell proliferation and fluid secretion, which are triggered by increased levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Cebotaru et al. showed that a HDAC6 inhibitor reduced the cAMP level and inhibited cyst formation in Pkd1 knockout mice, which may become a new potential therapeutic agent for ADPKD. This study also raised several intriguing questions that might advance our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of ADPKD. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  7. Increasing resistance against Phytophthora citrophthora in tangelo Nova fruits by modulating polymethoxyflavones levels.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, A; Arcas, M C; Botía, J M; Fuster, M D; Del Río, J A

    2002-05-08

    The effect of 6-benzylaminopurine on polymethoxyflavone levels in tangelo Nova fruits and the possible participation of these secondary metabolites in defense mechanisms against Phytophthora citrophthora are studied. The in vitro study of the inhibitory effect of these compounds on fungal growth reveals that nobiletin is the most active agent followed by sinensetin, heptamethoxyflavone, and tangeretin. Treatment with 100 ppm of 6-benzylaminopurine increased the levels of these polymethoxyflavones in this Citrus hybrid and also enhanced the in vivo resistance of the fruit to the fungus by approximately 60%.

  8. Repeated injections of nicergoline increase the nerve growth factor level in the aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Nishio, T; Sunohara, N; Furukawa, S; Akiguchi, I; Kudo, Y

    1998-03-01

    We studied whether nicergoline, clinically active in chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, influences nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the rat brain. In young Fischer rats, repeated intraperitoneal injections of nicergoline (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg body weight) did not show any effects on frontal NGF contents determined by a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay. In aged rats, 22-month-old, however, repeated injections of nicergoline (1.0 mg/kg body weight) induced a significant increase in the NGF level in the frontal region.

  9. Clusterin levels are increased in Alzheimer's disease and influence the regional distribution of Aβ.

    PubMed

    Miners, J Scott; Clarke, Polly; Love, Seth

    2017-05-01

    Clusterin, also known as apoJ, is a lipoprotein abundantly expressed within the CNS. It regulates Aβ fibril formation and toxicity and facilitates amyloid-β (Aβ) transport across the blood-brain barrier. Genome-wide association studies have shown variations in the clusterin gene (CLU) to influence the risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). To explore whether clusterin modulates the regional deposition of Aβ, we measured levels of soluble (NP40-extracted) and insoluble (guanidine-HCl-extracted) clusterin, Aβ40 and Aβ42 by sandwich ELISA in brain regions with a predilection for amyloid pathology-mid-frontal cortex (MF), cingulate cortex (CC), parahippocampal cortex (PH), and regions with little or no pathology-thalamus (TH) and white matter (WM). Clusterin level was highest in regions with plaque pathology (MF, CC, PH and PC), approximately mirroring the regional distribution of Aβ. It was significantly higher in AD than controls, and correlated positively with Aβ42 and insoluble Aβ40. Soluble clusterin level rose significantly with severity of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and in MF and PC regions was highest in APOE ɛ4 homozygotes. In the TH and WM (areas with little amyloid pathology) clusterin was unaltered in AD and did not correlate with Aβ level. There was a significant positive correlation between the concentration of clusterin and the regional levels of insoluble Aβ42; however, the molar ratio of clusterin : Aβ42 declined with insoluble Aβ42 level in a region-dependent manner, being lowest in regions with predilection for Aβ plaque pathology. Under physiological conditions, clusterin reduces aggregation and promotes clearance of Aβ. Our findings indicate that in AD, clusterin increases, particularly in regions with most abundant Aβ, but because the increase does not match the rising level of Aβ42, the molar ratio of clusterin : Aβ42 in those regions falls, probably contributing to Aβ deposition within the tissue. © 2016

  10. Acarbose improves hypoglycaemia following gastric bypass surgery without increasing glucagon-like peptide 1 levels.

    PubMed

    Valderas, Juan Patricio; Ahuad, Jessica; Rubio, Lorena; Escalona, Manuel; Pollak, Felipe; Maiz, Alberto

    2012-04-01

    Postprandial hypoglycaemia is a severe complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). Acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor (AGI), is employed in its treatment. Several studies have shown that AGIs increase the postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). However, an excessive level of GLP-1 is one of the factors involved in the physiopathology of this condition. We analysed the effect of acarbose oral administration in eight RYBGP patients with clinically significant hypoglycaemia or dumping syndrome. Glucose, insulin and GLP-1 plasma levels in fasting and after ingestion of a standard meal (Ensure Plus®; 13 g protein, 50 g carbohydrate, 11 g fat) were measured. The test was repeated the following week with the oral administration of 100 mg of acarbose 15 min prior to the meal. Five patients developed asymptomatic hypoglycaemia during the test (glucose level <50 mg/dl) with inappropriately high insulin levels and exaggerated GLP-1 response. Acarbose ingestion avoided hypoglycaemia in all of the patients and increased the lowest plasma glucose level (46.4 ± 4.8 vs. 59.0 ± 2.6 mg/dl, p < 0.01). Acarbose ingestion decreased the area under the curve for serum insulin and GLP-1 levels at 15 min after the meal. Acarbose avoided postprandial hypoglycaemia following RYGBP by decreasing the hyperinsulinemic response. This was associated with a decrease in early GLP-1 secretion, in contrast to that observed in non-surgical subjects. This finding could be explained by the reduction of glucose load in the jejunum produced by the α-glucosidase inhibition, which is the main stimulus for GLP-1 secretion.

  11. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, P<0.001). When HR of the 1st quartile was regarded as the reference, HRs for abdominal obesity increased proportionally to baseline fasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend <0.001]. Although the risk of incident abdominal obesity was highest in the group with the highest fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Irisin levels increase after treatment in patients with newly diagnosed Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Uc, Z A; Gorar, S; Mizrak, S; Gullu, S

    2018-05-18

    Irisin is a newly identified myokine secreted by skeletal muscle and has significant effects on body metabolism. Thyroidal functional state has a profound influence on the metabolism of human body. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible changes in serum irisin concentrations before and after treatment in hypothyroid subjects. The study included 26 patients with overt hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto thyroiditis and 19 healthy subjects. Baseline serum thyroid function tests and presence of thyroid autoantibodies and levels of creatine kinase (CK) and irisin were measured in both groups. All measurements in the hypothyroid group were repeated after euthyroidism was achieved. Serum irisin levels were significantly lower in the hypothyroid groups than the control group (p < 0.001). Negative correlation between irisin and thyroid stimulating hormone and CK levels (r = - 0.623, p < 0.001 and r = - 0.389, p = 0.008, respectively) and a positive correlation between irisin and free thyroxine (fT4) levels (r = 0.570, p < 0.001) was found. Serum CK levels decreased significantly after treatment (p < 0.001). Serum irisin levels significantly increased (from 57.4 to 99.8 U/L, p < 0.001) when the hypothyroid patients were treated to achieve euthyroidism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing insight that low serum irisin levels significantly increased following treatment to euthyroid state in overt hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Larger scale studies are needed to confirm these results and to ensure irisin as a possible biomarker of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  13. The Common Inhalational Anesthetic Sevoflurane Induces Apoptosis and Increases β-Amyloid Protein Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Guohua; Zhang, Bin; Moir, Robert D.; Xia, Weiming; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Culley, Deborah J.; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Xie, Zhongcong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of sevoflurane, the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic, on apoptosis and β-amyloid protein (Aβ) levels in vitro and in vivo. Subjects: Naive mice, H4 human neuroglioma cells, and H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length amyloid precursor protein. Interventions: Human H4 neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length amyloid precursor protein were exposed to 4.1% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Mice received 2.5% sevoflurane for 2 hours. Caspase-3 activation, apoptosis, and Aβ levels were assessed. Results: Sevoflurane induced apoptosis and elevated levels of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme and Aβ in vitro and in vivo. The caspase inhibitor Z-VAD decreased the effects of sevoflurane on apoptosis and Aβ. Sevoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation was attenuated by the γ-secretase inhibitor L-685,458 and was potentiated by Aβ. These results suggest that sevoflurane induces caspase activation which, in turn, enhances β-site amyloid precursor protein–cleaving enzyme and Aβ levels. Increasedlevels then induce further rounds of apoptosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane may promote Alzheimer disease neuropathogenesis. If confirmed in human subjects, it may be prudent to caution against the use of sevoflurane as an anesthetic, especially in those suspected of possessing excessive levels of cerebral Aβ. PMID:19433662

  14. Serum betatrophin levels are increased and associated with insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qinglan; Zhao, Dongmei; Zhang, Fengrong; Bao, Hongchu; Yang, Qiuhua

    2017-02-01

    Objective Betatrophin is a newly identified circulating protein that is significantly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), adiposity, and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate whether betatrophin levels and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were associated. Methods Circulating betatrophin levels were measured in 162 patients with PCOS and 156 matched control females using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Correlations between betatrophin levels and PCOS incidence as well as multiple key endocrine PCOS parameters were analyzed using multiple statistical methods. Results Betatrophin levels were significantly increased in patients with PCOS (685.3 ± 27.7 vs. 772.6 ± 42.5 pg/ml). When sub-grouping all investigated subjects according to the presence of insulin resistance, women with PCOS and insulin resistance exhibited markedly higher betatrophin concentrations. Furthermore, betatrophin levels were significantly correlated with fasting insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance only in females with PCOS ( r = 0.531 and r = 0.628, respectively). Conclusion We provide the first report that betatrophin is strongly associated with PCOS. This study suggests that betatrophin may potentially serve as an independent predictor for the development of PCOS in at-risk women, especially those with insulin resistance.

  15. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  16. E2F Activators Signal and Maintain Centrosome Amplification in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Moreno, Carlos S.

    2014-01-01

    Centrosomes ensure accurate chromosome segregation by directing spindle bipolarity. Loss of centrosome regulation results in centrosome amplification, multipolar mitosis and aneuploidy. Since centrosome amplification is common in premalignant lesions and breast tumors, it is proposed to play a central role in breast tumorigenesis, a hypothesis that remains to be tested. The coordination between the cell and centrosome cycles is of paramount importance to maintain normal centrosome numbers, and the E2Fs may be responsible for regulating these cycles. However, the role of E2F activators in centrosome amplification is unclear. Because E2Fs are deregulated in Her2+ cells displaying centrosome amplification, we addressed whether they signal this abnormal process. Knockdown of E2F1 or E2F3 in Her2+ cells decreased centrosome amplification without significantly affecting cell cycle progression, whereas the overexpression of E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3 increased centrosome amplification in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Our results revealed that E2Fs affect the expression of proteins, including Nek2 and Plk4, known to influence the cell/centrosome cycles and mitosis. Downregulation of E2F3 resulted in cell death and delays/blocks in cytokinesis, which was reversed by Nek2 overexpression. Nek2 overexpression enhanced centrosome amplification in Her2+ breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3, revealing a role for the E2F activators in maintaining centrosome amplification in part through Nek2. PMID:24797070

  17. E2F activators signal and maintain centrosome amplification in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Young; Moreno, Carlos S; Saavedra, Harold I

    2014-07-01

    Centrosomes ensure accurate chromosome segregation by directing spindle bipolarity. Loss of centrosome regulation results in centrosome amplification, multipolar mitosis and aneuploidy. Since centrosome amplification is common in premalignant lesions and breast tumors, it is proposed to play a central role in breast tumorigenesis, a hypothesis that remains to be tested. The coordination between the cell and centrosome cycles is of paramount importance to maintain normal centrosome numbers, and the E2Fs may be responsible for regulating these cycles. However, the role of E2F activators in centrosome amplification is unclear. Because E2Fs are deregulated in Her2(+) cells displaying centrosome amplification, we addressed whether they signal this abnormal process. Knockdown of E2F1 or E2F3 in Her2(+) cells decreased centrosome amplification without significantly affecting cell cycle progression, whereas the overexpression of E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3 increased centrosome amplification in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Our results revealed that E2Fs affect the expression of proteins, including Nek2 and Plk4, known to influence the cell/centrosome cycles and mitosis. Downregulation of E2F3 resulted in cell death and delays/blocks in cytokinesis, which was reversed by Nek2 overexpression. Nek2 overexpression enhanced centrosome amplification in Her2(+) breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3, revealing a role for the E2F activators in maintaining centrosome amplification in part through Nek2.

  18. A gene stacking approach leads to engineered plants with highly increased galactan levels in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Gondolf, Vibe M.; Stoppel, Rhea; Ebert, Berit; ...

    2014-12-10

    Background: Engineering of plants with a composition of lignocellulosic biomass that is more suitable for downstream processing is of high interest for next-generation biofuel production. Lignocellulosic biomass contains a high proportion of pentose residues, which are more difficult to convert into fuels than hexoses. Therefore, increasing the hexose/pentose ratio in biomass is one approach for biomass improvement. A genetic engineering approach was used to investigate whether the amount of pectic galactan can be specifically increased in cell walls of Arabidopsis fiber cells, which in turn could provide a potential source of readily fermentable galactose. Results: First it was tested ifmore » overexpression of various plant UDP-glucose 4-epimerases (UGEs) could increase the availability of UDP-galactose and thereby increase the biosynthesis of galactan. Constitutive and tissue-specific expression of a poplar UGE and three Arabidopsis UGEs in Arabidopsis plants could not significantly increase the amount of cell wall bound galactose. We then investigated co-overexpression of AtUGE2 together with the β-1,4-galactan synthase GalS1. Co-overexpression of AtUGE2 and GalS1 led to over 80% increase in cell wall galactose levels in Arabidopsis stems, providing evidence that these proteins work synergistically. Furthermore, AtUGE2 and GalS1 overexpression in combination with overexpression of the NST1 master regulator for secondary cell wall biosynthesis resulted in increased thickness of fiber cell walls in addition to the high cell wall galactose levels. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that the increased galactose was present as β-1,4-galactan in secondary cell walls. Conclusions: This approach clearly indicates that simultaneous overexpression of AtUGE2 and GalS1 increases the cell wall galactose to much higher levels than can be achieved by overexpressing either one of these proteins alone. Moreover, the increased galactan content in fiber cells while

  19. Low-level laser as a device for increase of drug concentration in the kidney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koultchavenia, Ekaterina V.

    2001-01-01

    In the West Siberia every tenth tuberculous patient has an extra pulmonary lesion. Urogenital tuberculosis cases are in the first place in occurrence among extra pulmonary forms. Complicated and widespread lesions of kidney are prevailing. The high concentration of anti-tuberculous drugs in the lesion locus is one of the most important component in the success treatment of tuberculosis, including nephrotyberculosis. We put the aim to increase the isoniazid concentration in tuberculous kidney by low-level laser therapy. It was proved that the laser therapy at the expense of improving of the blood microcirculation ensures to increase drug concentration in the lesion locus in 9 times.

  20. Can population levels of physical activity be increased? Global evidence and experience.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Michael; Perez, Lilian G; Goenka, Shifalika; Brownson, Ross C; Bauman, Adrian; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Hallal, Pedro C

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease and has become a global public health priority. We review the evidence on physical activity (PA) interventions, actions, and strategies that have the greatest potential to increase PA at the population level. Using the socio-ecological framework to conceptualize PA interventions, we show that PA can be targeted at multiple levels of influence and by multiple sectors outside the health system. Examples of promoting PA on a national scale are presented from Finland, Canada, Brazil, and Colombia. A strong policy framework, consistent investment in public health programs, multi-sectoral support and actions, and good surveillance characterize each of these success stories. Increasing PA globally will depend on successfully applying and adapting these lessons around the world taking into account country, culture, and context. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Can Population Levels of Physical Activity be Increased? Global Evidence and Experience

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Michael; Perez, Lilian G.; Goenka, Shifalika; Brownson, Ross C.; Bauman, Adrian; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease and has become a global public health priority. We review the evidence on physical activity (PA) interventions, actions, and strategies that have the greatest potential to increase PA at the population level. Using the socio-ecological framework to conceptualize PA interventions, we show that PA can be targeted at multiple levels of influence and by multiple sectors outside the health system. Examples of promoting PA on a national scale are presented from Finland, Canada, Brazil, and Colombia. A strong policy framework, consistent investment in public health programs, multi-sectoral support and actions, and good surveillance characterize each of these success stories. Increasing PA globally will depend on successfully applying and adapting these lessons around the world taking into account country, culture, and context. PMID:25304047

  2. Vitamin A supplementation increases levels of retinoic acid compounds in human plasma: possible implications for teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Eckhoff, C; Nau, H

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of retinoic acid compounds were monitored by a newly developed highly sensitive HPLC procedure in plasma of six volunteers who received 833 IU vitamin A per kg body weight per day during a 20-day period. There was a significant increase of all-trans-retinoic acid (two-fold), 13-cis-retinoic acid (7-fold) and 13-cis-4-oxoretinoic acid (5-fold) over endogenous plasma levels of these retinoids. The same compounds had previously been found after treatment with the teratogenic drug isotretinoin (Roaccutan, Accutane). Our results raise the possibility that high vitamin A intake may carry a teratogenic risk attributable to increased levels of retinoic acid compounds generated from retinol by metabolic processes.

  3. Decreased Integrity, Content, and Increased Transcript Level of Mitochondrial DNA Are Associated with Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiao-Dan; Chen, Zhao-Li; Qu, Ming-Li; Zhao, Xiao-Wen; Li, Su-Xia; Chen, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of keratoconus (KC). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is involved in mitochondrial function, and the mtDNA content, integrity, and transcript level may affect the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and be involved in the pathogenesis of KC. We designed a case-control study to research the relationship between KC and mtDNA integrity, content and transcription. One-hundred ninety-eight KC corneas and 106 normal corneas from Chinese patients were studied. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the relative mtDNA content, transcript levels of mtDNA and related genes. Long-extension PCR was used to detect mtDNA damage. ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP were measured by respective assay kit, and Mito-Tracker Green was used to label the mitochondria. The relative mtDNA content of KC corneas was significantly lower than that of normal corneas (P = 9.19×10−24), possibly due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) gene (P = 3.26×10−3). In contrast, the transcript levels of mtDNA genes were significantly increased in KC corneas compared with normal corneas (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [ND1]: P = 1.79×10−3; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [COX1]: P = 1.54×10−3; NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, [ND6]: P = 4.62×10−3). The latter may be the result of increased expression levels of mtDNA transcription-related genes mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT) (P = 2.55×10−4) and transcription factor B2 mitochondrial (TFB2M) (P = 7.88×10−5). KC corneas also had increased mtDNA damage (P = 3.63×10−10), higher ROS levels, and lower mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels compared with normal corneas. Decreased integrity, content and increased transcript level of mtDNA are associated with KC. These changes may affect the generation of ROS and play a role in the pathogenesis of KC. PMID:27783701

  4. Increasing Resilience Through Engagement In Sea Level Rise Community Science Initiatives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilton, L. A.; Rindge, H.

    2017-12-01

    Science literate and engaged members of the public, including students, are critical to building climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant facilitates programs that work to build and strengthen these connections. The Urban Tides Community Science Initiative (Urban Tides) and the Youth Exploring Sea Level Rise Science Program (YESS) engage communities across the boundaries of public engagement, K-12 education, and informal education. YESS is an experiential sea level rise education program that combines classroom learning, field investigations and public presentations. Students explore sea level rise using a new curricula, collect their own data on sea level rise, develop communication products, and present their findings to city governments, researchers, and others. Urban Tides engages community members, informal education centers, K-12 students, and local government leaders in a citizen science program photo- documenting extreme high tides, erosion and coastal flooding in Southern California. Images provide critical information to help calibrate scientific models used to identify locations vulnerable to damage from future sea level rise. These tools and information enable community leaders and local governments to set priorities, guidelines, and update policies as they plan strategies that will help the region adapt. The program includes a mobile app for data collection, an open database to view photos, a lesson plan, and community beach walks. Urban Tides has led to an increase in data and data-gathering capacity for regional scientists, an increase in public participation in science, and an increase in ocean and climate literacy among initiative participants. Both of these programs bring informed and diverse voices into the discussion of how to adapt and build climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant will share impacts and lessons learned from these two unique programs.

  5. Increased levels of circulating platelet derived microparticles in Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Tziatzios, Georgios; Polymeros, Dimitrios; Spathis, Aris; Triantafyllou, Maria; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Karakitsos, Petros; Dimitriadis, George; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2016-10-01

    Platelet activation is a consistent feature in inflammatory bowel disease. However, the role of circulating platelet derived microparticles (PDMPs) and the effects of disease activity and treatment on their levels has not been clarified yet in this disorder. Using flow cytometry, we measured platelet derived microparticles and platelet derived microparticles expressing Annexin V in platelet rich plasma from 47 Crohn's disease and 43 ulcerative colitis patients and 24 healthy controls. Crohn's disease patients have greater PDMPs (0.31% ± 0.07% versus 0.14% ± 0.04%, p = 0.02) and PDMPs expressing Annexin V (27% ± 2.6% versus 14.6% ± 2.7%, p = 0.002) levels in comparison with healthy controls; however, both microparticles levels are not related with disease activity. Crohn's disease patients on 5-ASA therapy show lower levels of PDMPs in comparison with those on no 5-ASA (0.30% ± 0.07% versus 0.32% ± 0.09%, p = 0.048). Ulcerative colitis patients have similar PDMPs and PDMPs expressing Annexin V levels, compared to healthy controls (p = 0.06 and p = 0.2, respectively) and there is no correlation of both microparticles expression with disease activity. 5-ASA has no effect on both microparticles levels in ulcerative colitis patients. Anti-TNF-α treatment has no effect on study's microparticles expression in Crohn's and ulcerative colitis patients. Circulating levels of platelet derived microparticles are increased only in Crohn's patients, but they do not correlate with disease activity. 5-ASA treatment is associated with lower levels of PDMPs only in Crohn's, while anti-TNF-α treatment does not influence expression of microparticles in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

  6. Atorvastatin treatment is associated with increased BDNF level and improved functional recovery after atherothrombotic stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingmiao; Mu, Xiali; Breker, Dane A; Li, Ying; Gao, Zongliang; Huang, Yonglu

    2017-01-01

    Statins have a positive impact on ischemic stroke outcome. It has been reported that statin have neuroprotective function after ischemic stroke in addition to lipid-lowering effect in animal model. However, the neuroprotective function of statin after stroke has not been confirmed in clinical studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate in a clinical model if statins induce neuroprotection after stroke. We, therefore, assessed serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and functional recovery in atherothrombotic stroke patients and investigated their relationship with atorvastatin treatment. Seventy-eight patients with atherothrombotic stroke were enrolled and randomly assigned to atorvastatin treatment group or placebo control group. Neurological function after stroke was assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel Index (BI). The serum BDNF levels were both measured at 1 day and 6 weeks after stroke. Linear regression was used to assess the association between BDNF levels and neurological function scores. The mRS and BI were markedly improved in the atorvastatin group when compared to placebo at 6 weeks after stroke. The serum BDNF levels in atorvastatin group were significantly elevated by 6 weeks after stroke and higher than the BDNF levels in controls. In addition, the serum BDNF levels significantly correlated with mRS and BI after stroke. Our results demonstrated that atorvastatin treatment was associated with the increased BDNF level and improved functional recovery after atherothrombotic stroke. This study indicates that atorvastatin-related elevation in the BDNF level may promote functional recovery in stroke patients.

  7. Tenascin-C Deficiency in Apo E−/− Mouse Increases Eotaxin Levels: Implications for Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lai; Shah, Prediman K.; Wang, Wei; Song, Lei; Yang, Mingjie; Sharifi, Behrooz G.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the potential role of inflammatory cytokines in apo E−/− mouse in response to deletion of Tenascin-C (TNC) gene. Methods and results We used antibody array and ELISA to compare the profile of circulating inflammatory cytokines in apo E−/− mice and apo E−/− TNC−/− double knockout mice. In addition, tissue culture studies were performed to investigate the activity of cells from each mouse genotype in vitro. Cytokine array analysis and subsequent ELISA showed that circulating eotaxin levels were selectively and markedly increased in response to TNC gene deletion in apo E−/− mice. In addition, considerable variation was noted in the circulating level of eotaxin among the control apo E−/− mouse group. Inbreeding of apo E−/− mice with high or low levels of plasma eotaxin showed that the level of eotaxin per se determines the extent of atherosclerosis in this mouse genotype. While endothelial cells from apo E−/− mice had low level of eotaxin expression, cells derived from apo E−/−TNC−/− mice expressed a high level of eotaxin. Transient transfection of eotaxin promoter-reporter constructs revealed that eotaxin expression is regulated at the transcriptional level by TNC. Histochemical analysis of aortic sections revealed the massive accumulation of mast cells in the adventitia of double KO mice lesions whereas no such accumulation was detected in the control group. Plasma from the apo E−/−TNC−/− mice markedly stimulated mast cell migration whereas plasma from the apo E−/− mice had no such effect. Conclusion These observations support the emerging hypothesis that TNC expression controls eotaxin level in apo E−/− mice and that this chemokine plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:23433402

  8. Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis induces decreased prolificacy and increased progesterone levels in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Orihuela-Trujillo, Agustín; Togno-Peirce, Cristián; Murcia-Mejía, Clara; Bielli, Alejandro; Hoffman, Kurt L; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2016-10-15

    Reproductive alterations in hosts infected by parasites have been recognized in several phyla, especially in arthropods and mollusks, but it has been less studied in higher vertebrates, particularly in mammals. In the present study, ten eight week-old female New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were either infected with Taenia pisiformis eggs or uninfected, and 7 weeks later they were mated. We found that serum progesterone levels were increased during pregnancy in infected does. At birth, litter size of infected does was reduced by half as compared to the control group, and, at weaning, the number of kits and the weight of litters was lower. Since serum progesterone levels have a key role in the maintenance of pregnancy and implantation, we propose that the observed prolificacy alterations in does infected with T. pisiformis infection were due to changes in the levels of circulating progesterone during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers without increased lactate levels.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shigemi; Ozasa, Shiro; Nakamura, Kyoko; Nomura, Keiko; Kosuge, Hirofumi

    2009-07-01

    Myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers is one of the mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations have been identified in the mitochondrial transfer RNA (tRNA)(Lys) at positions 8344 and 8356. Characteristics of myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers include myoclonic epilepsy, generalized epilepsy, hearing loss, exercise intolerance, lactic acidosis, and ragged-red fibers. The elevated lactate level is one of the most important symptoms needed to make a diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. In the present case, however, myoclonic epilepsy was associated with ragged-red fibers but without increased lactate levels. Therefore, myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers should be suspected in a patient who has myoclonic epilepsy that is difficult to control with antiepileptic medications and who has other symptoms of mitochondrial disease, such as mental retardation, even if the patient's lactate level is normal.

  10. Apelin-13 increased food intake with serum ghrelin and leptin levels in male rats.

    PubMed

    Saral, S; Alkanat, M; Sumer, A; Canpolat, S

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explain the role of apelin-13 on body weight, food and water intake with serum leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptid Y (NPY) and peptid YY (PYY) levels in male rat. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for the study. The rats were injected SP (0.9 %) intraperitoneally (i.p) in the control group and 30 (AP30), 100 (AP100) and 300 (AP300) µg/kg apelin-13 in the study groups, respectively, 10 min before the transition to dark period, for 10 days. During the experimental period, with light and dark periods of food and water intake, body weights were recorded in rats. Rats were euthanized and serum samples were obtained. In serum samples leptin, ghrelin, NPY and PYY levels were measured with specific ELISA kit. Apelin-13 was increased body weights in all three (AP30, AP100 and AP300) groups compared with the control group. AP100 and AP300 groups had increased food intake in the dark and the cumulative period, but in the light period food intake values were not significantly increased (p > 0.05). As for the value of water intake, compared with the control group, all dose of apelin-13 increased water intake during the dark and the cumulative period. There was no significant change in water intake in the light period. On the other hand, compared with the control group, serum leptin levels were found to increase in the groups administered 100 and 300 µg/kg of apelin-13 (p < 0.05). Ghrelin levels were found high in all groups treated with apelin-13. Serum levels of NPY decreased only in the 300 µg/kg apelin-13 treated group (p 0.05). Apelin-13 increases body weight in rats as well as food and water intake (dark and cumulative period). Additionally, ghrelin can mediate the orexigenic effect of apelin-13 in the regulation of food intake (Fig. 4, Ref. 37).

  11. Masting promotes individual- and population-level reproduction by increasing pollination efficiency.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Linhart, Yan B; Mooney, Kailen A

    2014-04-01

    Masting is a reproductive strategy defined as the intermittent and synchronized production of large seed crops by a plant population. The pollination efficiency hypothesis proposes that masting increases pollination success in plants. Despite its general appeal, no previous studies have used long-term data together with population- and individual-level analyses to assess pollination efficiency between mast and non-mast events. Here we rigorously tested the pollination efficiency hypothesis in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a long-lived monoecious, wind-pollinated species, using a data set on 217 trees monitored annually for 20 years. Relative investment in male and female function by individual trees did not vary between mast and non-mast years. At both the population and individual level, the rate of production of mature female cones relative to male strobili production was higher in mast than non-mast years, consistent with the predicted benefit of reproductive synchrony on reproductive success. In addition, at the individual level we found a higher conversion of unfertilized female conelets into mature female cones during a mast year compared to a non-mast year. Collectively, parallel results at the population and individual tree level provide robust evidence for the ecological, and potentially also evolutionary, benefits of masting through increased pollination efficiency.

  12. Significant increase in salivary substance p level after a single oral dose of cevimeline in humans.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yosuke; Itoh, Hiroki; Amada, Kohei; Yamamura, Ryota; Sato, Yuhki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Cevimeline is a novel muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist currently being developed as a therapeutic agent for xerostomia. We examined the effects of cevimeline on salivary and plasma levels of substance-P- (SP-), calcitonin-gene-related-peptide- (CGRP-), and vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide- (VIP-) like immunoreactive substances (ISs) in humans. An open-labeled crossover study was conducted on seven healthy volunteers. Saliva volume was measured, and saliva and venous blood samples were collected before and 30-240 min after a single oral dose of cevimeline or placebo. Salivary and plasma levels of SP-, CGRP-, and VIP-IS were measured using a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay. A single oral dose of cevimeline resulted in significant increases in salivary but not plasma SP-IS level compared to placebo. Cevimeline administration did not alter the salivary or plasma levels of CGRP-IS or VIP-IS compared to placebo. Significant increases in salivary volume were observed after cevimeline administration compared to placebo. A significant correlation was observed between the total release of SP-IS and that of salivary volume. These findings suggest an association of SP with the enhancement of salivary secretion by cevimeline.

  13. Significant Increase in Salivary Substance P Level after a Single Oral Dose of Cevimeline in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yosuke; Itoh, Hiroki; Amada, Kohei; Yamamura, Ryota; Sato, Yuhki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Cevimeline is a novel muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist currently being developed as a therapeutic agent for xerostomia. We examined the effects of cevimeline on salivary and plasma levels of substance-P- (SP-), calcitonin-gene-related-peptide- (CGRP-), and vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide- (VIP-) like immunoreactive substances (ISs) in humans. An open-labeled crossover study was conducted on seven healthy volunteers. Saliva volume was measured, and saliva and venous blood samples were collected before and 30–240 min after a single oral dose of cevimeline or placebo. Salivary and plasma levels of SP-, CGRP-, and VIP-IS were measured using a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay. A single oral dose of cevimeline resulted in significant increases in salivary but not plasma SP-IS level compared to placebo. Cevimeline administration did not alter the salivary or plasma levels of CGRP-IS or VIP-IS compared to placebo. Significant increases in salivary volume were observed after cevimeline administration compared to placebo. A significant correlation was observed between the total release of SP-IS and that of salivary volume. These findings suggest an association of SP with the enhancement of salivary secretion by cevimeline. PMID:23589717

  14. Clinical significance of increased serum levels of FGF-23 in fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Florez, Helena; Mandelikova, Stanislava; Filella, Xavier; Monegal, Ana; Guañabens, Núria; Peris, Pilar

    2017-12-30

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) can be associated with the development of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia, caused by the production of FGF-23 by dysplastic bone tissue. This study analysed FGF-23 levels in patients with FD, and their association with disease activity and serum phosphate values. Twelve adult patients with FD were included in the study. Clinical history, disease extension and activity and treatments received were reviewed, and the relationship of those values with FGF-23 and serum P levels was analysed. FGF-23 was elevated in 6/12 patients (50%). Patients with high FGF-23 levels had similar age and disease activity and extension than those who did not. No differences were observed in serum phosphate values between both groups (increased FGF-23: 3.9±0.9 mg/dl vs. decreased FGF-23: 3.5±0.6 mg/dl). In fact, none of the patients with increased FGF-23 had low serum phosphate values. Adult FD patients frequently present elevated FGF-23 values with no serum phosphate level repercussion, suggesting an alteration in the processing of this protein in the dysplastic bone tissue for this pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased cancer antigen 27.29 (CA27.29) level in patients with mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Cen, Putao; Duvic, Madeleine; Cohen, Philip R; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2008-03-01

    Mycosis fungoides, also called cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, comprise a group of extranodal, indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of T-cell origin with primary involvement of the skin. There are few data available on tumor markers in these patients. Cancer antigen 27.29 (CA27.29), which is expressed on most carcinoma cells, is a soluble form of the glycoprotein MUC1. Measuring CA27.29 has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for monitoring disease activity in patients with breast cancer. We sought to assess whether CA27.29 levels were increased in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and whether there was a correlation of this marker with tumor response. We evaluated the CA27.29 blood levels from 6 patients with advanced mycosis fungoides (who had no evidence of breast cancer) and reviewed their charts for information about history and physical examinations, laboratory data, pathology findings, and radiologic examinations. We demonstrated that 3 of 6 patients with advanced mycosis fungoides had markedly elevated CA27.29 blood levels. In the two patients who had serial blood levels drawn, CA27.29 increased or decreased during treatment as the disease progressed or responded, respectively. This study reflects pilot data on a limited number of patients. Our observations suggest that CA27.29 merits further investigation as a tumor marker in patients who have cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

  16. Natural thermal adaptation increases heat shock protein levels and decreases oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Oksala, Niku K J; Ekmekçi, F Güler; Ozsoy, Ergi; Kirankaya, Serife; Kokkola, Tarja; Emecen, Güzin; Lappalainen, Jani; Kaarniranta, Kai; Atalay, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs), originally identified as heat-inducible gene products, are a family of highly conserved proteins that respond to a wide variety of stress including oxidative stress. Although both acute and chronic oxidative stress have been well demonstrated to induce HSP responses, little evidence is available whether increased HSP levels provide enhanced protection against oxidative stress under elevated yet sublethal temperatures. We studied relationships between oxidative stress and HSPs in a physiological model by using Garra rufa (doctor fish), a fish species naturally acclimatized to different thermal conditions. We compared fish naturally living in a hot spring with relatively high water temperature (34.4±0.6°C) to those living in normal river water temperature (25.4±4.7°C), and found that levels of all the studied HSPs (HSP70, HSP60, HSP90, HSC70 and GRP75) were higher in fish living in elevated water temperature compared with normal river water temperature. In contrast, indicators of oxidative stress, including protein carbonyls and lipid hydroperoxides, were decreased in fish living in the elevated temperature, indicating that HSP levels are inversely associated with oxidative stress. The present results provide evidence that physiologically increased HSP levels provide protection against oxidative stress and enhance cytoprotection. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels in patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Eriko; Sekiya, Akiko; Hayashi, Tomoe; Kadohira, Yasuko; Maekawa, Mio; Yamazaki, Masahide; Asakura, Hidesaku; Nakao, Shinji; Ohtake, Shigeki

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have found markedly elevated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with Graves' disease (GD). We investigated the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in GD. We assayed concentrations of M-CSF in sera from 32 patients with GD (25 untreated; 7 receiving thiamazole therapy). We also studied 32 age-matched healthy subjects as controls. Relationships between serum M-CSF and both thyroid state and serum lipids were examined. Moreover, to examine the effect of thyroid hormone alone on serum M-CSF, T3 was administered orally to normal subjects. Serum concentrations of M-CSF in GD patients who were hyperthyroid were significantly increased compared with GD patients who were euthyroid (P < 0.05) and control subjects (P < 0.0001). Serum M-CSF concentrations correlated closely with T3 levels in patients (r = 0.51, P < 0.005). Serial measurement of five individual patients revealed that serum concentrations of M-CSF were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), reaching normal control values upon attainment of euthyroidism. Furthermore, oral T3 administered to 15 volunteers for 7 days produced significant increases in serum levels of M-CSF (P < 0.05). The close correlation between serum M-CSF and serum thyroid hormone levels suggests that high circulating levels of thyroid hormones may directly or indirectly potentiate the production of M-CSF in patients with GD.

  18. Erythropoetin treatment can increase 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Birgegård, G; Sandhagen, B

    2001-01-01

    Some patients experience an improved well-being during treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin even with an unchanged Hb level. We have hypothesized that this may not be only a placebo effect. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in red blood cells increases in response to anaemia/hypoxia and causes a shift of the oxygen dissociation curve, allowing a more effective oxygen delivery. We have investigated red cell 2,3-DPG concentrations during erythropoietin treatment in healthy volunteers as a mediator of a possible physiological explanation. Thirteen healthy subjects with no iron deficiency were recruited and randomly assigned to a treatment group comprising five males and three females and a control group including three males and two females. The treatment group was treated with erythropoietin (Recormon), 20 IE/kg subcutaneously three times/week for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at each injection day and 10 days after the last injection and at corresponding times in the control group. B-Hb, red cell 2,3-DPG and P50 were measured by standard techniques and oxygen-releasing capacity was calculated. due to the sampling (26 ml each time, three times/week) the mean Hb level was lowered from 140.5 +/- 5.9 to 128.6 +/- 10.4 g/L in the control group whereas the erythropoietin treatment group maintained a mean Hb level of about 142 g/L (p<0.002). The 2,3-DPG mean level curve as well as that for oxygen releasing capacity also differed significantly between the two groups (p < 0.002), the treatment group showing higher levels. treatment with erythropoietin causes an increase in red cell 2,3-DPG levels.

  19. Visceral fat obesity increases serum DPP-4 levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Kanazawa, Ippei; Notsu, Masakazu; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between serum DPP-4 level and visceral fat mass is still unclear in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study thus aimed to examine the association of visceral fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome with serum DPP-4 levels in T2DM. Visceral and subcutaneous fat areas were evaluated by performing computed tomography scan in 135 men with T2DM, who had never taken DPP-4 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists. We investigated the association between serum DPP-4 levels and visceral fat area as well as the presence of metabolic syndrome. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, duration of T2DM, body mass index, serum creatinine, and HbA1c showed that serum DPP-4 levels were positively associated with visceral fat area (β=0.25, p=0.04), but not subcutaneous fat area (β=-0.18, p=0.13). In logistic regression analyses adjusted for the confounding factors described above, serum DPP-4 levels were positively associated with visceral fat obesity and metabolic syndrome [odds ratio (OR)=1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.00-2.66 per standard deviation (SD) increase, p=0.04; OR=1.77, 95%CI=1.09-2.88 per SD increase, p=0.02, respectively]. The present study showed that serum DPP-4 level was positively and specifically associated with accumulation of visceral fat and the presence of metabolic syndrome in men with T2DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum S100B level increases after running but not cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Stocchero, Cintia Mussi Alvim; Oses, Jean Pierre; Cunha, Giovani Santos; Martins, Jocelito Bijoldo; Brum, Liz Marina; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of running versus cycling exercises upon serum S100B levels and typical markers of skeletal muscle damage such as creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and myoglobin (Mb). Although recent work demonstrates that S100B is highly expressed and exerts functional properties in skeletal muscle, there is no previous study that tries to establish a relationship between muscle damage and serum S100B levels after exercise. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 13 male triathletes. They completed 2 submaximal exercise protocols at anaerobic threshold intensity. Running was performed on a treadmill with no inclination (RUN) and cycling (CYC) using a cycle-simulator. Three blood samples were taken before (PRE), immediately after (POST) and 1 h after exercise for CK, AST, Mb and S100B assessments. We found a significant increase in serum S100B levels and muscle damage markers in RUN POST compared with RUN PRE. Comparing groups, POST S100B, CK, AST and Mb serum levels were higher in RUN than CYC. Only in RUN, the area under the curve (AUC) of serum S100B is positively correlated with AUC of CK and Mb. Therefore, immediately after an intense exercise such as running, but not cycling, serum levels of S100B protein increase in parallel with levels of CK, AST and Mb. Additionally, the positive correlation between S100B and CK and Mb points to S100B as an acute biomarker of muscle damage after running exercise.

  1. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Associated With Increased Levels of AC133+ Circulating Angiogenic Cells.

    PubMed

    DeJarnett, Natasha; Yeager, Ray; Conklin, Daniel J; Lee, Jongmin; O'Toole, Timothy E; McCracken, James; Abplanalp, Wes; Srivastava, Sanjay; Riggs, Daniel W; Hamzeh, Ihab; Wagner, Stephen; Chugh, Atul; DeFilippis, Andrew; Ciszewski, Tiffany; Wyatt, Brad; Becher, Carrie; Higdon, Deirdre; Ramos, Kenneth S; Tollerud, David J; Myers, John A; Rai, Shesh N; Shah, Jasmit; Zafar, Nagma; Krishnasamy, Sathya S; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that residential proximity to a roadway is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Yet, the nature of this association remains unclear, and its effect on individual cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to determine whether residential proximity to roadways influences systemic inflammation and the levels of circulating angiogenic cells. In a cross-sectional study, cardiovascular disease risk factors, blood levels of C-reactive protein, and 15 antigenically defined circulating angiogenic cell populations were measured in participants (n=316) with moderate-to-high cardiovascular disease risk. Attributes of roadways surrounding residential locations were assessed using geographic information systems. Associations between road proximity and cardiovascular indices were analyzed using generalized linear models. Close proximity (<50 m) to a major roadway was associated with lower income and higher rates of smoking but not C-reactive protein levels. After adjustment for potential confounders, the levels of circulating angiogenic cells in peripheral blood were significantly elevated in people living in close proximity to a major roadway (CD31(+)/AC133(+), AC133(+), CD34(+)/AC133(+), and CD34(+)/45(dim)/AC133(+) cells) and positively associated with road segment distance (CD31(+)/AC133(+), AC133(+), and CD34(+)/AC133(+) cells), traffic intensity (CD31(+)/AC133(+) and AC133(+) cells), and distance-weighted traffic intensity (CD31(+)/34(+)/45(+)/AC133(+) cells). Living close to a major roadway is associated with elevated levels of circulating cells positive for the early stem marker AC133(+). This may reflect an increased need for vascular repair. Levels of these cells in peripheral blood may be a sensitive index of cardiovascular injury because of residential proximity to roadways. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Can treatment of nocturia increase testosterone level in men with late onset hypogonadism?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Wook; Chae, Ji Yun; Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Oh, Mi Mi; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2014-04-01

    To assess the effect of desmopressin on serum testosterone level in men with nocturia and late onset hypogonadism. We prospectively enrolled men with nocturia and symptoms of late onset hypogonadism. Desmopressin (0.1 mg) was administered once daily to patients for 12 weeks, and we then compared serum testosterone levels, electrolytes, frequency volume chart indices, and changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function, and Aging Male's Symptom scales before and after treatment. Patients with a history of cardiovascular disease or hyponatremia, those using hypnotics, and those who had primary hypogonadism or hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism were excluded from the study. Sixty-two men (mean age, 68.4 years) completed pre- and post-treatment questionnaires and underwent laboratory testing. At the end of the study, the testosterone levels in men with low testosterone levels (<3.5 ng/mL) increased after the 12-week desmopressin treatment (2.85 ± 0.58 to 3.97 ± 1.44 ng/mL; P = .001). Mean scores had decreased from 17.7 to 13.9 (IPSS), 3.8 to 3.2 (IPSS-Quality of Life), and 33.7 to 31.1 (Aging Male's Symptom). On the frequency volume chart, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal polyuria index, actual number of nocturia events, nocturia index, and nocturnal bladder capacity index were significantly decreased. Desmopressin improved nocturia and other urinary symptoms. Moreover, serum testosterone levels increased significantly in men with low testosterone levels after 12-week desmopressin treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Specific Increase of Protein Levels by Enhancing Translation Using Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Upstream Open Frames.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Shen, Wen; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-01-01

    A number of diseases are caused by low levels of key proteins; therefore, increasing the amount of specific proteins in human bodies is of therapeutic interest. Protein expression is downregulated by some structural or sequence elements present in the 5' UTR of mRNAs, such as upstream open reading frames (uORF). Translation initiation from uORF(s) reduces translation from the downstream primary ORF encoding the main protein product in the same mRNA, leading to a less efficient protein expression. Therefore, it is possible to use antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to specifically inhibit translation of the uORF by base-pairing with the uAUG region of the mRNA, redirecting translation machinery to initiate from the primary AUG site. Here we review the recent findings that translation of specific mRNAs can be enhanced using ASOs targeting uORF regions. Appropriately designed and optimized ASOs are highly specific, and they act in a sequence- and position-dependent manner, with very minor off-target effects. Protein levels can be increased using this approach in different types of human and mouse cells, and, importantly, also in mice. Since uORFs are present in around half of human mRNAs, the uORF-targeting ASOs may thus have valuable potential as research tools and as therapeutics to increase the levels of proteins for a variety of genes.

  4. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Johnson, Josephine; Dively, Galen

    2012-02-01

    Global pollinator declines have been attributed to habitat destruction, pesticide use, and climate change or some combination of these factors, and managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, are part of worldwide pollinator declines. Here we exposed honey bee colonies during three brood generations to sub-lethal doses of a widely used pesticide, imidacloprid, and then subsequently challenged newly emerged bees with the gut parasite, Nosema spp. The pesticide dosages used were below levels demonstrated to cause effects on longevity or foraging in adult honey bees. Nosema infections increased significantly in the bees from pesticide-treated hives when compared to bees from control hives demonstrating an indirect effect of pesticides on pathogen growth in honey bees. We clearly demonstrate an increase in pathogen growth within individual bees reared in colonies exposed to one of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, imidacloprid, at below levels considered harmful to bees. The finding that individual bees with undetectable levels of the target pesticide, after being reared in a sub-lethal pesticide environment within the colony, had higher Nosema is significant. Interactions between pesticides and pathogens could be a major contributor to increased mortality of honey bee colonies, including colony collapse disorder, and other pollinator declines worldwide.

  5. Endogenous ROS levels are increased in replicative senescence in human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sin-Gu; Cho, Goang-Won

    2015-05-15

    Cellular senescence is characterized by functional decline induced by cumulative damage to DNA, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Previous studies have reported that replicative senescence is caused by excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced as a result of aerobic energy metabolism. In this study, we established human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) in replicative senescence after culture over a long term to investigate the relationship between ROS levels and stem cell potential and to determine whether differentiation potential can be restored by antioxidant treatment. Intracellular ROS levels were increased in hBM-MSCs; this was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 and 2 and of phosphorylated forkhead box O1 (p-FOXO1) as well as an increase in the expression of p53 and p16, along with a reduction in differentiation potential. When the antioxidant ascorbic acid was used to eliminate excess ROS, the levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, SOD1 and 2, p-FOXO1, and p53) were partly restored. Moreover, differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes was higher in hBM-MSCs treated with ascorbic acid than in the untreated control cells. These results suggest that the decline in differentiation potential caused by increased endogenous ROS production during in vitro expansion can be reversed by treatment with antioxidants such as ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing Canadian and American cybersecurity awareness levels: Educational strategies to increase public awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggard, Amy

    Cybersecurity awareness is an important issue that affects everyone who uses a computer or a mobile device. Canada and the United States both recognize the value of mitigating cybersecurity risks in terms of national safety, economic stability and protection of their citizens. The research performed compared the levels of cybersecurity awareness in Canadian and American Internet users. Canadian and American users were equally aware of cybersecurity measures, but were not implementing best practices to keep themselves safe. The research suggested users needed to understand why a cybersecurity measure was important before being motivated to implement it. Educational strategies were reviewed in both Canada and the United States and it was determined that although there were significant resources available, they were not being utilized by both the educators and the public. In order to increase cybersecurity awareness levels, nations should focus on increasing the public's awareness by using various types of messaging, such as cartoons, in media. One possible consideration is a compulsory awareness model before accessing the Internet. Cybersecurity topics should be included in the curriculum for students at all levels of education and a focus on providing training and resources to teachers will help increase the cybersecurity knowledge of children and youth.

  7. Mechanisms Underpinning Increased Plasma Creatinine Levels in Patients Receiving Vemurafenib for Advanced Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hurabielle, Charlotte; Pillebout, Evangéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Pagès, Cécile; Roux, Jennifer; Schneider, Pierre; Chevret, Sylvie; Chaffaut, Cendrine; Boutten, Anne; Mourah, Samia; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lebbé, Céleste; Flamant, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Context Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. Methods We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow-up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. Results 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Conclusion Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective. PMID:26930506

  8. Mechanisms Underpinning Increased Plasma Creatinine Levels in Patients Receiving Vemurafenib for Advanced Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hurabielle, Charlotte; Pillebout, Evangéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Pagès, Cécile; Roux, Jennifer; Schneider, Pierre; Chevret, Sylvie; Chaffaut, Cendrine; Boutten, Anne; Mourah, Samia; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lebbé, Céleste; Flamant, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow-up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective.

  9. Increased serum and testicular androgen levels in F1 rats with lifetime exposure to soy isoflavones.

    PubMed

    McVey, Mark J; Cooke, Gerard M; Curran, Ivan H A

    2004-07-01

    The consequences of dietary soy isoflavones on serum and testicular androgen levels were examined in F1 male rats from a multigeneration study investigating the effects of diets varying in isoflavone content. Rats were fed either a soy-free casein based diet (AIN93G) or a diet in which alcohol-washed soy protein replaced casein as the protein source and to which increasing amounts of Novasoy, a commercially available isoflavone supplement were added. Analysis of these diets showed that the isoflavone content in each diet was 0 (diet 1; casein based control), 31.7 (diet 2; alcohol-washed soy-based diet control), 36.1 (diet 3), 74.5 (diet 4), 235.6 (diet 5) and 1046.6 (diet 6) mg total isoflavones/kg pelleted diet. The levels of isoflavones in diet 1 would represent a daily intake level of 0 mg isoflavones, diets 2 and 3 estimate a low soy-containing human diet (e.g. North American), diet 4 would correspond to Asian diets (e.g. Japanese) or adult humans taking isoflavone supplements, diet 5 approximates the isoflavone intake by babies fed soy based infant formula and diet 6 approximates fivefold the intake levels by babies or 10-fold the intake levels of adults consuming high isoflavone containing diets. Serum testosterone (T) from F1 male rats sacrificed on postnatal days (PND) 28, 70, 120, 240 and 360 were low at PND 28 (0.4 ng/ml), increased approximately five to sixfold at PND 70 (2.5-3.0 ng/ml) and thereafter declined to a steady state level of approximately 1 ng/ml by PND 120. However, rats on diets 5 and 6 demonstrated altered serum testosterone profiles such that at days 120, testosterone levels remained significantly elevated at approximately 3 ng/ml (P < 0.05). Serum dihydrotestosterone levels exhibited similar profiles and the levels in PND 120 rats on diet 5 or 6 were also significantly elevated (two to threefold, P < 0.05). The intra-testicular testosterone concentration in rats on diet 5 was also elevated at PND 120 compared with diet 1 (P < 0

  10. Renal ischemia induces an increase in nitric oxide levels from tissue stores.

    PubMed

    Salom, Miguel G; Arregui, Begoña; Carbonell, Luis F; Ruiz, Fernando; González-Mora, José Luis; Fenoy, Francisco J

    2005-11-01

    Tissue nitric oxide (NO) levels increase dramatically during ischemia, an effect that has been shown to be partially independent from NO synthases. Because NO is stored in tissues as S-nitrosothiols and because these compounds could release NO during ischemia, we evaluated the effects of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO; an intracellular glutathione depletor), light stimulation (which releases NO, decomposing S-nitrosothiols), and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (a sulfhydryl group donor that repletes S-nitrosothiols stores) on the changes in outer medullary NO concentration produced during 45 min of renal artery occlusion in anesthetized rats. Renal ischemia increased renal tissue NO concentration (+223%), and this effect was maintained along 45 min of renal arterial blockade. After reperfusion, NO concentration fell below preischemic values and remained stable for the remainder of the experiment. Pretreatment with 10 mg/kg nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) decreased significantly basal NO concentration before ischemia, but it did not modify the rise in NO levels observed during ischemia. In rats pretreated with 4 mmol/kg BSO and L-NAME, ischemia was followed by a transient increase in renal NO concentration that fell to preischemic values 20 min before reperfusion. A similar response was observed when the kidney was illuminated 40 min before the ischemia. The coadministration of 10 mg/kg iv N-acetyl-L-cysteine with BSO + L-NAME restored the increase in NO levels observed during renal ischemia and prevented the depletion of renal thiol groups. These results demonstrate that the increase in renal NO concentration observed during ischemia originates from thiol-dependent tissue stores.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels are increased in active acromegaly patients.

    PubMed

    Karci, Alper Cagri; Canturk, Zeynep; Tarkun, Ilhan; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2017-07-01

    During follow-up of acromegaly patients, there is a discordance rate of 30% between the measurements of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. Further tests are required to determine disease activity in patients with discordant results. This study was planned to investigate an association of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B with disease activity in acromegaly patients. In this study, 64 acromegaly patients followed in our clinic were divided into two groups according to the 2010 consensus criteria for cure of acromegaly as patients with active disease (n = 24) and patients with controlled disease (n = 40). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level was significantly higher in the active acromegaly patients than in the controlled acromegaly patients (150.1 ± 54.5 ng/mL vs. 100.2 ± 44.6 ng/mL; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between the active and controlled acromegaly patients regarding serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin B levels (p = 0.205 and p = 0.598, respectively). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels of 118.3 ng/mL and higher had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 77.5% in determining active disease. The risk of active acromegaly was 3.3 fold higher in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of >118.3 ng/mL than in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of <118.3 ng/mL. In this study, serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level is increased in the active acromegaly patients and a threshold value in determining active disease was defined for serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level. This study is the first to compare acromegaly patients having active or controlled disease in terms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9

  12. Sub-anesthetic Xenon Increases Erythropoietin Levels in Humans: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Stoppe, Christian; Ney, Julia; Brenke, Martin; Goetzenich, Andreas; Emontzpohl, Christoph; Schälte, Gereon; Grottke, Oliver; Moeller, Manfred; Rossaint, Rolf; Coburn, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The licensed anesthetic xenon, which exerts organ protective properties, was recently added by the World Anti-Doping Agency to the list of prohibited substances. Xenon is supposed to trigger the production of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and subsequently erythropoietin, but data are limited to in vivo experimental work. Therefore we evaluated the effect of xenon on erythropoietin levels in healthy persons. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were randomly assigned either to a group spontaneously breathing xenon 30 % (Xe/O 2 30 %/60 %) or a group breathing control gas (N 2 /O 2 40 %/60 %) for 45 min. Primary outcome parameters were erythropoietin levels at several time-points after exposure. Secondary outcome parameters were serum levels of testosterone, cytokines, and growth factors as well as concentrations of xenon in blood and exhalation samples measured at several time-points after exposure. In addition, hemodynamic safety parameters were monitored during exposure. The administration of xenon significantly increased erythropoietin levels 8 h after exposure (1.34 [±0.368]; p = 0.008), peaking at 24 h compared to the baseline values (1.45 [±0.498]; p = 0.01) and remained traceable in blood and exhalation probes until 24 h after exposure. In contrast, no significant change was observed in the control group. Measurement of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) revealed a significant increase of SDF-1 levels (p = 0.005), whereas no differences were observed with respect to growth factors, cytokines, or androgens. In an in vitro chemotaxis assay, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) showed a trend towards increased migration in serum samples received from participants after xenon exposure (p = 0.080). The present study presents first evidence about a xenon-induced effect on increased erythropoietin levels in healthy volunteers. The study was registered at the European Medicines Agency (EudraCT-number: 2014-000973-38) and at Clinical

  13. Low maternal melatonin level increases autism spectrum disorder risk in children.

    PubMed

    Braam, Wiebe; Ehrhart, Friederike; Maas, Anneke P H M; Smits, Marcel G; Curfs, Leopold

    2018-02-28

    It is assumed that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is caused by a combination of de novo inherited variation and common variation as well as environmental factors. It often co-occurs with intellectual disability (ID). Almost eight hundred potential causative genetic variations have been found in ASD patients. However, not one of them is responsible for more than 1% of ASD cases. Low melatonin levels are a frequent finding in ASD patients. Melatonin levels are negatively correlated with severity of autistic impairments, it is important for normal neurodevelopment and is highly effective in protecting DNA from oxidative damage. Melatonin deficiency could be a major factor, and well a common heritable variation, that increases the susceptibility to environmental risk factors for ASD. ASD is already present at birth. As the fetus does not produce melatonin, low maternal melatonin levels may be involved. We measured 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in urine of 60 mothers of a child with ASD and controls. 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were significantly lower in mothers with an ASD child than in controls (p = 0.012). Low parental melatonin levels could be one of the contributors to ASD and possibly ID etiology. Our findings need to be duplicated on a larger scale. If our hypothesis is correct, this could lead to policies to detect future parents who are at risk and to treatment strategies to ASD and intellectual disability risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased serum levels of high mobility group box 1 protein in patients with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo; Boso, Marianna; Brondino, Natascia; Pietra, Stefania; Barale, Francesco; Ucelli di Nemi, Stefania; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-05-30

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that functions as an activator for inducing the immune response and can be released from neurons after glutamate excitotoxicity. The objective of the present study was to measure serum levels of HMGB1 in patients with autistic disorder and to study their relationship with clinical characteristics. We enrolled 22 adult patients with autistic disorder (mean age: 28.1+/-7.7 years) and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age: 28.7+/-8.1 years). Serum levels of HMGB1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with healthy subjects, serum levels of HMGB1 were significantly higher in patients with autistic disorder (10.8+/-2.6 ng/mL versus 5.6+/-2.5 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, serum HMGB1 levels were independently associated with their domain A scores in the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, which reflects their impairments in social interaction. These results suggest that HMGB1 levels may be affected in autistic disorder. Increased HMGB1 may be a biological correlate of the impaired reciprocal social interactions in this neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Very high serum ferritin levels are associated with increased mortality and critical care in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tellen D; Hayward, Kristen N; Farris, Reid W D; Ringold, Sarah; Wallace, Carol A; Brogan, Thomas V

    2011-11-01

    To determine whether an elevated serum ferritin level is independently associated with mortality and receipt of critical care in pediatric patients. Retrospective cohort study, open population. Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, from September 2, 2003, to February 15, 2008. All patients tested for serum ferritin level from September 2, 2003, to August 16, 2007, with a level ≥1000 ng/mL. None. MAIN ANALYSIS: Cox regression. The predictor of interest was the patient-specific peak serum ferritin level, dichotomized a priori at 3000 ng/mL. The outcomes were mortality and intensive care unit admission. A total of 171 patients met the inclusion criteria. The observation time without death or intensive care unit admission ranged from 184 to 1621 days. The hazard ratio of death with peak ferritin of >3000 ng/mL was 4.32 (95% confidence interval 2.21-8.47, p < .001) compared to peak ferritin of 1000-3000 ng/mL. The hazard ratio of intensive care unit admission with peak ferritin of >3000 ng/mL was 2.49 (95% confidence interval 1.53-4.05, p < .001) compared to peak ferritin of 1000-3000 ng/mL. Both estimates were adjusted for bone marrow transplant, solid organ transplant, hemoglobinopathy, and existing rheumatologic disease. In this pediatric population, with serum ferritin levels of >3000 ng/mL, there was increased risk for both receipt of critical care and subsequent death.

  16. Increased plasma fibrinopeptide A levels during attacks induced by hyperventilation in patients with coronary vasospastic angina.

    PubMed

    Oshima, S; Ogawa, H; Yasue, H; Okumura, K; Matsuyama, K; Miyagi, H

    1989-07-01

    Plasma fibrinopeptide A levels, beta-thromboglobulin levels and platelet factor 4 levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after hyperventilation in 12 patients with coronary vasospastic angina and in 12 control subjects matched for age and gender. In all 12 study patients, anginal attacks accompanied by electrocardiographic (ECG) changes (ST elevation in 11 patients and ST depression in 1 patient) were induced by hyperventilation. Coronary angiography was performed on 11 of the 12 patients, and coronary artery spasm with the same ECG changes was induced by intracoronary injection of acetylcholine in all 11. The plasma fibrinopeptide A levels increased significantly from 2.0 +/- 0.4 to 10.0 +/- 2.4 ng/ml during the attack (p less than 0.001) in the study patients, but remained unchanged before and after hyperventilation in the control subjects. The plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 remained unchanged after hyperventilation in both groups. Our data indicate that coronary artery spasm may induce thrombin generation and trigger thrombus formation in the coronary artery.

  17. Increased Mercury Levels in Patients with Celiac Disease following a Gluten-Free Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Elli, Luca; Rossi, Valentina; Conte, Dario; Ronchi, Anna; Tomba, Carolina; Passoni, Manuela; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Roncoroni, Leda; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Although mercury is involved in several immunological diseases, nothing is known about its implication in celiac disease. Our aim was to evaluate blood and urinary levels of mercury in celiac patients. Methods. We prospectively enrolled 30 celiac patients (20 treated with normal duodenal mucosa and 10 untreated with duodenal atrophy) and 20 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Blood and urinary mercury concentrations were measured by means of flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enrolled patients underwent dental chart for amalgam fillings and completed a food-frequency questionnaire to evaluate diet and fish intake. Results. Mercury blood/urinary levels were 2.4 ± 2.3/1.0 ± 1.4, 10.2 ± 6.7/2.2 ± 3.0 and 3.7 ± 2.7/1.3 ± 1.2 in untreated CD, treated CD, and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting mercury levels were significantly higher in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. No differences were found regarding fish intake and number of amalgam fillings. No demographic or clinical data were significantly associated with mercury levels in biologic samples. Conclusion. Data demonstrate a fourfold increase of mercury blood levels in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in celiac mechanism. PMID:25802516

  18. Pulmonary vasculature directed adenovirus increases epithelial lining fluid alpha-1 antitrypsin levels.

    PubMed

    Buggio, Maurizio; Towe, Christopher; Annan, Anand; Kaliberov, Sergey; Lu, Zhi Hong; Stephens, Calvin; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Curiel, David T

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy for inherited serum deficiency disorders has previously been limited by the balance between obtaining adequate expression and causing hepatic toxicity. Our group has previously described modifications of a replication deficient human adenovirus serotype 5 that increase pulmonary vasculature transgene expression. In the present study, we use a modified pulmonary targeted adenovirus to express human alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) in C57BL/6 J mice. Using the targeted adenovirus, we were able to achieve similar increases in serum A1AT levels with less liver viral uptake. We also increased pulmonary epithelial lining fluid A1AT levels by more than an order of magnitude compared to that of untargeted adenovirus expressing A1AT in a mouse model. These gains are achieved along with evidence of decreased systemic inflammation and no evidence for increased inflammation within the vector-targeted end organ. In addition to comprising a step towards clinically viable gene therapy for A1AT, maximization of protein production at the site of action represents a significant technical advancement in the field of systemically delivered pulmonary targeted gene therapy. It also provides an alternative to the previous limitations of hepatic viral transduction and associated toxicities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Potential population-level effects of increased haulout-related mortality of Pacific walrus calves

    Udevitz, Mark S.; Taylor, Rebecca L.; Garlich-Miller, Joel L.; Quakenbush, Lori T.; Snyder, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Availability of summer sea ice has been decreasing in the Chukchi Sea during recent decades, and increasing numbers of Pacific walruses have begun using coastal haulouts in late summer during years when sea ice retreats beyond the continental shelf. Calves and yearlings are particularly susceptible to being crushed during disturbance events that cause the herd to panic and stampede at these large haulouts, but the potential population-level effects of this mortality are unknown. We used recent harvest data, along with previous assumptions about demographic parameters for this population, to estimate female population size and structure in 2009 and project these numbers forward using a range of assumptions about future harvests and haulout-related mortality that might result from increased use of coastal haulouts during late summer. We found that if demographic parameters were held constant, the levels of harvest that occurred during 1990–2008 would have allowed the population to grow during that period. Our projections indicate, however, that an increase in haulout-related mortality affecting only calves has a greater effect on the population than an equivalent increase in harvest-related mortality distributed among all age classes. Therefore, disturbance-related mortality of calves at coastal haulouts may have relatively important population consequences.

  20. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs can selectively increase protein levels.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Sun, Hong; Shen, Wen; Wang, Shiyu; Yao, Joyee; Migawa, Michael T; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Damle, Sagar S; Riney, Stan; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-09-19

    A variety of diseases are caused by deficiencies in amounts or activity of key proteins. An approach that increases the amount of a specific protein might be of therapeutic benefit. We reasoned that translation could be specifically enhanced using trans-acting agents that counter the function of negative regulatory elements present in the 5' UTRs of some mRNAs. We recently showed that translation can be enhanced by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that target upstream open reading frames. Here we report the amount of a protein can also be selectively increased using ASOs designed to hybridize to other translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs. Levels of human RNASEH1, LDLR, and ACP1 and of mouse ACP1 and ARF1 were increased up to 2.7-fold in different cell types and species upon treatment with chemically modified ASOs targeting 5' UTR inhibitory regions in the mRNAs encoding these proteins. The activities of ASOs in enhancing translation were sequence and position dependent and required helicase activity. The ASOs appear to improve the recruitment of translation initiation factors to the target mRNA. Importantly, ASOs targeting ACP1 mRNA significantly increased the level of ACP1 protein in mice, suggesting that this approach has therapeutic and research potentials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Increased serum thrombomodulin level is associated with disease severity and mortality in pediatric sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Hsiao, Hsiang-Ju; Chan, Oi-Wa; Wang, Yu; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. As previously reported, the serum thrombomodulin is elevated in diseases associated with endothelial injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of serum thrombomodulin level in different pediatric sepsis syndromes and evaluate the relationship with disease severity and mortality. We prospectively collected cases of sepsis treated in a pediatric intensive care unit from June 2012 to July 2015 at Chang Gung Children's Hospital in Taoyuan, Taiwan. Clinical characteristics and serum thrombomodulin levels were analyzed. Increased serum thrombomodulin levels on days 1 and 3 of the diagnosis of sepsis were found in different pediatric sepsis syndromes. Patients with septic shock had significantly increased serum thrombomodulin levels on days 1 and 3 [day 1: median, 6.9 mU/ml (interquartile range (IQR): 5.8-12.8) and day 3: median, 5.8 mU/ml (IQR: 4.6-10.8)] compared to healthy controls [median, 3.4 mU/ml (IQR: 2.3-4.2)] (p = <0.001 and 0.001, respectively) and those with sepsis [day 1: median, 2.9 mU/ml (IQR: 1.8-4.7) and day 3: median, 3 mU/ml (IQR: 1.5-3.5)] and severe sepsis [day 1: median, 3.3 mU/ml (IQR: 1.3-8.6) and day 3: median, 4.4 mU/ml (IQR: 0.5-6)] (p = <0.001 and 0.001, respectively). There was also a significant positive correlation between serum thrombomodulin level on day 1 and day 1 PRISM-II, PELOD, P-MOD and DIC scores. The patients who died had significantly higher serum thrombomodulin levels on days 1 and 3 [day 1: median, 9.9 mU/ml (IQR: 6.2-15.6) and day 3: median, 10.4 mU/ml (IQR: 9.2-11.7)] than the survivors [day 1; median, 4.4 mU/ml (IQR: 2.2-7.5) and day 3: [median, 3.5 mU/ml (IQR: 1.6-5.7)] (p = 0.046 and 0.012, respectively). Increased serum thrombomodulin levels were found in different pediatric sepsis syndromes and correlated with disease severity and mortality.

  2. Increased serum thrombomodulin level is associated with disease severity and mortality in pediatric sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Hsiao, Hsiang-Ju; Chan, Oi-Wa; Wang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. As previously reported, the serum thrombomodulin is elevated in diseases associated with endothelial injury. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association of serum thrombomodulin level in different pediatric sepsis syndromes and evaluate the relationship with disease severity and mortality. Methods We prospectively collected cases of sepsis treated in a pediatric intensive care unit from June 2012 to July 2015 at Chang Gung Children’s Hospital in Taoyuan, Taiwan. Clinical characteristics and serum thrombomodulin levels were analyzed. Results Increased serum thrombomodulin levels on days 1 and 3 of the diagnosis of sepsis were found in different pediatric sepsis syndromes. Patients with septic shock had significantly increased serum thrombomodulin levels on days 1 and 3 [day 1: median, 6.9 mU/ml (interquartile range (IQR): 5.8–12.8) and day 3: median, 5.8 mU/ml (IQR: 4.6–10.8)] compared to healthy controls [median, 3.4 mU/ml (IQR: 2.3–4.2)] (p = <0.001 and 0.001, respectively) and those with sepsis [day 1: median, 2.9 mU/ml (IQR: 1.8–4.7) and day 3: median, 3 mU/ml (IQR: 1.5–3.5)] and severe sepsis [day 1: median, 3.3 mU/ml (IQR: 1.3–8.6) and day 3: median, 4.4 mU/ml (IQR: 0.5–6)] (p = <0.001 and 0.001, respectively). There was also a significant positive correlation between serum thrombomodulin level on day 1 and day 1 PRISM-II, PELOD, P-MOD and DIC scores. The patients who died had significantly higher serum thrombomodulin levels on days 1 and 3 [day 1: median, 9.9 mU/ml (IQR: 6.2–15.6) and day 3: median, 10.4 mU/ml (IQR: 9.2–11.7)] than the survivors [day 1; median, 4.4 mU/ml (IQR: 2.2–7.5) and day 3: [median, 3.5 mU/ml (IQR: 1.6–5.7)] (p = 0.046 and 0.012, respectively). Conclusion Increased serum thrombomodulin levels were found in different pediatric sepsis syndromes and correlated with disease severity and mortality. PMID

  3. Increased HDL cholesterol levels in mice with XX versus XY sex chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Link, Jenny C.; Chen, Xuqi; Prien, Christopher; Borja, Mark S.; Hammerson, Bradley; Oda, Michael N.; Arnold, Arthur P.; Reue, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective The molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in dyslipidemia are poorly understood. We aimed to distinguish genetic and hormonal regulators of sex differences in plasma lipid levels. Approach and Results We assessed the role of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on lipid levels using the Four Core Genotypes mouse model (XX females, XX males, XY females, and XY males). In gonadally intact mice fed a chow diet, lipid levels were influenced by both male–female gonadal sex and XX–XY chromosome complement. Gonadectomy of adult mice revealed that the male–female differences are dependent on acute effects of gonadal hormones. In both intact and gonadectomized animals, XX mice had higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than XY mice, regardless of male–female sex. Feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet produced distinct patterns of sex differences in lipid levels compared to a chow diet, revealing the interaction of gonadal and chromosomal sex with diet. Notably, under all dietary and gonadal conditions, HDL-C levels were higher in mice with two X chromosomes compared to mice with an X and Y chromosome. By generating mice with XX, XY and XXY chromosome complements, we determined that the presence of two X chromosomes, and not the absence of the Y chromosome, influences HDL-C concentration. Conclusions We demonstrate that having two X chromosomes versus an X and Y chromosome complement drives sex differences in HDL-C. It is conceivable that increased expression of genes escaping X-inactivation in XX mice regulates downstream processes to establish sexual dimorphism in plasma lipid levels. PMID:26112012

  4. Increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in mice with XX versus XY sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Link, Jenny C; Chen, Xuqi; Prien, Christopher; Borja, Mark S; Hammerson, Bradley; Oda, Michael N; Arnold, Arthur P; Reue, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in dyslipidemia are poorly understood. We aimed to distinguish genetic and hormonal regulators of sex differences in plasma lipid levels. We assessed the role of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on lipid levels using the four core genotypes mouse model (XX females, XX males, XY females, and XY males). In gonadally intact mice fed a chow diet, lipid levels were influenced by both male-female gonadal sex and XX-XY chromosome complement. Gonadectomy of adult mice revealed that the male-female differences are dependent on acute effects of gonadal hormones. In both intact and gonadectomized animals, XX mice had higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than XY mice, regardless of male-female sex. Feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet produced distinct patterns of sex differences in lipid levels compared with a chow diet, revealing the interaction of gonadal and chromosomal sex with diet. Notably, under all dietary and gonadal conditions, HDL-C levels were higher in mice with 2 X chromosomes compared with mice with an X and Y chromosome. By generating mice with XX, XY, and XXY chromosome complements, we determined that the presence of 2 X chromosomes, and not the absence of the Y chromosome, influences HDL-C concentration. We demonstrate that having 2 X chromosomes versus an X and Y chromosome complement drives sex differences in HDL-C. It is conceivable that increased expression of genes escaping X-inactivation in XX mice regulates downstream processes to establish sexual dimorphism in plasma lipid levels. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Experimental increase in baseline corticosterone level reduces oxidative damage and enhances innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Pătraș, Laura; Pap, Péter L.; Vincze, Orsolya; Mureșan, Cosmin; Németh, József; Lendvai, Ádám Z.

    2018-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones are significant regulators of homeostasis. The physiological effects of GCs critically depend on the time of exposure (short vs. long) as well as on their circulating levels (baseline vs. stress-induced). Previous experiments, in which chronic and high elevation of GC levels was induced, indicate that GCs impair both the activity of the immune system and the oxidative balance. Nonetheless, our knowledge on how mildly elevated GC levels, a situation much more common in nature, might influence homeostasis is limited. Therefore, we studied whether an increase in GC level within the baseline range suppresses or enhances condition (body mass, hematocrit and coccidian infestation) and physiological state (humoral innate immune system activity and oxidative balance). We implanted captive house sparrows Passer domesticus with either 60 days release corticosterone (CORT) or control pellets. CORT-treated birds had elevated baseline CORT levels one week after the implantation, but following this CORT returned to its pre-treatment level and the experimental groups had similar CORT levels one and two months following the implantation. The mass of tail feathers grown during the initial phase of treatment was smaller in treated than in control birds. CORT implantation had a transient negative effect on body mass and hematocrit, but both of these traits resumed the pre-treatment values by one month post-treatment. CORT treatment lowered oxidative damage to lipids (malondialdehyde) and enhanced constitutive innate immunity at one week and one month post-implantation. Our findings suggest that a relatively short-term (i.e. few days) elevation of baseline CORT might have a positive and stimulatory effect on animal physiology. PMID:29432437

  6. Increased Serum Interleukin-10 but not Interleukin-4 Level in Children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Medjo, Biljana; Atanaskovic-Markovic, Marina; Nikolic, Dimitrije; Radic, Snezana; Lazarevic, Ivana; Cirkovic, Ivana; Djukic, Slobodanka

    2017-08-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children, and it has been associated with wheezing. The aim of this study was to examine the serum level of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) and to analyse them in relation to the presence of wheezing. The study included 166 children with radiologically confirmed pneumonia. MP infection was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serum MP-IgM and MP-IgG test and throat swab MP DNA with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were measured using ELISA. There was no significant difference in serum level of IL-4 between children with MPP and those with non-MPP. Among children with MPP, we found similar level of IL-4 regardless of the personal and family history of allergy and asthma or the presence of wheezing. A significantly higher level of IL-10 was found in children with MPP than in children with non-MPP (32.92±18.582 vs. 27.01±14.100 pg/ml, p =0.022). Furthermore, wheezing children with MPP had a significantly higher level of IL-10 than children with MPP without wheezing (43.75±26.644 vs. 27.50±10.211 pg/ml, p=0.027). Our results show significantly increased serum level of IL-10 in children with MPP, which was significantly higher in children with wheezing. These findings may suggest a role of IL-10 in the pathogenesis of MPP and in the occurrence of wheezing during acute MP infection. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Increasing energy efficiency level of building production based on applying modern mechanization facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    Building industry in a present day going through the hard times. Machine and mechanism exploitation cost, on a field of construction and installation works, takes a substantial part in total building construction expenses. There is a necessity to elaborate high efficient method, which allows not only to increase production, but also to reduce direct costs during machine fleet exploitation, and to increase its energy efficiency. In order to achieve the goal we plan to use modern methods of work production, hi-tech and energy saving machine tools and technologies, and use of optimal mechanization sets. As the optimization criteria there are exploitation prime cost and set efficiency. During actual task-solving process we made a conclusion, which shows that mechanization works, energy audit with production juxtaposition, prime prices and costs for energy resources allow to make complex machine fleet supply, improve ecological level and increase construction and installation work quality.

  8. Lake-level increasing under the climate cryoaridization conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amosov, Mikhail; Strelkov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    A lake genesis and lake-level increasing during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are the paramount issues in paleoclimatology. Investigating these problems reveals the regularities of lake development and figures out an arid territory conditions at the LGM stage. Pluvial theory is the most prevalent conception of lake formation during the LGM. This theory is based on a fact that the water bodies emerged and their level increased due to torrential rainfalls. In this study, it is paid attention to an alternative assumption of lake genesis at the LGM stage, which is called climate cryoaridization. In accordance with this hypothesis, the endorheic water basins had their level enlarged because of a simultaneous climate aridity and temperature decrease. In this research, a lake-level increasing in endorheic regions of Central Asia and South American Altiplano of the Andes is described. The lake investigation is related to its conditions during the LGM. The study also includes a lake catalogue clearly presenting the basin conditions at the LGM stage and nowadays. The data compilation partly consists of information from an earlier work of Mikhail Amosov, Lake-levels, Vegetation And Climate In Central Asia During The Last Glacial Maximum (EGU2014-3015). According to the investigation, a lake catalogue on 27 lakes showed that most of the water bodies had higher level. This feature could be mentioned for the biggest lakes of the Aral Sea, Lake Balkhash, Issyk-Kul etc. and for the small ones located in the mountains, such as Pamir, Tian-Shan and Tibet. Yet some lakes that are situated in Central Asian periphery (Lake Qinghai and lakes in Inner Mongolia) used to be lower than nowadays. Also, the lake-level increasing of Altiplano turned to be a significant feature during the LGM in accordance with the data of 5 lakes, such as Titicaca, Coipasa-Uyuni, Lejia, Miscanti and Santa-Maria. Most of the current endorheic basins at the LGM stage were filled with water due to abundant

  9. Sea-level Rise Increases the Frequency of Nuisance Flooding in Coastal Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moftakhari Rostamkhani, H.; Aghakouchak, A.; Sanders, B. F.; Feldman, D.; Sweet, W.; Matthew, R.; Luke, A.

    2015-12-01

    The global warming-drivensea-level rise (SLR) posesa serious threat for population and assets in flood-prone coastal zones over the next century. The rate of SLR is accelerated in recent decades and is expected to increase based on current trajectories of anthropogenic activities and greenhouse gas emissions. Over the 20th century, an increase in the frequency of nuisance (minor) flooding has been reported due to the reduced gap between tidal datum and flood stage. Nuisance flooding (NF), however non-destructive, causes public inconvenience, business interruption, and substantial economic losses due to impacts such as road closures and degradation of infrastructure. It also portends an increased risk in severe floods. Here we report substantial increases in NF along the coasts of United States due to SLR over the past decades. We then take the projected SLR under the least and the most extreme representative concentration pathways (e.gRCP2.6 and RCP 8.5) to estimate the increase in NF in the near- (2030) and mid-term (2050) future. The results suggest that projected SLR will cause up to two-fold more frequent NF by 2050, compared with the 20th century. The projected increase in NF will have significant socio-economic impacts and pose public health risks especially in rapidly urbanized coastal regions.

  10. Metformin Treatment May Increase Omentin-1 Levels in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bee K.; Adya, Raghu; Farhatullah, Syed; Chen, Jing; Lehnert, Hendrik; Randeva, Harpal S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with the metabolic syndrome. Decreased omentin-1 levels are associated with obesity and diabetes. To study the effects of metformin treatment on omentin-1 levels in PCOS subjects and effects of omentin-1 on in vitro migration and angiogenesis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Serum omentin-1 was measured by ELISA. Angiogenesis was assessed by studying capillary tube formation in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) on growth factor reduced Matrigel. Endothelial cell migration assay was performed in a modified Boyden chamber. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was studied by stably transfecting HMEC-1 cells with a cis-reporter plasmid containing luciferase reporter gene linked to five repeats of NF-κB binding sites. Akt phosphorylation was assessed by Western blotting. RESULTS Serum omentin-1 was significantly lower in PCOS women (P < 0.05). After 6 months of metformin treatment, there was a significant increase in serum omentin-1 (P < 0.01). Importantly, changes in hs-CRP were significantly negatively correlated with changes in serum omentin-1 (P = 0.036). In vitro migration and angiogenesis were significantly increased in serum from PCOS women (P < 0.01) compared with matched control subjects; these effects were significantly attenuated by metformin treatment (P < 0.01) plausibly through the regulation of omentin-1 levels via NF-κB and Akt pathways. CRP and VEGF induced in vitro migration, and angiogenesis was significantly decreased by omentin-1. CONCLUSIONS Increases in omentin-1 levels may play a role but are not sufficient to explain the decreased inflammatory and angiogenic effects of sera from metformin-treated PCOS women. PMID:20852028

  11. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Barber, Sarah J.; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V.; Mather, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: 1) Immediate handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, 2) Residual handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip 15 min prior to encoding, or 3) No handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10 minutes after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal

  12. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana containing increased levels of ATP and sucrose is more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renshan; Qi, Hua; Sun, Yuzhe; Xiao, Shi

    2017-01-01

    Disease resistance exerts a fitness cost on plants, presumably due to the extra consumption of energy and carbon. In this study, we examined whether transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana with increased levels of ATP and sucrose is more resistant or susceptible to pathogen infection. Lines of A. thaliana over-expressing purple acid phosphatase 2 (AtPAP2) (OE lines) contain increased levels of ATP and sucrose, with improved growth rate and seed production. Compared to wild type (WT) and pap2 lines, the OE lines were more susceptible to several Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) strains carrying AvrRpm1, AvrRpt2 AvrRps4, AvrPtoB, HrcC and WT strain DC3000. The increased susceptibility of the OE lines to Pst strains cannot solely be attributed to the suppressed expression of R-genes but must also be attributed to the suppression of downstream signaling components, such as MOS2, EDS1 and EDS5. Before infection, the levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) precursor OPDA were similar in the leaves of OE, pap2 and WT plants, whereas the levels of JA and its derivative JA-Ile were significantly lower in the leaves of OE lines and higher in the pap2 line. The expression of JA marker defense gene PDF1.2 was up-regulated in the OE lines compared to the WT prior to Pst DC3000 infection, but its expression was lower in the OE lines after infection. In summary, high fitness Arabidopsis thaliana exhibited altered JA metabolism and broad suppression of R-genes and downstream genes as well as a higher susceptibility to Pst infections. PMID:28152090

  13. TBT-induced imposex in marine neogastropods is mediated by an increasing androgen level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettin, C.; Oehlmann, J.; Stroben, E.

    1996-09-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) exposure at different concentrations (5, 60, and 100 ng TBT as Sn/l) induces a concentration- and time-dependent imposex (=pseudohermaphroditism) development in female Nucella lapillus and Hinia reticulata. In both species the average imposex stage, termed as vas deferens sequence (VDS) index, and the average female penis length increases with increasing TBT concentration and duration of TBT exposure. Testosterone added at a concentration of 500 ng/l induces a faster and more intensive imposex development compared to that induced by the TBT concentrations used in the present experiments. Radioimmunological determination of endogenous steroid content reveals increasing testosterone titres in female gastropods exposed to TBT which correlate with the TBT concentration used and the duration of the experiment. The most marked and highest increase of the endogenous testosterone level is exhibited by females, of both species exposed to testosterone. Simulataneous exposure to TBT and to the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate which suppresses imposex development completely in N. lapillus and reduces imposex development strongly in H. reticulata proves that the imposex-inducing effects of TBT are mediated by an increasing androgen level and are not caused directly by the organotin compound itself. Further-more, TBT-induced imposex development can be suppressed in both snails by adding estrogens to the aqueous medium. These observations suggest that TBT causes an inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 dependent aromatase system which catalyses the aromatization of androgens to estrogens. The increase of the androgen content or the shift of the androgen-estrogen balance in favour of androgens induces the development of pseudohermaphroditism in marine prosobranchs. Artificial inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 dependent aromatase system using SH 489 (1-methyl-1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione) as a steroidal aromatase inhibitor and flavone as a nonsteroidal aromatase

  14. Increased body size along urbanization gradients at both community and intraspecific level in macro-moths.

    PubMed

    Merckx, Thomas; Kaiser, Aurélien; Van Dyck, Hans

    2018-05-23

    Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level. Using light and bait trapping as part of a replicated, spatially nested sampling design, we show that despite the observed urban warming of their woodland habitat, macro-moth communities display considerable increases in community-weighted mean body size because of stronger filtering against small species along urbanization gradients. Urbanization drives intraspecific shifts towards increased body size too, at least for a third of species analysed. These results indicate that urbanization drives shifts towards larger, and hence, more mobile species and individuals in order to mitigate low connectivity of ecological resources in urban settings. Macro-moths are a key group within terrestrial ecosystems, and since body size is central to species interactions, such urbanization-driven phenotypic change may impact urban ecosystem functioning, especially in terms of nocturnal pollination and food web dynamics. Although we show that urbanization's size-biased filtering happens simultaneously and coherently at both the inter- and intraspecific level, we demonstrate that the impact at the community level is most pronounced at the 800 m radius scale, whereas species-specific size increases happen at local and landscape scales (50-3,200 m radius), depending on the species. Hence, measures-such as creating and improving urban green infrastructure-to mitigate the effects of urbanization on

  15. Correlation between increasing tissue ischemia and circulating levels of angiogenic growth factors in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, Juho; Hautero, Olli; Maksimow, Mikael; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Hakovirta, Harri

    2018-04-21

    The aim of the present study was to assess the circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other suggested therapeutic growth factors with the degree of ischemia in patients with different clinical manifestations of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) according to the Rutherford grades. The study cohort consists of 226 consecutive patients admitted to a Department of Vascular Surgery for elective invasive procedures. PAD patients were grouped according to the Rutherford grades after a clinical assessment. Ankle-brachial pressure indices (ABI) and absolute toe pressure (TP) values were measured. Serum levels of circulating VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) were measured from serum and analysed against Rutherford grades and peripheral hemodynamic measurements. The levels of VEGF (P = 0.009) and HGF (P < 0.001) increased significantly as the ischaemic burden became more severe according to the Rutherford grades. PDGF behaved in opposite manner and declined along increasing Rutherford grades (P = 0.004). A significant, inverse correlations between Rutherford grades was detected as follows; VEGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.183, P = 0.004), HGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.253, P < 0.001), bFGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.169, P = 0.008) and PDGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.296, P < 0.001). In addition, VEGF had a clear direct negative correlation with ABI (Pearson's correlation -0.19, P = 0.009) and TP (Pearson's correlation -0.20, P = 0.005) measurements. Our present observations show that the circulating levels of VEGF and other suggested therapeutic growth factors are significantly increased along with increasing ischemia. These findings present a new perspective to anticipated positive effects of gene therapies utilizing VEGF, HGF, and bFGF, because the levels of these growth factors are endogenously high in end

  16. Oral supplementation with whey proteins increases plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Micke, P; Beeh, K M; Schlaak, J F; Buhl, R

    2001-02-01

    HIV infection is characterized by an enhanced oxidant burden and a systemic deficiency of the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant. The semi-essential amino acid cysteine is the main source of the free sulfhydryl group of GSH and limits its synthesis. Therefore, different strategies to supplement cysteine supply have been suggested to increase glutathione levels in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with two different cysteine-rich whey protein formulas on plasma GSH levels and parameters of oxidative stress and immune status in HIV-infected patients. In a prospective double blind clinical trial, 30 patients (25 male, 5 female; mean age (+/- SD) 42 +/- 9.8 years) with stable HIV infection (221 +/- 102 CD4 + lymphocytes L-1) were randomized to a supplemental diet with a daily dose of 45 g whey proteins of either Protectamin (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Hamburg, Germany) or Immunocal (Immunotec, Vandreuil, Canada) for two weeks. Plasma concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized GSH, superoxide anion (O2-) release by blood mononuclear cells, plasma levels of TNF-alpha and interleukins 2 and 12 were quantified with standard methods at baseline and after therapy. Pre-therapy, plasma GSH levels (Protectamin: 1.92 +/- 0.6 microM; Immunocal: 1.98 +/- 0.9 microM) were less than normal (2.64 +/- 0.7 microM, P = 0.03). Following two weeks of oral supplementation with whey proteins, plasma GSH levels increased in the Protectamin group by 44 +/- 56% (2.79 +/- 1.2 microM, P = 0.004) while the difference in the Immunocal group did not reach significance (+ 24.5 +/- 59%, 2.51 +/- 1.48 microM, P = 0.43). Spontaneous O2- release by blood mononuclear cells was stable (20.1 +/- 14.2 vs. 22.6 +/- 16.1 nmol h-1 10-6 cells, P = 0.52) whereas PMA-induced O2- release decreased in the Protectamin group (53.7 +/- 19 vs. 39.8 +/- 18 nmol h-1 10-6 cells, P = 0.04). Plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha and interleukins 2 and

  17. Income inequality and schizophrenia: increased schizophrenia incidence in countries with high levels of income inequality.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Kapadia, Amy S

    2014-03-01

    Income inequality is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. There is evidence that ecological-level socio-environmental factors may increase risk for schizophrenia. The aim was to investigate whether measures of income inequality are associated with incidence of schizophrenia at the country level. We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates for schizophrenia, reported between 1975 and 2011. For each country, national measures of income inequality (Gini coefficient) along with covariate risk factors for schizophrenia were obtained. Multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression was performed to investigate the relationship between Gini coefficients and incidence rates of schizophrenia controlling for covariates. One hundred and seven incidence rates (from 26 countries) were included. Mean incidence of schizophrenia was 18.50 per 100,000 (SD = 11.9; range = 1.7-67). There was a significant positive relationship between incidence rate of schizophrenia and Gini coefficient (β = 1.02; Z = 2.28; p = .02; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.03). Countries characterized by a large rich-poor gap may be at increased risk of schizophrenia. We suggest that income inequality impacts negatively on social cohesion, eroding social capital, and that chronic stress associated with living in highly disparate societies places individuals at risk of schizophrenia.

  18. Circulating leptin levels are associated with increased craving to smoke in abstinent smokers

    PubMed Central

    al’Absi, Mustafa; Hooker, Stephanie; Fujiwara, Koji; Kiefer, Falk; von der Goltz, Christoph; Cragin, Tiffany; Wittmers, Lorentz E.

    2018-01-01

    The adipocyte hormone leptin regulates satiety and energy expenditure. Recent evidence suggests that leptin is associated with increased craving for alcohol and with shorter length of abstinence during alcohol treatment. This study examined leptin’s associations with craving for cigarettes and smoking relapse among smokers interested in cessation. Participants (32 smokers; 14 women) attended a laboratory session 24 h following their designated quit day where circulating leptin levels and craving for smoking were assessed. Other measures of withdrawal symptoms, affect, physical symptoms, as well as neuroendocrine and cardiovascular measures were collected before and after performing two stress tasks (public speaking and cognitive tasks). High circulating leptin levels were associated with increased craving, withdrawal symptoms, negative affect, physical symptoms, and reduced positive affect. Circulating leptin levels were not related to cardiovascular and neuroendocrine measures, responses to acute stressors, or to smoking relapse. These results indicate that circulating leptin is a promising biological marker of craving for smoking and warrant further investigation of the links between appetite regulation and nicotine dependence. PMID:20951159

  19. miR-132 targeting E2F5 suppresses cell proliferation, invasion, migration in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hang; Hou, Lei; Xiong, Yu-Mei; Huang, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Pan, Yong-Ying; Song, Xing-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence showed that microRNA-132 (miR-132) are involved in development and progression of several types of cancers, however, the function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-132 in ovarian cancer remains unclear. In this study we investigated the biological roles and molecular mechanism of miR-132 in ovarian cancer. Here, we found that that the expression levels of miR-132 were dramatically decreased in ovarian cancer cell lines and clinical ovarian cancer tissue samples. Then, we found that introduction of miR-132 significantly suppressed the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Mechanism investigation revealed that miR-132 inhibited the expression of transcription factor E2F5 by specifically targeting its mRNA 3'UTR. Moreover, the expression level of E2F5 was significantly increased in ovarian cancer tissues than in the adjacent normal tissues, and its expression was inversely correlated with miR-132 expression in clinical ovarian cancer tissues. Additionally, silencing E2F5 was able to inhibit the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, parallel to the effect of miR-132 overexpression on the ovarian cancer cells. Meanwhile, overexpression of E2F5 reversed the inhibition effect mediated by miR-132 overexpression. These results indicate that miR-132 suppresses the cell proliferation, invasion, migration in ovarian cancer cells by targeting E2F5.

  20. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco

    2012-05-01

    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  1. Plasma apolipoprotein O level increased in the patients with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bi-lian; Wu, Chen-lu; Zhao, Shui-ping

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) O is a novel apolipoprotein that is present predominantly in high density lipoprotein (HDL). However, overexpression of apoO does not impact on plasma HDL levels or functionality in human apoA-I transgenic mice. Thus, the physiological function of apoO is not yet known. In the present study, we investigated relationships between plasma apoO levels and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels, as well as other lipid parameters in healthy subjects (n = 111) and patients with established acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (n = 50). ApoO was measured by the sandwich dot-blot technique with recombinant apoO as a protein standard. Mean apoO level in healthy subjects was 2.21 ± 0.83 µg/ml whereas it was 4.94 ± 1.59 µg/ml in ACS patients. There were significant differences in plasma level of apoO between two groups (P < 0.001). In univariate analysis, apoO correlated significantly with lg(hsCRP) (r = 0.48, P < 0.001) in ACS patients. Notably, no significant correlation between apoO and other lipid parameters was observed. Logistic regression analysis showed that plasma apoO level was an independent predictor of ACS (OR = 5.61, 95% CI 2.16–14.60, P < 0.001). In conclusion, apoO increased in ACS patients, and may be regarded as an independent inflammatory predictor of ACS patients. PMID:22693255

  2. Increased levels of nitrite in the sera of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Torre, D; Ferrario, G; Speranza, F; Martegani, R; Zeroli, C

    1996-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a newly discovered gas that plays an important role in cell communication and host resistance to infection. The production of NO was examined in the sera of seven children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and in the sera of 14 children who became seronegative for HIV-1 during the first year of life. In addition, we determined serum levels of various cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), inasmuch as these cytokines are potent inducers of NO production. Production of NO, detected as circulating serum levels of nitrite, was measured with use of the Griess reagent. Serum levels of cytokines were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Increased serum levels of nitrite were observed in children with HIV-1 infection (0.4 +/- 0.2 mumol/L; P = .013), and in those who became seronegative for HIV-1 during the first year of life (0.5 +/- 0.3 mumol/L; P = .04). Furthermore, serum levels of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha were significantly elevated in children with HIV-1 infection (37.5 +/- 23.6 pg/mL and 91.2 +/- 45.1 pg/mL, respectively). Prophylactic administration of intravenous immune globulin provoked a significant decrease of circulating levels of nitrite in children with HIV-1 infection. In conclusion, NO may play a role as a cytostatic or cytotoxic factor for invading microorganisms, and thus it is probably involved in limiting and/or eradicating infection.

  3. Hepatoprotectant Ursodeoxycholyl Lysophosphatidylethanolamide Increasing Phosphatidylcholine Levels as a Potential Therapy of Acute Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chamulitrat, Walee; Zhang, Wujuan; Xu, Weihong; Pathil, Anita; Setchell, Kenneth; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    It has been long known that hepatic synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) is depressed during acute such as carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. Anti-hepatotoxic properties of PC as liposomes have been recognized for treatment of acute liver damage. Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) is a known hepatoprotectant in stabilizing cellular membrane. For therapeutic management of liver injury, we coupled UDCA with a phospholipid known as ursodeoxycholyl lysophosphatidylethanolamide (UDCA-LPE). UDCA-LPE has been shown to first-in-class hepatoprotectant being superior to UDCA or PC. It inhibits mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, elicits survival signaling pathway, and promotes regeneration of hepatocytes. We herein report that a unique contribution of UDCA-LPE in increasing concentrations of PC in vitro and in vivo. UDCA-LPE-treated hepatocytes contained significantly increased PC levels. UDCA-LPE underwent the hydrolysis to LPE which was not the precursor of the increased PC. The levels of PC in the liver and blood were increased rapidly after intraperitoneally administration UDCA-LPE, and were found to be sustained even after 24 h. Among PC synthesis genes tested, UDCA-LPE treatment of mouse hepatocytes increased transcription of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase 1 which is an enzyme catalyzing phosphatidic acid to generate intermediates for PC synthesis. Thus, UDCA-LPE as a hepatoprotectant was able to induce synthesis of protective PC which would supplement for the loss of PC occurring during acute liver injury. This property has placed UDCA-LPE as a candidate agent for therapy of acute hepatotoxicity such as acetaminophen poisoning. PMID:22363296

  4. Towards increased waste loading in high level waste glasses: Developing a better understanding of crystallization behavior

    DOE PAGES

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong -Sang

    2014-12-18

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Thus, recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized.more » Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe 2O 3 (with higher Al 2O 3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.« less

  5. Music stimuli lead to increased levels of nitrite in unstimulated mixed saliva.

    PubMed

    Jin, Luyuan; Zhang, Mengbi; Xu, Junji; Xia, Dengsheng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jingsong; Wang, Songlin

    2018-06-15

    Concentration of salivary nitrate is approximately 10-fold to that of serum. Many circumstances such as acute stress could promote salivary nitrate secretion and nitrite formation. However, whether other conditions can also be used as regulators of salivary nitrate/nitrite has not yet been explored. The present study was designed to determine the influence of exposure to different music on the salivary flow rate and nitrate secretion and nitrite formation. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females and 12 males) were exposed to silence, rock music, classical music or white noise respectively on four consecutive mornings. The unstimulated salivary flow rate and stimulated salivary flow rate were measured. Salivary ionic (Na + , Ca 2+ Cl - , and PO 4 3- ) content and nitrate/nitrite levels were detected. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly increased after classical music exposure compared to that after silence. Salivary nitrite levels were significantly higher upon classical music and white noise stimulation than those under silence in females. However, males were more sensitive only to white noise with regard to the nitrite increase. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that classical music stimulation promotes salivary nitrite formation and an increase in saliva volume was observed. These observations may play an important role in regulating oral function.

  6. Using a Music Video Parody to Promote Breastfeeding and Increase Comfort Levels Among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Austen, Erin L; Beadle, Julie; Lukeman, Sionnach; Lukeman, Ellen; Aquino, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    North Americans are not meeting the World Health Organization's breastfeeding recommendations. Young adults understand that breastfeeding is healthy but are uncomfortable seeing breastfeeding. Research aim: The aim of the current project was to determine if a music video parody promoting breastfeeding is perceived by young adults to be an effective means of promotion and if exposure to such a video could increase comfort levels. Young adults rated how comfortable they felt looking at breastfeeding and bottle-feeding images (pretest). Two months later, a subset of participants watched the music video parody "Breastfeeding My Baby." In Phase 1, participants completed the picture-rating task again (posttest) after a 2-month delay, plus a survey to assess memory and perception of the video. In Phase 2, participants were reminded of the video before completing the comfort ratings, and in the final phase, posttest measures were administered only 1 week after exposure to the video. Across all phases, the video was perceived to be effective and was memorable. Breastfeeding comfort ratings were comparable at pretest across participant groups; comfort ratings improved at posttest for participants who saw the video but only if they were reminded of seeing it before providing their ratings. At shorter intervals between seeing the video and completing the posttests, comfort ratings for breastfeeding images increased for all participants, highlighting the general importance of exposure to breastfeeding. Young adults are receptive to using a music video parody to promote breastfeeding, which can help to increase comfort levels with breastfeeding.

  7. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; de Oliveira, Camila Andrea; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Background The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. Results LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. Conclusion GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. PMID:28678925

  8. Heparin-induced increase in serum levels of aminotranferases. A controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H K; Husted, S E; Koopmann, H D; Fasting, H; Simonsen, O; Andersen, K; Husegaard, H C; Petersen, T K

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-four patients over the age of 40 years, undergoing elective surgery of at least one hour's duration, were randomized to treatment with either a thromboembolic deterrent ( TED ) stocking (Kendall Co.) or subcutaneous low-dose heparin 5 000 IU every 12 hours. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (S-ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (S-ASAT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (S-gamma-GT) and alkaline phosphatase (S-ALP) were measured. S-ALAT increased significantly on the 5th and 10th postoperative day, from 27 +/- 2 (x +/- SE) to 40 +/- 4 (p less than 0.01) and 55 +/- 7 U/l (p less than 0.001), respectively, in the heparin group and was significantly higher in the heparin than in the TED group both on the 5th (p less than 0.01) and 10th (p less than 0.05) postoperative day. S-ASAT and S-gamma-GT increased significantly during heparin treatment, but did not differ significantly from the values of the TED group. No change in S-ALP was registered in either group. It is concluded that prophylactic treatment with low-dose heparin induces a significant increase in S-aminotransferase levels, especially in S-ALAT. The phenomenon has profound differential diagnostic implications in conditions such as pulmonary embolism and acute myocardial infarction.

  9. Kaempferol increases levels of coenzyme Q in kidney cells and serves as a biosynthetic ring precursor.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Del-Río, Lucía; Nag, Anish; Gutiérrez Casado, Elena; Ariza, Julia; Awad, Agape M; Joseph, Akil I; Kwon, Ohyun; Verdin, Eric; de Cabo, Rafael; Schneider, Claus; Torres, Jorge Z; Burón, María I; Clarke, Catherine F; Villalba, José M

    2017-09-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant essential in cellular physiology. Patients with Q deficiencies, with few exceptions, seldom respond to treatment. Current therapies rely on dietary supplementation with Q 10 , but due to its highly lipophilic nature, Q 10 is difficult to absorb by tissues and cells. Plant polyphenols, present in the human diet, are redox active and modulate numerous cellular pathways. In the present study, we tested whether treatment with polyphenols affected the content or biosynthesis of Q. Mouse kidney proximal tubule epithelial (Tkpts) cells and human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK 293) were treated with several types of polyphenols, and kaempferol produced the largest increase in Q levels. Experiments with stable isotope 13 C-labeled kaempferol demonstrated a previously unrecognized role of kaempferol as an aromatic ring precursor in Q biosynthesis. Investigations of the structure-function relationship of related flavonols showed the importance of two hydroxyl groups, located at C3 of the C ring and C4' of the B ring, both present in kaempferol, as important determinants of kaempferol as a Q biosynthetic precursor. Concurrently, through a mechanism not related to the enhancement of Q biosynthesis, kaempferol also augmented mitochondrial localization of Sirt3. The role of kaempferol as a precursor that increases Q levels, combined with its ability to upregulate Sirt3, identify kaempferol as a potential candidate in the design of interventions aimed on increasing endogenous Q biosynthesis, particularly in kidney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of Rice Koji Extract Components that Increase β-Glucocerebrosidase Levels in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhisa; Ogino, Yuuka; Nakamura, Ayano; Nakata, Keiji; Kitagawa, Manabu; Ito, Seiki

    2018-06-18

    Rice miso contains many ingredients derived from rice koji and has been a valuable source of nutrition since ancient times. We found that the consumption of rice miso led to improvements in the moisture content of cheek stratum corneum, skin viscoelasticity, and skin texture. Further, rice miso extract was found to increase the mRNA expression and activity of β-glucocerebrosidase (β-GCase), an enzyme involved in ceramide synthesis in the stratum corneum, in cultures. In this study, we identified the lipid-derived components of rice koji that increase the β-GCase activity in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. The methanol fraction of rice koji extract induced an increase in the mRNA expression and activity of β-GCase in keratinocytes. The active fraction of rice koji was found to contain phosphatidic acid (PA) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The total PA concentration in rice koji was 973.9 ng/mg dry weight, which was 17.5 times higher than that in steamed rice. Among the molecular species, PA_18:2/18:2 was the most frequently found. The total LPA concentration in rice koji was 29.6 ng/mg dry weight, and 2-LPA_18:2 was the most frequently found LPA. Since PA and LPA increase the mRNA expression and activity of β-GCase in keratinocytes, they are thought to be the active ingredients in rice koji that increase the β-GCase levels in human epidermal keratinocytes.

  11. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0–10) was reduced to zero, but the elevated insulin requirements continued for 4 weeks after the injection. This finding suggests that steroid injections for shoulder pain in diabetics may not always be as safe as previously thought. We propose that medical practitioners advise their patients to monitor their glucose levels more carefully after such injections and that caution is exercised when considering administrating these injections to those who have poorly controlled blood glucose levels preinjection to avoid ketoacidosis. PMID:25199186

  12. The Tellurium compound, AS101, increases SIRT1 level and activity and prevents type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Halperin-Sheinfeld, Meital; Gertler, Asaf; Okun, Eitan

    2012-01-01

    The histone deacetylase, SIRT1, plays a major role in glucose regulation and lipid metabolism. Ammonium Trichloro (dioxoethylene-o,o') Tellurate, AS101, is a potent in vitro and in vivo immunomodulator, with several potential therapeutic applications. AS101 administration resulted in upregulation of SIRT1 protein expression and activity. These effects were associated with decreased levels of serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and of insulin. The properties of AS101 prompted us to investigate its potential therapeutic role in rats with type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was induced by a high fat diet combined with a low dose of Streptozotocin (STZ). Treatment with AS101 before manifestation of hyperglycemia, resulted in increased insulin sensitivity, and decreased blood glucose levels, and prevented symptoms of diabetes including defective glucose clearance, fatty liver, and abnormal distribution of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Treatment after disease emergence resulted in partial restoration of normal glucose homeostasis. Diabetic rats showed a reduction in liver SIRT1 levels. In both treatment regimens the reduction in SIRT1 levels in the liver were blocked by AS101 consumption. Together, these findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of AS101 for treating T2D, and for reversing impaired fat and glucose metabolism. PMID:22761194

  13. Increase of 210Po levels in human semen fluid after mussel ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Gouvea, Rita de Cássia dos Santos

    2011-05-01

    Polonium-210 ((210)Po) radioactive concentrations were determined in human semen fluid of vasectomized non-smoker volunteers. The (210)Po levels ranged from 0.10 to 0.39 mBq g(-1) (mean: 0.23 ± 0.08 mBq g(-1)). This value decreased to 0.10 ± 0.02 mBq g(-1) (range from 0.07 to 0.13 mBq g(-1)) after two weeks of a controlled diet, excluding fish and seafood. Then, volunteers ate during a single meal 200 g of the cooked mussel Perna perna L., and (210)Po levels were determined again, during ten days, in semen fluid samples collected every morning. Volunteers continued with the controlled diet and maintained sexual abstinence through the period of the experiment. A 300% increase of (210)Po level was observed the day following mussel consumption, with a later reduction, such that the level returned to near baseline by day 4. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IL-33 circulating serum levels are increased in patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Mario; Cicero, Francesca; Mannucci, Carmen; Calapai, Gioacchino; Spatari, Giovanna; Barbuzza, Olga; Cannavò, Serafinella P; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-09-01

    IL-33 is a recently identified cytokine, encoded by the IL-33 gene, which is a member of the IL-1 family that drives the production of T-helper-2 (Th-2)-associated cytokines. Serum levels of IL-33 have been reported to be up-regulated in various T-helper (Th)-1/Th-17-mediated diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel. To investigate whether cytokine imbalance plays a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, we performed a case-control association study by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of IL-33 in our patients. IL-33 serum levels were measured by a quantitative enzyme immunoassay technique in patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo and compared with those of healthy controls. IL-33 serum levels in patients with vitiligo were significantly increased than those in healthy controls. There was a positive correlation of IL-33 serum levels with extension of vitiligo and disease activity. This study suggests a possible systemic role of IL-33 in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Inhibiting IL-33 activity might be a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory disease, like vitiligo.

  15. Total circulating microparticle levels are increased in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Munrós, J; Martínez-Zamora, M A; Tàssies, D; Coloma, J L; Torrente, M A; Reverter, J C; Carmona, F; Balasch, J

    2017-02-01

    Are the levels of total circulating cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) and circulating tissue factor-containing microparticles (cMP-TF) increased in patients with endometriosis? The levels of total cMP, but not cMP-TF, were higher in patients with endometriosis, and these were attributed to higher levels in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Previous studies have reported elevated levels of total cMP in inflammatory conditions as well as higher levels of other inflammatory biomarkers in endometriosis. Increased expression of tissue factor (a transmembrane receptor for Factor VII/VIIa) in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis has been described. There is no previous data regarding total cMP and cMP-TF levels in patients with endometriosis. A prospective case-control study including two groups of patients was carried out. The E group included 65 patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis (37 with DIE lesions) and the C group comprises 33 women without surgical findings of any form of endometriosis. Patients and controls were recruited during the same 10-month period. Controls were the next patient without endometriosis undergoing surgery, after including two patients with endometriosis. Venous blood samples for total cMP and cMP-TF determinations were obtained at the time of surgery, before anesthesia at a tertiary care center. To assess total cMP, an ELISA functional assay was used and cMP-TF activity in plasma was measured using an ELISA kit. Total cMP levels in plasma were higher in the E group compared with the C group (P < 0.0001). The subanalysis of endometriosis patients with DIE or with ovarian endometriomas without DIE showed that total cMP levels were higher in the DIE group (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in cMP-TF levels among the groups analyzed. This is a preliminary study in which the sample size was arbitrarily decided, albeit in keeping with previous studies analyzing

  16. Levels of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy despite increased insulin resistance, beta-cell function and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, A; Maciulewski, R; Siewko, K; Popławska-Kita, A; Lipińska, D; Kozłowska, G; Górska, M; Szelachowska, M

    2016-12-01

    Evidence in support of an association between betatrophin and insulin resistance (IR) is mounting, with studies demonstrating that betatrophin is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity and gestational diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of betatrophin in IR and physiological proliferation of beta cells during pregnancy in healthy women. Eighty healthy pregnant women were examined at each trimester [T1 (first), T2 (second), T3 (third)], with a subgroup (n=45) that was also examined at 3 months postpartum (3MPP). The controls comprised 30 non-pregnant healthy women (HW) of reproductive age. Also measured were levels of betatrophin (ELISA), glucose (enzymatic method with hexokinase), insulin (IRMA), C-peptide (EASIA) and HbA 1c (HPLC), while HOMA-IR and HOMA-β scores were calculated. Betatrophin concentration was highest at T1, and differed significantly from T2 and T3 (1.84 [Q 1 =1.16, Q 3 =2.67]ng/mL vs 1.46 [Q 1 =0.96, Q 3 =2.21]ng/mL; P<0.05 and 1.23 [Q 1 =0.85, Q 3 =2.14]ng/mL; P<0.01, respectively). The T3 median concentration of betatrophin was the lowest of all trimesters, and significantly lower than at 3MPP (1.23 [Q 1 =0.85, Q 3 =2.14]ng/mL vs 1.49 [Q 1 =1.06, Q 3 =2.60]ng/mL; P<0.01, respectively). At 3MPP, the level of betatrophin was similar to that of HW (1.47 [Q 1 =0.89, Q 3 =2.67]ng/mL). HOMA-IR and HOMA-%β index scores increased during gestation, peaking at T3 (2.3 [Q 1 =1.66, Q 3 =2.72] and 227.7 [Q 1 =185.49, Q 3 =326.31], respectively) and returning to levels similar to those of HW at 3MPP (1.53 [Q 1 =1.12, Q 3 =2.41] and 88.86 [Q 1 =62.73, Q 3 =130.45] vs 1.35 [Q 1 =1.02, Q 3 =1.62] and 92.5 [Q 1 =74.20, Q 3 =111.47], respectively). Concentrations of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy, suggesting that the hormone does not play a significant role in the expansion of beta-cell mass and IR during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Lactoferrin Levels in Tears are Increased by the Topical Application of Diadenosine Tetraphosphate.

    PubMed

    Loma, Patricia; Guzman-Aranguez, Ana; Perez de Lara, Maria J; Pintor, Jesus

    2016-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of the topical application of diadenosine tetraphosphate on lactoferrin levels in rabbit tears. Diadenosine tetraphosphate was topically instilled in a single-dose, tear samples were collected by micropipette and lactoferrin was measured by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). The concentration of lactoferrin in rabbit tears was significantly increased 1 h after diadenosine tetraphosphate application, remaining elevated for 3 h more. This effect was blocked by P2 receptors antagonists. Topical application of diadenosine tetraphosphate stimulates the secretion of lactoferrin in rabbit tears through P2 receptor activation.

  18. In vivo low-level light therapy increases cytochrome oxidase in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hayworth, Christopher R; Rojas, Julio C; Padilla, Eimeira; Holmes, Genevieve M; Sheridan, Eva C; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2010-01-01

    Low-level light therapy (LLLT) increases survival of cultured cells, improves behavioral recovery from neurodegeneration and speeds wound healing. These beneficial effects are thought to be mediated by upregulation of mitochondrial proteins, especially the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase. However, the effects of in vivo LLLT on cytochrome oxidase in intact skeletal muscle have not been previously investigated. We used a sensitive method for enzyme histochemistry of cytochrome oxidase to examine the rat temporalis muscle 24 h after in vivo LLLT. The findings showed for the first time that in vivo LLLT induced a dose- and fiber type-dependent increase in cytochrome oxidase in muscle fibers. LLLT was particularly effective at enhancing the aerobic capacity of intermediate and red fibers. The findings suggest that LLLT may enhance the oxidative energy metabolic capacity of different types of muscle fibers, and that LLLT may be used to enhance the aerobic potential of skeletal muscle.

  19. Potential to increase active commuting level in university area (Case study: Universitas Gadjah Mada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    In order to alleviate the negative impacts of motorized vehicle use as well as create sustainable environment within campus area, it is pivotal to encourage mode shifting among university students. Active transport modes such as walking, cycling, and using public transport can be considered as alternative modes. This paper tried to identify the potential to increase active commuting in UGM by understanding student’s travel behavior. ANOVA test was employed to identify the perceptions between students across residential zones toward motivators and barriers to actively commute. The findings were used to propose strategies for increasing active commuting level in UGM, which are: reducing barriers to actively commute, improving public transport services, improving walking and cycling facilities, and introducing programs to discourage motorized vehicle use.

  20. Stromal-Derived Factor-1α (CXCL12) Levels Increase in Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Havens, Aaron M.; Chiu, Evonne; Taba, Mario; Wang, Jincheng; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Jung, Younghun; Taichman, L. Susan; D'Silva, Nisha J.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Wang, CunYu; Giannobile, William V.; Taichman, Russell S.

    2008-01-01

    Background The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and its ligand, stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1α or CXC chemokine ligand 12) are involved in the trafficking of leukocytes into and out of extravascular tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SDF-1α secreted by host cells plays a role in recruiting inflammatory cells into the periodontia during local inflammation. Methods SDF-1α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of 24 individuals with periodontitis versus healthy individuals in tissue biopsies and in a preclinical rat model of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide–induced experimental bone loss. Neutrophil chemotaxis assays were also used to evaluate whether SDF-1α plays a role in the recruitment of host cells at periodontal lesions. Results Subjects with periodontal disease had higher levels of SDF-1α in their GCF compared to healthy subjects. Subjects with periodontal disease who underwent mechanical therapy demonstrated decreased levels of SDF-1α. Immunohistologic staining showed that SDF-1α and CXCR4 levels were elevated in samples obtained from periodontally compromised individuals. Similar results were observed in the rodent model. Neutrophil migration was enhanced in the presence of SDF-1α, mimicking immune cell migration in periodontal lesions. Conclusions SDF-1α may be involved in the immune defense pathway activated during periodontal disease. Upon the development of diseased tissues, SDF-1α levels increase and may recruit host defensive cells into sites of inflammation. These studies suggest that SDF-1α may be a useful biomarker for the identification of periodontal disease progression. PMID:18454663

  1. Chronic mild stress increases alcohol intake in mice with low dopamine D2 receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K; Rombola, Christina; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders emerge from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Stress and dopamine D2 receptor levels (DRD2) have been shown to play a central role in alcoholism. To better understand the interactions between DRD2 and stress in ethanol intake behavior, we subjected Drd2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and knockout (-/-) mice to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and to an ethanol two-bottle choice during CMS weeks 2-4. Prior to and at the end of the experiment, the animals were tested in the forced swim and open field tests. We measured ethanol intake and preference, immobility in the force swim test, and activity in the open field. We show that under no CMS, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had lower ethanol intake and preference compared with Drd2+/+. Exposure to CMS decreased ethanol intake and preference in Drd2+/+ and increased them in Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice. At baseline, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had significantly lower activity in the open field than Drd2+/+, whereas no genotype differences were observed in the forced swim test. Exposure to CMS increased immobility during the forced swim test in Drd2+/- mice, but not in Drd2+/+ or Drd2-/- mice, and ethanol intake reversed this behavior. No changes were observed in open field test measures. These findings suggest that in the presence of a stressful environment, low DRD2 levels are associated with increased ethanol intake and preference and that under this condition, increased ethanol consumption could be used as a strategy to alleviate negative mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Increasing levels of rapeseed expeller meal in diets for pigs: effects on protein and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pérez de Nanclares, M; Marcussen, C; Tauson, A-H; Hansen, J Ø; Kjos, N P; Mydland, L T; Bach Knudsen, K E; Øverland, M

    2018-05-28

    The heavy reliance on imported soybean meal (SBM) as a protein source makes it necessary for the European pig industry to search for alternatives and to develop pigs that perform efficiently when fed such ingredients. Digestion and metabolism are major physiological processes contributing to variation in feed efficiency. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to assess the effects of replacing SBM with increasing levels of rapeseed meal (RSM) in diets for young pigs on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients, nitrogen (N) balance, energy metabolism and carbohydrate, protein and fat oxidation. Four diets were fed to 32 pigs (22.7±4.1 kg initial BW) for three weeks. The diets consisted of a control cereal grain-SBM basal diet and three test diets where SBM and wheat were partially replaced with 10%, 20%, and 30% of expeller RSM. Increasing level of RSM in the diets linearly reduced ATTD of organic matter, CP, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber and energy. Utilization of digested nitrogen (DN) for N retention and total N excretion were not affected by RSM inclusion, however, RSM inclusion induced a shift in N excretion from urine to feces. Despite a linear increase in liver to metabolic BW ratio, heat production and utilization of metabolizable energy (ME) for retention were not affected by increasing RSM inclusion. In conclusion, replacing SBM with up to 30% of expeller RSM in nutritionally balanced diets for young pigs reduced the ATTD of most nutrients and energy, but did not affect N and energy retention in the body or efficiency of utilization of DN or ME for retention.

  3. Increased juvenile hormone levels after long-duration flight in the grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung Jin; Jones, Nathan; Borst, David W; Rankin, Mary Ann

    2004-06-01

    Although, in many insects, migration imposes a cost in terms of timing or amount of reproduction, in the migratory grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes performance of long-duration flight to voluntary cessation or exhaustion accelerates the onset of first reproduction and enhances reproductive success over the entire lifetime of the insect. Since juvenile hormone (JH) is involved in the control of reproduction in most species, we examined JH titer after long flight using a chiral selective radioimmunoassay. JH levels increased on days 5 and 8 in animals flown to exhaustion on day 4 but not in 1-h or non-flier controls. No difference was seen in the diel pattern of JH titer, but hemolymph samples were taken between 5 and 7 h after lights on. Treatment of grasshoppers with JH-III mimicked the effect of long-duration flight in the induction of early reproduction. The increased JH titer induced by performance of long-duration flight is thus at least one component of flight-enhanced reproduction. To test the possibility that post-flight JH titer increases are caused by adipokinetic hormone (AKH) released during long flights, a series of injections of physiological doses of Lom-AKH I were given to unflown animals to simulate AKH release during long flight. This treatment had no effect on JH titers. Thus, although AKH is released during flight and controls lipid mobilization, it is not the factor responsible for increased JH titers after long-duration flight.

  4. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?

    PubMed Central

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.; Janssens, Ivan A.; Asard, Han

    2016-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including “all” papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (105 papers), confirms the frequent occurrence of the stress mitigation effect. However, it also demonstrates that, in stress conditions, elevated CO2 is reported to increase antioxidants, only in about 22% of the observations (e.g., for polyphenols, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase). In most observations, under stress and elevated CO2 the levels of key antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes are reported to remain unchanged (50%, e.g., ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate), or even decreased (28%, e.g., glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, increases in antioxidants are not specific for a species group, growth facility, or stress type. It seems therefore unlikely that increased antioxidant defense is the major mechanism underlying CO2-mediated stress impact mitigation. Alternative processes, probably decreasing the oxidative challenge by reducing ROS production (e.g., photorespiration), are therefore likely to play important roles in elevated CO2 (relaxation hypothesis). Such parameters are however rarely investigated in connection with abiotic stress relief. Understanding the effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and stress responses is imperative to understand the impact of climate changes on plant productivity. PMID:27200030

  5. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins Increase Intracellular Calcium Levels in Two Different Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Seurin, Danielle; Lombet, Alain; Babajko, Sylvie; Godeau, François; Ricort, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are six related secreted proteins that share IGF-dependent and -independent functions. If the former functions begin to be well described, the latter are somewhat more difficult to investigate and to characterize. At the cellular level, IGFBPs were shown to modulate numerous processes including cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms implicated remain largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that IGFBP-3, but not IGFBP-1 or IGFBP-5, increase intracellular calcium concentration in MCF-7 cells (Ricort J-M et al. (2002) FEBS lett 527: 293–297). Methodology/Principal Findings We perform a global analysis in which we studied, by two different approaches, the binding of each IGFBP isoform (i.e., IGFBP-1 to -6) to the surface of two different cellular models, MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells and C2 myoblast proliferative cells, as well as the IGFBP-induced increase of intracellular calcium concentration. Using both confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, we showed that all IGFBPs bind to MCF-7 cell surface. By contrast, only four IGFBPs can bind to C2 cell surface since neither IGFBP-2 nor IGFBP-4 were detected. Among the six IGFBPs tested, only IGFBP-1 did not increased intracellular calcium concentration whatever the cellular model studied. By contrast, IGFBP-2, -3, -4 and -6, in MCF-7 cells, and IGFBP-3, -5 and -6, in C2 proliferative cells, induce a rapid and transient increase in intracellular free calcium concentration. Moreover, IGFBP-2 and -3 (in MCF-7 cells) and IGFBP-5 (in C2 cells) increase intracellular free calcium concentration by a pertussis toxin sensitive signaling pathway. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that IGFBPs are able to bind to cell surface and increase intracellular calcium concentration. By characterizing the IGFBPs-induced cell responses and intracellular couplings, we highlight the cellular specificity and

  6. Increased intracellular adenosine triphosphate level as an index to predict acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-Zhen; Jin, Zhan-Kui; Tian, Xiao-Hui; Xue, Wu-Jun; Tian, Pu-Xun; Ding, Xiao-Ming; Zheng, Jin; Li, Yang; Jing, Xin; Luo, Zi-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral blood CD4+ T cell adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release has been reported to be an adjunct tool to evaluate global cellular immune response in solid-organ transplant recipients. However, the correlation between the ATP level and rejection was controversial. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to explore the association between the intracellular ATP level and the occurrence, progression, and treatment of acute rejection (AR) episodes, determine the predicting value of intracellular ATP level for AR in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. In the period of October 2011 to October 2012, 140 KT recipients were recruited and followed for six months after transplantation. Patients were categorized into stable group and AR group according to their clinical course. Whole blood samples were collected pretransplantation, and at 7, 14, 21, and 28days, and at 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6months post-transplantation. Additional blood samples were obtained from AR patients on the day AR occurred, on the day before and 3 and 7days after intravenous anti-rejection therapy started, and on the day when AR reversed. The intracellular ATP in CD4+ T cells was detected by ImmuKnow Immune Cell Function Assay according to the manufacturer's instruction. The absolute number of CD4+ T cells and the trough levels of tacrolimus and cyclosporine were also measured. The ATP level detected on the day AR occurred (627.07±149.85ng/ml) was obviously higher than that of the stable group (320.48±149.11ng/ml, P<0.05). ATP value decreased to 265.35±84.33ng/m at the end of anti-rejection therapy, which was obviously lower than that measured on the day before the anti-rejection therapy started (665.87±162.85ng/ml, P<0.05). ROC analysis revealed that increased intracellular adenosine triphosphate level showed better sensitivity and specificity than those obtained using single time point detection (89.5% vs 85.0%;95.0% vs 88.9%). The best cutoff value was 172.55ng/ml. A positive correlation

  7. Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation: Incentivizing Flexibility in System Operations

    SciT

    Ela, Erik; Milligan, Michael; Bloom, Aaron

    This paper discusses the importance and challenges of incentivizing flexibility during short-term operations of the bulk power system due to the increasing variability and uncertainty from growing penetrations of variable generation (VG). Operational flexibility can refer to many aspects of a resource's capability to support the power system, such as the speed, range, and duration of power output, as well as the ability to autonomously respond to frequency or voltage changes. Inefficient utilization of existing flexibility, or unwillingness of resources to provide flexibility, can compromise system reliability by not meeting the changing net load, and it can also lead tomore » higher costs when an inefficient use of flexibility resources occurs. There are many existing characteristics of market design that incentivize flexibility in some manner. How they incentivize the provision of flexibility as well as the level of flexibility is still debated. We explore some of these existing market designs, as well as new market mechanisms, such as pay-for-performance regulating reserve and flexible ramping products, that aim to explicitly incentivize the provision of more flexibility to the system, particularly as a result of increasing VG penetration levels.« less

  8. The Effect of Reflective Garden Walking on Adults With Increased Levels of Psychological Stress.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Ruth; Liehr, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the benefits of a reflective garden walking program on adults with increased levels of psychological stress. Outcomes measured included levels of hopefulness, personal growth, and quality of life. The evaluation used a one-group, pretest-posttest to determine the success of the Stroll for Well-Being to assist participants to overcome psychological stressors. Participants were recruited through local support groups. All participants signed informed consent to participate in the study program. A total of 195 participants completed the 6-week program, attended all meetings, and completed all measurement tools. All of the outcome measures statistically improved on the posttest compared to the pretest scores. The outcome measure that had the largest change in mean score was the Personal Growth Scale. Holistic nursing as a specialty should continue to explore the use of green spaces and nature on patients. More research is needed to increase the amount of evidence regarding spending time in nature and using reflection and journaling as a tool to reconnect with the natural environment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Excitotoxic and Radiation Stress Increase TERT Levels in the Mitochondria and Cytosol of Cerebellar Purkinje Neurons.

    PubMed

    Eitan, Erez; Braverman, Carmel; Tichon, Ailone; Gitler, Daniel; Hutchison, Emmette R; Mattson, Mark P; Priel, Esther

    2016-08-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase, an enzyme that elongates telomeres at the ends of chromosomes during DNA replication. Recently, it was shown that TERT has additional roles in cell survival, mitochondrial function, DNA repair, and Wnt signaling, all of which are unrelated to telomeres. Here, we demonstrate that TERT is enriched in Purkinje neurons, but not in the granule cells of the adult mouse cerebellum. TERT immunoreactivity in Purkinje neurons is present in the nucleus, mitochondria, and cytoplasm. Furthermore, TERT co-localizes with mitochondrial markers, and immunoblot analysis of protein extracts from isolated mitochondria and synaptosomes confirmed TERT localization in mitochondria. TERT expression in Purkinje neurons increased significantly in response to two stressors: a sub-lethal dose of X-ray radiation and exposure to a high glutamate concentration. While X-ray radiation increased TERT levels in the nucleus, glutamate exposure elevated TERT levels in mitochondria. Our findings suggest that in mature Purkinje neurons, TERT is present both in the nucleus and in mitochondria, where it may participate in adaptive responses of the neurons to excitotoxic and radiation stress.

  10. Modeling effectiveness of gradual increases in source level to mitigate effects of sonar on marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Wensveen, Paul J; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Lam, Frans-Peter A; Miller, Patrick J O; Tyack, Peter L; Ainslie, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Ramp-up or soft-start procedures (i.e., gradual increase in the source level) are used to mitigate the effect of sonar sound on marine mammals, although no one to date has tested whether ramp-up procedures are effective at reducing the effect of sound on marine mammals. We investigated the effectiveness of ramp-up procedures in reducing the area within which changes in hearing thresholds can occur. We modeled the level of sound killer whales (Orcinus orca) were exposed to from a generic sonar operation preceded by different ramp-up schemes. In our model, ramp-up procedures reduced the risk of killer whales receiving sounds of sufficient intensity to affect their hearing. The effectiveness of the ramp-up procedure depended strongly on the assumed response threshold and differed with ramp-up duration, although extending the duration of the ramp up beyond 5 min did not add much to its predicted mitigating effect. The main factors that limited effectiveness of ramp up in a typical antisubmarine warfare scenario were high source level, rapid moving sonar source, and long silences between consecutive sonar transmissions. Our exposure modeling approach can be used to evaluate and optimize mitigation procedures. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Something to talk about: Gossip increases oxytocin levels in a near real-life situation.

    PubMed

    Brondino, Natascia; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Politi, Pierluigi

    2017-03-01

    Gossip is a pervasive social behavior. Its evolutionary survival seems related to its social functions, such as establishing group rules, punishing trespassers, exercising social influence through reputational systems, and developing and strengthening social bonds. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gossip on hormones (oxytocin and cortisol) and at identifying potential mediators of hormonal response to gossip. Twenty-two female students were randomly assigned to a gossip conversation or to an emotional non-gossip conversation. Additionally, all participants underwent a neutral conversation on the second day of the study. Salivary oxytocin and cortisol levels were measured. Oxytocin increased significantly in the gossip compared to the emotional non-gossip conversation. A decrease in cortisol levels was observed in all three conditions (gossip, emotional non-gossip, neutral). Change in cortisol levels was similar across conditions. Psychological characteristics (e.g. empathy, autistic traits, perceived stress, envy) did not affect oxytocin rise in the gossip condition. Our findings suggest that oxytocin may represent a potential hormonal correlate of gossip behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Infrastructure effects on estuarine wetlands increase their vulnerability to sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jose; Saco, Patricia; Sandi, Steven; Saintilan, Neil; Riccardi, Gerardo

    2017-04-01

    At the regional and global scales, coastal management and planning for future sea level rise scenarios is typically supported by modelling tools that predict the expected inundation extent. These tools rely on a number of simplifying assumptions that, in some cases, may result in important miscalculation of the inundation effects. One of such cases is estuarine wetlands, where vegetation strongly depends on both the magnitude and the timing of inundation. Many coastal wetlands display flow restrictions due to infrastructure or drainage works, which produce alterations to the inundation patterns that can not be captured by conventional models. In this contribution we explore the effects of flow restrictions on inundation patterns under sea level rise conditions in estuarine wetlands. We use a spatially-distributed dynamic wetland ecogeomorphological model that not only incorporates the effects of flow restrictions due to culverts, bridges and weirs as well as vegetation, but also considers that vegetation changes as a consequence of increasing inundation. We also consider the ability of vegetation to capture sediment and produce accretion. We apply our model to an estuarine wetland in Australia and show that our model predicts a much faster wetland loss due to sea level rise than conventional approaches.

  13. Transcranial direct-current stimulation increases extracellular dopamine levels in the rat striatum

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tomoko; Takano, Yuji; Tanaka, Satoshi; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Katsumi; Honda, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive procedure that achieves polarity-dependent modulation of neuronal membrane potentials. It has recently been used as a functional intervention technique for the treatment of psychiatric and neurological diseases; however, its neuronal mechanisms have not been fully investigated in vivo. Objective/Hypothesis: To investigate whether the application of cathodal or anodal tDCS affects extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels in the rat striatum. Methods: Stimulation and in vivo microdialysis were carried out under urethane anesthesia, and microdialysis probes were slowly inserted into the striatum. After the collection of baseline fractions in the rat striatum, cathodal or anodal tDCS was applied continuously for 10 min with a current intensity of 800 μA from an electrode placed on the skin of the scalp. Dialysis samples were collected every 10 min until at least 400 min after the onset of stimulation. Results: Following the application of cathodal, but not anodal, tDCS for 10 min, extracellular dopamine levels increased for more than 400 min in the striatum. There were no significant changes in extracellular serotonin levels. Conclusion: These findings suggest that tDCS has a direct and/or indirect effect on the dopaminergic system in the rat basal ganglia. PMID:23596399

  14. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  15. Dietary intake of plant sterols stably increases plant sterol levels in the murine brain.

    PubMed

    Vanmierlo, Tim; Weingärtner, Oliver; van der Pol, Susanne; Husche, Constanze; Kerksiek, Anja; Friedrichs, Silvia; Sijbrands, Eric; Steinbusch, Harry; Grimm, Marcus; Hartmann, Tobias; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael; de Vries, Helga E; Mulder, Monique; Lütjohann, Dieter

    2012-04-01

    Plant sterols such as sitosterol and campesterol are frequently administered as cholesterol-lowering supplements in food. Recently, it has been shown in mice that, in contrast to the structurally related cholesterol, circulating plant sterols can enter the brain. We questioned whether the accumulation of plant sterols in murine brain is reversible. After being fed a plant sterol ester-enriched diet for 6 weeks, C57BL/6NCrl mice displayed significantly increased concentrations of plant sterols in serum, liver, and brain by 2- to 3-fold. Blocking intestinal sterol uptake for the next 6 months while feeding the mice with a plant stanol ester-enriched diet resulted in strongly decreased plant sterol levels in serum and liver, without affecting brain plant sterol levels. Relative to plasma concentrations, brain levels of campesterol were higher than sitosterol, suggesting that campesterol traverses the blood-brain barrier more efficiently. In vitro experiments with brain endothelial cell cultures showed that campesterol crossed the blood-brain barrier more efficiently than sitosterol. We conclude that, over a 6-month period, plant sterol accumulation in murine brain is virtually irreversible.

  16. Analysis of Possibility of Yeast Production Increase at Maintained Carbon Dioxide Emission Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Włodarczyk, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Paweł P.

    2016-12-01

    Main parameters polluting of technological wastewater (dregs from decantation and thicken of the wort) from yeast industry are: nitrogen, potassium and COD. Such wastewater are utilized mostly on agricultural fields. Unfortunately, these fields can only accept a limited amount of wastes. The basic parameter limiting there the amount of wastewater is nitrogen. When capacity of the production is large sewages are often pretreated at an evaporator station. However, due to the fairly high running costs of the evaporator station currently such a solution is applied only to a small amount of wastes (just to meet legal requirements). Replacement of the earth gas with a biomass being supplied to the evaporator station from the agricultural fields will both allow to maintain the carbon dioxide emission level and enable the production growth. Moreover, the biomass growing on the agricultural fields being fertilized with the wastewater coming from the yeast production allows consequently to utilize the greater volume of wastewater. Theoretically, the possible increase in the yeasts production, with maintaining the carbon dioxide emission level, can reach even 70%. Therefore, the solution presented in this paper combines both intensification of the yeasts production and maintaining the carbon dioxide emission level.

  17. Electrophysiological response of chicken's jejunal epithelium to increasing levels of T-2 toxin.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Agha Waqar; Kröger, Susan; Tichy, Alexander; Zentek, Jürgen; Böhm, Josef

    2013-02-01

    The present investigations were conducted to test the effects of T-2 toxin on electrophysiological variables of jejunal epithelium of chicken. Jejunal segments of broilers were monitored in Ussing chambers in the presence of T-2 toxin at the levels of 0 (negative control), 0 (methanol/vehicle control), 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 μg/ml of buffer. T-2 toxin did not affect basal values of short circuit current (I(sc)), transmural potential difference, or tissue conductivity in the jejunal epithelium. T-2 toxin also did not statistically affect glucose-induced electrophysiological variables during the first 3 min of glucose induction. Compared to the vehicle control, the ouabain-sensitive I(sc) was negatively affected (P = 0.008) only under 5 μg of T-2 toxin/ml. Increasing levels of T-2 toxin negatively affected the ouabain-sensitive I(sc) in a cubic (P = 0.007) fashion. These data indicate that acute exposure to moderate levels of T-2 toxin may progressively impair the cation gradient across the jejunal epithelium.

  18. Creation of dialysis vascular access with normal flow increases brain natriuretic peptide levels.

    PubMed

    Malík, Jan; Tuka, Vladimir; Krupickova, Zdislava; Chytilova, Eva; Holaj, Robert; Slavikova, Marcela

    2009-12-01

    Chronic heart failure is very common in hemodialyzed patients due to several factors such as intermittent volume overload, anemia, and hypertension. Dialysis access flow is usually considered to have a minor effect. We hypothesized that creation of dialysis access with "normal" flow would lead to elevation of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), which is a sensitive marker of heart failure. We included subjects with a newly created, well-functioning vascular access and normal left ventricular ejection fraction. They were examined before access creation (baseline), then again 6 weeks and 6 months after the surgery. Only subjects with access flow (Qa) < 1500 ml/min were included. Changes of BNP levels and their relation to access flow were studied. We examined 35 subjects aged 60.6 +/- 13.5 years. Qa was 789 +/- 361 and 823 +/- 313 ml/min at 6 weeks and 6 months after the surgery, respectively. Within 6 weeks after access creation, BNP rose from 217 (294) to 267 (550) ng/l (median (quartile range)) with P = 0.003. Qa was significantly related to BNP levels 6 weeks after access creation (r = 0.37, P = 0.036). Six months after access creation, there was only a trend of BNP decrease (235 (308) ng/l, P = 0.44). Creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and hemoglobin levels as well as patients' weight did not change significantly. Creation of dialysis access with "normal" flow volume leads to significant increase of BNP, which is related to the value of access flow. The increase of BNP probably mirrors worsening of clinically silent heart failure.

  19. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduces performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akter, Marjina; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-08-01

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance were investigated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe × phytase interaction significantly influenced the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low- or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low- or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe × phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  20. Coffee consumption in aged mice increases energy production and decreases hepatic mTOR levels.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Keita; Yanai, Shuichi; Shimokado, Kentaro; Ishigami, Akihito

    2017-06-01

    Coffee, one of the world's most consumed beverages, has many benefits. Some studies have reported the effects of coffee on aging. The aim of this study was to investigate the locomotor activity, energy metabolism, and lipid metabolism of aged (20-mo-old) mice given coffee. Aged C57 BL/6 NCr mice were divided into three groups: controls that were not given coffee (n = 9), a group that received 0.1% caffeinated coffee (n = 9), and a group that received 0.1% decaffeinated coffee (n = 9). This regimen continued for 17 wk until mice reached the age of 24 mo. Regular and decaffeinated coffee consumption decreased plasma-free fatty acid levels, increased hepatic adenosine triphosphate content, and decreased total mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) protein content in the liver. However, no differences were found in the protein or activity levels of Akt, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), p70 S6 kinase, or sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, proteins that are upstream or downstream of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-related pathways. Regular coffee consumption increased food and water intake, locomotor activity, the volume of carbon dioxide production, and the respiration exchange ratio. Regular and decaffeinated coffee consumption decreased hepatic total mTOR and p-mTOR levels independently of Akt and AMPK pathways in aged mice. Because decreased mTORC1 activity is known to have antiaging effects, coffee consumption during old age may retard aging. Moreover, coffee consumption by the aged population had a positive effect on behavioral energy and lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased Circulating and Urinary Levels of Soluble TAM Receptors in Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Lattenist, Lionel; Ahdi, Mohamed; Kers, Jesper; Uil, Melissa; Claessen, Nike; Leemans, Jaklien C; Florquin, Sandrine; Meijers, Joost C M; Gerdes, Victor E A; Roelofs, Joris J T H

    2017-09-01

    TAM receptors (Tyro3, Axl, and Mer) have been implicated in innate immunity. Circulating TAM receptor soluble forms (sTyro3, sAxl, sMer) are related to autoimmune disorders. We investigated TAM and their ligand protein S in patients with diabetes. Urinary and plasma levels of protein S, sTyro3, sAxl, and sMer were determined in 126 patients with diabetes assigned to a normoalbuminuric or macroalbuminuric (urinary albumin excretion <30 mg/24 hours and >300 mg/24 hours, respectively) study group and 18 healthy volunteers. TAM and protein S immunostaining was performed on kidney biopsy specimens from patients with diabetic nephropathy (n = 9) and controls (n = 6). TAM expression and shedding by tubular epithelial cells were investigated by PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in an in vitro diabetes model. Patients with macroalbuminuria diabetes had higher circulating levels of sMer and more urinary sTyro3 and sMer than normoalbuminuric diabetics. Increased clearance of sTyro3 and sMer was associated with loss of tubular Tyro3 and Mer expression in diabetic nephropathy tissue and glomerular depositions of protein S. During in vitro diabetes, human kidney cells had down-regulation of Tyro3 and Mer mRNA and increased shedding of sTyro3 and sMer. Renal injury in diabetes is associated with elevated systemic and urine levels of sMer and sTyro3. This is the first study reporting excretion of sTAM receptors in urine, identifying the kidney as a source of sTAM. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Iron Loading Selectively Increases Hippocampal Levels of Ubiquitinated Proteins and Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Luciana Silva; de Freitas, Betânia Souza; Garcia, Vanessa Athaíde; Dargél, Vinícius Ayub; Köbe, Luiza Machado; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Schröder, Nadja

    2016-11-01

    Alterations of brain iron levels have been observed in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously demonstrated that iron overload in the neonatal period results in severe and persistent memory deficits in the adulthood. Protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central regulatory role in several cellular processes. Impairment of the UPS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we examined the effects of iron exposure in the neonatal period (12th-14th day of postnatal life) on the expression of proteasome β-1, β-2, and β-5 subunits, and ubiquitinated proteins in brains of 15-day-old rats, to evaluate the immediate effect of the treatment, and in adulthood to assess long-lasting effects. Two different memory types, emotionally motivated conditioning and object recognition were assessed in adult animals. We found that iron administered in the neonatal period impairs both emotionally motivated and recognition memory. Polyubiquitinated protein levels were increased in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex, of adult animals treated with iron. Gene expression of subunits β1 and β5 was affected by age, being higher in the early stages of development in the hippocampus, accompanied by an age-related increase in polyubiquitinated protein levels in adults. In the cortex, gene expression of the three proteasome subunits was significantly higher in adulthood than in the neonatal period. These findings suggest that expression of proteasome subunits and activity are age-dependently regulated. Iron exposure in the neonatal period produces long-lasting harmful effects on the UPS functioning, which may be related with iron-induced memory impairment.

  3. Increased cortisol levels in hair of recent Ecstasy/MDMA users.

    PubMed

    Parrott, A C; Sands, H R; Jones, L; Clow, A; Evans, P; Downey, L A; Stalder, T

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has revealed an acute 8-fold increase in salivary cortisol following self-administrated Ecstasy/MDMA in dance clubbers. It is currently not known to what extent repeated usage impacts upon activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis over a more prolonged period of time. This study investigated the integrated cortisol levels in 3-month hair samples from recent Ecstasy/MDMA users and non-user controls. One hundred and one unpaid participants (53 males, 48 females; mean age 21.75 years) completed the University of East London recreational drug use questionnaire, modified to cover the past 3-months of usage. They comprised 32 light recent Ecstasy/MDMA users (1-4 times in last 3 months), 23 recent heavy MDMA users (+5 times in last 3 months), and 54 non-user controls. Volunteers provided 3 cm hair samples for cortisol analysis. Hair cortisol levels were observed to be significantly higher in recent heavy MDMA users (mean = 55.0 ± 80.1 pg/mg), compared to recent light MDMA users (19.4 ± 16.0 pg/mg; p=0.015), and to non-users (13.8 ± 6.1 pg/mg; p<0.001). Hence the regular use of Ecstasy/MDMA was associated with almost 4-fold raised hair cortisol levels, in comparison with non-user controls. The present results are consistent with the bio-energetic stress model for Ecstasy/MDMA, which predicts that repeated stimulant drug use may increase cortisol production acutely, and result in greater deposits of the hormone in hair. These data may also help explain the neurocognitive, psychiatric, and other psychobiological problems of some abstinent users. Future study design and directions for research concerning the psychoneuroendocrinological impact of MDMA are also discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

  4. Increased SHP-1 Protein Expression by High Glucose Levels Reduces Nephrin Phosphorylation in Podocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Denhez, Benoit; Lizotte, Farah; Guimond, Marie-Odile; Jones, Nina; Takano, Tomoko; Geraldes, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Nephrin, a critical podocyte membrane component that is reduced in diabetic nephropathy, has been shown to activate phosphotyrosine signaling pathways in human podocytes. Nephrin signaling is important to reduce cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli. We have shown previously that high glucose level exposure and diabetes increased the expression of SHP-1, causing podocyte apoptosis. SHP-1 possesses two Src homology 2 domains that serve as docking elements to dephosphorylate tyrosine residues of target proteins. However, it remains unknown whether SHP-1 interacts with nephrin and whether its elevated expression affects the nephrin phosphorylation state in diabetes. Here we show that human podocytes exposed to high glucose levels exhibited elevated expression of SHP-1, which was associated with nephrin. Coexpression of nephrin-CD16 and SHP-1 reduced nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. A single tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation revealed that rat nephrin Tyr1127 and Tyr1152 are required to allow SHP-1 interaction with nephrin. Overexpression of dominant negative SHP-1 in human podocytes prevented high glucose-induced reduction of nephrin phosphorylation. In vivo, immunoblot analysis demonstrated that nephrin expression and phosphorylation were decreased in glomeruli of type 1 diabetic Akita mice (Ins2+/C96Y) compared with control littermate mice (Ins2+/+), and this was associated with elevated SHP-1 and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis indicated increased colocalization of SHP-1 with nephrin in diabetic mice compared with control littermates. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high glucose exposure increases SHP-1 interaction with nephrin, causing decreased nephrin phosphorylation, which may, in turn, contribute to diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25404734

  5. Monosodium glutamate intake increases hemoglobin level over 5 years among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zumin; Yuan, Baojun; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Wittert, Gary A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine the relationship between monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake and change in hemoglobin (Hb) levels and the risk of anemia over 5 years in 1197 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN). MSG intake and Hb were quantitatively assessed in 2002 and followed up in 2007. Diet and lifestyle factors were assessed at both time points. There was a positive association between MSG intake and increase in Hb among men but not women. In the multivariate model adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors as well as baseline dietary pattern, the beta values and 95% confidence interval for Hb changes across quartiles of MSG intake were 0, 0.67(0.04-1.29), 0.99(0.38-1.60), 0.73(0.13-1.34) among men (p for trend 0.091); 0, -0.01(-0.45-0.43), 0.23(-0.25-0.71), and -0.45(-0.96-0.05) among women (p for trend 0.087). Among anemic participants at baseline, there was a significant inverse association between MSG intake and the risk of anemia at follow-up. Comparing extreme quartiles of MSG intake among those anemic at baseline, the relative risk for persistent anemia at follow-up was 0.49 (95% CI: 0.28-0.86, p < 0.01). The association was independent of dietary patterns and lifestyle factors. A dose-response relationship between MSG intake and increase in Hb levels among anemic participants was seen. MSG intake may have independent Hb-increasing effects, especially among men and those anemic at baseline.

  6. Increased GABA Levels in Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Young Adults with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seog Ju; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Lee, Yujin S.; Sung, Young Hoon; Kim, Hengjun J.; Kim, Jihyun H.; Kim, Kye Hyun; Jeong, Do-Un

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To explore absolute concentrations of brain metabolites including gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) in the medial prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia of young adults with narcolepsy. Design: Proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy centered on the medial prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia was acquired. The absolute concentrations of brain metabolites including GABA and glutamate were assessed and compared between narcoleptic patients and healthy comparison subjects. Setting: Sleep and Chronobiology Center at Seoul National University Hospital; A high strength 3.0 Tesla MR scanner in the Department of Radiology at Seoul National University Hospital. Patients or Participants: Seventeen young adults with a sole diagnosis of HLA DQB1 0602 positive narcolepsy with cataplexy (25.1 ± 4.6 years old) and 17 healthy comparison subjects (26.8 ± 4.8 years old). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Relative to comparison subjects, narcoleptic patients had higher GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex (t = 4.10, P <0.001). Narcoleptic patients with nocturnal sleep disturbance had higher GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex than those without nocturnal sleep disturbance (t = 2.45, P= 0.03), but had lower GABA concentration than comparison subjects (t = 2.30, P = 0.03). Conclusions: The current study reports that young adults with narcolepsy had a higher GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex, which was more prominent in patients without nocturnal sleep disturbance. Our findings suggest that the medial prefrontal GABA level may be increased in narcolepsy, and the increased medial prefrontal GABA might be a compensatory mechanism to reduce nocturnal sleep disturbances in narcolepsy. Citation: Kim SJ; Lyoo IK; Lee YS; Sung YH; Kim HJ; Kim JH; Kim KH; Jeong DU. Increased GABA levels in medial prefrontal cortex of young adults with narcolepsy. SLEEP 2008;31(3):342-347. PMID:18363310

  7. Blockade of P-Glycoprotein Decreased the Disposition of Phenformin and Increased Plasma Lactate Level.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Koo; Song, Im-Sook

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin. To investigate the involvement of P-gp in the transport of phenformin, a bi-directional transport of phenformin was carried out in LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing P-gp, LLC-PK1-Pgp. Basal to apical transport of phenformin was 3.9-fold greater than apical to basal transport and became saturated with increasing phenformin concentration (2-75 μM) in LLC-PK1-Pgp, suggesting the involvement of P-gp in phenformin transport. Intrinsic clearance mediated by P-gp was 1.9 μL/min while passive diffusion clearance was 0.31 μL/min. Thus, P-gp contributed more to phenformin transport than passive diffusion. To investigate the contribution of P-gp on the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin, the effects of verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of phenformin were also examined in rats. The plasma concentrations of phenformin were increased following oral administration of phenformin and intravenous verapamil infusion compared with those administerd phenformin alone. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax and AUC of phenformin increased and CL/F and Vss/F decreased as a consequence of verapamil treatment. These results suggested that P-gp blockade by verapamil may decrease the phenformin disposition and increase plasma phenformin concentrations. P-gp inhibition by verapamil treatment also increased plasma lactate concentration, which is a crucial adverse event of phenformin. In conclusion, P-gp may play an important role in phenformin transport process and, therefore, contribute to the modulation of pharmacokinetics of phenformin and onset of plasma lactate level.

  8. Blockade of P-Glycoprotein Decreased the Disposition of Phenformin and Increased Plasma Lactate Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Koo; Song, Im-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin. To investigate the involvement of P-gp in the transport of phenformin, a bi-directional transport of phenformin was carried out in LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing P-gp, LLC-PK1-Pgp. Basal to apical transport of phenformin was 3.9-fold greater than apical to basal transport and became saturated with increasing phenformin concentration (2–75 μM) in LLC-PK1-Pgp, suggesting the involvement of P-gp in phenformin transport. Intrinsic clearance mediated by P-gp was 1.9 μL/min while passive diffusion clearance was 0.31 μL/min. Thus, P-gp contributed more to phenformin transport than passive diffusion. To investigate the contribution of P-gp on the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin, the effects of verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of phenformin were also examined in rats. The plasma concentrations of phenformin were increased following oral administration of phenformin and intravenous verapamil infusion compared with those administerd phenformin alone. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax and AUC of phenformin increased and CL/F and Vss/F decreased as a consequence of verapamil treatment. These results suggested that P-gp blockade by verapamil may decrease the phenformin disposition and increase plasma phenformin concentrations. P-gp inhibition by verapamil treatment also increased plasma lactate concentration, which is a crucial adverse event of phenformin. In conclusion, P-gp may play an important role in phenformin transport process and, therefore, contribute to the modulation of pharmacokinetics of phenformin and onset of plasma lactate level. PMID:26797108

  9. Adults with autism spectrum conditions experience increased levels of anomalous perception.

    PubMed

    Milne, Elizabeth; Dickinson, Abigail; Smith, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum condition (ASC) is characterised by differences in social interaction and behavioural inflexibility. In addition to these core symptoms, atypical sensory responses are prevalent in the ASC phenotype. Here we investigated anomalous perception, i.e. hallucinatory and/or out of body experiences in adults with ASC. Thirty participants with an ASC diagnosis and thirty neurotypical controls completed the Cardiff Anomalous Perception Scale (CAPS) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2). The CAPS is a 32-item questionnaire that asks participants to indicate whether or not they experience a range of anomalous and out of body experiences, and to rate how intrusive and distressing these experiences are. The SRS-2 asks participants to rate the extent to which they identify with a series of 65 statements that describe behaviours associated with the autism phenotype. We found that total CAPS score was significantly higher in the participants with ASC (mean = 14.8, S.D. = 7.9) than the participants without ASC (mean = 3.6, S.D. = 4.1). In addition, the frequency of anomalous perception, the level of distraction and the level of distress associated with the experience were significantly increased in participants with ASC. Importantly, both the frequency of anomalous perceptual experiences and the level of distress caused by anomalous perception in this sample of adults with ASC were very similar to that reported previously in a sample of non-autistic participants who were being treated in hospital for a current psychotic episode. These data indicate that anomalous perceptual experiences are common in adults with ASC and are associated with a high level of distress. The origins of anomalous perception in ASC and the implication of this phenomenon are considered.

  10. Increased plasma chemokine levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Butler, Merlin G; Hossain, Waheeda; Sulsona, Carlos; Driscoll, Daniel J; Manzardo, Ann M

    2015-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is caused by loss of paternally expressed genes from the 15q11-q13 region and reportedly rearranged as a cause of autism. Additionally, increased inflammatory markers and features of autism are reported in PWS. Cytokines encoded by genes involved with inflammation, cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion play a role in neurodevelopment and could be disturbed in PWS as abnormal plasma cytokine levels are reported in autism. We analyzed 41 plasma cytokines in a cohort of well-characterized children with PWS between 5 and 11 years of age and unaffected unrelated siblings using multiplex sandwich immunoassays with the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Data were analyzed using ANOVA testing for effects of diagnosis, gender, body mass index (BMI) and age on the 24 cytokines meeting laboratory criteria for inclusion. No significant effects were observed for age, gender or BMI. The log-transformed levels of the 24 analyzable cytokines were examined simultaneously using MANOVA adjusting for age and gender and a main effect of diagnosis was found (P-value <0.03). Four of 24 plasma cytokine levels (MCP1, MDC, Eotaxin, RANTES) were significantly higher in children with PWS compared with controls and classified as bioinflammatory chemokines supporting a disturbed immune response unrelated to obesity status. BMI was not statistically different in the two subject groups (PWS or unaffected unrelated siblings) and chemokine levels were not correlated with percentage of total body fat. Additional studies are required to identify whether possible early immunological disturbances and chemokine inflammatory processes found in PWS may contribute to neurodevelopment and behavioral features. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Coping with Higher Sea Levels and Increased Coastal Flooding in New York City. Chapter 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Bader, Daniel A.; Orton, Philip; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The 837 km New York City shoreline is lined by significant economic assets and dense population vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal flooding. After Hurricane Sandy in 2012, New York City developed a comprehensive plan to mitigate future climate risks, drawing upon the scientific expertise of the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), a special advisory group comprised of university and private-sector experts. This paper highlights current NPCC findings regarding sea level rise and coastal flooding, with some of the City's ongoing and planned responses. Twentieth century sea level rise in New York City (2.8 cm/decade) exceeded the global average (1.7 cm/decade), underscoring the enhanced regional risk to coastal hazards. NPCC (2015) projects future sea level rise at the Battery of 28 - 53 cm by the 2050s and 46 - 99 cm by the 2080s, relative to 2000 - 2004 (mid-range, 25th - 75th percentile). High-end SLR estimates (90th percentile) reach 76 cm by the 2050s, and 1.9 m by 2100. Combining these projections with updated FEMA flood return period curves, assuming static flood dynamics and storm behavior, flood heights for the 100-year storm (excluding waves) attain 3.9-4.5 m (mid-range), relative to the NAVD88 tidal datum, and 4.9 m (high end) by the 2080s, up from 3.4 m in the 2000s. Flood heights with a 1% annual chance of occurrence in the 2000s increase to 2.0 - 5.4% (mid-range) and 12.7% per year (high-end), by the 2080s. Guided by NPCC (2013, 2015) findings, New York City has embarked on a suite of initiatives to strengthen coastal defenses, employing various approaches tailored to specific neighborhood needs. NPCC continues its collaboration with the city to investigate vulnerability to extreme climate events, including heat waves, inland floods and coastal storms. Current research entails higher-resolution neighborhood-level coastal flood mapping, changes in storm characteristics, surge height interactions with sea level rise, and stronger engagement

  12. Fertilization stimulates an increase in inositol trisphosphate and inositol lipid levels in Xenopus eggs.

    PubMed

    Snow, P; Yim, D L; Leibow, J D; Saini, S; Nuccitelli, R

    1996-11-25

    Previous experiments from our lab have suggested that the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is required for sperm-induced egg activation in Xenopus laevis. Here we measure the endogenous production of both Ins(1,4,5)P3 and PIP2 during the sperm-induced and ionomycin-induced calcium wave in the egg and find that both increase following fertilization. Ins(1,4,5)P3 increases 3.2-fold from an unfertilized egg level of 0.13 pmole per egg (0.29 microM) to a peak of 0.42 pmole per egg (0.93 microM) as the calcium wave reaches the antipode in the fertilized egg. This continuous production of Ins(1,4,5)P3 during the time that the Ca2+ wave is propagating across the egg suggests the involvement of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in wave propagation. This increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 is smaller in ionomycin-activated eggs than in sperm-activated eggs, suggesting that the sperm-induced production of Ins(1,4,5)P3 involves a PIP2 hydrolysis pathway that is not simply raising intracellular Ca2+. While one might expect PIP2 levels to fall as a result of hydrolysis, we find that PIP2 actually increases 2-fold. The total lipid fraction in unfertilized egg exhibits 0.8 pmole PIP2 per egg and this increases to 1.5 pmole as the calcium wave reaches the antipode. The PIP2 concentration peaks 2 min after the completion of the calcium wave at 1.8 pmole per egg. The amount of PIP2 in the animal and vegetal hemispheres of the egg was also measured by cutting frozen eggs in half. The vegetal hemisphere contained twice the amount of PIP2 as the animal hemisphere but it also contained twice the amount of lipid. Thus, there was an equivalent amount of PIP2 normalized to lipid in each hemisphere. Isolated animal and vegetal hemisphere cortices exhibit similar PIP2 concentrations, suggesting that the 2-fold higher total PIP2 in the vegetal half is not due to a gradient of PIP2 in the plasma membrane, but rather implies that cytoplasmic organelle membranes also contain PIP2.

  13. Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by product-prostaglandin E2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjandrawinata, R. R.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of prostate cancer has been linked to high level of dietary fat intake. Our laboratory investigates the connection between cancer cell growth and fatty acid products. Studying human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cells, we found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increased cell growth and up-regulated the gene expression of its own synthesizing enzyme, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). PGE2 increased COX-2 mRNA expression dose-dependently with the highest levels of stimulation seen at the 3-hour period following PGE2 addition. The NSAID flurbiprofen (5 microM), in the presence of exogenous PGE2, inhibited the up-regulation of COX-2 mRNA and cell growth. These data suggest that the levels of local intracellular PGE2 play a major role in the growth of prostate cancer cells through an activation of COX-2 gene expression.

  14. Can Increased CO2 Levels Trigger a Runaway Greenhouse on the Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, R.

    2014-04-01

    Recent one-dimensional (globally averaged) climate model calculations suggest that increased atmospheric CO2 could conceivably trigger a runaway greenhouse if CO2 concentrations were approximately 100 times higher than today. The new prediction runs contrary to previous calculations, which indicated that CO2 increases could not trigger a runaway, even at Venus-like CO2 concentrations. Goldblatt et al. argue that this different behavior is a consequence of updated absorption coefficients for H2O that make a runaway more likely. Here, we use a 1-D cloud-free climate model with similar, up-to-date absorption coefficients, but with a self-consistent methodology, to demonstrate that CO2 increases cannot induce a runaway greenhouse on the modern Earth. However, these initial calculations do not include cloud feedback, which may be positive at higher temperatures, destabilizing Earth's climate. We then show new calculations demonstrating that cirrus clouds cannot trigger a runaway, even in the complete absence of low clouds. Thus, the habitability of an Earth-like planet at Earth's distance appears to be ensured, irrespective of the sign of cloud feedback. Our results are of importance to Earth-like planets that receive similar insolation levels as does the Earth and to the ongoing question about cloud response at higher temperatures.

  15. New technology increases perioperative haemoglobin levels for paediatric cardiopulmonary bypass: what is the benefit?

    PubMed

    Thuys, Clarke; Horton, Stephen; Bennett, Martin; Augustin, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Increasing perioperative haemoglobin level by reducing priming volume and maintaining a safe cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system is the aim of every perfusionist. In this study, we have compared the two membrane oxygenators and pump systems used for paediatric bypass at the Royal Children's Hospital on a regular basis since 1988. We looked at all patients who had the Cobe VPCML (Cobe Laboratories, Denver, CO, USA) and Terumo RX-05 (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) oxygenators used for flows from 800 mL/min up to the maximum rated flow for the respective oxygenator from January 2002 until March 2004. The VPCML refers to using only the 0.4-m2 section of the oxygenator. The pump systems used were the Stöckert CAPS (Stöckert Instrumente GmbH, Munich, Germany) and Jostra HL 30 (Jostra AB, Lund, Sweden). Changing from the VPCML to the RX-05 resulted in a 37% reduction in priming volume. The introduction of the Jostra HL 30 with a custom-designed mast system reduced the priming volume by another 15%. This change in priming volume allowed a significant increase, from 6 to 34%, in the percentage of patients who received bloodless primes, and for those patients who received blood primes, an increase in haemoglobin (Hb) on bypass from 8.2 to 9.6 g/dL, on average.

  16. Risk of cancer in an occupationally exposed cohort with increased level of chromosomal aberrations.

    PubMed Central

    Smerhovsky, Z; Landa, K; Rössner, P; Brabec, M; Zudova, Z; Hola, N; Pokorna, Z; Mareckova, J; Hurychova, D

    2001-01-01

    We used cytogenetic analysis to carry out a cohort study in which the major objective was to test the association between frequency of chromosomal aberrations and subsequent risk of cancer. In spite of the extensive use of the cytogenetic analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in biomonitoring of exposure to various mutagens and carcinogens on an ecologic level, the long-term effects of an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals are still uncertain. Few epidemiologic studies have addressed this issue, and a moderate risk of cancer in individuals with an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations has been observed. In the present study, we analyzed data on 8,962 cytogenetic tests and 3,973 subjects. We found a significant and strong association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and cancer incidence in a group of miners exposed to radon, where a 1% increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations was followed by a 64% increase in risk of cancer (p < 0.000). In contrast, the collected data are inadequate for a critical evaluation of the association with exposure to other chemicals. PMID:11171523

  17. Increased ADMA levels are associated with poor pulmonary outcome in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Kavurt, Sumru; Demirel, Nihal; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur; Ulubas Isık, Dilek; Ozcan, Beyza; Aydemir, Ozge

    2017-04-01

    different among infants with and without BPD (p > 0.05). ADMA concentrations at 28th day was significantly higher in infants with BPD (1.00 ± 0.25 versus 0.81 ± 0.25, p < 0.05). The cutoff level of 0.875 μmol/L for ADMA at 28th day offered the best predictive value for oxygen requirement at postnatal 36 weeks of age with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 54%. Conclusıon: Serum ADMA and L-arginine levels are related to pulmonary morbidities in newborn. The results of this study show that increased ADMA levels are associated with poor pulmonary outcomes in preterm infants.

  18. Increased levels of interleukins 8 and 10 as findings of canine inflammatory mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    de Andrés, Paloma Jimena; Illera, Juan Carlos; Cáceres, Sara; Díez, Lucía; Pérez-Alenza, Maria Dolores; Peña, Laura

    2013-04-15

    Inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) is a distinct form of mammary cancer that affects dogs and women [in humans, IMC is known as inflammatory breast cancer (IBC)], and is characterized by a sudden onset and an aggressive clinical course. Spontaneous canine IMC shares epidemiologic, histopathological and clinical characteristics with the disease in humans and has been proposed as the best spontaneous animal model for studying IBC, although several aspects remain unstudied. Interleukins (ILs) play an important role in cancer as potential modulators of angiogenesis, leukocyte infiltration and tumor growth. The aims of the present study were to assess serum and tumor levels of several ILs (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) by enzyme-immunoassay in dogs bearing benign and malignant mammary tumors, including dogs with IMC, for a better understanding of this disease. Forty-eight dogs were prospectively included. Animals consisted of 7 healthy Beagles used as donors for normal mammary glands (NMG) and serum controls (SCs), 10 dogs with hyperplasias and benign mammary tumors (HBMT), 24 with non-inflammatory malignant mammary tumors (non-IMC MMT) and 7 dogs with clinical and pathological IMC. IL-8 (serum) and IL-10 (serum and tissue homogenate) levels were higher in the dogs with IMC compared with the non-IMC MMT group. ILs were increased with tumor malignancy as follows: in tumor homogenates IL-6 levels were higher in malignant tumors (IMC and non-IMC MMT) versus HBMT and versus NMG and tumor IL-8 was increased in malignant tumors versus NMG; in serum, IL-1α and IL-8 levels were higher in the malignant groups respect to HBMT and SCs; interestingly, IL-10 was elevated only in the serum of IMC animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that analyzes ILs in IMC and IL-10 in canine mammary tumors. Our results indicate a role for IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in canine mammary malignancy and specific differences in ILs content in IMC versus non-IMC MMT that could

  19. Paradoxical effects of 137Cs irradiation on pharmacological stimulation of reactive oxygen species in hippocampal slices from apoE2 and apoE4 mice.

    PubMed

    Villasana, Laura E; Akinyeke, Tunde; Weber, Sydney; Raber, Jacob

    2017-09-29

    In humans, apoE, which plays a role in repair, is expressed in three isoforms: E2, E3, and E4. E4 is a risk factor for age-related cognitive decline (ACD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly in women. In contrast, E2 is a protective factor for ACD and AD. E2 and E4 might also differ in their response to cranial 137 Cs irradiation, a form of radiation typically used in a clinical setting for the treatment of cancer. This might be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in an-apoE isoform-dependent fashion. E2 and E4 female mice received sham-irradiation or cranial irradiation at 8 weeks of age and a standard mouse chow or a diet supplemented with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) starting at 6 weeks of age. Behavioral and cognitive performance of the mice were assessed 12 weeks later. Subsequently, the generation of ROS in hippocampal slices was analyzed. Compared to sham-irradiated E4 mice, irradiated E4 mice showed enhanced spatial memory in the water maze. This was associated with increased hippocampal PMA-induction of ROS. Similar effects were not seen in E2 mice. Irradiation increased endogenous hippocampal ROS levels in E2 mice while decreasing those in E4 mice. NADPH activity and MnSOD levels were higher in sham-irradiated E2 than E4 mice. Irradiation increased NADPH activity and MnSOD levels in hemi brains of E4 mice but not in those of E2 mice. ALA did not affect behavioral and cognitive performance or hippocampal formation of ROS in either genotype. Thus, apoE isoforms modulate the radiation response.

  20. Increases in human motoneuron excitability after cervical spinal cord injury depend on the level of injury.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christine K; Häger, Charlotte K; Klein, Cliff S

    2017-02-01

    After human spinal cord injury (SCI), motoneuron recruitment and firing rate during voluntary and involuntary contractions may be altered by changes in motoneuron excitability. Our aim was to compare F waves in single thenar motor units paralyzed by cervical SCI to those in uninjured controls because at the single-unit level F waves primarily reflect the intrinsic properties of the motoneuron and its initial segment. With intraneural motor axon stimulation, F waves were evident in all 4 participants with C 4 -level SCI, absent in 8 with C 5 or C 6 injury, and present in 6 of 12 Uninjured participants (P < 0.001). The percentage of units that generated F waves differed across groups (C 4 : 30%, C 5 or C 6 : 0%, Uninjured: 16%; P < 0.001). Mean (±SD) proximal axon conduction velocity was slower after C 4 SCI [64 ± 4 m/s (n = 6 units), Uninjured: 73 ± 8 m/s (n = 7 units); P = 0.037]. Mean distal axon conduction velocity differed by group [C 4 : 40 ± 8 m/s (n = 20 units), C 5 or C 6 : 49 ± 9 m/s (n = 28), Uninjured: 60 ± 7 m/s (n = 45); P < 0.001]. Motor unit properties (EMG amplitude, twitch force) only differed after SCI (P ≤ 0.004), not by injury level. Motor units with F waves had distal conduction velocities, M-wave amplitudes, and twitch forces that spanned the respective group range, indicating that units with heterogeneous properties produced F waves. Recording unitary F waves has shown that thenar motoneurons closer to the SCI (C 5 or C 6 ) have reduced excitability whereas those further away (C 4 ) have increased excitability, which may exacerbate muscle spasms. This difference in motoneuron excitability may be related to the extent of membrane depolarization following SCI. Unitary F waves were common in paralyzed thenar muscles of people who had a chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) at the C 4 level compared with uninjured people, but F waves did not occur in people that had SCI at the C 5 or C 6 level. These results highlight that intrinsic motoneuron

  1. Enhanced S-Adenosylmethionine Production by Increasing ATP Levels in Baker's Yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yawei; Tan, Tianwei

    2018-05-23

    In the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae), ATP functions as both a precursor and a driving force. However, few published reports have dealt with the control of ATP concentration using genetic design. In this study we have adopted a new ATP regulation strategy in yeast for enhancing SAM biosynthesis, including altering NADH availability and regulating the oxygen supply. Different ATP regulation systems were designed based on the introduction of water-forming NADH oxidase, Vitreoscilla hemoglobin, and phosphite dehydrogenase in combination with overexpression of the gene SAM2. Via application of this strategy, after 28 h cultivation, the SAM titer in the yeast strain ABYSM-2 reached a maximum level close to 55 mg/L, an increase of 67% compared to the control strain. The results show that the ATP regulation strategy is a valuable tool for SAM production and might further enhance the synthesis of other ATP-driven metabolites in yeast.

  2. Annexin A7 Levels Increase in Rats With Traumatic Brain Injury and Promote Secondary Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Li, Di; Rui, Qin; Ni, Haibo; Liu, Huixiang; Jiang, Feng; Tao, Li; Gao, Rong; Dang, Baoqi

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been increasing annually. Annexin A7 is a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein. It can promote melting of the cell membrane. Recent studies have shown that it plays an important role in atherosclerosis, other cardiovascular diseases, and a variety of tumors. However, few studies of ANXA7 in TBI have been performed. We here observed how ANXA7 changes after TBI and discuss whether brain injury is associated with the use of ANXA7 antagonist intervention. Experimental Results: 1. After TBI, ANXA7 levels were higher than in the sham group, peaking 24 h after TBI. 2. The use of siA7 was found to reduce the expression of A7 in the injured brain tissue, and also brain edema, BBB damage, cell death, and apoptosis relative to the sham group. Conclusion: ANXA7 promotes the development of secondary brain injury (SBI) after TBI.

  3. Loxin polymorphism is associated with increased resistin levels and with oxidative status.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Roberto; Bo, Simona; Musso, Giovanni; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    We hypothesized that LOX-1 polymorphism may impact on inflammation and cardiovascular risk by modulating systemic resistin expression. 276 men were randomly selected from a population-based cohort. Metabolic and inflammatory markers were evaluated at baseline and after 6-years follow-up, OLR1 (loxin) IVS4-14 A>G polymorphism was assessed. Mean plasma resistin and nitrotyrosine values were significantly higher, and TAS was significantly lowered in homozygous for the G allele. The G allele was significantly and directly associated with resistin and nitrotyrosine values. Enhanced oxidized-LDL uptake by LOX-1 G-allele carriers is associated with increased pro-oxidant status and resistin levels, suggesting a major uptake of ox-LDL by macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and monocytes. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased levels of urinary PGE-M, a biomarker of inflammation, occur in association with obesity, aging and lung metastases in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Patrick G.; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Milne, Ginger L.; Goldstein, Daniel; Hawks, Laura C.; Dang, Chau T.; Modi, Shanu; Fornier, Monica N.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) occur in inflamed tissues. To evaluate the potential links between inflammation and breast cancer, levels of urinary prostaglandin E-metabolite (PGE-M), a stable end metabolite of PGE2, were quantified. We enrolled 400 patients with breast cancer: controls with early breast cancer (n=200), lung metastases (n=100) and metastases to other sites (n=100). Patients completed a questionnaire, provided urine and had measurements of height and weight. Urinary PGE-M was quantified by mass spectrometry. Ever smokers with lung metastasis who had not been exposed to NSAIDs had the highest PGE-M levels. PGE-M levels were increased in association with elevated BMI (p<0.001), aging (p<0.001), pack-year smoking history (p=0.02), lung metastases (p=0.02) and recent cytotoxic chemotherapy (p=0.03). Conversely, use of NSAIDs, prototypic inhibitors of COX activity, was associated with reduced PGE-M levels (p<0.001). Based on the current findings, PGE-M is likely to be a useful biomarker for the selection of high risk subgroups to determine the utility of interventions that aim to reduce inflammation and possibly the development and progression of breast cancer, especially in overweight and obese women. PMID:23531446

  5. Compound 49b Prevents Diabetes-Induced Apoptosis through Increased IGFBP-3 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiuhua; Guy, Kimberly; Pagadala, Jayaprakash; Jiang, Youde; Walker, Robert J; Liu, Luhong; Soderland, Carl; Kern, Timothy S; Ferry, Robert; He, Hui; Yates, C. Ryan; Miller, Duane D; Steinle, Jena J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether Compound 49b, a novel PKA-activating drug, can prevent diabetic-like changes in the rat retina through increased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels. Methods. For the cell culture studies, we used both human retinal endothelial cells (REC) and retinal Müller cells in either 5 mM (normal) or 25 mM (high) glucose. Cells were treated with 50 nM Compound 49b alone of following treatment with protein kinase A (PKA) siRNA or IGFBP-3 siRNA. Western blotting and ELISA analyses were done to verify PKA and IGFBP-3 knockdown, as well as to measure apoptotic markers. For animal studies, we used streptozotocin-treated rats after 2 and 8 months of diabetes. Some rats were treated topically with 1 mM Compound 49b. Analyses were done for retinal thickness, cell numbers in the ganglion cell layer, pericyte ghosts, and numbers of degenerate capillaries, as well as electroretinogram and heart morphology. Results. Compound 49b requires active PKA and IGFBP-3 to prevent apoptosis of REC. Compound 49b significantly reduced the numbers of degenerate capillaries and pericyte ghosts, while preventing the decreased retinal thickness and loss of cells in the ganglion cell layer. Compound 49b maintained a normal electroretinogram, with no changes in blood pressure, intraocular pressure, or heart morphological changes. Conclusions. Topical Compound 49b is able to prevent diabetic-like changes in the rat retina, without producing systemic changes. Compound 49b is able to prevent REC apoptosis through increasing IGFBP-3 levels, which are reduced in response to hyperglycemia. PMID:22467575

  6. Glaucoma patients present increased levels of diadenosine tetraphosphate, Ap(4)A, in the aqueous humour.

    PubMed

    Castany, Marta; Jordi, Isabel; Catala, Jaume; Gual, Arcadi; Morales, Miguel; Gasull, Xavier; Pintor, Jesus

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown the presence of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) and pentaphosphate (Ap(5)A) in the aqueous humour (AH) of different species. When topically applied to the rabbit cornea, Ap(4)A decreased IOP while Ap(5)A increased it. Here we study the presence of dinucleoside polyphosphates in the AH from human patients with or without glaucoma. AH was obtained at the time of cataract surgery from patients with (n=16) or without (n=10) primary open-angle glaucoma. AH (0.1-0.2 ml) was collected at the beginning of surgery through a corneal paracentesis and immediately cooled in liquid nitrogen, kept frozen and protected from light. AH aliquots were analyzed by HPLC for the presence of Ap(4)A and Ap(5)A. Both, Ap(4)A and Ap(5)A were detected in the AH of both experimental groups. No significant differences were found for Ap(5)A. In contrast, Ap(4)A levels were increased by ∼15-fold in the AH from glaucomatous eyes ranging from 19.5±9.2 nM in normal individuals to 286.03±30.9 nM in glaucomatous patients. In conclusion, both Ap(4)A and Ap(5)A were detected for the first time in human AH. Interestingly, glaucomatous eyes presented elevated concentrations of Ap(4)A compared to controls. The role of Ap(4)A needs to be elucidated but it may help to protect the autonomic innervation in the ciliary body/trabecular meshwork. Also, because of its higher levels in glaucoma patients it may be considered as a possible glaucoma biomarker. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood SC5b-9 complement levels increase at parturition during term and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Segura-Cervantes, Enrique; Mancilla-Ramirez, Javier; Zurita, Luis; Paredes, Yuriria; Arredondo, José Luis; Galindo-Sevilla, Norma

    2015-06-01

    We explored the hypothesis that complement, an innate and adaptive immune effector, is active in the plasma of parturient women and is deposited on fetal membranes collected after delivery. A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate complement activity at parturition. Pregnant women (n = 97) between 15 and 41 years of age were enrolled in a hospital protocol during the perinatal period to assess both SC5b-9 complement activity in blood and complement deposition on fetal membranes during parturition. Soluble SC5b-9 complement activity in plasma fractions was measured using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that included specific anti-complement antibodies. Complement deposition on membranes was analyzed using immuno-dot blots and immunohistochemistry. Soluble SC5b-9 complement complex levels were increased in the plasma of women during term labor (TL; median 3361; range 1726-5670 ng/mL), preterm labor (PL; median 2958; range 1552-7092 ng/mL), and preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM; median 2272; range 167-6540 ng/mL) compared with pregnant women who were not in labor (P; median 1384; range 174-4570 ng/mL; P < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Active complement, as assessed by the C9 neo-antigen in C5b-9 complexes, was deposited on fetal membranes, with no difference between term and preterm delivery. The deposition of active complement on fetal membranes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Women who underwent non-labor-indicated Cesarean sections did not exhibit complement deposition. Soluble SC5b-9 complement complex levels increased in the plasma of women during parturition, and complement C5b-9 complexes were deposited on fetal membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increase in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol levels and its potential connection with Asian pollution.

    PubMed

    Vernier, J-P; Fairlie, T D; Natarajan, M; Wienhold, F G; Bian, J; Martinsson, B G; Crumeyrolle, S; Thomason, L W; Bedka, K M

    2015-02-27

    Satellite observations have shown that the Asian Summer Monsoon strongly influences the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) aerosol morphology through its role in the formation of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II solar occultation and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar observations show that summertime UTLS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) between 13 and 18 km over Asia has increased by three times since the late 1990s. Here we present the first in situ balloon measurements of aerosol backscatter in the UTLS from Western China, which confirm high aerosol levels observed by CALIPSO since 2006. Aircraft in situ measurements suggest that aerosols at lower altitudes of the ATAL are largely composed of carbonaceous and sulfate materials (carbon/sulfur elemental ratio ranging from 2 to 10). Back trajectory analysis from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization observations indicates that deep convection over the Indian subcontinent supplies the ATAL through the transport of pollution into the UTLS. Time series of deep convection occurrence, carbon monoxide, aerosol, temperature, and relative humidity suggest that secondary aerosol formation and growth in a cold, moist convective environment could play an important role in the formation of ATAL. Finally, radiative calculations show that the ATAL layer has exerted a short-term regional forcing at the top of the atmosphere of -0.1 W/m 2 in the past 18 years. Increase of summertime upper tropospheric aerosol levels over Asia since the 1990s Upper tropospheric enhancement also observed by in situ backscatter measurements Significant regional radiative forcing of -0.1 W/m 2 .

  9. Microzooplankton grazing and phytoplankton growth in marine mesocosms with increased CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suffrian, K.; Simonelli, P.; Nejstgaard, J. C.; Putzeys, S.; Carotenuto, Y.; Antia, A. N.

    2008-01-01

    Microzooplankton grazing and algae growth responses to increasing pCO2 levels (350, 700 and 1050 μatm) were investigated in nitrate and phosphate fertilized mesocosms during the PeECE III experiment 2005. Grazing and growth rates were estimated by the dilution technique combined with taxon specific HPLC pigment analysis. Phytoplankton and microzooplankton composition were determined by light microscopy. Despite a range up to 3 times the present CO2 levels, there were no clear differences in any measured parameter between the different CO2 treatments. Thus, during the first 9 days of the experiment the algae community standing stock (SS), measured as chlorophyll a (Chl a), showed the highest instantaneous grow rates (0.02-0.99 d-1) and increased from ca 2-3 to 6-12 μg l-1, in all mesocosms. Afterwards the phytoplankton SS decreased in all mesocosms until the end of the experiment. The microzooplankton SS, that was mainly dinoflagellates and ciliates varied between 23 and 130 μg C l-1, peaking on day 13-15, apparently responding to the phytoplankton development. Instantaneous Chl a growth rates were generally higher than the grazing rates, indicating only a limited overall effect of microzooplankton grazing on the most dominant phytoplankton. Diatoms and prymnesiophytes were significantly grazed (14-43% of the SS d-1) only in the pre-bloom phase when they were in low numbers and in the post-bloom phase when they were already limited by low nutrients and/or virus lysis. The cyanobacteria populations appeared more effected by microzooplankton grazing, generally removing 20-65% of the SS d-1.

  10. Microzooplankton grazing and phytoplankton growth in marine mesocosms with increased CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suffrian, K.; Simonelli, P.; Nejstgaard, J. C.; Putzeys, S.; Carotenuto, Y.; Antia, A. N.

    2008-08-01

    Microzooplankton grazing and algae growth responses to increasing pCO2 levels (350, 700 and 1050 μatm) were investigated in nitrate and phosphate fertilized mesocosms during the PeECE III experiment 2005. Grazing and growth rates were estimated by the dilution technique combined with taxon specific HPLC pigment analysis. Microzooplankton composition was determined by light microscopy. Despite a range of up to 3 times the present CO2 levels, there were no clear differences in any measured parameter between the different CO2 treatments. During days 3 9 of the experiment the algae community standing stock, measured as chlorophyll a (Chl-a), showed the highest instantaneous grow rates (k=0.37 0.99 d-1) and increased from ca. 2 3 to 6 12 μg l-1, in all mesocosms. Afterwards the phytoplankton standing stock decreased in all mesocosms until the end of the experiment. The microzooplankton standing stock, that was mainly constituted by dinoflagellates and ciliates, varied between 23 and 130 μg C l-1 (corresponding to 1.9 and 10.8 μmol C l-1), peaking on day 13 15, apparently responding to the phytoplankton development. Instantaneous Chl-a growth rates were generally higher than the grazing rates, indicating only a limited overall effect of microzooplankton grazing on the most dominant phytoplankton. Diatoms and prymnesiophytes were significantly grazed (12 43% of the standing stock d-1) only in the pre-bloom phase when they were in low numbers, and in the post-bloom phase when they were already affected by low nutrients and/or viral lysis. The cyanobacteria populations appeared more affected by microzooplankton grazing which generally removed 20 65% of the standing stock per day.

  11. Increased interleukin-11 levels in thoracic aorta and plasma from patients with acute thoracic aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yao; Ye, Jing; Wang, Menglong; Wang, Yuan; Ji, Qingwei; Huang, Ying; Zeng, Tao; Wang, Zhen; Ye, Di; Jiang, Huimin; Liu, Jianfang; Lin, Yingzhong; Wan, Jun

    2018-06-01

    Interleukin (IL) 11 is closely related to tumor and hematological system diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that IL-11 also participates in cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia-reperfusion mediated heart injury and acute myocardial infarction. This study aimed to investigate whether IL-11 is involved in acute thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). Aortic tissue samples from normal donors and acute TAD patients were collected, and the expression of IL-11 in all aortic tissue was analyzed. In addition, blood samples from patients with chest pain were collected and divided into a non-AD (NAD) group and a TAD group according to the results of computed tomography angiography of the thoracic aorta. The plasma IL-11, IL-17 and interferon (IFN) γ in all blood samples were measured. Compared with aortic tissue of normal controls, IL-11 was significantly increased in aortic tissue of acute TAD patients, especially in the torn section. The IL-11 was derived from aorta macrophages in TAD. In addition, the plasma IL-11, IL-17 and IFN-γ were significantly higher in acute TAD patients than in NAD patients, and the correlation analysis showed that IL-11 levels were positively correlated with levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, glucose, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, white blood cells, C-reactive proteins and D-dimers. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that elevated IL11 in patients who may have diagnostic value of TAD, but less that D-dimer. IL-11 was increased in thoracic aorta and plasma of TAD patients and may be a promising biomarker for diagnosis in patients with TAD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. High levels of retinal membrane docosahexaenoic acid increase susceptibility to stress-induced degenerations⃞

    PubMed Central

    Tanito, Masaki; Brush, Richard S.; Elliott, Michael H.; Wicker, Lea D.; Henry, Kimberly R.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The fat-1 gene cloned from C. elegans encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts n-6 to n-3 PUFA. Mice carrying the fat-1 transgene and wild-type controls were fed an n-3-deficient/n-6-enriched diet [fat-1- safflower oil (SFO) and wt-SFO, respectively]. Fatty acid profiles of rod outer segments (ROS), cerebellum, plasma, and liver demonstrated significantly lower n-6/n-3 ratios and higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels in fat-1-SFO compared with wt-SFO. When mice were exposed to light stress: 1) the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was reduced; 2) amplitudes of the electroretinogram (ERG) were lower; 3) the number of apoptotic photoreceptor cells was greater; and 4) modification of retinal proteins by 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE), an end-product of n-3 PUFA oxidation was increased in both fat-1-SFO and wt mice fed a regular lab chow diet compared with wt-SFO. The results indicate a positive correlation between the level of DHA, the degree of n-3 PUFA lipid peroxidation, and the vulnerability of the retina to photooxidative stress. In mice not exposed to intense light, the reduction in DHA resulted in reduced efficacy in phototransduction gain steps, while no differences in the retinal morphology or retinal biochemistry. These results highlight the dual roles of DHA in cellular physiology and pathology. PMID:19023138

  13. Increased levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds underlie the craniofacial disorder, Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dixon, J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R; Dixon, M J

    2000-06-12

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of human craniofacial development that results from loss-of-function mutations in the gene TCOF1. Although this gene has been demonstrated to encode the nucleolar phosphoprotein treacle, the developmental mechanism underlying TCS remains elusive, particularly as expression studies have shown that the murine orthologue, Tcof1, is widely expressed. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of TCS, we replaced exon 1 of Tcof1 with a neomycin-resistance cassette via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Tcof1 heterozygous mice die perinatally as a result of severe craniofacial anomalies that include agenesis of the nasal passages, abnormal development of the maxilla, exencephaly and anophthalmia. These defects arise due to a massive increase in the levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds, which are the site of the highest levels of Tcof1 expression. Our results demonstrate that TCS arises from haploinsufficiency of a protein that plays a crucial role in craniofacial development and indicate that correct dosage of treacle is essential for survival of cephalic neural crest cells.

  14. Effects of small increases in corticosterone levels on morphology, immune function, and feather development.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; Leppert, Lynda L; Dufty, Alfred M

    2010-01-01

    Stressors encountered during avian development may affect an individual's phenotype, including immunocompetence, growth, and feather quality. We examined effects of simulated chronic low-level stress on American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings. Continuous release of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the stress response, can model chronic stress in birds. We implanted 13-d-old males with either corticosterone-filled implants or shams and measured their growth, immune function, and feather coloration. We found no significant differences between groups at the end of the weeklong exposure period in morphometrics (mass, tarsus, wing length, and asymmetry), immunocompetence (cutaneous immunity, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and humoral immunity), or feather coloration. One week subsequent to implant removal, however, differences were detected. Sham-implanted birds had significantly longer wings and a reduced level of cutaneous immune function compared with those of birds given corticosterone-filled implants. Therefore, increases of only 2 ng/mL in basal corticosterone titer can have small but measurable effects on subsequent avian development.

  15. Mitohormesis: Promoting Health and Lifespan by Increased Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

    PubMed Central

    Ristow, Michael; Schmeisser, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS), consisting of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and multiple others, do not only cause oxidative stress, but rather may function as signaling molecules that promote health by preventing or delaying a number of chronic diseases, and ultimately extend lifespan. While high levels of ROS are generally accepted to cause cellular damage and to promote aging, low levels of these may rather improve systemic defense mechanisms by inducing an adaptive response. This concept has been named mitochondrial hormesis or mitohormesis. We here evaluate and summarize more than 500 publications from current literature regarding such ROS-mediated low-dose signaling events, including calorie restriction, hypoxia, temperature stress, and physical activity, as well as signaling events downstream of insulin/IGF-1 receptors, AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK), target-of-rapamycin (TOR), and lastly sirtuins to culminate in control of proteostasis, unfolded protein response (UPR), stem cell maintenance and stress resistance. Additionally, consequences of interfering with such ROS signals by pharmacological or natural compounds are being discussed, concluding that particularly antioxidants are useless or even harmful. PMID:24910588

  16. Demonstration of long-term increases in tropospheric O3 levels: causes and potential impacts.

    PubMed

    Susaya, Janice; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Brown, Richard J C

    2013-09-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) is a well-known atmospheric pollutant with its adverse impacts on the environment and human health. Here, the tropospheric O3 concentrations monitored in seven major cities in Korea at monthly intervals over a 22-year period (1989-2010) are presented, and their long-term variability examined. The analysis of annual mean values of O3 (in nmolmol(-1), or ppb) showed a noticeable increase of 118±69% in all seven cities over the two decades (p<0.01). Changes in O3 levels are closely associated with both environmental (e.g., NOx (NO+NO2), SO2, CO, and total suspended particles (TSPs) (p<0.01), temperature, and sunshine hours) and common anthropogenic variables (e.g., population density and number of vehicles). Evidence collected in this study suggests that the atmospheric conditions in most major cities of Korea should be volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sensitive or NOx saturated with respect to O3 formation. As such, establishment of a proper management strategy seems a sensible approach to control tropospheric ozone concentrations in densely populated cities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Repeated Administration of Cigarette Smoke Condensate Increases Glutamate Levels and Behavioral Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, In Soo; Kim, Jieun; Seo, Su Yeon; Yang, Ju Hwan; Oh, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Dong Kun; Cho, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Kyuhong; Yoon, Seong Shoon; Seo, Joung-Wook; Shim, Insop; Choe, Eun Sang

    2018-01-01

    Nicotine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, produces the reinforcing effects of tobacco dependence by potentiating dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. Non-nicotine alkaloids in tobacco also contribute to dependence by activating the cholinergic system. However, glutamatergic neurotransmission in the dorsal striatum associated with behavioral changes in response to cigarette smoking has not been investigated. In this study, the authors investigated alterations in glutamate levels in the rat dorsal striatum related to behavioral alterations after repeated administration of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) using the real-time glutamate biosensing and an open-field behavioral assessment. Repeated administration of CSC including 0.4 mg nicotine (1.0 mL/kg/day, subcutaneous) for 14 days significantly increased extracellular glutamate concentrations more than repeated nicotine administration. In parallel with the hyperactivation of glutamate levels, repeated administration of CSC-evoked prolonged hypersensitization of psychomotor activity, including locomotor and rearing activities. These findings suggest that the CSC-induced psychomotor activities are closely associated with the elevation of glutamate concentrations in the rat dorsal striatum. PMID:29615877

  18. Enhanced zinc consumption causes memory deficits and increased brain levels of zinc

    Flinn, J.M.; Hunter, D.; Linkous, D.H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Smith, L.N.; Brightwell, J.; Jones, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been shown to impair cognitive functioning, but little work has been done on the effects of elevated zinc. This research examined the effect on memory of raising Sprague-Dawley rats on enhanced levels of zinc (10 ppm ZnCO3; 0.153 mM) in the drinking water for periods of 3 or 9 months, both pre- and postnatally. Controls were raised on lab water. Memory was tested in a series of Morris Water Maze (MWM) experiments, and zinc-treated rats were found to have impairments in both reference and working memory. They were significantly slower to find a stationary platform and showed greater thigmotaxicity, a measure of anxiety. On a working memory task, where the platform was moved each day, zinc-treated animals had longer latencies over both trials and days, swam further from the platform, and showed greater thigmotaxicity. On trials using an Atlantis platform, which remained in one place but was lowered on probe trials, the zinc-treated animals had significantly fewer platform crossings, spent less time in the target quadrant, and did not swim as close to the platform position. They had significantly greater latency on nonprobe trials. Microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (??SXRF) confirmed that brain zinc levels were increased by adding ZnCO 3 to the drinking water. These data show that long-term dietary administration of zinc can lead to impairments in cognitive function. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased oxytocin levels among abstinent heroin addicts: Association with aggressiveness, psychiatric symptoms and perceived childhood neglect.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Lidia M; Gerra, Gilberto; Mercolini, Laura; Manfredini, Matteo; Somaini, Lorenzo; Pieri, Chiara M; Antonioni, Maina; Protti, Michele; Ossola, Paolo; Marchesi, Carlo

    2017-04-03

    A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect. Eighteen (18) abstinent patients, affected by heroin use disorders, and 18 control subjects, who never used drugs or abused alcohol, were included in the study and submitted to 1) collection of a blood sample for oxytocin assay, 2) Symptoms Check List 90 for psychiatric symptoms evaluation 3) Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory to measure aggressiveness 4) Child Experience of Care and Abuse-Questionnaire to retrospectively test the perception of parental neglect. Heroin exposure extent and heroin dosages were also recorded. Oxytocin serum levels were unexpectedly significantly higher among abstinent patients affected by heroin use disorders and positively correlated with psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and mother neglect scores. No correlation was evidenced between oxytocin and heroin exposure extent or dosages. Our findings appear to contradict the simplistic view of oxytocin as a pro-social hormone and confirm previous evidence concerning the peptide levels direct association with aggressive behavior and mood disorders. Considering a more complex mechanism, oxytocin would increase the sensitivity to social salience cues related to contextual or inter-individual factors, promoting pro-sociality in "safe" conditions and, in contrast, inducing more defensive and "anti-social" emotions and behaviors when the

  20. Increased Ap4A levels and ecto-nucleotidase activity in glaucomatous mice retina.

    PubMed

    Pérez de Lara, María J; Guzmán-Aranguez, Ana; Gómez-Villafuertes, Rosa; Gualix, Javier; Miras-Portugal, María Teresa; Pintor, Jesús

    2018-06-08

    The pathogenesis of glaucoma involves numerous intracellular mechanisms including the purinergic system contribution. Furthermore, the presence and release of nucleotides and dinucleotides during the glaucomatous damage and the maintenance of degradation machinery through ecto-nucleotidase activity are participating in the modulation of the suitable extracellular complex balance. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap 4 A) and the pattern of ecto-nucleotidase activity expression in glaucomatous retinas during the progress the pathology. Ap 4 A levels were analyzed by HPLC in glaucomatous retinas from the DBA/2J mice at 3, 9, 15, and 23 months of age. For that, retinas were dissected as flattened whole-mounts and stimulated in Ringer buffer with or without 59 mM KCl. NPP1 expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and western blot and its distribution was assessed by immunohistochemistry studies examined under confocal microscopy. Glaucomatous mice exhibited Ap 4 A values, which changed in stimulated retinas as long as the pathology progressed varying from 0.73 ± 0.04 (3 months) to 0.170 ± 0.05 pmol/mg retina (23 months). Concomitantly, NPP1 expression was significantly increased (82.15%) in the DBA/2J mice at 15 months. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies showed that NPP1 labeling was stronger in OPL and IPL labeling tangentially in the vitreal part of the retina and was upregulated at 15 months of age. Our findings demonstrate that Ap 4 A decreased levels may be related with exacerbated activity of NPP1 protein in glaucomatous degeneration and in this way contributing to elucidate different mechanisms involved in retinal impairment in glaucomatous degeneration.

  1. Increased ferritin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa: impact of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Wanby, P; Berglund, J; Brudin, L; Hedberg, D; Carlsson, M

    2016-09-01

    A few recent studies have found elevated ferritin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), indicating ferritin as a potential biomarker of disease severity. The purpose of this study was to study how body mass index (BMI) and changes in BMI affect plasma ferritin concentrations in Swedish patients with eating disorders. In a retrospective computer search from 2009 to 2014, 662 patients with an eating disorder were identified from more than 200,000 individuals with electronic medical records. Three hundred and eighty-nine patients (374 females and 15 males) were found to have at least one p-ferritin value with a corresponding BMI value. Patients with AN were compared to a combined group consisting of patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Patients with AN had lower BMI compared to the combined group of patients with other eating disorders (BMI = 16.5 ± 1.5, n = 77 vs. 21.0 ± 4.7, n = 312, p < 0.001). Patients with AN also had higher plasma ferritin levels (median 42 μg/L (range 3.3-310) vs. 31 μg/L (range 2.8-280); p < 0.001). As BMI increased in patients with AN, ferritin levels decreased (from a median of 40 μg/L (7-400) to 26 (4-170), n = 47; p < 0.001). Measuring ferritin in patients with AN could be valuable in monitoring improvements of nutritional status, but the full clinical value of following ferritin in individual patients has yet to be determined. The study also shows how research can benefit from electronically captured clinical data using electronic health records.

  2. Does increasing immunoglobulin levels impact survival in solid organ transplant recipients with hypogammaglobulinemia?

    PubMed

    Florescu, Diana F; Kalil, Andre C; Qiu, Fang; Grant, Wendy; Morris, Michael C; Schmidt, Cynthia M; Florescu, Marius C; Poole, Jill A

    2014-11-01

    Severe hypogammaglobulinemia (IgG < 400 mg/dL) has adverse impact on mortality during the first year post-transplantation. The aim of the study was to determine whether increasing IgG levels to ≥400 mg/dL improved outcomes. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to estimate survival, log-rank test to compare survival distributions between groups, and Fisher's exact test to determine the association between hypogammaglobulinemia and rejection or graft loss. Thirty-seven solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients were included. Hypogammaglobulinemia was diagnosed at median of 5.6 months (range: 0-291.8 months) post-transplantation. Types of transplants: liver-small bowel (17); liver-small bowel-kidney (2); liver (5); small bowel (4); liver-kidney (1); kidney/kidney-pancreas (3); heart (3); heart-kidney (1); and heart-lung (1). The three-yr survival after the diagnosis of hypogammaglobulinemia was 49.5% (95% CI: 32.2-64.6%). Patients were dichotomized based upon IgG level at last follow-up: IgG ≥ 400 mg/dL (23 patients) and IgG < 400 mg/dL (14 patients). There was no evidence of a difference in survival (p = 0.44), rejection rate (p = 0.44), and graft loss censored for death (p = 0.99) at one yr between these two groups. There was no difference in survival between patients receiving or not immunoglobulin (p = 0.99) or cytomegalovirus hyperimmunoglobulin (p = 0.14). Severe hypogammaglobulinemia after SOT is associated with high mortality rates, but increasing IgG levels to ≥400 mg/dL did not seem to translate in better patient or graft survival in this cohort. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Interleukin-17 SNPs and serum levels increase ulcerative colitis risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Tian, Hao; Jiang, Hui-Jun; Han, Bin

    2014-11-14

    To investigate the associations of interleukin-17 (IL-17) genetic polymorphisms and serum levels with ulcerative colitis (UC) risk. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the following electronic databases, excluding language restriction: (1) the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013); (2) Web of Science (1945-2013); (3) PubMed (1966-2013); (4) CINAHL (1982-2013); (5) EMBASE (1980-2013); and (6) the Chinese Biomedical Database (1982-2013). Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios and standardized mean differences (SMDs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. All of the included studies met all of the following five criteria: (1) the study design must be a clinical cohort or a case-control study; (2) the study must relate to the relationship between IL-17A/F genetic polymorphisms or serum IL-17 levels and the risk of UC; (3) all patients must meet the diagnostic criteria for UC; (4) the study must provide sufficient information about single nucleotide polymorphism frequencies or serum IL-17 levels; and (5) the genotype distribution of healthy controls must conform to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) criteria were used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. The NOS criteria included three aspects: (1) subject selection: 0-4; (2) comparability of subjects: 0-2; and (3) clinical outcome: 0-3. NOS scores ranged from 0 to 9, with a score ≥ 7 indicating good quality. Of the initial 177 articles, only 16 case-control studies met all of the inclusion criteria. A total of 1614 UC patients and 2863 healthy controls were included in this study. Fourteen studies were performed on Asian populations, and two studies on Caucasian populations. Results of the meta-analysis revealed that IL-17A and IL-17F genetic polymorphisms potentially increased UC risk under both allele and dominant models (P < 0.001 for all). The results also showed that UC

  4. Interleukin-17 SNPs and serum levels increase ulcerative colitis risk: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Tian, Hao; Jiang, Hui-Jun; Han, Bin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the associations of interleukin-17 (IL-17) genetic polymorphisms and serum levels with ulcerative colitis (UC) risk. METHODS: Relevant articles were identified through a search of the following electronic databases, excluding language restriction: (1) the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013); (2) Web of Science (1945-2013); (3) PubMed (1966-2013); (4) CINAHL (1982-2013); (5) EMBASE (1980-2013); and (6) the Chinese Biomedical Database (1982-2013). Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios and standardized mean differences (SMDs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. All of the included studies met all of the following five criteria: (1) the study design must be a clinical cohort or a case-control study; (2) the study must relate to the relationship between IL-17A/F genetic polymorphisms or serum IL-17 levels and the risk of UC; (3) all patients must meet the diagnostic criteria for UC; (4) the study must provide sufficient information about single nucleotide polymorphism frequencies or serum IL-17 levels; and (5) the genotype distribution of healthy controls must conform to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) criteria were used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. The NOS criteria included three aspects: (1) subject selection: 0-4; (2) comparability of subjects: 0-2; and (3) clinical outcome: 0-3. NOS scores ranged from 0 to 9, with a score ≥ 7 indicating good quality. RESULTS: Of the initial 177 articles, only 16 case-control studies met all of the inclusion criteria. A total of 1614 UC patients and 2863 healthy controls were included in this study. Fourteen studies were performed on Asian populations, and two studies on Caucasian populations. Results of the meta-analysis revealed that IL-17A and IL-17F genetic polymorphisms potentially increased UC risk under both allele and dominant models (P < 0.001 for all). The results also

  5. Middle Holocene humidity increase in Florida: climate or sea-level?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donders, Timme H.

    2014-11-01

    Florida climate in highly sensitive to both high and low latitude climate perturbations due to its latitudinal position surrounded by water masses that transport heat northward. A well-studied aspect is that middle Holocene conditions became significantly wetter in Florida, initiating widespread peat accumulation in the Everglades. This environmental change has been attributed to various climate forcings, such as migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), increases in tropical storm intensity, position of the Bermuda High, intensification of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and post glacial sea level rise (SLR). Discerning between these forcings is only possible with quantitative reconstructions from a transect of sites that are affected differentially. Application of a transfer function on a north-to-south gradient of pollen records from Florida lakes here shows that the pattern of increasing precipitation during the middle Holocene cannot be explained by SLR, but that ENSO intensification is an important contributing factor. Seasonal-resolved proxy records with improved age models are urgently needed to further solve these issues.

  6. Rice Bran Amendment Suppresses Potato Common Scab by Increasing Antagonistic Bacterial Community Levels in the Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Tomihama, Tsuyoshi; Nishi, Yatsuka; Mori, Kiyofumi; Shirao, Tsukasa; Iida, Toshiya; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Ikeda, Seishi

    2016-07-01

    Potato common scab (PCS), caused by pathogenic Streptomyces spp., is a serious disease in potato production worldwide. Cultural practices, such as optimizing the soil pH and irrigation, are recommended but it is often difficult to establish stable disease reductions using these methods. Traditionally, local farmers in southwest Japan have amended soils with rice bran (RB) to suppress PCS. However, the scientific mechanism underlying disease suppression by RB has not been elucidated. The present study showed that RB amendment reduced PCS by repressing the pathogenic Streptomyces population in young tubers. Amplicon sequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA genes from the rhizosphere microbiome revealed that RB amendment dramatically changed bacterial composition and led to an increase in the relative abundance of gram-positive bacteria such as Streptomyces spp., and this was negatively correlated with PCS disease severity. Most actinomycete isolates derived from the RB-amended soil showed antagonistic activity against pathogenic Streptomyces scabiei and S. turgidiscabies on R2A medium. Some of the Streptomyces isolates suppressed PCS when they were inoculated onto potato plants in a field experiment. These results suggest that RB amendment increases the levels of antagonistic bacteria against PCS pathogens in the potato rhizosphere.

  7. Combined atmospheric oxidant capacity and increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Li, Huichu; Chen, Renjie; Xu, Wenxi; Wang, Cuicui; Tse, Lap Ah; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen dioxide and ozone are two interrelated oxidative pollutants in the atmosphere. Few studies have evaluated the health effects of combined oxidant capacity (O x ). We investigated the short-term effects of O x on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker for airway inflammation, in a group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Real-time concentrations of O x were obtained by calculating directly the sum of nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Linear mixed-effect models were applied to explore the acute effects of O x on FeNO levels. Short-term exposure to Ox was significantly associated with elevated FeNO. This effect was strongest in the first 24 h after exposure, and was robust to the adjustment of PM2.5. A 10 μg m-3 increase in 24 h average concentrations of O x was associated with 4.28% (95% confidence interval: 1.19%, 7.37%) increase in FeNO. The effect estimates were statistically significant only among males, elders, and those with body mass index ≥24 kg m-2, a comorbidity, higher educational attainment, or moderate airflow limitation. This analysis demonstrated an independent effect of O x on respiratory inflammation, and suggested that a single metric O x might serve as a preferable indicator of atmospheric oxidative capacity in further air pollution epidemiological studies.

  8. Rotigotine, a dopamine receptor agonist, increased BDNF protein levels in the rat cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Naoki; Yoshimura, Aya; Chiba, Shuichi; Ogawa, Shintaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) critically controls the fate and function of the neuronal network and has received much attention as a target of many brain diseases. Dopaminergic system dysfunction has also been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. Rotigotine, a non-ergot dopamine receptor agonist, is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome. To investigate the effects of rotigotine on neuronal functions both in vivo and in vitro, rats and primary cortical neurons were administered rotigotine, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of BDNF, its receptor TrkB and downstream signaling molecules, and synaptic proteins were determined. We found that BDNF protein was increased in the cortex and hippocampus of rats after 7days of rotigotine treatment. In contrast, BDNF mRNAs were reduced 6h after rotigotine treatment in cultured neurons presumably through the transient suppression of neuronal activity. We identified differential expression of D1, D2, and D3 receptors in the rat brain and cultured neurons. The observed increase in the expression of BDNF protein in the cortex and hippocampus after subchronic administration of rotigotine suggests that it may exert its medical effect in part through improving BDNF function in the brain. In addition, our results highlight the complex relationships between rotigotine and BDNF expression, which depend on the brain region, time course, and dose of the drug. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased plasma lipid levels exacerbate muscle pathology in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Milad, Nadia; White, Zoe; Tehrani, Arash Y; Sellers, Stephanie; Rossi, Fabio M V; Bernatchez, Pascal

    2017-09-12

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by loss of dystrophin expression and leads to severe ambulatory and cardiac function decline. However, the dystrophin-deficient mdx murine model of DMD only develops a very mild form of the disease. Our group and others have shown vascular abnormalities in animal models of MD, a likely consequence of the fact that blood vessels express the same dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) proteins as skeletal muscles. To test the blood vessel contribution to muscle damage in DMD, mdx 4cv mice were given elevated lipid levels via apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene knockout combined with normal chow or lipid-rich Western diets. Ambulatory function and heart function (via echocardiogram) were assessed at 4 and 7 months of age. After sacrifice, muscle histology and aortic staining were used to assess muscle pathology and atherosclerosis development, respectively. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and creatine kinase (CK) were also measured. Although there was an increase in left ventricular heart volume in mdx-ApoE mice compared to that in mdx mice, parameters of heart function were not affected. Compared with wild-type and ApoE-null, only mdx-ApoE KO mice showed significant ambulatory dysfunction. Despite no significant difference in plasma CK, histological analyses revealed that elevated plasma lipids in chow- and Western diet-fed mdx-ApoE mice was associated with severe exacerbation of muscle pathology compared to mdx mice: significant increase in myofiber damage and fibrofatty replacement in the gastrocnemius and triceps brachii muscles, more reminiscent of human DMD pathology. Finally, although both ApoE and mdx-ApoE groups displayed increased plasma lipids, mdx-ApoE exhibited atherosclerotic plaque deposition equal to or less than that of ApoE mice. Since others have shown that lipid abnormalities correlate with DMD severity, our data suggest that plasma lipids could be

  10. Early increase of peripheral B cell levels in kidney transplant recipients with CMV infection or reactivation.

    PubMed

    Besançon-Watelet, C; De March, A K; Renoult, E; Kessler, M; Béné, M C; Faure, G C; Sarda, M N

    2000-02-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or reactivation is a frequent complication of renal transplantation. Diagnosis of these conditions relies on the detection of circulating antigen, or of specific IgM and/or IgG, which develop over several weeks. Evocative clinical features may be detected earlier, but lack specificity. Rapid and early changes in the partition of lymphocyte subsets could be an additional indication of pending CMV infection. A systematic follow-up of peripheral B lymphocytes identified immunophenotypically by the determination of surface immunoglobulins (sIg), performed in 97 kidney transplant recipients, allowed to identify transient increases apparently predictive of CMV primo-infection or reactivation over the next 3 months. To better define the nature of these B cells, an extended investigation was performed for 14 prospective patients. In addition to surface Ig, membrane CD19, HLA-DR, and CD80 expression were explored. The cytoplasmic presence of mu, kappa, and lambda chains was also examined. B cell function was investigated using the ELISPOT technique, which allows an enumeration of the populations of IgG, IgA, and IgM secreting B cells. Retrospective analysis of the clinical outcome of the cohort of 97 patients evidenced that early transient increases in B cell levels were significantly (P<0.0001) associated with CMV infection. The same trend was noted in the smaller series of patients who benefited from a more extensive investigation of B cells, 10 of whom presented clinical or biological signs of CMV infection. Mature B cells, expressing surface Ig, CD19, DR, and CD80 are those presenting transient increases. No significant variation of preB (cmu+/kappalambda-) or activated (spot-forming) cells was evidenced in these patients. Individual examination of each patient's immune reconstitution profile allows to detect transient peaks of mature B cell during the initial immunosuppressive therapy, that appear to be predictive of oncoming CMV

  11. Effect of increasing monensin sodium levels in diets with virginiamycin on the finishing of Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Benatti, João Marcos B; Alves Neto, João Alexandrino; de Oliveira, Ivanna M; de Resende, Flávio D; Siqueira, Gustavo R

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of increasing levels of monensin sodium (MON) in diets with virginiamycin (VM) on the finishing of feedlot cattle. Two hundred and eighty intact male Nellore cattle (348 ± 32 kg body weight, 22 months) received one of the following five diets: control diet (without additives); diet containing VM (25 mg per kg dry matter) combined with 0 (MON0), 10 (MON10), 20 (MON20) or 30 (MON30) mg MON per kg dry matter. During adaptation (28 days), the MON0 diet increased dietary net energy for maintenance and gain compared to the control diet (P = 0.04). The combination of additives linearly reduced dry matter intake, body weight and average daily gain (P < 0.01). Considering the total study period (110 days), there was a trend of greater net energy intake for maintenance (P = 0.09) and hot carcass weight (P = 0.06) for animals fed MON0 compared to the control diet. The combination of additives linearly reduced dry matter intake (P = 0.04) and linearly increased gain : feed and dietary net energy for maintenance and gain (P < 0.01). The combination of VM with MON at a dose of 30 mg/kg dry matter is recommended for Nellore feedlot cattle because it improves the efficiency of energy utilization. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Increased red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in haemodialysis patients treated with erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Horina, J H; Schwaberger, G; Brussee, H; Sauseng-Fellegger, G; Holzer, H; Krejs, G J

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) for the treatment of renal anaemia is well established. To assess the effect of rHuEpo treatment on physical performance we evaluated physical working capacity, oxygen uptake and red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) values at rest and during and after exercise on a bicycle spiroergometer in eight chronically haemodialysed patients. Follow-up examination was carried out after a mean of 14 weeks (range 9-19 weeks), when mean haemoglobin had increased from 7.8 to a stable value of 13.0 g/dl in response to rHuEpo treatment (P < 0.001). Physical working capacity and oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration) increased from 68 +/- 12 to 80 +/- 16 watts and 0.95 +/- 0.14 to 1.10 +/- 0.20 l/min, respectively (P < 0.01). DPG, which determines oxygen affinity to haemoglobin in red cells, increased by 13% from 13.7 +/- 1.5 to 15.5 +/- 2.2 mumol/g Hb (P < 0.05). With maximal exercise mean DPG values significantly decreased to a much lower level without rHuEpo treatment than after correction of anaemia. Therefore rHuEpo treatment results both in better oxygen transport capacity and reduced intraerythrocytic oxygen affinity, which is followed by improved oxygen delivery to tissues per unit of haemoglobin. These effects may explain the improvement of exercise capacity observed in dialysis patients after rHuEpo treatment.

  13. Nicergoline increases serum substance P levels in patients with an ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Abe, Arata; Ueda, Masayuki; Katsura, Ken-ichiro; Katayama, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is one of the most important complications following ischaemic stroke, and a leading cause of mortality in stroke patients. This is particularly prevalent in patients with involvement of the basal ganglia, which may be due to impaired neurotransmission through lack of production of substance P. Consecutive patients in the chronic stage, 1-3 months after cerebral ischaemic infarction, were assessed for basal ganglia involvement by magnetic resonance imaging. The patients were randomised to 4 weeks of treatment with (n = 25) or without (n = 25) nicergoline (15 mg t.i.d.). Serum concentration of substance P was measured by radioimmunoassay. At entry to the study, mean concentration of substance P was significantly (p < 0.001) lower in patients with bilateral basal ganglia lesions than in patients with no or unilateral basal ganglia involvement. Nicergoline administration caused a significant (p = 0.021) increase from baseline in mean substance P concentration. No significant change was seen in the nicergoline-untreated patients (p = 0.626). Among the patients who received nicergoline, 11 patients had bilateral basal ganglia involvement and there was no significant mean change in substance P in these patients, whereas there was a significant increase (p = 0.032) in the 14 nicergoline-treated patients with no or unilateral basal ganglia involvement. The present study suggests a possible effect of nicergoline to increase substance P level in ischaemic stroke patients with partial damage to basal ganglia, who have a decreased swallowing response and consequent risk of aspiration pneumonia. Further trials of nicergoline treatment in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia are warranted. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Interventions to increase tuberculosis case detection at primary healthcare or community-level services

    PubMed Central

    Mhimbira, Francis A; Cuevas, Luis E.; Dacombe, Russell; Mkopi, Abdallah; Sinclair, David

    2017-01-01

    Background Pulmonary tuberculosis is usually diagnosed when symptomatic individuals seek care at healthcare facilities, and healthcare workers have a minimal role in promoting the health-seeking behaviour. However, some policy specialists believe the healthcare system could be more active in tuberculosis diagnosis to increase tuberculosis case detection. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of different strategies to increase tuberculosis case detection through improving access (geographical, financial, educational) to tuberculosis diagnosis at primary healthcare or community-level services. Search methods We searched the following databases for relevant studies up to 19 December 2016: the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library, Issue 12, 2016; MEDLINE; Embase; Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index; BIOSIS Previews; and Scopus. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) for ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomized and non-randomized controlled studies comparing any intervention that aims to improve access to a tuberculosis diagnosis, with no intervention or an alternative intervention. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We compared interventions using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included nine cluster-randomized trials, one individual randomized trial, and seven non-randomized controlled studies. Nine studies were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe), six in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Nepal, and Pakistan), and two in South America

  15. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage attributable to cooking-oil fumes exposure among cooks.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuebin; Cheng, Jinquan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Renli; Zhang, Zhunzhen; Shuai, Zhihong; Wu, Tangchun

    2009-07-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that cooks are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from cooking-oil fumes. However, Emission of PAH and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking oil fumes sources have not been investigated among cooks. To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in different groups of cooks and different exposure groups, and to study the association between 8-OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene(1-OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Urine samples were collected from different groups of cooks (n = 86) and from unexposed controls (n = 36); all were male with similar age and smoking habits. The health status, occupational history, smoking, and alcohol consumption 24 h prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urine samples were frozen for later analyses of 8-OHdG and 1-OHP levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. Excretion in urine of 8-OHdG was similar for controls (mean 1.2micromol/mol creatinine, n = 36), and for those who had been in the kitchen with an exhaust-hood operating (mean 1.5micromol/mol creatinine, n = 45). Cooks exposed to cooking-oil fumes without exhaust-hood operation had significantly increased excretion of 8-OHdG (mean 2.3micromol/mol creatinine, n = 18), compared with controls. The urinary levels of ln 1-OHP and ln 8-OHdG were still significantly correlated in a multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds in cooking-oil fumes may cause oxidative DNA damage.

  16. Highly dynamic cellular-level response of symbiotic coral to a sudden increase in environmental nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Kopp, C; Pernice, M; Domart-Coulon, I; Djediat, C; Spangenberg, J E; Alexander, D T L; Hignette, M; Meziane, T; Meibom, A

    2013-05-14

    Metabolic interactions with endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium spp. are fundamental to reef-building corals (Scleractinia) thriving in nutrient-poor tropical seas. Yet, detailed understanding at the single-cell level of nutrient assimilation, translocation, and utilization within this fundamental symbiosis is lacking. Using pulse-chase (15)N labeling and quantitative ion microprobe isotopic imaging (NanoSIMS; nanoscale secondary-ion mass spectrometry), we visualized these dynamic processes in tissues of the symbiotic coral Pocillopora damicornis at the subcellular level. Assimilation of ammonium, nitrate, and aspartic acid resulted in rapid incorporation of nitrogen into uric acid crystals (after ~45 min), forming temporary N storage sites within the dinoflagellate endosymbionts. Subsequent intracellular remobilization of this metabolite was accompanied by translocation of nitrogenous compounds to the coral host, starting at ~6 h. Within the coral tissue, nitrogen is utilized in specific cellular compartments in all four epithelia, including mucus chambers, Golgi bodies, and vesicles in calicoblastic cells. Our study shows how nitrogen-limited symbiotic corals take advantage of sudden changes in nitrogen availability; this opens new perspectives for functional studies of nutrient storage and remobilization in microbial symbioses in changing reef environments. The methodology applied, combining transmission electron microscopy with nanoscale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging of coral tissue labeled with stable isotope tracers, allows quantification and submicrometric localization of metabolic fluxes in an intact symbiosis. This study opens the way for investigations of physiological adaptations of symbiotic systems to nutrient availability and for increasing knowledge of global nitrogen and carbon biogeochemical cycling.

  17. Exendin-4 increases blood glucose levels acutely in rats by activation of the sympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tilve, Diego; González-Matías, Lucas; Aulinger, Benedikt A; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Gil-Lozano, Manuel; Alvarez, Elias; Andrade-Olivie, Amalia M; Tschöp, Matthias H; D'Alessio, David A; Mallo, Federico

    2010-05-01

    Exendin-4 (Ex-4), an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), shares many of the actions of GLP-1 on pancreatic islets, the central nervous system (CNS), and the gastrointestinal tract that mediates glucose homeostasis and food intake. Because Ex-4 has a much longer plasma half-life than GLP-1, it is an effective drug for reducing blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we report that acute administration of Ex-4, in relatively high doses, into either the peripheral circulation or the CNS, paradoxically increased blood glucose levels in rats. This effect was independent of the insulinotropic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activating actions of Ex-4 and could be blocked by a GLP-1R antagonist. Comparable doses of GLP-1 did not induce hyperglycemia, even when protected from rapid metabolism by a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor. Acute hyperglycemia induced by Ex-4 was blocked by hexamethonium, guanethidine, and adrenal medullectomy, indicating that this effect was mediated by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. The potency of Ex-4 to elevate blood glucose waned with chronic administration such that after 6 days the familiar actions of Ex-4 to improve glucose tolerance were evident. These findings indicate that, in rats, high doses of Ex-4 activate a SNS response that can overcome the expected benefits of this peptide on glucose metabolism and actually raise blood glucose. These results have important implications for the design and interpretation of studies using Ex-4 in rats. Moreover, since there are many similarities in the response of the GLP-1R system across mammalian species, it is important to consider whether there is acute activation of the SNS by Ex-4 in humans.

  18. Cortisol levels in response to starting school in children at increased risk for social phobia.

    PubMed

    Russ, Stephanie J; Herbert, Joe; Cooper, Peter; Gunnar, Megan R; Goodyer, Ian; Croudace, Tim; Murray, Lynne

    2012-04-01

    Research on depression has identified hyperactivity of the HPA axis as a potential contributory factor to the intergenerational transmission of affective symptoms. This has not yet been examined in the context of social phobia. The current study compared HPA axis activity in response to a universal social stressor (starting school) in children of 2 groups of women: one with social phobia and one with no history of anxiety (comparison group). To determine specificity of effects of maternal social phobia, a third group of children were also examined whose mothers had generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Children provided salivary cortisol samples in the morning, afternoon and at bedtime across 3 time-blocks surrounding the school start: a month before starting school (baseline), the first week at school (stress response), and the end of the first school term (stress recovery). Child behavioural inhibition at 14 months was assessed to explore the influence of early temperament on later stress responses. All children displayed an elevation in morning and afternoon cortisol from baseline during the first week at school, which remained elevated until the end of the first term. Children in the social phobia group, however, also displayed an equivalent elevation in bedtime cortisol, which was not observed for comparison children or for children of mothers with GAD. Children in the social phobia group who were classified as 'inhibited' at 14 months displayed significantly higher afternoon cortisol levels overall. A persistent stress response to school in the morning and afternoon is typical for all children, but children of mothers with social phobia also display atypical elevations in evening cortisol levels when at school--signalling longer-term disruption of the circadian rhythm in HPA axis activity. This is the first study to report HPA axis disruption in children at increased risk of developing social phobia. Future research should determine whether this represents a

  19. An environmental intervention aimed at increasing physical activity levels in low-income women.

    PubMed

    Speck, Barbara J; Hines-Martin, Vicki; Stetson, Barbara A; Looney, Stephen W

    2007-01-01

    Regular physical activity is a health promotion and disease prevention behavior. Of all demographic groups, low-income women report the lowest levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to test an intervention aimed at reducing community environmental barriers to physical activity in low-income women. The research design was mixed methodology: (1) quantitative (quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, cohort design in which no treatment partitioning was possible) and (2) qualitative (focus groups). The setting was a church-sponsored community center centrally located in a low-income urban neighborhood. The comparison group was recruited first followed by the intervention group to control for setting. The sample consisted of 104 women (comparison group, n = 53; intervention group, n = 51) between the ages of 18 and 63 years who were residents of neighborhoods served by the community center. No between-group differences were found for physical activity behavior. Significant between-group differences in cholesterol (P = .007) and perception of physical activity (P = .033) were observed. Significant intervention group increases from pretest to posttest were found related to advanced registered nurse practitioner support, friend support, and more positive physical activity environment at the community center. Qualitative data supported and enriched the quantitative data. Physical activity levels were not significantly different between the groups. In a sample of low-income women who have multiple barriers, improving attitudes, expanding their knowledge of community resources, and providing physical activity opportunities in their neighborhoods are important intermediate steps toward initiation and maintenance of regular physical activity.

  20. Identification of novel posttranscriptional targets of the BCR/ABL oncoprotein by ribonomics: requirement of E2F3 for BCR/ABL leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Eiring, Anna M.; Neviani, Paolo; Santhanam, Ramasamy; Oaks, Joshua J.; Chang, Ji Suk; Notari, Mario; Willis, William; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Volinia, Stefano; Marcucci, Guido; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Leone, Gustavo W.

    2008-01-01

    Several RNA binding proteins (RBPs) have been implicated in the progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) from the indolent chronic phase to the aggressively fatal blast crisis. In the latter phase, expression and function of specific RBPs are aberrantly regulated at transcriptional or posttranslational levels by the constitutive kinase activity of the BCR/ABL oncoprotein. As a result, altered expression/function of RBPs leads to increased resistance to apoptotic stimuli, enhanced survival, growth advantage, and differentiation arrest of CD34+ progenitors from patients in CML blast crisis. Here, we identify the mRNAs bound to the hnRNP-A1, hnRNP-E2, hnRNP-K, and La/SSB RBPs in BCR/ABLtransformed myeloid cells. Interestingly, we found that the mRNA encoding the transcription factor E2F3 associates to hnRNP-A1 through a conserved binding site located in the E2F3 3′ untranslated region (UTR). E2F3 levels were up-regulated in CML-BCCD34+ in a BCR/ABL kinase– and hnRNP-A1 shuttling–dependent manner. Moreover, by using shRNA-mediated E2F3 knock-down and BCR/ABL-transduced lineage-negative bone marrow cells from E2F3+/+ and E2F3−/− mice, we show that E2F3 expression is important for BCR/ABL clonogenic activity and in vivo leukemogenic potential. Thus, the complexity of the mRNA/RBP network, together with the discovery of E2F3 as an hnRNP-A1–regulated factor, outlines the relevant role played by RBPs in posttranscriptional regulation of CML development and progression. PMID:17925491

  1. Declines in large wildlife increase landscape-level prevalence of rodent-borne disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Young, Hillary S.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Helgen, Kristofer M.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Salkeld, Daniel J.; Young, Truman P.; Dittmar, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Populations of large wildlife are declining on local and global scales. The impacts of this pulse of size-selective defaunation include cascading changes to smaller animals, particularly rodents, and alteration of many ecosystem processes and services, potentially involving changes to prevalence and transmission of zoonotic disease. Understanding linkages between biodiversity loss and zoonotic disease is important for both public health and nature conservation programs, and has been a source of much recent scientific debate. In the case of rodent-borne zoonoses, there is strong conceptual support, but limited empirical evidence, for the hypothesis that defaunation, the loss of large wildlife, increases zoonotic disease risk by directly or indirectly releasing controls on rodent density. We tested this hypothesis by experimentally excluding large wildlife from a savanna ecosystem in East Africa, and examining changes in prevalence and abundance of Bartonella spp. infection in rodents and their flea vectors. We found no effect of wildlife removal on per capita prevalence of Bartonella infection in either rodents or fleas. However, because rodent and, consequently, flea abundance doubled following experimental defaunation, the density of infected hosts and infected fleas was roughly twofold higher in sites where large wildlife was absent. Thus, defaunation represents an elevated risk in Bartonella transmission to humans (bartonellosis). Our results (i) provide experimental evidence of large wildlife defaunation increasing landscape-level disease prevalence, (ii) highlight the importance of susceptible host regulation pathways and host/vector density responses in biodiversity–disease relationships, and (iii) suggest that rodent-borne disease responses to large wildlife loss may represent an important context where this relationship is largely negative. PMID:24778215

  2. Declines in large wildlife increase landscape-level prevalence of rodent-borne disease in Africa.

    PubMed

    Young, Hillary S; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Helgen, Kristofer M; McCauley, Douglas J; Billeter, Sarah A; Kosoy, Michael Y; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Salkeld, Daniel J; Young, Truman P; Dittmar, Katharina

    2014-05-13

    Populations of large wildlife are declining on local and global scales. The impacts of this pulse of size-selective defaunation include cascading changes to smaller animals, particularly rodents, and alteration of many ecosystem processes and services, potentially involving changes to prevalence and transmission of zoonotic disease. Understanding linkages between biodiversity loss and zoonotic disease is important for both public health and nature conservation programs, and has been a source of much recent scientific debate. In the case of rodent-borne zoonoses, there is strong conceptual support, but limited empirical evidence, for the hypothesis that defaunation, the loss of large wildlife, increases zoonotic disease risk by directly or indirectly releasing controls on rodent density. We tested this hypothesis by experimentally excluding large wildlife from a savanna ecosystem in East Africa, and examining changes in prevalence and abundance of Bartonella spp. infection in rodents and their flea vectors. We found no effect of wildlife removal on per capita prevalence of Bartonella infection in either rodents or fleas. However, because rodent and, consequently, flea abundance doubled following experimental defaunation, the density of infected hosts and infected fleas was roughly twofold higher in sites where large wildlife was absent. Thus, defaunation represents an elevated risk in Bartonella transmission to humans (bartonellosis). Our results (i) provide experimental evidence of large wildlife defaunation increasing landscape-level disease prevalence, (ii) highlight the importance of susceptible host regulation pathways and host/vector density responses in biodiversity-disease relationships, and (iii) suggest that rodent-borne disease responses to large wildlife loss may represent an important context where this relationship is largely negative.

  3. Arginine methylation-dependent reader-writer interplay governs growth control by E2F-1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shunsheng; Moehlenbrink, Jutta; Lu, Yi-Chien; Zalmas, Lykourgos-Panagiotis; Sagum, Cari A.; Carr, Simon; McGouran, Joanna F.; Alexander, Leila; Fedorov, Oleg; Munro, Shonagh; Kessler, Benedikt; Bedford, Mark T.; Yu, Qiang; La Thangue, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms that underlie and dictate the different biological outcomes of E2F-1 activity have yet to be elucidated. We describe the residue-specific methylation of E2F-1 by the asymmetric dimethylating protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 1 and symmetric dimethylating PRMT5, and relate the marks to different functional consequences of E2F-1 activity. Methylation by PRMT1 hinders methylation by PRMT5, which augments E2F-1-dependent apoptosis, whereas PRMT5-dependent methylation favours proliferation by antagonising methylation by PRMT1. The ability of E2F-1 to prompt apoptosis in DNA damaged cells coincides with enhanced PRMT1 methylation. In contrast, cyclin A binding to E2F-1 impedes PRMT1 methylation and augments PRMT5 methylation, thus ensuring that E2F-1 is locked into its cell cycle progression mode. The Tudor domain protein p100-TSN reads the symmetric methylation mark, and binding of p100-TSN down-regulates E2F-1 apoptotic activity. Our results define an exquisite level of precision in the reader-writer interplay that governs the biological outcome of E2F-1 activity. PMID:24076217

  4. Structural flexibility at a major conserved antibody target on hepatitis C virus E2 antigen.

    PubMed

    Kong, Leopold; Lee, David E; Kadam, Rameshwar U; Liu, Tong; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Garces, Fernando; Tzarum, Netanel; Woods, Virgil L; Ward, Andrew B; Li, Sheng; Wilson, Ian A; Law, Mansun

    2016-10-24

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease, affecting over 2% of the world's population. The HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate viral entry, with E2 being the main target of neutralizing antibody responses. Structural investigations of E2 have produced templates for vaccine design, including the conserved CD81 receptor-binding site (CD81bs) that is a key target of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Unfortunately, immunization with recombinant E2 and E1E2 rarely elicits sufficient levels of bNAbs for protection. To understand the challenges for eliciting bNAb responses against the CD81bs, we investigated the E2 CD81bs by electron microscopy (EM), hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX), molecular dynamics (MD), and calorimetry. By EM, we observed that HCV1, a bNAb recognizing the N-terminal region of the CD81bs, bound a soluble E2 core construct from multiple angles of approach, suggesting components of the CD81bs are flexible. HDX of multiple E2 constructs consistently indicated the entire CD81bs was flexible relative to the rest of the E2 protein, which was further confirmed by MD simulations. However, E2 has a high melting temperature of 84.8 °C, which is more akin to proteins from thermophilic organisms. Thus, recombinant E2 is a highly stable protein overall, but with an exceptionally flexible CD81bs. Such flexibility may promote induction of nonneutralizing antibodies over bNAbs to E2 CD81bs, underscoring the necessity of rigidifying this antigenic region as a target for rational vaccine design.

  5. Increased acetylcholine levels in skin biopsies of patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Ignaz; Reinheimer, Torsten; Kilbinger, Heinz; Bittinger, Fernando; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Saloga, Joachim; Knop, Jürgen

    2003-03-28

    Recent experimental evidence indicates that non-neuronal acetylcholine is involved in the regulation of basic cell functions. Here we investigated the cholinergic system in the skin of healthy volunteers and patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). The synthesizing enzyme, choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT), was studied by anti-ChAT immunohistochemistry and enzyme assay. Skin biopsies taken from healthy volunteers and from AD patients were separated into the 2 mm superfical (epidermis and upper dermis) and 3 mm underlying portion (deeper dermis and subcutis). ChAT enzyme activity was detected in homogenized skin and subcutaneous fat (about 13 nmol/mg protein/h). ChAT immunoreactivity was expressed in keratinocytes, hair papilla, sebaceous and eccrine sweat glands, endothelial cells and mast cells. In healthy volunteers the superficial and underlying portion of skin biopsies contained 130 +/- 30 and 550 +/- 170 pmol/g acetylcholine (n = 12), respectively. In AD patients (n = 7) acetylcholine was increased 14-fold in the superficial and 3-fold in the underlying biopsy portion. The present study demonstrates the widespread expression of ChAT protein in the vast majority of human skin cells. Tissue levels of acetylcholine are greatly (14-fold) enhanced in the superficial 2 mm skin of AD patients. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Inc.

  6. The Progranulin Cleavage Products, Granulins, Exacerbate TDP-43 Toxicity and Increase TDP-43 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Dominique A.; Butler, Victoria J.; Argouarch, Andrea R.; Hsu, Tsung-Yuan; Mason, Amanda; Nakamura, Ayumi; McCurdy, Helen; Cox, David; Ng, Rachel; Pan, Gloria; Seeley, William W.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the human progranulin gene resulting in protein haploinsufficiency cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions. Although progress has been made in understanding the normal functions of progranulin and TDP-43, the molecular interactions between these proteins remain unclear. Progranulin is proteolytically processed into granulins, but the role of granulins in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease is unknown. We used a Caenorhabditis elegans model of neuronal TDP-43 proteinopathy to specifically interrogate the contribution of granulins to the neurodegenerative process. Complete loss of the progranulin gene did not worsen TDP-43 toxicity, whereas progranulin heterozygosity did. Interestingly, expression of individual granulins alone had little effect on behavior. In contrast, when granulins were coexpressed with TDP-43, they exacerbated its toxicity in a variety of behaviors including motor coordination. These same granulins increased TDP-43 levels via a post-translational mechanism. We further found that in human neurodegenerative disease subjects, granulin fragments accumulated specifically in diseased regions of brain. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a toxic role for granulin fragments in a neurodegenerative disease model. These studies suggest that presence of cleaved granulins, rather than or in addition to loss of full-length progranulin, may contribute to disease in TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:26109656

  7. The Progranulin Cleavage Products, Granulins, Exacerbate TDP-43 Toxicity and Increase TDP-43 Levels.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Dominique A; Butler, Victoria J; Argouarch, Andrea R; Hsu, Tsung-Yuan; Mason, Amanda; Nakamura, Ayumi; McCurdy, Helen; Cox, David; Ng, Rachel; Pan, Gloria; Seeley, William W; Miller, Bruce L; Kao, Aimee W

    2015-06-24

    Mutations in the human progranulin gene resulting in protein haploinsufficiency cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions. Although progress has been made in understanding the normal functions of progranulin and TDP-43, the molecular interactions between these proteins remain unclear. Progranulin is proteolytically processed into granulins, but the role of granulins in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease is unknown. We used a Caenorhabditis elegans model of neuronal TDP-43 proteinopathy to specifically interrogate the contribution of granulins to the neurodegenerative process. Complete loss of the progranulin gene did not worsen TDP-43 toxicity, whereas progranulin heterozygosity did. Interestingly, expression of individual granulins alone had little effect on behavior. In contrast, when granulins were coexpressed with TDP-43, they exacerbated its toxicity in a variety of behaviors including motor coordination. These same granulins increased TDP-43 levels via a post-translational mechanism. We further found that in human neurodegenerative disease subjects, granulin fragments accumulated specifically in diseased regions of brain. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a toxic role for granulin fragments in a neurodegenerative disease model. These studies suggest that presence of cleaved granulins, rather than or in addition to loss of full-length progranulin, may contribute to disease in TDP-43 proteinopathies. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359315-14$15.00/0.

  8. TRPV4 Stimulation Induced Melatonin Secretion by Increasing Arylalkymine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) Protein Level.

    PubMed

    Alkozi, Hanan Awad; Perez de Lara, Maria J; Sánchez-Naves, Juan; Pintor, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Melatonin is a molecule which has gained a great deal of interest in many areas of science; its synthesis was classically known to be in the pineal gland. However, many organs synthesize melatonin, such as several ocular structures. Melatonin is known to participate in many functions apart from its main action regulating the circadian rhythm. It is synthesized from serotonin in two steps, with a rate-limiting step carried out by arylalkymine N -acetyltransferase (AANAT). In this report, the role of TRPV4 channel present in human ciliary body epithelial cells in AANAT production was studied. Several experiments were undertaken to verify the adequate time to reach the maximal effect by using the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A, together with a dose-response study. An increase of 2.4 folds in AANAT was seen after 18 h of incubation with 10 nM of GSK1016790A ( p < 0.001, n = 6). This increment was verified by antagonist assays. In summary, AANAT levels and therefore melatonin synthesis change after TRPV4 channel stimulation. Using this cell model together with human ciliary body tissue it is possible to suggest that AANAT plays an important role in pathologies related to intraocular pressure.

  9. Increased levels of galactose-deficient IgG in sera of HIV-1-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jennifer S; Wu, Xueling; Kulhavy, Rose; Tomana, Milan; Novak, Jan; Moldoveanu, Zina; Brown, Rhubell; Goepfert, Paul A; Mestecky, Jiri

    2005-03-04

    The IgG from sera of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of autoimmune character or some chronic microbial infections is frequently deficient in galactose on N-linked glycans. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated at length in human viral infections. To evaluate the glycosylation of serum IgG in HIV-1-positive patients. Psathyrella velutina lectin was used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent and Western blot assays to determine glycosylation. In addition, gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were utilized to confirm the galactose deficiency observed in the lectin-binding assays. HIV-1-infected individuals had significantly higher levels of galactose-deficient IgG than healthy controls. In fact, the galactose deficiency of the N-linked glycans observed in other diseases was even more profound in HIV-1 infection. This deficiency was primarily restricted to IgG when total serum glycoproteins were evaluated and IgG1 was the subclass most affected in all patients. Also, a significant increase in lectin binding was observed on IgG2 and IgG4 from HIV-1-positive females compared with HIV-1-negative females. Identification of deficient galactosylation of serum IgG from HIV-1-infected patients extended the spectrum of diseases in which this phenomenon has been observed. In addition, the results suggest yet another aspect of immune dysfunction as a result of HIV-1 infection.

  10. Financial strain is associated with increased oxidative stress levels: the Women's Health and Aging Studies.

    PubMed

    Palta, Priya; Szanton, Sarah L; Semba, Richard D; Thorpe, Roland J; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress levels may be one mechanism contributing to poor health outcomes. Financial strain and oxidative stress are each predictors of morbidity and mortality, but little research has investigated their relationship. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 728) from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Financial strain was ascertained as an ordinal response to: "At the end of the month, do you have more than enough money left over, just enough, or not enough?" Oxidative stress was measured using serum protein carbonyl concentrations. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between financial strain and oxidative stress. Participants who reported high financial strain exhibited 13.4% higher protein carbonyl concentrations compared to individuals who reported low financial strain (p = 0.002). High financial strain may be associated with increased oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress could mediate associations between financial strain and poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurotensin increases mortality and mast cells reduce neurotensin levels in a mouse model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Piliponsky, Adrian M; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Metz, Martin; Rios, Eon J; Dobner, Paul R; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji; Zacharias, Sherma; Mohanasundaram, Uma M; Faix, James D; Abrink, Magnus; Pejler, Gunnar; Pearl, Ronald G; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J

    2008-04-01

    Sepsis is a complex, incompletely understood and often fatal disorder, typically accompanied by hypotension, that is considered to represent a dysregulated host response to infection. Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino-acid peptide that, among its multiple effects, induces hypotension. We find that intraperitoneal and plasma concentrations of NT are increased in mice after severe cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model of sepsis, and that mice treated with a pharmacological antagonist of NT, or NT-deficient mice, show reduced mortality during severe CLP. In mice, mast cells can degrade NT and reduce NT-induced hypotension and CLP-associated mortality, and optimal expression of these effects requires mast cell expression of neurotensin receptor 1 and neurolysin. These findings show that NT contributes to sepsis-related mortality in mice during severe CLP and that mast cells can lower NT concentrations, and suggest that mast cell-dependent reduction in NT levels contributes to the ability of mast cells to enhance survival after CLP.

  12. Assessing the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses to increasing anemia severity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Dey, Ankita; Chen, Tenn F.

    2015-09-01

    Anemia is a prevalent medical condition that seriously affects millions of people all over the world. In many regions, not only its initial detection but also its monitoring are hindered by limited access to laboratory facilities. This situation has motivated the development of a wide range of optical devices and procedures to assist physicians in these tasks. Although noticeable progress has been achieved in this area, the search for reliable, low-cost, and risk-free solutions still continues, and the strengthening of the knowledge base about this disorder and its effects is essential for the success of these initiatives. We contribute to these efforts by closely examining the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses (within and outside the visible region of the light spectrum) to reduced hemoglobin concentrations associated with increasing anemia severity levels. This investigation, which involves skin specimens with distinct biophysical and morphological characteristics, is supported by controlled in silico experiments performed using a predictive light transport model and measured data reported in the biomedical literature. We also propose a noninvasive procedure to be employed in the monitoring of this condition at the point-of-care.

  13. Neurotensin increases mortality and mast cells reduce neurotensin levels in a mouse model of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Metz, Martin; Rios, Eon J.; Dobner, Paul R.; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji; Zacharias, Sherma; Mohanasundaram, Uma; Faix, James D.; Abrink, Magnus; Pejler, Gunnar; Pearl, Ronald; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Sepsis is a complex, incompletely understood and often fatal disorder,1 typically accompanied by hypotension,2 that is considered to represent a dysregulated host response to infection.3,4,5 Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino-acid peptide that, among its multiple effects, induces hypotension.6 We find that intraperitoneal and plasma concentrations of NT are increased in mice after severe caecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model of sepsis, and that mice treated with a pharmacological antagonist of NT, or NT-deficient mice, exhibit reduced mortality during severe CLP. In mice, mast cells can degrade NT and reduce NT-induced hypotension and CLP-associated mortality, and optimal expression of these effects requires mast cell expression of neurotensin receptor 1 and neurolysin. These findings show that NT contributes to sepsis-related mortality in mice during severe CLP and that mast cells can lower NT concentrations, and suggest that mast cell-dependent reduction in NT levels contributes to the ability of mast cells to enhance survival after CLP. PMID:18376408

  14. Investigation of New Morpholino Oligomers to Increase Survival Motor Neuron Protein Levels in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Agnese; Crisafulli, Sebastiano G.; Rizzuti, Mafalda; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P.; Corti, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive childhood motor neuron disease and the main genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by deletions or mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which results in SMN protein deficiency. Only one approved drug has recently become available and allows for the correction of aberrant splicing of the paralogous SMN2 gene by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), leading to production of full-length SMN protein. We have already demonstrated that a sequence of an ASO variant, Morpholino (MO), is particularly suitable because of its safety and efficacy profile and is both able to increase SMN levels and rescue the murine SMA phenotype. Here, we optimized this strategy by testing the efficacy of four new MO sequences targeting SMN2. Two out of the four new MO sequences showed better efficacy in terms of SMN protein production both in SMA induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and SMAΔ7 mice. Further, the effect was enhanced when different MO sequences were administered in combination. Our data provide an important insight for MO-based treatment for SMA. Optimization of the target sequence and validation of a treatment based on a combination of different MO sequences could support further pre-clinical studies and the progression toward future clinical trials. PMID:29316633

  15. Investigation of New Morpholino Oligomers to Increase Survival Motor Neuron Protein Levels in Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Agnese; Crisafulli, Sebastiano G; Rizzuti, Mafalda; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P; Corti, Stefania; Nizzardo, Monica

    2018-01-06

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive childhood motor neuron disease and the main genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by deletions or mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 ( SMN1 ) gene, which results in SMN protein deficiency. Only one approved drug has recently become available and allows for the correction of aberrant splicing of the paralogous SMN2 gene by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), leading to production of full-length SMN protein. We have already demonstrated that a sequence of an ASO variant, Morpholino (MO), is particularly suitable because of its safety and efficacy profile and is both able to increase SMN levels and rescue the murine SMA phenotype. Here, we optimized this strategy by testing the efficacy of four new MO sequences targeting SMN2 . Two out of the four new MO sequences showed better efficacy in terms of SMN protein production both in SMA induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and SMAΔ7 mice. Further, the effect was enhanced when different MO sequences were administered in combination. Our data provide an important insight for MO-based treatment for SMA. Optimization of the target sequence and validation of a treatment based on a combination of different MO sequences could support further pre-clinical studies and the progression toward future clinical trials.

  16. Effects of E2HSA, a Long-Acting Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, on Glycemic Control and Beta Cell Function in Spontaneous Diabetic db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shaocong; Li, Caina; Huan, Yi; Liu, Shuainan; Liu, Quan; Sun, Sujuan; Jiang, Qian; Jia, Chunming; Shen, Zhufang

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists such as exendin-4 have been widely used but their short half-life limits their therapeutic value. The recombinant protein, E2HSA, is a novel, long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist generated by the fusion of exendin-4 with human serum albumin. In mouse pancreatic NIT-1 cells, E2HSA activated GLP-1 receptor with similar efficacy as exendin-4. After single-dose administration in ICR mice, E2HSA showed prolonged glucose lowering effects which lasted up to four days and extended inhibition on gastric emptying for at least 72 hours. Chronic E2HSA treatment in db/db mice significantly improved glucose tolerance, reduced elevated nonfasting and fasting plasma glucose levels, and also decreased HbA1c levels. E2HSA also increased insulin secretion and decreased body weight and appetite. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis showed that E2HSA increased β-cell area, improved islet morphology, and reduced β-cell apoptosis. In accordance with the promotion of β-cell function and survival, E2HSA upregulated genes such as Irs2, Pdx-1, Nkx6.1, and MafA and downregulated the expression levels of FoxO1 and proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In conclusion, with prolonged glucose lowering effects and promoting β-cell function and survival, the fusion protein, E2HSA, is a promising new therapeutic for once weekly treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  17. Effects of E2HSA, a Long-Acting Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, on Glycemic Control and Beta Cell Function in Spontaneous Diabetic db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shaocong; Li, Caina; Liu, Shuainan; Liu, Quan; Sun, Sujuan; Jia, Chunming; Shen, Zhufang

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists such as exendin-4 have been widely used but their short half-life limits their therapeutic value. The recombinant protein, E2HSA, is a novel, long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist generated by the fusion of exendin-4 with human serum albumin. In mouse pancreatic NIT-1 cells, E2HSA activated GLP-1 receptor with similar efficacy as exendin-4. After single-dose administration in ICR mice, E2HSA showed prolonged glucose lowering effects which lasted up to four days and extended inhibition on gastric emptying for at least 72 hours. Chronic E2HSA treatment in db/db mice significantly improved glucose tolerance, reduced elevated nonfasting and fasting plasma glucose levels, and also decreased HbA1c levels. E2HSA also increased insulin secretion and decreased body weight and appetite. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis showed that E2HSA increased β-cell area, improved islet morphology, and reduced β-cell apoptosis. In accordance with the promotion of β-cell function and survival, E2HSA upregulated genes such as Irs2, Pdx-1, Nkx6.1, and MafA and downregulated the expression levels of FoxO1 and proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In conclusion, with prolonged glucose lowering effects and promoting β-cell function and survival, the fusion protein, E2HSA, is a promising new therapeutic for once weekly treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26351642

  18. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; Oliveira, Camila Andrea de; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-07-01

    The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. A limitação dietética durante a gravidez influencia o crescimento e desenvolvimento do feto e da prole e sua saúde na vida adulta. Os mecanismos subjacentes dos efeitos adversos da restrição proteica gestacional (RPG) no desenvolvimento dos corações da prole não são bem compreendidos. Avaliar os efeitos da RPG sobre a estrutura cardíaca em filhotes machos de ratas aos 60 dias após o nascimento (d60). Ratos fêmeas Wistar grávidas foram alimentadas com uma dieta de proteína normal (PN, 17% caseína) ou de baixa proteína (BP, caseína 6%). Os valores de pressão arterial (PA) de descendentes do sexo masculino de

  19. The albumin-exendin-4 recombinant protein E2HSA improves glycemic control and β-cell function in spontaneous diabetic KKAy mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Caina; Hou, Shaocong; Liu, Shuainan; Huan, Yi; Sun, Sujuan; Liu, Quan; Shen, Zhufang

    2017-06-19

    E2HSA is a genetic fusion protein that consists of two tandem exendin-4 molecules that are covalently bonded to recombinant human serum albumin via a peptide linker. Previous studies have demonstrated that E2HSA significantly decreased blood glucose levels, improved β-cell function and promoted β-cell proliferation in diabetic db/dB mice. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of E2HSA on glucose and lipid metabolism in a spontaneous diabetes animal model, KKAy mice. E2HSA was acutely administered at doses of 1, 3 and 9 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection in diabetic KKAy mice with exendin-4 (2 μg/kg) as a positive reference, and then the non-fasting blood glucose and food intake levels were dynamically monitored. In addition, different doses of E2HSA were injected once daily, as well as with exendin-4 twice daily, for 7 weeks to evaluate the effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as the body weight, food and water intake. Single injection of E2HSA decreased non-fasting blood glucose and food intake levels in a dose-dependent manner for 4 days and 2 days, respectively. Repeated injections with E2HSA significantly decreased variations in blood glucose levels with a reduction of HbA1c levels by 1.6% at a 9 mg/kg dose, simultaneously increased fasting blood insulin levels, inhibited fasting blood glucagon levels, improved the impaired oral glucose tolerance and enhanced glucose infusion rate, which is the gold standard for evaluating β-cell function. Moreover, repeated injections with E2HSA also ameliorated the dyslipidemia and reduced body weight, food and water intake in diabetic KKAy mice. E2HSA significantly reduced blood glucose levels over a prolonged duration, enhanced β-cell function, and ameliorated dyslipidemia and obesity in diabetic KKAy mice. Thus, E2HSA may be a new candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Efficient activation of transcription in yeast by the BPV1 E2 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Stanway, C A; Sowden, M P; Wilson, L E; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1989-01-01

    The full-length gene product encoded by the E2 open reading frame (ORF) of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) is a transcriptional transactivator. It is believed to mediate its effect on the BPV1 long control region (LCR) by binding to motifs with the consensus sequence ACCN6GGT. The minimal functional cis active site, called the E2 response element (E2RE), in mammalian cells comprises two copies of this motif. Here we have shown that E2 can function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by placing an E2RE upstream of a synthetic yeast assay promoter which consists of a TATA motif and an mRNA initiation site, spaced correctly. This E2RE-minimal promoter is only transcriptionally active in the presence of E2 protein and the resulting mRNA is initiated at the authentic start site. This is the first report of a mammalian viral transactivator functioning in yeast. The level of activation by E2 via the E2RE was the same as observed with the highly efficient authentic PGK promoter where the upstream activation sequence is composed of three distinct elements. Furthermore a single E2 motif which is insufficient in mammalian cells as an activation site was as efficiently utilized in yeast as the E2RE (2 motifs). Previous studies have shown that mammalian cellular activators can function in yeast and our data now extend this to viral-specific activators. Our data indicate however that while the mechanism of transactivation is broadly conserved there may be significant differences at the detailed level. Images PMID:2539584

  1. The levels of perceptual processing and the neural correlates of increasing subjective visibility.

    PubMed

    Binder, Marek; Gociewicz, Krzysztof; Windey, Bert; Koculak, Marcin; Finc, Karolina; Nikadon, Jan; Derda, Monika; Cleeremans, Axel

    2017-10-01

    According to the levels-of-processing hypothesis, transitions from unconscious to conscious perception may depend on stimulus processing level, with more gradual changes for low-level stimuli and more dichotomous changes for high-level stimuli. In an event-related fMRI study we explored this hypothesis using a visual backward masking procedure. Task requirements manipulated level of processing. Participants reported the magnitude of the target digit in the high-level task, its color in the low-level task, and rated subjective visibility of stimuli using the Perceptual Awareness Scale. Intermediate stimulus visibility was reported more frequently in the low-level task, confirming prior behavioral results. Visible targets recruited insulo-fronto-parietal regions in both tasks. Task effects were observed in visual areas, with higher activity in the low-level task across all visibility levels. Thus, the influence of level of processing on conscious perception may be mediated by attentional modulation of activity in regions representing features of consciously experienced stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Saturation in Phosphene Size with Increasing Current Levels Delivered to Human Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bosking, William H; Sun, Ping; Ozker, Muge; Pei, Xiaomei; Foster, Brett L; Beauchamp, Michael S; Yoshor, Daniel

    2017-07-26

    Electrically stimulating early visual cortex results in a visual percept known as a phosphene. Although phosphenes can be evoked by a wide range of electrode sizes and current amplitudes, they are invariably described as small. To better understand this observation, we electrically stimulated 93 electrodes implanted in the visual cortex of 13 human subjects who reported phosphene size while stimulation current was varied. Phosphene size increased as the stimulation current was initially raised above threshold, but then rapidly reached saturation. Phosphene size also depended on the location of the stimulated site, with size increasing with distance from the foveal representation. We developed a model relating phosphene size to the amount of activated cortex and its location within the retinotopic map. First, a sigmoidal curve was used to predict the amount of activated cortex at a given current. Second, the amount of active cortex was converted to degrees of visual angle by multiplying by the inverse cortical magnification factor for that retinotopic location. This simple model accurately predicted phosphene size for a broad range of stimulation currents and cortical locations. The unexpected saturation in phosphene sizes suggests that the functional architecture of cerebral cortex may impose fundamental restrictions on the spread of artificially evoked activity and this may be an important consideration in the design of cortical prosthetic devices. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the neural basis for phosphenes, the visual percepts created by electrical stimulation of visual cortex, is fundamental to the development of a visual cortical prosthetic. Our experiments in human subjects implanted with electrodes over visual cortex show that it is the activity of a large population of cells spread out across several millimeters of tissue that supports the perception of a phosphene. In addition, we describe an important feature of the production of phosphenes by

  3. Increased viability of odontoblast-like cells subjected to low-level laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C. F.; Basso, F. G.; Lins, E. C.; Kurachi, C.; Hebling, J.; Bagnato, V. S.; de Souza Costa, C. A.

    2010-07-01

    Studies have shown that the increase of cell metabolism depends on the low level laser therapy (LLLT) parameters used to irradiate the cells. However, the optimal laser dose to up-regulate pulp cell activity remains unknown. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic response of odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23) exposed to different LLLT doses. Cells at 20000 cells/cm2 were seeded in 24-well plates using plain culture medium (DMEM) and were incubated in a humidified incubator with 5% CO2 at 37°C. After 24 h, the culture medium was replaced by fresh DMEM supplemented with 5% (stress by nutritional deficit) or 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cells were exposed to different laser doses from a near infrared diode laser prototype designed to provide a uniform irradiation of the wells. The experimental groups were: G1: 1.5 J/cm2 + 5% FBS; G2: 1.5 J/cm2 + 10% FBS; G3: 5 J/cm2 + 5% FBS; G4: 5 J/cm2 + 10% FBS; G5: 19 J/cm2 + 5% FBS; G6: 19 J/cm2 + 10% FBS. LLLT was performed in 3 consecutive irradiation cycles with a 24-hour interval. Non-irradiated cells cultured in DMEM supplemented with either 5 or 10% FBS served as control groups. The analysis of the metabolic response was performed by the MTT assay 3 h after the last irradiation. G1 presented an increase in SDH enzyme activity and differed significantly (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05) from the other groups. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy showed normal cell morphology in all groups. Under the tested conditions, LLLT stimulated the metabolic activity of MDPC-23 cultured in DMEM supplemented with 5% FBS and exposed to a laser dose of 1.5 J/cm2. These findings are relevant for further studies on the action of near infrared lasers on cells with odontoblast phenotype.

  4. 26 CFR 1.503(e)-2 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Requirements. 1.503(e)-2 Section 1.503(e)-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(e)-2 Requirements. (a) In general. The requirements... price may not be a valid price for 1,000 bonds and the purchase may therefore not meet the requirements...

  5. 26 CFR 1.503(e)-2 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Requirements. 1.503(e)-2 Section 1.503(e)-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(e)-2 Requirements. (a) In general. The requirements... price may not be a valid price for 1,000 bonds and the purchase may therefore not meet the requirements...

  6. 26 CFR 1.503(e)-2 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements. 1.503(e)-2 Section 1.503(e)-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.503(e)-2 Requirements. (a) In general. The requirements... price may not be a valid price for 1,000 bonds and the purchase may therefore not meet the requirements...

  7. Unraveling protein folding mechanism by analyzing the hierarchy of models with increasing level of detail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Tomohiko; Yasuda, Satoshi; Škrbić, Tatjana; Giacometti, Achille; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    Taking protein G with 56 residues for a case study, we investigate the mechanism of protein folding. In addition to its native structure possessing α-helix and β-sheet contents of 27% and 39%, respectively, we construct a number of misfolded decoys with a wide variety of α-helix and β-sheet contents. We then consider a hierarchy of 8 different models with increasing level of detail in terms of the number of entropic and energetic physical factors incorporated. The polyatomic structure is always taken into account, but the side chains are removed in half of the models. The solvent is formed by either neutral hard spheres or water molecules. Protein intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) and protein-solvent H-bonds (the latter is present only in water) are accounted for or not, depending on the model considered. We then apply a physics-based free-energy function (FEF) corresponding to each model and investigate which structures are most stabilized. This special approach taken on a step-by-step basis enables us to clarify the role of each physical factor in contributing to the structural stability and separately elucidate its effect. Depending on the model employed, significantly different structures such as very compact configurations with no secondary structures and configurations of associated α-helices are optimally stabilized. The native structure can be identified as that with lowest FEF only when the most detailed model is employed. This result is significant for at least the two reasons: The most detailed model considered here is able to capture the fundamental aspects of protein folding notwithstanding its simplicity; and it is shown that the native structure is stabilized by a complex interplay of minimal multiple factors that must be all included in the description. In the absence of even a single of these factors, the protein is likely to be driven towards a different, more stable state.

  8. Bioaugmentation of Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidizing Culture in Biogas Reactors Exposed to Increasing Levels of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, Maria; Levén, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    The importance of syntrophic acetate oxidation for process stability in methanogenic systems operating at high ammonia concentrations has previously been emphasized. In this study we investigated bioaugmentation of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing (SAO) cultures as a possible method for decreasing the adaptation period of biogas reactors operating at gradually increased ammonia concentrations (1.5 to 11 g NH4+-N/liter). Whole stillage and cattle manure were codigested semicontinuously for about 460 days in four mesophilic anaerobic laboratory-scale reactors, and a fixed volume of SAO culture was added daily to two of the reactors. Reactor performance was evaluated in terms of biogas productivity, methane content, pH, alkalinity, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The decomposition pathway of acetate was analyzed by isotopic tracer experiments, and population dynamics were monitored by quantitative PCR analyses. A shift in dominance from aceticlastic methanogenesis to SAO occurred simultaneously in all reactors, indicating no influence by bioaugmentation on the prevailing pathway. Higher abundances of Clostridium ultunense and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans were associated with bioaugmentation, but no influence on Syntrophaceticus schinkii or the methanogenic population was distinguished. Overloading or accumulation of VFA did not cause notable dynamic effects on the population. Instead, the ammonia concentration had a substantial impact on the abundance level of the microorganisms surveyed. The addition of SAO culture did not affect process performance or stability against ammonia inhibition, and all four reactors deteriorated at high ammonia concentrations. Consequently, these findings further demonstrate the strong influence of ammonia on the methane-producing consortia and on the representative methanization pathway in mesophilic biogas reactors. PMID:22923397

  9. Prenatal malnutrition and lead intake produce increased brain lipid peroxidation levels in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Cedillo, Brenda Gabriela; Díaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Montes, Sergio; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Ríos, Camilo; Beltrán-Campos, Vicente; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Díaz-Cintra, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead intoxication (Pb) have adverse effects on neuronal development; one of the cellular mechanisms involved is a disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. In the developing brain, the vulnerability of neuronal membrane phospholipids is variable across the different brain areas. This study assesses the susceptibility of different brain regions to damage by quitar tissue oxidative stress and lead quitar concentrations to determine whether the combined effect of prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead (Pb) intoxication is worse than the effect of either of them individually. M was induced with an isocaloric and hypoproteinic (6% casein) diet 4 weeks before pregnancy. Intoxication was produced with lead acetate in drinking water, from the first gestational day. Both the M and Pb models were continued until the day of birth. Four brain regions (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, and cerebellum) were dissected out to analyze the lipid peroxidation (LP) levels in four groups: normally nourished (C); normally nourished but intoxicated with lead (CPb); malnourished (M); and M intoxicated with lead (MPb). Dam body and brain weights were significantly reduced in the fourth gestational week in the MPb group. Their pups had significantly lower body weights than those in the C and CPb groups. The PbM group exhibited significant increases of lead concentration and LP in all areas evaluated. A potentiation effect of Pb and M on LP was found in the cerebellum. This study provides information on how environmental conditions (intoxication and malnutrition) during the intrauterine period could differentially affect the development of neuronal plasticity and, in consequence, alter adult brain functions such as learning and memory.

  10. Depression and anxiety levels increase chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tsatali, Marianna; Papaliagkas, Vasileios; Damigos, Dimitrios; Mavreas, Venetsanos; Gouva, Maria; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    During the next decades a rapid increase is expected in the number of patients with dementia suffering from pain who often take less medication compared to normal elderly, due to several diagnostic barriers. Comorbid mood disorders result in great difficulties in pain assessment and further treatment. Twenty five patients with Alzheimer's disease, comorbid mood disorders, and chronic musculoskeletal pain (experimental group) and thirty one patients with Alzheimer's disease and chronic musculoskeletal pain without comorbid mood disorders (control group) were examined. The assessment tools used were Geriatric Pain Measure, Patient Health Questionnaire, Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia, Mini Mental State Examination and Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS v17.0, using the Pearson correlation and the multiple linear regression analysis. The correlation between mood disorders and levels of pain intensity in the experimental group was found to be statistically higher than that in the control group (p<.001). Among all quantitative variables, highly significant correlation (p<.001) was observed between stress and depression symptomatology (r =.550, p<.001) in the experimental group. Normal regression analysis was used to assess possible differences between demographic data and PASS scores. Scores in fearful thinking and physiological responses scales of PASS were higher in female than male (p=.014), whereas scores in the cognitive anxiety scale of PASS have shown a highly significant positive correlation with years of education (p<.001). It seems that depression and anxiety are associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain intensity in dementia, thus need to be taken into consideration by health professionals for patient's management.

  11. Increase in the activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in cytosol affects sugar partitioning and increases the lateral shoots in tobacco plants at elevated CO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Tamoi, Masahiro; Hiramatsu, Yoshie; Nedachi, Shigeki; Otori, Kumi; Tanabe, Noriaki; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    We generated transgenic tobacco plants with high levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase expressing cyanobacterialfructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in the cytosol. At ambient CO(2) levels (360 ppm), growth, photosynthetic activity, and fresh weight were unchanged but the sucrose/hexose/starch ratio was slightly altered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. At elevated CO(2) levels (1200 ppm), lateral shoot, leaf number, and fresh weight were significantly increased in the transgenic plants. Photosynthetic activity was also increased. Hexose accumulated in the upper leaves in the wild-type plants, while sucrose and starch accumulated in the lower leaves and lateral shoots in the transgenic plants. These findings suggest that cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase contributes to the efficient conversion of hexose into sucrose, and that the change in carbon partitioning affects photosynthetic capacity and morphogenesis at elevated CO(2) levels.

  12. Prostaglandin E(2) synthase inhibition as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Jitesh P; Srivastava, Punit K; Dev, Rishabh; Dastidar, Sunanda G; Ray, Abhijit

    2009-07-01

    Most NSAIDs function by inhibiting biosynthesis of PGE(2) by inhibition of COX-1 and/or COX-2. Since COX-1 has a protective function in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), non-selective inhibition of both cycloxy genases leads to moderate to severe gastro-intestinal intolerance. Attempts to identify selective inhibitors of COX-2, led to the identification of celecoxib and rofecoxib. However, long-term use of these drugs has serious adverse effects of sudden myocardial infarction and thrombosis. Drug-mediated imbalance in the levels of prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)) and thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) with a bias towards TXA(2) may be the primary reason for these events. This resulted in the drugs being withdrawn from the market, leaving a need for an effective and safe anti-inflammatory drug. Recently, the focus of research has shifted to enzymes downstream of COX in the prosta glandin biosynthetic pathway such as prostaglandin E(2) synthases. Microsomal prostaglandin E(2) synthase-1 (mPGES-1) specifically isomerizes PGH(2) to PGE(2), under inflammatory conditions. In this review, we examine the biology of mPGES-1 and its role in disease. Progress in designing molecules that can selectively inhibit mPGES-1 is reviewed. mPGES-1 has the potential to be a target for anti-inflammatory therapy, devoid of adverse GIT and cardiac effects and warrants further investigation.

  13. Increased urinary levels of tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Barros, Paula; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Mella, Carmen; Perez, Luis-Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Urinary levels of tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS, cytokeratin-18) have been proposed as a marker of urothelial malignancies. Previous studies have shown that serum TPS levels are elevated in alcoholics. This study was designed to determine whether alcoholics had elevated urinary TPS levels as well. Serum and urinary TPS levels were determined in 24 alcoholics and 15 healthy controls by means of a commercial chemiluminiscent immunoassay. Serum TPS levels were higher in alcoholics than in controls (median 332 U/L, range 51-21241 U/L versus median 17 U/L, range 15-65 U/L, respectively, p<0.001). Urinary TPS levels were also higher in alcoholics than in controls (median 244 U/L, range 22-1267 U/L versus median 66.5 U/L, range 15-600 U/L, respectively, p=0.001). Urinary TPS levels were correlated with serum TPS levels in alcoholics. Urinary TPS levels are elevated in alcoholics. Consequently, the specificity of urinary TPS as a tumor marker may be limited in alcoholics.

  14. Six Increasingly Higher Levels of Wellness Based on Holistic Principles and Risk Factor Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1987-01-01

    Describes program for achievement of higher wellness levels based on holistic principles and risk factor science. Levels focus on (1) heart disease risk factors and how to reverse them; (2) unconscious needs at conflict with one's conscious goals; (3) identity status, meaning to love and to be loved; (4) autogenics; and (5) full ego development…

  15. Smokers Beware: Study Shows Increased Cadmium Levels in the Brain May Cause Severe Neurological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco is one crop that accumulates cadmium, making smokers susceptible to higher levels of the metal in their bodies. The findings suggest that even a low-level exposure to a heavy metal like cadmium is likely to cause a change in the functions of neurons in the brain and the behavioral response to drugs of abuse.

  16. Supercooling capacity increases from sea level to tree line in the Hawaiian tree species Metrosideros polymorpha

    P.J. Melcher; S. Cordell; T.J. Jones; P.G. Scowcroft; W. Niemczuzra; W. Giambelluca; G. Goldstein

    2000-01-01

    Population‐specific differences in the freezing resistance of Metrosideros polymorpha leaves were studied along an elevational gradient from sea level to tree line (located at ca. 2500 m above sea level) on the east flank of the Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii. In addition, we also studied 8‐yr‐old saplings grown in a...

  17. Insufficient acetabular version increases blood metal ion levels after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Hart, Alister J; Skinner, John A; Henckel, Johann; Sampson, Barry; Gordon, Fabiana

    2011-09-01

    Many factors affect the blood metal ion levels after metal-on-metal (MOM) hip arthroplasty. The main surgically adjustable variable is the amount of coverage of the head provided by the cup which is a function of the inclination and version angles. However, most studies have used plain radiographs which have questionable precision and accuracy, particularly for version and large diameter metal heads; further, these studies do not simultaneously assess version and inclination. Thus the relationship between version and blood metal ions levels has not been resolved. We determined whether cup inclination and version influence blood metal ion levels while adjusting for age at assessment, gender, body mass index, horizontal femoral offset, head size, manufacturer hip type, and Oxford hip score. We prospectively followed 100 individuals (51 females, 49 males) with unilateral MOM hip resurfacing who underwent clinical assessment, CT scanning, and blood metal ion measurement. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine which variables were predictors of blood metal ion levels and to model the effect of these variables. Only cup inclination, version angles, and gender influenced blood cobalt or chromium levels. Cobalt and chromium levels positively correlated with inclination angle and negatively correlated with version angle. The effect of changes in version angle was less than for inclination angle. Based on our observations, we developed a formula to predict the effect of these parameters on metal ion levels. Our data suggest insufficient cup version can cause high blood metal ions after MOM hip arthroplasty. We were unable to show that excessive version caused high levels. Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  18. New perspective of Grodzins E × B(E2) ↑ product rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, J. B.; Katoch, Vikas

    In the collective spectra of atomic nuclei, the level energy E(21+) varies with atomic number Z and neutron number N. Also the E2 decay-reduced transition probability B(E2, 01+ → 2 1+) is related to the energy E(21+). The product E(21+) × B(E2) ↑ is constant according to Grodzins product rule, independent of the vibration or rotational status of the nucleus. The product rule is often used for determining B(E2) from the known E(21+). However, the variation of the product with various parameters is also suggested in the literature. Hence, a detailed global study of this rule for (Z = 54‑‑78, 66 < N < 126) region is warranted. We use a novel method of displaying the linear relation of B(E2) ↑ with 1/E(21+) for the isotopes of each element (Xe-Pt), instead of their variation with N,Z or A. Through our work, we firmly establish the global validity of the Grodzins relation of B(E2), being proportional to the moment of inertia, except for the deviation in specific cases. Our B(E2) ↑ versus 1/E plots provide a transparent view of the variation of the low-energy nuclear structure. This gives a new perspective of their nuclear structure. Also the various theoretical interpretations of B(E2)s and the energy E(21+) are reviewed.

  19. Increased chromosome fragility as a consequence of blood folate levels, smoking status, and coffee consumption

    SciT

    Chen, A.T.L.; Reidy, J.A.; Annest, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Chromosome fragility in 96 h, low-folate cultures was found to be associated with smoking status, coffee consumption, and blood folate level. The higher proportion of cells with chromosome aberrations in cigarette smokers was attributable to lower red cell folate levels in smokers compared with nonsmokers. There was a positive linear relationship between the average cups of coffee consumed per day and the proportion of cells with aberrations. This association was independent of the effects of smoking and red cell folate level. These data suggest that smoking history, coffee consumption, and red cell folate level are important considerations for the designmore » and interpretation of fragile site studies in cancer cytogenetics.« less

  20. E2F transcription factors and digestive system malignancies: how much do we know?

    PubMed

    Xanthoulis, Athanasios; Tiniakos, Dina G

    2013-06-07

    E2F family of transcription factors regulates various cellular functions related to cell cycle and apoptosis. Its individual members have traditionally been classified into activators and repressors, based on in vitro studies. However their contribution in human cancer is more complicated and difficult to predict. We review current knowledge on the expression of E2Fs in digestive system malignancies and its clinical implications for patient prognosis and treatment. E2F1, the most extensively studied member and the only one with prognostic value, exhibits a tumor-suppressing activity in esophageal, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma, and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whereas in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma may function as a tumor-promoter. In the latter malignancies, E2F1 immunohistochemical expression has been correlated with higher tumor grade and worse patient survival, whereas in esophageal, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas is a marker of increased patient survival. E2F2 has only been studied in colorectal cancer, where its role is not considered significant. E2F4's role in colorectal, gastric and hepatic carcinogenesis is tumor-promoting. E2F8 is strongly upregulated in human HCC, thus possibly contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Adenoviral transfer of E2F as gene therapy to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells for chemotherapeutic agents has been used in experimental studies. Other therapeutic strategies are yet to be developed, but it appears that targeted approaches using E2F-agonists or antagonists should take into account the tissue-dependent function of each E2F member. Further understanding of E2Fs' contribution in cellular functions in vivo would help clarify their role in carcinogenesis.

  1. Increased plasma/serum levels of prolactin in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Liu, Lei; Cheng, Zhong-Le; Hu, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone that is known to stimulate humoral and cell mediated immune responses. PRL levels have been investigated in several autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS); however, these have yielded different and inconsistent results. This study aims to perform a more precise evaluation on the plasma/serum PRL levels in MS patients, and to explore the available influential factors. Research related to plasma/serum PRL levels in MS patients and healthy controls were gathered using PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library database (until Mar 31 2016). Pooled standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by fixed-effects or random-effect model analysis. Heterogeneity test was performed by the Q statistic and quantified using I 2 , and publication bias was evaluated using a funnel plot and Egger's linear regression test. 516 articles were obtained after searching databases, and 8 studies with 426 MS patients and 296 controls were finally included. Meta-analysis revealed that, compared with the control group, the MS group had significantly higher plasma/serum PRL levels, with the SMD of 0.55 and 95%CI (0.39, 0.72). Subgroup analyses showed that region, age and disease duration were associated with PRL level in MS patients. In summary, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly higher PRL level in MS patients than healthy controls, and it is influenced by region, age and disease duration.

  2. Triply differential (e,2e) studies of phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, G. B.; Neves, R. F. C.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Ali, E.; Madison, D. H.; Ning, C. G.; Nixon, K. L.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    We have measured (e,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the electron-impact ionisation of phenol with coplanar asymmetrical kinematics for an incident electron energy of 250 eV. Experimental measurements of the angular distribution of the slow outgoing electrons at 20 eV are obtained when the incident electron scatters through angles of -5°, -10°, and -15°, respectively. The TDCS data are compared with calculations performed within the molecular 3-body distorted wave model. In this case, a mixed level of agreement, that was dependent on the kinematical condition being probed, was observed between the theoretical and experimental results in the binary peak region. The experimental intensity of the recoil features under all kinematical conditions was relatively small, but was still largely underestimated by the theoretical calculations.

  3. Triply differential (e,2e) studies of phenol.

    PubMed

    da Silva, G B; Neves, R F C; Chiari, L; Jones, D B; Ali, E; Madison, D H; Ning, C G; Nixon, K L; Lopes, M C A; Brunger, M J

    2014-09-28

    We have measured (e,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the electron-impact ionisation of phenol with coplanar asymmetrical kinematics for an incident electron energy of 250 eV. Experimental measurements of the angular distribution of the slow outgoing electrons at 20 eV are obtained when the incident electron scatters through angles of -5°, -10°, and -15°, respectively. The TDCS data are compared with calculations performed within the molecular 3-body distorted wave model. In this case, a mixed level of agreement, that was dependent on the kinematical condition being probed, was observed between the theoretical and experimental results in the binary peak region. The experimental intensity of the recoil features under all kinematical conditions was relatively small, but was still largely underestimated by the theoretical calculations.

  4. TFDP3 was expressed in coordination with E2F1 to inhibit E2F1-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yueyun; Xin, Yijuan; Li, Rui; Wang, Zhe; Yue, Qiaohong; Xiao, Fengjing; Hao, Xiaoke

    2014-03-10

    TFDP3 has been previously identified as an inhibitor of E2F molecules. It has been shown to suppress E2F1-induced apoptosis dependent P53 and to play a potential role in carcinogenesis. However, whether it indeed helps cancer cells tolerate apoptosis stress in cancer tissues remains unknown. TFDP3 expression was assessed by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in normal human tissues, cancer tissues and prostate cancer tissues. The association between TFDP3 and E2F1 in prostate cancer development was analyzed in various stages. Apoptosis was evaluated with annexin-V and propidium iodide staining and flow-cytometry. The results show that, in 96 samples of normal human tissues, TFDP3 could be detected in the cerebrum, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, bronchus, breast, ovary, uterus, and skin, but seldom in the lung, muscles, prostate, and liver. In addition, TFDP3 was highly expressed in numerous cancer tissues, such as brain-keratinous, lung squamous cell carcinoma, testicular seminoma, cervical carcinoma, skin squamous cell carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Moreover, TFDP3 was positive in 23 (62.2%) of 37 prostate cancer samples regardless of stage. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry results show that TFDP3 was always expressed in coordination with E2F1 at equivalent expression levels in prostate cancer tissues, and was highly expressed particularly in samples of high stage. When E2F1 was extrogenously expressed in LNCap cells, TFDP3 could be induced, and the apoptosis induced by E2F1 was significantly decreased. It was demonstrated that TFDP3 was a broadly expressed protein corresponding to E2F1 in human tissues, and suggested that TFDP3 is involved in prostate cancer cell survival by suppressing apoptosis induced by E2F1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic implications for forest trees of increasing levels of greenhouse gases and UV-B radiation

    David F. Karnosky; Kevin E. Percy; Blanka Mankovska

    2000-01-01

    Globally, the environment is changing and deteriorating as greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (03) continue to increase at a rate of about 1% per year (Keeling et al. 1995, Chameides et al. 1995). The increase in these gases is directly related to anthropogenic activities (Chameides et al...

  6. Genomic structure, expression pattern, and functional characterization of transcription factor E2F-2 from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chao; Qiu, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factor E2F-2 is a regulator of cell cycle. Researchers identified E2F-2 genes from yeasts to humans, but few reports investigated E2F-2 gene from black tiger shrimp. In the present study, we cloned E2F-2 gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Full-length PmE2F-2 complementary DNA sequence measures 3,189 bp with an open reading frame of 1,371 bp. Complete PmE2F-2 genomic sequence (17,305 bp) of P. monodon contains nine exons, which are separated by eight introns. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that PmE2F-2 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas and ovaries of P. monodon. Highest PmE2F-2 expression levels were observed in stage III ovarian development of P. monodon. PmE2F-2 expression levels were significantly augmented in ovaries of P. monodon after 5-hydroxytryptamine injection and eyestalk ablation. RNA interference experiments were conducted to examine PmE2F-2, PmCDK2, and PmCyclin E expression profiles. PmE2F-2 was successfully knocked down in ovaries and hepatopancreas via double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)–E2F-2 injection. In the same organs, PmE2F-2 expression localization and level were investigated through in situ hybridization, which revealed consistent results with those of qRT-PCR. After dsRNA—E2F-2 injection, gonadosomatic index of shrimp was significantly lower than those following dsRNA—GFP and phosphate-buffered solution injections. Therefore, PmE2F-2 may be involved in ovarian maturation in P. monodon. PMID:28558060

  7. County-level analysis of the impact of temperature and population increases on California wildfire data

    Baltar, M.; Keeley, Jon E.; Schoenberg, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which the apparent increase in wildfire incidence and burn area in California from 1990 to 2006 is affected by population and temperature increases is examined. Using generalized linear models with random effects, we focus on the estimated impacts of increases in mean daily temperatures and populations in different counties on wildfire in those counties, after essentially controlling for the overall differences between counties in their overall mean temperatures and populations. We find that temperature increase appears to have a significant positive impact on both total burn area and number of observed wildfires. Population growth appears to have a much less pronounced impact on total burn area than do annual temperature increases, and population growth appears to be negatively correlated with the total number of observed wildfires. These effects are especially pronounced in the winter season and in Southern California counties.

  8. Increased blood 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels in methamphetamine users during early abstinence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Chyi; Lai, Ying-Ching; Lin, Shih-Ku; Chen, Chun-Hsin

    2018-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a role in the adverse physical and mental consequences of methamphetamine usage. The oxidative DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a well-known biomarker of ROS-induced DNA damage. Currently, there is insufficient clinical information about methamphetamine-induced oxidative DNA damage. This study examined differences in blood levels of 8-OHdG between methamphetamine users and non-users as well as alterations in 8-OHdG levels after 2 weeks of methamphetamine abstinence. We recruited 182 methamphetamine users (78.6% of male) and 71 healthy controls (95.8% of male). Baseline serum 8-OHdG levels were measured in both groups using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In methamphetamine users, 8-OHdG levels were measured again 2 weeks after baseline measurement. The results showed that methamphetamine users had significantly higher 8-OHdG levels (0.34 ± 0.13 ng/mL) than healthy controls (0.30 ± 0.08 ng/mL) (p < 0.001). The 8-OHdG levels did not alter after 2 weeks of methamphetamine abstinence (0.32 ± 0.12 ng/mL, p = 0.051 compared to baseline measurement; p = 0.12 compared to healthy controls). No significant correlations were observed between baseline 8-OHdG levels in methamphetamine users and post-abstinence interval, age of the first methamphetamine use, duration of methamphetamine use, or history of frequent methamphetamine use. Our findings suggest that methamphetamine users had an enhanced level of oxidative damage, which did not normalize during early abstinence. Future studies are required to determine the effects of long-term methamphetamine abstinence and potential confounders on 8-OHdG levels in methamphetamine users.

  9. Increased levels of circulating interleukin-6 in patients with Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Gause, A; Scholz, R; Klein, S; Jung, W; Diehl, V; Tesch, H; Hasenclever, D; Pfreundschuh, M

    1991-01-01

    Expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-6 receptors has been demonstrated in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H and RS) cells in vitro and in vivo. In order to evaluate the clinical significance of IL-6 serum levels in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD), we tested the sera of 56 untreated patients with HD by means of a sensitive sandwich ELISA. While IL-6 was only rarely detectable in healthy controls or patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 32 of 56 patients (57 per cent) had detectable IL-6 levels (range 12-32 pg/ml). The rates of detectable IL-6 levels and the median levels were not correlated with age, sex, histological subtype, stage or the presence of B-symptoms, nor with any of a wide spectrum of laboratory parameters tested, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts, serum levels of soluble CD8, CD25 or CD30. The rates of complete remissions and freedom from treatment failure were not different in IL-6-negative and IL-6-positive patients. Except in one of 23 follow-up sera taken after therapy, IL-6 was no longer detectable even for patients who suffered from progressing disease, suggesting that the neoplastic H and RS cells are not the major source of circulating IL-6.

  10. Increased collagen-linked pentosidine levels and advanced glycosylation end products in early diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Beisswenger, P J; Moore, L L; Brinck-Johnsen, T; Curphey, T J

    1993-01-01

    RATIONALE: Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) may play an important role in the development of diabetic vascular sequelae. An AGE cross-link, pentosidine, is a sensitive and specific marker for tissue levels of AGEs. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of AGEs in the development of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy, we studied pentosidine levels and the clinical characteristics of 48 subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetic nephropathy was classified as normal, microalbuminuria, or gross proteinuria, and retinopathy was graded as none, background, or proliferative. NEWLY OBSERVED FINDINGS: Significant elevation of pentosidine (P = 0.025) was found in subjects with microalbuminuria or gross proteinuria (73.03 +/- 9.47 vs 76.46 +/- 6.37 pmol/mg col) when compared with normal (56.96 +/- 3.26 pmol/mg col). Multivariate analysis to correct for age, duration of diabetes, and gender did not modify the results. Elevated pentosidine levels were also found in those with proliferative when compared with those with background retinopathy (75.86 +/- 5.66 vs 60.42 +/- 5.98 pmol/mg col) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Microalbuminuria is associated with elevated levels of pentosidine similar to those found in overt diabetic nephropathy suggesting that elevated AGE levels are already present during the earliest detectable phase of diabetic nephropathy. Images PMID:8325987

  11. Exogenous Supply of Pantoyl Lactone to Excised Leaves Increases their Pantothenate Levels

    PubMed Central

    RATHINASABAPATHI, BALA; RAMAN, SURESH BABU

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims All plants synthesize pantothenate but its synthesis and regulation are not well understood. The aim of this work is to study the effect of exogenous supply of precursor compounds on pantothenate levels in leaves. • Methods Precursor compounds were supplied in solution to excised leaves and the pantothenate content was measured using a microbial method. • Key Results Pantothenate levels in excised leaves of Limonium latifolium, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) were examined following an exogenous supply of the precursor compounds pantoyl lactone or β-alanine. Significantly higher levels of extractable pantothenate were found when pantoyl lactone was supplied, but not when β-alanine was supplied despite a measurable uptake of β-alanine into the leaf. • Conclusions The results suggested that the pantoate supply may be rate-limiting or regulating pantothenate synthesis in leaves. PMID:15767268

  12. Parkin clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria regulates ROS levels and increases survival of human chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M Y; Khan, N M; Ahmad, I; Haqqi, T M

    2017-08-08

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and chondrocyte death are important contributors to the development and pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, we determined the expression and role of Parkin in the clearance of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and chondrocyte survival under pathological conditions. Human chondrocytes were from the unaffected area of knee OA cartilage (n = 12) and were stimulated with IL-1β to mimic pathological conditions. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization and ROS levels were determined using specific dyes and flow cytometry. Autophagy was determined by Western blotting for ATG5, Beclin1, immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy. Gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR. siRNA, wild-type and mutant Parkin plasmids were transfected using Amaxa system. Apoptosis was determined by PI staining of chondrocytes and TUNEL assay. IL-1β-stimulated OA chondrocytes showed high levels of ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane damage, accumulation of damaged mitochondria and higher incidence of apoptosis. IL-1β stimulation of chondrocytes with depleted Parkin expression resulted in sustained high levels of ROS, accumulation of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria and enhanced apoptosis. Parkin translocation to depolarized/damaged mitochondria and recruitment of p62/SQSTM1 was required for the elimination of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria in IL-1β-stimulated OA chondrocytes. Importantly we demonstrate that Parkin elimination of depolarized/damaged mitochondria required the Parkin ubiquitin ligase activity and resulted in reduced ROS levels and inhibition of apoptosis in OA chondrocytes under pathological conditions. Our data demonstrates that Parkin functions to eliminate depolarized/damaged mitochondria in chondrocytes which is necessary for mitochondrial quality control, regulation of ROS levels and chondrocyte survival under pathological conditions

  13. Increased serum ferritin levels are independently related to incidence of prediabetes in adult populations.

    PubMed

    Meng, G; Yang, H; Bao, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, L; Wu, H; Du, H; Xia, Y; Shi, H; Guo, X; Liu, X; Li, C; Su, Q; Gu, Y; Fang, L; Yu, F; Sun, S; Wang, X; Zhou, M; Jia, Q; Guo, Q; Song, K; Huang, G; Wang, G; Wu, Y; Niu, K

    2017-04-01

    To comprehensively and exhaustively assess the relationship between serum ferritin levels and incidence of prediabetes in a prospective study. This prospective cohort study (n=7380) with a mean follow-up of 3.07 years (range: 1-7, 95% CI: 3.03-3.12) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Blood fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum ferritin levels and other potentially confounding factors were measured at baseline and at each year of follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the gender-specific relationship between baseline and mean serum ferritin quintiles and prediabetes. The incidence of prediabetes was 85 per 1000 person-years among men and 44 per 1000 person-years among women during follow-up (from 2007 to 2014). After adjusting for potential confounders, hazard ratios (95% CI) for prediabetes across baseline ferritin quintiles were: for men, 1.00, 1.13 (0.90-1.40), 1.20 (0.97-1.48), 1.41 (1.14-1.73) and 1.73 (1.41-2.11); and for women, 1.00, 1.01 (0.74-1.38), 0.68 (0.48-0.96), 0.84 (0.61-1.15) and 1.07 (0.80-1.45), respectively. Similar results were also observed for mean ferritin levels. Both baseline and mean serum ferritin levels were significantly and linearly related to prediabetes in men, whereas U-shaped relationships were observed between baseline and mean serum ferritin and prediabetes in women. The relationship between prediabetes risk and mean serum ferritin levels may be more stable than one with baseline serum ferritin levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Decreased serum vitamin D levels in children with asthma are associated with increased corticosteroid use.

    PubMed

    Searing, Daniel A; Zhang, Yong; Murphy, James R; Hauk, Pia J; Goleva, Elena; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-05-01

    There is little knowledge about clinical variables associated with vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in asthmatic children. We sought to investigate disease variables associated with VitD insufficiency in patients with childhood asthma and interaction of VitD with corticosteroid-mediated anti-inflammatory responses. We analyzed 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in 100 asthmatic children to investigate relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and patients' characteristics. We determined VitD's effects on dexamethasone (DEX) induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 and IL-10 in PBMCs. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum level was 31 ng/mL. Forty-seven percent of subjects had VitD levels in the insufficient range (<30 ng/mL), whereas 17% were VitD deficient (<20 ng/mL). Log(10) IgE (P = .01, rho = -0.25) and the number of positive aeroallergen skin prick test responses (P = .02, rho = -0.23) showed a significant inverse correlation with VitD levels, whereas FEV(1) percent predicted (P = .004, rho = 0.34) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity ratio (P = .01, rho = 0.30) showed a significant positive correlation with VitD levels. The use of inhaled steroids (P = .0475), use of oral steroids (P = .02), and total steroid dose (P = .001) all showed significant inverse correlations with VitD levels. The amount of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 and IL10 mRNA induced by VitD plus DEX was significantly greater than that induced by DEX alone (P < .01). In an experimental model of steroid resistance in which DEX alone did not inhibit T-cell proliferation, addition of VitD to DEX resulted in significant dose-dependent suppression of cell proliferation. Corticosteroid use and worsening airflow limitation are associated with lower VitD serum levels in asthmatic patients. VitD enhances glucocorticoid action in PBMCs from asthmatic patients and enhances the immunosuppressive function of DEX in vitro. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy

  15. Distribution of Prostaglandin E2 in Gastric and Duodenal Mucosa: Possible Role in the Pathogenesis of Peptic Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sill Moo; Yoo, Byung Chul; Lee, Hyo Rang; Chung, Hyuk; Lee, Young Soon

    1992-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin E which is present abundantly in the gastric mucosa is a powerful inhibitor of gastric acid secretion and a stimulus to gastric mucus production. In addition, prostaglandin E2 inhibits ulcer formation in animals, and the synthetic analogues of prostaglandin E have successfully been used in the treatment of patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer disease. To evaluate the role of endogenous prostaglandin E2 in the pathogenesis of the peptic ulcer disease, we measured mucosal prostaglandin E2 levels in patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer disease and compared with that of non-ulcer control persons. Methods The study population was made up of 44 non-ulcer persons, 36 patients with a benign gastric ulcer, and 48 with a duodenal ulcer. Every mucosai specimen, taken from the antrum and from the duodenal bulb, were homogenized, mixed with 1 M HCI, and centrifuged. After removal of the supernatant, precipitate was eluted with ethyl acetate in the Amprep C18 minicolumn. Then the extracted prostaglandin E2 in the ethyl acetate fractions was converted into its methyl oximate derivatives, and the prostaglandin E2 level was measured by radioimmunoassay. During the procedure any homogenized specimen which was looking grossly bloody was removed from the assay in order to avoid any possible contamination or prostaglandin E2 in blood. Results In non-ulcer persons, the mean values was 258.17±127.03 pg/mg. tissue in antrum and 121.07±67.46 pg/mg. tissue in duodenal bulb. The corresponding values were 186.42±70.51 pg/mg. tissue, 79.44±39.04 pg/mg. tissue in gastric ulcer patients and 204. 94 92.03 pg/mg. tissue, 99.66±56.10 pg/mgl. tissue in duodenal ulcer patients respectively. Gastric ulcer patients have the significantly lower level of the antral and duodenal prostaglandin E2 (p<0.005). Those levels of duodenal ulcer patients were also significantly lower than those of non-ulcer persons (p<0.025 & 0.05). Antral prostaglandin E2 level increased to

  16. E2F1 and E2F2 prevent replicative stress and subsequent p53-dependent organ involution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Ara, A; Zenarruzabeitia, O; Buelta, L; Merino, J; Zubiaga, A M

    2015-10-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires tight regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. E2F1 and E2F2 transcription factors share a critical role in tissue homeostasis, since their combined inactivation results in overall organ involution, specially affecting the pancreatic gland, which subsequently triggers diabetes. We have examined the mechanism by which these E2Fs regulate tissue homeostasis. We show that pancreas atrophy in E2F1/E2F2 double-knockout (DKO) mice is associated with mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of the p53 pathway in young animals, before the development of diabetes. A deregulated expression of E2F target genes was detected in pancreatic cells of young DKO animals, along with unscheduled DNA replication and activation of a DNA damage response. Importantly, suppression of DNA replication in vivo with aphidicolin led to a significant inhibition of the p53 pathway in DKO pancreas, implying a causal link between DNA replication stress and p53 activation in this model. We further show that activation of the p53 pathway has a key role in the aberrant phenotype of DKO mice, since targeted inactivation of p53 gene abrogated cellular apoptosis and prevented organ involution and insulin-dependent diabetes in mice lacking E2F1/E2F2. Unexpectedly, p53 inactivation unmasked oncogenic features of E2F1/E2F2-depleted cells, as evidenced by an accelerated tumor development in triple-knockout mice compared with p53(-/-) mice. Collectively, our data reveal a role for E2F1 and E2F2 as suppressors of replicative stress in differentiating cells, and uncover the existence of a robust E2F-p53 regulatory axis to enable tissue homeostasis and prevent tumorigenesis. These findings have implications in the design of approaches targeting E2F for cancer therapy.

  17. E2F1 and E2F2 prevent replicative stress and subsequent p53-dependent organ involution

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Ara, A; Zenarruzabeitia, O; Buelta, L; Merino, J; Zubiaga, A M

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires tight regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. E2F1 and E2F2 transcription factors share a critical role in tissue homeostasis, since their combined inactivation results in overall organ involution, specially affecting the pancreatic gland, which subsequently triggers diabetes. We have examined the mechanism by which these E2Fs regulate tissue homeostasis. We show that pancreas atrophy in E2F1/E2F2 double-knockout (DKO) mice is associated with mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of the p53 pathway in young animals, before the development of diabetes. A deregulated expression of E2F target genes was detected in pancreatic cells of young DKO animals, along with unscheduled DNA replication and activation of a DNA damage response. Importantly, suppression of DNA replication in vivo with aphidicolin led to a significant inhibition of the p53 pathway in DKO pancreas, implying a causal link between DNA replication stress and p53 activation in this model. We further show that activation of the p53 pathway has a key role in the aberrant phenotype of DKO mice, since targeted inactivation of p53 gene abrogated cellular apoptosis and prevented organ involution and insulin-dependent diabetes in mice lacking E2F1/E2F2. Unexpectedly, p53 inactivation unmasked oncogenic features of E2F1/E2F2-depleted cells, as evidenced by an accelerated tumor development in triple-knockout mice compared with p53−/− mice. Collectively, our data reveal a role for E2F1 and E2F2 as suppressors of replicative stress in differentiating cells, and uncover the existence of a robust E2F-p53 regulatory axis to enable tissue homeostasis and prevent tumorigenesis. These findings have implications in the design of approaches targeting E2F for cancer therapy. PMID:25656653

  18. SNHG16 contributes to breast cancer cell migration by competitively binding miR-98 with E2F5.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chang; Huo, Qiang; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Bing; Yang, Qifeng

    2017-04-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proved to play important roles in cellular processes of cancer, including the development, proliferation, and migration of cancer cells. In the present study, we demonstrated small nucleolar RNA host gene 16 (SNHG16) as an oncogene on cell migration in breast cancer. Expression levels of SNHG16 were found to be frequently higher in breast cancer tissues than in the paired noncancerous tissues. Gain- and loss-of-function studies proved that SNHG16 significantly promoted breast cancer cell migration. We predicted SNHG16 as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of E2F transcription factor 5 protein (E2F5) via competition for the shared miR-98 through bioinformatics analysis, and proved this regulation using relative quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blot, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay and luciferase reporter assay. In addition, we identified a positive correlation between SNHG16 and E2F5 in breast cancer tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrated that forced expression of miR-98 could partially abrogate SNHG16-mediated increase of breast cancer cells migration, suggesting that SNHG16 promoted cell migration in a miR-98 dependent manner. Taken together, our findings indicated that SNHG16 induces breast cancer cell migration by competitively binding miR-98 with E2F5, and SNHG16 can serve as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary efficacy of prize-based contingency management to increase activity levels in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Washington, Wendy Donlin; Banna, Kelly M; Gibson, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 30% of Americans meet the criteria for obesity. Effective, low-cost interventions to increase physical activity are needed to prevent and treat obesity. In this study, 11 healthy adults wore Fitbit accelerometers for 3 weeks. During the initial baseline, subjects earned prize draws for wearing the Fitbit. During intervention, percentile schedules were used to calculate individual prize-draw criteria. The final week was a return to baseline. Four subjects increased step counts as a result of the intervention. A bout analysis of interresponse times revealed that subjects increased overall step counts by increasing daily minutes active and within-bout response rates and decreasing pauses between bouts of activity. Strategies to improve effectiveness are suggested, such as modification of reinforcement probability and amount and identification of the function of periods of inactivity. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  20. miR-132 targeting E2F5 suppresses cell